WorldWideScience

Sample records for c161t substitution alters

  1. Surface tension alteration on calcite, induced by ion substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi; Andersson, Martin Peter; Bechgaard, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    , where particles are smaller than the smallest droplet? We investigated the energy required to exchange Mg2+ and SO4 2- from aqueous solution into calcite {10.4} surfaces using density functional theory. Mg2+ substitution for Ca2+ is favored but only when SO4 2- is also present and MgSO4 incorporates...... the pore water. Incorporation of MgSO4 into calcite, which is energetically favored, decreases surface tension and releases polar oil compounds. © 2014 American Chemical Society....

  2. Correlation between Peroxisome Proliferator - Activated Receptor γC161T Gene Polymorphism and Low Birth Weight Infants%过氧化物酶增殖激活受体γC161T基因多态性与低出生体质量新生儿的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文静; 陈守航; 高莉丽; 张培林; 张华; 陈英; 郑明慈

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨基因过氧化物酶增殖激活受体( PPAR)γ C161T多态性对低出生体质量新生儿的影响.方法 用横断面调查法,使用统一的调查表,对入住本院分娩的孕妇及其单胎、活胎的低出生体质量儿和健康对照新生儿进行凋查,共得到有效样本268个母亲-新生儿对,并根据出生体质量和孕周进行分组,分为健康对照组和低出生体质量组,其中低出生体质量组包括早产儿组和小于胎龄儿组.使用多聚酶链-限制性片段长度多态性(PCR-RFLP)方法检测其外周血基因PPARγ C161T单核苷酸多态性,分析不同基因型对其低出生体质量的影响.结果 1.根据双变量Logistic回归分析得出低出生体质最与父母的受教育水平、职业、家庭居住环境和氛围及维生素的补充相关,相关系数分别为-0.434、-0.337、-0.343、-0.269、-0.691、0.296、0.235.2.PPARγC161T多态性CC型、CT型与TT型基因频率分布在健康对照组、小于胎龄儿组和早产儿组分别为53.33%、14.44%、21.11%,75.00%、18.18%、6.82%和76.67%、20.00%、3.33%,早产儿组和小于胎龄儿组比较均无统计学差异,但与健康对照组比较均有统计学差异.携带C等位基因增加低出生体质量的风险,低出生体质量组携带CC基因型风险与健康出生体质量儿的OR值分别为1.93895% CI:1.001~3.750,P=0.002)、2.122(95% CI:1.091 ~4.127,P=0.000).结论 低出生体质量是环境和遗传因素共同作用的结果,PPARγ C161T多态性与低出生体质量有关,C等位基因可能是低出生体质量的遗传易感基因.%Objective To study the relationship of the peroxisome proliferator - activated receptor(PPAR)γ C161T gene polymorphism and low birth weight infants. Methods A cross - sectional survey was performed by using a unified questionnaire to investigate and control a total effective sample of 268 mothers - newborns from the Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical

  3. Exposure to the BPA-Substitute Bisphenol S Causes Unique Alterations of Germline Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichang; Shu, Le; Qiu, Zhiqun; Lee, Dong Yeon; Settle, Sara J; Que Hee, Shane; Telesca, Donatello; Yang, Xia; Allard, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    Concerns about the safety of Bisphenol A, a chemical found in plastics, receipts, food packaging and more, have led to its replacement with substitutes now found in a multitude of consumer products. However, several popular BPA-free alternatives, such as Bisphenol S, share a high degree of structural similarity with BPA, suggesting that these substitutes may disrupt similar developmental and reproductive pathways. We compared the effects of BPA and BPS on germline and reproductive functions using the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that, similarly to BPA, BPS caused severe reproductive defects including germline apoptosis and embryonic lethality. However, meiotic recombination, targeted gene expression, whole transcriptome and ontology analyses as well as ToxCast data mining all indicate that these effects are partly achieved via mechanisms distinct from BPAs. These findings therefore raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives and the risk associated with human exposure to mixtures. PMID:27472198

  4. Substitution of Val72 residue alters the enantioselectivity and activity of Penicillium expansum lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lianghua; Su, Min; Zhu, Ling; Chi, Liying; Zhang, Junling; Zhou, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Error-prone PCR was used to create more active or enantioselective variants of Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL). A variant with a valine to glycine substitution at residue 72 in the lid structure exhibited higher activity and enantioselectivity than those of wild-type PEL. Site-directed saturation mutagenesis was used to explore the sequence-function relationship and the substitution of Val72 of P. expansum lipase changed both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity greatly. The variant V72A, displayed a highest enantioselectivity enhanced to about twofold for the resolution of (R, S)-naproxen (E value increased from 104 to 200.7 for wild-type PEL and V72A variant, respectively). In comparison to PEL, the variant V72A showed a remarkable increase in specific activity towards p-nitrophenyl palmitate (11- and 4-fold increase at 25 and 35 °C, respectively) whereas it had a decreased thermostability. The results suggest that the enantioselective variant V72A could be used for the production of pharmaceutical drugs such as enantiomerically pure (S)-naproxen and the residue Val 72 of P. expansum lipase plays a significant role in the enantioselectivity and activity of this enantioselective lipase. PMID:22972595

  5. Alteration of alpha 1 Na+,K(+)-ATPase 86Rb+ influx by a single amino acid substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium- and potassium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) maintains the transmembrane Na+ gradient to which is coupled all active cellular transport systems. The R and S alleles of the gene encoding the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 subunit isoform were identified in Dahl salt-resistant (DR) and Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats, respectively. Characterization of the S allele-specific Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1 complementary DNA identified a leucine substitution of glutamine at position 276. This mutation alters the hydropathy profile of a region in proximity to T3(Na), the trypsin-sensitive site that is only detected in the presence of Na+. This mutation causes a decrease in the rubidium-86 influx of S allele-specific sodium pumps, thus marking a domain in the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit important for K+ transport, and supporting the hypothesis of a putative role of these pumps in hypertension

  6. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. ► Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. ► Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. ► This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CSαβ-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized α-helical and β-sheet (CSαβ) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 μM. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  7. Alteration of the mode of antibacterial action of a defensin by the amino-terminal loop substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bin [Group of Animal Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, 100101 Beijing (China); Zhu, Shunyi, E-mail: Zhusy@ioz.ac.cn [Group of Animal Innate Immunity, State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, 100101 Beijing (China)

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M is an engineered fungal defensin with the n-loop of an insect defensin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M adopts a native defensin-like structure with high antibacterial potency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-M kills bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This work sheds light on the functional evolution of CS{alpha}{beta}-type defensins. -- Abstract: Ancient invertebrate-type and classical insect-type defensins (AITDs and CITDs) are two groups of evolutionarily related antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that adopt a conserved cysteine-stabilized {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet (CS{alpha}{beta}) fold with a different amino-terminal loop (n-loop) size and diverse modes of antibacterial action. Although they both are identified as inhibitors of cell wall biosynthesis, only CITDs evolved membrane disruptive ability by peptide oligomerization to form pores. To understand how this occurred, we modified micasin, a fungus-derived AITDs with a non-membrane disruptive mechanism, by substituting its n-loop with that of an insect-derived CITDs. After air oxidization, the synthetic hybrid defensin (termed Al-M) was structurally identified by circular dichroism (CD) and functionally evaluated by antibacterial and membrane permeability assays and electronic microscopic observation. Results showed that Al-M folded into a native-like defensin structure, as determined by its CD spectrum that is similar to that of micasin. Al-M was highly efficacious against the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium with a lethal concentration of 1.76 {mu}M. As expected, in contrast to micasin, Al-M killed the bacteria through a membrane disruptive mechanism of action. The alteration in modes of action supports a key role of the n-loop extension in assembling functional surface of CITDs for membrane disruption. Our work provides mechanical evidence for evolutionary relationship between AITDs and CITDs.

  8. Genetic analysis of central carbon metabolism unveils an amino acid substitution that alters maize NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengyi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central carbon metabolism (CCM is a fundamental component of life. The participating genes and enzymes are thought to be structurally and functionally conserved across and within species. Association mapping utilizes a rich history of mutation and recombination to achieve high resolution mapping. Therefore, applying association mapping in maize (Zea mays ssp. mays, the most diverse model crop species, to study the genetics of CCM is a particularly attractive system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a maize diversity panel to test the CCM functional conservation. We found heritable variation in enzyme activity for every enzyme tested. One of these enzymes was the NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, E.C. 1.1.1.41, in which we identified a novel amino-acid substitution in a phylogenetically conserved site. Using candidate gene association mapping, we identified that this non-synonymous polymorphism was associated with IDH activity variation. The proposed mechanism for the IDH activity variation includes additional components regulating protein level. With the comparison of sequences from maize and teosinte (Zea mays ssp. Parviglumis, the maize wild ancestor, we found that some CCM genes had also been targeted for selection during maize domestication. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the efficacy of association mapping for dissecting natural variation in primary metabolic pathways. The considerable genetic diversity observed in maize CCM genes underlies heritable phenotypic variation in enzyme activities and can be useful to identify putative functional sites.

  9. Very early posttraumatic serum alterations are significantly associated to initial massive RBC substitution, injury severity, multiple organ failure and adverse clinical outcome in multiple injured patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogner V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple severe trauma frequently leads to massive dysbalances of the human immune system. This phenomenon is known as "Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS". SIRS is connected to multiple organ failure and thereby entails higher morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 seem to play a superior role in the development of SIRS. Several studies support the hypothesis that the very early cytokine release pattern determines the patients' subsequent clinical course. Most data about interleukins in trauma patients however refer to serum concentrations assessed sometime in the first 24 h, but there is only little information about release dynamics in a small-meshed time frame in the very initial post-trauma period. Patients and methods 58 multiple injured patients (Injury Severity Score > 16 points were included. Blood samples were drawn on patient admission (not later then 90 minutes after trauma and at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 were measured using an automated chemiluminescence assay (IMMULITE, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics GmbH. Interleukin levels were correlated to distinct epidemiological and clinical parameters. Results Interleukin serum concentrations are thoroughly elevated after trauma. Patients with haemorrhagic shock and consecutive massive RBC substitution (n = 27 exhibit higher Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 levels as compared to patients with minor RBC transfusion extent (n = 31. Interleukin levels also differentiate patients with MOF (n = 43 from such without MOF (n = 15 already at the earliest post trauma time (90 minutes. Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 concentrations also significantly distinguish patients with adverse outcome (n = 11 from such with favourable outcome (n = 47. Exclusively Il-10 has significant correlation to injury severity (ISS > 35. Conclusion The current study presents an image of the serum Il-6, 8 and 10 releases

  10. Substitutional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  11. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  12. Solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general ''Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated

  13. Skin Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Zavan, Barbara; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Cortivo, Roberta; Abatangelo, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    The many studies conducted so far reveal that Tissue Engineering of the skin is only at the beginning of its use in human applications. Burns patients were the first targets for such tissue substitutes, then chronic diseases, such as venous ulcers, have followed. The more experience is gained from the surgeon, the more feedback for the basic scientist to improve the product and to broaden clinical indications. Nowadays, progress in cell culture and biomedical material technologies have added ...

  14. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rölfing, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes...

  15. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  16. Fractal dual substitution tilings

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Natalie Priebe; Webster, Samuel B. G.; Whittaker, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Starting with a substitution tiling, we demonstrate a method for constructing infinitely many new substitution tilings. Each of these new tilings is derived from a graph iterated function system and the tiles have fractal boundary. We show that each of the new tilings is mutually locally derivable to the original tiling. Thus, at the tiling space level, the new substitution rules are expressing geometric and combinatorial, rather than topological, features of the original. Our method is easy ...

  17. Syndeticity and independent substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    We associate in a canonical way a substitution to any abstract numeration system built on a regular language. In relationship with the growth order of the letters, we define the notion of two independent substitutions. Our main result is the following. If a sequence $x$ is generated by two independent substitutions, at least one being of exponential growth, then the factors of $x$ appearing infinitely often in $x$ appear with bounded gaps. As an application, we derive an analogue of Cobham's theorem for two independent substitutions (or abstract numeration systems) one with polynomial growth, the other being exponential.

  18. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  19. 40 CFR 721.981 - Substituted naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. 721.981 Section 721.981 Protection of Environment...-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex. (a) Chemical substance and significant new... naphtholoazo-substituted naphthalenyl-substituted azonaphthol chromium complex (PMN P-93-1631) is subject...

  20. Cobham's theorem for substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Fabien

    2010-01-01

    The seminal theorem of Cobham has given rise during the last 40 years to a lot of works around non-standard numeration systems and has been extended to many contexts. In this paper, as a result of fifteen years of improvements, we obtain a complete and general version for the so-called substitutive sequences. Let $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ be two multiplicatively independent Perron numbers. Then, a sequence $x\\in A^\\mathbb{N}$, where $A$ is a finite alphabet, is both $\\alpha$-substitutive and $\\beta$-substitutive if and only if $x$ is ultimately periodic.

  1. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  2. The substitutability of reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E

    1993-07-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportion. At the center of the continuum are reinforcers that are independent with respect to each other; consumption of one has no influence on consumption of another. Psychological research and analyses in terms of substitutability employ standard operant conditioning paradigms in which humans and nonhumans choose between alternative reinforcers. The range of reinforcer interactions found in these studies is more readily accommodated and predicted when behavior-analytic models of choice consider issues of substitutability. New insights are gained into such areas as eating and drinking, electrical brain stimulation, temporal separation of choice alternatives, behavior therapy, drug use, and addictions. Moreover, the generalized matching law (Baum, 1974) gains greater explanatory power and comprehensiveness when measures of substitutability are included. PMID:16812696

  3. Geometric realizations of substitutive tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bedaride, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    We define 2-dimensional topological substitutions. A tiling of the Euclidean plane, or of the hyperbolic plane, is substitutive if the underlying 2-complex can be obtained by iteration of a 2-dimensional topological substitution. We prove that there is no primitive substitutive tiling of the hyperbolic plane $\\mathbb{H}^2$. However, we give an example of substitutive tiling of $\\Hyp^2$ which is non-primitive.

  4. [Delegation yes, substitution no!].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, A

    2014-08-01

    The aging of society leads on the one hand to increasing case numbers and on the other hand to a reduction in the number of physicians available for patient treatment. The delegation and substitution of medical duties as a tried and tested method is increasingly being recommended in order to compensate for the lack of physicians. The Berufsverband der Deutschen Urologen (BDU, Professional Association of German Urologists) supports the guiding principle of the Bundesärztekammer (Federal Medical Council) of "delegation yes, substitution no" and rejects a substitution of medical duties by non-medical academic health personnel. Against the background of the demographic changes, the increasing need for treatment and the current deficiency of junior physicians, a more extensive inclusion of well-qualified and experienced non-medical personnel by the delegation of medically responsible duties (medical scope of practice) can be an appropriate measure to maintain a good medical service in practices, hospitals and nursing homes. PMID:25047595

  5. Saving Outweighs Substituting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sophia

    2007-01-01

    @@ Energy crisis has become great challenge to the whole world.As the vehicle population keeps soaring in China,effectie countermeasures should be taken timely to deal with global energy crisis.There are two ways out:one is to substitute and one is to save.

  6. Multifaceted Material Substitution: The Case of NdFeB Magnets, 2010-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Eggert, Roderick G.

    2016-07-01

    Substitution is an important response for material users when faced with disruption to the availability or price of an essential material. In economic terms, substitution refers to the ability of firms to alter their patterns of material use in response to exogenous market shocks. Substitution comes in different forms which vary from situation to situation. This paper uses expert opinion to identify the specific forms of substitution that occurred in permanent magnets, specifically neodymium-iron-boron magnets, following the significant increase in rare earth prices in 2010-2011. The paper provides a framework for understanding the multifaceted nature of substitution and assesses the relative importance of five different types of substitution. Technology-for-element, grade-for-grade, and system-for-system substitution appear to have been more important than element-for-element and magnet-for-magnet substitution. Cost pass-through and absorption were also important responses.

  7. Multifaceted Material Substitution: The Case of NdFeB Magnets, 2010-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Eggert, Roderick G.

    2016-04-01

    Substitution is an important response for material users when faced with disruption to the availability or price of an essential material. In economic terms, substitution refers to the ability of firms to alter their patterns of material use in response to exogenous market shocks. Substitution comes in different forms which vary from situation to situation. This paper uses expert opinion to identify the specific forms of substitution that occurred in permanent magnets, specifically neodymium-iron-boron magnets, following the significant increase in rare earth prices in 2010-2011. The paper provides a framework for understanding the multifaceted nature of substitution and assesses the relative importance of five different types of substitution. Technology-for-element, grade-for-grade, and system-for-system substitution appear to have been more important than element-for-element and magnet-for-magnet substitution. Cost pass-through and absorption were also important responses.

  8. Selfdual Substitutions in Dimension One

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valérie; Sirvent, Victor

    2011-01-01

    There are several notions of the 'dual' of a word/tile substitution. We show that the most common ones are equivalent for substitutions in dimension one, where we restrict ourselves to the case of two letters/tiles. Furthermore, we obtain necessary and sufficient arithmetic conditions for substitutions being selfdual in this case.

  9. Consistency of multidimensional combinatorial substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jolivet, Timo

    2011-01-01

    Multidimensional combinatorial substitutions are rules that replace symbols by finite patterns of symbols in Z^d. We focus on the case where the patterns are not necessarily rectangular, which requires a specific description of the way they are glued together in the image by a substitution. Two problems can arise when defining a substitution in such a way: it can fail to be consistent, and the patterns in an image by the substitution might overlap. We prove that it is undecidable whether a two-dimensional substitution is consistent or overlapping, and we provide practical algorithms to decide these properties in some particular cases.

  10. 40 CFR 721.10126 - Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl amino substituted triazine amino... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato azo... substituted triazine amino substituted benezenesulfonic acid reaction product with naphthalenesulfonato...

  11. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt (generic). 721.2577 Section 721.2577... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  12. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  13. Correlated alteration effects in CM carbonaceous chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lauren B.; McSween, Harry Y., Jr.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1996-07-01

    Three parameters are proposed to determine the relative extent of alteration in CM chondrites. The mineralogic alteration index monitors the relative progress of coupled substitutions in the progressive alteration of cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine and increases with increasing alteration. To calculate values of this index, an algorithm has been developed to estimate the average matrix phyllosilicate composition in individual CM chondrites. The second parameter is the volume percent of isolated matrix silicates, which decreases with progressive alteration due to mineral hydration. Finally, the volume percent of chondrule alteration monitors the extent of chondrule phyllosilicate production and increases as alteration proceeds. These parameters define the first CM alteration scale that relies on multiple indicators of progressive alteration. The following relative order of increasing alteration is established by this model: Murchison ≤ Bells Cochabamba and Boriskino experienced is less precisely constrained, although both fall near the middle of this sequence. A comparison between the mineralogic alteration index and literature values for the whole-rock chemistry of CM chondrites reveals several correlations. A positive, nearly linear correlation between bulk H content and progressive CM alteration suggests an approximately constant production rate of new phyllosilicates relative to the mineralogical transition from cronstedtite to Mg-serpentine. The abundance of trapped planetary 36Ar decreases systematically in progressively altered CM chondrites, suggesting the wholesale destruction of primary noble gas carrier phase (s) by aqueous reactions. Because low temperature fluid-rock reactions are generally associated with large isotopic mass fractionation factors, we also compared our model predictions with δ18O values for bulk CM samples. Although some of these data are poorly resolved, the order of increasing δ18O values approximates the order of increasing

  14. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  15. How Substitutable Is Natural Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Markandya, Anil; Pedroso, S.

    2006-01-01

    One of the recurring themes in the sustainability literature has been the legitimacy of using an economic framework to account for natural resources. This paper examines the potential for substituting between different inputs in the generation of income, where the inputs include natural resources such as land and energy resources. A nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function is used to allow flexibility in the estimated elasticities of substitution. Also, with this s...

  16. Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Hajek, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.

