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Sample records for c161t substitution alters

  1. Surface tension alteration on calcite, induced by ion substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi; Andersson, Martin Peter; Bechgaard, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    , where particles are smaller than the smallest droplet? We investigated the energy required to exchange Mg2+ and SO4 2- from aqueous solution into calcite {10.4} surfaces using density functional theory. Mg2+ substitution for Ca2+ is favored but only when SO4 2- is also present and MgSO4 incorporates...... the pore water. Incorporation of MgSO4 into calcite, which is energetically favored, decreases surface tension and releases polar oil compounds. © 2014 American Chemical Society....

  2. Correlation between Peroxisome Proliferator - Activated Receptor γC161T Gene Polymorphism and Low Birth Weight Infants%过氧化物酶增殖激活受体γC161T基因多态性与低出生体质量新生儿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 陈守航; 高莉丽; 张培林; 张华; 陈英; 郑明慈

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基因过氧化物酶增殖激活受体( PPAR)γ C161T多态性对低出生体质量新生儿的影响.方法 用横断面调查法,使用统一的调查表,对入住本院分娩的孕妇及其单胎、活胎的低出生体质量儿和健康对照新生儿进行凋查,共得到有效样本268个母亲-新生儿对,并根据出生体质量和孕周进行分组,分为健康对照组和低出生体质量组,其中低出生体质量组包括早产儿组和小于胎龄儿组.使用多聚酶链-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法检测其外周血基因PPARγ C161T单核苷酸多态性,分析不同基因型对其低出生体质量的影响.结果 1.根据双变量Logistic回归分析得出低出生体质最与父母的受教育水平、职业、家庭居住环境和氛围及维生素的补充相关,相关系数分别为-0.434、-0.337、-0.343、-0.269、-0.691、0.296、0.235.2.PPARγC161T多态性CC型、CT型与TT型基因频率分布在健康对照组、小于胎龄儿组和早产儿组分别为53.33%、14.44%、21.11%,75.00%、18.18%、6.82%和76.67%、20.00%、3.33%,早产儿组和小于胎龄儿组比较均无统计学差异,但与健康对照组比较均有统计学差异.携带C等位基因增加低出生体质量的风险,低出生体质量组携带CC基因型风险与健康出生体质量儿的OR值分别为1.93895% CI:1.001~3.750,P=0.002)、2.122(95% CI:1.091 ~4.127,P=0.000).结论 低出生体质量是环境和遗传因素共同作用的结果,PPARγ C161T多态性与低出生体质量有关,C等位基因可能是低出生体质量的遗传易感基因.%Objective To study the relationship of the peroxisome proliferator - activated receptor(PPAR)γ C161T gene polymorphism and low birth weight infants. Methods A cross - sectional survey was performed by using a unified questionnaire to investigate and control a total effective sample of 268 mothers - newborns from the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical

  3. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  4. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  5. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures.

  6. Substitution of Val72 residue alters the enantioselectivity and activity of Penicillium expansum lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lianghua; Su, Min; Zhu, Ling; Chi, Liying; Zhang, Junling; Zhou, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Error-prone PCR was used to create more active or enantioselective variants of Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL). A variant with a valine to glycine substitution at residue 72 in the lid structure exhibited higher activity and enantioselectivity than those of wild-type PEL. Site-directed saturation mutagenesis was used to explore the sequence-function relationship and the substitution of Val72 of P. expansum lipase changed both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity greatly. The variant V72A, displayed a highest enantioselectivity enhanced to about twofold for the resolution of (R, S)-naproxen (E value increased from 104 to 200.7 for wild-type PEL and V72A variant, respectively). In comparison to PEL, the variant V72A showed a remarkable increase in specific activity towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (11- and 4-fold increase at 25 and 35 °C, respectively) whereas it had a decreased thermostability. The results suggest that the enantioselective variant V72A could be used for the production of pharmaceutical drugs such as enantiomerically pure (S)-naproxen and the residue Val 72 of P. expansum lipase plays a significant role in the enantioselectivity and activity of this enantioselective lipase. PMID:22972595

  7. Chromosome Specific Substitution Lines of Aegilops geniculata Alter Parameters of Bread Making Quality of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Gupta, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Aman; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Rohit; Chunduri, Venkatesh; Sharma, Nand Kishor; Chawla, Meenakshi; Sharma, Saloni; Mundey, Jaspreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Wheat cultivars with wide introgression have strongly impacted global wheat production. Aegilops geniculata (MgUg) is an important wild relative with several useful traits that can be exploited for wheat improvement. Screening of Ae. geniculata addition lines indicated a negative effect of 1Ug and the positive effect of 1Mg chromosome on wheat dough strength. Negative effect of 1Ug is probably associated with variation in number and position of the tripeptide repeat motif in the high molecular weight glutenin (HMW-G) gene. To utilize the positive potential of 1Mg chromosome, three disomic substitution lines (DSLs) 1Mg(1A), 1Mg(1B) and 1Mg(1D) were created. These lines were characterized for morphological, cytogenetic properties and biochemical signatures using FISH, 1D-, 2D-PAGE and RP-HPLC. Contribution of wheat 1A, 1B and 1D chromosomes towards dough mixing and baking parameters, chapatti quality, Fe/Zn content and glume color were identified. Observed order of variation in the dough mixing and baking parameters {1Mg(1D) ≤wheat ≤1Mg(1B) ≤1Mg(1A)} indicated that chromosome specific introgression is desirable for best utilization of wild species’ potential. PMID:27755540

  8. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bin [Group of Animal Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, 100101 Beijing (China); Zhu, Shunyi, E-mail: Zhusy@ioz.ac.cn [Group of Animal Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, 100101 Beijing (China)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CS{alpha}{beta}-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet (CS{alpha}{beta}) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 {mu}M. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  9. Genetic analysis of central carbon metabolism unveils an amino acid substitution that alters maize NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengyi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central carbon metabolism (CCM is a fundamental component of life. The participating genes and enzymes are thought to be structurally and functionally conserved across and within species. Association mapping utilizes a rich history of mutation and recombination to achieve high resolution mapping. Therefore, applying association mapping in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays, the most diverse model crop species, to study the genetics of CCM is a particularly attractive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a maize diversity panel to test the CCM functional conservation. We found heritable variation in enzyme activity for every enzyme tested. One of these enzymes was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41, in which we identified a novel amino-acid substitution in a phylogenetically conserved site. Using candidate gene association mapping, we identified that this non-synonymous polymorphism was associated with IDH activity variation. The proposed mechanism for the IDH activity variation includes additional components regulating protein level. With the comparison of sequences from maize and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. Parviglumis, the maize wild ancestor, we found that some CCM genes had also been targeted for selection during maize domestication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of association mapping for dissecting natural variation in primary metabolic pathways. The considerable genetic diversity observed in maize CCM genes underlies heritable phenotypic variation in enzyme activities and can be useful to identify putative functional sites.

  10. Single amino-acid substitution in the N-terminal arm altered the tetramer stability of rat muscle lactate dehydrogenase A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN; Chong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Price, N. C., Assembly of multi-subunit structures, in Mechanisms of Protein Folding (ed. Pain, R. H.), New York: Oxford University Press, 1994, 160-193.[2]Casal, J. I., Ahern, T. J., Davenport, R. C. et al., Subunit interface of triosephosphate isomerase: Site-directed mutagenesis and characterization of the altered enzyme, Biochemistry, 1987, 26: 1258-1264.[3]Chakerian, A. E., Matthews, K. S., Characterization of mutations in oligomerization domain of lac repressor protein, J. Biol. Chem., 1991, 266: 22206-22214.[4]Mandelman, D., Schwarz, F. P., Li, H. Y. et al., The role of quaternary interactions on the stability and activity of ascorbate peroxidase, Protein Sci., 1998, 7: 2089-2098.[5]Thomas, M. C., Ballantine, S. P., Bethell, S. S. et al., Single amino acid substitutions disrupt tetramer formation in the dihydroneopterin aldolase enzyme of Pneumocystis carinii, Biochemistry, 1998, 37: 11629-11636.[6]Holbrook, J. J., Liljas, A., Steindel, S. J. et al., Lactate dehydrogenase, in The Enzymes (ed. Boyer, P. D.), Vol. 11, 3rd ed., New York: Academic Press, 1975, 191-292.[7]Zettlmeissl, G., Rudolph, R., Jaenicke, R., Reconstitution of lactic dehydrogenase after acid dissociation, Eur. J. Biochem., 1981, 121: 169-175.[8]Zettlmeissl, G., Rudolph, R., Jaenicke, R., Rate-determining folding and association reactions on the reconstitution pathway of porcine skeletal muscle lactic dehydrogenase after denaturation by guanidine hydrochloride, Biochemistry, 1982, 21: 3946-3950.[9]Hermann, R., Jaenicke, R., Rudolph, R., Analysis of the reconstitution of oligomeric enzymes by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde: Kinetics of reassociation of lactic dehydrogenase, Biochemistry, 1981, 20: 5195-5201.[10]Jaenicke, R., Folding and association of protein, Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol., 1987, 49: 117-237.[11]Opitz, U., Rudolph, R., Jaenicke, R. et al., Proteolytic dimeric of porcine muscle lactate dehydrogenase: Characterization, folding, and

  11. Very early posttraumatic serum alterations are significantly associated to initial massive RBC substitution, injury severity, multiple organ failure and adverse clinical outcome in multiple injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogner V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple severe trauma frequently leads to massive dysbalances of the human immune system. This phenomenon is known as "Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS". SIRS is connected to multiple organ failure and thereby entails higher morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 seem to play a superior role in the development of SIRS. Several studies support the hypothesis that the very early cytokine release pattern determines the patients' subsequent clinical course. Most data about interleukins in trauma patients however refer to serum concentrations assessed sometime in the first 24 h, but there is only little information about release dynamics in a small-meshed time frame in the very initial post-trauma period. Patients and methods 58 multiple injured patients (Injury Severity Score > 16 points were included. Blood samples were drawn on patient admission (not later then 90 minutes after trauma and at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 were measured using an automated chemiluminescence assay (IMMULITE, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics GmbH. Interleukin levels were correlated to distinct epidemiological and clinical parameters. Results Interleukin serum concentrations are thoroughly elevated after trauma. Patients with haemorrhagic shock and consecutive massive RBC substitution (n = 27 exhibit higher Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 levels as compared to patients with minor RBC transfusion extent (n = 31. Interleukin levels also differentiate patients with MOF (n = 43 from such without MOF (n = 15 already at the earliest post trauma time (90 minutes. Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 concentrations also significantly distinguish patients with adverse outcome (n = 11 from such with favourable outcome (n = 47. Exclusively Il-10 has significant correlation to injury severity (ISS > 35. Conclusion The current study presents an image of the serum Il-6, 8 and 10 releases

  12. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  13. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  14. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  15. Skin Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  16. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  17. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...

  18. Fractal dual substitution tilings

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Natalie Priebe; Webster, Samuel B. G.; Whittaker, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Starting with a substitution tiling, we demonstrate a method for constructing infinitely many new substitution tilings. Each of these new tilings is derived from a graph iterated function system and the tiles have fractal boundary. We show that each of the new tilings is mutually locally derivable to the original tiling. Thus, at the tiling space level, the new substitution rules are expressing geometric and combinatorial, rather than topological, features of the original. Our method is easy ...

  19. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  20. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  1. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi

    2016-10-04

    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  2. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Gaston H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  3. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  4. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes. PMID:25047595

  5. Saving Outweighs Substituting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sophia

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy crisis has become great challenge to the whole world.As the vehicle population keeps soaring in China,effectie countermeasures should be taken timely to deal with global energy crisis.There are two ways out:one is to substitute and one is to save.

  6. Multifaceted Material Substitution: The Case of NdFeB Magnets, 2010-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Eggert, Roderick G.

    2016-07-01

    Substitution is an important response for material users when faced with disruption to the availability or price of an essential material. In economic terms, substitution refers to the ability of firms to alter their patterns of material use in response to exogenous market shocks. Substitution comes in different forms which vary from situation to situation. This paper uses expert opinion to identify the specific forms of substitution that occurred in permanent magnets, specifically neodymium-iron-boron magnets, following the significant increase in rare earth prices in 2010-2011. The paper provides a framework for understanding the multifaceted nature of substitution and assesses the relative importance of five different types of substitution. Technology-for-element, grade-for-grade, and system-for-system substitution appear to have been more important than element-for-element and magnet-for-magnet substitution. Cost pass-through and absorption were also important responses.

  7. Esophageal substitutions in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Vilorio Barreras

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal replacements in children usually are necessary in patients with of esophageal atresia or those develop inflammatory scars after consumption of caustic substances. For the substitutive procedure diverse organs are employed, like small or thick intestine and stomach. We presented the Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Esophageal replacement, approved by consensus in the the 3th National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Camagüey, Cuba; February 23 - 26, 2004.

  8. Selfdual Substitutions in Dimension One

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valérie; Sirvent, Victor

    2011-01-01

    There are several notions of the 'dual' of a word/tile substitution. We show that the most common ones are equivalent for substitutions in dimension one, where we restrict ourselves to the case of two letters/tiles. Furthermore, we obtain necessary and sufficient arithmetic conditions for substitutions being selfdual in this case.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  10. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  11. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  12. How Substitutable Is Natural Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Markandya, Anil; Pedroso, S.

    2006-01-01

    One of the recurring themes in the sustainability literature has been the legitimacy of using an economic framework to account for natural resources. This paper examines the potential for substituting between different inputs in the generation of income, where the inputs include natural resources such as land and energy resources. A nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function is used to allow flexibility in the estimated elasticities of substitution. Also, with this s...

  13. Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hajek, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.

  14. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  15. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Ying; Gao; Yue; Fu; Yan-Nian; Hui

    2015-01-01

    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.

  16. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2006-03-01

    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  17. Electrophilic Substitution Reactions of Indoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Richard J.

    The topic of this chapter is electrophilic substitution of indole and its derivatives. The indole ring is highly reactive at its 3-position toward protonation, halogenation, alkylation and acylation. Electrophilic substitution can be combined with inter- or intramolecular addition at C-2. Intramolecular alkylation by iminium ions (Pictet-Spengler reaction) is particularly useful. Enantioselectivity can be achieved in many conjugate addition reactions. These reactions have been applied to synthesis of both natural products and drugs.

  18. Amalgam substitutes: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Felix; Krejci, Ivo

    2000-01-01

    Quality standards for restorations recently have been defined in Switzerland. Amalgam substitutes must meet restoration Grade 2 requirements (i.e., pulp and dental hard substance must be preserved, and both form and function of the tooth have to be reconstituted). The pertinent operative technique has to be simple and amalgam-like. A minimum service life of 8 years is required. This in vitro study investigated the clinical potential of several amalgam substitutes, taking into account the oper...

  19. The effect of the substitution of D{sub 2}O for H{sub 2}O on the degradation of myosin {beta} in solution by heat and by {sup 60}Co {gamma} radiation (1962); Effet de la substitution de D{sub 2}O a H{sub 2}O sur l'alteration de la Myosine B en solution par la chaleur et par les rayons {gamma} du {sup 60}CO (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinset-Harstrom, I.; Fritsch, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    (1) Alterations of myosin B produced by heat or irradiation are shown to be qualitatively identical as demonstrated by analytical centrifugation. (2) A considerable isotope effect was demonstrated using 75 per cent D{sub 2}O in the solvent. The sensitivity of myosin B to heat and irradiation is discussed in the light of this isotope effect. (3) Polymers appearing upon heat treatment of myosin B seem to be of a very different nature than the polymers occurring alter a similar treatment upon myosin A. Polymers obtained from myosin B can be depolymerized by ATP and they appear in a much narrower temperature range than myosin A polymers. This fact indicates a considerable difference in the activation enthalpies in the two reactions. (authors) [French] (1) Cette etude montre que les alterations de la myosine B provoquees par la chaleur et par l'irradiation aux rayons {gamma} sont - telles qu'elles apparaissent a l'ultracentrifugation analytique - qualitativement semblables. (2) Nous avons observe un effet isotopique considerable de la presence de 75 pour cent de D{sub 2}O dans le solvant sur la sensibilite de la myosine B envers ces deux agents, et nous avons presente une tentative d'explication de ce fait. (3) Les polymeres qui apparaissent apres un traitement par la chaleur de la myosine semblent etre d'une nature tres differente des polymeres que l'on voit apparaitre apres un traitement identique de la myosine A. Ceux obtenus a partir de le myosine B sont depolymerisables par l'intermediaire de l'ATP et apparaissent dans une zone de temperature beaucoup plus etroite que celles de la myosine A. Ce dernier fait indique une difference considerable de l'enthalpie d'activation des deux reactions. (auteurs)

  20. Nonallograft osteoconductive bone graft substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucholz, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    An estimated 500,000 to 600,000 bone grafting procedures are done annually in the United States. Approximately (1/2) of these surgeries involve spinal arthrodesis whereas 35% to 40% are used for general orthopaedic applications. Synthetic bone graft substitutes currently represent only 10% of the bone graft market, but their share is increasing as experience and confidence in their use are accrued. Despite 15 to 20 years of clinical experience with various synthetic substitutes, there have been few welldesigned, controlled clinical trials of these implants. Synthetic bone graft substitutes consist of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, or a combination of these minerals. Their fabrication technique, crystallinity, pore dimensions, mechanical properties, and resorption rate vary. All synthetic porous substitutes share numerous advantages over autografts and allografts including their unlimited supply, easy sterilization, and storage. However, the degree to which the substitute provides an osteoconductive structural framework or matrix for new bone ingrowth differs among implants. Disadvantages of ceramic implants include brittle handling properties, variable rates of resorption, poor performance in diaphyseal defects, and potentially adverse effects on normal bone remodeling. These inherent weaknesses have refocused their primary use to bone graft extenders and carriers for pharmaceuticals. The composition, histologic features, indications, and clinical experience of several of the synthetic bone graft substitutes approved for orthopaedic use in the United States are reviewed. PMID:11937865

  1. Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception Are Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Grant; Valente, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is longstanding debate in population policy about the relationship between modern contraception and abortion. Although theory predicts that they should be substitutes, the existing body of empirical evidence is difficult to interpret. What is required is a large‐scale intervention that alters the supply (or full price) of one or the other – and importantly, does so in isolation (reproductive health programs often bundle primary health care and family planning – and in some instances, ab...

  2. On Regular Power-Substitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanyin CHEN

    2009-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a ring satisfies regular power-substitution are investigated. It is shown that a ring R satisfies regular power-substitution if and only if a(-~)b in R implies that there exist n ∈ N and a U ∈ GLn(R) such that aU =Ub if and only if for any regular x ∈ R there exist m,n ∈ N and U ∈ GLn(R) such that xmIn = xmUxm, where a(-~)b means that there exists x, y, z ∈ R such that a = ybx, b = xaz and x = xyx = xzx. It is proved that every directly finite simple ring satisfies regular power-substitution. Some applications for stably free R-modules are also obtained.

  3. Substitution systems and nonextensive statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, V.

    2015-12-01

    Substitution systems evolve in time by generating sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet: At a certain iteration step, the existing symbols are systematically replaced by blocks of Nk symbols also within the alphabet (with Nk, a natural number, being the length of the kth block of the substitution). The dynamics of these systems leads naturally to fractals and self-similarity. By using B-calculus (García-Morales, 2012) universal maps for deterministic substitution systems both of constant and non-constant length, are formulated in 1D. It is then shown how these systems can be put in direct correspondence with Tsallis entropy. A 'Second Law of Thermodynamics' is also proved for these systems in the asymptotic limit of large words.

  4. THE PROBLEM OF SENSES SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreshkina M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with problems of substitution of senses and notions in the science and in the social life. Such processes result not only in distortion of the scientific worldview but also in absolutely undesirable social cataclysms. However, this scientific problem has not been yet worked out to sufficient extent, which hampers preventing the mentioned distortions of the real worldview and brings to unwanted consequences requiring correlation and corrections. The question of senses and notions substitution is not new in the science but it has not been yet sufficiently studied. We know that strictness of thinking must be dearly paid for in loss of flexibility in revaluation of senses, which makes you easily slip into dogmatism. It should be noted that this keeps taking place both in the science itself and in the life of society any science is called to serve. So the science can be hardly imagined without schools of thought. They ensure preservation of certain knowledge, vision, approach and, finally, of a certain school – they are traditions and authority of the science. However, having passed their golden age, when the founder used to be followed after several generations by dogmatists whose genius and talent were far from being so great, a school begins to degrade producing scholasticism by substitution and emasculation of senses and notions and finally destructs itself. The collectivization in the USSR in the 30ies of the 20th century and so-called “extremes” associated with it being that very substitution of sense platforms in its pure form constitutes a rather illustrative example of social manipulation based on the substitution of sense platforms. These activities relating to detection of senses and notions substitution will also be developed in the future. The truth will be approached as before through cleaning the knowledge of the myth, through searching for the original sense or the archetype separated from lie and fabrication

  5. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  6. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One…

  7. Substitute Students Do a Roaring Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    UniverSity students employ substitutes for a wide range of duties, from attending compulsory morning exercises and classes to writing papers or even love letters, These substitutes advertise their services on campus bulletin boards,

  8. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    of protein and structural immobilization, quality of histology and cellular structure following routine dehydration and paraffin embedding, and performance as a fixative for immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the various fixatives on ultrastructure. Only buffered formalin......We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent...... performed equally well on all tissues tested. While several of the commercial fixatives appeared to preserve liver tissue at 200x, the preservation of kidney, intestinal villi, and smooth muscle was unacceptable. Histological distortion, cell shrinkage and vacuolization were prominent when the substitutes...

  9. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest......Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  10. Substituting Quantum Entanglement for Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Cleve, Richard; Buhrman, Harry

    1997-01-01

    We show that quantum entanglement can be used as a substitute for communication when the goal is to compute a function whose input data is distributed among remote parties. Specifically, we show that, for a particular function among three parties (each of which possesses part of the function's input), a prior quantum entanglement enables one of them to learn the value of the function with only two bits of communication occurring among the parties, whereas, without quantum entanglement, three ...

  11. Geometric realization for substitution tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Given an n-dimensional substitution whose associated linear expansion is unimodular and hyperbolic, we use elements of the one-dimensional integer \\v{C}ech cohomology of the associated tiling space to construct a finite-to-one semi-conjugacy, called geometric realization, between the substitution induced dynamics and an invariant set of a hyperbolic toral automorphism. If the linear expansion satisfies a Pisot family condition and the rank of the module of generalized return vectors equals the generalized degree of the linear expansion, the image of geometric realization is the entire torus and coincides with the map onto the maximal equicontinuous factor of the translation action on the tiling space. We are led to formulate a higher-dimensional generalization of the Pisot Substitution Conjecture: If the linear expansion satisfies the Pisot family condition and the rank of the one-dimensional cohomology of the tiling space equals the generalized degree of the linear expansion, then the translation action on t...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3360 - Substituted ethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethanolamine. 721.3360... Substances § 721.3360 Substituted ethanolamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted ethanolamine (PMN P-91-490)...

  13. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  14. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  15. International Evidence on Sectoral Interfuel Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Vasetsky, Olexandr

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates interfuel substitution elasticities in selected developing and industrialized economies at the sector level. In doing so, it employs state-of-the-art techniques in microeconometrics, particularly the locally flexible normalized quadratic functional form, and provides evidence consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. The results indicate that the interfuel substitution elasticities are consistently below unity, revealing the limited ability to substitute between ...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  17. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  18. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687)...

  19. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable and not...... and not correlated with auxin strength measured in the Avena coleoptile test....

  20. The Influence of Alkoxy Substitutions on the Properties of Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Phenyl Copolymers for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Heremans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A previously reported diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP-phenyl copolymer is modified by adding methoxy or octyloxy side chains on the phenyl spacer. The influence of these alkoxy substitutions on the physical, opto-electronic properties, and photovoltaic performance were investigated. It was found that the altered physical properties correlated with an increase in chain flexibility. Well-defined oligomers were synthesized to verify the observed structure-property relationship. Surprisingly, methoxy substitution on the benzene spacer resulted in higher melting and crystallization temperatures in the synthesized oligomers. This trend is not observed in the polymers, where the improved interactions are most likely counteracted by the larger conformational possibilities in the polymer chain upon alkoxy substitution. The best photovoltaic performance was obtained for the parent polymer: fullerene blends whereas the modifications on the other two polymers result in reduced open-circuit voltage and varying current densities under similar processing conditions. The current densities could be related to different polymer: fullerene blend morphologies. These results show that supposed small structural alterations such as methoxy substitution already significantly altered the physical properties of the parent polymer and also that oligomers and polymers respond divergent to structural alterations made on a parent structure.

  1. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  2. Formation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauth, Alexander; Rigling, Carla; Tsoung, Jennifer; Love, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    The preparation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes is reported. After exchange of ethylene with a variety of unsymmetrically and symmetrically substituted alkenes, the corresponding rhodium-olefin complexes were oxidized with H2O2 and PhINTs (Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl) to yield the substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes, respectively. Oxarhodacyclobutanes could be prepared with excellent selectivity for incorporation of the oxygen atom on the more substituted carbon atom of the alkene. At the same time, azarhodacyclobutanes showed good-to-excellent selectivity for heteroatom incorporation on the less substituted carbon. Furthermore, it was shown that steric modifications of the ancillary ligand have a significant influence on the selectivity of Rh-olefin complex formation as well as formation of the substituted azametallacycles.

  3. Trends in Substitution Models of Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eArenas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost forty years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis.

  4. Mechanisms of Base Substitution Mutagenesis in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Bacolla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer genome sequence data provide an invaluable resource for inferring the key mechanisms by which mutations arise in cancer cells, favoring their survival, proliferation and invasiveness. Here we examine recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the predominant type of genetic alteration found in cancer cells, somatic single base substitutions (SBSs. Cytosine methylation, demethylation and deamination, charge transfer reactions in DNA, DNA replication timing, chromatin status and altered DNA proofreading activities are all now known to contribute to the mechanisms leading to base substitution mutagenesis. We review current hypotheses as to the major processes that give rise to SBSs and evaluate their relative relevance in the light of knowledge acquired from cancer genome sequencing projects and the study of base modifications, DNA repair and lesion bypass. Although gene expression data on APOBEC3B enzymes provide support for a role in cancer mutagenesis through U:G mismatch intermediates, the enzyme preference for single-stranded DNA may limit its activity genome-wide. For SBSs at both CG:CG and YC:GR sites, we outline evidence for a prominent role of damage by charge transfer reactions that follow interactions of the DNA with reactive oxygen species (ROS and other endogenous or exogenous electron-abstracting molecules.

  5. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J

    2014-09-16

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  6. Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.

  7. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  8. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pușcă

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  9. Improving nutrient values of solid heavy phase for corn substitute in poultry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid heavy phase (SHP, a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be produced approximately 2 million tons/year. The by product has a potential for substituting corn in poultry feed. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP in order to obtain a feedstuff that can substitute corn in poultry feed. The SHP was processed by either fermentation or enzymatic process. The product was then dried and analysed for its nutrient values. Fermentation process was carried out by altering the dry matter of the substrate (40 or 50%, while enzymatic process was carried out by altering the dose and kind of enzymes used. The process that produced best nutrient values was considered for producing materials for a feeding trial. In this trial, the products were used in diet formulation to substitute 25 or 50% of the corn included in the control diet. The results showed that the fermentation processed could be conducted with dry matter of substrate at either 40 or 50%. The fermentation process significantly improved the nutrient values of the SHP as shown by decreasing the crude fibre and increasing the crude protein, amino acids and the ME value. The results also showed that the Balitnak enzyme (BS4 was optimum when added at 10 ml/kg dry matter SHP, while the commercial enzyme (EK was optimum at level of 2 g /kg dry matter SHP. Results of feeding trial showed that 25% of corn in layer diet could be substituted with dried SHP or SHP + enzymes. This substitution tended to improve performances (egg production, egg weight and FCR of the laying hens. Substitution of 25 or 50% corn with the fermented SHP tends to reduce the performance of the layinghens. Similar trend also occurred when 50% of the corn was substituted with the enzymaticly processed SHP.

  10. 24 CFR 235.206 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS FOR HOME OWNERSHIP AND PROJECT REHABILITATION Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.206 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors....

  11. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, v......, visual rehabilitation, and multisensory processes....

  12. PERFORMANCE OF PULVERIZED SLAG-SUBSTITUTED CEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  13. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  14. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  15. 29 CFR 500.216 - Substituted service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted service. 500.216 Section 500.216 Labor... Service § 500.216 Substituted service. (a) Pursuant to section 102(5) of the Act, the Secretary, when so designated by a court, shall accept service of summons in any action arising under the Act or...

  16. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  17. Substitutional impurity in the graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierański, K.; Szatkowski, J.

    2015-09-01

    The process of formation of the localized defect states due to substitutional impurity in sp2-bonded graphene quantum dot is considered using a simple tight-binding-type calculation. We took into account the interaction of the quantum dot atoms surrounding the substitutional impurity from the second row of elements. To saturate the external dangling sp2 orbitals of the carbon additionally 18 hydrogen atoms were introduced. The chemical formula of the quantum dot is H18C51X, where X is the symbol of substitutional atom. The position of the localized levels is determined relative to the host-atoms (C) εp energies. We focused on the effect of substitutional doping by the B, N and O on the eigenstate energies and on the total energy change of the graphene dots including for O the effect of lattice distorsion. We conclude that B, N, and O can form stable substitutional defects in graphene quantum dot.

  18. Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson, L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.

  19. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.

  20. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: muthu@polysci.umass.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.

  1. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Ahmad; Khoo Teng; Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substit...

  2. Spectroscopic study on the photophysical properties of chlorine substituted tetraphenylporphyrinhistidine and its zinc (Ⅱ) complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huijuan; FENG Juan; AI Xicheng; ZHANG Xingkang; YU Zhongheng; ZHANG Jianping

    2003-01-01

    The photophysical properties of ortho-Cl, meta-Cl and para-Cl substituted tetraphenylporphyrin-histidine and their zinc (Ⅱ) complexes have been studied by means of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. For the cases of both free-base and zinc complexes, it was found that the ortho-chlorine substitution onto the phenyl rings significantly altered the fluorescence quantum yield, the fluorescence lifetime and the ratio between radiative and nonradiative deactivation rates of the porphyrin chromophore, i.e. the photophysical parameters were quite differentfrom those of meta- and para-substi- tuted compounds. On the other hand, however, the introduction of covalently-linked histidine did not exert much effects onthe photophysical behavior of the porphyrin chromophore. The results are interpreted in terms of the steric effect and the heavy-atom effect from the chlorine atoms substituted onto the phenyl rings.

  3. DOES CURRENCY SUBSTITUTION AFFECT EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Kumamoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  4. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael;

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  5. 47 CFR 76.110 - Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... blackout rules at § 76.111, substitute a program from any other television broadcast station. Programs... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports...

  6. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Alan

    2007-03-01

    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  7. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  8. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Kralova; Josef Jampilek; Vladimir Buchta; Jarmila Vinsova; Lukas Palek; Martin Dolezal

    2006-01-01

    Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid) withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and...

  9. Similartity Network For Semantic Web Services Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Web services substitution is one of the most challenging tasks for automating the composition process of multiple Web services. It aims to improve performances and to deal efficiently with Web services failures. Many existing solutions have approached the problem through classification of substitutable Web services. To go a step further, we propose in this paper a network based approach where nodes are Web services operations and links join similar operations. Four similarity measures based o...

  10. SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Web services substitution is one of the most challenging tasks for automating the composition process of multiple Web services. It aims to improve performances and to deal efficiently with Web services failures. Many existing solutions have approached the problem through classification of substitutable Web services. To go a step further, we propose in this paper a network based approach where nodes are Web services operations and links join similar operations. Four similarity measures based o...

  11. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  12. A Homeomorphism Invariant for Substitution Tiling Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ormes, Nic; Radin, Charles; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    We derive a homeomorphism invariant for those tiling spaces which are made by rather general substitution rules on polygonal tiles, including those tilings, like the pinwheel, which contain tiles in infinitely many orientations. The invariant is a quotient of Cech cohomology, is easily computed directly from the substitution rule, and distinguishes many examples, including most pinwheel-like tiling spaces. We also introduce a module structure on cohomology which is very convenient as well as ...

  13. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  14. Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Luis Ramírez-Rojas

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the case of an open economy the calculations of revenue-maximing rates of inflation have been made using a restrictive model that assumes that domestic residents can only substitute between domestic money and goods (and real assets. The paper demonstrates that once the effects of currency substitution, so common in developing countries, are taken into account, the inflation rate that maximizes the proceeds of the inflation tax can be quite lower than would be the case when currency substitution is ignored.

  15. Can unenhanced multiparametric MRI substitute gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the characterization of vertebral marrow infiltrative lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Zidan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unenhanced-multiparametric MRI is compatible with gadolinium-enhanced MRI in reliable characterization of marrow infiltrative lesions. The routine MRI protocol of cancer patients should be altered to accommodate the evolving MRI technology and cost effectively substitute the need for a gadolinium enhanced scan.

  16. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  17. Dopa-responsive dystonia: functional analysis of single nucleotide substitutions within the 5' untranslated GCH1 region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna A Armata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the GCH1 gene are associated with childhood onset, dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD. Correct diagnosis of DRD is crucial, given the potential for complete recovery once treated with L-dopa. The majority of DRD associated mutations lie within the coding region of the GCH1 gene, but three additional single nucleotide sequence substitutions have been reported within the 5' untranslated (5'UTR region of the mRNA. The biologic significance of these 5'UTR GCH1 sequence substitutions has not been analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Luciferase reporter assays, quantitative real time PCR and RNA decay assays, combined with bioinformatics, revealed a pathogenic 5'UTR GCH1 substitution. The +142C>T single nucleotide 5'UTR substitution that segregates with affected status in DRD patients, substantially attenuates translation without altering RNA expression levels or stability. The +142C>T substitution disrupts translation most likely by creating an upstream initiation start codon (uAUG and an upstream open reading frame (uORF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first GCH1 regulatory substitution reported to act at a post-transcriptional level, increasing the list of genetic diseases caused by abnormal translation and reaffirming the importance of investigating potential regulatory substitutions in genetic diseases.

  18. A Sequential and Comprehensive Method for Effective Substitute Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This article dealt with methods for making substitute teaching more effective. The purpose was to articulate a sequential method for maximizing the effectiveness of substitute teaching while providing substitutes with a comprehensive method for diligently and flexibly earning respect and using reflection to continually improve substitute teaching.…

  19. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ABOUT THE PROCESS OF MEDIATING OF SUBSTITUTE FAMILY CARE: REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSTITUTE PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozáková Aneta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substitute Family Care is an institute for children when their parents, for whatever reason, are unable to care for the children themselves. This paper is concerned with substitute family care in the Czech Republic. The paper is specifically aimed at the process of mediating of the substitute family care. A social worker, in the process of mediating of the substitute family care, has a key role, nevertheless, the social worker co-operatives with other people involved, such as psychologists and medical examiners. People involved are abided by the law, different methodologies and recommendations, but even so they are highly benevolent when assessing claimant for substitute family care. The research problem is described in the introduction. The term of substitute family care is explained and the process of mediating of the substitute family care is described there. The issues of who else is interested in this process and what requirements are imposed on a claimant for substitute family care, are also described and explained in this chapter. Research methodology is described subsequently. The aim of the research is to describe how people involved in the process of mediating of the alternative family care perceive and interpret the requests asked of the claimant. The main and sub research questions are based on the aim of the research. Qualitative research strategy is applied and field research, as a type of research, is selected by Miovský. In the last part of the paper the interesting findings from the carried out research are interpreted and discussed. The very process of mediating of the substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian Region is described. The attitude of the people involved towards the requirements imposed on substitute parents is also described. Sub-questions are answered in the end.

  20. Alteration of in vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by carboxymethylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by the Gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum can be altered by incubation in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a negatively charged water-soluble cellulose derivative, and also by incubation in a variety of neutral, water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the presence of all of these substituted celluloses, normal fasciation of microfibril bundles to form the typical twisting ribbon is prevented. Alteration of ribbon assembly is most extensive in the presen...

  1. Substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study...... according to Danish legislation (List of Undesirable Substances) and about 40 of these substances fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). Three substances (phthalates) out of the first and recently published Annex XIV candidate list (in...

  2. Characteristics of fluid substitution in porous rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shengjie

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the effect of changes in fluid properties of rocks on the compressional-wave velocity VP and shear-wave velocity Vs is very important for understanding the rock physical properties, especially in oilfield exploration and development.The fluid substitution process was analyzed by using ultrasonic measurement and theoretical calculations.The results showed that the effect of fluid substitution on the rock elastic modulus was mainly controlled by fluid properties, saturation, and confining pressure.For a rock with specific properties and porosity, the result of theoretical prediction for fluid substitution accorded with the experimental result under high confining pressure (higher than 60 MPa for our experimental data), but failed to describe the trend of experimental result under low confining pressure and VP predicted by Gassmann's equation was higher than that measured by experiment.A higher porosity resulted in stronger sensitivity of the bulk modulus of saturated rocks to the change of fluid properties.

  3. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  4. Homological Pisot Substitutions and Exact Regularity

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, Marcy; Jones, Leslie; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces where the dilatation (stretching factor) is a degree d Pisot number, and where the first rational Cech cohomology is d-dimensional. We construct examples of such "homological Pisot" substitutions that do not have pure discrete spectra. These examples are not unimodular, and we conjecture that the coincidence rank must always divide a power of the norm of the dilatation. To support this conjecture, we show that homological Pisot substitutions exhibit an Exact Regularity Property (ERP), in which the number of occurrences of a patch for a return length is governed strictly by the length. The ERP puts strong constraints on the measure of any cylinder set in the corresponding tiling space.

  5. Factor Input Substitution in Irish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Stefanie A.; Hyland, Marie

    2014-01-01

    We use a translog cost function to model production in the Irish manufacturing sector over the period from 1991 to 2009. We estimate both own- and cross-price elasticities and Morishima elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, materials and energy. We find that capital and energy are substitutes in the production process. Across all firms we find that a 1% rise in the price of energy is associated with an increase of 0.1% in the demand for capital. The Morishima elasticities, whi...

  6. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  7. Substitution-diffusion based Image Cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra K Pareek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 128-bit size is proposed. In thealgorithm, image is partitioned into several key based dynamic blocks and further, each block passesthrough the eight rounds of diffusion as well as substitution process. In diffusion process, sequences ofblock pixels are rearranged within the block by a zigzag approach whereas block pixels are replaced withanother by using difference calculation of row and column in substitution process. Due to high order ofsubstitution and diffusion, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasible. Theexperimental results show that the proposed technique is efficient and has high security features.

  8. On interfuel substitution : some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda; Vasetsky, Olexandr

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates interfuel substitution elasticities in selected developing and industrialized economies at the national and sector levels. In doing so, it employs state-of-the-art techniques in microeconometrics, particularly the locally flexible normalized quadratic functional forms, and provides evidence consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. The results indicate that th...

  9. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...

  10. Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2010-01-01

    Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very ...

  11. Antitrypanosomal Activities of Fluoroquinolones with Pyrrolidinyl Substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nenortas, Elizabeth; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Burri, Christian; Shapiro, Theresa A.

    2003-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones with pyrrolidinyl substitutions were tested against Trypanosoma brucei and mammalian cells. Bulky substituents at C-7 or a 1-2-bridging thiazolidine ring increased antitrypanosomal activity and selective toxicity. These compounds trap protein-DNA complexes and inhibit nucleic acid biosynthesis in trypanosomes, characteristics of topoisomerase II inhibition.

  12. Synthesis of Dialkyl-substituted Terminal Olefin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Dialkyl-substituted terminal olefins were synthesized from the coupling reaction of αt-olefins which were catalyzed by zirconocene dichloride/methylalumoxane (MAO) catalyst system under mild condition. High yield was gained and no other oligmer was detected. It was found that the ratio of Al/Zr is responsible for the selectivity of product.

  13. 21 CFR 882.5910 - Dura substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dura substitute. 882.5910 Section 882.5910 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... surrounding the brain). (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis of Substituted Benzoic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    A series of substituted benzoic acids (SBAs) are prepared by students. The pKa shift, a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the subsistent is examined in reference to the electrophoretic migration behavior of benzoic acid.

  15. Trends in Autism Prevalence: Diagnostic Substitution Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coo, Helen; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Kasmara, Liza; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    There has been little evidence to support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution may contribute to increases in the administrative prevalence of autism. We examined trends in assignment of special education codes to British Columbia (BC) school children who had an autism code in at least 1 year between 1996 and 2004, inclusive. The proportion…

  16. Intermediate-Valence Tautomerism in Decamethylytterbocene Complexes of Methyl-Substituted Bipyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Corwin H.; Kazhdan, Daniel; Werkema, Evan L.; Walter, Marc D.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Bauer, Eric D.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Head-Gordon, Martin; Andersen, Richard A.

    2011-01-25

    Multiconfigurational, intermediate valent ground states are established in several methyl-substituted bipyridine complexes of bispentamethylcyclopentadienylytterbium, Cp*{sub 2} Yb(Me{sub x}-bipy). In contrast to Cp*{sub 2} Yb(bipy) and other substituted-bipy complexes, the nature of both the ground state and the first excited state are altered by changing the position of the methyl or dimethyl substitutions on the bipyridine rings. In particular, certain substitutions result in multiconfigurational, intermediate valent open-shell singlet states in both the ground state and the first excited state. These conclusions are reached after consideration of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD), the temperature dependence of x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS), and magnetic susceptibility data, and are supported by CASSCF-MP2 calculations. These results place the various Cp*{sub 2}Yb(bipy) complexes in a new tautomeric class, that is, intermediate-valence tautomers.

  17. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  18. Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A. Sturzeneger

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the presence of financial adaptation or currency substitution. the inflation tax is extremely regressive. This regressivity arises from the existence of a fixed cost of switching to inflation-proof transactions technologies. This fixed cost makes it optimal only for those agents with sufficiently high incomes to switch out of domestic currency. The effects are illustrated and quantified for a particular case.

  19. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  20. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.;

    2002-01-01

    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted ...

  1. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gunjan Garg; V K Aswal; S K Kulshreshtha; P A Hassan

    2004-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in the presence of three different hydrophobic salts, i.e. aniline hydrochloride, -toluidine hydrochloride and -toluidine hydrochloride. All these salts induce a uniaxial growth of micelles to form prolate ellipsoidal structures. A progressive decrease in the surface charge of the micelles was observed with the addition of salts followed by a rapid growth of the micelles. The presence of a methyl substitution at the ortho position of aniline does not alter the growth behavior significantly. However, when the substitution is at meta position micellar growth is favored at lower salt concentration than that is observed for aniline. This can be explained in terms of the difference in the chemical environments of the substituents at the ortho and meta positions.

  2. Interstitial and substitutional solute segregation at individual grain boundaries of α-iron: data revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical calculations (usually density-functional-theory methods performed at 0 K) confirm the formerly assumed substitutional phosphorus segregation in α-iron. In contrast, the enthalpy–entropy compensation effect predicts that phosphorus should segregate interstitially. To resolve this discrepancy, we recalculated the values of the segregation enthalpy and entropy for the interstitial segregation of phosphorus according to the Guttmann model of segregation in multicomponent systems. This recalculation is based on earlier measured experimental data and shows that only slight changes in the values of the standard enthalpy and entropy of phosphorus, carbon and silicon segregation are obtained. Consequently, all dependences constructed previously remain qualitatively the same. By thermodynamic considerations based on the enthalpy–entropy compensation effect we quantitatively show that there is an alteration of the position of phosphorus at grain boundaries in α-Fe with increasing temperature: while substitutional segregation is preferred at 0 K, interstitial segregation occurs at temperatures of practical interest. (paper)

  3. Design of a thermophotovoltaic battery substitute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Edward F.; Becker, Frederick E.; Shukla, Kailash C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1999-03-01

    Many military platforms that currently use the BA-5590 primary battery or the BB-390A/U rechargeable battery are limited in performance by low storage capacity and long recharge times. Thermo Power Corporation, with team members JX Crystals and Essential Research Inc. is developing an advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) battery substitute that will provide higher storage capacity, lower weight, and instantaneous recharging (by refueling). The TPV battery substitute incorporates several advanced design features including: an evacuated and sealed enclosure for the emitter and PV cells to minimize unwanted convection heat transfer from the emitter to PV cells; selective tungsten emitter with a well matched gallium antimonide PV cell receiver; optical filter to recycle nonconvertible radiant energy; and a silicon carbide thermal recuperator to recover thermal energy from exhaust gases.

  4. Generic substitution: issues for problematic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J D; Esham, R H

    2001-01-01

    The methodology and criteria for bioequivalence testing have been firmly established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For certain drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., digoxin, levothyroxine, warfarin), generic substitution may not be advisable or even allowable, depending on the substitution laws of individual states. Digoxin and levothyroxine tablets are examples of drugs for which no New Drug Applications (NDAs) currently exist. However, commercially available generic products for both of these drugs have not been determined by the FDA to be therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products. Generic versions of warfarin have been approved by the FDA as being therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products, as have generic versions of the rescue inhaler albuterol. Yet, misinformation and myths persist regarding the adequacy and proven reliability of the FDA's determination of bioequivalence for these products.

  5. Cohomology in one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Barge, Marcy; Diamond, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Anderson and Putnam showed that the cohomology of a substitution tiling space may be computed by collaring tiles to obtain a substitution which ``forces its border.'' One can then represent the tiling space as an inverse limit of an inflation and substitution map on a cellular complex formed from the collared tiles; the cohomology of the tiling space is computed as the direct limit of the homomorphism induced by inflation and substitution on the cohomology of the complex. For one-dimensional ...

  6. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Marc G. Jeschke

    2014-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further resear...

  7. Interfuel Substitution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Vasetsky, Olexandr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wale...

  8. Application of Substitutional Model in Oxide Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of substitutional model in oxide systems, in comparison with that of sublattice model, is discussed.The results show that in the case of crystalline phases and liquid phases without molecular-like associates or theshortage of element in sublattice, these two models get consistent in the description of the formalism of Gibbs freeenergies of phases and obtain the same result of phase diagram calculation when the valence of the cations keep thesame.

  9. Spin Reorientation in Substituted Barium Ferrite

    OpenAIRE

    Greneche, J.; Randrianantoandro, N.; Y. Labaye; Boust, F.; Flavin, E.; Pascard, H.

    1997-01-01

    The structural transformation of substituted hexagonal ferrite powders BaFe10CoTiO19 prepared by mechanical milling, was investigated as a function of grinding time by means of Mössbauer spectrometry and static magnetic measurements. A spin reorientation is clearly evidenced from the temperature dependence of the hyperfine parameters and of the initial magnetic permeability on the powder mechanically treated for 23h.

  10. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  11. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  12. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  13. On the Practical Limits to Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, R U

    2005-01-01

    This paper began as a commentary on a draft paper by Pezzey and Toman on the economics of sustainability (Pezzey and Toman 2002), although it has evolved considerably since then. The authors characterize economists' views on the potential for substitution of man-made capital for natural capital as a continuum between the strongly neoclassical positions of Solow and Weitzman, at one extreme and the "entropy pessimists", notably Georgescu-Roegen and Daly, at the other. Solow has argued that man...

  14. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  15. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  16. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical... as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject to reporting under...

  18. Competition Derived from Innovation as a Substitution Threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of the role of innovation as substitution threat. The interesting strategy for those facing what in retrospect proves to be full substitution is the strategy of 'switch' to the substituting technology. the context-dependent uncedrtainty involved in the switch decision is ex...

  19. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. 40 CFR 721.640 - Amine substituted metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine substituted metal salts. 721.640... Substances § 721.640 Amine substituted metal salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine substituted metal...

  1. 40 CFR 721.320 - Acrylamide-substituted epoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. 721.320... Substances § 721.320 Acrylamide-substituted epoxy. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide-substituted epoxy (PMN...

  2. 76 FR 8666 - Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... scope of substitution and would be consistent with the language of the Act. Section 3.1010(g)(1) would... other members of a joint class, if any. Second, paragraph (g)(2) would specify that past-due benefits...) through (5) may substitute for the deceased substitute but only if the person requesting the...

  3. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  4. [Substitution in psychogeriatrics. A comparative study in nursing homes and substitution projects in Drenthe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, M

    1995-02-01

    Due to a strong increase of the ageing population in the Netherlands there is a growing need for care for psychogeriatric patients. The shortage of beds in psychogeriatric nursing homes has led to the development of substitute care in residential homes for the elderly and in community centers. If substitution is realized in these substitute care projects in the sense that alternative services are delivered for patients who would otherwise have been admitted to nursing homes, the level of impairment and disruptive behaviour should be of the same level in nursing homes and substitute care projects. Groups of patients of three nursing homes, three day-treatment facilities, eight day-care-projects in residential homes for the elderly and seven centers for day-care in the community were compared. Sociodemographic characteristics, behaviour and care-patterns of all 670 patients who were in care on the first of October of 1992 in these services were investigated. An assessment-scale for elderly patients, based on the Stockton Geriatric Rating Scale, was used to investigate behaviour. Substitute care appears to be possible for a limited and specific group of patients. Substitution for the severely disturbed patients (over 40% of the nursing home patients) does not seem to be possible. Due to the development of substitute care for psychogeriatric patients in residential homes for the elderly and centers for day-care in the community, services seem to develop towards more specific and specialized care. We recommend the foundation of a psychogeriatric case register, which allows the study of the transfer of patients across facilities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  6. The R467K Amino Acid Substitution in Candida albicans Sterol 14α-Demethylase Causes Drug Resistance through Reduced Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, David C.; Kelly, Diane E.; White, Theodore C.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) of Candida albicans is involved in an essential step of ergosterol biosynthesis and is the target for azole antifungal compounds. We have undertaken site-directed mutation of C. albicans CYP51 to produce a recombinant mutant protein with the amino acid substitution R467K corresponding to a mutation observed clinically. This alteration perturbed the heme environment causing an altered reduced-carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a maximum ...

  7. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  8. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  9. Electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of wurtzite Cu–Ga–S nanocrystals and their Zn substitution

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek A.

    2015-03-23

    Stoichiometric and gallium-rich wurtzite Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals were synthesized via a facile solution-based hot injection method using 1-dodecanethiol as a sulfur source. The use of 1-dodecanethiol was found to be essential not only as a sulfur source but also as a structure-directing reagent to form a metastable wurtzite structure. In addition, the substitution of zinc in the wurtzite gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S nanocrystals was also investigated. The obtained nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Electronic structures of pristine and the Zn-substituted Cu-Ga-S system were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated bandgaps accurately reflect the measured ones. The allowed electronic transitions occur upon the photon absorption from the (Cu + S) band towards the (Ga + S) one. The Zn substitution was found not to contribute to the band edge structure and hence altered the bandgaps only slightly, the direct transition nature remaining unchanged with the Zn substitution. The photocatalytic activities of H2 evolution from an aqueous Na2S/Na2SO3 solution under visible-light illumination on the synthesized nanocrystals were investigated. While the stoichiometric CuGaS2 exhibited negligible activity, the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals displayed reasonable activity. The optimum Zn substitution in the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals enhanced the H2 evolution rate, achieving an apparent quantum efficiency of >6% at 400 nm. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Abdul Karim, S.M. [Department of Arts and Sciences, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208 (Bangladesh); Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Toppare, Levent, E-mail: toppare@metu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Biotechnology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  11. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  12. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  13. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone nucleosides.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, G A; Grill, S P; Fisher, M H; Dutschman, G E; Efange, S M; Bardos, T J; Cheng, Y C

    1989-01-01

    Several 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (PdR) analogs were examined for their anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in cell culture. The order of potency of their antiviral activities against HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 was iodo PdR approximately ethynyl PdR approximately propynyl PdR. The antiviral action of iodo PdR is dependent on the ability of HSV to induce virus-specified thymidine kinase in infected cells. Several HSV-1 variants with altered thymidine kinase cha...

  14. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  15. Transmembrane protein topology mapping by the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM™): Application to lipid-specific membrane protein topogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jun; Dowhan, William

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein topogenesis, with particular emphasis on Escherichia coli strains genetically altered in their lipid composition and strategies for experimentally determining the transmembrane organization of proteins. A variety of reagents and experimental strategies are described including the use of lipid mutants and thiol-specific chemical reagents to study lipid-dependent and host-specific membrane protein topogenesis by substituted cy...

  16. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hilmi, A.B.; Hassan, Asma; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bila...

  17. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  18. Substitute potting compound for Sylgard 93-119 based on Sylgard 184 and Q3-6527 dielectric gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, G.L.; Switzer, S.T.

    1978-06-01

    Development of a substitute potting compound developed by Pantex to replace the no longer available Dow Corning 93-119 is described. The specific approach taken in this development utilized Dow Corning Sylgard 184 as the basic starting material, altering its viscosity with Dow Corning Dielectric Gel Q3-6527 and then modifying the cure rate with Dow Corning Accelerator Q3-6559. Various tests were run to characterize both chemical and physical properties of the substitutes as well as the initial 93-119 and the starting raw materials. Summaries of the data peculiar to this substitute are presented here whereas a more detailed examination of the test methods and results for the overall project are presented in another report. The properties of two substitutes developed from the two extremes of viscosity to be expected for Sylgard 184 during production are presented. These substitutes are easily quick-frozen in the catalyzed state for production use upon thawing. They are however somewhat more difficult to deaerate and eventually cure to a harder state than the original DC 93-119.

  19. Generic substitution, financial interests, and imperfect agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rischatsch, Maurus; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers around the world seek to encourage generic substitution. In this paper, the importance of prescribing physicians' imperfect agency is tested using the fact that some Swiss jurisdictions allow physicians to dispense drugs on their own account (physician dispensing, PD) while others disallow it. We estimate a model of physician drug choice with the help of drug claim data, finding a significant positive association between PD and the use of generics. While this points to imperfect agency, generics are prescribed more often to patients with high copayments or low incomes.

  20. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M

    2015-10-14

    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated.

  1. Pyrrolyl substituted allenylidene complexes of ruthenium

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Rainer; Hartmann, Stephan; Sarkar, Biprajit; Lissner, Falk

    2004-01-01

    Pyrrolyl and indolyl substituted allenylidene complexes of ruthenium have been prepared from the trapping of cationic trans-[Cl(dppm)2Ru[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2]+ with various pyrroles or N-methylindole. The reaction is rationalized as involving regioselective attack of the organometallic electrophile on the electron-rich heterocycle followed by proton migration to the terminal [double bo...