  17. Preparation and characterization of selenite substituted hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenite-substituted hydroxyapatite (Se-HA) with different Se/P ratios was synthesized by a co-precipitation method, using sodium selenite (Na2SeO3) as a Se source. Selenium has been incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice by partially replacing phosphate (PO43−) groups with selenite (SeO32−) groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques reveal that substitutions of phosphate groups by selenite groups cause lower carbonate groups occupying at phosphate sites and change the lattice parameters of hydroxyapatite. The powders obtained are nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite when the Se/P ratios are not more than 0.1. The particle shape of Se-HA has not been altered compared with selenite-free hydroxyapatite but Se-incorporation reduces the crystallite size. The crystallinity was reduced as the Se/P ratios increased until amorphous phase (Se/P = 0.3) appeared in the Se-HA powder obtained, and then another crystal phase presented as calcium selenite hydrate (Se/P = 10). In addition, the sintering tests show that the Se-HA powders with the Se/P ratio of 0.1 have thermal stability at 900 °C for 2 h; hence they have great potential in the fabrication of bone repair scaffolds. - Highlights: ► We investigate the Se/P ratio for the synthesis of selenium substituted HA. ► Nano-crystalline HA structure is remained when Se/P ratio is below 0.1. ► Calcium selenite hydrate forms when Se/P ratio is beyond 10. ► Selenite substituted HA powders (Se/P < 0.1) are stable at 900 °C for 2 h.

  18. Study of substitution limit, structural, bulk magnetic and electrical properties of Ca2+ substituted magnesium ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The percentage substitution of large cation like Ca2+ for Mg2+ in MgFe2O4 without altering the cubic symmetry and its effect on structural, bulk magnetic and electrical properties have been investigated for Mg1-xCaxFe2O4 (x=0.0-0.35) spinel ferrite system by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), magnetization, ac susceptibility and dc resistivity measurements. It is found that a maximum of 23% of Ca2+ can be substituted for Mg2+. The variation of magneton number with x can be explained on the basis of Neel's collinear spin model. The Neel temperature determined through ac susceptibility and dc resistivity measurements agree with those calculated theoretically. The variation of electrical resistivity go hand in hand with the variation of the activation energy with the Ca-content

  19. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan

    2016-06-01

    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. PMID:26483140

  20. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  1. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jeannin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me 3 3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF32(TCNQ was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4− anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3(FeCl4, the (EDT-TTF-CF3+• radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state.

  2. 40 CFR 721.9545 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9545 Substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt... identified generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted sulfocarbopolycle, sodium salt (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenyl azo substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3063 Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl... chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs...

  5. Molybdenum, Tungsten, and Aluminium Substitution for Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Performance of Higher Manganese Silicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhi Truong, D. Y.; Berthebaud, David; Gascoin, Franck; Kleinke, Holger

    2015-10-01

    An easy and efficient process involving ball milling under soft conditions and spark plasma sintering was used to synthesize higher manganese silicide (HMS)-based compounds, for example MnSi1.75Ge0.02, with different molybdenum, tungsten, and aluminium substitution. The x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples after sintering showed the main phase to be HMS with the presence of some side products. Molybdenum substitution enlarges the unit cells more than tungsten substitution, owing to its greater solubility in the HMS structure, whereas substitution with aluminium did not substantially alter the cell parameters. The electrical resistivity of HMS-based compounds was reduced by <10% by this substitution, because of increased carrier concentrations. Changes of the Seebeck coefficient were insignificant after molybdenum and aluminium substitution whereas tungsten substitution slightly reduced the thermopower of the base material by approximately 8% over the whole temperature range; this was ascribed to reduced carrier mobility as a result of enhanced scattering. Substitution with any combination of two of these elements resulted in no crucial modification of the electrical properties of the base material. Large decreases of lattice thermal conductivity were observed, because of enhanced phonon scattering, with the highest reduction up to 25% for molybdenum substitution; this resulted in a 20% decrease of total thermal conductivity, which contributed to improvement of the figure of merit ZT of the HMS-based materials. The maximum ZT value was approximately 0.40 for the material with 2 at.% molybdenum substitution at the Mn sites.

  6. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat and cholesterol . It also limits salt, refined sugar, and processed foods. Making heart-healthy food choices does not mean you have to sacrifice flavor. The key is to substitute less healthy foods with fresh produce, whole grains, ...

  7. NMR a substitute for CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) can be a substitute for CT (Computerized Tomography), is described. NMR focus on the nuclei in the atoms of certain elements, for example hydrogen

  8. Population Policy: Abortion and Modern Contraception Are Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Grant; Valente, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is longstanding debate in population policy about the relationship between modern contraception and abortion. Although theory predicts that they should be substitutes, the existing body of empirical evidence is difficult to interpret. What is required is a large‐scale intervention that alters the supply (or full price) of one or the other – and importantly, does so in isolation (reproductive health programs often bundle primary health care and family planning – and in some instances, ab...

  9. Testing Substitutability of Weak Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Haris; Brill, Markus; Harrenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In many-to-many matching models, substitutable preferences constitute the largest domain for which a pairwise stable matching is guaranteed to exist. In this note, we extend the recently proposed algorithm of Hatfield et al. [3] to test substitutability of weak preferences. Interestingly, the algorithm is faster than the algorithm of Hatfield et al. by a linear factor on the domain of strict preferences.

  10. Amalgam substitutes: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, Felix; Krejci, Ivo

    2000-01-01

    Quality standards for restorations recently have been defined in Switzerland. Amalgam substitutes must meet restoration Grade 2 requirements (i.e., pulp and dental hard substance must be preserved, and both form and function of the tooth have to be reconstituted). The pertinent operative technique has to be simple and amalgam-like. A minimum service life of 8 years is required. This in vitro study investigated the clinical potential of several amalgam substitutes, taking into account the oper...

  11. Point substitutions in Japanese alloalbumins.

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, K.; Madison, J; Huss, K; Ishioka, N; Satoh, C; Fujita, M.; Neel, J. V.; Sakurabayashi, I; Putnam, F W

    1989-01-01

    We have completed the structural study of five rare types of inherited albumin variants (alloalbumins) discovered in the Biochemical Genetics Study of 15,581 unrelated children in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We have also identified the structural change in five other alloalbumin specimens detected during clinical electrophoresis of sera from Japanese living near Tokyo. Each of the five albumin variants from Nagasaki and Hiroshima has a single amino acid substitution. All of these substitutions di...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 43 - Major Alterations, Major Repairs, and Preventive Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...); and 14 CFR 11.45) ... compression ratio, propeller reduction gear, impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts... alterations: (i) Changes in blade design. (ii) Changes in hub design. (iii) Changes in the governor or...

  13. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of...... performed equally well on all tissues tested. While several of the commercial fixatives appeared to preserve liver tissue at 200x, the preservation of kidney, intestinal villi, and smooth muscle was unacceptable. Histological distortion, cell shrinkage and vacuolization were prominent when the substitutes...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  14. Substitution systems and nonextensive statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, V.

    2015-12-01

    Substitution systems evolve in time by generating sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet: At a certain iteration step, the existing symbols are systematically replaced by blocks of Nk symbols also within the alphabet (with Nk, a natural number, being the length of the kth block of the substitution). The dynamics of these systems leads naturally to fractals and self-similarity. By using B-calculus (García-Morales, 2012) universal maps for deterministic substitution systems both of constant and non-constant length, are formulated in 1D. It is then shown how these systems can be put in direct correspondence with Tsallis entropy. A 'Second Law of Thermodynamics' is also proved for these systems in the asymptotic limit of large words.

  15. THE PROBLEM OF SENSES SUBSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreshkina M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with problems of substitution of senses and notions in the science and in the social life. Such processes result not only in distortion of the scientific worldview but also in absolutely undesirable social cataclysms. However, this scientific problem has not been yet worked out to sufficient extent, which hampers preventing the mentioned distortions of the real worldview and brings to unwanted consequences requiring correlation and corrections. The question of senses and notions substitution is not new in the science but it has not been yet sufficiently studied. We know that strictness of thinking must be dearly paid for in loss of flexibility in revaluation of senses, which makes you easily slip into dogmatism. It should be noted that this keeps taking place both in the science itself and in the life of society any science is called to serve. So the science can be hardly imagined without schools of thought. They ensure preservation of certain knowledge, vision, approach and, finally, of a certain school – they are traditions and authority of the science. However, having passed their golden age, when the founder used to be followed after several generations by dogmatists whose genius and talent were far from being so great, a school begins to degrade producing scholasticism by substitution and emasculation of senses and notions and finally destructs itself. The collectivization in the USSR in the 30ies of the 20th century and so-called “extremes” associated with it being that very substitution of sense platforms in its pure form constitutes a rather illustrative example of social manipulation based on the substitution of sense platforms. These activities relating to detection of senses and notions substitution will also be developed in the future. The truth will be approached as before through cleaning the knowledge of the myth, through searching for the original sense or the archetype separated from lie and fabrication

  16. Combinatorial substitutions and sofic tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Fernique, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A combinatorial substitution is a map over tilings which allows to define sets of tilings with a strong hierarchical structure. In this paper, we show that such sets of tilings are sofic, that is, can be enforced by finitely many local constraints. This extends some similar previous results (Mozes'90, Goodmann-Strauss'98) in a much shorter presentation.

  17. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  18. Substitute Students Do a Roaring Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    UniverSity students employ substitutes for a wide range of duties, from attending compulsory morning exercises and classes to writing papers or even love letters, These substitutes advertise their services on campus bulletin boards,

  19. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  20. Substituting oil by electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parting from the development of primary energy use the author refers to the latest investigations and results presented on the 1980 World Energy Conference and with special regard to oil points out the threatening exhaustion of fossil energy resources. Maintaining the economic structure of the Federal Republic of Germany implies an orientation away from oil. Due to its flexible application technology and quasi-inexhaustible energy resources electric power may substantially contribute to oil substitution which as a matter of fact is of particular interest in connection with the heat market. Coal alone cannot substitute both oil and nuclear energy. Thus, the above postulates the use of the latter. Leaving nuclear energy inactive today will effect an increase in the demand for oil the negative consequences of which would weight heavily upon the anyhow unbalanced import/export ratio of the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  1. International Evidence on Sectoral Interfuel Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Vasetsky, Olexandr

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates interfuel substitution elasticities in selected developing and industrialized economies at the sector level. In doing so, it employs state-of-the-art techniques in microeconometrics, particularly the locally flexible normalized quadratic functional form, and provides evidence consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. The results indicate that the interfuel substitution elasticities are consistently below unity, revealing the limited ability to substitute between ...

  2. Substitutes for School Nurses in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollinger, Linda Jeno; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Belmonte-Mann, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore utilization of nurse substitutes in the school setting in Illinois. The literature described personnel who staff the school health office in the absence of the school nurse and the barriers to obtaining nurse substitutes. There were no empirical studies conducted on school nurse substitutes in…

  3. 40 CFR 721.3360 - Substituted ethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethanolamine. 721.3360... Substances § 721.3360 Substituted ethanolamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted ethanolamine (PMN P-91-490)...

  4. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  5. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances § 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  7. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1978-01-01

    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable and not...... and not correlated with auxin strength measured in the Avena coleoptile test....

  8. Substituting Quantum Entanglement for Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Cleve, Richard; Buhrman, Harry

    1997-01-01

    We show that quantum entanglement can be used as a substitute for communication when the goal is to compute a function whose input data is distributed among remote parties. Specifically, we show that, for a particular function among three parties (each of which possesses part of the function's input), a prior quantum entanglement enables one of them to learn the value of the function with only two bits of communication occurring among the parties, whereas, without quantum entanglement, three ...

  9. Geometric realization for substitution tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Given an n-dimensional substitution whose associated linear expansion is unimodular and hyperbolic, we use elements of the one-dimensional integer \\v{C}ech cohomology of the associated tiling space to construct a finite-to-one semi-conjugacy, called geometric realization, between the substitution induced dynamics and an invariant set of a hyperbolic toral automorphism. If the linear expansion satisfies a Pisot family condition and the rank of the module of generalized return vectors equals the generalized degree of the linear expansion, the image of geometric realization is the entire torus and coincides with the map onto the maximal equicontinuous factor of the translation action on the tiling space. We are led to formulate a higher-dimensional generalization of the Pisot Substitution Conjecture: If the linear expansion satisfies the Pisot family condition and the rank of the one-dimensional cohomology of the tiling space equals the generalized degree of the linear expansion, then the translation action on t...

  10. Explicit Substitutions for Contextual Type Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Andreas; 10.4204/EPTCS.34.3

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an explicit substitution calculus which distinguishes between ordinary bound variables and meta-variables. Its typing discipline is derived from contextual modal type theory. We first present a dependently typed lambda calculus with explicit substitutions for ordinary variables and explicit meta-substitutions for meta-variables. We then present a weak head normalization procedure which performs both substitutions lazily and in a single pass thereby combining substitution walks for the two different classes of variables. Finally, we describe a bidirectional type checking algorithm which uses weak head normalization and prove soundness.

  11. MLD Relations of Pisot Substitution Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Gähler, Franz

    2010-01-01

    We consider 1-dimensional, unimodular Pisot substitution tilings with three intervals, and discuss conditions under which pairs of such tilings are locally isomorhphic (LI), or mutually locally derivable (MDL). For this purpose, we regard the substitutions as homomorphisms of the underlying free group with three generators. Then, if two substitutions are conjugated by an inner automorphism of the free group, the two tilings are LI, and a conjugating outer automorphism between two substitutions can often be used to prove that the two tilings are MLD. We present several examples illustrating the different phenomena that can occur in this context. In particular, we show how two substitution tilings can be MLD even if their substitution matrices are not equal, but only conjugate in $GL(n,\\mathbb{Z})$. We also illustrate how the (in our case fractal) windows of MLD tilings can be reconstructed from each other, and discuss how the conjugating group automorphism affects the substitution generating the window boundar...

  12. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Ahmad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  13. Trends in Substitution Models of Molecular Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eArenas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost forty years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis.

  14. Currency substitution, portfolio diversification, and money demand

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Miguel Lebre de; Veiga, Francisco José

    2006-01-01

    We extend the Thomas (1985) dynamic optimising model of money demand and currency substitution to the case in which the individual has restricted or no access to foreign currency denominated bonds. In this case Currency Substitution decisions and Asset Substitution decisions are not separable. The results obtained suggest that the significance of an expected exchange rate depreciation term in the demand for domestic money provides a valid test for the presence of currency subst...

  15. Information Technology and Transportation: Substitutes or Complements?

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Atara Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability and prevalence of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) provides opportunities to use such products as substitutes for transportation. Common examples of this substitution are telecommuting, video conferences, and online classes. However, despite the intuitive appeal of a substitution relationship existing between ICT and transportation, prior research has indicated that the relationship between ICT and transportation is quite complex; at times ICT substit...

  16. The G16319A substitution frequency in a hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawel Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to trace the nucleotide alterations within the D-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA, affecting both the mtDNA ability to replicate and the transcription activity of the coding genes located in the H and L threads, in Caucasian patients with an ischemic and hemorrhagic brain strokes. Materials and Methods: The DNA from the peripheral blood of 85 patients with recent sustained ischemic and primary hemorrhagic brain stroke was analysed. The control group consisted of 24 volunteers. The genetic studies were conducted by the PCR method, with the application of the primers for the tRNA-treonine. Results: In the blood samples examined, 3-striatal mtDNA patterns were detected. Pattern-1 is characterised by the C16126T substitution, pattern-2 by the G16319A substitution, and pattern-3 by the C16242T substitution. The frequency of occurrence for the particular mtDNA-1, -2,and -3 patterns, established for the group with an ischemic stroke (77.3, 15.2, and 7.6%, the group with a hemorrhagic stroke (0, 73.7, and 26.3%, and the control group (75, 0, and 25%, differs significantly. Discussion: The exchange of the nucleotides within the D-loop region may affect both the mtDNA replication ability and the transcription activity of the coding genes located in the H and L threads. A hypothesis might be made. The G16319A mutation may result in the formation of lesions within the vascular wall. These lesions have a tendency to form microaneurysms or other defects, which, in turn, will decrease the strength of the vascular wall, making it more susceptible to ruptures. Conclusion: The G16319A substitution may be considered a factor that increases the risk of a hemorrhagic brain stroke.

  17. Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.

  18. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Martine

    2010-01-01

    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  19. Improving nutrient values of solid heavy phase for corn substitute in poultry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid heavy phase (SHP, a by product material of palm oil factory obtained by ceramic filtration from liquid waste could be produced approximately 2 million tons/year. The by product has a potential for substituting corn in poultry feed. A series of experiment was carried out to improve nutrient value of the SHP in order to obtain a feedstuff that can substitute corn in poultry feed. The SHP was processed by either fermentation or enzymatic process. The product was then dried and analysed for its nutrient values. Fermentation process was carried out by altering the dry matter of the substrate (40 or 50%, while enzymatic process was carried out by altering the dose and kind of enzymes used. The process that produced best nutrient values was considered for producing materials for a feeding trial. In this trial, the products were used in diet formulation to substitute 25 or 50% of the corn included in the control diet. The results showed that the fermentation processed could be conducted with dry matter of substrate at either 40 or 50%. The fermentation process significantly improved the nutrient values of the SHP as shown by decreasing the crude fibre and increasing the crude protein, amino acids and the ME value. The results also showed that the Balitnak enzyme (BS4 was optimum when added at 10 ml/kg dry matter SHP, while the commercial enzyme (EK was optimum at level of 2 g /kg dry matter SHP. Results of feeding trial showed that 25% of corn in layer diet could be substituted with dried SHP or SHP + enzymes. This substitution tended to improve performances (egg production, egg weight and FCR of the laying hens. Substitution of 25 or 50% corn with the fermented SHP tends to reduce the performance of the layinghens. Similar trend also occurred when 50% of the corn was substituted with the enzymaticly processed SHP.

  20. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzothiazole-azo... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5340 Substituted benzothiazole-azo... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...

  1. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  2. A virtual substitution of Brouwer choice sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Step by step a substitution of the well known Brouwer choice sequence will be constructed. It begins with an establishing of quasi alternating prime number series followed by a construction of a virtual sequence in sense of the virtual set definition. The last step gives reasons for why this virtual sequence substitutes the choice sequence created by L. E. J. Brouwer.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF PULVERIZED SLAG-SUBSTITUTED CEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  4. 24 CFR 235.206 - Substitute mortgagors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 235.206... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS FOR HOME OWNERSHIP AND PROJECT REHABILITATION Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.206 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling...

  5. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution, v...

  6. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1990-01-01

    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  7. 29 CFR 500.216 - Substituted service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted service. 500.216 Section 500.216 Labor... Service § 500.216 Substituted service. (a) Pursuant to section 102(5) of the Act, the Secretary, when so designated by a court, shall accept service of summons in any action arising under the Act or...

  8. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...... in our empirical investigation support the predicted role of the elasticity of substitution as we find a significant negative relation between the elasticity of substitution and the final anti-dumping duties for the ‘lesser duty rule’ group of countries. The countries which do not follow the ‘lesser duty...

  9. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.98 and...... 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect to...

  10. Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson, L.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.

  11. 40 CFR 721.5930 - Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic name). 721.5930 Section 721... Phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo(substituted phenyl)azo, sodium salt (generic... identified generically as phenylenebis[imino (chlorotriazinyl)imino(substituted naphthyl)azo...

  12. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M.

    2015-12-01

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.

  13. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: muthu@polysci.umass.edu [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.

  14. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another. PMID:26966228

  15. Spectroscopic study on the photophysical properties of chlorine substituted tetraphenylporphyrinhistidine and its zinc (Ⅱ) complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huijuan; FENG Juan; AI Xicheng; ZHANG Xingkang; YU Zhongheng; ZHANG Jianping

    2003-01-01

    The photophysical properties of ortho-Cl, meta-Cl and para-Cl substituted tetraphenylporphyrin-histidine and their zinc (Ⅱ) complexes have been studied by means of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies, as well as time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. For the cases of both free-base and zinc complexes, it was found that the ortho-chlorine substitution onto the phenyl rings significantly altered the fluorescence quantum yield, the fluorescence lifetime and the ratio between radiative and nonradiative deactivation rates of the porphyrin chromophore, i.e. the photophysical parameters were quite differentfrom those of meta- and para-substi- tuted compounds. On the other hand, however, the introduction of covalently-linked histidine did not exert much effects onthe photophysical behavior of the porphyrin chromophore. The results are interpreted in terms of the steric effect and the heavy-atom effect from the chlorine atoms substituted onto the phenyl rings.

  16. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Halim Ahmad; Khoo Teng; Shah Jumaat

    2010-01-01

    The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substit...