  2. QSAR Studies on 7-Substituted Fluoroquinolones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ju-Li; GAO Shu-Lin; ZHANG Xiang-Fei; XIE Yi-Ping; HUANG Xiao-Yin; XIE Xiao-Guang

    2007-01-01

    The PM3 and B3LYP methods were employed to calculate the properties of 18 7-substituted fluoroquinolones.The correlation between biological activity (against gram-positive organisms or gram-negative organisms) and structural properties was obtained by using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods.The best model generated correlates the antibacterial activity with EHOMO and QF8 for gram-positive organisms,and EHOMO and dipole moment for gram-negative organisms,respectively.It suggests that the interaction mechanisms of fluoroquinolons with gram-positive and gram-negative organisms are different.

  3. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  4. Pharmaceutical regulation, mandatory substitution, and generic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Birg, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of two regulatory instruments - a price cap and a reference price system - a mandatory substitution rule, and the combination of both on generic competition in a Salop-type model with an off-patent brand-name drug and n differentiated generic versions. The price cap reduces only the brand-name price, the reference price system reduces the brand-name price and generic prices. Both regulatory instruments reduce the generic market share and the number of generic com...

  5. Constant-Elasticity-of-Substitution Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, G.

    1986-01-01

    Program simulates constant elasticity-of-substitution (CES) production function. CES function used by economic analysts to examine production costs as well as uncertainties in production. User provides such input parameters as price of labor, price of capital, and dispersion levels. CES minimizes expected cost to produce capital-uncertainty pair. By varying capital-value input, one obtains series of capital-uncertainty pairs. Capital-uncertainty pairs then used to generate several cost curves. CES program menu driven and features specific print menu for examining selected output curves. Program written in BASIC for interactive execution and implemented on IBM PC-series computer.

  6. ARTIFICIAL TEAR SUBSTITUTES: WHICH ONE & WHEN?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dry eye is a multi-factorial disease; the therapy should improve the symptoms and signs of dry eye as well as address the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Artificial tear substitutes have been used for treating dry eye syndromes for decades and succeeded in enhancing the comfort of patients. They are currently the main therapy for dry eye and likely to remain the mainstay treatment modality. However, the currently used artificial tears have obvious limitations and its usage has to be personalized based on the patient’s need. This article briefs you on silent features in usage of artificial tears.

  7. [Generic drugs and the rights of substitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, J P

    1999-03-13

    Compared with other countries with a similar socio-economic environment, generic drugs account for a very small proportion of pharmaceutical sales in France. The recently promulgated law on financing the national healthcare system states that drug dispensers have the right to substitute generic drugs for prescription drugs in accordance with the drug equivalence repertoire established by the national drug agency. How patients, pharmacists, physicians and industrial firms will react to this new situation is an open question as use of generic drugs is basically unknown in France. Prescribing physicians, members of the drug agency, pharmacists, health economists, and insurance company and pharmaceutical firm representatives participated in a round table discussion to clarify the ongoing debate on the effect of this new cultural situation which calls an end to the French "exception" in drug consumption. The concept of generics and their use in substitution for prescription drugs was discussed in light of the outlined economic objectives together with the advantages and disadvantages patients and physicians can expect. PMID:10209545

  8. JROTC as a Substitute for PE: Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbery, Monica A. F.; Holt, Kathryn A.; Monnat, Shannon A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Funk, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even though physical education (PE) is an evidence-based strategy for providing and promoting physical activity, alternative programs such as Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) are commonly substituted for PE in many states. The purpose of this study was to compare student physical activity and lesson contexts during high school PE and JROTC sessions. Method SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) was used to assess PE and JROTC sessions (N=38 each) in 4 high schools that provided both programs. Data were analyzed using t-tests, negative binomial regression, and logistic regression. Results Students engaged in significantly more moderate to vigorous physical activity during PE than JROTC sessions and they were significantly less sedentary. Significant differences between the two program types were also found among lesson contexts. Conclusions PE and JROTC provide substantially different content and contexts and students in them engage in substantially different amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Students in JROTC, and perhaps other alternative programs, are less likely to accrue health-supporting physical activity and engage in fewer opportunities to be physically fit and motorically skilled. Policies and practices for providing substitutions for PE should be carefully examined. PMID:25141093

  9. Challenges in drug discovery for thiazolidinedione substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Ye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD is a powerful insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It acts as a ligand to the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and induces transcription of PPARγ-responsive genes. TZD controls lipid synthesis and storage in adipose tissue, liver and many other tissues through PPARγ. Derivatives of TZD, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia and pioglitazone (Actos, are more powerful than metformin or berberine in insulin sensitization. Although they have common side effects such as weight gain and edema, these did not influence their clinical application in general. However, recent findings of risk for congestive heart failure and bladder cancer have significantly impaired their future in many countries. European countries have prohibited those drugs, and US will terminate application of rosiglitazone in clinics and hospitals. The multiple country actions may mark the end of TZD era. As a result, there is a strong demand for identification of TZD substitute in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, literature about PPARγ ligands and potential TZD substitute are reviewed in this article. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor is emphasized as a new class of insulin sensitizer here. Regulators of SIRT1, CREB, NO, p38, ERK and Cdk5 are discussed in the activation of PPARγ.

  10. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  11. Substitution among exhaustible resources and intergenerational equity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwick, J.M.

    1978-06-01

    Hartwick (American Econ. Rev., 66 (Dec. 1977)) showed that implicit in R.M. Solow's model of intergenerational equity and exhaustible resources (Rev. Econ. Studies (Symposium, 1974) 29-46) was the savings-investment rule: society should invest in reproducible capital precisely the current returns from the use of flows of exhaustible resources in order to maintain per capita consumption constant. Population was assumed to remain constant. Solow and Hartwick assumed that there was only one exhaustible resource. Beckmann (American Econ. Rev., 65, 695-99 (Sept 1975)) investigated optimal growth in models with many exhaustible resources. In this paper the case of many exhaustible resources is considered and results are derived on substitution among resources and on the nature of paths of development. One of Beckmann's results on substitution is analyzed. The approach is first to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of general savings functions and then to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of the special savings function referred to above. Results indicate the Solow's existence theorem remains valid for the case of many exhaustible resources and some light is shed on the existence of paths for production functions not of the Cobb-Douglas form. 12 references.

  12. Coal to gas substitution using coal?!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempka, Thomas; Schlüter, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Substitution of carbon-intensive coal with less carbon-intensive natural gas for energy production is discussed as one main pillar targeting reduction of antrophogenic greenhouse gas emissions by means of climate change mitigation. Other pillars are energy efficiency, renewable energies, carbon capture and storage as well as further development of nuclear energy. Taking into account innovative clean coal technologies such as UCG-CCS (underground coal gasification with carbon capture and storage), in which coal deposits are developed using directional drilling technologies and subsequently converted into a synthesis gas of high calorific value, the coupled conceptual approach can provide a synergetic technology for coal utilization and mitigation of carbon emissions. This study aims at the evaluation of UCǴ s carbon mitigation potentials and the review of the economical boundary conditions. The analytical models applied within this study are based on data available from world-wide UCG projects and extensive laboratory studies. In summary, scenarios considering costs and carbon storage potentials are economically feasible and thus competitive with less carbon-intensive energy generation technologies such as natural gas. Thus, coal to gas substitution can be one of the coal based options.

  13. Preparation of 6-Substituted Quinoxaline JSP-1 Inhibitors by Microwave Accelerated Nucleophilic Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkang Shen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A small library of 6-aminoquinoxalines has been prepared by nucleophilic substitution of 6-fluoroquinoxaline with amines and nitrogen-containing heterocycles under computer-controlled microwave irradiation. Some compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of JNK Stimulatory Phosphatase-1 (JSP-1 in an in vitro biological assay.

  14. Substitution of stable isotopes in Chlorella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.; Uphaus, R. A.

    1969-01-01

    Replacement of biologically important isotopes in the alga Chlorella by corresponding heavier stable isotopes produces increasingly greater deviations from the normal cell size and changes the quality and distribution of certain cellular components. The usefulness of isotopically altered organisms increases interest in the study of such permuted organisms.

  15. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  16. Search Engine Advertising: Channel Substitution when Pricing Ads to Context

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

    2010-01-01

    We explore substitution patterns across advertising platforms. Using data on the advertising prices paid by lawyers for 139 Google search terms in 195 locations, we exploit a natural experiment in "ambulance-chaser" regulations across states. When lawyers cannot contact clients by mail, advertising prices per click for search engine advertisements are 5%-7% higher. Therefore, online advertising substitutes for offline advertising. This substitution toward online advertising is strongest in ma...

  17. Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    N M Roshan; Sakeenabi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitutes a...

  18. Bone graft substitutes for spine fusion: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ashim; Kukkar, Nitin; Sharif, Kevin; Main, Benjamin J; Albers, Christine E; El-Amin III, Saadiq F

    2015-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely used in the field of orthopedics and are extensively used to promote vertebral fusion. Fusion is the most common technique in spine surgery and is used to treat morbidities and relieve discomfort. Allograft and autograft bone substitutes are currently the most commonly used bone grafts to promote fusion. These approaches pose limitations and present complications to the patient. Numerous alternative bone graft substitutes are on the market or have been develo...

  19. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇飞

    2015-01-01

    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices.Both English and Chinese use substitution.But due to the differences between the two languages,the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation.This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases.A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  20. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cann...

  1. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M;

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 500......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....

  2. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇飞

    2015-01-01

    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices. Both English and Chinese use substitution. But due to the differences between the two languages, the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation. This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases. A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  3. ADULTRATION AND SUBSTITUTION IN HERBAL DRUGS: A CRITICAL ANAYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Poornima B

    2010-01-01

    The adulteration and Substitution of the herbal drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry and it has caused a major treat in the research on commercial natural products. The deforestation and extinction of many species and incorrect identification of many plants has resulted in adulteration and substitution of raw drugs. The concept of substitution prevailed ages back and in Ayurveda we can find this in the treatise of Bhavaprakasha and Yogaratnakara.This article throws the light on th...

  4. Structure and Aromaticity of AlCO-substituted Semibullvalene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Wen-Zhi; WU Hai-Shun

    2007-01-01

    The structures, energies and aromaticity (the nuclear-independent chemical shifts,NICS) of AlCO-substituted semibullvalenes were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level.Similar to BCO-substituted analogues, [2,6]-AlCO-semibullvalene is neutral bishomoaromatic.The NICS values reveal that the aromaticity of AlCO-substituted structures is smaller than that of BCO analogues.

  5. State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under medicaid

    OpenAIRE

    Shrank, William H.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Federman, Alex D.; Liberman, Joshua N.; LIU Jun; Aaron S Kesselheim; Brookhart, M. Alan; Fischer, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    To stem the rising costs of medications, states have implemented varying generic substitution policies. These policies differ in the extent to which pharmacists or patients can influence medication choice. Using national Medicaid data, we evaluated the relationship between different generic substitution policies and generic simvastatin use after patent expiration of branded Zocor. States implementing policies that require patient consent prior to generic substitution experienced 25% lower rat...

  6. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Kober; Alfred Gugerell; Melanie Schmid; Lars-Peter Kamolz; Maike Keck

    2015-01-01

    A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis) is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and mature adipocytes were emb...

  7. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  8. Substitutions between Water and other Agricultural Inputs - An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; You, J.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing concerns about water availability, environmental water requirement and water quality have led to an increased importance of quantitative assessments of the substitution between water and other agricultural inputs at the margin for agricultural and environmental policy analysis. This paper explores the potential substitutions between water and other agricultural inputs in irrigated agriculture through an empirical study. The study include (1) an analysis based on a crop production function for net substitution at the crop field and farm levels; and (2) a numerical study for gross substitution in the context of water allocation in river basins thorough an integrated hydrologic-economic river basin model. Along with the empirical analysis and numerical illustrations, we discuss several theoretical issues relevant to substitutions between water and other inputs, such as (1) selection of indicators of elasticity of substitution, depending on farmers' concerns on yield, production, or profit; (2) appropriateness of net or gross substitution analysis, which is relevant to the spatial scale of the analysis (field, district or region), as well as farmers' concerns; and (3) output impact of substitutions. Water is both a natural resource and an economic input, and the constraints on water include those from both physical and socio-economic aspects. Therefore, the output impact of the substitution between water and other inputs should be extended from a pure economic concept to the context of integrated hydrologic-economic systems.

  9. ARE THE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING SERVICES THREATENED BY SUBSTITUTES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sorin STROE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitutes pose a permanent threat on firms’ products or services in any industry. As the extant literature on strategic analysis is abundant in examples of substitutes for goods and traditional services, the paper aims at analyzing in-depth the concept of substitutes in the case of engineering services industry which is a knowledge-based, project-based, and professional type one. The assessment of the threat of substitutes for these services has been supported by an empirical study among a number of managers of Romanian engineering companies. The paper ends up with a set of conclusions and an invitation to further debate and research.

  10. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  11. Generalized $\\beta$-expansions, substitution tilings, and local finiteness

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Natalie Priebe; Robinson, Jr., W. Edward

    2005-01-01

    For a fairly general class of two-dimensional tiling substitutions, we prove that if the length expansion $\\beta$ is a Pisot number, then the tilings defined by the substitution must be locally finite. We also give a simple example of a two-dimensional substitution on rectangular tiles, with a non-Pisot length expansion $\\beta$, such that no tiling admitted by the substitution is locally finite. The proofs of both results are effectively one-dimensional and involve the idea of a certain type ...

  12. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bader, Y A

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coe...

  13. Substitutions in dynamics, arithmetics and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valéré; Ferenczi, Sébastien; Mauduit, Christian; Siegel, Anne

    2002-01-01

    A certain category of infinite strings of letters on a finite alphabet is presented here, chosen among the 'simplest' possible one may build, both because they are very deterministic and because they are built by simple rules (a letter is replaced by a word, a sequence is produced by iteration). These substitutive sequences have a surprisingly rich structure. The authors describe the concepts of quantity of natural interactions, with combinatorics on words, ergodic theory, linear algebra, spectral theory, geometry of tilings, theoretical computer science, diophantine approximation, trancendence, graph theory. This volume fulfils the need for a reference on the basic definitions and theorems, as well as for a state-of-the-art survey of the more difficult and unsolved problems.

  14. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  15. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  16. Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D A

    1978-01-01

    The problem of reducing the sugar content of sugary foods is presented from the food manufacturer's point of view. The distinction is made between the need for artificial sweeteners and the more pressing need for bulking agents with at least some of the technological properties of sugar. In view of the considerable sales success of sugarless confections, accounting for over an estimated 30,000,000 lbs. of sorbitol per annum, the clouded prospect for more general sugar substitution in other food categories is discussed with especial reference to the consequent problems in product claims and nomenclature, and the enormous expense of proving safety and dental claims. Finally, an overview of the competitive consumer and regulatory pressures is given, with an urgent appeal to the dental profession to take the initiative for guiding the food processor to dentally improved foods.

  17. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  18. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  19. 3-Substituted 2-phenyl-indoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Jørgensen, T.B.; Gloriam, D.E.;

    2013-01-01

    Privileged structures have been used in drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and other protein classes for more than 20 years. Their rich activity profiles and drug-like characteristics lend themselves to increased productivity in hit identification and lead optimisation....... Recently we discovered two allosteric modulators 1 and 2 for the G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A incorporating the privileged 2-phenyl-indole scaffold, functionalised at the 3-position. In order to develop new potential GPRC6A ligands we engaged in the development of synthetic routes to provide 2-phenyl......-indoles with a variety of substituents at the indole 3-position. Herein we describe the development of optimised and efficient synthetic routes to a series of new 2-phenyl-indole building blocks 3 to 9 and show that these can be used to generate a broad variety of 3-substituted 2-phenyl-indoles of interest to medicinal...

  20. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and the anti-mycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of the evaluatedcompounds are discussed. 3,5-Bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives of substitutedpyrazinecarboxylic acid, 16-18, have shown the highest activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv (54-72% inhibition. The highest antifungal effect againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC =31.25 μmol·mL-1. The most active inhibitors of oxygen evolution rate in spinachMolecules 2006, 11 243 chloroplasts were the compounds 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl- pyrazine-2-carboxamide (27, IC50 = 41.9 μmol·L-1 and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(1,3- thiazol-2-yl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (4, IC50 = 49.5 μmol·L-1.

  1. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Rostowski

    1992-01-01

    Allowing currency substitution in a very high inflation helps to maintain the level of output, as, the distortion of the information carried by prices is mitigated. The total (primary plus secondary) money supply may increase if currency substitution is permitted. Currency substitution does not even necessarily reduce the real primary money stock. Moreover, the demand for the primary money fragments at very high rates of inflation, which means that the authorities may loose little when they g...

  2. Relations between functionality and macromolecular properties of alterated coals: the behaviour in solubility and swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Gruber, R.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D.; Djega-Mariadassou, G.; Kruchinin, A.V.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Describes the study of the effects of chemical alteration of brown and bituminous coals on the solubility and swelling behaviour. A variety of chemical procedures such as ion-exchange with HCl, O-methylation and reductive methylation, reduction with LiAlH{sub 4} and with K/isopropanol in THF and oxidation with performic acid was applied in order to vary the oxygen functionality, the content of the alkyl substitutes and the proportion of aromatic to hydroaromatic rings. The extent of degradation of the macromolecular structure was evaluated as a function of chemical alteration. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, M A; Carrillo, C; González-candelas, F; Moya, A.; Domingo, E; Sobrino, F

    1991-01-01

    We document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in BHK-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental FMDV. Upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental FMDV and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. Thus, variants that w...

  4. CFC substitutes for refrigeration engineering. FCKW-Substitute fuer die Kaeltetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrici, R. (Hoechst AG, Forschung und Entwicklung Chemikalien, Frankfurt am Main (Germany))

    1993-12-01

    The international attempts ot protect the earth atmosphere have accelerated the world-wide search for CFC substitutes. Enormous efforts have been undertaken in the last few years to solve the problems occurring with new refrigerants and to find suitable lubricants. The article discusses the following subjects: Requirements on future refrigerants, effects on the ''greenhouse problem'', toxicological properties, problems in practical application, trends of development, refrigerant mixtures, conversion of older plants, recycling of refrigerants. (SR)

  5. Sol-gel preparation and characterization of non-substituted and Sr-substituted gadolinium cobaltates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aqueous sol-gel chemistry approach for the preparation of Sr-substituted perovskite gadolinium cobaltates Gd1-xSrxCoO3-δ (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) has been applied. The metal ions, generated by dissolving starting materials in diluted acetic acid were complexed by EDTA to obtain the precursors for non-substituted and Sr-substituted GdCoO3. However, only two single-phase cobaltate samples with x = 0.0 and 0.25 have been obtained by the suggested sol-gel method. The influences of synthesis temperature and the amount of substituent on the phase purity of Gd1-xSrxCoO3-δ were investigated. The evolution of the gels during heating, composition and micro-structural features in the polycrystalline samples was studied by thermal analysis (TG/DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  6. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phenyl Substituted Isoxazolecarboxamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; ZHANG Ji-feng; YAN Tao; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen novel phenyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR,elementary analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) techniques.Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the phcnyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides exhibited moderate insecticidal activities,among which compounds 9c and 9k showed comparatively higher activities.

  7. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  8. 12 CFR 27.6 - Substitute monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute monitoring program. 27.6 Section 27.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM § 27.6 Substitute monitoring program. The recordkeeping provisions of § 27.3 constitute...

  9. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding ...

  10. MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS IN THE DESIGN OF SUBSTITUTE SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of physical properties and fluid behavior from molecular thermodynamics can lead to better decision making in the design of substitute solvents and can greatly reduce the expense and time required to find substitutes compared to designing solvents by experiment. this pape...

  11. What Is Being Masked in Object Substitution Masking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Cole, Geoff; Skarratt, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur when a perceptual object is hypothesized that is mismatched by subsequent sensory evidence, leading to a new hypothesized object being substituted for the first. For example, when a brief target is accompanied by a longer lasting display of nonoverlapping mask elements, reporting of target…

  12. Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the us

  13. Thermal stability of substitutional ag in CdTe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahn, SG; Hofsass, H; Restle, M; Ronning, C; Quintel, H; BharuthRam, K; Wahl, U

    1996-01-01

    The thermal stability of substitutional Ag in CdTe was deduced from lattice location measurements at different temperatures. Substitutional Ag probe atoms were generated via transmutation doping from radioactive Cd isotopes. The lattice sites of Ag isotopes were determined by measuring the channelin

  14. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  15. Generic substitution of antihypertensive drugs : does it affect adherence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution is an important opportunity to reduce the costs of pharmaceutical care. However, pharmacists and physicians often find that patients and brand-name manufacturers have doubt about the equivalence of the substituted drug. This may be reflected by decreased adherence to

  16. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Peter C; WANG Dei-Haw; LU Kaitao; MANI Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis (dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis, The yields were significantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  17. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Peter; C; WANG; Der-Haw; MANI; Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis(dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid,followed by hydrolysis. The yields were signifi-cantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  18. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer;

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating,...

  19. RHEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MUCIN-CONTAINING SOLUTIONS AND SALIVA SUBSTITUTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLTERMAN, HJ; WATERMAN, HA; BLOM, C; SGRAVENMADE, FJ; Mellema, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this study rheological properties of aqueous solutions of mucin, albumin and mucin-albumin have been investigated in search for saliva substitutes. They were compared with commercially available saliva substitutes on the one hand and natural human saliva on the other hand. For the latter a few me

  20. 40 CFR 721.3880 - Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate. 721.3880 Section 721.3880 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3880 Polyalkylene glycol substituted acetate. (a) Chemical substance and... glycol substituted acetate (PMN P-91-1269) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  1. Sublattice imbalance of substitutionally doped nitrogen in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, James A.; Gorman, Paul D.; Power, Stephen;

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed sublattice asymmetry of substitutional nitrogen impurities in CVD grown graphene, we show, in a mathematically transparent manner, that oscillations in the local density of states driven by the presence of substitutional impurities are responsible for breaking t......, but should be present in other impurities. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  2. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of substituted (2-oxochromen-3-ylbenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddi V

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds were synthesized by condensing 3-aminocoumarin with substituted aromatic acid chlorides. The acid chlorides were prepared from different substituted aromatic carboxylic acids and thionyl chloride. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. The title compounds were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  3. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  4. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G;

    1998-01-01

    Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2...... that the mutation causes only very minimal perturbations in the immediate vicinity of residue 61. Substitutions of alanines or glycines for bulky residues in the center of the core were found to have significant effects on both Ca2+ affinity and dissociation rates. These substitutions caused a reduction in affinity...... and an increase in off-rate. Small effects, both increases and decreases, were observed for substitutions involving residues far from the Ca2+ sites and toward the outer part of the hydrophobic core. The mutant with the substitution Phe66 --> Trp behaved differently from all other mutants, and displayed a 25-fold...

  5. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...... generics in the antiepileptic and antidepressant groups (antiepileptics OR 0.37 and antidepressants OR 0.53). Conclusion We did not find any patient-related factors associated with generic substitution; however, patients who have once experienced a generic substitution with a specific drug are more likely...

  6. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Levine, L. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Sodium (Na) movement between plants and humans is one of the more critical aspects of bioregenerative systems of life support, which NASA is studying for the establishment of long-term bases on the Lunar or Martian surface. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which Na can replace potassium (K) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) without adversely affecting metabolic functions such as water relations, photosynthetic rates, and thus growth. Two cultivars, Ruby Queen and Klein Bol, were grown for 42 days at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0%, 75%, 95%, and 98% Na substitution for K in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution. Total biomass of Ruby Queen was greatest at 95% Na substitution and equal at 0% and 98% Na substitution. For Klein Bol, there was a 75% reduction in total biomass at 98% Na substitution. Nearly 95% of the total plant K was replaced with Na at 98% Na substitution in both cultivars. Potassium concentrations in leaves decreased from 120 g kg-1 dwt in 0% Na substitution to 3.5 g kg-1 dwt at 98% Na substitution. Leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic rate, and osmotic potential were not affected in either cultivar by Na substitution for K. Leaf glycinebetaine levels were doubled at 75% Na substitution in Klein Bol, but decreased at higher levels of Na substitution. For Ruby Queen, glycinebetaine levels in leaf increased with the first increase of Na levels and were maintained at the higher Na levels. These results indicate that in some cultivars of red beet, 95% of the normal tissue K can be replaced by Na without a reduction in growth.

  7. Gd-substituted Bi-2223 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Mishra

    2008-03-01

    The effects of gadolinium doping at calcium site on the normal and super-conducting properties of Bi-2223 system were studied. The Gd-doped (BiPb)-2223 series of specimens, namely Batch I, II and III were sintered at three different sintering temperatures 830, 850 and 895° C respectively. The properties investigated are (1) the normal state resistivity with a view to study metal-to-insulator transition, (2) the XRD patterns of the specimens with a view to study the relative composition of (BiPb)-2212 and (BiPb)-2223 phases and (3) the superconducting fluctuation behaviour (SFB) with a view to determine the effect of doping, if any, on the dimensionality of the fluctuation conductivity of the system. The normal state resistivity of Gd-substituted Bi-2223 specimens shows metallic, semiconducting and insulating behaviour. The c( = 0) values indicate that (BiPb)-2223 phase is responsible for the observed superconducting transitions in Batch I and Batch II specimens with Gd concentrations ≤ 0.7. This observation is further confirmed in the analysis of XRD patterns of these specimens. Gadolinium, being a magnetic impurity, has pair breaking effect near the Fermi level and decreases c( = 0). The analysis of the superconducting fluctuation behaviour (SFB) shows a 2D dimensionality without any cross-over.

  8. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  9. Some comments on the substituted judgement standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egonsson, Dan

    2010-02-01

    On a traditional interpretation of the substituted judgement standard (SJS) a person who makes treatment decisions on behalf of a non-competent patient (e.g. concerning euthanasia) ought to decide as the patient would have decided had she been competent. I propose an alternative interpretation of SJS in which the surrogate is required to infer what the patient actually thought about these end-of-life decisions. In clarifying SJS it is also important to differentiate the patient's consent and preference. If SJS is part of an autonomy ideal of the sort found in Kantian ethics, consent seems more important than preference. From a utilitarian perspective a preference-based reading of SJS seems natural. I argue that the justification of SJS within a utilitarian framework will boil down to the question whether a non-competent patient can be said to have any surviving preferences. If we give a virtue-ethical justification of SJS the relative importance of consent and preferences depends on which virtue one stresses--respect or care. I argue that SJS might be an independent normative method for extending the patient's autonomy, both from a Kantian and a virtue ethical perspective. PMID:19234760

  10. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  11. Energy conservation and substitution: refining the objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, G.

    1981-06-01

    Energy conservation is not a precisely defined concept; consequently, there is a considerable confusion about how to implement it or predict its effects. Reducing dependence on oil should be the central objective of energy policy, but this may not be furthered by generalized conservation strategies. Achieving a reduction in oil dependence requires a balanced policy of conservation and substitution. As governments have reacted against oil price rises and the subsequent inflationary effects with a swing towards monetarism and a harsher reliance upon market forces, the role of oil has become even more important. Reliance upon these policies has not eased the oil blockage upon economic activity; it has made it worse and made the task of providing alternatives to oil more difficult. Market forces have had a wedging, rather than a freeing, effect upon the pattern of energy supply. But the point is that conservation, on its own, does not create the momentum away from oil which is essential. The immediate objective is not to achieve a reduction in the consumption of energy as an end in itself, but as part of a liberation from dependence upon oil. Energy conservation needs to be seen as a servant of this wider objective. 21 references.

  12. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A

    2015-01-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully.