  17. Co-substitution of carbonate and fluoride in hydroxyapatite: Effect on substitution type and content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qing-Xia; Li, Ya-Ming; Han, Dan

    2015-04-01

    The nanosized hydroxyapatite substituted by fluoride and carbonate ions (CFHA) had been synthesized by aqueous precipitation method. CFHA had been considered as potential bone graft material for orthopedic and dental applications. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of simultaneously incorporated CO{3/2-} and F- on the substitution type and content. The morphologies of CFHAs were observed by TEM. The carbonate substitution type and content were characterized by FTIR. The fluoride contents were determined by F-selective electrode. The phase compositions and crystallinity of the samples were investigated by XRD. The fluoride and carbonate contents of CFHA increase with the dopant concentrations nonlinearly. The carbonate substitution has much more obvious effect on morphology compared with the fluoride substitution. The co-existence of CO{3/2-} and F- ions can influence the corresponding substitution fraction. The isomorphic substitution of sodium for calcium in the substitution process of CO{3/2-} can improve crystal degree and favor the B-type substitutions. Due to the closeness of the ion radii and equivalent substitution of F- and OH-, F- will occupy the OH- sites of HA crystals more easily, compelling most of the CO{3/2-} to be located in the B sites.

  18. Orbit equivalent substitution dynamical systems and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Bezuglyi, S

    2012-01-01

    For any primitive proper substitution \\sigma, we give explicit constructions of countably many pairwise non-isomorphic substitution dynamical systems {(X_{\\zeta_n}, T_{\\zeta_n})}_{n=1}^{\\infty} such that they all are (strong) orbit equivalent to (X_{\\sigma}, T_{\\sigma}). We show that the complexity of the substitution dynamical systems {(X_{\\zeta_n}, T_{\\zeta_n})} is essentially different that prevents them from being isomorphic. Given a primitive (not necessarily proper) substitution \\tau, we find a stationary simple properly ordered Bratteli diagram with the least possible number of vertices such that the corresponding Bratteli-Vershik system is orbit equivalent to (X_{\\tau}, T_{\\tau}).

  19. 47 CFR 76.110 - Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... blackout rules at § 76.111, substitute a program from any other television broadcast station. Programs... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Network Non-duplication Protection, Syndicated Exclusivity and Sports...

  20. Substituted hydroxyapatites for biomedical applications: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 8 (2015), s. 9203-9231. ISSN 0272-8842 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatite * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * substitution Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.605, year: 2014

  1. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael; Kristensen, Jesper L

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....

  2. Can unenhanced multiparametric MRI substitute gadolinium-enhanced MRI in the characterization of vertebral marrow infiltrative lesions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Z. Zidan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unenhanced-multiparametric MRI is compatible with gadolinium-enhanced MRI in reliable characterization of marrow infiltrative lesions. The routine MRI protocol of cancer patients should be altered to accommodate the evolving MRI technology and cost effectively substitute the need for a gadolinium enhanced scan.

  3. A Homeomorphism Invariant for Substitution Tiling Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ormes, Nic; Radin, Charles; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2000-01-01

    We derive a homeomorphism invariant for those tiling spaces which are made by rather general substitution rules on polygonal tiles, including those tilings, like the pinwheel, which contain tiles in infinitely many orientations. The invariant is a quotient of Cech cohomology, is easily computed directly from the substitution rule, and distinguishes many examples, including most pinwheel-like tiling spaces. We also introduce a module structure on cohomology which is very convenient as well as ...

  4. Nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatites: synthesis and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.

    1999-01-01

    Incorporation of Mg, S, and plant-essential micronutrients into the structure of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) may be advantageous for closed-loop systems, such as will be required on Lunar and Martian outposts, because these apatites can be used as slow-release fertilizers. Our objective was to synthesize HA with Ca, P, Mg, S, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, and Cl incorporated into the structure, i.e., nutrient-substituted apatites. Hydroxyapatite, carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHA), nutrient-substituted hydroxyapatite (NHA), and nutrient-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (NCHA) were synthesized by precipitating from solution. Chemical and mineralogical analysis of precipitated samples indicated a considerable fraction of the added cations were incorporated into HA, without mineral impurities. Particle size of the HA was in the 1 to 40 nm range, and decreased with increased substitution of nutrient elements. The particle shape of HA was elongated in the c-direction in unsubstituted HA and NHA but more spherical in CHA and NCHA. The substitution of cations and anions in the HA structure was confirmed by the decrease of the d[002] spacing of HA with substitution of ions with an ionic radius less than that of Ca or P. The DTPA-extractable Cu ranged from 8 to 8429 mg kg-1, Zn ranged from 57 to 1279 mg kg-1, Fe from 211 to 2573 mg kg-1, and Mn from 190 to 1719 mg kg-1, depending on the substitution level of each element in HA. Nutrient-substituted HA has the potential to be used as a slow-release fertilizer to supply micronutrients, S, and Mg in addition to Ca and P.

  5. CONSERVATION PRICING AND GROUND WATER SUBSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Schuck, Eric C.; Green, Gareth P.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Bureau of Reclamation has been exploring the use of water price as a tool for promoting water conservation. Raising water rates is an attractive means of reducing diversions from surface water systems supplied by the USBR. Rising water rates may promote ground water substitution. When irrigators have access to both surface and ground water, changes in the relative cost of each water source can encourage movement from one source to another. Ground water substitution will occu...

  6. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Kralova; Josef Jampilek; Vladimir Buchta; Jarmila Vinsova; Lukas Palek; Martin Dolezal

    2006-01-01

    Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid) withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and...

  7. Industrialisation: Import Substitution to Export Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthakumaran, K.

    2000-01-01

    Import-substitution policy creates biases in the incentive structure and lowers the growth of potential exports in the long run. Trade reforms in this respect are likely to reduce the gap between domestic and border prices. The expectation is to bring better industrial performance on the lines of comparative advantages. This paper examines the import-substitution policy and the effect and impact of trade liberalisation.

  8. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suárez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru; that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period ...

  9. Similartity Network For Semantic Web Services Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Web services substitution is one of the most challenging tasks for automating the composition process of multiple Web services. It aims to improve performances and to deal efficiently with Web services failures. Many existing solutions have approached the problem through classification of substitutable Web services. To go a step further, we propose in this paper a network based approach where nodes are Web services operations and links join similar operations. Four similarity measures based o...

  10. SIMILARITY NETWORK FOR SEMANTIC WEB SERVICES SUBSTITUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Web services substitution is one of the most challenging tasks for automating the composition process of multiple Web services. It aims to improve performances and to deal efficiently with Web services failures. Many existing solutions have approached the problem through classification of substitutable Web services. To go a step further, we propose in this paper a network based approach where nodes are Web services operations and links join similar operations. Four similarity measures based o...

  11. Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Luis Ramírez-Rojas

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the case of an open economy the calculations of revenue-maximing rates of inflation have been made using a restrictive model that assumes that domestic residents can only substitute between domestic money and goods (and real assets. The paper demonstrates that once the effects of currency substitution, so common in developing countries, are taken into account, the inflation rate that maximizes the proceeds of the inflation tax can be quite lower than would be the case when currency substitution is ignored.

  12. Dopa-responsive dystonia: functional analysis of single nucleotide substitutions within the 5' untranslated GCH1 region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna A Armata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the GCH1 gene are associated with childhood onset, dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD. Correct diagnosis of DRD is crucial, given the potential for complete recovery once treated with L-dopa. The majority of DRD associated mutations lie within the coding region of the GCH1 gene, but three additional single nucleotide sequence substitutions have been reported within the 5' untranslated (5'UTR region of the mRNA. The biologic significance of these 5'UTR GCH1 sequence substitutions has not been analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Luciferase reporter assays, quantitative real time PCR and RNA decay assays, combined with bioinformatics, revealed a pathogenic 5'UTR GCH1 substitution. The +142C>T single nucleotide 5'UTR substitution that segregates with affected status in DRD patients, substantially attenuates translation without altering RNA expression levels or stability. The +142C>T substitution disrupts translation most likely by creating an upstream initiation start codon (uAUG and an upstream open reading frame (uORF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first GCH1 regulatory substitution reported to act at a post-transcriptional level, increasing the list of genetic diseases caused by abnormal translation and reaffirming the importance of investigating potential regulatory substitutions in genetic diseases.

  13. Alteration of in vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by carboxymethylcellulose and other cellulose derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In vivo cellulose ribbon assembly by the Gram-negative bacterium Acetobacter xylinum can be altered by incubation in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a negatively charged water-soluble cellulose derivative, and also by incubation in a variety of neutral, water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the presence of all of these substituted celluloses, normal fasciation of microfibril bundles to form the typical twisting ribbon is prevented. Alteration of ribbon assembly is most extensive in the presen...

  14. [Guidelines for substitution treatments in prison populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, L; Maguet, O

    2005-01-01

    Care access for the drug addict patients in prison (in particular for the treatments of substitution) in France is very unequal from one establishment to another. This reflects the great variability of the practices of substitution and especially the absence of consensus on the methods of adaptation of these practices to the prison environment. Because of difficulties expressed by prisoners and medical staff on this subject and of stakes (let us recall that approximately 30% of the prisoners are dependent or abusers of one or more psychoactive substances), the formulation of recommendations or of a good practices guide of substitution in prison appeared necessary. Work that we detail here answers a ordering of the Advisory Commission of the Treatments of Substitution (September 2001) whose authors are members. It was presented at the session April 2003. It results from the confrontation of a review of the literature (including legal texts and official reports concerning substitution, the organization of the care in prison environment and the lawful framework), with a vast investigation. The latter was carried out near medical staff (22 prisons), penitentiary staff (3 prisons, 27 people met including directors of these establishments) and prisoners (7 establishments, 28 prisoners met) in the form of individual talks (semi-directing interviews with evaluation of the type of existing device and its knowledge by the penitentiary staff and the prisoners; statement of the suggestions, needs and requests of the medical, penitentiary staffs and of the prisoners). In the whole visited prisons, 7.8% (870) of the prisoners received substitution treatments (6.35% by buprenorphine, 1.44% by methadone), representing a proportion of substituted drug addicts (870 substituted for an evaluation of 3,350 prisoners drug addicts among the 11,168 prisoners of the 22 visited prisons) notably lower than that in free environment (56%, ie 96,000 substituted for an evaluated population of

  15. Chemical characterization of some substituted hydroxyapatites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Doreya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Synthetic multi-substituted hydroxyapatite nano powders containing silicon and or carbonate prepared by a wet chemical method. The process parameters are set up to allow the simultaneous substitution of carbonate and silicon ions in the place of phosphorus. The chemical and structural characterizations of the prepared powders are determined with the aid of; XRF, ICP, XRD and FTIR. The results show that, the ion substitution in the crystal lattice of HA caused a change in the unit cell dimensions and affected the degree of crystallization of the produced powders. The apatite formation abilityy of the prepared discs from the synthesized powders is determined by immersing in SBF solution for different periods. The degree of ion release was determined in the obtained solutions. The examined surface of the immersed discs under SEM and analyzed by CDS showed a more dense HA layer than those of un-substituted ones. The HA with the substituted silicon and carbonate ions, showed the highest solubility with greater rate of ion release, compared with carbonate-free powder. All prepared powders took sodium ion from the SBF solution during immersion, which was not recorded before.

  16. Egg substitutes: chemical and biologic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, M T; Ostrander, J

    1976-03-01

    The total lipid, cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid content of dried whole egg (DWE), a refrigerated liquid egg substitute, a powdered egg substitute, and a commercial egg yolk replacer (EYR) were compared. All substitutes contained less total lipid, cholesterol, and phospholipid than DWE. The powdered substitute contained only half the total lipid content reported by the producers and only a fifth of the cholesterol of DWE, while the percentage distribution of fatty acids was similar to that of DWE. The liquid substitute and EYR had fatty acid distributions similar to soybean oil. Rat growth and lipid response were compared for diets containing either DWE or a mixture of EYR and egg white. Both diets were fed with and without vitamin and mineral supplements. Rat growth response was greatest on the DWE diets, either with or without the supplements, was intermediate on the supplemented EYR diets, and was least on the unsupplemented EYR diets. The consumption of DWE-containing diets, when compared with the EYR-containing diets, caused greater liver weight, greater liver total lipid and total cholesterol content, and slightly higher serum cholesterol. PMID:942984

  17. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ABOUT THE PROCESS OF MEDIATING OF SUBSTITUTE FAMILY CARE: REQUIREMENTS FOR SUBSTITUTE PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozáková Aneta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Substitute Family Care is an institute for children when their parents, for whatever reason, are unable to care for the children themselves. This paper is concerned with substitute family care in the Czech Republic. The paper is specifically aimed at the process of mediating of the substitute family care. A social worker, in the process of mediating of the substitute family care, has a key role, nevertheless, the social worker co-operatives with other people involved, such as psychologists and medical examiners. People involved are abided by the law, different methodologies and recommendations, but even so they are highly benevolent when assessing claimant for substitute family care. The research problem is described in the introduction. The term of substitute family care is explained and the process of mediating of the substitute family care is described there. The issues of who else is interested in this process and what requirements are imposed on a claimant for substitute family care, are also described and explained in this chapter. Research methodology is described subsequently. The aim of the research is to describe how people involved in the process of mediating of the alternative family care perceive and interpret the requests asked of the claimant. The main and sub research questions are based on the aim of the research. Qualitative research strategy is applied and field research, as a type of research, is selected by Miovský. In the last part of the paper the interesting findings from the carried out research are interpreted and discussed. The very process of mediating of the substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian Region is described. The attitude of the people involved towards the requirements imposed on substitute parents is also described. Sub-questions are answered in the end.

  18. Homological Pisot Substitutions and Exact Regularity

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, Marcy; Jones, Leslie; Sadun, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We consider one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces where the dilatation (stretching factor) is a degree d Pisot number, and where the first rational Cech cohomology is d-dimensional. We construct examples of such "homological Pisot" substitutions that do not have pure discrete spectra. These examples are not unimodular, and we conjecture that the coincidence rank must always divide a power of the norm of the dilatation. To support this conjecture, we show that homological Pisot substitutions exhibit an Exact Regularity Property (ERP), in which the number of occurrences of a patch for a return length is governed strictly by the length. The ERP puts strong constraints on the measure of any cylinder set in the corresponding tiling space.

  19. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects of...... increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices are...

  20. Substitution of Si in SAPO-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingqiao; Liu, Xinsheng; Song, Tianyou; Hu, Jianzhi; Qiu, Jianqing

    1989-04-01

    A series of SAPO-5 samples with different numbers of silicon atoms are investigated by chemical analysis, XRD and CP/MAS NMR. The results indicate that the lines at about -102 and -110 ppm observed in the 29Si NMR spectra of the SAPO-5 samples are due to the non-framework silicon phase which is structurally similar to the synthesis gel. The corrected framework compositions of SAPO-5 samples strongly suggest that Si is only substituted by framework P (case 2). Si simultaneously substituted by both framework P and Al (case 3) is unlikely.

  1. Parallel substitution algorithm theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Achasova, S; Markova, V; Piskunov, S

    1994-01-01

    Parallel Substitution Algorithm (PSA) is a new model for distributed (cellular) computations. It provides a concise mapping of distributed computation processes into cellular arrays. A PSA is specified by a set of parallel substitutions operating over a cellular array.Two concepts make PSA a powerful tool for modelling cellular computations: 1) naming functions which allow the specification of any type of interactions in the computation space, 2) a context which serves to represent control of a computational process in time.The foundation of PSA theory comprises validity conditions of computat

  2. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  3. Soluble N-Substituted Organosilane Polybenzimidazoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaehn, J. R.; Luther, T. A.; Orme, C. J.; Jones, M. G.; Wertsching, A. K.; Peterson, E. S.

    2007-10-01

    Six organosilane derivatives were synthesized, and are more soluble in common organic solvents (tetrahydrofuran and chloroform) than the parent polybenzimidazole. Our polymer modification pathway provides a straightforward synthesis that can be carried out at room temperature and give reasonable yields. Solution 1H NMR spectra of both the parent and deprotonated polybenzimidazoles are reported. Based upon the NMR analysis in CDCl3, nearly all of the benzimidazole N-H positions are substituted by the organosilane moieties. Some of the modified polymers have similar thermal properties compared to the parent polymer, and the average molecular weights are higher for the substituted polybenzimidazoles than the parent PBI.

  4. Factor Input Substitution in Irish Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Haller, Stefanie A.; Hyland, Marie

    2014-01-01

    We use a translog cost function to model production in the Irish manufacturing sector over the period from 1991 to 2009. We estimate both own- and cross-price elasticities and Morishima elasticities of substitution between capital, labour, materials and energy. We find that capital and energy are substitutes in the production process. Across all firms we find that a 1% rise in the price of energy is associated with an increase of 0.1% in the demand for capital. The Morishima elasticities, whi...

  5. Substitution-diffusion based Image Cipher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra K Pareek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 128-bit size is proposed. In thealgorithm, image is partitioned into several key based dynamic blocks and further, each block passesthrough the eight rounds of diffusion as well as substitution process. In diffusion process, sequences ofblock pixels are rearranged within the block by a zigzag approach whereas block pixels are replaced withanother by using difference calculation of row and column in substitution process. Due to high order ofsubstitution and diffusion, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasible. Theexperimental results show that the proposed technique is efficient and has high security features.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF SOME SUBSTITUTED 2, 3-SUBSTITUTED QUINAZOLINONE ANALOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajasekaran*, Gopalkrishna Rao and H.S. Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is a tremendous increase of drug resistant pathogens, leading to the design and development of newer antitubercular agents. A series of 2-(substituted-phenyl-1,3-benzoxazin-4-ones and 3-amino-2-(substituted-phenylquinazolin-4(3H-ones were synthesized by the reaction of substituted benzoyl chloride with anthranilic acid and 2- (substituted phenyl-1,3-benzoxazin-4-one with hydrazine hydrate in absolute alcohol respectively. The title compounds 2-substituted phenyl-3-(thiophen-2-ylmethyleneamino quinazolin-4(3H-ones and 2-(substituted phenyl-3-(1-(furan-2-ylethylideneamino quinazolin-4(3H-ones were obtained by reacting 3-amino-2-(substituted phenyl quinazolin-4(3H-one with thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde and 2-acetyl furan respectively. The title compounds have been characterized by UV, IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectra. The synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their antitubercular activity. Few of the compounds exhibited significant antitubercular while other compounds showed moderate activity.

  7. On interfuel substitution : some international evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda; Vasetsky, Olexandr

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates interfuel substitution elasticities in selected developing and industrialized economies at the national and sector levels. In doing so, it employs state-of-the-art techniques in microeconometrics, particularly the locally flexible normalized quadratic functional forms, and provides evidence consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. The results indicate that th...

  8. Substitutional NaCl hydration in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibelman, Peter J.

    2007-06-01

    Na+ and Cl- can replace water molecules in ice Ih with minimal lattice strain and without disrupting the crystal’s H-bond network. First-principles calculations show that substitutional solvation is endothermic by as little as 0.49eV per ion pair. Interstitial ion solvation is less favorable by >1.5eV .

  9. Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard

    2010-01-01

    Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very...

  10. Equivalent substitution in the control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Proudnikov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    A system of differential equations with control is considered. A rule for equivalent substitution of this system is given. The system of differential equations is changed for two systems with upper and lower approximation functions of a function on the right side of the initial system in a region of attainability.

  11. A Partial Taxonomy of Substitutability and Interchangeability

    CERN Document Server

    Karakashian, Shant; Choueiry, Berthe Y; Prestwhich, Steven; Freuder, Eugene C

    2010-01-01

    Substitutability, interchangeability and related concepts in Constraint Programming were introduced approximately twenty years ago and have given rise to considerable subsequent research. We survey this work, classify, and relate the different concepts, and indicate directions for future work, in particular with respect to making connections with research into symmetry breaking. This paper is a condensed version of a larger work in progress.

  12. Capillary Electrophoresis of Substituted Benzoic Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    A series of substituted benzoic acids (SBAs) are prepared by students. The pKa shift, a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the subsistent is examined in reference to the electrophoretic migration behavior of benzoic acid.

  13. Antitrypanosomal Activities of Fluoroquinolones with Pyrrolidinyl Substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Nenortas, Elizabeth; Kulikowicz, Tomasz; Burri, Christian; Shapiro, Theresa A.

    2003-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones with pyrrolidinyl substitutions were tested against Trypanosoma brucei and mammalian cells. Bulky substituents at C-7 or a 1-2-bridging thiazolidine ring increased antitrypanosomal activity and selective toxicity. These compounds trap protein-DNA complexes and inhibit nucleic acid biosynthesis in trypanosomes, characteristics of topoisomerase II inhibition.

  14. Law of substitution for mixed arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear safety justification of a mixed array of dissimilar fissile units of metal units and dilute solution units, according to Clayton, has been a persistent and nagging problem. Dissimilar uranium metal or dissimilar uranium solution units in a mixed array can also create a modeling nightmare for the nuclear criticality safety engineer. Now, a calculational method known as the Law of Substitution has been developed to ensure that the k/sub eff/ of an array of uranium metal and uranium solution units will satisfy any k/sub eff/ limit set by the nuclear safety engineer. The nuclear criticality safety engineer can utilize the Law of Substitution to safely mix or substitute different uranium metal units, different uranium solution units, and more importantly, uranium metal and dilute UO2 solution units in an array. The Law of Substitution is as follows: (1) calculate the k/sub eff/ of each unit type in its own infinite planar array. (2) Determine the edge-to-edge spacing of the infinite planar array of each type of unit to satisfy a desired k/sub eff/. (3) Select the largest edge-to-edge spacing from among the similar units in their infinite planar arrays and use that spacing for the finite or infinite planar array of mixed units

  15. Intermediate-Valence Tautomerism in Decamethylytterbocene Complexes of Methyl-Substituted Bipyridines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Corwin H.; Kazhdan, Daniel; Werkema, Evan L.; Walter, Marc D.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Bauer, Eric D.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Maron, Laurent; Eisenstein, Odile; Head-Gordon, Martin; Andersen, Richard A.

    2011-01-25

    Multiconfigurational, intermediate valent ground states are established in several methyl-substituted bipyridine complexes of bispentamethylcyclopentadienylytterbium, Cp*{sub 2} Yb(Me{sub x}-bipy). In contrast to Cp*{sub 2} Yb(bipy) and other substituted-bipy complexes, the nature of both the ground state and the first excited state are altered by changing the position of the methyl or dimethyl substitutions on the bipyridine rings. In particular, certain substitutions result in multiconfigurational, intermediate valent open-shell singlet states in both the ground state and the first excited state. These conclusions are reached after consideration of single-crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD), the temperature dependence of x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS), and magnetic susceptibility data, and are supported by CASSCF-MP2 calculations. These results place the various Cp*{sub 2}Yb(bipy) complexes in a new tautomeric class, that is, intermediate-valence tautomers.

  16. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  17. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period...

  18. Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico A. Sturzeneger

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the presence of financial adaptation or currency substitution. the inflation tax is extremely regressive. This regressivity arises from the existence of a fixed cost of switching to inflation-proof transactions technologies. This fixed cost makes it optimal only for those agents with sufficiently high incomes to switch out of domestic currency. The effects are illustrated and quantified for a particular case.

  19. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  20. Interstitial and substitutional solute segregation at individual grain boundaries of α-iron: data revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical calculations (usually density-functional-theory methods performed at 0 K) confirm the formerly assumed substitutional phosphorus segregation in α-iron. In contrast, the enthalpy–entropy compensation effect predicts that phosphorus should segregate interstitially. To resolve this discrepancy, we recalculated the values of the segregation enthalpy and entropy for the interstitial segregation of phosphorus according to the Guttmann model of segregation in multicomponent systems. This recalculation is based on earlier measured experimental data and shows that only slight changes in the values of the standard enthalpy and entropy of phosphorus, carbon and silicon segregation are obtained. Consequently, all dependences constructed previously remain qualitatively the same. By thermodynamic considerations based on the enthalpy–entropy compensation effect we quantitatively show that there is an alteration of the position of phosphorus at grain boundaries in α-Fe with increasing temperature: while substitutional segregation is preferred at 0 K, interstitial segregation occurs at temperatures of practical interest. (paper)

  1. Effect of substitution on aniline in inducing growth of anionic micelles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gunjan Garg; V K Aswal; S K Kulshreshtha; P A Hassan

    2004-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements were carried out on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in the presence of three different hydrophobic salts, i.e. aniline hydrochloride, -toluidine hydrochloride and -toluidine hydrochloride. All these salts induce a uniaxial growth of micelles to form prolate ellipsoidal structures. A progressive decrease in the surface charge of the micelles was observed with the addition of salts followed by a rapid growth of the micelles. The presence of a methyl substitution at the ortho position of aniline does not alter the growth behavior significantly. However, when the substitution is at meta position micellar growth is favored at lower salt concentration than that is observed for aniline. This can be explained in terms of the difference in the chemical environments of the substituents at the ortho and meta positions.

  2. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  3. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  4. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.; Begtrup, M.

    2002-01-01

    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted ...

  5. ALTERATION OF U(VI)-PHASES UNDER OXIDIZING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.P. Deditius; S. Utsunomiya; R.C. Ewing

    2006-02-21

    Uranium-(VI) phases are the primary alteration products of the UO{sub 2} in spent nuclear fuel and the UO{sub 2+x}, in natural uranium deposits. The U(VI)-phases generally form sheet structures of edge-sharing UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} polyhedra. The complexity of these structures offers numerous possibilities for coupled-substitutions of trace metals and radionuclides. The incorporation of radionuclides into U(VI)-structures provides a potential barrier to their release and transport in a geologic repository that experiences oxidizing conditions. In this study, we have used natural samples of UO{sub 2+x}, to study the U(VI)-phases that form during alteration and to determine the fate of the associated trace elements.

  6. The R467K Amino Acid Substitution in Candida albicans Sterol 14α-Demethylase Causes Drug Resistance through Reduced Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, David C.; Kelly, Diane E.; White, Theodore C.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) of Candida albicans is involved in an essential step of ergosterol biosynthesis and is the target for azole antifungal compounds. We have undertaken site-directed mutation of C. albicans CYP51 to produce a recombinant mutant protein with the amino acid substitution R467K corresponding to a mutation observed clinically. This alteration perturbed the heme environment causing an altered reduced-carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a maximum ...

  7. Secure Linear Transformation Based Cryptosystem using Dynamic Byte Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Narayana Reddy K; Vishnuvardhan B

    2014-01-01

    Many classical cryptosystems are developed based on simple substitution. Hybrid cryptosystem using byte substitution and variable length sub key groups is a simple nonlinear algorithm but the cryptanalyst can find the length of each sub key group because the byte substitution is static and if the modulo prime number is small then byte substitution is limited to first few rows of S-box. In this paper an attempt is made to introduce the nonlinearity to the linear transformation based cryptosyst...

  8. Branch points of substitutions and closing ordered Bratteli diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Yassawi, Reem

    2011-01-01

    We study stationary ordered Bratteli diagrams and give necessary and sufficient conditions for these orders to generate a continuous Vershik map. We apply this to finding adic representations for one sided substitution subshifts. We give an algorithm to find the branch points of a substitution, which have to be mapped to the minimal elements of such an ordering. We find adic representations for substitutions with one branch point, and also substitutions all of whose branch points are fixed.

  9. Cohomology in one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Barge, Marcy; Diamond, Beverly

    2007-01-01

    Anderson and Putnam showed that the cohomology of a substitution tiling space may be computed by collaring tiles to obtain a substitution which ``forces its border.'' One can then represent the tiling space as an inverse limit of an inflation and substitution map on a cellular complex formed from the collared tiles; the cohomology of the tiling space is computed as the direct limit of the homomorphism induced by inflation and substitution on the cohomology of the complex. For one-dimensional ...

  10. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Marc G. Jeschke

    2014-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further resear...

  11. [Breast-milk substitutes: past and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, M F

    1990-06-01

    The historical development of industrialized products used as breast-milk, substitutes a process begun in the 18th century, is studied. The marketing strategy currently adopted infant formula companies is stressed and the different commercial practices used in the search for new markets in third world countries are described. A warning is given as to the precise instructions giver for the use of the so-called breast-milk substitutes, and the attention of health professionals and consumer groups is called to the low level of awareness regarding this subject, a factor which led the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund to recommend the preparation of an appropriate marketing code and to its adoption by Brazil. PMID:2094955

  12. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  13. 40 CFR 721.575 - Substituted alkyl halide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl halide. 721.575... Substances § 721.575 Substituted alkyl halide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted alkyl halide (PMN P-83-1222)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3435 - Butoxy-substituted ether alkane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. 721... Substances § 721.3435 Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as butoxy-substituted ether...

  15. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10043 - Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10043 Dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dineopentyl-4-substituted phthalate (PMN P-02-697) is subject to reporting under this section...

  18. 48 CFR 28.203-4 - Substitution of assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substitution of assets. 28... assets. An individual surety may request the Government to accept a substitute asset for that currently... may agree to the substitution of assets upon determining, after consultation with legal counsel,...

  19. 76 FR 8666 - Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... scope of substitution and would be consistent with the language of the Act. Section 3.1010(g)(1) would... other members of a joint class, if any. Second, paragraph (g)(2) would specify that past-due benefits...) through (5) may substitute for the deceased substitute but only if the person requesting the...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5546 - Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic... Substances § 721.5546 Halogen substituted oxetanes (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as halogen substituted...

  1. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical... as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject to reporting under...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4594 - Substituted azo metal complex dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted azo metal complex dye. 721... Substances § 721.4594 Substituted azo metal complex dye. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted azo metal...

  3. Spin Reorientation in Substituted Barium Ferrite

    OpenAIRE

    Greneche, J.; Randrianantoandro, N.; Y. Labaye; Boust, F.; Flavin, E.; Pascard, H.

    1997-01-01

    The structural transformation of substituted hexagonal ferrite powders BaFe10CoTiO19 prepared by mechanical milling, was investigated as a function of grinding time by means of Mössbauer spectrometry and static magnetic measurements. A spin reorientation is clearly evidenced from the temperature dependence of the hyperfine parameters and of the initial magnetic permeability on the powder mechanically treated for 23h.

  4. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Tandel, Kirtida R.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  5. Interfuel Substitution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Serletis, Apostolos; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Vasetsky, Olexandr

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wale...

  6. Substitution biases in price indices during transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, Randall K.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 2 (2004), s. 167-177. ISSN 0167-8000 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : price liberalization * substitution bias * transition economies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=17109091&site=ehost-live

  7. Application of Substitutional Model in Oxide Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of substitutional model in oxide systems, in comparison with that of sublattice model, is discussed.The results show that in the case of crystalline phases and liquid phases without molecular-like associates or theshortage of element in sublattice, these two models get consistent in the description of the formalism of Gibbs freeenergies of phases and obtain the same result of phase diagram calculation when the valence of the cations keep thesame.

  8. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand

    2009-07-01

    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  9. Intertemporal Substitution, Money, and Aggregate Labor Supply.

    OpenAIRE

    Donald H. Dutkowsky; Dunsky, Robert M

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the macroeconometric credibility of the intertemporal substitution hypothesis. It extends the usual formulation by considering money within the representative consumer's life cycle decision. The authors also provide measures of the real wage rate and asset returns based upon interpretation of the constraint as consumption-saving behavior. Estimation with quarterly U.S. data generates plausible and significant estimates of the structural parameters. The findings indicat...

  10. Convergence substitution for paralysed horizontal gaze.

    OpenAIRE

    Beigi, B.; O'Keeffe, M; Logan, P; Eustace, P.

    1995-01-01

    Three patients with paralysed horizontal gaze are presented. Involuntary use of convergence to assist horizontal gaze was noted as a late feature. All patients showed (1) unilateral or bilateral horizontal gaze palsy (two patients had one and a half syndrome, the other had bilateral nuclear sixth nerve palsies), (2) adduction of both eyes on attempted gaze into the paralysed field, (3) miosis which coincided with adduction. Convergence substitution should be considered in the differential dia...

  11. Neutron scattering from a substitutional mass defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic structure factor is calculated for a low concentration of light mass scatterers substituted in a cubic crystal matrix. A new numerical method for the exact calculation is demonstrated. A local density of states for the low momentum transfer limit, and the shifts and widths of the oscillator peaks in the high momentum transfer limit are derived. The limitations of an approximation which decouples the defect from the lattice is discussed. (author)

  12. On the Practical Limits to Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, R U

    2005-01-01

    This paper began as a commentary on a draft paper by Pezzey and Toman on the economics of sustainability (Pezzey and Toman 2002), although it has evolved considerably since then. The authors characterize economists' views on the potential for substitution of man-made capital for natural capital as a continuum between the strongly neoclassical positions of Solow and Weitzman, at one extreme and the "entropy pessimists", notably Georgescu-Roegen and Daly, at the other. Solow has argued that man...

  13. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  14. Asymptotic structure in substitution tiling spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Barge, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    Every sufficiently regular space of tilings of $\\R^d$ has at least one pair of distinct tilings that are asymptotic under translation in all the directions of some open $(d-1)$-dimensional hemisphere. If the tiling space comes from a substitution, there is a way of defining a location on such tilings at which asymptoticity `starts'. This leads to the definition of the {\\em branch locus} of the tiling space: this is a subspace of the tiling space, of dimension at most $d-1$, that summarizes the `asymptotic in at least a half-space' behavior in the tiling space. We prove that if a $d$-dimensional self-similar substitution tiling space has a pair of distinct tilings that are asymptotic in a set of directions that contains a closed $(d-1)$-hemisphere in its interior, then the branch locus is a topological invariant of the tiling space. If the tiling space is a 2-dimensional self-similar Pisot substitution tiling space, the branch locus has a description as an inverse limit of an expanding Markov map on a 1-dimens...

  15. Electronic structure and photocatalytic activity of wurtzite Cu–Ga–S nanocrystals and their Zn substitution

    KAUST Repository

    Kandiel, Tarek A.

    2015-03-23

    Stoichiometric and gallium-rich wurtzite Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals were synthesized via a facile solution-based hot injection method using 1-dodecanethiol as a sulfur source. The use of 1-dodecanethiol was found to be essential not only as a sulfur source but also as a structure-directing reagent to form a metastable wurtzite structure. In addition, the substitution of zinc in the wurtzite gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S nanocrystals was also investigated. The obtained nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), photoluminescence (PL), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Electronic structures of pristine and the Zn-substituted Cu-Ga-S system were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) with HSE06 exchange-correlation functional. The calculated bandgaps accurately reflect the measured ones. The allowed electronic transitions occur upon the photon absorption from the (Cu + S) band towards the (Ga + S) one. The Zn substitution was found not to contribute to the band edge structure and hence altered the bandgaps only slightly, the direct transition nature remaining unchanged with the Zn substitution. The photocatalytic activities of H2 evolution from an aqueous Na2S/Na2SO3 solution under visible-light illumination on the synthesized nanocrystals were investigated. While the stoichiometric CuGaS2 exhibited negligible activity, the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals displayed reasonable activity. The optimum Zn substitution in the gallium-rich Cu-Ga-S ternary nanocrystals enhanced the H2 evolution rate, achieving an apparent quantum efficiency of >6% at 400 nm. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yigitsoy, Basak [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Abdul Karim, S.M. [Department of Arts and Sciences, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1208 (Bangladesh); Balan, Abidin; Baran, Derya [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Toppare, Levent, E-mail: toppare@metu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Biotechnology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Polymer Science and Technology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-02-01

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  17. Multichromic polymers of benzotriazole derivatives: Effect of benzyl substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two electroactive monomers 1-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTA) and 2-benzyl-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl))-2H-benzo[d][1,2,3]triazole (BBTS) were synthesized with satisfactory yields. The effect of substitution site on electrochemical and optical properties was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemical studies. Results showed that position of pendant group alters the electronic structure of the resulting polymer causing different optical and electrochemical behaviors. Symmetrically positioned benzyl unit on benzotriazole moiety resulted in a neutral state red polymer, PBBTS, having multi-colored property in its different oxidized and reduced states. Its analogue PBBTA exhibited maximum absorption at 390 nm in its neutral state and also revealed multicolored electrochromic property upon stepwise oxidation. Very different optical band gap values were calculated: 1.55 eV and 2.25 eV for PBBTS and PBBTA, respectively.

  18. Anti-herpes simplex virus activity of 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone nucleosides.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowski, G A; Grill, S P; Fisher, M H; Dutschman, G E; Efange, S M; Bardos, T J; Cheng, Y C

    1989-01-01

    Several 5-substituted 2-pyrimidinone 2'-deoxyribonucleoside (PdR) analogs were examined for their anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity in cell culture. The order of potency of their antiviral activities against HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 was iodo PdR approximately ethynyl PdR approximately propynyl PdR. The antiviral action of iodo PdR is dependent on the ability of HSV to induce virus-specified thymidine kinase in infected cells. Several HSV-1 variants with altered thymidine kinase cha...

  19. Alteration of the cementitious material under the saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching experiment of ordinary and fly ash mixed cement were carried out by using the artificial sea water and deionized water as leachates. The pH values of saline leachates were decreased at the lower solid/liquid ratio in comparison with the case of deionized leachates. Mg(OH)2 and ettringite were observed only in the case of saline water. The results of the geochemical calculation with inputs of Mg(OH)2, ettringite and hydrotalcite well represented in the change of pH value and the mineral-composition with those of the experiment. However, in the latter stage of the fly ash mixed cement case, calculated concentrations of Si and Al of the leachate weren't consistent with the observed values. These results showed that substitution of Mg for Ca and influences of sulfate ion should be considered in the modeling of the cement alteration in the saline water case, and Al-substituted C-S-H might be considered in the alteration of fly ash mixed cement. (author)

  20. Transmembrane protein topology mapping by the substituted cysteine accessibility method (SCAM™): Application to lipid-specific membrane protein topogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanov, Mikhail; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jun; Dowhan, William

    2005-01-01

    We provide an overview of lipid-dependent polytopic membrane protein topogenesis, with particular emphasis on Escherichia coli strains genetically altered in their lipid composition and strategies for experimentally determining the transmembrane organization of proteins. A variety of reagents and experimental strategies are described including the use of lipid mutants and thiol-specific chemical reagents to study lipid-dependent and host-specific membrane protein topogenesis by substituted cy...

  1. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Hilmi, A.B.; Hassan, Asma; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bila...

  2. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  3. Substitute potting compound for Sylgard 93-119 based on Sylgard 184 and Q3-6527 dielectric gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, G.L.; Switzer, S.T.

    1978-06-01

    Development of a substitute potting compound developed by Pantex to replace the no longer available Dow Corning 93-119 is described. The specific approach taken in this development utilized Dow Corning Sylgard 184 as the basic starting material, altering its viscosity with Dow Corning Dielectric Gel Q3-6527 and then modifying the cure rate with Dow Corning Accelerator Q3-6559. Various tests were run to characterize both chemical and physical properties of the substitutes as well as the initial 93-119 and the starting raw materials. Summaries of the data peculiar to this substitute are presented here whereas a more detailed examination of the test methods and results for the overall project are presented in another report. The properties of two substitutes developed from the two extremes of viscosity to be expected for Sylgard 184 during production are presented. These substitutes are easily quick-frozen in the catalyzed state for production use upon thawing. They are however somewhat more difficult to deaerate and eventually cure to a harder state than the original DC 93-119.

  4. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Willem Chatrou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  5. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  6. Pyrrolyl substituted allenylidene complexes of ruthenium

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Rainer; Hartmann, Stephan; Sarkar, Biprajit; Lissner, Falk

    2004-01-01

    Pyrrolyl and indolyl substituted allenylidene complexes of ruthenium have been prepared from the trapping of cationic trans-[Cl(dppm)2Ru[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]C[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2]+ with various pyrroles or N-methylindole. The reaction is rationalized as involving regioselective attack of the organometallic electrophile on the electron-rich heterocycle followed by proton migration to the terminal [double bo...

  7. Cation substitution in two coccolithophore species

    OpenAIRE

    Melteig, Hanna Elina

    2016-01-01

    Few things would be better than getting rid of CO2 while producing useful materials. Coccolithophores use CO2 in their photorespiration, in addition to using CO2 to produce coccoliths – small platelets made of calcite. Ca is a central cation in this process, and the goal of this project is to investigate to what extent other divalent cations can partially substitute for Ca and become part of the growing coccolith. The long term goal is to enable algae to harvest cations and produce mate...

  8. QSAR Studies on 7-Substituted Fluoroquinolones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ju-Li; GAO Shu-Lin; ZHANG Xiang-Fei; XIE Yi-Ping; HUANG Xiao-Yin; XIE Xiao-Guang

    2007-01-01

    The PM3 and B3LYP methods were employed to calculate the properties of 18 7-substituted fluoroquinolones.The correlation between biological activity (against gram-positive organisms or gram-negative organisms) and structural properties was obtained by using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods.The best model generated correlates the antibacterial activity with EHOMO and QF8 for gram-positive organisms,and EHOMO and dipole moment for gram-negative organisms,respectively.It suggests that the interaction mechanisms of fluoroquinolons with gram-positive and gram-negative organisms are different.