  13. CFC substitutes. Substitute refrigerants and technologies in refrigeration engineering. Ersatzstoffe fuer FCKW. Ersatzkaeltemittel und Ersatztechnologien in der Kaeltetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, U. (Forschungszentrum fuer Kaeltetechnik und Waermepumpen GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Dietrich, K. (Bayer AG, Leverkusen (Germany)); Kauffeld, M.; Rinne, F. (Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kaeltetechnik); Preisegger, E. (Hoechst AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Schwarz, J. (ZEO-TECH GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)); Kern, H.

    1992-01-01

    The CFC problem, i.e. ozone depletion and greenhouse effect, is the main problem in refrigeration engineering today. The ban on CFC has made it necessary to act, even before a general solution to the problem has been found. The book goes into detail on CFC substitutes development, testing, and application, as well as on alternative technologies and possible future developments. Safety aspects are considered for all materials and techniques. Contents: Fundamentals, development so far, restrictions - substitutes on the basis of partly halogenated hydrocarbons - ammonia as a substitute in refrigeration systems - safety aspects in the application of refrigerants and CFC substitutes - refrigerant mixtures as substitutes - sorption systems - cold air processes - further alternative substances and processes - future prospects. (orig.) With 125 figs., 108 refs.

  14. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rostowski

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Allowing currency substitution in a very high inflation helps to maintain the level of output, as, the distortion of the information carried by prices is mitigated. The total (primary plus secondary money supply may increase if currency substitution is permitted. Currency substitution does not even necessarily reduce the real primary money stock. Moreover, the demand for the primary money fragments at very high rates of inflation, which means that the authorities may loose little when they give up the attempt to obtain inflation tax revenue. Currency substitution need be no more expensive, in term of the real resources it consumes, than is indexation. Finally the availability of a second stable currency may reduce the severity of post-stabilization recessions. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

  15. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  16. Stage structure alters how complexity affects stability of ecological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, V.H.W.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Resolving how complexity affects stability of natural communities is of key importance for predicting the consequences of biodiversity loss. Central to previous stability analysis has been the assumption that the resources of a consumer are substitutable. However, during their development, most species change diets; for instance, adults often use different resources than larvae or juveniles. Here, we show that such ontogenetic niche shifts are common in real ecological networks and that consideration of these shifts can alter which species are predicted to be at risk of extinction. Furthermore, niche shifts reduce and can even reverse the otherwise stabilizing effect of complexity. This pattern arises because species with several specialized life stages appear to be generalists at the species level but act as sequential specialists that are hypersensitive to resource loss. These results suggest that natural communities are more vulnerable to biodiversity loss than indicated by previous analyses.

  17. The radiological properties of a novel lung tissue substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, R J; Olsen, P C; McDonald, J C

    2006-01-01

    Lung phantoms have been manufactured using commercially available, polyurethane foam products. Some of these materials are no longer available; therefore, a new lung tissue substitute was developed. The elemental composition and radiological properties of the new lung tissue substitute are described in this paper. Because the lung tissue substitute will be used to manufacture phantom lungs that will be used to evaluate chest counting systems, it is necessary to know the radiological properties of the material. These properties must be compared with reference materials and materials that have been used for lung phantoms in the past. The radiological properties of interest include the electron density, mean excitation energy, electron stopping power and photon mass attenuation coefficients. In all these properties, the calculated values for the new lung tissue substitute closely matched the calculated values of ICRU Publication 44 lung tissue. Good agreement was also found when the new lung tissue substitute was compared with the Griffith lung tissue substitute described by the ICRU. The new material was determined to be an excellent lung tissue substitute. PMID:17142822

  18. Hotspots of biased nucleotide substitutions in human genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Berglund

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes that have experienced accelerated evolutionary rates on the human lineage during recent evolution are candidates for involvement in human-specific adaptations. To determine the forces that cause increased evolutionary rates in certain genes, we analyzed alignments of 10,238 human genes to their orthologues in chimpanzee and macaque. Using a likelihood ratio test, we identified protein-coding sequences with an accelerated rate of base substitutions along the human lineage. Exons evolving at a fast rate in humans have a significant tendency to contain clusters of AT-to-GC (weak-to-strong biased substitutions. This pattern is also observed in noncoding sequence flanking rapidly evolving exons. Accelerated exons occur in regions with elevated male recombination rates and exhibit an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to the genomic average. We next analyzed genes with significantly elevated ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of base substitution (dN/dS along the human lineage, and those with an excess of amino acid replacement substitutions relative to human polymorphism. These genes also show evidence of clusters of weak-to-strong biased substitutions. These findings indicate that a recombination-associated process, such as biased gene conversion (BGC, is driving fixation of GC alleles in the human genome. This process can lead to accelerated evolution in coding sequences and excess amino acid replacement substitutions, thereby generating significant results for tests of positive selection.

  19. Structure and Infrared Radiation Properties of Substituted Cordierites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qing; SONG Chaowen; CHEN Wen; LIU Xiaofang; ZHANG Feng

    2006-01-01

    Zn2+ - or Ti4+ -substituted cordierites with the nominal compositions of Mg1.6 Zn0.4 Al4 Si5 O18 and Mg1.8 Ti0.2 Al4.4 Si4.6 O18 respectively, were prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method. The structure of the substituted cordierites was characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), infrared ( IR ) spectroscopy and 29 Si magic angle spinning ( MAS ) nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ). The infrared radiation properties were investigated in the bands within 2.5-25 μm. Compared with the un-substituted cordierite composition ( Mg2 Al4 Si5 O18 ), Zn2+ - or Ti4+ -substituted cordierites show superior infrared properties . XRD and IR results confirm the formation of hexagonal α-cordierite as the main crystal phase for the substituted cordierites. 29 Si MAS NMR result indicates that Zn2+ or Ti4+ substitutions for partial Mg2+ of a- cordierite promoted the ordering of the distribution of Al and Si atoms in T1 ( tetrahedra connecting six-membered rings together with [ MgO6 ] octahedra ) and T2 ( tetraheda forming six- membered rings ) tetrahedral sites. This resulted in a lattice deformation and increased the anharmonicity of polarization vibration, which is responsible for the improvement of infrared radiation properties of the substituted cordierites.

  20. The role of biomass in US industrial interfuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of biomass in US industrial interfuel substitution in the industrial sector has typically been analyzed using data for the four traditional fuels of coal, oil, electricity and natural gas. However, the use of biomass as an industrial fuel in the US has grown, and now exceeds that of coal. Using data from 1960 to 2011, interfuel substitution in the US industrial sector is modeled with a dynamic linear logit model which includes biomass alongside the other four traditional fuels. Adding biomass to the model reduces somewhat the estimated own-price and cross-price elasticities for the other four fuels, while revealing that biomass and natural gas are substitute fuels. This implies that previous studies excluding biomass may have overestimated the potential for interfuel substitution, giving policy makers an inaccurate impression of the ability of carbon taxes or other environmental regulation to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. - Highlights: • Biomass usage by the US industrial sector now exceeds coal usage. • Previous interfuel substitution studies have not included biomass as a fuel. • Linear logit model is used to examine role of biomass in interfuel substitution. • Including biomass in the model lowers estimated price elasticities for traditional fuels. • Biomass is found to be a substitute for natural gas for industrial users

  1. The radiological properties of a novel lung tissue substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung phantoms have been manufactured using commercially available, polyurethane foam products. Some of these materials are no longer available; therefore, a new lung tissue substitute was developed. The elemental composition and radiological properties of the new lung tissue substitute are described in this paper. Because the lung tissue substitute will be used to manufacture phantom lungs that will be used to evaluate chest counting systems, it is necessary to know the radiological properties of the material. These properties must be compared with reference materials and materials that have been used for lung phantoms in the past. The radiological properties of interest include the electron density, mean excitation energy, electron stopping power and photon mass attenuation coefficients. In all these properties, the calculated values for the new lung tissue substitute closely matched the calculated values of ICRU Publication 44 lung tissue. Good agreement was also found when the new lung tissue substitute was compared with the Griffith lung tissue substitute described by the ICRU. The new material was determined to be an excellent lung tissue substitute. (authors)

  2. Chromium and Tantalum Site Substitution Patterns in Ni3Al (L1(sub 2))gamma(prime)- Precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Morrison, Christopher; Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The site substitution behavior of Cr and Ta in the Ni3Al (Ll2)-type gamma'-precipitates of a Ni-Al-Cr-Ta alloy is investigated by atom-probe tomography (APT) and first-principles calculations. Measurements of the gamma'-phase composition by APT suggest that Al, Cr, and Ta share the Al sublattice sites of the gamma'-precipitates. The calculated substitutional energies of the solute atoms at the Ni and Al sublattice sites indicate that Ta has a strong preference for the Al sites, while Cr has a weak Al site preference. Furthermore, Ta is shown to replace Cr at the Al sublattice sites of the gamma'-precipitates, altering the elemental phase partitioning behavior of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ta alloy.

  3. Effect of sulfhydryls on potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by substituted anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various substituted anthraquinones (SAQ's) and Adriamycin (ADR) were investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. These drugs cause a potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality, albeit by different mechanisms. One possibility is that these components operate through the production of free radicals which then produce DNA strand breaks and crosslinks. If so, then one should be able to change the degree of cell kill by modifying sulfhydryl (SH) levels such that free radical processes are altered. Diamide, buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were used to reduce intracellular SH levels. Cysteamine and dithiotheitol were used to increase SH levels. In general, altered SH levels did not affect SAQ-induced cytotoxicity at low drug concentrations. When drug-tested cells were also irradiated, survival levels were generally those predicted from assuming purely additive interactions. On the other hand, survival after treatment with high concentrations of ADR and one other SAQ were decreased by concomitant treatment with NEM. Since altered SH levels do not produce changes in the potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by SAQs, it is concluded that free radicals are not involved in this potentiation. A free radical-mediated process may be involved in the cytotoxicity induced by ADR and other SAQs; however, it is not a simple process

  4. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  5. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  6. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  7. The impact of single substitutions on multiple sequence alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaere, Steffen; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2008-12-27

    We introduce another view of sequence evolution. Contrary to other approaches, we model the substitution process in two steps. First we assume (arbitrary) scaled branch lengths on a given phylogenetic tree. Second we allocate a Poisson distributed number of substitutions on the branches. The probability to place a mutation on a branch is proportional to its relative branch length. More importantly, the action of a single mutation on an alignment column is described by a doubly stochastic matrix, the so-called one-step mutation matrix. This matrix leads to analytical formulae for the posterior probability distribution of the number of substitutions for an alignment column.

  8. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...... of substitution and the final ad valorem anti-dumping duties....

  9. 2-Substituted 3β-Aryltropane Cocaine Analogs Produce Atypical Effects without Inducing Inward-Facing Dopamine Transporter Conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Weimin C; Kopajtic, Theresa A; Xu, Lifen; Lomenzo, Stacey A; Jean, Bernandie; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K; Trudell, Mark L; Katz, Jonathan L

    2016-03-01

    Previous structure-activity relationship studies indicate that a series of cocaine analogs, 3β-aryltropanes with 2β-diarylmethoxy substituents, selectively bind to the dopamine transporter (DAT) with nanomolar affinities that are 10-fold greater than the affinities of their corresponding 2α-enantiomers. The present study compared these compounds to cocaine with respect to locomotor effects in mice, and assessed their ability to substitute for cocaine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in rats trained to discriminate cocaine from saline. Despite nanomolar DAT affinity, only the 2β-Ph2COCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog fully substituted for cocaine-like discriminative effects. Whereas all of the 2β compounds increased locomotion, only the 2β-(4-ClPh)PhCOCH2-3β-4-Cl-Ph analog had cocaine-like efficacy. None of the 2α-substituted compounds produced either of these cocaine-like effects. To explore the molecular mechanisms of these drugs, their effects on DAT conformation were probed using a cysteine-accessibility assay. Previous reports indicate that cocaine binds with substantially higher affinity to the DAT in its outward (extracellular)- compared with inward-facing conformation, whereas atypical DAT inhibitors, such as benztropine, have greater similarity in affinity to these conformations, and this is postulated to explain their divergent behavioral effects. All of the 2β- and 2α-substituted compounds tested altered cysteine accessibility of DAT in a manner similar to cocaine. Furthermore, molecular dynamics of in silico inhibitor-DAT complexes suggested that the 2-substituted compounds reach equilibrium in the binding pocket in a cocaine-like fashion. These behavioral, biochemical, and computational results show that aryltropane analogs can bind to the DAT and stabilize outward-facing DAT conformations like cocaine, yet produce effects that differ from those of cocaine. PMID:26769919

  10. [Factors that alter taste perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, E R; Silva-Netto, C R

    1990-01-01

    Dysfunction of taste perception is a significant problem for many individuals. Taste anomalies may affect health not only by directly affecting liquid and solid food intake, but also by creating a state of depression due to the loss of an important source of pleasure. Many factors alter taste perception, such as lesions of the oral mucosa, cigarette smoking, radiation, chemotherapy, renal disease, hepatitis, leprosy, hormones, nutrition, use of dentures, medications, and aging. Gum or ice chewing may temporarily help loss of taste. Patients should be encouraged to chew their food thoroughly, alternating the sides of the mouth, or alternating different foods. Unfortunately, in many cases there is no cure for this alteration, and patience is then the only possibility.

  11. Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa and import substitution policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula F. Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the process of import substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa. The process of industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred in two phases: a first step, even very early during the colonial regime began around the 1920s and ended in the late forties; a second phase of industrialization began in the late fifties and gained momentum in the sixties, when import substitution was implemented more widely. Although these countries were the last to embark on the strategy of import substitution, they followed the same steps of Latin American countries, and as the structural domestic and external constraints were too strong, the failure of the policy of import substitution arrived early and the negative impact on these economies had a greater magnitude.

  12. 38 CFR 36.4287 - Substitution of trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including... appoint substitute trustees or other person with such power to sell, who shall succeed to all the...

  13. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world.

  14. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  15. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  16. Synthesis of library from amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentanes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Lundt, Inge; Andrews, Robert

    Based on radical induced carbocyclisation of unsaturated aldonolactones our group has elaborated procedures for the preparation of several amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentane derivatives [1]. These highly functionalized molecules are suitable for attachment to solid phase and subsequent parall...

  17. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching....

  18. Multiple Base Substitution Corrections in DNA Sequence Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, M.; Mackiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, D.; Nowicka, A.; Dudkiewicz, M.; Dudek, M. R.; Cebrat, S.

    We discuss the Jukes and Cantor's one-parameter model and Kimura's two-parameter model unability to describe evolution of asymmetric DNA molecules. The standard distance measure between two DNA sequences, which is the number of substitutions per site, should include the effect of multiple base substitutions separately for each type of the base. Otherwise, the respective tables of substitutions cannot reconstruct the asymmetric DNA molecule with respect to the composition. Basing on Kimura's neutral theory, we have derived a linear law for the correlation of the mean survival time of nucleotides under constant mutation pressure and their fraction in the genome. According to the law, the corrections to Kimura's theory have been discussed to describe evolution of genomes with asymmetric nucleotide composition. We consider the particular case of the strongly asymmetric Borrelia burgdorferi genome and we discuss in detail the corrections, which should be introduced into the distance measure between two DNA sequences to include multiple base substitutions.

  19. Reduction of magnetic interlayer coupling in barlowite through isoelectronic substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterding, Daniel; Valentí, Roser; Jeschke, Harald O.

    2016-09-01

    Materials with a perfect kagome lattice structure of magnetic ions are intensively sought after, because they may exhibit exotic ground states like a quantum spin liquid phase. Barlowite is a natural mineral that features perfect kagome layers of copper ions. However, in barlowite there are also copper ions between the kagome layers, which mediate strong interkagome couplings and lead to an ordered ground state. Using ab initio density functional theory calculations we investigate whether selective isoelectronic substitution of the interlayer copper ions is feasible. After identifying several promising candidates for substitution we calculate the magnetic exchange couplings based on crystal structures predicted from first-principles calculations. We find that isoelectronic substitution with nonmagnetic ions significantly reduces the interkagome exchange coupling. As a consequence, interlayer-substituted barlowite can be described by a simple two-parameter Heisenberg Hamiltonian, for which a quantum spin liquid ground state has been predicted.

  20. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  1. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China) and Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)], E-mail: h.y.ma@163.com; Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world.

  2. Long term substitution treatment (maintenance treatment of opioid dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirl, Charlotte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Methadone substitution treatment in Germany is introduced in 1988 in the framework of a scientific pilot study in North Rhein Westphalia. Recent statistics show that by now a broad offer of substitution treatment exists. From 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2003 113,000 substitution treatments have been recorded as being started of which around 56,000 have been recorded as ongoing treatments by 1 December 2003. Scientific background: Substitution treatment (treatment of opioid-dependent persons using substitution substances is one part of addiction treatment. Its goals are harm reduction and the stabilisation of opioid dependent persons. Integration of opioid-dependent persons in a treatment-setting, reduction of consumption of psychoactive substances, reduction of risk behaviour (primarily related to infectious diseases, decrease of mortality and improvements concerning the social, psychic and physic situation are seen as a success of substitution treatment as maintenance therapy. Research questions: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate which indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of substitution treatment. Based on these indicators an evaluation of the medical, social and economical benefit of substitution treatment - also in relation to abstinence oriented treatment - is carried out. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 31 international databases which yielded 2451 articles with publication date between 1995 and February 2005. Results: After a twofold selection process 32 publications were included for assessment and 276 publications were used as background literature. Despite serious restrictions due to selection bias and dropout in most studies focusing on substitution treatment, reduction of consumption of illegal opioids, reduction of risk behaviour, criminal behaviour, mortality and incidence of HIV can be seen as an empirically proven success of substitution treatment

  3. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified in.../she is regularly employed in a job requiring operation of a CMV, and that either: (2) He/she...

  4. Determination of Sodium in Salt Substitute by Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodney, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental procedures and typical student data/results are provided for an experiment determining the sodium (parts per million) in salt substitute with an error of a few percent. Problems encountered with the technique are addressed. (Author/JN)

  5. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  6. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  7. Patterns of nucleotides that flank substitutions in human orthologous genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuoran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence context is an important aspect of base mutagenesis, and three-base periodicity is an intrinsic property of coding sequences. However, how three-base periodicity is influenced in the vicinity of substitutions is still unclear. The effect of context on mutagenesis should be revealed in the usage of nucleotides that flank substitutions. Relative entropy (also known as Kullback-Leibler divergence is useful for finding unusual patterns in biological sequences. Results Using relative entropy, we visualized the periodic patterns in the context of substitutions in human orthologous genes. Neighbouring patterns differed both among substitution categories and within a category that occurred at three codon positions. Transition tended to occur in periodic sequences relative to transversion. Periodic signals were stronger in a set of flanking sequences of substitutions that occurred at the third-codon positions than in those that occurred at the first- or second-codon positions. To determine how the three-base periodicity was affected near the substitution sites, we fitted a sine model to the values of the relative entropy. A sine of period equal to 3 is a good approximation for the three-base periodicity at sites not in close vicinity to some substitutions. These periods were interrupted near the substitution site and then reappeared away from substitutions. A comparative analysis between the native and codon-shuffled datasets suggested that the codon usage frequency was not the sole origin of the three-base periodicity, implying that the native order of codons also played an important role in this periodicity. Synonymous codon shuffling revealed that synonymous codon usage bias was one of the factors responsible for the observed three-base periodicity. Conclusions Our results offer an efficient way to illustrate unusual periodic patterns in the context of substitutions and provide further insight into the origin of three

  8. Oral alterations among chemical dependents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vanessa COLODEL

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been daily observed a significant increase ofchemical dependent individuals, as well as the lack of depth on thisissue in the dentistry area. Nevertheless many times the dentalclinicians are the first professionals to diagnose possible alterations,which appear due to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs. Objectives: To make a literature review of oral alterations and to identify them on a specific group of persons, which are addicted to different types of drugs. Material and methods: The clinical history of the selected individuals was added to the answers of a questionnaire,comprising the data of the present research. Results: Besides other minor soft tissue alterations, a high prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases were found in the studied population. Conclusion: It was concluded that the role of the dental clinician is very important to the health rehabilitation of drug addicts, individuals with physical and mental disorders that need specific oral care, which sometimes is neglected.

  9. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  10. Bioethics for clinicians: 5. Substitute decision-making.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, N M; Greiner, G G; Robertson, G; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    Substitute decision-making is a means of making health care decisions on behalf of people who are incapable of making these decisions for themselves. It is based on the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. Substitute decision-making poses two main questions: Who-should make the decision for the incapable person, and, How should the decision be made? Because the applicable statutory and common law varies across Canada, clinicians should become familiar with the legal requirements of thei...

  11. Perspective on the substitution of electricity for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for substitution of electricity for oil are discussed. Current oil use in Canada and abroad is reviewed along with studies giving projections of future use. The author shows that electricity is in a position to adequately substitute for oil in most situations. While electricity comprised 34 percent of Canadian primary energy supply in 1979, it is expected to increase to 50 percent in 2000

  12. Dynamic Pricing and Inventory Control of Substitute Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lingxiu Dong; Panos Kouvelis; Zhongjun Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study dynamic pricing and inventory control of substitute products for a retailer who faces a long supply lead time and a short selling season. Within a multinomial logit model of consumer choice over substitutes, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming formulation and derive the optimal dynamic pricing policy. We prove that dynamic pricing converges to static pricing as inventory levels of all variates approach the number of remaining selling periods (assuming at most one customer arr...

  13. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    OpenAIRE

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see C...

  14. Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Michael; George S. Naufal

    2014-01-01

    Substitutes for marital sexual gratification may impact the decision to marry. Proliferation of the Internet has made pornography an increasingly low-cost substitute. We investigate the effect of Internet usage, and of pornography consumption specifically, on the marital status of young men. We show that increased Internet usage is negatively associated with marriage formation. Pornography consumption specifically has an even stronger effect. Instrumental variables and a number of robustness ...

  15. Strategic Thinking on Developing Petroleum Substitutes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The continual growth of Chinese economy indicates that the oil demand in China will maintain a strongly rising tendency in the future. With increasing oil consumption, the contradiction between supply and demand will become more and more serious, which can be resolved by developing petroleum substitutes. This paper analyzes different influence factors, displays the development trend and probes into the strategy in developing petroleum substitutes in China.

  16. Consequences of Pure Point Diffraction Spectra for Multiset Substitution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong-Yup; Moody, Robert V.; Solomyak, Boris

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing body of results in the theory of discrete point sets and tiling systems giving conditions under which such systems are pure point diffractive. Here we look at the opposite direction: what can we infer about a discrete point set or tiling, defined through a primitive substitution system, given that it is pure point diffractive? Our basic objects are Delone multisets and tilings, which are self-replicating under a primitive substitution system of affine mappings with a common...

  17. 2-Arylbenzoxazoles as CETP inhibitors: Substitution of the benzoxazole moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron J; Ali, Amjad; Chen, Liya; Hammond, Milton L; Anderson, Matt S; Chen, Ying; Eveland, Suzanne S; Guo, Qiu; Hyland, Sheryl A; Milot, Denise P; Sparrow, Carl P; Wright, Samuel D; Sinclair, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    A series of 2-arylbenzoxazole inhibitors of the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) is described. Structure-activity studies focused on variation of the substitution of the benzoxazole moiety. Substitution at the 5- and 7-positions of the benzoxazole moiety was found to be beneficial for CETP inhibition. Compound 47 was found to be the most potent inhibitor in this series and inhibited CETP with an IC(50) of 28nM.

  18. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Gascuel Olivier; Le Quang; Dang Cuong; Le Vinh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We p...

  19. Capacitively coupled electrical substitution for resistive bolometer enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Denoual, Matthieu; Delaunay, Sébastien; Allègre, Gilles; Robbes, Didier

    2009-01-01

    A new electrical substitution method for resistive bolometers is proposed to operate them in a closed-loop configuration. This method was implemented and evaluated with a resistive bolometer based on metallic layers over a 120 μm thick glass membrane. Based on an electrical substitution (ES) directly at the place of the resistive sensing element, the new method allows for space savings and a simplification of the technological manufacturing while maintaining the time response improvement link...

  20. Squirals and beyond: Substitution tilings with singular continuous spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The squiral inflation rule is equivalent to a bijective block substitution rule and leads to an interesting lattice dynamical system under the action of $\\mathbb{Z}^{2}$. In particular, its balanced version has purely singular continuous diffraction. The dynamical spectrum is of mixed type, with pure point and singular continuous components. We present a constructive proof that admits a generalisation to bijective block substitutions of trivial height on $\\mathbb{Z}^{d}$.

  1. A formal approach for correct-by-construction system substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Babin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The substitution of a system with another one may occur in several situations like system adaptation, system failure management, system resilience, system reconfiguration, etc. It consists in replacing a running system by another one when given conditions hold. This contribution summarizes our proposal to define a formal setting for proving the correctness of system substitution. It relies on refinement and on the Event-B method.

  2. The role of food substitutes in a token economy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D W; Wood, R L

    1987-06-01

    Data from five behaviour management (token economy) units were analysed for periods of 10-20 weeks before and after the use of a food substitute (Complan), provided when insufficient tokens had been earned to buy a full- or part-meal. The efficacy of this form of negative punishment to control disturbed and aggressive behaviour was examined. No evidence was found to suggest that the contingent use of a food substitute made any contribution to the therapeutic process. PMID:3651745

  3. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabellus Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT without UHMWPE particles (Group 1, WT with UHMWPE particles (Group 2, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles (Group 3, Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particles (Group 4, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles and calcitonin substitution (Group 5, and Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particle implantation and calcitonin substitution (Group 6. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine. Bone resorption was measured by bone histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was determined by counting the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP + cells. Results Bone resorption was significantly increased in Calca -/- mice compared with their corresponding WT. The eroded surface in Calca -/- mice with particle implantation was reduced by 20.6% after CT substitution. Osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in Calca -/- mice after particle implantation. Serum OPG (osteoprotegerin increased significantly after CT substitution. Conclusions As anticipated, Calca -/- mice show extensive osteolysis compared with wild-type mice, and CT substitution reduces particle-induced osteolysis.

  4. A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ, effective atomic number (Z eff , and effective electron density (N el must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ, Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes.

  5. A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H C

    2014-04-01

    The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), and effective electron density (N el) must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ), Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes. PMID:24872609

  6. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Guangfei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%. - Highlights: • We investigate the Zn/Ca ratios for the synthesis of zinc-substituted HA. • Zinc-substituted HA nanoparticles are used for electrophoretic deposition. • Adding triethanolamine and HCl may aid electrophoretic deposition. • Uniform dense coatings of zinc-substituted HA are obtained when Zn/Ca = 5%.

  7. Neutron kerma factors, and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad, 580003 (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The kerma factors and kerma relative to air and water of 24 compounds used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energy from 2.53 x 10{sup -8} up to 29 MeV. The kerma ratio of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated by the ratio of kerma factors of the tissue substitute to air and water respectively. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies 100 eV. Kerma ratio relative to the air for Poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon are found to be nearest to unity in very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV respectively. It was found that the natural rubber as a water equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the kerma factors in our investigation shows a very good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the kerma factors and kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds are approximately same, but differences are large for energies below 100 eV. (Author)

  8. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Kober

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and mature adipocytes were embedded in the fibrin hydrogel and were combined with another fibrin clot with fibroblasts for the construction of the dermal layer. Keratinocytes were added on top of the two-layered construct to form the epidermal layer. The three-layered construct was cultivated for up to 3 weeks. Our results show that ASCs and fibroblasts were viable, proliferated normally, and showed physiological morphology in the skin substitute. ASCs were able to differentiate into mature adipocytes during the course of four weeks and showed morphological resemblance to native adipose tissue. On the surface keratinocytes formed an epithelial-like layer. For the first time we were able to generate a three-layered skin substitute based on a fibrin hydrogel not only serving as a dermal and epidermal substitute but also including the hypodermis.

  9. In vitro osteoclast formation and resorption of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Robert J; Brooks, Roger A; Ueda, Masato; Best, Serena M

    2015-10-01

    Materials that participate in bone remodeling at the implant/tissue interface represent a modern tissue engineering approach with the aim of balancing implant resorption and nascent tissue formation. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) ceramics are capable of stimulating new bone formation, but little is known about their interaction with osteoclasts (OC). The effects of soluble silicate and SiHA on OCs were investigated in this study. Soluble silicate below 500 μM did not stimulate cell metabolism at 4 days or alter resorption area at 7 days on calcium phosphate discs. On sintered ceramics, OC numbers were similar on HA, Si0.3 HA (0.5 wt % Si) and Si0.5 HA (1.2 wt % Si) after 21 days in vitro, but actin ring sealing zone morphology on SiHA resembled that commonly found on bone or on carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA). Smaller and thicker actin rings on SiHA as compared to HA were probably the result of altered surface chemistry and solubility differences. The more stable sealing zones and increased lattice solubility likely contributed to increased individual pit volumes observed on Si0.5 HA. The delayed formation of OCs on Si0.5 HA (lower numbers at day 14) excludes earlier differentiation as a possible mechanism of increased individual OC pit volumes at later times (day 21). Materials characterization of Si containing biomaterials remains paramount as the Si type and amounts can subsequently impact downstream OC behaviour in a complex manner.

  10. Serine-to-Asparagine Substitution in the GyrA Gene Leads to Quinolone Resistance in Moxifloxacin-Exposed Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Jan; Gebert, Andreas; Solbach, Werner; Maass, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Quinolone resistance of Chlamydia pneumoniae has not been described previously. Serial subcultures of C. pneumoniae under increasing moxifloxacin concentrations (0.0125 to 6.4 mg/liter) resulted in a 256-fold MIC increase compared to moxifloxacin-naive strains. GyrA gene sequencing revealed a novel point mutation with a Ser→Asn substitution. Subcultures under rifalazil and macrolides did not alter the respective MICs.

  11. Noval 1-substituted-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazole derivatives: Synthesis and pharmacological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Hussain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several-1-carbothioamide-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 2a–d, 1-(pyridine-4-ylcarbonyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 3a–d, 1-(5-chloro-6-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazole-2-ylthiocarbamoyl-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 4a–d and 1-[(1,2,4-triazole-4-yl carbothioamide]-3,5-dimethyl-4-[(substituted phenyl diazenyl] pyrazoles 5a–d were synthesized. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were supported by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral data. These compounds were investigated for their, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, ulcerogenic, lipid peroxidation, antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity along with minimal ulcerogenic effect and lipid peroxidation, compared to ibuprofen and flurbiprofen. Some of the tested compounds also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against tested bacterial and fungal strains.

  12. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  13. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted.

  14. Altered Mental Status and Delirium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, Scott T; Ondrejka, Jason E

    2016-08-01

    Older patients who present to the emergency department frequently have acute or chronic alterations of their mental status, including their level of consciousness and cognition. Recognizing both acute and chronic changes in cognition are important for emergency physicians. Delirium is an acute change in attention, awareness, and cognition. Numerous life-threatening conditions can cause delirium; therefore, prompt recognition and treatment are critical. The authors discuss an organized approach that can lead to a prompt diagnosis within the time constraints of the emergency department. PMID:27475019

  15. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  16. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  17. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  18. Characteristics of Magnetic Properties of Substituted Hexagonal Ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jancarik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of barium hexaferrite BaFe12-2x(Me1Me2xO19 with x from 0.0 to 0.6 were prepared by variousmethods. The cationic preference of mainly divalent Me1 = Zn, Co, Ni, Sn ions and tetravalent Me2 = Ti, Zr, Ir, Sn, Ru ionsand their combinations in substituted Ba ferrites was investigated. The substitutions were performed to reduce the grain sizeand high magnetic uniaxial anisotropy field of the M-type Ba ferrite without affecting the magnetic polarisation. The goal isto reach the properties of ferrite proper for high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorption devices. Magneticproperties were determined as a function of the substitution level x. The specific saturation magnetic polarisation Js–m andremanence Js–rincreased with small x due to the substitution of non-magnetic and less magnetic ions in 4f1 and 4f2 sites. Thesteep decrease of coercivity Hc with increasing x may be caused by the Co2+ preference of 4f2 site and Ti4+or Zr4+ions preference of 2b and slightly in 4f1 sites. The temperature coefficient of the coercivity TKHc was very low (0.01kA.m-1.°C-1for the Co-Zr substitutions and positive for the rest of samples.

  19. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascuel Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

  20. Import Substitution as a Factor of Regional Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhanova Irina Fedorovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The current state of import substitution in Russia is considered. The authors’ definition is given to the concept of import substitution. The features of short-term and longterm strategies of import substitution are opened. The authors prove the need of diversification of the directions of foreign economic activity by reorientation of the foreign trade communications of Russia to the markets of the countries of CIS, the customs union and CES as well as the countries of the Asia Pacific region. The reasons of growth of import deliveries of foodstuff are opened. The comparative analysis of food consumption level in Russia is conducted. The food coefficients dependence on the most important food are calculated. The comparative analysis of productive indicators of domestic agricultural production with similar indicators of the foreign states is made. The strategies of import substitution for domestic agriculture taking into account its specifics and production potential, is offered. The assessment of potential of import substitution of Saratov region is presented. The priority actions on ensuring food security and growth of economy of the region are offered.

  1. Applications of fluid substitution effect analysis on seismic interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; WANG Shang-xu; CHUAI Xiao-yu; LIU Yong

    2016-01-01

    The root mean square (RMS) difference of time-lapse seismic amplitudes is routinely used to identify the substituted fluid type in a reservoir during oil field production and recovery. By a time-lapse seismic method, we study the effects of fluid substitution in a physical model, which is an analogy of the three-dimensional inhomogeneous reservoir. For a weak inhomogeneous medium, gas/oil substitution results in positive anomalies in the reservoir layers, and negative anomalies below the bottom of the reservoir layers; while water/oil substitution causes only weak variations in the reservoir layers, but positive anomalies below the bottom of the reservoir layers. For the strong inhomogeneous medium, no matter what kind of fluid substitution (gas/oil or water/oil), there are significant anomalies in seismic amplitude difference attributes both in and below the reservoir layers. Therefore, for weak inhomogeneous media, such as tight sandstone or thin interbedded layers, the RMS amplitude difference attributes can be used to monitor fluid changes and predict the drilling direction; for inhomogeneous medium with karst carves or fractures, it is difficult to accurately determine the distribution of fluids with the RMS amplitude difference attributes.

  2. An ethical facade? Medical students' miscomprehensions of substituted judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farr A Curlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied how well first-year medical students understand and apply the concept of substituted judgment, following a course on clinical ethics. METHOD: Students submitted essays on one of three ethically controversial scenarios presented in class. One scenario involved a patient who had lost decisional capacity. Through an iterative process of textual analysis, the essays were studied and coded for patterns in the ways students misunderstood or misapplied the principle of substituted judgment. RESULTS: Students correctly articulated course principles regarding patient autonomy, substituted judgment, and non-imposition of physician values. However, students showed misunderstanding by giving doctors the responsibility of balancing the interests of the patient against the interests of the family, by stating doctors and surrogates should be guided primarily by a best-interest standard, and by suggesting that patient autonomy becomes the guiding principle only when patients can no longer express their wishes. CONCLUSION: Students did not appear to internalize or correctly apply the substituted judgment standard, even though they could describe it accurately. This suggests the substituted judgment standard may run counter to students' moral intuitions, making it harder to apply in clinical practice.

  3. Alteration of GyrA Amino Acid Required for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in China▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yingmei; Guo, Lishuang; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Gu, Jiaao; Xu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xiaobei; Zhao, Yuehui; Ma, Jiayu; Liu, Xinghan; Zhang, Fengmin

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in 111 (48.1%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from China. GyrA alterations were identified in the ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. The results, including previously published data, indicate that the single substitution Ser83→Ile and three types of double mutations at Ser83 and Asp87 were required for ciprofloxacin resistance (P < 0.05).

  4. Metal-binding and redox properties of substituted linear and cyclic ATCUN motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Kosh P; Aldous, Amanda R; Kritzer, Joshua A

    2014-10-01

    The amino-terminal copper and nickel binding (ATCUN) motif is a short peptide sequence found in human serum albumin and other proteins. Synthetic ATCUN-metal complexes have been used to oxidatively cleave proteins and DNA, cross-link proteins, and damage cancer cells. The ATCUN motif consists of a tripeptide that coordinates Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions in a square planar geometry, anchored by chelation sites at the N-terminal amine, histidine imidazole and two backbone amides. Many studies have shown that the histidine is required for tight binding and square planar geometry. Previously, we showed that macrocyclization of the ATCUN motif can lead to high-affinity binding with altered metal ion selectivity and enhanced Cu(II)/Cu(III) redox cycling (Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 2729-2735). In this work, we synthesize and characterize several linear and cyclic ATCUN variants to explore how substitutions at the histidine alter the metal-binding and catalytic properties. UV-visible spectroscopy, EPR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry indicate that cyclization can promote the formation of ATCUN-like complexes even in the absence of imidazole. We also report several novel ATCUN-like complexes and quantify their redox properties. These findings further demonstrate the effects of conformational constraints on short, metal-binding peptides, and also provide novel redox-active metallopeptides suitable for testing as catalysts for stereoselective or regioselective oxidation reactions.

  5. Systematic Exploration of an Efficient Amino Acid Substitution Matrix: MIQS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, Kentaro; Yamada, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Amino acid sequence comparisons to find similarities between proteins are fundamental sequence information analyses for inferring protein structure and function. In this study, we improve amino acid substitution matrices to identify distantly related proteins. We systematically sampled and benchmarked substitution matrices generated from the principal component analysis (PCA) subspace based on a set of typical existing matrices. Based on the benchmark results, we identified a region of highly sensitive matrices in the PCA subspace using kernel density estimation (KDE). Using the PCA subspace, we were able to deduce a novel sensitive matrix, called MIQS, which shows better detection performance for detecting distantly related proteins than those of existing matrices. This approach to derive an efficient amino acid substitution matrix might influence many fields of protein sequence analysis. MIQS is available at http://csas.cbrc.jp/Ssearch/ . PMID:27115635

  6. Fibrous growth of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite and its drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of strontium on the crystallization of helical ribbon of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was investigated by single diffusion technique in silica gel matrix at 27 deg. C and physiological pH. Fibers of HAp were obtained on addition of strontium. The length of the HAp fibers, were found to decrease as the strontium substitution increases. The presence of strontium ion increased the crystallinity as well as crystallite size of HAp. The strontium substituted HAp (Sr-HAp) has similar stoichiometry to that of biological apatite. Sr-HAp was found to have increased surface area (35%) compared to control. Further, strontium substitution leads to an enhancement of in vitro bioactivity. The cumulative in-vitro amoxicillin drug release in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.2) showed a prolonged release profile for Sr-HAp.

  7. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    % by defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use......Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human...... and environmental exposure. Comparative pesticide substitution scenarios are presented to address this need. In a case study on wheat, different pesticides have been compared with respect to their substitution potential with focus on human health. Results demonstrate that health impacts can be reduced up to 99...

  8. Cohomology of One-dimensional Mixed Substitution Tiling Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gähler, Franz

    2011-01-01

    We compute the Cech cohomology with integer coefficients of one-dimensional tiling spaces arising from not just one, but several different substitutions, all acting on the same set of tiles. These calculations involve the introduction of a universal version of the Anderson-Putnam complex. We show that, under a certain condition on the substitutions, the projective limit of this universal Anderson-Putnam complex is isomorphic to the tiling space, and we introduce a simplified universal Anderson-Putnam complex that can be used to compute Cech cohomology. We then use this simplified complex to place bounds on the rank of the first cohomology group of a one-dimensional substitution tiling space in terms of the number of tiles.

  9. Caviar substitute produced from roes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Moron Machado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The caviar substitute is obtained from processed fish roe, resulting in a product similar to the authentic caviar, prepared with sturgeon roe. The objective of this study was to develop a caviar substitute from roes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four treatments were tested and we followed the steps of saline wash, drain, immersion in saline solution containing lactic acid for pH adjustment (4.3 to 4.5, salt addition (1.5 or 3%, traditional pasteurization or fast heat treatment, cooling and storage (0 to 4°C. The products were subjected to the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses and showed stability and safety for consumption up to 180 days in storage under refrigeration (0 to 4°C. Consumers showed preference for product containing 1.5% NaCl and subjected to fast heat treatment. The results suggest that caviar substitute developed with rainbow trout roes presents potential to production.

  10. Influence of hydroxyl substitution on flavanone antioxidants properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Anna; Chrzescijanska, Ewa; Latos, Malgorzata; Zaborski, Marian

    2017-01-15

    The aim of our study was to determine the effect of the position of the hydroxyl group on the antioxidant properties of flavonoid derivatives. For this purpose, we performed electrochemical analysis and quantum-mechanical calculations to describe the mechanisms of electrochemical oxidation, and we selected the two methods of ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate), which allowed us to determine the ability to scavenge free radicals. On the basis of the research, we found that the derivatives of flavonoids, which have a hydroxyl group substituted at the R-3 position on the C ring, have outstanding antioxidant activity. Flavone, which had an OH group substituted at the R-6 and R-7 position on the ring A, showed similar antioxidant activity to flavone without -OH groups in the structure and slightly higher activity than the di-substituted flavone on the ring A. PMID:27542504

  11. Capacitively coupled electrical substitution for resistive bolometer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electrical substitution method for resistive bolometers is proposed to operate them in a closed-loop configuration. This method was implemented and evaluated with a resistive bolometer based on metallic layers over a 120 µm thick glass membrane. Based on an electrical substitution (ES) directly at the place of the resistive sensing element, the new method allows for space savings and a simplification of the technological manufacturing while maintaining the time response improvement linked to a closed-loop operation. Compared to a previously available ES solution, this new method is applicable to all resistive bolometers. Time response and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated through measurements and compared for three operation configurations of the resistive bolometer: open loop, classical ES closed loop and with the proposed capacitively coupled electrical substitution (CCES) closed loop

  12. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  13. Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: Studies on the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Padma; Kumar, Subrahmanya K; Nair, Venugopalan S N

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). The study's strategy was to use modern phytochemical and pharmacological methods to test the two herbs for biochemical and metabolic similarities and differences, and literary studies to compare their Ayurvedic properties, a novel trans-disciplinary approach. No previous scientific paper has compared the two herbs' bioactivities or chemical profiles. Despite being taxonomically unrelated, the first choice, but relatively unavailable (Abhava) plant, A. heterophyllum, and its substitute (Pratinidhi) C. rotundus, are not only similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile, but also in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties. These observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Further research into the nature of raw drugs named could open up new areas of medicinal plant classification, linking chemistry and bioactivity. Understanding the logic behind the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) could lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage. PMID:21829299

  14. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  15. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  16. THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION AS A TRANSITION TO EXPORT ORIENTATION APC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolmachev A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of import substitution, import data and export resource features of the agrarian economy, through which you can generate significant competitive advantage are discussed. It is noted that the flight of the capital abroad creates jobs not for our economy, but for our competitors, that low interest rates on loans create obvious unequal starting opportunities throughout the domestic business. As a result the cost of imported food in value-chain terms reached in our country an enormous rate of $45 billion and that government realized the need of strengthening of food security, transferring of production of traditional kinds of products which form the basis of consumption of the population in our country, to the domestic market. It is noted that we need temporary moderate state protectionism and protection of the domestic market with the aim of modernizing the economy, attracting investors in the important field of production with high risks. The main problems and solutions that will help to further successful implementation of this strategy in the sectors of our economy are highlighted. It is proposed to establish a network of specialized information centers to support import substitution with a database of technological profiles of organizations. The author block diagram of the information support and import substitution is given. The importance of federal and regional programs functioning in the import substitution is noted. The author's plan for their implementation is given . Predictive modeling of short-term, medium-term and long-term positive and negative consequences of import substitution and export orientation are implemented. The authors stress that the substitution should be seen as a transition to export orientation of the agricultural economy.

  17. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehendale Nitin P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present scheme, we have an attempt to synthesize some novel benzimidazole derivatives by substituting triazole moiety at N-1 position of benzimidazole by fusion reaction of benzimidazole-1-acetic acid with thiocarbohydrazide. The substituted triazole was refluxed with different aromatic carboxylic acid in the presence of POCl3 yield different benzimidazole derivatives, respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds were screened for antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger activities.

  19. An Application of Heterogeneous Reactor Theory to Substitution Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interpretation of substitution experiments by heterogeneous theory avoids many difficulties which are typical of the homogenized treatment (as, for example, the determination of the coupling coefficients of the two zones). As a consequence it seems feasible to reduce sensibly the-number of substitutions necessary for many experiments. A suitable method for the determination of the fuel element parameters which enter into the heterogeneous theory will be discussed. There exists a direct relationship between these parameters and some quantities that can be measured in oscillation experiments. (author)

  20. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...

  1. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals in consumer products are subject to binding or voluntary phase-out agreements that are based on international treaties such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants or on regulatory frameworks such as the European Union's Registration, Evaluation, Authorization...... to similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...

  2. Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Y.; Shirono, H; Arisaka, O; K. Takahashi; Yagi, T; Koga, J; Kaji, H; Okimura, Y; ABE, H.; Tanaka, T; Chihara, K.

    1997-01-01

    Short stature caused by biologically inactive growth hormone (GH) is characterized by lack of GH action despite high immunoassayable GH levels in serum and marked catch-up growth to exogenous GH administration. We found a heterozygous single-base substitution (A-->G) in exon 4 of the GH-1 gene of a girl with short stature, clinically suspected to indicate the presence of bioinactive GH and resulting in the substitution of glycine for aspartic acid at codon 112. We confirmed the presence of mu...

  3. The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Savastano

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview This paper identifies the stylized facts and common features of recent currency substitution episodes in Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. It discusses the relationship between macroeconomic policies and the pattern of currency substitution in these countries and investigates the effects that the presence of foreign currency deposits had on their demand for domestic money and on their ability to conduct monetary and exchangh rate policy. The paper argues that the decision to allow foreign currency deposits in the domestic financial system tends to increase the inflationary impact of fiscal imbalances and exchange role adjustments and jeopardizes the susfainability of a managed exchange rate regime.

  4. Synthesis and antiulcer activity studies of 2-(1′-iminothioimido substituted-1′-substituted phenylbenzoic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subudhi B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain 2-(1′-iminothioimido substituted-1′-substituted phenybenzoic acids (P 1-9 were synthesized by reaction of phthalic anhydride with benzotriazole, 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 2-p-amino phenyl benzimidazole, respectively (A 1-3 followed by imine formation with Schiff bases of thiourea with salicylaldehyde, furfuraldehyde and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using reduction in total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index as parameters. Compounds P 3 , P 6 , P 7 and P 9 (100 mg/kg showed significant (P< 0.001 antiulcer action compared to control and omeprazole (40 mg/kg.

  5. Solid Phase Synthesis of Ethyl β-Substituted Indolepropionates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘占祥; 阮秀秀; 黄宪

    2003-01-01

    A facile solid phase synthesis of ethyl β-substituted indolepropionates is reported. Condensation between indole, polymer-supported cyclic malonic acid ester and aldehyde yielded the trimolecular adducts, which was cleaved by pyridine/EtOH to release the final products in good yield with high purity.

  6. 16 CFR 18.3 - Substitution of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to be construed as sanctioning the dissemination of an advertisement of an industry product or... substitution involved relates but to a product or products the total price of which is comparatively small, and... solicitation the industry member has a supply of such product or products sufficient to meet normal...

  7. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country. PMID:27603882

  8. 46 CFR 58.60-2 - Alternatives and substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY... substitute provides an equivalent level of safety. (b) In any case where it is shown to the satisfaction of... safety consistent with the minimum standards set forth in this subpart....

  9. Substitution rate and natural selection in parvovirus B19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Gorana G.; Ćirković, Valentina S.; Šiljić, Marina M.; Blagojević, Jelena V.; Knežević, Aleksandra M.; Joksić, Ivana D.; Stanojević, Maja P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate substitution rate and imprints of natural selection on parvovirus B19 genotype 1. Studied datasets included 137 near complete coding B19 genomes (positions 665 to 4851) for phylogenetic and substitution rate analysis and 146 and 214 partial genomes for selection analyses in open reading frames ORF1 and ORF2, respectively, collected 1973–2012 and including 9 newly sequenced isolates from Serbia. Phylogenetic clustering assigned majority of studied isolates to G1A. Nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA was 1.03 (0.6–1.27) x 10−4 substitutions/site/year, with higher values for analyzed genome partitions. In spite of the highest evolutionary rate, VP2 codons were found to be under purifying selection with rare episodic positive selection, whereas codons under diversifying selection were found in the unique part of VP1, known to contain B19 immune epitopes important in persistent infection. Analyses of overlapping gene regions identified nucleotide positions under opposite selective pressure in different ORFs, suggesting complex evolutionary mechanisms of nucleotide changes in B19 viral genomes. PMID:27775080

  10. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Egawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  11. Boron-nitrogen substituted perylene obtained through photocyclisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Behnle, Stefan; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Bettinger, Holger F

    2014-07-25

    A BN substituted hexabenzotriphenylene (B3N3) closes one C-C-bond upon irradiation with light of 280-400 nm in the presence of iodine to yield a phenanthrene annelated B3N3 tribenzoperylene. Upon hydrolysis a B2N2 dibenzoperylene is obtained. PMID:24905718

  12. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  13. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  14. Novel ceramic processing method for substitution of toxic plasticizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Teocoli, Francesca; Brodersen, K.;

    2016-01-01

    two other candidates did not require a co-plasticiser, such as a polyethylene glycol, thus simplifying the system and reducing the risk of unwanted cross-interactions. An effective and systematic procedure for substitution of the plasticiser, while maintaining chemical compatibility and mechanical...

  15. Substitution and defect chemistry of La-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper substitutional effects of strontium in La-Cu-O system and defects accommodating stoichiometric deviations is investigated. The extended shear defects are analyzed using electron microscopy and the role in superconducting transport properties has been examined by magnetic measurements. The initial results suggest that the defects enhance flux pinning

  16. The synthesis of some unsaturated 4-substituted-g-lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUREN HUSINEC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of conjugated and nonconjugated unsaturated 4-substituted lactones of type 1 and 2 are described. The type 1 lactone was prepared by a two step procedure employing Bredereck's reagent. The type 2 lactone was synthesised by combining the Claisen-Ireland rearrangement and selenolactonisation.

  17. Mossbauer study of chromium-substituted nickel ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and magnetic properties of the Cr substituted NiCrxFe1-xO4 (0=3+ concentration has been explained on the basis of the driven cation distribution and it showed that the chrome-rich compositions can be explained in terms of the non-collinear spin model

  18. The Transition States for CO2 Capture by Substituted Ethanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangarapu, S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Alhamed, Y.A.; Zuilhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical studies are used to understand the electronic and steric effects on the mechanisms of the reaction of substituted ethanolamines with CO2. SCS-MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p) calculations are used to obtain the activation energy barriers and reaction energies for both the carbamate and bicarbonat

  19. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207 Section 825.207 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY... FMLA leave. Employers may not discriminate against employees on FMLA leave in the administration...

  20. Heart failure after aortic valve substitution due to severe hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kim; Sørensen, Stine Heidenheim; Andersen, Niels Holmark;

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old female with considerable co-morbidities (Type 2 diabetes, Leiden factor V mutation, mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and a recent biological aortic valve substitution, who was admitted due to circulatory collapse caused by severe heart fail...

  1. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino ...

  2. UV action spectroscopy of protonated PAH derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klærke, Benedikte; Holm, Anne; Andersen, Lars Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Aims. We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of PAH derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods. The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3−C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215–338 nm spectral range...

  3. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the...

  4. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  5. Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-10-substituted Hymenialdisine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; WANG Yu; QIN Yong; SONG Hao

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel 2-phenyl-10-substituted hymenialdisine derivatives was synthesized via the microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the 2-phenyl derivative of hymenialdisine and boronic acid,which enabled the successful introduction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups to the 2-phenylhymenialdisine derivatives in good yields.

  6. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  7. Influence of N substitution on antimycobacterial activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Haemers, A; Leysen, D C; Bollaert, W; ZHANG, M.Q.; Pattyn, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin analogs with various substitutions on the piperazine nitrogen were tested against several mycobacteria. In contrast to what has been found with other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, alkyl analogs such as N-isopropylciprofloxacin were shown to be significantly more active than ciprofloxacin. MICs of 0.125 microgram/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found.

  8. 46 CFR 298.16 - Substitution of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION... substitute participants to a Mortgage and/or Security Agreement in a financing that is receiving assistance... Obligor and a proposed transferee of a Vessel or Shipyard Project, which is security for Title XI debt,...

  9. Synthesis of Substituted Titanocene Dichloride Derivatives by Hydrosilylation

    OpenAIRE

    Strašák, T. (Tomáš); Karban, J.; Červenková Šťastná, L. (Lucie); Maixnerová, L. (Lucie); Březinová, A. (Anna); de Bernard, M; Fajgar, R. (Radek)

    2014-01-01

    Substituted titanocene complexes have been prepared by hydrosilylation of organic substrates containing a terminal double bond by cyclopentadienyl complexes of titanium bearing a Si–H functional group. This new synthetic protocol is demonstrated by synthesis of mono-, bi- and trihomonuclear complexes. The structures of prepared compounds have been characterized by standard methods (NMR, IR, and HRMS).

  10. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish printing houses including the examination of more than 1000 MSDS’s (i.e. products). About 90 of the mapped substances are candidates for substitution according to Danish legislation (List of Undesirable Substances) and more that 20 of these substances...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... from palm oil.” The common or usual name for the triglyceride 1-3-distearoyl-2-olein is “cocoa butter substitute primarily from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil.” (1) The ingredient 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3... 1,2,3-triglycerides (derived from high-oleic safflower or sunflower oil) with ethyl stearate...

  12. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M

    2016-09-01

    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country.

  13. Triflyloxy-substituted carboranes as useful weakly coordinating anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Loren P; McCulloch, Billy J; Gu, Weixing; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Foxman, Bruce M; Ozerov, Oleg V

    2015-09-25

    New carborane anions carrying one or three triflyloxy substituents are described. The mono-triflyloxy substituted carborane can be halogenated to give pentabromo and decachloro derivatives with preservation of the B-OTf linkage. The use of [HCB11Cl10OTf](-) as a weakly coordinating anion is demonstrated. PMID:26251850

  14. Substitution af organiske opløsningsmidler med estre af

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Substitution of organic solvents, which are harmful to both man and environment, is often possible. Cleaning of machines in offset printing may to a large extent be performed with products, which are neither volatile nor toxic to man and environment. Apparently this experience may be transferred ...