  9. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3 N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee values up to 90 %. The role of the base was elucidated with a mechanistic study involving the isolation of the various reaction intermediates and isotopic labeling experiments. Additionally, this study provided some evidence for an enantiodetermining step involving a dihydropyridine intermediate. PMID:27140832

  10. Pharmaceutical regulation, mandatory substitution, and generic competition

    OpenAIRE

    Birg, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of two regulatory instruments - a price cap and a reference price system - a mandatory substitution rule, and the combination of both on generic competition in a Salop-type model with an off-patent brand-name drug and n differentiated generic versions. The price cap reduces only the brand-name price, the reference price system reduces the brand-name price and generic prices. Both regulatory instruments reduce the generic market share and the number of generic com...

  11. Pulmonary alterations in Behcet's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study aims to demonstrate pulmonary alterations (PA) in patients with Behcet's disease by using CT. Materials and methods: CTs of 50 patients with Behcet's disease and 20 others in a control group have been evaluated retrospectively for PA (septal, reticular, nodular, atelectatic opacities). Results: Eight out of 50 patients (16%) with Behcet's disease showed PA. Three out of 20 (15%) in the control group showed PA. No differences were observed between Behcet's disease patients and the control group regarding pulmonary alterations (p = 0.917). No differences were observed in the disease duration, ages and sex in either group in those with and without PA. Conclusion: Pulmonary alterations can be seen in patients with Behcet's disease, but these alterations are not significant.

  12. Challenges in drug discovery for thiazolidinedione substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-ping Ye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD is a powerful insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It acts as a ligand to the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and induces transcription of PPARγ-responsive genes. TZD controls lipid synthesis and storage in adipose tissue, liver and many other tissues through PPARγ. Derivatives of TZD, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia and pioglitazone (Actos, are more powerful than metformin or berberine in insulin sensitization. Although they have common side effects such as weight gain and edema, these did not influence their clinical application in general. However, recent findings of risk for congestive heart failure and bladder cancer have significantly impaired their future in many countries. European countries have prohibited those drugs, and US will terminate application of rosiglitazone in clinics and hospitals. The multiple country actions may mark the end of TZD era. As a result, there is a strong demand for identification of TZD substitute in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, literature about PPARγ ligands and potential TZD substitute are reviewed in this article. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor is emphasized as a new class of insulin sensitizer here. Regulators of SIRT1, CREB, NO, p38, ERK and Cdk5 are discussed in the activation of PPARγ.

  13. Improved Y-123 materials by chemical substitutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using the knowledge accumulated during last decade about the relationship between the structural features and the superconducting properties we have attempted to design an improved Y123 material that would display an increased superconducting transition temperature, Tc, and enhanced critical current, Jc, and irreversibility fields, Birr. Chemical substitutions on various crystallographic sites were made to reduce the buckling of the CuO2-planes. Substitutions of Sr for Ba and transition elements for copper were made to shorten the distance between the double-CuO2-planes while preserving the ''metallicity'' of the blocking layer. The synthesis and annealing conditions were optimized to obtain the highest Tc. Improved critical currents and irreversibility fields were found for (Nd1-xLax)123 and YBaSrCu3-yMoyO7+d compounds. The existence of these materials indicates that it is possible to further enhance superconducting properties of YBa2Cu3O7 materials by clever design of the crystal chemistry. (orig.)

  14. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtida R Tandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  15. JROTC as a Substitute for PE: Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbery, Monica A. F.; Holt, Kathryn A.; Monnat, Shannon A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Funk, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even though physical education (PE) is an evidence-based strategy for providing and promoting physical activity, alternative programs such as Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) are commonly substituted for PE in many states. The purpose of this study was to compare student physical activity and lesson contexts during high school PE and JROTC sessions. Method SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) was used to assess PE and JROTC sessions (N=38 each) in 4 high schools that provided both programs. Data were analyzed using t-tests, negative binomial regression, and logistic regression. Results Students engaged in significantly more moderate to vigorous physical activity during PE than JROTC sessions and they were significantly less sedentary. Significant differences between the two program types were also found among lesson contexts. Conclusions PE and JROTC provide substantially different content and contexts and students in them engage in substantially different amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Students in JROTC, and perhaps other alternative programs, are less likely to accrue health-supporting physical activity and engage in fewer opportunities to be physically fit and motorically skilled. Policies and practices for providing substitutions for PE should be carefully examined. PMID:25141093

  16. Relations between functionality and macromolecular properties of alterated coals: the behaviour in solubility and swelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, P.N.; Gruber, R.; Bimer, J.; Salbut, P.D.; Djega-Mariadassou, G.; Kruchinin, A.V.; Kuznetsova, L.I. [Institute of Chemistry and Chemico-Metallurgical Processes, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    Describes the study of the effects of chemical alteration of brown and bituminous coals on the solubility and swelling behaviour. A variety of chemical procedures such as ion-exchange with HCl, O-methylation and reductive methylation, reduction with LiAlH{sub 4} and with K/isopropanol in THF and oxidation with performic acid was applied in order to vary the oxygen functionality, the content of the alkyl substitutes and the proportion of aromatic to hydroaromatic rings. The extent of degradation of the macromolecular structure was evaluated as a function of chemical alteration. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. Fitness alteration of foot-and-mouth disease virus mutants: measurement of adaptability of viral quasispecies.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, M A; Carrillo, C; González-candelas, F; Moya, A.; Domingo, E; Sobrino, F

    1991-01-01

    We document the rapid alteration of fitness of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mutants resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. Both mutants showed a selective disadvantage in BHK-21 cells when passaged in competition with their parental FMDV. Upon repeated replication of the mutants alone, they acquired a selective advantage over the parental FMDV and fixed additional genomic substitutions without reversion of the monoclonal antibody-resistant phenotype. Thus, variants that w...

  18. Nucleosome alterations caused by mutations at modifiable histone residues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Hongde Liu; Pingyan Wang; Lingjie Liu; Zhu Min; Kun Luo; Yakun Wan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosome organization exhibits dynamic properties depending on the cell state and environment. Histone proteins, fundamental components of nucleosomes, are subject to chemical modifications on particular residues. We examined the effect of substituting modifiable residues of four core histones with the non-modifiable residue alanine on nucleosome dynamics. We mapped the genome-wide nucleosomes in 22 histone mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and compared the nucleosome alterations relative...

  19. Functional and Morphological Adaptation to Peptidoglycan Precursor Alteration in Lactococcus lactis*

    OpenAIRE

    Deghorain, Marie; Fontaine, Laetitia; David, Blandine; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Courtin, Pascal; Daniel, Richard; Errington, Jeff; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre; Hallet, Bernard; Hols, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Cell wall peptidoglycan assembly is a tightly regulated process requiring the combined action of multienzyme complexes. In this study we provide direct evidence showing that substrate transformations occurring at the different stages of this process play a crucial role in the spatial and temporal coordination of the cell wall synthesis machinery. Peptidoglycan substrate alteration was investigated in the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis by substituting the peptidoglycan precursor bi...

  20. Secure Linear Transformation Based Cryptosystem using Dynamic Byte Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Narayana Reddy K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many classical cryptosystems are developed based on simple substitution. Hybrid cryptosystem using byte substitution and variable length sub key groups is a simple nonlinear algorithm but the cryptanalyst can find the length of each sub key group because the byte substitution is static and if the modulo prime number is small then byte substitution is limited to first few rows of S-box. In this paper an attempt is made to introduce the nonlinearity to the linear transformation based cryptosystem using dynamic byte substitution over GF (28. The secret value is added to the index value to shift the substitution to a new secret location dynamically. This adds extra security in addition to non-linearity, confusion and diffusion. The performance evaluation of the method is also studied and presented.

  1. Practical problems in use of sugar substitutes in preventive dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    N M Roshan; Sakeenabi, B.

    2011-01-01

    Sugar (sucrose) being most acceptable sweetening agent in use by mankind is considered as the “Arch Criminal” in dental caries initiation. Search for suitable sweetening agent which will satisfy all the characteristics of sugar along with being non-cariogenic is going on since decades. At this given point of time, there is no such substitute which will replace sugar in all aspects, but, cariogenic potential can certainly be reduced by using sugar substitutes. Recently, few sugar substitutes a...

  2. ADULTRATION AND SUBSTITUTION IN HERBAL DRUGS: A CRITICAL ANAYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Poornima B

    2010-01-01

    The adulteration and Substitution of the herbal drugs is the burning problem in herbal industry and it has caused a major treat in the research on commercial natural products. The deforestation and extinction of many species and incorrect identification of many plants has resulted in adulteration and substitution of raw drugs. The concept of substitution prevailed ages back and in Ayurveda we can find this in the treatise of Bhavaprakasha and Yogaratnakara.This article throws the light on th...

  3. Search Engine Advertising: Channel Substitution when Pricing Ads to Context

    OpenAIRE

    Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker

    2010-01-01

    We explore substitution patterns across advertising platforms. Using data on the advertising prices paid by lawyers for 139 Google search terms in 195 locations, we exploit a natural experiment in "ambulance-chaser" regulations across states. When lawyers cannot contact clients by mail, advertising prices per click for search engine advertisements are 5%-7% higher. Therefore, online advertising substitutes for offline advertising. This substitution toward online advertising is strongest in ma...

  4. Bone graft substitutes for spine fusion: A brief review

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ashim; Kukkar, Nitin; Sharif, Kevin; Main, Benjamin J; Albers, Christine E; El-Amin III, Saadiq F

    2015-01-01

    Bone graft substitutes are widely used in the field of orthopedics and are extensively used to promote vertebral fusion. Fusion is the most common technique in spine surgery and is used to treat morbidities and relieve discomfort. Allograft and autograft bone substitutes are currently the most commonly used bone grafts to promote fusion. These approaches pose limitations and present complications to the patient. Numerous alternative bone graft substitutes are on the market or have been develo...

  5. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇飞

    2015-01-01

    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices. Both English and Chinese use substitution. But due to the differences between the two languages, the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation. This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases. A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  6. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇飞

    2015-01-01

    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices.Both English and Chinese use substitution.But due to the differences between the two languages,the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation.This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases.A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  7. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cann...

  8. Competition Derived from Innovation as a Substitution Threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review of the role of innovation as substitution threat. The interesting strategy for those facing what in retrospect proves to be full substitution is the strategy of 'switch' to the substituting technology. the context-dependent uncedrtainty involved in the switch decision is...... transistor. The case material is used to introduce the problem competition policy has when faced with competition derived from innovation....

  9. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Kober; Alfred Gugerell; Melanie Schmid; Lars-Peter Kamolz; Maike Keck

    2015-01-01

    A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis) is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) and mature adipocytes were emb...

  10. State generic substitution laws can lower drug outlays under medicaid

    OpenAIRE

    Shrank, William H.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Federman, Alex D.; Liberman, Joshua N.; LIU Jun; Aaron S Kesselheim; Brookhart, M. Alan; Fischer, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    To stem the rising costs of medications, states have implemented varying generic substitution policies. These policies differ in the extent to which pharmacists or patients can influence medication choice. Using national Medicaid data, we evaluated the relationship between different generic substitution policies and generic simvastatin use after patent expiration of branded Zocor. States implementing policies that require patient consent prior to generic substitution experienced 25% lower rat...

  11. Generalized $\\beta$-expansions, substitution tilings, and local finiteness

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Natalie Priebe; Robinson, Jr., W. Edward

    2005-01-01

    For a fairly general class of two-dimensional tiling substitutions, we prove that if the length expansion $\\beta$ is a Pisot number, then the tilings defined by the substitution must be locally finite. We also give a simple example of a two-dimensional substitution on rectangular tiles, with a non-Pisot length expansion $\\beta$, such that no tiling admitted by the substitution is locally finite. The proofs of both results are effectively one-dimensional and involve the idea of a certain type ...

  12. ARE THE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING SERVICES THREATENED BY SUBSTITUTES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Sorin STROE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Substitutes pose a permanent threat on firms’ products or services in any industry. As the extant literature on strategic analysis is abundant in examples of substitutes for goods and traditional services, the paper aims at analyzing in-depth the concept of substitutes in the case of engineering services industry which is a knowledge-based, project-based, and professional type one. The assessment of the threat of substitutes for these services has been supported by an empirical study among a number of managers of Romanian engineering companies. The paper ends up with a set of conclusions and an invitation to further debate and research.

  13. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  14. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Bader, Y A

    2000-01-01

    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coe...

  15. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    KAUST Repository

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh

    2016-07-15

    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  16. Solving Functional Constraints by Variable Substitution

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    2010-01-01

    Functional constraints and bi-functional constraints are an important constraint class in Constraint Programming (CP) systems, in particular for Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) systems. CP systems with finite domain constraints usually employ CSP-based solvers which use local consistency, for example, arc consistency. We introduce a new approach which is based instead on variable substitution. We obtain efficient algorithms for reducing systems involving functional and bi-functional constraints together with other non-functional constraints. It also solves globally any CSP where there exists a variable such that any other variable is reachable from it through a sequence of functional constraints. Our experiments on random problems show that variable elimination can significantly improve the efficiency of solving problems with functional constraints.

  17. Substitutions in dynamics, arithmetics and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valéré; Ferenczi, Sébastien; Mauduit, Christian; Siegel, Anne

    2002-01-01

    A certain category of infinite strings of letters on a finite alphabet is presented here, chosen among the 'simplest' possible one may build, both because they are very deterministic and because they are built by simple rules (a letter is replaced by a word, a sequence is produced by iteration). These substitutive sequences have a surprisingly rich structure. The authors describe the concepts of quantity of natural interactions, with combinatorics on words, ergodic theory, linear algebra, spectral theory, geometry of tilings, theoretical computer science, diophantine approximation, trancendence, graph theory. This volume fulfils the need for a reference on the basic definitions and theorems, as well as for a state-of-the-art survey of the more difficult and unsolved problems.

  18. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  19. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  20. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual is the tutorial for the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS), an online, comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects. The HSSDS data base contains product information, material safety data sheets, toxicity reports, usage reports, biodegradable data, product chemical element lists, and background information on solvents. HSSDS use TOPIC reg-sign to search for information based on a query defined by the user. TOPIC provides a full text retrieval of unstructured source documents. In this tutorial, a series of lessons is provided that guides the user through basic steps common to most queries performed with HSSDS. Instructions are provided for both window-based and character-based applications

  1. Magnetic disaccommodation in Sn substituted magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relaxation of the initial magnetic permeability has been measured in polycrystalline Sn-doped magnetite with nominal composition SnxFe3-xO4 with x ranging from x=0 to 0.6. In the temperature range between 80 and 500 K, the time decay of the initial permeability after sample demagnetization has been represented by means of isochronal disaccommodation curves, which show the presence of different relaxation processes at 250 K (IV' peak), 275 K (IV), 300 K (III), 400 K (II) and 440 K (I). This behavior is explained on the basis of the disaccommodation of vacancy-doped magnetite and another similar tetravalent substitution, as the previously analyzed Ti-doped magnetite

  2. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kralova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and the anti-mycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of the evaluatedcompounds are discussed. 3,5-Bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives of substitutedpyrazinecarboxylic acid, 16-18, have shown the highest activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv (54-72% inhibition. The highest antifungal effect againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC =31.25 μmol·mL-1. The most active inhibitors of oxygen evolution rate in spinachMolecules 2006, 11 243 chloroplasts were the compounds 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl- pyrazine-2-carboxamide (27, IC50 = 41.9 μmol·L-1 and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(1,3- thiazol-2-yl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (4, IC50 = 49.5 μmol·L-1.

  3. Polyphosphates substitution for zeolite to in detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detergents, as well as the cleaning products, contain active ingredients that are good to increase their efficiency and some of them, as the sodium Tripoli-phosphate (TPF), they have turned out to be noxious for the environment. The zeolites use in the formulation of detergents has grown substantially since they fulfill the same function of the TPF and they have been recommended ecologically as substitutes from these when not being polluting. The objective of this work is to obtain a zeolite with appropriate characteristics for its use in the formulation of detergents, reproducing those of the zeolites used industrially. The zeolite synthesis is studied 4A starting from hydro-gels of different composition, varying the operation conditions and using two raw materials: (sodium meta-silicate, commercial degree and metallic aluminum) and clay type kaolin like silica source and aluminum It is looked for to get a product of beveled cubic morphology, or spherical, with glass size between 1 and 3 microns and that it possesses good capacity of conical exchange. Since the capacity and speed of ionic exchange is influenced by the particle size, time of contact and temperature, experimentation conditions settle down to measure the exchange of ions calcium and magnesium in watery solutions that they simulate the real situation of a laundry process in the country. This way the ability of the zeolite 4A obtained to diminish the concentration of these ions in the laundry waters is evaluated and its possibilities like component in the formulation of detergents non-phosphatates. Of the synthesized zeolites, the best in agreement is chosen with chemical properties as ionic and physical exchange capacity as crystalline, particle size and color, to prepare a detergent in which the polyphosphates is substituted partial and totally for the synthesized zeolite

  4. Sol-gel preparation and characterization of non-substituted and Sr-substituted gadolinium cobaltates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aqueous sol-gel chemistry approach for the preparation of Sr-substituted perovskite gadolinium cobaltates Gd1-xSrxCoO3-δ (x = 0.0, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75) has been applied. The metal ions, generated by dissolving starting materials in diluted acetic acid were complexed by EDTA to obtain the precursors for non-substituted and Sr-substituted GdCoO3. However, only two single-phase cobaltate samples with x = 0.0 and 0.25 have been obtained by the suggested sol-gel method. The influences of synthesis temperature and the amount of substituent on the phase purity of Gd1-xSrxCoO3-δ were investigated. The evolution of the gels during heating, composition and micro-structural features in the polycrystalline samples was studied by thermal analysis (TG/DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer;

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating,...

  6. On a substitution subshift related to the Grigorchuk group

    CERN Document Server

    Vorobets, Yaroslav

    2009-01-01

    We study dynamics of a substitution subshift given by the substitution a->aca, b->d, c->b, d->c that is related to the Grigorchuk group. This dynamical system is shown to be, up to a countable set, conjugated to the binary odometer.

  7. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  8. Introducing Aliphatic Substitution with a Discovery Experiment Using Competing Electrophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Timothy P.; Mostovoy, Amelia J.; Curran, Margaret E.; Berger, Clara

    2016-01-01

    A facile, discovery-based experiment is described that introduces aliphatic substitution in an introductory undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. Unlike other discovery-based experiments that examine substitution using two competing nucleophiles with a single electrophile, this experiment compares two isomeric, competing electrophiles…

  9. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding ...

  10. EPA Follow-Up Briefing to Chemical Substitutions Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    slide presentation to National Academy of Science (NAS) chemical substitutions committee on ToxCast in vitro assay data as "new data stream" to be used to evaluate chemical substitutions or “new chemical” design, with Focus on high-throughput in vitro assays

  11. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of p-substituted benzalbarbituric acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K.; Ochiai, S.; Takemoto, K.; Irie, M.

    1990-02-01

    A number of p-substituted benzalbarbituric acid derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of p-substituted benzaldehyde with barbituric acid, and their nonlinear optical properties were investigated by using the Kurtz powder test. p-acetamidobenzalbarbituric acid derivatives were found to exhibit the relatively high second-harmonic intensity and have the higher thermal stability.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1259 - Cocoa butter substitute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, Box 285, 2101 Constitution Ave... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute. 184.1259 Section 184.1259... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1259 Cocoa butter substitute. (a) The common...

  14. Sublattice imbalance of substitutionally doped nitrogen in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, James A.; Gorman, Paul D.; Power, Stephen;

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the recently observed sublattice asymmetry of substitutional nitrogen impurities in CVD grown graphene, we show, in a mathematically transparent manner, that oscillations in the local density of states driven by the presence of substitutional impurities are responsible for breaking t......, but should be present in other impurities. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  16. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phenyl Substituted Isoxazolecarboxamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Peng-fei; ZHANG Ji-feng; YAN Tao; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen novel phenyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR,elementary analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) techniques.Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the phcnyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides exhibited moderate insecticidal activities,among which compounds 9c and 9k showed comparatively higher activities.

  17. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Peter C; WANG Dei-Haw; LU Kaitao; MANI Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis (dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis, The yields were significantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  18. Importance of oil substitution for energy policy and economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilli, P.V.