  15. How Do Variable Substitution Rates Influence Ka and Ks Calculations?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dapeng Wang; Song Zhang; Fuhong He; Jiang Zhu; Songnian Hu; Jun Yu

    2009-01-01

    The ratio of nonsynonymous substitution rate(Ka)to synonymous substitution rate(Ks)is widely used as an indicator of selective pressure at sequence level among different species, and diverse mutation models have been incorporated into several computing methods. We have previously developed a new γ/-MYN method by capturing a key dynamic evolution trait of DNA nucleotide sequences, in consideration of varying mutation rates across sites. We now report a further improvement of NG, LWL, MLWL, LPB, MLPB, and YN methods based on an introduction of gamma distribution to illustrate the variation of raw mutation rate over sites. The novelty comes in two ways:(1)we incorporate an optimal gamma distribution shape parameter a into γ-NG, γ-LWL, γ-MLWL, γ-LPB, γ-MLPB, and γ-YN methods;(2)we investigate how variable substitution rates affect the meth-ods that adopt different models as well as the interplay among four evolutional features with respect to Ka/Ks computations. Our results suggest that variable substitution rates over sites under negative selection exhibit an opposite effect on ω estimates compared with those under positive selection. We believe that the sen-sitivity of our new methods has been improved than that of their original methods under diverse conditions and it is advantageous to introduce novel parameters for Ka/Ks computation.

  16. Porous titanium for bone substitution: mechanobiology meets surface science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin Yavari, S.

    2014-01-01

    People in both developing and developed worlds are increasingly facing musculoskeletal problems that require long-term clinical performance of orthopaedic implants including bone substitutes. Porous biomaterials could play an important role in improving the longevity and overall performance of orth

  17. Are news media substitutes? Gratifications, contents, and uses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Wurff

    2011-01-01

    Internet is generally expected to have one of two effects on traditional news media: It displaces them, or it forces them into distinct market niches. A shared assumption underlying both expectations is that news media displacement, or substitution, is a function of the degree to which news media ar

  18. On Homogeneous Production Functions with Proportional Marginal Rate of Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Daniela Vîlcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We completely classify homogeneous production functions with proportional marginal rate of substitution and with constant elasticity of labor and capital, respectively. These classifications generalize some recent results of C. A. Ioan and G. Ioan (2011 concerning the sum production function.

  19. 76 FR 41685 - Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AH02 Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538 AGENCY: Social Security... our use of electronic case processing at the initial and reconsideration levels of our...

  20. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  1. Effect of alkyl substitutions on self-assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The self-assemblies of 4-hexadecyloxybenzoic acid and 3,4,5-trihexadecyloxybenzoic acid have been studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The well-ordered assemblies with different arrangement have been investigated. The structural change is attributed to the different number of substituted alkyl chains on periphery.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterizations of Ti substituted Mn-ferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y., E-mail: nmost69@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Hessien, M.M. [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Advanced materials Division-Central metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Shaltout, Abdallah A. [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesized of well-crystallized Ti-substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at 180 Degree-Sign C without any calcination step. The chemical composition was represented by Mn{sub 1-2x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x having values 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in lattice parameter and saturation magnetization with increasing Ti-substitution was investigated and explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in microstructure due to Ti{sup 4+} ions substitutions was investigated using TEM analysis. - Abstarct: A series of well-crystallized Mn{sub 1-2x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with x values of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 have been synthesized by hydrothermal route at 180 Degree-Sign C in the presence of NaOH as mineralizer. The obtained ferrite samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis showed that pure single phases of cubic ferrites were obtained with x up to 0.2. However, samples with x > 0.2 showed traces of unreacted anatase. The increase in Ti-substitution up to x = 0.2 leads to an increase in the lattice parameter of the prepared ferrites. On the other hand, the increase in Ti-substitution over x = 0.2 leads to a decrease in the lattice parameter. The average crystallite size was in the range of 39-57 nm, where it is increased by increasing the Ti-substitution up to x = 0.3, then decreased for x = 0.4. According to VSM results, the saturation magnetization increased with Ti ion substitution of x = 0.1 and decreased for x > 0.1.

  3. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  4. Protamine alterations in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Meritxell; Oliva, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Protamines are the major nuclear proteins in sperm cells, having a crucial role in the correct packaging of the paternal DNA. The fact that protamine haploinsufficiency in mice resulted in abnormal chromatin packaging and male infertility suggested that the protamines could also be important candidates in explaining some of the idiopathic male infertility cases in humans. The first clinical studies focused on analyzing protamines at the protein level. Various studies have found the presence of an altered amount of protamines in some infertile patients, in contrast to the normal situation in fertile individuals where the two protamines, protamine 1 and protamine 2, are both present in approximately equal quantities. Subsequently, the protamine genes were the subject of various mutational genetic screening studies in search of variants that could be associated with deregulation in the protamine expression observed. The results of these protamine mutational studies showed that the presence of high penetrant mutations is a very rare cause of male infertility. However, some variants and some haplotypes described may behave as risk factors for male infertility. More recently, the presence of RNA in the mature sperm cell has also been investigated. The present chapter will introduce the basic aspects of protamine evolution and function and review the various articles published to date on the relationship between the protamines studied at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels and male infertility. PMID:23955674

  5. Limits to the rate of adaptive substitution in sexual populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Weissman

    Full Text Available In large populations, many beneficial mutations may be simultaneously available and may compete with one another, slowing adaptation. By finding the probability of fixation of a favorable allele in a simple model of a haploid sexual population, we find limits to the rate of adaptive substitution, Λ, that depend on simple parameter combinations. When variance in fitness is low and linkage is loose, the baseline rate of substitution is Λ₀ = 2NU , where N is the population size, U is the rate of beneficial mutations per genome, and is their mean selective advantage. Heritable variance v in log fitness due to unlinked loci reduces Λ by e⁻⁴(v under polygamy and e⁻⁸ (v under monogamy. With a linear genetic map of length R Morgans, interference is yet stronger. We use a scaling argument to show that the density of adaptive substitutions depends on s, N, U, and R only through the baseline density: Λ/R = F (Λ₀/R. Under the approximation that the interference due to different sweeps adds up, we show that Λ/R ~(Λ₀/R / (1 +2Λ₉/R , implying that interference prevents the rate of adaptive substitution from exceeding one per centimorgan per 200 generations. Simulations and numerical calculations confirm the scaling argument and confirm the additive approximation for Λ₀/R ~ 1; for higher Λ₀/R , the rate of adaptation grows above R/2, but only very slowly. We also consider the effect of sweeps on neutral diversity and show that, while even occasional sweeps can greatly reduce neutral diversity, this effect saturates as sweeps become more common-diversity can be maintained even in populations experiencing very strong interference. Our results indicate that for some organisms the rate of adaptive substitution may be primarily recombination-limited, depending only weakly on the mutation supply and the strength of selection.

  6. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Property of Cerium Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yingguang; Yang Zhuoru; Cheng Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and cerium substituted hydroxyapatite (CeHAP) with the atomic ratio of Ce/[Ca+Ce] (xCe) from 0 to 0.2 were prepared by sol-gel-supercritical fluid drying (SCFD) method. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR, and the effects of cerium on crystal structure, crystallinity, and particle shape were discussed. With the tests of bacterial inhibition zone and antibacterial ratio, the antibacterial property of HAP and CeHAP nanoparticles on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus were researched. Results showed that the nanoparticles of HAP and CeHAP could be made by sol-gel-SCFD, cerium could partially substitute for calcium and enter the structure of HAP. After substitution, the crystallinity, the IR wavenumbers of bonds in CeHAP decreased gradually with increase of cerium substitution, and the morphology of the nanoparticles changed from the short rod-shaped HAP to the needle-shaped CeHAP. The nanoparticles of HAP and CeHAP with xCe below 0.08 had antibacterial property only forcibly contacting with the test bacteria at the test concentration of 0.1 g·ml-1, however, the CeHAP nanoparticles had antibacterial ability at that concentration no matter statically or dynamically contacting with the test bacteria when xCe was above 0.08, and the antibacterial ability gets better with the increase of xCe, indicating that the antibacterial property was improved after calcium was partially substituted by cerium. The improved antibacterial effects of CeHAP nanoparticle on Lactobacillus showed its potential ability to anticaries.

  8. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  9. Rural Electric Network Alteration Spurs Cable Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Most aluminum cable enterprises in Yunnan and Zhejiang focus their production capacity on overhead cables needed in rural electric network alteration. During the 12th Five-Year Plan period, China launched the rural electric network alteration & upgrade project. As of the middle of 2011, the budget of the central government for the rural electric network alteration & upgrade project planned by the National Development and Reform Commission has reached up to RMB 64.96 billion.

  10. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maika Genz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  11. Effects of substituting yellow corn for sorghum in geese diets on magret and foie gras quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J; Auvergne, A; Dubois, J P; Lavigne, F; Bijja, M; Bannelier, C; Manse, H; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to study the effects of substitution of yellow corn with sorghum during the growing-finishing (G period), overfeeding (O period), or both periods on magret and foie gras quality in geese. In total, 260 ganders were divided into 4 groups (65 birds in each) differing in the cereal (yellow corn or sorghum) included in the diet given during the G and the O periods, using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The groups differed in the nature of the cereal in the diet offered to birds between 44 and 104 d of age (G period: a diet containing 500 g of sorghum/kg (SS and SC groups) or a diet containing 500 g of yellow corn/kg (CS and CC groups). The groups differed also in the diet offered to birds between 105 and 120 d of age (O period): 967 g of yellow corn/kg (SC and CC groups) or 965 g of sorghum/kg (SS and CS groups). At the end of the O period, the birds were slaughtered after 10 h of fasting to measure foie gras and breast muscle weight, color, and chemical composition. The mortality in the SC group was higher (P foie gras that were heavier 984 vs. 885 g, in CS+SS vs. CC+SC groups, respectively; P foie gras, but altered its color to a paler yellow. In contrast, a substitution during the G period only (SC group) resulted in increased mortality during the O period.

  12. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchetti Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Base Substitutions (SBS that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. Methods We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing, and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT, i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. Results In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST, i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC, healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. Conclusion If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic.

  13. Tusk or Bone? An Example of Ivory Substitute in the Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sims

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone carvings (and other ivory substitutes are common in the modern-day lucrative international ivory trade.  Souvenirs for unknowing travelers and market shoppers can be made of non-biological material (plastic "ivory" beads or skillfully crafted natural objects made to resemble something other than their true origin.  Many of these items are received at the U. S. National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory (NFWFL for species identification as part of law enforcement investigations.  Morphologists at the Lab often receive uniquely carved ivory items that have been imported with little or no documentation.  In recent years, analysts examined several purported ivory tusks suspected to be walrus, a protected marine mammal.  After examination, the Lab determined their origin as carved leg bones of cattle using principles and methods of zooarchaeology and ancient DNA analysis.  The naturally long and straight ungulate metapodials had been cut, carved, filled, stained, and polished to closely resemble unmodified ivory tusks.  Morphological species identification of these bones proved to be a challenge since diagnostic characters of the bones had been altered and country of origin was unknown. Genetic analysis showed that the bones originated from cattle.  While bone is commonly used as a substitute for ivory, this style of artifact was not previously documented in the wildlife trade prior to our analysis.  Archaeological ethnobiologists commonly encounter bone tools and other forms of material culture from prehistoric and historic contexts; in this case bone tools come from a modern context, thus the application of methods common in zooarchaeology are situated in wildlife forensics.  In addition, results reported here pertain to cross-cultural ivory trade and conservation science.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-connect, and therefore they may be used. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning—Unacceptable Substitutes End... the limitations on HFC-236fa acceptability by taking the following measures: (i) conduct an evaluation... Systems.Users should observe the limitations on PFC acceptability by taking the following measures:...

  15. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  16. Flavor-enhancing properties of mushrooms in meat-based dishes in which sodium has been reduced and meat has been partially substituted with mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrdal Miller, A; Mills, K; Wong, T; Drescher, G; Lee, S M; Sirimuangmoon, C; Schaefer, S; Langstaff, S; Minor, B; Guinard, J-X

    2014-09-01

    The effects of beef substitution with crimini or white mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) on the flavor profiles of carne asada and beef taco blends were measured with a descriptive analysis panel. Sensory mitigation of sodium reduction through the incorporation of mushrooms was also investigated in the taco blends. The substitution of beef with mushrooms in the carne asada did not alter the overall flavor strength of the dish, but the incorporation of 50% or 80% ground mushroom in the beef taco blend did enhance its overall flavor as well as mushroom, veggie, onion, garlic and earthy flavors, and umami and sweet tastes. Overall flavor intensity of the 25% reduced-salt version of the 80% mushroom taco blend matched that of the full-salt versions of the 100% and 50% beef formulations, thus indicating that the substitution of 80% of the meat with mushrooms did mitigate the 25% sodium reduction in terms of the overall flavor impact of the dish, even if it did not quite compensate for the reduction in salty taste. This proof-of-concept study for the Healthy Flavors Research Initiative indicates that because of their flavor-enhancing umami principles, mushrooms can be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium reduction in meat-based dishes without loss of overall flavor.

  17. Alteration of Terminal Heterochromatin and Chromosome Rearrangements in Derivatives of Wheat-Rye Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shulan Fu; Zhenling Lv; Xiang Guo; Xiangqi Zhang; Fangpu Han

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-rye addition and substitution lines and their self progenies revealed variations in telomeric heterochromatin and centromeres.Furthermore,a mitotically unstable dicentric chromosome and stable multicentric chromosomes were observed in the progeny of a Chinese Spring-Imperial rye 3R addition line.An unstable multicentric chromosome was found in the progeny of a 6R/6D substitution line.Drastic variation of terminal heterochromatin including movement and disappearance of terminal heterochromatin occurred in the progeny of wheatrye addition line 3R,and the 5RS ditelosomic addition line.Highly stable minichromosomes were observed in the progeny of a monosomic 4R addition line,a ditelosomic 5RS addition line and a 6R/6D substitution line.Minichromosomes,with and without the FISH signals for telomeric DNA (TTTAGGG)n,derived from a monosomic 4R addition line are stable and transmissible to the next generation.The results indicated that centromeres and terminal heterochromatin can be profoundly altered in wheat-rye hybrid derivatives.

  18. Spectral Properties of Substituted Coumarins in Solution and Polymer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Donovalová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1 by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH32, mainly, but not exclusively, in positions 7 and (2, by either CHO or 4-PhNHCONHN=CH- in position 3. While the spectra of non-substituted coumarin-3-carbaldehyde has absorptions at approximately 305 and 350 nm, substitution at position 7 leads to remarkable changes in the shape of the absorption spectrum and shifts the absorption to a longer wavelength. Similarly, the replacement of the formyl group with a semicarbazide group substantially influences the shape of the absorption spectrum, and coumarins which have only N(CH32 in position 7 experience small changes. These changes are associated with the increasing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT character and increasing conjugation length of the chromophoric system, respectively, in the studied molecules. The fluorescence is almost negligible for derivatives which have H in this position. With increasing electron donating ability, and the possibility of a positive mesomeric (+M effect of the substituent in position 7 of the coumarin moiety, the fluorescence increases, and this increase is most intense when N(CH32 substitutes in this position, for both 3-substituted derivatives. Spectral measurements of the studied coumarins in polymer matrices revealed that the absorption and fluorescence maxima lay within the maxima for solvents, and that coumarins yield more intense fluorescence in polymer matrices than when they are in solution. The quantum yield of derivatives which have a dimethylamino group in position 7 in polymer matrices approaches 1, and the fluorescence lifetime is within the range of 0.5–4 ns. The high quantum yield of 7-dimethylamino derivatives qualifies them as laser dyes which have kF higher than knr in the given medium. This

  19. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  20. Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials to improve the Working Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience......Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience...

  1. Effect of nickel substitution on thermal properties of Na0.9CoO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Meena Devi; N Gayathri; A Bharathi; K Ramachandran

    2007-08-01

    We report on the effect of nickel substitution in Na0.9CoO2 by examining their thermal properties at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced upon nickel substitution in sodium cobaltate.

  2. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    2-substituted hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine analogues were synthesized starting from N,N?-dibenzyl-1,3-propylene diamine and methyl-2,3-dibromo propionate through nucleophilic substitution, reduction, chlorination and debenzylation.

  3. On the Topological Orbit Equivalence in a Class of Substitution Minimal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yuasa, Hisatoshi

    2002-01-01

    We give numerical, complete invariants for topological orbit equivalence and Kakutani orbit equivalence in a class of substitution systems arising from primitive substitutions whose composition matrices have rational Perron-Frobenius eigenvalues.

  4. L-Proline Catalyzed Solvent-Free Knoevenagel Condensation for the Synthesis of 3-Substituted Coumarins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KARADE Nandkishor. N.; GAMPAWAR Sumit V.; SHINDE Sandeep. V.; JADHAV Wamanrao. N.

    2007-01-01

    L-Proline was utilized as an efficient organo-catalyst for the environmentally benign synthesis of 3-substituted coumarins by the Knoevenagel condensation of substituted 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes with reactive methylene compounds under solvent free conditions.

  5. Biotransformation and Biodegradation of N-Substituted Aromatics in Methanogenic Granular Sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razo Flores, E.

    1997-01-01

    N-substituted aromatic compounds are environmental contaminants associated with the production and use of dyes, explosives, pesticides and pharmaceuticals among others. Nitro- and azo-substituted aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups are poorly biodegradable in aerobic treatment

  6. Large-scale codon de-optimisation of the p29 replicase gene by synonymous substitutions causes a loss of infectivity of melon necrotic spot virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Atsushi; Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Tsuda, Shinya; Ohki, Satoshi T

    2013-09-01

    The effect of synonymous substitutions in the melon necrotic spot virus p29 replicase gene on viral pathogenicity was investigated. The codons in the p29 gene were replaced by the least frequently used synonymous codons in Arabidopsis thaliana or melons. Mechanical inoculation of melon with p29 variants resulted in a loss of viral infectivity when all, one-half, or one-quarter of the gene was de-optimised. The effect of the de-optimisation in one-sixth of the gene was different depending on the de-optimised region. These results demonstrate that large-scale codon bias de-optimisation without amino acid substitutions of the p29 gene alter viral infectivity.

  7. Time dependent density functional study of the absorption spectra of 1,3-benzoxazole and three substituted benzoxazole in gas phase and liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasquilla, Rafael J; Neira, Oscar L, E-mail: rjcarrasquilla@yahoo.com [Grupo de Espectroscopia Optica y Laser, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Valledupar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Time dependent density functional (TD-DFT) calculations were performed on 1,3-benzoxazole and substituted benzoxazoles using the B3LYP functional and the 6-31+G(d) basis sets. The geometry of the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} singlet ground and excited states were optimized in gas phase, toluene and methanol using B3LYP/6-31+G(d) y CIS/6-31+G(d) methods, respectively, and the vertical {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup *} absorption largest wavelength transitions were determined. Several global molecular descriptors were considered such as the hardness, chemical potential, electronegativity and the dipole moment for each molecule and was determined the influence that has, about the values of these descriptors, the alteration of the main molecular chain of an initial structure (1,3 not substituted Benzoxazole). Generally, the predicted spectra are in agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Activity of C-7 substituted cyclic acetal derivatives of mitomycin C and porfiromycin against hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, S; Keyes, S R; Loomis, R; Kelley, M; Vyas, D M; Wong, H; Doyle, T W; Sartorelli, A C

    1991-06-01

    A series of cyclic acetal derivatives of mitomycin C (MC) and porfiromycin (POR) were tested for their ability to kill hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 tumor cells. Amino methyl acetal and thioacetal substitutions at C-7 of MC and POR dramatically increased the cytotoxicity of the compounds to hypoxic EMT6 tumor cells in vitro but had little effect on the aerobic toxicities. In contrast, a methyl substitution at N1a markedly decreased the aerobic cytotoxicities of the compounds but did not alter the hypoxic cytotoxicities. The POR acetal, BMY-42355, had the largest differential between hypoxic and aerobic cytotoxicities yet observed among MC analogs. Preliminary studies in mice showed that BMY-42355 had good antineoplastic activity when used alone or in combination with radiation and was less toxic than POR; the therapeutic ratio of this compound in these initial studies was higher than those of either MC or POR. PMID:2049227

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    CERN Document Server

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  10. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    can be replaced with monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils (VOFA). The paper describes the selection of other industrial cleaning or degreasing processes where VOC could be replaced by VOFA. Manual degreasing and cleaning processes in metal industry, maintenance and repair of vehicles......Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing......, and industrial coating processes are likely candidates for substitution of VOC with VOFA. Requirements to the resulting surfaces may, however, hinder the replacement. This is especially important when the surface has to be coated in a subsequent step....

  11. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan, E-mail: xiedan@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling, E-mail: xiedan@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: RenTL@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhao, Yonggang [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-14

    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  12. 3D Printing of Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Mironov, Anton V; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Teterina, Anastasia Yu; Smirnov, Igor V; Bozo, Ilya Y; Rybko, Vera A; Deev, Roman V

    2015-01-01

    Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here, we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates (OCP) in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed OCP blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed OCP bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect's diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  13. Effects of metastability on hydrogen sorption in fluorine substituted hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatel, E.R.; Corno, M.; Ugliengo, P.; Baricco, M., E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.it

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine substitution in simple metal hydrides has been modelled. • The stability of the MH{sub (1−x)}F{sub x} solid solutions has been discussed. • Conditions for reversibility of sorption reactions have been suggested. - Abstract: In this work ab initio calculations and Calphad modelling have been coupled to describe the effect of fluorine substitution on the thermodynamics of hydrogenation–dehydrogenation in simple hydrides (NaH, AlH{sub 3} and CaH{sub 2}). These example systems have been used to discuss the conditions required for the formation of a stable hydride–fluoride solid solution necessary to obtain a reversible hydrogenation reaction.

  14. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  15. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lakshmi Kantam Mannepalli; Venkanna Dupati; Swarna Jaya Vallabha; Manorama Sunkara V

    2013-11-01

    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). The heterogeneous catalyst afforded moderate to good yields (∼ 50-60 %) of substituted guanidines in toluene at 110°C in 12 h. The catalyst was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for three cycles with consistent activity. The XRD and FTIR studies of the used catalyst shows no variation in the structure of the catalyst even after three recycles.

  16. Energy substitution game under the supply capacity restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhuo; Chen Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with Chinese economic growth, energy plays a more and more important role in the national economy. The imbalance between insufficient energy supply and huge energy demand has become a major problem in energy utilization, and energy substitution is attracting more and more attention as a key to the sustainable and sound development of Chinese economy. Explored the possibilities of the mutual substitution of the two types of energy with different functions with game theory in light of the supply capacity. As a con-clusion, there are four equilibrium results corresponding to different levels of supply capac-ity. Subsequently, we carry on the study further by numerical simulation, investigate in one group of results most close to Chinese energy status and find the equilibrium price as well as the demand variation pattern.

  17. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY OF POLYFLUORINATED GROUP SUBSTITUTED POLYTHIOPHENES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xuqing; SHEN Xueming; YANG Shiyong; LU Wei; ZHANG Jingyun

    1996-01-01

    Electrochemical polymerization of 3-fluoroalkoxy and 3-fluoroether thiophenes gives polymers with relatively high molecular weights and good processibility . Investigation of these polymers by means of GPC indicates that an increase in the number of fluorine atoms in the fluorinated group results in a decrease in degree of polymerization of the polymers in the same polythiophene series. As shown by NMR and FTIR, the polyfluorinated group substituted polythiophenes have regular 2, 5-coupling in their main chains.The SEM micrographs of the polymer films exhibit that polymer (1)-poly [3-2, 2, 3, 3-tetrafluoro-propoxy) thiophene] possesses more regular structure than the other polymers do. Substitution of polythiophenes by fluorinated groups leads to the polymers with high electric, electrochemical and thermal stability.

  18. Erfaringer med substitution af PVC ved renere teknologi og brancheaftaler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    Rapporten gennemgår den danske debat om PVC og de miljøpolitiske tiltag, der har været gennemført. Et survey i danske plastvirksomheder gennemført i projektet viser, at industrien er forberedt på at gennemføre en omfattende substitution af PVC, hvis der stilles politisk krav om det eller markedet...... efterspørger det. Til gengæld viser brancheaftalerne sig at være et svagt instrument og der peges på et behov for en opfølgning af de gode resultater, der er opnået med substitution af PVC i en række renere teknologi projekter, som har fået statslig støtte....

  19. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaun, C.C.; Larade, B.; Mehrez, H.;

    2002-01-01

    We report ab initio analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen substitution doping. For zigzag semiconducting tubes, doping with a single N impurity increases current flow and, for small radii tubes, narrows the current gap. Doping a N impurity per nanotube...... unit cell generates a metallic transport behavior. Nonlinear I-V characteristics set in at high bias and a negative differential resistance region is observed for the doped tubes. These behaviors can be well understood from the alignment/mis-alignment of the current carrying bands in the nanotube leads...... due to the applied bias voltage. For a armchair metallic nanotube, a reduction of current is observed with substitutional doping due to elastic backscattering by the impurity....

  20. Detailed assessment of homology detection using different substitution matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Homology detection plays a key role in bioinformatics, whereas substitution matrix is one of the most important components in homology detection. Thus, besides the improvement of alignment algorithms, another effective way to enhance the accuracy of homology detection is to use proper substitution matrices or even construct new matrices.A study on the features of various matrices and on the comparison of the performances between different matrices in homology detection enable us to choose the most proper or optimal matrix for some specific applications. In this paper, by taking BLOSUM matrices as an example, some detailed features of matrices in homology detection are studied by calculating the distributions of numbers of recognized proteins over different sequence identities and sequence lengths. Our results clearly showed that different matrices have different preferences and abilities to the recognition of remote homologous proteins. Furthermore, detailed features of the various matrices can be used to improve the accuracy of homology detection.

  1. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan

    2010-10-20

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic...

  3. Factors influencing pallet material substitution by the U.S. grocery distribution industry

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Catherine Anna

    1994-01-01

    Persons involved in pallet decisions at U.S. grocery distribution centers were surveyed to investigate the degree of material substitution, assess factors influencing pallet material substitution, and quantify consumer perceptions of wood pallets compared to substitutes. A total of 444 questionnaires were mailed nationwide. Underlying reasons for material substitution were investigated through in-depth interviews with 20 respondents. Cost per use was considered by grocery...

  4. Reactivity and Regioselectivity in the Heck Reaction - A Hammett Study of 4-Substituted Styrenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Le Quement, Sebastian; Tanner, David Ackland;

    2004-01-01

    substitution under the reaction conditions and, thus, unsuitable for Hammett plots. Mechanistically meaningful graphs were obtained by combination of the measured initial branching ratio with the approximately constant substrate reactivity. For the alpha-substitution a clear Hammett relation is observed......, whereas beta-substitution does not depend on electronic effects. This implies that, for alpha-substitution, the slow step of the addition is an electrophilic attack by Pd(II) on the double bond, followed by a rapid migratory insertion....

  5. A Synthetic Approach of New Trans-Substituted Hydroxylporphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Daphnomili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new trans A2B2-substituted porphyrins bearing oxygenic substituent (methoxy, acetoxy, hydroxy at the periphery of the ring are described. All of the synthesized products were characterized by H-N.M.R., C-N.M.R., and H.R.M.S. Electrochemical studies revealed two one-electron oxidations and two reductions. In addition, the X-ray structure of one methoxy-derivative was determined.

  6. Substitutional effect of magnetic behaviour in calcium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, C. S.; Nanoti, V. M.; Kulkarni, D. K.; Rao, G. M.

    1995-02-01

    Three hexaferrites CaFe 4Me 8O 19 (Me  Al, Cr, or Co) are prepared and found to have M-structure. The substitution of Al +3 or Cr +3 ions in the lattice reduces the magnetization, whereas Co +3 enhances it with higher Curie temperature. These differences are explained on the basis of exchange interactions within the sub-lattices. Static electrical resistivity of the samples is also studied and results show that they are semiconductors.

  7. Newspaper and internet display advertising: Co-existence or substitution?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Newspapers have been experiencing declining circulation figures and diminishing advertising revenues for several years – both effects might pose a threat to the continuing existence of (print) newspapers. In an earlier paper, Lindstädt & Budzinski (2011) argued from a theoretical viewpoint that industry-specific patterns exist that determine substitution or complementation effects between internet and newspaper advertising. It was argued that retail advertising, in particular, may offer a nic...

  8. Municipal solid waste ash as a cement raw material substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Somnuk Tangtermsirikul; Pichaya Rachdawong; Kritsada Sisomphon

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of using municipal solid waste (MSW) ash as a cement raw material substitute was performed to evaluate the potential use of ash in construction. The use of incineratior ash in cement production would not only get rid of the ash, but also alleviate many environmental problems, for example, reducing raw materials required for cement production, reducing CO2 emission into the atmosphere, and reducing landfill space requirement for the residue ash disposal. The metallic oxide con...

  9. Flow carbonylation of sterically hindered ortho-substituted iodoarenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Carl J; Walter, Gary C

    2016-01-01

    Summary The flow synthesis of ortho-substituted carboxylic acids, using carbon monoxide gas, has been studied for a number of substrates. The optimised conditions make use of a simple catalyst system compromising of triphenylphosphine as the ligand and palladium acetate as the pre-catalyst. Carbon monoxide was introduced via a reverse “tube-in-tube” flow reactor at elevated pressures to give yields of carboxylated products that are much higher than those obtained under normal batch conditions. PMID:27559403

  10. [Liposome phospholipid substitution and lung function in surfactant deprived rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, M

    1985-01-01

    In vivo activity of an artificial surfactant was studied in surfactant depleted rats. After tenfold alveolar lavage, PaO2, tidal volume, and compliance of the respiratory system fell to one third of initial value. Substitution of large unilamellar vesicles containing 90% Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 10% unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol largely restored oxygenation and lung mechanics in most animals. Complete normalization with weaning from the ventilator, however, was achieved neither with liposomes nor with natural surfactant concentrate.

  11. Structural properties and hyperfine characterization of Sn-substituted goethites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larralde, A.L. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Arcondo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Bs. As. (Argentina); Tufo, A.E. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Sileo, E.E., E-mail: sileo@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and tin-doped goethites were synthesized from Sn(II) solutions at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement of PXRD data indicated that Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substitution provoked unit cell expansion, and a distortion of the coordination polyhedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy showed a lower magnetic coupling as tin concentration increased. - Abstract: Tin-doped goethites obtained by a simple method at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data, and {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The particles size and the length to width ratios decreased with tin-doping. Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions provoking unit cell expansion and increasing the crystallinity of the particles with enlarged domains that grow in the perpendicular and parallel directions to the anisotropic broadening (1 1 1) axis. Intermetallic E, E Prime and DC distances also change although the variations are not monotonous, indicating different variations in the coordination polyhedron. In general, the Sn-substituted samples present larger intermetallic distances than pure goethite, and the greatest change is shown in the E Prime distance which coincides with the c-parameter. {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV) in the samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) presence was not detected by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, suggesting the existence of vacancies in the Sn-doped samples. A lower magnetic coupling is also evidenced from the average magnetic hyperfine field values obtained as tin

  12. Migration as a Substitute for Informal Activities: Evidence from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulloev, Ilhom; Ira N. Gang; Landon-Lane, John

    2011-01-01

    How is migration related to informal activities? They may be complementary since new migrants may have difficulty finding employment in formal work, so many of them end up informally employed. Alternatively, migration and informality may be substitutes since migrants' incomes in their new locations and income earned in the home informal economy (without migration) are an imperfect trade-off. Tajikistan possesses both a very large informal sector and extensive international emigration. Using t...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babasaheeb P Bandgar; Pradip B Gujarathi

    2008-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins has been described. A new modified Adler method was used for the synthesis of two unsymmetrical porphyrins. Reactions of these unsymmetrical porphyrins with metal acetates afforded the corresponding metalloporphyrins in high yields with excellent purity. These porphyrins and their metal derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods. However, the copper complexes were further studied by ESR spectra and zinc complex by fluorescence spectrum.

  14. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Tournas; E.J. Katsoudas

    2008-01-01

    Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso) were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming...

  15. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I.; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-01-01

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  16. Pyrolysis and Gasification of Industrial Waste Towards Substitution Fuels Valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Céline Gisèle

    2010-01-01

    Industrial waste is usually sorted in order to valorise most of minerals, polymers and metals. This sorting does generate a sorting residue with a rather high calorific value. The present study shows the opportunities of producing gaseous or liquid substitution fuels by pyrolysis or gasification of industrial sorting residues. By the use of the predictive model, it is possible to evaluate, for various inputs (tyres, fluffs, mixed plastics and biomass residues), the mass en energy balance for ...

  17. Documentation of capacity and identification of substitute decisionmakers in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Thomas C; Curran, Dorothyann; Landry, Joshua T; Kekewich, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Documenting capacity assessments and identifying substitute decisionmakers (SDMs) in healthcare facilities is ethically required for optimal patient care. Lack of such documentation has the potential to generate confusion and contention among patients, their family members, and members of the healthcare team. An overview of our research at the Ottawa Hospital and issues that influence the consistency of documentation in the Canadian context are presented here, as well as ideas for the mitigation of these issues and ways to encourage better documentation.

  18. SMALL AGRO-BUSINESS IN THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovskaya R. N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems and possibilities in agriculture import substitution conditions and considers the significant role of small agrarian forms in this economy processes. The article notes that the main aim of import substitution is improving the competitiveness of domestic agricultural products through greater motivation of technological, modernization and innovation policy in production, through the development of new innovative, more competitive food products with higher consumer parameters. Practice shows that the most effective substitution is carried out in the agricultural sector and the food industry. The Krasnodar region has the most efficient developed agriculture production structure with the best natural and investment climate in the country, with enlarged of crop rotation fields, excessive and relatively low labor cost with the best experience in agricultural production. The author discusses about the detail problems of import substitution with participation of small businesses in the areas of grain production, sugar beet, about the difficulties in material and technical equipment, provision of seed and other problems. The problems of the financial component in large and small businesses specifically mentions, also in the field of cost management processing, pricing, formation of gross profit. The article emphasizes the importance of recovering the lost possibilities of breeding in animal husbandry, especially in pig and cattle. The most difficult situation is with lending, where the author recommends the reduction of rates for farmers in the short and medium term lending to the level of 3-5%. The author considers a changes in the mechanism of redistribution of public support in favor of livestock very important, where there are large risks, difficulties of long-term credits, problems of technological discipline observance and more

  19. Partial Substitution of Fuel Alcohol for Oil Consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the rapid development of the national economy in the 21st century, China has constantly increased its oil consumption and already depends on imported oil for close to 50% of its supply. Due to various factors, the price of oil keeps increasing. Various biological energy sources have therefore aroused people's interest. As fuel alcohol was developed ahead of the pack, and its technology has now matured worldwide, it has become a focus as a partial substitute in petroleum based fuels.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of heterocyclic substituted fluoran compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SACHIN V. PATEL

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available New quinazolinone-substituted fluoran compounds were synthesized by reaction of keto acid, 2’-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-N-pyrrolidinylbenzophenone with different quinazolinone derivatives in the presence of conc. sulphuric acid. All the synthesized fluoran compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H-NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The fluoran compounds are colourless or nearly colourless and develop colour on contact with electron-accepting compounds.

  1. Are Banks and Stock Markets Complements or Substitutes?

    OpenAIRE

    Malay K. Dey

    2007-01-01

    We examine the determinants of stock market and bank liquidity in an economy in a SUR framework in which stock market turnover and available bank credit denoting access to long and short term capital respectively are interdependent and the errors are correlated. The SUR results suggest that available bank credit and stock market turnover are inversely related to each other, confirming their substitutability in terms of external financing needed by corporations. Other significant common factor...

  2. Economic substitutability of electrical brain stimulation, food, and water.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L; Rachlin, H

    1991-01-01

    Concurrent variable-ratio schedules of electrical brain stimulation, food, and water were paired in various combinations as reinforcement of rats' lever presses. Relative prices of the concurrent reinforcers were varied by changing the ratio of the response requirements on the two levers. Economic substitutability, measured by the sensitivity of response ratio to changes in relative price, was highest with brain stimulation reinforcement of presses on both levers and lowest with food reinforc...

  3. Designing sensory-substitution devices: Principles, pitfalls and potential1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjánsson, Árni; Moldoveanu, Alin; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Balan, Oana; Spagnol, Simone; Valgeirsdóttir, Vigdís Vala; Unnthorsson, Rúnar

    2016-09-21

    An exciting possibility for compensating for loss of sensory function is to augment deficient senses by conveying missing information through an intact sense. Here we present an overview of techniques that have been developed for sensory substitution (SS) for the blind, through both touch and audition, with special emphasis on the importance of training for the use of such devices, while highlighting potential pitfalls in their design. One example of a pitfall is how conveying extra information about the environment risks sensory overload. Related to this, the limits of attentional capacity make it important to focus on key information and avoid redundancies. Also, differences in processing characteristics and bandwidth between sensory systems severely constrain the information that can be conveyed. Furthermore, perception is a continuous process and does not involve a snapshot of the environment. Design of sensory substitution devices therefore requires assessment of the nature of spatiotemporal continuity for the different senses. Basic psychophysical and neuroscientific research into representations of the environment and the most effective ways of conveying information should lead to better design of sensory substitution systems. Sensory substitution devices should emphasize usability, and should not interfere with other inter- or intramodal perceptual function. Devices should be task-focused since in many cases it may be impractical to convey too many aspects of the environment. Evidence for multisensory integration in the representation of the environment suggests that researchers should not limit themselves to a single modality in their design. Finally, we recommend active training on devices, especially since it allows for externalization, where proximal sensory stimulation is attributed to a distinct exterior object. PMID:27567755

  4. Preparation of linear hydroxy substituted polyphosphazenes. [flame retardant polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The synthesis of partially hydroxy-substituted phosphazene prepolymers amenable to processing into cellular, flexible polyurethane foams was investigated. Factors determined include (1) the environment of the hydroxyl group; (2) the ease of the hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene polymerization; (3) the nature of the nonreactive substituents; and (4) the mode of introduction of the hydroxyl entity. The specific approaches taken, the rationale of the selections made, and the results are discussed.

  5. A Combinatorial Substitute for the Degree Theorem in Auter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bux, Kai-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Auter space A_n is contractible. A. Hatcher and K. Vogtmann constructed a stratification of A_n into subspaces A_{n,k} such that A_{n,k} is k-connected. Their argument that A_{n,k} is (k-1)-connected, the Degree Theorem and its proof, is somewhat global in nature. Here we present a combinatorial substitute for the Degree Theorem that uses only local considerations to show that A_{n,k} is (k-1)-connected.

  6. Trace maps over M3(K) associated with the substitutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; zhixiong文志雄

    2002-01-01

    Let K be a field of characteristic zero and M3(K) the ring of matrices 3 x 3 over K. In this paper, we establish first the certain identities of traces of some algebras of M3(K), then we define the trace mapping of 3 × 3 matrices associated with a substitution over a two-letter alphabet on some algebraic variety and study their properties.``

  7. A class of primitive substitutions and scrambled sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Consider the subshifts induced by constant-length primitive substitutions on two symbols. By investigating the equivalent version for the existence of Li-Yorke scrambled sets and by proving the non-existence of Schweizer-Smítal scrambled sets, we completely reveal for this class of subshifts the chaotic behaviors possibly occurring in the sense of Li-Yorke and Schweizer-Smítal.

  8. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K;

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access to...... optically enriched dihydroxy 1,2-dioxanes 4. The synthesized 1,2-dioxanes were converted to other erythro sugar analogues and tetrahydrofurans through controlled cleavage of the endoperoxide linkage....

  9. Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai

    1997-01-01

    Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full pr...

  10. The effect of cobalt substitution on magnetic hardening of magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M., E-mail: mozafari@sci.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadadian, Y. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aftabi, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 66177-15175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oveisy Moakhar, M. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    In this work cobalt-substituted magnetite (Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, x=0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction was carried out and the results show that all of the samples have single phase spinel structure. Microstructure of the samples was studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope and the results show that particle sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were uniform and in the 50–55 nm range. Room temperature magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were measured by an alternating gradient force magnetometer and the results revealed that substituting cobalt for iron in magnetite structure, changes the magnetite from a soft magnetic material to a hard one. So that coercivity changes from 0 (a superparamagnetic state) to 337 Oe (a hard magnetic material), which is a remarkable change. Curie temperatures of the samples were determined by recording their susceptibility-temperature (χ–T) curves and the results show that by increasing cobalt content, Curie temperature of the samples also increases. Also χ–T curves of the samples were recorded from above Curie temperature to room temperature (first cooling), while the curves in the second heating and second cooling have the same behaviour as the first cooling curve. The results depict that all samples have different behaviour in the first cooling and in the first heating processes. This shows remarkable changes of the cation distribution in the course of first heating. - Highlights: • It is possible to get Co substituted magnetite nanoparticles by coprecipitation method. • Prepared nanoparticles have different cation distribution in comparison with that of bulk counterparts. • Co substitution increases coercivity of the magnetite.

  11. Low density gravel substitute gravel pack in Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, E.

    1996-12-31

    Successful gravel pack completion means optimization of production. This has been PETROBRAS` task regarding completion of the giant Marlim field. Significant improvement have been noticed recently with the introduction of techniques such as horizontal drilling, frac pack and low density gravel substitute gravel pack. This paper discusses the introduction and results of the system, its advantages and trends since this technique can become an excellent alternative when a more aggressive technique is no economical. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2012-01-01

    4-tert-Butylphenyl-substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins 1 and 2 are prepared for the first time. They show (1) intense one-photon absorption in the far-red/near-infrared region, (2) enhanced two-photon absorption compared with aromatic porphyrin monomers, and (3) amphoteric redox behavior. Their geometry and electronic structure are studied by DFT calculations. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. 14 CFR 26.45 - Holders of type certificates-Alterations and repairs to alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Holders of type certificates-Alterations... AIRPLANES Aging Airplane Safety-Damage Tolerance Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.45 Holders of type... alteration data developed by the holder of a type certificate, the holder must— (1) Review...

  14. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna B. Lovati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.

  15. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Cu substituted Co-ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, B.; Rao, G. S. N.; Caltun, O. F.; Dhana Lakshmi, B.; Parvatheeswara Rao, B.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Copper substituted cobalt ferrite, Co1-xCuxFe2O4 (x=0.00-0.25), nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction analysis on the samples was done to confirm the cubic spinel structures and Scherrer equation was used to estimate the mean crystallite size as 40 nm. Using the obtained nanoparticles, fabrication of the sintered pellets was done by standard ceramic technique. Magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements on the samples were made by strain gauge and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. Maximum magnetostriction and strain derivative values were deduced from the field dependent magnetostriction curves while the magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization (51.7-61.9 emu/g) and coercivity (1045-1629 Oe) on the samples were estimated from the obtained magnetic hysteresis loops. Curie temperature values (457-315 °C) were measured by a built in laboratory set-up. Copper substituted cobalt ferrites have shown improved strain derivative values as compared to the pure cobalt ferrite and thus making them suitable for stress sensing applications. The results have been explained on the basis of cationic distributions, strength of exchange interactions and net decreased anisotropic contributions due to the increased presence of Co2+ ions in B-sites as a result of Cu substitutions.

  16. Detecting Single-Nucleotide Substitutions Induced by Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Chan, Amanda H; Conklin, Bruce R

    2016-01-01

    The detection of genome editing is critical in evaluating genome-editing tools or conditions, but it is not an easy task to detect genome-editing events-especially single-nucleotide substitutions-without a surrogate marker. Here we introduce a procedure that significantly contributes to the advancement of genome-editing technologies. It uses droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and allele-specific hydrolysis probes to detect single-nucleotide substitutions generated by genome editing (via homology-directed repair, or HDR). HDR events that introduce substitutions using donor DNA are generally infrequent, even with genome-editing tools, and the outcome is only one base pair difference in 3 billion base pairs of the human genome. This task is particularly difficult in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, in which editing events can be very rare. Therefore, the technological advances described here have implications for therapeutic genome editing and experimental approaches to disease modeling with iPS cells.

  17. Evidence of domain wall pinning in aluminum substituted cobalt ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, J. C.; Janrao, P. S.; Datar, A. A.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work spinel structured cobalt ferrites with aluminum substitution having composition CoAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Their microstructural, magnetic, magnetostriction and magnetoimpedance properties have been investigated. The piezomagnetic coefficient (dλ/dH) obtained from magnetostriction data is found to enhance with 0.1 Al substitutions in place of iron which decreases with further increase of Al content. It is noticed that 0.3 Al substitutions in place of Fe introduces domain wall pinning as evidenced from magnetostriction, magnetoimpedance and dc magnetization data. It is noted that ferrites so prepared using a simple procedure are magnetostrictive in good measure and with the addition of very small amount of non-magnetic aluminum their magnetostriction has shown saturation at relatively low magnetic fields. Such magnetostrictive ferrites find their applications in magnetic sensors and actuators.

  18. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovati, Arianna B.; Bottagisio, Marta; Moretti, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution. PMID:26880985

  19. Lattice strain induced magnetism in substituted nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajnish; Kar, Manoranjan

    2016-10-01

    Strontium (Sr) substituted cobalt ferrite i.e. Co1-xSrxFe2O4 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1) have been synthesized by the citric acid modified sol-gel method. Crystal structure and phase purity have been studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD pattern using the space group Fd 3 bar m shows monotonically increasing of lattice parameter with the increase in Sr concentration. Magnetic hysteresis loops measurement has been carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) over a field range of ±1.5 T. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant were calculated by employing the Law of Approach (LA) to the saturation. It is observed that magnetocrystalline anisotropy has anomaly for x=0.01 (Co0.99Sr0.01Fe2O4) sample. Strain mediated modification of magnetic properties in Sr substituted cobalt ferrite has been observed. The saturation magnetization for doping concentration i.e. x=0.01 abruptly increase while for x>0.01 decreases with the increase in Sr concentration. A correlation between lattice strain and magnetic behavior in non-magnetic Sr- substituted nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite has been reported.

  20. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  1. ECONOMIC SECURITY OF RUSSIA UNDER THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimova N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Instability of economic processes and exacerbation of political tensions regarding Russia require measures in foreign trade policy, which are able to increase the economic security of Russia. The import substitution policy is considered one of the main directions nowadays. There have been considered two directions of the state policy for displacement or substitution of imported goods in the domestic market. There has been also reported the structure of the country's merchandise imports during the period from 2013 until 2015, resulting in a detected negative dynamics of imports, which indicates a successful beginning of the importsubstitution policy. Gradation of the main economic activities according to dependence on imports has allowed identifying the most import-dependent activities and the most available ways to form the import substitution. Threshold amount of economic security of the country has been considered to characterize the external economic security of Russia and some other countries of the world. There has been identified the necessity of state aid, which is reflected in the program of support for transport engineering industry for 2016, subsidies from the federal budget to participants of industrial clusters, the elimination of discriminatory relationships between credit financial institutions and industrial enterprises, the provision of state guarantees for loans to strategic enterprises and organizations of the country

  2. Electroanalysis of amino acid substitutions in bioengineered acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somji, Mehdi; Dounin, Vladimir; Muench, Susanne B; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T; Kerman, Kagan

    2012-12-01

    This study reports the electrochemical profiling of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) wild-type and mutant proteins. An irreversible oxidation signal of electro-active tyrosine (Y), tryptophan (W) and cysteine (C) residues in five mutant proteins along with the wild-type AChE were detected using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Significant differences were observed in the W303L, T65Y and M301W substituted proteins showing a 25-35% higher peak current intensity compared to the Y349Y and F345Y mutants. It was predicted that AChE substituted with electrochemically active residues would produce the greatest signals and this trend was observed in the T65Y, M301W and Y349L mutants. However, conformational changes in the proteins structure as a result of the substitutions appeared to be most influential on peak current intensities. This was demonstrated by the W303L and F345Y mutant enzymes. The current intensity of W303L was greatest despite the removal of its electro-active W residue whereas the F345Y mutant had the lowest peak value despite the addition of an electro-active Y residue. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that SWV provides a promising tool to probe the presence of electro-active amino acid residues on the surface of a protein produced through bioengineering.

  3. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Isakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye.

  4. Intertemporal Substitution and Labour Supply of Bosnian SME’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Šabić-Lipovača

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at testing the intertemporal substitution hypothesis (ISH for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between the hours worked and the transitory changes in wages. We tested the hypothesis using the data on the daily income and worked hours collected via the survey questionnaire among small entrepreneurs in North-Western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The estimated wage elasticities turned out to be positive and different from zero, according to which it appears that the hypothesis of negative wage elasticities was not backed up by the empirical evidence. Our findings imply that the intertemporal labour substitution hypothesis found evidence and that we can reject the daily targeting hypothesis. We also argue that Bosnian entrepreneurs tend to pursue profits across working days because their main motive for running a business is the accumulation of capital and wealth, so that they follow the pattern of intertemporal labour substitution. The findings can be explained by an unfavourable business climate in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is a result of a long-lasting transition process the country is still undergoing.

  5. Extracellular synthesis of magnetite and metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y; Vali, H; Phelps, T J; Moon, J W

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a novel microbial process that exploits the ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to produce copious amounts of extracellular magentites and metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Theroanaerobacter ethanolicus and Shewanella sp.) have the ability to reduce Fe(III) and various metals in aqueous media and form various sized magnetite and metal-substituted magnetite nano-crystals. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria formed metalsubstituted magnetites using iron oxide plus metals (e.g., Co, Cr, Mn, Ni) under conditions of relatively low temperature (magnetite particles of well-defined size (typically tens of nanometers) and crystallographic morphology, containing selected dopant metals into the magnetite (Fe(3-y)XyO4) structure (where X = Co, Cr, Mn, Ni). Magnetite yields of up to 20 g/L per day have been observed in 20-L vessels. Water-based ferrofluids were formed with the nanometer sized, magnetite, and metal-substituted biomagnetite particles.

  6. The Use of Substitutes - Continuity and the-Group-as-a-Whole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    of continuity, i.e. the self- sustaining power of the group and the limits of this is illustrated and discussed in connection with planned versus unplanned substitute periods, showing the importance of preparation when the therapist has to be away, and a substitute is used. Key words: substitute, locum......, continuity, conductor, leadership, group-as-a-whole...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  8. Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of meat by meat substitutes could help to reduce the environmental burden of our food production systems. However, the acceptance of most meat substitutes is still low. This study investigated the role of meal context on the acceptance of meat substitutes. In a central location test

  9. 40 CFR 721.7220 - Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of substituted phenol... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7220 Polymer of substituted phenol... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of substituted...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with substituted phenol (generic). 721.1580 Section 721.1580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  11. Synthesis of Novel 5-(-Substituted-Anilino)-8-Hydroxyquinolines via Hartwig-Buchwald Amination Reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Walaa A E Omar; Osmo E O Hormi

    2015-11-01

    Three novel 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinoline derivatives were efficiently synthesized via Hartwig–Buchwald amination reaction. The new 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinolines were reduced for 1–3 h to give the corresponding 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-hydroxyquinolines. Extending the reduction reaction time to 7 h afforded the corresponding 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives.

  12. Substituted plan analysis in the environmental impact assessment of Yongchuan wastewater treatment project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun-hua

    2006-01-01

    Substituted plan in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) mainly means the treatment technology and the substituted site of plant, and it also includes the many kinds of environment protection measures. This paper will make detailed analysis on the treatment technology, the substituted site of plant, the purpose of discharged water and the dispose of sludge in the Yongchuan wastewater treatment project.

  13. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted...

  14. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  15. Synthesis and Study of Second-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of 3-Substituted-6- (substituted-phenylazo) coumarins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua-Can; WEN Huan; LIANG Dong; SUN Yi-Feng

    2003-01-01

    @@ It has attracted a lot of attentions to synthesize and investigate the behaviors of organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. [1,2] We have ever reported that acridine derivatives ,[3] 4-substituted-benzylideneoxazol-5(4H)-one[4] and 4,4′-di-styryl-biphenyl derivatives[5] possess good second-order NLO properties. Coumarin derivatives are good organic optical materials and azobenzene derivatives possess a higher second-order nonlinear polarization values, however, there are few reports about the study on the synthetic method, optical behavior, especially,second-order NLO properties of 3-substitued-6-(substituted-phenylazo) coumarin derivatives. Therefore, a series of the following compounds were prepared in order to investigate their NLO behavior.

  16. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paillet-Loilier M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension and psychiatric

  17. Theoretical analysis of kinetic isotope effects on proton transfer reactions between substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes and substituted acetic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin-Yiu; Richard, John P; Gao, Jiali

    2009-10-01

    Primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on a series of carboxylic acid-catalyzed protonation reactions of aryl-substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes (X-1) to form oxocarbenium ions have been computed using the second-order Kleinert variational perturbation theory (KP2) in the framework of Feynman path integrals (PI) along with the potential energy surface obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Good agreement with the experimental data was obtained, demonstrating that this novel computational approach for computing KIEs of organic reactions is a viable alternative to the traditional method employing Bigeleisen equation and harmonic vibrational frequencies. Although tunneling makes relatively small contributions to the lowering of the free energy barriers for the carboxylic acid catalyzed protonation reaction, it is necessary to include tunneling contributions to obtain quantitative estimates of the KIEs. Consideration of anharmonicity can further improve the calculated KIEs for the protonation of substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes by chloroacetic acid, but for the reactions of the parent and 4-NO(2) substituted alpha-methoxystyrene with substituted carboxylic acids, the correction of anharmonicity overestimates the computed KIEs for strong acid catalysts. In agreement with experimental findings, the largest KIEs are found in nearly ergoneutral reactions, DeltaG(o) approximately 0, where the transition structures are nearly symmetric and the reaction barriers are relatively low. Furthermore, the optimized transition structures are strongly dependent on the free energy for the formation of the carbocation intermediate, that is, the driving force DeltaG(o), along with a good correlation of Hammond shift in the transition state structure.

  18. Influence of mandatory generic substitution on pharmaceutical sales patterns: a national study over five years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allebeck Peter

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mandatory generic substitution was introduced in Sweden in October 2002 in order to try to curb escalating pharmaceutical expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate how sales patterns for substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals have developed since the introduction of mandatory generic substitution; furthermore, to compare sales patterns in different groups of the population, based on patients' age and gender. Methods Five therapeutic groups comprising both substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals were included. The study period was from January 2000 to June 2005. National sales data were used, covering volumes of dispensed prescription medicines (expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants and day of each pharmacological substance in the therapeutic groups for each age and gender group. Sales patterns for substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals were compared using a descriptive approach. Results In most therapeutic groups there has been an increase in the volumes of substitutable pharmaceuticals sold since the introduction of the reform, ranging from one third to three times the initial volume; whereas the volumes of non-substitutable pharmaceuticals have levelled out or declined. There were few gender differences in sales patterns of substitutable and non-substitutable drugs. In three therapeutic groups, sales patterns differed across different age groups, and there was a tendency for volumes of recently introduced non-substitutable pharmaceuticals to be proportionally higher in the youngest age groups. Conclusion Since the introduction of the reform, there has been a proportionally larger increase in sales of substitutable pharmaceuticals compared with sales of non-substitutable pharmaceuticals. This indicates that the reform might have contributed to larger sales of less expensive pharmaceuticals.