    1984-04-01

    Oil substitution - that is the planned, sped-up substitution of oil products by longer available energy sources - is one of the most urgent tasks of energy policy because of the limited oil resources and because of the fact that Europe depends on oil supplies from politically unstable regions. An international study of the International Oil Substitution Task Force (OSTF) in which Austria participated showed that this task has to be solved first of all in the largely non-oil specific end-energy sectors small consumers and industry; oil substitution in the oil-specific sector transport will only start later on. The use of oil products (residual oil) for generating electricity is degressing rapidly. Apart from direct use of coal in industry there are electric energy generated from water power, nuclear energy and coal that are important due to their high substitution value as a substitute for oil, especially in the sectors small consumers and industry. Austria is highly dependent on other countries for supplies of oil and energy total. To substitute oil is therefore a vital concern for Austria. The real oil substitution on the sectors industry and small consumers as well as with respect to the total end energy was higher than predicted throughout the last years in Austria. A trend extrapolation of the absolute values and the dimensionless characteristics as introduced by OSTF shows that this development does not yet show in the values prognosticated by the Austrian Institute for Economic Research.

  19. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU; Peter; C; WANG; Der-Haw; MANI; Neelakandha

    2007-01-01

    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis(dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid,followed by hydrolysis. The yields were signifi-cantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  20. 76 FR 39062 - Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... proposed rule, ``Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant'' (76 FR 8666), published in the Federal... Case of Death of Claimant'' (76 FR 8666), published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2011, in... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Parts 3, 14, and 20 RIN 2900-AN91 Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  2. MOLECULAR THERMODYNAMICS IN THE DESIGN OF SUBSTITUTE SOLVENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of physical properties and fluid behavior from molecular thermodynamics can lead to better decision making in the design of substitute solvents and can greatly reduce the expense and time required to find substitutes compared to designing solvents by experiment. this pape...

  3. 40 CFR 721.757 - Polyoxyalkylene substituted aromatic azo colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... azo colorant. 721.757 Section 721.757 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.757 Polyoxyalkylene substituted aromatic azo colorant. (a) Chemical... as polyoxyalkylene substituted aromatic azo colorant (PMN P-92-1131) is subject to reporting...

  4. Art as Alterity in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping

    2014-01-01

    In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…

  5. Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A.; Webster, John G.; Bach-Y-rita, Paul; Tompkins, Willis J.

    1991-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems provide their users with environmental information through a human sensory channel (eye, ear, or skin) different from that normally used or with the information processed in some useful way. The authors review the methods used to present visual, auditory, and modified tactile information to the skin and discuss present and potential future applications of sensory substitution, including tactile vision substitution (TVS), tactile auditory substitution, and remote tactile sensing or feedback (teletouch). The relevant sensory physiology of the skin, including the mechanisms of normal touch and the mechanisms and sensations associated with electrical stimulation of the skin using surface electrodes (electrotactile, or electrocutaneous, stimulation), is reviewed. The information-processing ability of the tactile sense and its relevance to sensory substitution is briefly summarized. The limitations of current tactile display technologies are discussed.

  6. The weighted difference substitutions and Nonnegativity Decision of Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, Xiaorong; Shao, Junwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the weighted difference substitutions from geometrical views. First, we give the geometric meanings of the weighted difference substitutions, and introduce the concept of convergence of the sequence of substitution sets. Then it is proven that the sequence of the successive weighted difference substitution sets is convergent. Based on the convergence of the sequence of the successive weighted difference sets, a new, simpler method to prove that if the form F is positive definite on T_n, then the sequence of sets {SDS^m(F)} is positively terminating is presented, which is different from the one given in [11]. That is, we can decide the nonnegativity of a positive definite form by successively running the weighted difference substitutions finite times. Finally, an algorithm for deciding an indefinite form with a counter-example is obtained, and some examples are listed by using the obtained algorithm.

  7. Association of action I: effect of legume substitution on DM digestion kinetics in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berseem substitution increased (P>0.05) the in situ DM disappearance of combination feeds with the maximum disappearance at 20% substitution level and a declining trend with the higher substitution levels Berseem substitution decreased (P0.05) by substitution. (author)

  8. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Oxidative Coupling of Benzoic Acids with Geminal-Substituted Vinyl Acetates: Synthesis of 3-Substituted Isocoumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Zhang, Hui-Jun; Han, Tiantian; Ruan, Wenqing; Wen, Ting-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation initiated cyclization of benzoic acids with electron-rich geminal-substituted vinyl acetates was described. The reaction was employed to prepare a range of 3-aryl and 3-alkyl substituted isocoumarins selectively. PMID:25436434

  9. Gd-substituted Bi-2223 superconductor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D R Mishra

    2008-03-01

    The effects of gadolinium doping at calcium site on the normal and super-conducting properties of Bi-2223 system were studied. The Gd-doped (BiPb)-2223 series of specimens, namely Batch I, II and III were sintered at three different sintering temperatures 830, 850 and 895° C respectively. The properties investigated are (1) the normal state resistivity with a view to study metal-to-insulator transition, (2) the XRD patterns of the specimens with a view to study the relative composition of (BiPb)-2212 and (BiPb)-2223 phases and (3) the superconducting fluctuation behaviour (SFB) with a view to determine the effect of doping, if any, on the dimensionality of the fluctuation conductivity of the system. The normal state resistivity of Gd-substituted Bi-2223 specimens shows metallic, semiconducting and insulating behaviour. The c( = 0) values indicate that (BiPb)-2223 phase is responsible for the observed superconducting transitions in Batch I and Batch II specimens with Gd concentrations ≤ 0.7. This observation is further confirmed in the analysis of XRD patterns of these specimens. Gadolinium, being a magnetic impurity, has pair breaking effect near the Fermi level and decreases c( = 0). The analysis of the superconducting fluctuation behaviour (SFB) shows a 2D dimensionality without any cross-over.

  10. Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern for the environment, in addition to Federal regulation, mandate the replacement of hazardous solvents with safer cleaning agents. Manufacturers are working to produce these replacement solvents. As these products are developed, potential users need to be informed of their availability. To promote the use of these new products instead of traditional solvents, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has developed the Hazardous Solvent Substitution Data System (HSSDS). The HSSDS provides a comprehensive system of information on alternatives to hazardous solvents and related subjects, and it makes that information available to solvent users, industrial hygienists, and process engineers. The HSSDS uses TOPIC reg-sign, a text retrieval system produced by Verity, Inc., to allow a user to search for information on a particular subject. TOPIC reg-sign produces a listing of the retrieved documents and allows the use to examine the documents individually and to use the information contained in them. This reference manual does not replace the comprehensive TOPIC reg-sign user documentation (available from Verity, Inc.), or the HSSDS Tutorial (available from the INEL). The purpose of this reference manual is to provide enough instruction on TOPIC reg-sign so the user may begin accessing the data contained in the HSSDS

  11. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Lucero

    2009-01-31

    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  12. Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process

  13. Substitution of photomultiplier tubes by photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of Si semiconductors, either of the conventional or the avalanche type, as light amplifiers in radiation detection, has been studied aiming the substitution of photomultiplier (PM) tubes by photodiodes. The objective of this work is to compare the response of photodiodes and PM tubes when coupled to scintillation crystals. A Hamamatsu Si photodiode, model S 1337-66 B Q, was coupled to a Harshaw NaI (TI) scintillation crystal of window diameter equal to 25,4 mm. Its performance was evaluated by specially designed associated electronics, compatible with the photodiode characteristics. X-ray beams from 30 to 111 KeV were used to determine the response and the repeatability of the scintillator-photodiode and the scintillator-PM tube systems. The repeatability was found to be within 0,27% for the photodiode and 0,57% for the PM tube. This work confirmed that photodiodes can be used as light amplifiers, provided their characteristics, such as light spectrum response, are considered. It also shows that further studies are necessary in order to identify the applications in radiation detection where PM tubes might be replaced by photodiodes. (author)

  14. Energy conservation and substitution: refining the objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, G.

    1981-06-01

    Energy conservation is not a precisely defined concept; consequently, there is a considerable confusion about how to implement it or predict its effects. Reducing dependence on oil should be the central objective of energy policy, but this may not be furthered by generalized conservation strategies. Achieving a reduction in oil dependence requires a balanced policy of conservation and substitution. As governments have reacted against oil price rises and the subsequent inflationary effects with a swing towards monetarism and a harsher reliance upon market forces, the role of oil has become even more important. Reliance upon these policies has not eased the oil blockage upon economic activity; it has made it worse and made the task of providing alternatives to oil more difficult. Market forces have had a wedging, rather than a freeing, effect upon the pattern of energy supply. But the point is that conservation, on its own, does not create the momentum away from oil which is essential. The immediate objective is not to achieve a reduction in the consumption of energy as an end in itself, but as part of a liberation from dependence upon oil. Energy conservation needs to be seen as a servant of this wider objective. 21 references.

  15. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rostowski

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Allowing currency substitution in a very high inflation helps to maintain the level of output, as, the distortion of the information carried by prices is mitigated. The total (primary plus secondary money supply may increase if currency substitution is permitted. Currency substitution does not even necessarily reduce the real primary money stock. Moreover, the demand for the primary money fragments at very high rates of inflation, which means that the authorities may loose little when they give up the attempt to obtain inflation tax revenue. Currency substitution need be no more expensive, in term of the real resources it consumes, than is indexation. Finally the availability of a second stable currency may reduce the severity of post-stabilization recessions. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

  16. Chromium and Tantalum Site Substitution Patterns in Ni3Al (L1(sub 2))gamma(prime)- Precipitates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Morrison, Christopher; Mao, Zugang; Seidman, David N.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2008-01-01

    The site substitution behavior of Cr and Ta in the Ni3Al (Ll2)-type gamma'-precipitates of a Ni-Al-Cr-Ta alloy is investigated by atom-probe tomography (APT) and first-principles calculations. Measurements of the gamma'-phase composition by APT suggest that Al, Cr, and Ta share the Al sublattice sites of the gamma'-precipitates. The calculated substitutional energies of the solute atoms at the Ni and Al sublattice sites indicate that Ta has a strong preference for the Al sites, while Cr has a weak Al site preference. Furthermore, Ta is shown to replace Cr at the Al sublattice sites of the gamma'-precipitates, altering the elemental phase partitioning behavior of the Ni-Al-Cr-Ta alloy.

  17. Effect of sulfhydryls on potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by substituted anthraquinones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of various substituted anthraquinones (SAQ's) and Adriamycin (ADR) were investigated in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells. These drugs cause a potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality, albeit by different mechanisms. One possibility is that these components operate through the production of free radicals which then produce DNA strand breaks and crosslinks. If so, then one should be able to change the degree of cell kill by modifying sulfhydryl (SH) levels such that free radical processes are altered. Diamide, buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine, and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) were used to reduce intracellular SH levels. Cysteamine and dithiotheitol were used to increase SH levels. In general, altered SH levels did not affect SAQ-induced cytotoxicity at low drug concentrations. When drug-tested cells were also irradiated, survival levels were generally those predicted from assuming purely additive interactions. On the other hand, survival after treatment with high concentrations of ADR and one other SAQ were decreased by concomitant treatment with NEM. Since altered SH levels do not produce changes in the potentiation of radiation-induced cell lethality by SAQs, it is concluded that free radicals are not involved in this potentiation. A free radical-mediated process may be involved in the cytotoxicity induced by ADR and other SAQs; however, it is not a simple process

  18. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  19. The role of biomass in US industrial interfuel substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of biomass in US industrial interfuel substitution in the industrial sector has typically been analyzed using data for the four traditional fuels of coal, oil, electricity and natural gas. However, the use of biomass as an industrial fuel in the US has grown, and now exceeds that of coal. Using data from 1960 to 2011, interfuel substitution in the US industrial sector is modeled with a dynamic linear logit model which includes biomass alongside the other four traditional fuels. Adding biomass to the model reduces somewhat the estimated own-price and cross-price elasticities for the other four fuels, while revealing that biomass and natural gas are substitute fuels. This implies that previous studies excluding biomass may have overestimated the potential for interfuel substitution, giving policy makers an inaccurate impression of the ability of carbon taxes or other environmental regulation to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. - Highlights: • Biomass usage by the US industrial sector now exceeds coal usage. • Previous interfuel substitution studies have not included biomass as a fuel. • Linear logit model is used to examine role of biomass in interfuel substitution. • Including biomass in the model lowers estimated price elasticities for traditional fuels. • Biomass is found to be a substitute for natural gas for industrial users

  20. Hotspots of biased nucleotide substitutions in human genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Berglund

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Genes that have experienced accelerated evolutionary rates on the human lineage during recent evolution are candidates for involvement in human-specific adaptations. To determine the forces that cause increased evolutionary rates in certain genes, we analyzed alignments of 10,238 human genes to their orthologues in chimpanzee and macaque. Using a likelihood ratio test, we identified protein-coding sequences with an accelerated rate of base substitutions along the human lineage. Exons evolving at a fast rate in humans have a significant tendency to contain clusters of AT-to-GC (weak-to-strong biased substitutions. This pattern is also observed in noncoding sequence flanking rapidly evolving exons. Accelerated exons occur in regions with elevated male recombination rates and exhibit an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions relative to the genomic average. We next analyzed genes with significantly elevated ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous rates of base substitution (dN/dS along the human lineage, and those with an excess of amino acid replacement substitutions relative to human polymorphism. These genes also show evidence of clusters of weak-to-strong biased substitutions. These findings indicate that a recombination-associated process, such as biased gene conversion (BGC, is driving fixation of GC alleles in the human genome. This process can lead to accelerated evolution in coding sequences and excess amino acid replacement substitutions, thereby generating significant results for tests of positive selection.

  1. The radiological properties of a novel lung tissue substitute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung phantoms have been manufactured using commercially available, polyurethane foam products. Some of these materials are no longer available; therefore, a new lung tissue substitute was developed. The elemental composition and radiological properties of the new lung tissue substitute are described in this paper. Because the lung tissue substitute will be used to manufacture phantom lungs that will be used to evaluate chest counting systems, it is necessary to know the radiological properties of the material. These properties must be compared with reference materials and materials that have been used for lung phantoms in the past. The radiological properties of interest include the electron density, mean excitation energy, electron stopping power and photon mass attenuation coefficients. In all these properties, the calculated values for the new lung tissue substitute closely matched the calculated values of ICRU Publication 44 lung tissue. Good agreement was also found when the new lung tissue substitute was compared with the Griffith lung tissue substitute described by the ICRU. The new material was determined to be an excellent lung tissue substitute. (authors)

  2. Kinetic and conformational effects of lysine substitutions for arginines 35 and 87 in the active site of Staphylococcal nuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-resolution X-ray crystal structure of staphylococcal nuclease (SNase) suggests that the guanidinium groups of Arg 35 and Arg 87 participate as electrophilic catalysts in the attack of water on the substrate phosphodiester. Both arginine residues have been replaced with conservative lysine residues so that both the importance of these residues in catalysis and the effect of changes in electrostatic interactions on active site conformation can be assessed. The catalytic efficiencies of R35K and R87K are decreased by factors of 104 and 105 relative to wild-type SNase, with R87K showing a very significant reduction in its affinity for both DNA substrate and the competitive inhibitor thymidine 3',5'-bisphosphate (pdTp). The thermal denaturation behavior of both mutant enzymes differs from that of wild type both in the absence and in the presence of the active site ligands Ca2+ and pdTp. Both the 1H NMR chemical shifts and interresidue nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) of residues previously assigned to be in the hydrophobic core of SNase are altered in R35K and R87K. These observations suggest that lysine substitutions are not conservative in SNase and disrupt the conformation of the active site. Thus, the kinetic properties of R35K and R87K cannot be used to describe the roles of Arg 35 and Arg 87 in catalysis by the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, on the basis of the effects of these conservative substitutions for Arg 35 and Arg 87. The authors predict that other substitutions for these residues, including neutral substitutions, are also likely to cause conformational alterations in the active site

  3. Altered states: psychedelics and anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icaza, Eduardo E; Mashour, George A

    2013-12-01

    The psychedelic experience has been reported since antiquity, but there is relatively little known about the underlying neural mechanisms. A recent neuroimaging study on psilocybin revealed a pattern of decreased cerebral blood flow and functional disconnections that is surprisingly similar to that caused by various anesthetics. In this article, the authors review historical examples of psychedelic experiences induced by general anesthetics and then contrast the mechanisms by which these two drug classes generate altered states of consciousness. PMID:24061599

  4. Contribution of PBP3 Substitutions and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 Beta-Lactamases to Cefotaxime Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Annette; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the relative contributions of naturally occurring penicillin-binding protein 3 (PBP3) substitutions, and TEM-1, TEM-15, and ROB-1 beta-lactamases on resistance to a third-generation cephalosporin in Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. RESULTS: The minimum...... inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefotaxime (CTX) was assessed after transformation with PCR-amplified ftsI genes expressing altered PBP3 and/or small plasmids encoding beta-lactamases into an isogenic environment of H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae. Group III PBP3, comprising substitutions N526K, S385T......, and L389F, conferred CTX resistance to H. influenzae according to EUCAST interpretative criteria. Group III-like PBP3, comprising substitutions N526H and S385T, increased the CTX MIC of H. parainfluenzae ninefold, but the level did not transgress the resistance breakpoint. Production of TEM-15 beta-lactamase...

  5. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  6. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...

  7. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...... of substitution and the final ad valorem anti-dumping duties....

  8. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    generically substitutable drug. Data were linked with a prescription database. Results We found no associations between generic substitution and, respectively, gender, age, drug group and polypharmacy. Earlier switches of the index drug are statistically significant associated with acceptance of generic...... more likely to switch again despite skepticism towards generic substitution. Points for discussion at EGPRN Discussion of the results,-that no difference in gender, age, drug group or polypharmacy exists, irrespective of switching generics or not. Discussion of the reason why one earlier index ATC...

  9. Preserving visual saliency in image to sound substitution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancuti, Codruta O.; Ancuti, Cosmin; Bekaert, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Color plays a significant role in the scene interpretation in terms of visual perception. Numerous visual substitution systems deal with grayscale images disregarding this information from original image. Visually percept color-based details often fade due to the grayscale conversion and that can mislead the overall comprehension of the considered scene. We present a decolorization method that considers color contrast and preserve color saliency after transformation. We exploit this model to enhance the perception of visually disable persons over the interpreted images by the substitution system. The results demonstrate that our enhance system is capable to improves the overall scene interpretation in comparison with similar substitution system.

  10. [Breast milk substitutes based on cow milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, P E

    1990-08-20

    "Adapted" or "humanized" breast-milk substitutes based on cows' milk are manufactured according to directives from a publication issued by the Ministry of Agriculture. The accepted recommendations for the daily intake (RDA) of nutrients is adjusted to the neonates' relatively low tolerance and provides a certain margin of safety in case of illness and slight inaccuracies in preparation. The recommendations are, however, often based on animal experiments, studies of pathological conditions etc. because the needs of the neonate are not known. There is a fundamental difference between RDA for chemical energy and various nutrients as the energy requirement is stated on the basis of average values while the requirements for specific nutrients are gives as upper and lower limiting values. In addition to nutrients, a long series of hormones, enzymes and antimicrobial factors are transferred to the infant via breast-milk. The nutritional significance of these is entirely or partially unknown. It is thus impossible to give the bottle-fed infant a diet which is quantitatively and qualitatively identical with that of a breastfed baby. Nevertheless, experience has shown that bottle-feeding usually proceeds satisfactorily. Galactosaemia and certain forms of medication in the mother constitute absolute contraindications to breast-feeding while phenylketonuria, certain maternal infections are relative contraindications to breast-feeding. Mothers should be prepared for breast-feeding already during pregnancy but in the cases where the mother cannot, should not or does not wish to breast-feed, it is important to counteract any feelings of guilt, neglect or incompetence and, on the other hand, give her thorough training in artificial feeding of the infant. PMID:2205958

  11. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))

    2008-03-15

    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  12. Osseointegration of subperiosteal implants using bovine bone substitute and various membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, Merete; Schou, S.; Hjørting-Hansen, E.; Helbo, M.; Vikjær, D.

    Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits......Osseointegration, subperiosteal implant, bone substitute, bovine bone, guided bone, regeneration, histology, rabbits...

  13. Microtomographic and morphometric characterization of a bioceramic bone substitute in dental implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Meleo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, bone tissue regeneration studies have led to a deeper knowledge of chemical and structural features of the best biomaterials to be used as replacements for lost bone structures, with the autologus bone still today the only graft material able to ostegenerate, osteinduct and/or osteoconduct. The difficulties of the small available amount of autologus bone, together with morbidity of a second surgical operation on the same patient, have been overcome using both synthetic and biologic substitute bones. The possibility of investigating morphometric characteristics of substitute bones makes it possible to evaluate the predictability of regenerative processes and, so far, a range of different methods have been used for the purpose. X-ray microtomography (micro-CT is a miniaturized form of conventional tomography, able to analyze the internal structure of small objects, performing three-dimensional images with high spatial resolution (<10 micron pixel size. For a correct analysis, samples need not be altered or treated in any way, as micro-CT is a non-invasive and non-destructive technique. It shows promising results in biomaterial studies and tissue engineering. This work shows the potential applications of this microtomographic technique by means of an in vitro analysis system, in characterizing morphometric features of human bone tissue, and contributes to the use of this technique in studies concerning biomaterials and bioscaffolds inserted in bone tissue.

  14. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world.

  15. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  16. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  17. Multiple Base Substitution Corrections in DNA Sequence Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczuk, M.; Mackiewicz, P.; Szczepanik, D.; Nowicka, A.; Dudkiewicz, M.; Dudek, M. R.; Cebrat, S.

    We discuss the Jukes and Cantor's one-parameter model and Kimura's two-parameter model unability to describe evolution of asymmetric DNA molecules. The standard distance measure between two DNA sequences, which is the number of substitutions per site, should include the effect of multiple base substitutions separately for each type of the base. Otherwise, the respective tables of substitutions cannot reconstruct the asymmetric DNA molecule with respect to the composition. Basing on Kimura's neutral theory, we have derived a linear law for the correlation of the mean survival time of nucleotides under constant mutation pressure and their fraction in the genome. According to the law, the corrections to Kimura's theory have been discussed to describe evolution of genomes with asymmetric nucleotide composition. We consider the particular case of the strongly asymmetric Borrelia burgdorferi genome and we discuss in detail the corrections, which should be introduced into the distance measure between two DNA sequences to include multiple base substitutions.

  18. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  19. 49 CFR 383.77 - Substitute for driving skills tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Substitute for driving skills tests. At the discretion of a State, the driving skill test as specified in.../she is regularly employed in a job requiring operation of a CMV, and that either: (2) He/she...

  20. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G;

    1998-01-01

    mutants, and displayed a 25-fold increase in overall affinity of binding two Ca2+ ions and a 6-fold reduction in calcium dissociation rate. A strong correlation (R = 0.94) was found between the observed Ca2+-dissociation rates and affinities, as well as between the salt dependence of the off-rate and the...... to assess the salt dependence of the perturbations. The high similarity between the NMR spectra of mutants and wild-type calbindin D9k suggests that the structure is largely unperturbed by the substitutions. More detailed NMR investigations of the mutant in which Val61 is substituted by Ala showed...... reduction in affinity and an increase in off-rate. Small effects, both increases and decreases, were observed for substitutions involving residues far from the Ca2+ sites and toward the outer part of the hydrophobic core. The mutant with the substitution Phe66 --> Trp behaved differently from all other...

  1. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chrenková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  2. Heterocycles via intramolecular platinum-catalyzed propargylic substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Qiren; De Brabander, Jef K

    2011-01-01

    We report a Pt(II)-catalyzed cyclization of nucleophile-tethered propargylic acetates yielding substituted heterocycles containing multiple heteroatoms including morpholines, dioxanes and sulfamates with high cis-selectivity.

  3. Long term substitution treatment (maintenance treatment of opioid dependent persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirl, Charlotte

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: Methadone substitution treatment in Germany is introduced in 1988 in the framework of a scientific pilot study in North Rhein Westphalia. Recent statistics show that by now a broad offer of substitution treatment exists. From 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2003 113,000 substitution treatments have been recorded as being started of which around 56,000 have been recorded as ongoing treatments by 1 December 2003. Scientific background: Substitution treatment (treatment of opioid-dependent persons using substitution substances is one part of addiction treatment. Its goals are harm reduction and the stabilisation of opioid dependent persons. Integration of opioid-dependent persons in a treatment-setting, reduction of consumption of psychoactive substances, reduction of risk behaviour (primarily related to infectious diseases, decrease of mortality and improvements concerning the social, psychic and physic situation are seen as a success of substitution treatment as maintenance therapy. Research questions: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate which indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of substitution treatment. Based on these indicators an evaluation of the medical, social and economical benefit of substitution treatment - also in relation to abstinence oriented treatment - is carried out. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 31 international databases which yielded 2451 articles with publication date between 1995 and February 2005. Results: After a twofold selection process 32 publications were included for assessment and 276 publications were used as background literature. Despite serious restrictions due to selection bias and dropout in most studies focusing on substitution treatment, reduction of consumption of illegal opioids, reduction of risk behaviour, criminal behaviour, mortality and incidence of HIV can be seen as an empirically proven success of substitution treatment

  4. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China); Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world. (author)

  5. Substitution possibilities and determinants of energy intensity for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Hengyun [College of Economics and Management, Henan Agricultural University, 95 Wenhua Road, Zhengzhou 450002 (China) and Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand)], E-mail: h.y.ma@163.com; Oxley, Les [Department of Economics, University of Canterbury, Private bag 4800, Christchurch 8140 (New Zealand); Gibson, John [Department of Economics, University of Waikato, Private Bag 3105, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2009-05-15

    This paper measures technological change, factor demand and inter-factor and inter-fuel substitutability measures for China. We use individual fuel price data and a two-stage approach to estimate total factor cost functions and fuel share equations. Both inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution elasticities are calculated and the change in energy intensity is decomposed into its driving forces. The results suggest that energy is substitutable for capital regionally and for labor nationally. Capital substitutes for energy more easily than labor does. Energy intensity changes vary by region but the major drivers seem to be 'budget effect' and the adoption of energy-intensive technologies, which might be embodied in high-level energy-using exports and sectors, capital investment and even old technique and equipment imports. Whether the trend in rising energy intensity continues will be significant for China and the rest of the world.

  6. Serine-to-Asparagine Substitution in the GyrA Gene Leads to Quinolone Resistance in Moxifloxacin-Exposed Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Jan; Gebert, Andreas; Solbach, Werner; Maass, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Quinolone resistance of Chlamydia pneumoniae has not been described previously. Serial subcultures of C. pneumoniae under increasing moxifloxacin concentrations (0.0125 to 6.4 mg/liter) resulted in a 256-fold MIC increase compared to moxifloxacin-naive strains. GyrA gene sequencing revealed a novel point mutation with a Ser→Asn substitution. Subcultures under rifalazil and macrolides did not alter the respective MICs.

  7. In vitro osteoclast formation and resorption of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederichs, Robert J; Brooks, Roger A; Ueda, Masato; Best, Serena M

    2015-10-01

    Materials that participate in bone remodeling at the implant/tissue interface represent a modern tissue engineering approach with the aim of balancing implant resorption and nascent tissue formation. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SiHA) ceramics are capable of stimulating new bone formation, but little is known about their interaction with osteoclasts (OC). The effects of soluble silicate and SiHA on OCs were investigated in this study. Soluble silicate below 500 μM did not stimulate cell metabolism at 4 days or alter resorption area at 7 days on calcium phosphate discs. On sintered ceramics, OC numbers were similar on HA, Si0.3 HA (0.5 wt % Si) and Si0.5 HA (1.2 wt % Si) after 21 days in vitro, but actin ring sealing zone morphology on SiHA resembled that commonly found on bone or on carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHA). Smaller and thicker actin rings on SiHA as compared to HA were probably the result of altered surface chemistry and solubility differences. The more stable sealing zones and increased lattice solubility likely contributed to increased individual pit volumes observed on Si0.5 HA. The delayed formation of OCs on Si0.5 HA (lower numbers at day 14) excludes earlier differentiation as a possible mechanism of increased individual OC pit volumes at later times (day 21). Materials characterization of Si containing biomaterials remains paramount as the Si type and amounts can subsequently impact downstream OC behaviour in a complex manner. PMID:25847383

  8. The dynamics of alternative pathways to compensatory substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrallah, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of epistatic interactions among loci is a central question in evolutionary biology and is increasingly relevant in the genomic age. While the population genetics of compensatory substitution have received considerable attention, most studies have focused on the case when natural selection is very strong against deleterious intermediates. In the biologically-plausible scenario of weak to moderate selection there exist two alternate pathways for compensatory substitution. In one pathwa...

  9. Perspective on the substitution of electricity for oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for substitution of electricity for oil are discussed. Current oil use in Canada and abroad is reviewed along with studies giving projections of future use. The author shows that electricity is in a position to adequately substitute for oil in most situations. While electricity comprised 34 percent of Canadian primary energy supply in 1979, it is expected to increase to 50 percent in 2000

  10. A Method for Synthesizing Partially Substituted Cucurbit[n]uril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney J. Blanch

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach to cucurbituril synthesis is described where partial substitution is introduced into cucurbit[n]uril. The identification of homologues (and their substitution in reaction mixtures is achieved by a combination of ESMS and the use of the molecular probes (guests 1,4-dioxane and 1,9-octanediamine. A unique symmetrical hexamethylcucurbit[3,3]uril, the major product, was isolated and characterized.

  11. Alopecia in calves associated with milk substitute feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, G C; Hill, M R; Slater, A J

    1983-04-30

    Outbreaks of alopecia with unusually high morbidity occurred among calves reared on milk substitutes on two unrelated farms in Suffolk. On one farm alopecia occurred for three consecutive years; during the winter of 1981-82 there were also clinical signs of muscular dystrophy among the same calves. On the second farm calves with alopecia also showed signs of muscular dystrophy. The apparent relationship between alopecia and milk substitute feeding is discussed together with the possible involvement of vitamin E. PMID:6868307

  12. Strategic Thinking on Developing Petroleum Substitutes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The continual growth of Chinese economy indicates that the oil demand in China will maintain a strongly rising tendency in the future. With increasing oil consumption, the contradiction between supply and demand will become more and more serious, which can be resolved by developing petroleum substitutes. This paper analyzes different influence factors, displays the development trend and probes into the strategy in developing petroleum substitutes in China.

  13. Connectedness of fractals associated with Arnoux-Rauzy substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Rauzy fractals are compact sets with fractal boundary that can be associated with any unimodular Pisot irreducible substitution. These fractals can be defined as the Hausdorff limit of a sequence of compact planar sets, where each set is the projection of a finite union of faces of unit cubes. We exploit this combinatorial definition to prove the connectedness of the fractal associated with any finite product of Arnoux-Rauzy substitutions.

  14. Bioethics for clinicians: 5. Substitute decision-making.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, N M; Greiner, G G; Robertson, G; Singer, P A

    1996-01-01

    Substitute decision-making is a means of making health care decisions on behalf of people who are incapable of making these decisions for themselves. It is based on the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. Substitute decision-making poses two main questions: Who-should make the decision for the incapable person, and, How should the decision be made? Because the applicable statutory and common law varies across Canada, clinicians should become familiar with the legal requirements of thei...

  15. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    OpenAIRE

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see C...

  16. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Gascuel Olivier; Le Quang; Dang Cuong; Le Vinh

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We p...

  17. Incidence and severity of anaphylactoid reactions to colloid volume substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, J; Messmer, K

    1977-02-26

    All available colloid volume substitutes carry the risk of anaphylactoid reactions. In a multicentre prospective trial, 69 cases of anaphylactoid reactions have been observed among 200 906 infusions of colloid volume substitutes. The frequency of severe reactions (shock, cardiac and/or respiratory arrest) was 0-003% for plasma-protein solutions, 0-006% for hydroxyethyl starch, 0-008% for dextran, and 0-038% for gelatin solutions. PMID:65572

  18. A formal approach for correct-by-construction system substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Babin, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The substitution of a system with another one may occur in several situations like system adaptation, system failure management, system resilience, system reconfiguration, etc. It consists in replacing a running system by another one when given conditions hold. This contribution summarizes our proposal to define a formal setting for proving the correctness of system substitution. It relies on refinement and on the Event-B method.

  19. Are Pornography and Marriage Substitutes for Young Men?

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm, Michael; George S. Naufal

    2014-01-01

    Substitutes for marital sexual gratification may impact the decision to marry. Proliferation of the Internet has made pornography an increasingly low-cost substitute. We investigate the effect of Internet usage, and of pornography consumption specifically, on the marital status of young men. We show that increased Internet usage is negatively associated with marriage formation. Pornography consumption specifically has an even stronger effect. Instrumental variables and a number of robustness ...

  20. Gene Tree Discordance Causes Apparent Substitution Rate Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W

    2016-07-01

    Substitution rates are known to be variable among genes, chromosomes, species, and lineages due to multifarious biological processes. Here, we consider another source of substitution rate variation due to a technical bias associated with gene tree discordance. Discordance has been found to be rampant in genome-wide data sets, often due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). This apparent substitution rate variation is caused when substitutions that occur on discordant gene trees are analyzed in the context of a single, fixed species tree. Such substitutions have to be resolved by proposing multiple substitutions on the species tree, and we therefore refer to this phenomenon as Substitutions Produced by ILS (SPILS). We use simulations to demonstrate that SPILS has a larger effect with increasing levels of ILS, and on trees with larger numbers of taxa. Specific branches of the species trees are consistently, but erroneously, inferred to be longer or shorter, and we show that these branches can be predicted based on discordant tree topologies. Moreover, we observe that fixing a species tree topology when performing tests of positive selection increases the false positive rate, particularly for genes whose discordant topologies are most affected by SPILS. Finally, we use data from multiple Drosophila species to show that SPILS can be detected in nature. Although the effects of SPILS are modest per gene, it has the potential to affect substitution rate variation whenever high levels of ILS are present, particularly in rapid radiations. The problems outlined here have implications for character mapping of any type of trait, and for any biological process that causes discordance. We discuss possible solutions to these problems, and areas in which they are likely to have caused faulty inferences of convergence and accelerated evolution. PMID:26927960

  1. Dynamic Pricing and Inventory Control of Substitute Products

    OpenAIRE

    Lingxiu Dong; Panos Kouvelis; Zhongjun Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study dynamic pricing and inventory control of substitute products for a retailer who faces a long supply lead time and a short selling season. Within a multinomial logit model of consumer choice over substitutes, we develop a stochastic dynamic programming formulation and derive the optimal dynamic pricing policy. We prove that dynamic pricing converges to static pricing as inventory levels of all variates approach the number of remaining selling periods (assuming at most one customer arr...

  2. Squirals and beyond: Substitution tilings with singular continuous spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The squiral inflation rule is equivalent to a bijective block substitution rule and leads to an interesting lattice dynamical system under the action of $\\mathbb{Z}^{2}$. In particular, its balanced version has purely singular continuous diffraction. The dynamical spectrum is of mixed type, with pure point and singular continuous components. We present a constructive proof that admits a generalisation to bijective block substitutions of trivial height on $\\mathbb{Z}^{d}$.

  3. Production of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite using various precipitation routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substituted hydroxyapatites have been investigated for use as bone grafts and have been investigated for many years. Zinc is of interest due to its potential to reduce bone resorption and antibacterial properties. However, it has proven problematic to substitute biologically significant levels of zinc into the crystal structure through wet chemical routes, whilst retaining the high temperature phase stability required for processing. The aim of this study is to investigate two different precipitation routes used to synthesize zinc substituted hydroxyapatite and to explore the effects of ammonia used in the reactions on the levels of zinc substituted into the crystal lattice. It was found that considerable amounts of ammonia are required to maintain a pH sufficiently high for the production of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite using a reaction between calcium nitrate, zinc nitrate and ammonium phosphate. X-ray fluorescence analysis showed that a significant proportion of the zinc added did not substitute into the hydroxyapatite lattice. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the existence of a zinc-ammonia complex that, it is proposed, inhibits zinc substitution for calcium. It was found that by reacting orthophosphoric acid with calcium nitrate and zinc nitrate, the volume of ammonia required in the reaction was reduced and higher levels of zinc substitution were achieved, with up to 0.58 wt% incorporated into the hydroxyapatite lattice. The resulting products were found to be stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and did not appear to contain any extraneous calcium phosphate phases after heat treatment up to 1100 °C. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis revealed that the effect of substituting zinc into the HA lattice was to decrease the a-lattice parameter whilst increasing the c-lattice. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that the incorporation of zinc reduced both the length and width of the precipitated crystals. (paper)

  4. Capacitively coupled electrical substitution for resistive bolometer enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Denoual, Matthieu; Delaunay, Sébastien; Allègre, Gilles; Robbes, Didier

    2009-01-01

    A new electrical substitution method for resistive bolometers is proposed to operate them in a closed-loop configuration. This method was implemented and evaluated with a resistive bolometer based on metallic layers over a 120 μm thick glass membrane. Based on an electrical substitution (ES) directly at the place of the resistive sensing element, the new method allows for space savings and a simplification of the technological manufacturing while maintaining the time response improvement link...

  5. Synthesis of N6-Substituted-2-Triazolyl-Adenine Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Novosjolova, I; Bizdēna, Ē; Beļakovs, S; Turks, M

    2013-01-01

    A novel class of 2,6-bis-triazolylpurine nucleosides were obtained from 2,6-diazido precursors via copper (I) catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. These intermediates appeared to be very reactive towards N-nucleophiles and thus selectively gave C(6)-substituted analogs with triazolyl moiety at C(2)-position. Thereby, 1,2,3-triazoles act as good leaving groups in regioselective nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions.

  6. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Erin D.; Duerfeldt, Adam S.; Zhu, Kaicheng; Glinkerman, Christopher M.; Boger, Dale L.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles.

  7. Multiple scenarios of bentonite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance assessment for TRU waste repositories has shown that soluble and poorly sorbing nuclides such as I-129 and C-14 dominate the dose. These nuclides are expected to migrate with groundwater flow, hence hydraulic conditions and their evolution with time in the repository are key issues for repository safety. Cementitious material will be used for waste packaging, backfilling and structural material in a TRU waste repository. Bentonite is also expected to be used for some TRU wastes to provide the function of a hydraulic barrier in the disposal system. There is concern that the coexistence of cementitious material and bentonite cause the alteration of smectite due to interaction with hyperalkaline leachates and consequent deleterious perturbation of the function of bentonite as a hydraulic barrier. Many research studies have been performed to identify possible mechanisms of cement-bentonite interaction. However, uncertainties still exist in our understanding of the precise chemical scheme of bentonite alteration in highly alkaline conditions, especially the space and time variation of secondary mineral occurrences. In order to reflect this uncertainty, multiple scenarios of bentonite alteration were developed based on the possible mineralogical changes derived from knowledge of both experiments and observation of natural systems. It was focused that the mineral reaction involving hyperalkaline fluids would thermodynamically depend on the variable chemical condition in bentonite buffer and that kinetics would be important as well as thermodynamic stability in controlling their occurrence, i.e., the kinetic controls may operate to remain metastable minerals over the long term. The mineralogical consequences of the interaction between clays and alkaline fluids are summarized as follows. Clay → C-S-H gel and other solids which can rapidly precipitate. Clay and gel → illite. Clay and gel → metastable zeolite. Clay and gel → metastable zeolite → stable

  8. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  9. A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H C Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ, effective atomic number (Z eff , and effective electron density (N el must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ, Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes.

  10. A study of photon interaction parameters in lung tissue substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, H C

    2014-04-01

    The study of photon interaction with different composite materials has become a topic of prime importance for radiation physicists. Some parameters of dosimetric interest are the mass attenuation coefficient, effective atomic number, and electron density; these help in the basic understanding of photon interactions with composite materials. The photon interaction parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff), and effective electron density (N el) must be identical for the phantom material and their tissue. In the present study, we have evaluated the photon interaction parameters such as (μ/ρ), Z eff and N el of 13 lung tissue substitutes. The variations of these parameters of lung tissue substitutes with photon energy are graphically represented. The photon interaction parameters of lung tissue substitutes are compared with that of lung tissue. The variation of photon interaction parameters of the studied lung tissue substitutes is similar that of the lung. Logically, it can be shown that Alderson lung is good substitute for lung than the other substitutes. PMID:24872609

  11. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabellus Florian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT without UHMWPE particles (Group 1, WT with UHMWPE particles (Group 2, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles (Group 3, Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particles (Group 4, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles and calcitonin substitution (Group 5, and Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particle implantation and calcitonin substitution (Group 6. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine. Bone resorption was measured by bone histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was determined by counting the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP + cells. Results Bone resorption was significantly increased in Calca -/- mice compared with their corresponding WT. The eroded surface in Calca -/- mice with particle implantation was reduced by 20.6% after CT substitution. Osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in Calca -/- mice after particle implantation. Serum OPG (osteoprotegerin increased significantly after CT substitution. Conclusions As anticipated, Calca -/- mice show extensive osteolysis compared with wild-type mice, and CT substitution reduces particle-induced osteolysis.