  19. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  20. Role of a single amino acid substitution of VP3 H142D for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Das, Biswajit; Sharma, Gaurav K; Khulape, Sagar A; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at pH value below 6.5. After the uptake of FMDV by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of FMDV genome inside endosomes. Nevertheless, dissociation of FMDV particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated FMD vaccine less effective. To improve the acid stability of inactivated FMD vaccine during the manufacturing process, a serotype A IND 40/2000 (in-use vaccine strain) mutant with increased resistance to acid inactivation was generated through reverse genetics approach. Based upon the earlier reports, the crucial amino acid residue, H142 of VP3 capsid protein was substituted separately to various amino acid residues Arg (R), Phe (F), Ala (A), and Asp (D) on the full-genome length cDNA clone. While the H142 → R or H142 → F or H142 → A substitutions resulted in non-infectious FMDV, H142 → D mutation on VP3 protein (H3142D) resulted in the generation of mutant virus with enhanced resistance to acid-induced inactivation. In addition, H3142D substitution did not alter the replication ability and antigenicity of mutant as compared to the parental virus. However, the virus competition experiments revealed that the H3142D substitution conferred a loss of fitness for the mutant virus. Results from this study demonstrate that the H3142D substitution is the molecular determinant of acid-resistant phenotype in FMDV serotype A. PMID:26873406

  1. C-terminal substitution of MDM2 interacting peptides modulates binding affinity by distinctive mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Brown

    Full Text Available The complex between the proteins MDM2 and p53 is a promising drug target for cancer therapy. The residues 19-26 of p53 have been biochemically and structurally demonstrated to be a most critical region to maintain the association of MDM2 and p53. Variation of the amino acid sequence in this range obviously alters the binding affinity. Surprisingly, suitable substitutions contiguous to this region of the p53 peptides can yield tightly binding peptides. The peptide variants may differ by a single residue that vary little in their structural conformations and yet are characterized by large differences in their binding affinities. In this study a systematic analysis into the role of single C-terminal mutations of a 12 residue fragment of the p53 transactivation domain (TD and an equivalent phage optimized peptide (12/1 were undertaken to elucidate their mechanistic and thermodynamic differences in interacting with the N-terminal of MDM2. The experimental results together with atomistically detailed dynamics simulations provide insight into the principles that govern peptide design protocols with regard to protein-protein interactions and peptidomimetic design.

  2. Adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is more active against Sporothrix schenckii than miltefosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Ishida, Kelly; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70) showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness). Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells. PMID:27581121

  3. Adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is more active against Sporothrix schenckii than miltefosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Ishida, Kelly; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Souza, Wanderley de; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70) showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness). Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells. PMID:27581121

  4. Leveraging the happy meal effect: Substituting food with modest nonfood incentives decreases portion size choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Martin; Bechara, Antoine; MacInnis, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Despite much effort to decrease food intake by altering portion sizes, "super-sized" meals are the preferred choice of many. This research investigated the extent to which individuals can be subtly incentivized to choose smaller portion sizes. Three randomized experiments (2 in the lab and 1 in the field) established that individuals' choice of full-sized food portions is reduced when they are given the opportunity to choose a half-sized version with a modest nonfood incentive. This substitution effect was robust across different nonfood incentives, foods, populations, and time. Experiment 1 established the effect with children, using inexpensive headphones as nonfood incentives. Experiment 2--a longitudinal study across multiple days--generalized this effect with adults, using the mere chance to win either gift cards or frequent flyer miles as nonfood incentives. Experiment 3 demonstrated the effect among actual restaurant customers who had originally planned to eat a full-sized portion, using the mere chance to win small amounts of money. Our investigation broadens the psychology of food portion choice from perceptual and social factors to motivational determinants.

  5. Adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is more active against Sporothrix schenckii than miltefosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Pereira Borba-Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70 showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness. Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells.

  6. Adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is more active against Sporothrix schenckii than miltefosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba-Santos, Luana Pereira; Ishida, Kelly; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Souza, Wanderley de; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most frequent subcutaneous mycosis in the world and its increasing incidence has led to the search for new therapeutic options for its treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that three structural analogues of miltefosine (TCAN26, TC19, and TC70) showed inhibitory activity against Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto and that TCAN26 was more active in vitro than miltefosine against several isolates. Scanning electron microscopy showed that S. schenckii exposure to TCAN26 resulted in cells that were slightly more elongated than untreated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed that TCAN26 treatment induced loss of the regular cytoplasmic electron-density and altered the cell envelope (disruption of the cell membrane and cell wall, and increased cell wall thickness). Additionally, TCAN26 concentrations required to kill S. schenckii cells were lower than concentrations that were cytotoxic in mammalian cells, and TCAN26 was more selective than miltefosine. Thus, the adamantylidene-substituted alkylphosphocholine TCAN26 is a promising molecule for the development of novel antifungal compounds, although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action of TCAN26 in S. schenckii cells.

  7. Production of bacterial cellulose with controlled deuterium-hydrogen substitution for neutron scattering studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Hugh; Shah, Riddhi; Evans, Barbara R; He, Junhong; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Chundawat, Shishir P S; Jones, A Daniel; Langan, Paul; Davison, Brian H; Urban, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic enrichment of biomacromolecules is a widely used technique that enables the investigation of the structural and dynamic properties to provide information not accessible with natural abundance isotopic composition. This study reports an approach for deuterium incorporation into bacterial cellulose. A media formulation for growth of Acetobacter xylinus subsp. sucrofermentans and Gluconacetobacter hansenii was formulated that supports cellulose production in deuterium (D) oxide. The level of D incorporation can be varied by altering the ratio of deuterated and protiated glycerol used during cell growth in the D2O-based growth medium. Spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry show that the level of deuterium incorporation is high (>90%) for the perdeuterated form of bacterial cellulose. The small-angle neutron scattering profiles of the cellulose with different amounts of D incorporation are all similar indicating that there are no structural changes in the cellulose due to substitution of deuterium for hydrogen. In addition, by varying the amount of deuterated glycerol in the media it was possible to vary the scattering length density of the deuterated cellulose. The ability to control deuterium content of cellulose extends the range of experiments using techniques such as neutron scattering to reveal information about the structure and dynamics of cellulose, and its interactions with other biomacromolecules as well as synthetic polymers used for development of composite materials. PMID:26577730

  8. Mössbauer studies of Sn4+/Nb5+ substituted Mn–Zn ferrites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A D P Rao; S B Raju; S R Vadera; D R Sharma

    2003-08-01

    At room temperature, Mössbauer spectra of Sn4+/Nb5+ substituted Mn–Zn ferrites have been taken to understand the site occupancy of substituted ions. The results indicate that both the substituted ions occupy tetrahedral (A) site only at lower concentration of substitution while at higher concentration they occupy both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. At higher concentration of Nb substitution a doublet has been observed besides sextets. The possibility of canting existence on octahedral sites has been discussed. The observed variations of the hyperfine fields, isomer shift, line widths and B/A peak area ratio with the ferrite composition are interpreted.

  9. Altering Flashlamp Output for Realistic Solar Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. L.; Seaman, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial glass optical filter corrects spectrum of xenon flashtubes used to test photovoltaic solar cells. Filter withstands thousands of flashes without perceptible alteration of passband characteristics. With filter, calibration errors reduced to less than 1 percent.

  10. Effect of substitutional impurities on the electronic transport properties of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Bahlouli, H.; Peeters, F. M.

    2016-10-01

    Density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism is used to study the effect of substitutional doping on the electronic transport properties of hydrogen passivated zig-zag graphene nanoribbon devices. B, N and Si atoms are used to substitute carbon atoms located at the center or at the edge of the sample. We found that Si-doping results in better electronic transport as compared to the other substitutions. The transmission spectrum also depends on the location of the substitutional dopants: for single atom doping the largest transmission is obtained for edge substitutions, whereas substitutions in the middle of the sample give larger transmission for double carbon substitutions. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system due to the presence of impurities.

  11. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  12. Diabetes and mitochondrial bioenergetics: Alterations with age

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Palmeira, Carlos M.; Seiça, Raquel; Moreno, António J.; Santos, Maria S.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the alterations in mitochondrial functions of diabetic rats. However, some of the results reported are controversial, since experimental conditions, such as aging, and/or strain of animals used were different. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic changes in liver mitochondria, both in the presence of severe hyperglycaemia (STZ-treated rats) and mild hyperglycaemia (Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats). Moreover, metabolic alterations we...

  13. Alteration features in natural zirconolite from carbonatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, zirconolite occurs as an accessory mineral in many different rock types, but the majority of reported occurrences are from carbonatites (magmatic carbonates) of geological age varying from a few million years to 2 billion years old. Within these 19 carbonatite occurrences, of which 15 have been studied in some detail, zirconolite displays varying degrees of alteration in six samples. This alteration ranges from incipient minor effects to major corrosion, recrystallization and complete replacement by secondary phases. The degree of alteration broadly correlates with either the age, or actinide content of the zirconolite (or both), and thus the extent and degree of metamictization. Changes in zirconolite composition with alteration include an increase in hydration (H2O), Si, Ba and Pb (possibly radiogenic in origin), and a decrease primarily in Ca and Fe. Th can be remobilized, and of the rare earth elements (REE), there is evidence that the heavy-REE are mobilized more readily than the light-REE. Using backscattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses, this study documents and illustrates the range of alteration features observed in zirconolite from several carbonatites, in terms of both compositional and textural changes, and provides some physico-chemical information on the fluids responsible for the alteration. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  14. Sleep deprivation alters choice strategy without altering uncertainty or loss aversion preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Liu, Jean C J

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD) alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  15. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  16. A subset of N-substituted phenothiazines inhibits NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredenina, Tamara; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Filippova, Aleksandra; Nayernia, Zeynab; Mahiout, Zahia; Fioraso-Cartier, Laetitia; Plastre, Olivier; Scapozza, Leonardo; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Jaquet, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) constitute a family of enzymes generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are increasingly recognized as interesting drug targets. Here we investigated the effects of 10 phenothiazine compounds on NOX activity using an extensive panel of assays to measure production of ROS (Amplex red, WST-1, MCLA) and oxygen consumption. Striking differences between highly similar phenothiazines were observed. Two phenothiazines without N-substitution, including ML171, did not inhibit NOX enzymes, but showed assay interference. Introduction of an aliphatic amine chain on the N atom of the phenothiazine B ring (promazine) conferred inhibitory activity toward NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5 but not NOX1 and NOX3. Addition of an electron-attracting substituent in position 2 of the C ring extended the inhibitory activity to NOX1 and NOX3, with thioridazine being the most potent inhibitor. In contrast, the presence of a methylsulfoxide group at the same position (mesoridazine) entirely abolished NOX-inhibitory activity. A cell-free NOX2 assay suggested that inhibition by N-substituted phenothiazines was not due to competition with NADPH. A functional implication of NOX-inhibitory activity of thioridazine was demonstrated by its ability to block redox-dependent myofibroblast differentiation. Our results demonstrate that NOX-inhibitory activity is not a common feature of all antipsychotic phenothiazines and that substitution on the B-ring nitrogen is crucial for the activity, whereas that on the second position of the C ring modulates it. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of NOX pharmacology and might pave the path to discovery of more potent and selective NOX inhibitors.

  17. Preparation and characterization of cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cobalt-substituted anthrax lethal factor (CoLF) is highly active. ► CoLF can be prepared by bio-assimilation and direct exchange. ► Lethal factor binds cobalt tightly. ► The electronic spectrum of CoLF reveals penta-coordination. ► Interaction of CoLF with thioglycolic acid follows a 2-step mechanism. -- Abstract: Anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a zinc-dependent endopeptidase involved in the cleavage of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases near their N-termini. The current report concerns the preparation of cobalt-substituted LF (CoLF) and its characterization by electronic spectroscopy. Two strategies to produce CoLF were explored, including (i) a bio-assimilation approach involving the cultivation of LF-expressing Bacillus megaterium cells in the presence of CoCl2, and (ii) direct exchange by treatment of zinc-LF with CoCl2. Independent of the method employed, the protein was found to contain one Co2+ per LF molecule, and was shown to be twice as active as its native zinc counterpart. The electronic spectrum of CoLF suggests the Co2+ ion to be five-coordinate, an observation similar to that reported for other Co2+-substituted gluzincins, but distinct from that documented for the crystal structure of native LF. Furthermore, spectroscopic studies following the exposure of CoLF to thioglycolic acid (TGA) revealed a sequential mechanism of metal removal from LF, which likely involves the formation of an enzyme: Co2+:TGA ternary complex prior to demetallation of the active site. CoLF reported herein constitutes the first spectroscopic probe of LF’s active site, which may be utilized in future studies to gain further insight into the enzyme’s mechanism and inhibitor interactions.

  18. PERSONNEL TRAINING - AN IMPORTANT LINK OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubilin A. I.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Import substitution - a process at the level of the national economy, which is provided at the release of the necessary domestic consumer goods manufacturers forces, leading activities in the country. At present, Russian farmers have an incentive to carry out a largescale import substitution because of the food embargo on the West European suppliers of agricultural products. An important problem that accompanies the processes of import substitution in Russia is the lack of qualified personnel in a number of industries, as a prerequisite for the growth of agricultural production in Russia is full staffing agriculture. The article has identified the causes of insufficient practical training of graduates of agricultural universities. The role of Kuban State Agrarian University in the personnel matters of the village. Grounded following directions of improvement of training: the formation of the federal and regional forecasts provide human resources for the future of the village; the creation of organizations and municipalities comfortable social environment for young professionals; promotion of public – private partnership for the training of personnel for rural areas; improving infrastructure to support the system of financing higher education institutions; protection of the region's interest in defending the rights of agrarian university on training for other sectors of the economy in rural areas, except for agricultural commodity production; empowerment of the target form of training specialists; allocation of resources (possibly in the form of grants to prepare doctors to foreign training, access to foreign sources of scientific information, cooperation of universities to gain access to the Web of Science and Scopus' resources

  19. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chuanjian, E-mail: wcjuestc2005@gmail.com, E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Yu, Zhong; Sun, Ke, E-mail: wcjuestc2005@gmail.com, E-mail: ksun@uestc.edu.cn; Guo, Rongdi; Jiang, Xiaona; Lan, Zhongwen [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yang, Yan [Department of Communication and Engineering, Chengdu Technological University, Chengdu 611730 (China)

    2015-09-14

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f{sub 1}, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2}, ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub af1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f{sub 1}, 4f{sub 2}, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub bf2} and ω{sub af1} decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ω{sub kf1}, ω{sub kf2}, and ω{sub bk} show a slight change.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix G to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 3, 1999...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 3, 1999, Final rule, Effective April 2, 1999. G Appendix G to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. G Appendix G to Subpart G of Part 82—Substitutes Subject to Use...

  1. A Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Currency Substitution in a Optimizing Framework with Transactions Costs A Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Currency Substitution in a Optimizing Framework with Transactions Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Asilis

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Currency Substitution in a Optimizing Framework with Transactions Costs This paper investigates the dynamic paths of inflation and real balances in a general equilibrium intertemporal optimization model, with transactions costs and currency substitution; when budget deficits are financed by money creation.The results show that inflationany path show more 'jumps" or explosions under the assumptions if lower transactions costs or-an increasing degree of currency substitution. Even small changes in the degrees of currency substitution with positive transactions costs sharply change the paths of intflation and real balances. Similarly, small changes in transactions costs for foreign currency, even without prior currency substirution, have marked effects on the paths of inflation and real balances.The results obtained from the simulated data are consistent with inflation processes in recent Latin American experience, where currency substitution may have taken place. Estimates of the simulated data for even a small degree of currency substitution generate generalized autoregressive conditionally heteroskedactic (GARCH estimares of the inflation process, which are consistent with estimares for Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru. In these countries currency substitution may have gone hand-in-hand with inflationary instabiliiy through money-financed fiscal deficits.Our results suggest that fiscal deficits financed by monetary expansion should be avoided under conditions of increasing financial openness, which provide greater opportunities for financial adaptation through currency substitution or lower transactions costs on foreign currency accumulation.

  2. A simple and convenient one-pot synthesis of substituted isoindolin-1-ones via lithiation, substitution and cyclization of N'-benzyl-N,N-dimethylureas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithiation of N'-benzyl-N,N-dimethylurea and its substituted derivatives with t-BuLi (3.3 equiv in anhydrous THF at 0 °C followed by reaction with various electrophiles afforded a range of 3-substituted isoindolin-1-ones in high yields.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the July 22, 2002...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the July 22, 2002, Final Rule, Effective August 21, 2002 K Appendix K to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. K Appendix K to Subpart G of Part 82—Substitutes Subject to Use...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the May 22, 1996...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the May 22, 1996 Final Rule, Effective June 21, 1996 C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 82—Substitutes Subject to Use...

  5. Usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa model for preventing palate bone alterations in rabbits with a mucoperiostial defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Valadés-Gámez, Ricardo; Garzón, Ingrid; Liceras-Liceras, Esther; España-López, Antonio; Carriel, Víctor; Martin-Piedra, Miguel-Ángel; Muñoz-Miguelsanz, María-Ángeles; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria-Carmen; Alaminos, Miguel; Fernández-Valadés, Ricardo

    2016-02-19

    The use of mucoperiostial flaps during cleft palate surgery is associated with altered palatal bone growth and development. We analyzed the potential usefulness of a bioengineered oral mucosa in an in vivo model of cleft palate. First, a 4 mm palate defect was created in one side of the palate oral mucosa of 3 week-old New Zealand rabbits, and a complete autologous bioengineered oral mucosa (BOM) or acellular fibrin-agarose scaffold (AS) was implanted. No material was implanted in the negative controls (NC), and positive controls were not subjected to palatal defect (PC). Animals were allowed to grow for 6 months and the results were analyzed morphologically (palate mucosa and bone size) and histologically. Results show that palatal mucosa and bone growth and development were significantly altered in NC and AS animals, whereas BOM animals had similar results to PC and the bioengineered oral mucosa was properly integrated in the host palate. The amount and compaction of collagen fibers was similar between BOM and PC, and both groups of animals had comparable contents of proteoglycans and glycoproteins at the palate bone. No differences were found for decorin, osteocalcin and BMP2. The use of bioengineered oral mucosa substitutes is able to improve palate growth and maturation by preventing the alterations found in animals with denuded palate bone. These results support the potential clinical usefulness of BOM substitutes for the treatment of patients with cleft palate and other conditions in which palate mucosa grafts are necessary with consequent bone denudation.

  6. Substitute and Communication Pattern for an Internet Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meiappane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The design patterns are the reusable component used in the development of the software, which delivers enhanced quality software to the end users. The design patterns are available for user interface, mobile applications, text classification and so on. There are no design patterns for internet banking applications. This motivated to mine the design patterns for internet banking application from the document of Business Process Management (BPM by using the qualitative research technique. The nonfunctional quality attribute of software architecture is enhanced by using the design patterns. In this paper the mined two patterns are presented namely substitute pattern and communication pattern for internet banking application.

  7. Electric Control Substituting Pitch Control for Large Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Kjellin

    2013-01-01

    turbine has fixed pitch and is only controlled electrically accommodated by passive stall of the blades. By electrically controlling the generator rotational speed with the inverter, passive stall regulation is enabled. The first results on experimental verification of stall regulation in gusty wind speeds are presented. The experiments show that the control system can keep the turbine rotational speed constant even at very gusty winds. It is concluded that electrical control accommodated by passive stall is sufficient as control of the wind turbine even at high wind speeds and can substitute mechanical control such as blade pitch.

  8. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P L; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-05-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene also specifically induce GxC leads to TxA transversions. PMID:6405385

  9. Base substitution mutations induced by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, P. L.; Eisenstadt, E; Miller, J H

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the base substitutions generated by metabolically activated aflatoxin B1 in the lacI gene of a uvrB- strain of Escherichia coli. By monitoring over 70 different nonsense mutation sites, we show that activated aflatoxin B1 specifically induced GxC leads to TxA transversions. One possible pathway leading to this base change involves depurination at guanine residues. We consider this mechanism of mutagenesis in the light of our other findings that the carcinogens benzo[a]pyren...

  10. Synthesis and psychotropic activity of functionally substituted diaziridines and bisdiaziridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostyanovskii, R.G.; Shustov, G.V.; Nabiev, O.G.; Denisenko, S.N.; Sukhanova, S.A.; Lavretskaya, E.F.

    1987-04-01

    The authors examine the psychotropic activity of diaziridines which differ considerable in their structures and the C- and N-substituents. Diaziridines are monoamine oxidase inhibitors in the brain and, thus, are potential antidepressants. The acute toxicities and some pharmacological effects of diaziridines are shown. Mice were used in the experiments. The bisdiaziridines obtained differ in their /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C NMR spectra. The effect is presented of functionally substituted diaziridines on the effects of reserpine, 5-hydroxytryptophan, tryptamine, corazole, and apomorphine hypothermia.

  11. Two new diphenylmethyl-substituted xanthones from Seicuridaca longepedunculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibwe, Dya Fita; Awale, Suresh; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Morita, Hiroyuki; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2014-05-01

    Two new diphenylmethyl-substituted xanthones, named muchimangins K (1) and L (2), have been isolated from the roots of Securidaca longepedunculata (Polygalaceae) collected in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Their structures were established by analyses of the spectral data, including 2D NMR spectra, to be 1 ,3,6,8-tetrahydroxy-2.5-dimethoxy-4-[ -(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-1-phenylmethyl]xanthone (1) and 1,3,6-trihydroxy-4,7-dimethoxy-2-[1-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)- 1-phenylmethyl]xanthone (2). PMID:25026713

  12. STEGANOGRAPHY FOR TWO AND THREE LSBs USING EXTENDED SUBSTITUTION ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Gutte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Security of data on internet has become a prior thing. Though any message is encrypted using a stronger cryptography algorithm, it cannot avoid the suspicion of intruder. This paper proposes an approach in such way that, data is encrypted using Extended Substitution Algorithm and then this cipher text is concealed at two or three LSB positions of the carrier image. This algorithm covers almost all type of symbols and alphabets. The encrypted text is concealed variably into the LSBs. Therefore, it is a stronger approach. The visible characteristics of the carrier image before and after concealment remained almost the same. The algorithm has been implemented using Matlab.

  13. Novel C-1 Substituted Cocaine Analogs Unlike Cocaine or Benztropine

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, Maarten E.A.; Ali, Solav; Hashim, Audrey; Sheikh, Imran S.; Theddu, Naresh; Gaddiraju, Narendra V.; Mehrotra, Suneet; Schmitt, Kyle C.; Murray, Thomas F.; Sershen, Henry; Unterwald, Ellen M.; Davis, Franklin A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information on cocaine-like compounds, there is no information on cocaine analogs with substitutions at C-1. Here, we report on (R)-(−)-cocaine analogs with various C-1 substituents: methyl (2), ethyl (3), n-propyl (4), n-pentyl (5), and phenyl (6). Analog 2 was equipotent to cocaine as an inhibitor of the dopamine transporter (DAT), whereas 3 and 6 were 3- and 10-fold more potent, respectively. None of the analogs, however, stimulated mouse locomotor activity, in contrast...

  14. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymurski, S. R.; Hawley, M.; Hourahan, G. C.; Godwin, D. S.

    1994-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  15. Transetherification on polyols by intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Muraoka

    Full Text Available Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethylpropane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield.

  16. Exposed tibial bone after burns: Flap reconstruction versus dermal substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Jozef; Hoeksema, Henk; Pirayesh, Ali; Van Landuyt, Koenraad; Monstrey, Stan

    2016-03-01

    A 44 years old male patient had suffered extensive 3rd degree burns on both legs, undergoing thorough surgical debridement, resulting in both tibias being exposed. Approximately 5 months after the incident he was referred to the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of the University Hospital Gent, Belgium, to undergo flap reconstruction. Free flap surgery was performed twice on both lower legs but failed on all four occasions. In between flap surgery, a dermal substitute (Integra(®)) was applied, attempting to cover the exposed tibias with a layer of soft tissue, but also without success. In order to promote the development of granulation tissue over the exposed bone, small holes were drilled in both tibias with removal of the outer layer of the anterior cortex causing the bone to bleed and subsequently negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was applied. The limited granulation tissue resulting from this procedure was then covered with a dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)), consisting of acellular human dermis with an average thickness of 0.25mm. This dermal substitute was combined with a NPWT-dressing, and then served as an extracellular matrix (ECM), guiding the distribution of granulation tissue over the remaining areas of exposed tibial bone. Four days after initial application of Glyaderm(®) combined with NPWT both tibias were almost completely covered with a thin coating of soft tissue. In order to increase the thickness of this soft tissue cover two additional layers of Glyaderm(®) were applied at intervals of approximately 1 week. One week after the last Glyaderm(®) application both wounds were autografted. The combination of an acellular dermal substitute (Glyaderm(®)) with negative pressure wound therapy and skin grafting proved to be an efficient technique to cover a wider area of exposed tibial bone in a patient who was not a candidate for free flap surgery. An overview is also provided of newer and simpler techniques for coverage of

  17. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Skin Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Castagnoli

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at producing and evaluating a new cutaneous biosubstitute made up of alloplastic acellular glycerolized dermis (AAGD and CEA to overcome these difficulties. A procedure that maintained an intact basement membrane was developed, so as to promote adhesion and growth of CEA on AAGD. Keratinocytes were seeded onto AAGD and cultured up to 21 days. Viability tests and immunohistochemical analysis with specific markers were carried out at 7, 14, and 21 days, to evaluate keratinocyte adhesion, growth, and maturation. Our results support the hypothesis that this newly formed skin substitute could allow its permanent engraftment in clinical application.

  18. Pyridine radical cation and its fluorine substituted derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondybey, V.E.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The spectra and relaxation of the pyridine cation and of several of its fluorinated derivatives are studied in low temperature Ne matrices. The ions are generated by direct photoionization of the parent compounds. Of the compounds studied, laser induced → and → fluorescence is observed only for the 2, 6‐difluoropyridine cation. The analysis of the spectrum indicates that the ion is planar both in the and states. The large variety in the spectroscopic and relaxation behavior of fluoropyridine radical cations is explained in terms of their electronic structure and of the differential shifts of the individual electronic states caused by the fluorine substitution.

  19. QSBR study of substituted phenols and benzoic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The biodegradability of 30 substituted phenols and benzoic acids was determined by BOD technique. The molecular weight (MW), heat of formation (Hf) and the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (EHOMO) of the studied compounds were calculated by the quantum chemical method MOPAC6.0-AM1. The quantitative structure-biodegradability relationships (QSBRs) were developed by the linear regression method and neural network approach, respectively. It has been shown that the neural network method is able to provide a superior fit to the training set data and test se t data and produce a lower prediction error than the linear regression method.

  20. Boson Normal Ordering via Substitutions and Sheffer-type Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Blasiak, P; Penson, K A; Duchamp, G H E; Solomon, A I

    2005-01-01

    We solve the boson normal ordering problem for (q(a*)a + v(a*))^n with arbitrary functions q and v and integer n, where a and a* are boson annihilation and creation operators, satisfying [a,a*]=1. This leads to exponential operators generalizing the shift operator and we show that their action can be expressed in terms of substitutions. Our solution is naturally related through the coherent state representation to the exponential generating functions of Sheffer-type polynomials. This in turn opens a vast arena of combinatorial methodology which is applied to boson normal ordering and illustrated by a few examples.