  12. Neutron kerma factors and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kerma factors and Kerma relative to the air and water of 24 compounds that are used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energies ranging from 2.53×10−8 to 29 MeV. The Kerma ratios of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies of 100 eV. The Kerma ratio relative to the air for poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon were nearest to unity at very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV, respectively. It was found that the natural rubber was a water-equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the Kerma factors in our investigation show good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the Kerma factors and Kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds were approximately the same, but though the differences were large for energies below 100 eV. - Highlights: • We calculated the neutron kerma factors of tissue substitutes up to 29 MeV. • Water equivalence was observed above neutron energy 100 eV. • Natural rubber was found to be a water equivalent material. • Kerma factors are in agreement with those published in literatures

  13. Generation of a Fibrin Based Three-Layered Skin Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Kober

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of skin substitutes that restore epidermal and dermal structures are currently available on the market. However, the main focus in research and clinical application lies on dermal and epidermal substitutes whereas the development of a subcutaneous replacement (hypodermis is often disregarded. In this study we used fibrin sealant as hydrogel scaffold to generate a three-layered skin substitute. For the hypodermal layer adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs and mature adipocytes were embedded in the fibrin hydrogel and were combined with another fibrin clot with fibroblasts for the construction of the dermal layer. Keratinocytes were added on top of the two-layered construct to form the epidermal layer. The three-layered construct was cultivated for up to 3 weeks. Our results show that ASCs and fibroblasts were viable, proliferated normally, and showed physiological morphology in the skin substitute. ASCs were able to differentiate into mature adipocytes during the course of four weeks and showed morphological resemblance to native adipose tissue. On the surface keratinocytes formed an epithelial-like layer. For the first time we were able to generate a three-layered skin substitute based on a fibrin hydrogel not only serving as a dermal and epidermal substitute but also including the hypodermis.

  14. Neutron kerma factors, and water equivalence of some tissue substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V. P.; Badiger, N. M. [Karnatak University, Department of Physics, Dharwad, 580003 (India); Vega C, H. R., E-mail: kudphyvps@rediffmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    The kerma factors and kerma relative to air and water of 24 compounds used as tissue substitutes were calculated for neutron energy from 2.53 x 10{sup -8} up to 29 MeV. The kerma ratio of the tissue substitutes relative to air and water were calculated by the ratio of kerma factors of the tissue substitute to air and water respectively. The water equivalence of the selected tissue substitutes was observed above neutron energies 100 eV. Kerma ratio relative to the air for Poly-vinylidene fluoride and Teflon are found to be nearest to unity in very low energy (up to 1 eV) and above 63 eV respectively. It was found that the natural rubber as a water equivalent tissue substitute compound. The results of the kerma factors in our investigation shows a very good agreement with those published in ICRU-44. We found that at higher neutron energies, the kerma factors and kerma ratios of the selected tissue substitute compounds are approximately same, but differences are large for energies below 100 eV. (Author)

  15. Electrophoretic deposition of zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by the co-precipitation method were used to coat stainless steel plates by electrophoretic deposition in n-butanol with triethanolamine as a dispersant. The effect of zinc concentration in the synthesis on the morphology and microstructure of coatings was investigated. It is found that the deposition current densities significantly increase with the increasing zinc concentration. The zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is inferred that hydroxyapatite and triethanolamine predominate in the chemical composition of coatings. With the increasing Zn/Ca ratios, the contents of triethanolamine decrease in the final products. The triethanolamine can be burnt out by heat treatment. The tests of adhesive strength have confirmed good adhesion between the coatings and substrates. The formation of new apatite layer on the coatings has been observed after 7 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid. In summary, the results show that dense, uniform zinc-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings are obtained by electrophoretic deposition when the Zn/Ca ratio reaches 5%. - Highlights: • We investigate the Zn/Ca ratios for the synthesis of zinc-substituted HA. • Zinc-substituted HA nanoparticles are used for electrophoretic deposition. • Adding triethanolamine and HCl may aid electrophoretic deposition. • Uniform dense coatings of zinc-substituted HA are obtained when Zn/Ca = 5%

  16. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders: Synthesis, thermal stability and sinterability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic hydroxyapatites incorporating small amounts of Si have shown improved biological performances in terms of enhanced bone apposition, bone in-growth and cell-mediated degradation. This paper reports a systematic investigation on Si-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si 1.40 wt%) nanopowders produced following two different conventional wet methodologies: (a) precipitation of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and (b) titration of Ca(OH)2. The influence of the synthesis process on composition, thermal behaviour and sinterability of the resulting nanopowders is studied. Samples were characterised by electron microscopy, induced coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, N2 adsorption measurements, X-ray diffraction and dilatometry. Semicrystalline Si-substituted hydroxyapatite powders made up of needle-like nanoparticles were obtained, the specific surface area ranged between 84 and 110 m2/g. Pure and Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders derived from Ca(NO3)2.4H2O decomposed around 1000 deg. C. Si-substituted hydroxyapatite nanopowders obtained from Ca(OH)2 were thermally stable up to 1200 deg. C and showed a distinct decreased thermal stability with respect to the homologous pure sample. Si-substituted hydroxyapatites exhibited higher sintering temperature and increased total shrinkage with respect to pure powders. Nanostructured dense ceramics were obtained by sintering at 1100 deg. C Si-substituted hydroxyapatites derived from Ca(OH)2

  17. TWO STAGE FRAMEWORK FOR ALTERED FINGERPRINT MATCHING

    OpenAIRE

    T. R. Anoop; M.G. Mini

    2015-01-01

    Fingerprint alteration is the process of masking one’s identity from personal identification systems especially in boarder control security systems. Failure of matching the altered fingerprint of the criminals against the watch list of fingerprints can help them to break the security system. This fact leads to the need of a method for altered fingerprint matching. This paper presents a two stage method for altered fingerprint matching. In first stage, approximated global ridge orientation fie...

  18. Alteration of GyrA Amino Acid Required for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in China▿

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yingmei; Guo, Lishuang; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Wenli; Gu, Jiaao; Xu, Jianfeng; Chen, Xiaobei; Zhao, Yuehui; Ma, Jiayu; Liu, Xinghan; Zhang, Fengmin

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in 111 (48.1%) isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae from China. GyrA alterations were identified in the ciprofloxacin-resistant and ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates. The results, including previously published data, indicate that the single substitution Ser83→Ile and three types of double mutations at Ser83 and Asp87 were required for ciprofloxacin resistance (P < 0.05).

  19. Screening for amino acid substitutions in the Candida albicans Erg11 protein of azole-susceptible and azole-resistant clinical isolates: new substitutions and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Florent; Loge, Cedric; Besse, Bernard; Hennequin, Christophe; Le Pape, Patrice

    2010-04-01

    For several years, azole antifungal drugs have been a treatment option for potentially life-threatening Candida infections. However, azole resistance can occur through various mechanisms such as alterations in ERG11, encoding lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51). In this study, we investigated the antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole of 73 clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Screening for amino acid substitutions in Erg11 was performed on each of the 73 isolates. Twenty isolates displayed a marked decrease in azole susceptibility. Amino acid substitutions were detected in more than two-thirds of the strains. In all, 23 distinct substitutions were identified. Four have not been described previously, among which N136Y and Y447H are suspected to be involved in azole resistance. We suggest that the high genetic polymorphism of ERG11 must be considered in the rationale design of new azole compounds targeting lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase. A review of all Erg11 amino acid polymorphisms described to date is given. PMID:20226328

  20. Genetic alterations in pancreatic carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer of the exocrine pancreas represents the fifth leading cause of cancer death in the Western population with an average survival after diagnosis of 3 to 6 months and a five-year survival rate under 5%. Our understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis has improved in the last few years due to the development of novel molecular biological techniques. Pancreatic cancer is a multi-stage process resulting from the accumulation of genetic changes in the somatic DNA of normal cells. In this article we describe major genetic alterations of pancreatic cancer, mutations in the proto-oncogene K-RAS and the tumor suppressors INK4A, TP53 and DPC4/SMAD4. The accumulation of these genetic changes leads to a profound disturbance in cell cycle regulation and continuous growth. The knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms will offer new therapeutic and diagnostic options and hopefully improve the outcome of this aggressive disease.

  1. Genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Wasif Saif; Lena Karapanagiotou; Kostas Syrigos

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is devastating for patients and their relatives as the incidence rate is approximately the same as mortality rate. Only a small percentage, which ranges from 0.4% to 4% of patients who have been given this diagnosis, will be alive at five years. At the time of diagnosis, 80% of pancreatic cancer patients have unresectable or metastatic disease.Moreover, the therapeutic alternatives offered by chemotherapy or radiotherapy are few, if not zero. For all these reasons, there is an imperative need of analyzing and understanding the primitive lesions that lead to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Molecular pathology of these lesions is the key of our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development of this cancer and will probably help us in earlier diagnosis and better therapeutic results. This review focuses on medical research on pancreatic cancer models and the underlying genetic alterations.

  2. Epigenetic alterations underlying autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Karami, Jafar; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Malekshahi, Zahra; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Recent breakthroughs in genetic explorations have extended our understanding through discovery of genetic patterns subjected to autoimmune diseases (AID). Genetics, on the contrary, has not answered all the conundrums to describe a comprehensive explanation of causal mechanisms of disease etiopathology with regard to the function of environment, sex, or aging. The other side of the coin, epigenetics which is defined by gene manifestation modification without DNA sequence alteration, reportedly has come in to provide new insights towards disease apprehension through bridging the genetics and environmental factors. New investigations in genetic and environmental contributing factors for autoimmunity provide new explanation whereby the interactions between genetic elements and epigenetic modifications signed by environmental agents may be responsible for autoimmune disease initiation and perpetuation. It is aimed through this article to review recent progress attempting to reveal how epigenetics associates with the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:26761426

  3. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  4. Characteristics of Magnetic Properties of Substituted Hexagonal Ferrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Jancarik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of barium hexaferrite BaFe12-2x(Me1Me2xO19 with x from 0.0 to 0.6 were prepared by variousmethods. The cationic preference of mainly divalent Me1 = Zn, Co, Ni, Sn ions and tetravalent Me2 = Ti, Zr, Ir, Sn, Ru ionsand their combinations in substituted Ba ferrites was investigated. The substitutions were performed to reduce the grain sizeand high magnetic uniaxial anisotropy field of the M-type Ba ferrite without affecting the magnetic polarisation. The goal isto reach the properties of ferrite proper for high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorption devices. Magneticproperties were determined as a function of the substitution level x. The specific saturation magnetic polarisation Js–m andremanence Js–rincreased with small x due to the substitution of non-magnetic and less magnetic ions in 4f1 and 4f2 sites. Thesteep decrease of coercivity Hc with increasing x may be caused by the Co2+ preference of 4f2 site and Ti4+or Zr4+ions preference of 2b and slightly in 4f1 sites. The temperature coefficient of the coercivity TKHc was very low (0.01kA.m-1.°C-1for the Co-Zr substitutions and positive for the rest of samples.

  5. An ethical facade? Medical students' miscomprehensions of substituted judgment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farr A Curlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied how well first-year medical students understand and apply the concept of substituted judgment, following a course on clinical ethics. METHOD: Students submitted essays on one of three ethically controversial scenarios presented in class. One scenario involved a patient who had lost decisional capacity. Through an iterative process of textual analysis, the essays were studied and coded for patterns in the ways students misunderstood or misapplied the principle of substituted judgment. RESULTS: Students correctly articulated course principles regarding patient autonomy, substituted judgment, and non-imposition of physician values. However, students showed misunderstanding by giving doctors the responsibility of balancing the interests of the patient against the interests of the family, by stating doctors and surrogates should be guided primarily by a best-interest standard, and by suggesting that patient autonomy becomes the guiding principle only when patients can no longer express their wishes. CONCLUSION: Students did not appear to internalize or correctly apply the substituted judgment standard, even though they could describe it accurately. This suggests the substituted judgment standard may run counter to students' moral intuitions, making it harder to apply in clinical practice.

  6. Applications of fluid substitution effect analysis on seismic interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; WANG Shang-xu; CHUAI Xiao-yu; LIU Yong

    2016-01-01

    The root mean square (RMS) difference of time-lapse seismic amplitudes is routinely used to identify the substituted fluid type in a reservoir during oil field production and recovery. By a time-lapse seismic method, we study the effects of fluid substitution in a physical model, which is an analogy of the three-dimensional inhomogeneous reservoir. For a weak inhomogeneous medium, gas/oil substitution results in positive anomalies in the reservoir layers, and negative anomalies below the bottom of the reservoir layers; while water/oil substitution causes only weak variations in the reservoir layers, but positive anomalies below the bottom of the reservoir layers. For the strong inhomogeneous medium, no matter what kind of fluid substitution (gas/oil or water/oil), there are significant anomalies in seismic amplitude difference attributes both in and below the reservoir layers. Therefore, for weak inhomogeneous media, such as tight sandstone or thin interbedded layers, the RMS amplitude difference attributes can be used to monitor fluid changes and predict the drilling direction; for inhomogeneous medium with karst carves or fractures, it is difficult to accurately determine the distribution of fluids with the RMS amplitude difference attributes.

  7. Consequences of Pure Point Diffraction Spectra for Multiset Substitution Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeong-Yup; Solomyak, Boris; 10.1007/s00454-003-0781-z

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing body of results in the theory of discrete point sets and tiling systems giving conditions under which such systems are pure point diffractive. Here we look at the opposite direction: what can we infer about a discrete point set or tiling, defined through a primitive substitution system, given that it is pure point diffractive? Our basic objects are Delone multisets and tilings, which are self-replicating under a primitive substitution system of affine mappings with a common expansive map $Q$. Our first result gives a partial answer to a question of Lagarias and Wang: we characterize repetitive substitution Delone multisets that can be represented by substitution tilings using a concept of "legal cluster". This allows us to move freely between both types of objects. Our main result is that for lattice substitution multiset systems (in arbitrary dimensions) being a regular model set is not only sufficient for having pure point spectrum--a known fact--but is also necessary. This completes a ci...

  8. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gascuel Olivier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions.

  9. Repression and substitutive formation: the relationship between Freud's concepts reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Siegfried

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines Freud's concept of repression and the relationship between repression and substitutive formation as it presents itself in Freud's writings. The author shows that Freud gives at least four different meanings to the term "repression": Freud uses it interchangeably with defense, as a consciously intended forgetting, as a specific unconscious mechanism of defense, and to describe the consequence of defense mechanisms leading to substitutive formations. The inconsistencies in this relationship are discussed and clarified, and Freud's economic and linguistic attempts at founding repression are subjected to critique; the need of a primal repression as a necessary condition for repression proper is pointed out. In developing Freud's linguistic foundation of repression further, the author presents defense as a semantic displacement. Ideas are excluded from the realm of the concepts that belong to them historically. These presentations become unconscious, that is, repressed, in that they can no longer be identified as "cases" of these conceptual internal contents. At the same time they are displaced into the extensions of concepts whose internal contents do not belong to them originally. It is by virtue of the internal contents of these concepts that the displaced elements as substitutive formations once again attain consciousness, albeit a false one. The author suggests dismissing repression as a specific defense mechanism of its own; to reversing Freud's thesis that repression, as a rule, creates a substitutive formation into its opposite; and recognizing that the mechanisms used to build substitutes, as a rule, create repression. PMID:22712593

  10. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: ► We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. ► XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. ► Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. ► Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. ► Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  11. Carbon substitution for oxygen in silicates in planetary interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sabyasachi; Widgeon, Scarlett J; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Mera, Gabriela; Tavakoli, Amir; Ionescu, Emanuel; Riedel, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    Amorphous silicon oxycarbide polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs), synthesized from organometallic precursors, contain carbon- and silica-rich nanodomains, the latter with extensive substitution of carbon for oxygen, linking Si-centered SiO(x)C(4-x) tetrahedra. Calorimetric studies demonstrated these PDCs to be thermodynamically more stable than a mixture of SiO2, C, and silicon carbide. Here, we show by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy that substitution of C for O is also attained in PDCs with depolymerized silica-rich domains containing lithium, associated with SiO(x)C(4-x) tetrahedra with nonbridging oxygen. We suggest that significant (several percent) substitution of C for O could occur in more complex geological silicate melts/glasses in contact with graphite at moderate pressure and high temperature and may be thermodynamically far more accessible than C for Si substitution. Carbon incorporation will change the local structure and may affect physical properties, such as viscosity. Analogous carbon substitution at grain boundaries, at defect sites, or as equilibrium states in nominally acarbonaceous crystalline silicates, even if present at levels at 10-100 ppm, might form an extensive and hitherto hidden reservoir of carbon in the lower crust and mantle. PMID:24043830

  12. Fine structure study on low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Wei [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: caltary@gmail.com [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Jianglin [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Shengmin, E-mail: smzhang@mail.hust.edu.cn [Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); China-Korea Center for Biomaterials and Nano-biotechnology, Life Science Building, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-12-01

    The fine structure of zinc substituted hydroxyapatite was studied using experimental analysis and first-principles calculations. The synthetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles containing low Zn concentration show rod-like morphology. The crystallite sizes and unit-cell volumes tended to decrease with the increased Zn concentration according to X-ray diffraction patterns. The Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectra and fitting results suggest that the hydroxyapatite doped with 0.1 mole% zinc is different in the zinc coordination environments compared with that containing more zinc. The density function theory calculations were performed on zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Two mechanisms included replacing calcium by zinc and inserting zinc along the hydroxyl column and were investigated, and the related substitution energies were calculated separately. It is found that the substitution energies are negative and lowest for inserting zinc between the two oxygen atoms along the hydroxyl column (c-axis). Combined with the spectral analysis, it is suggested that the inserting mechanism is favored for low concentration zinc substituted hydroxyapatite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the fine structure of hydroxyapatite with low content of Zn. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XANES spectra are similar but a little different at low zinc content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc ions influence hydroxyapatite crystal formation and lattice parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation energies are calculated according to plane-wave density function theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low content of zinc prefers to locate at hydroxyl column in hydroxyapatite lattice.

  13. Structural study of yttrium substituted BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía Gómez, J. A.; Canaria, C.; Ochoa Burgos, R.; Ortiz, C. A.; Supelano, G. I.; Parra Vargas, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Yttrium-substituted Bi1-xYxFeO3 (x=0, 0.03, 0.07, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.5) samples were prepared by solid state reaction technique. Morphological analysis was obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technique indicating mainly granular behaviour. In addition, the substitution of yttrium promotes smaller particle size of BiFeO3. The obtained samples were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were confirmed by XRD. Rietveld refinement of experimental X-ray diffraction patterns showed that substituted BiFeO3 compounds crystallize in a R3c type structure and the lattice parameters decrease as Y concentration increases.

  14. Caviar substitute produced from roes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Moron Machado

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The caviar substitute is obtained from processed fish roe, resulting in a product similar to the authentic caviar, prepared with sturgeon roe. The objective of this study was to develop a caviar substitute from roes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Four treatments were tested and we followed the steps of saline wash, drain, immersion in saline solution containing lactic acid for pH adjustment (4.3 to 4.5, salt addition (1.5 or 3%, traditional pasteurization or fast heat treatment, cooling and storage (0 to 4°C. The products were subjected to the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory analyses and showed stability and safety for consumption up to 180 days in storage under refrigeration (0 to 4°C. Consumers showed preference for product containing 1.5% NaCl and subjected to fast heat treatment. The results suggest that caviar substitute developed with rainbow trout roes presents potential to production.

  15. Fibrous growth of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite and its drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganthi, R.V.; Elayaraja, K.; Joshy, M.I. Ahymah; Chandra, V. Sarath [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Girija, E.K. [Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011 (India); Kalkura, S. Narayana, E-mail: kalkura@yahoo.com [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2011-04-08

    The effect of strontium on the crystallization of helical ribbon of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was investigated by single diffusion technique in silica gel matrix at 27 deg. C and physiological pH. Fibers of HAp were obtained on addition of strontium. The length of the HAp fibers, were found to decrease as the strontium substitution increases. The presence of strontium ion increased the crystallinity as well as crystallite size of HAp. The strontium substituted HAp (Sr-HAp) has similar stoichiometry to that of biological apatite. Sr-HAp was found to have increased surface area (35%) compared to control. Further, strontium substitution leads to an enhancement of in vitro bioactivity. The cumulative in-vitro amoxicillin drug release in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.2) showed a prolonged release profile for Sr-HAp.

  16. Substituting fields within the action: consistency issues and some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pons, Josep M

    2009-01-01

    In field theory, as well as in mechanics, the substitution of some fields in terms of other fields at the level of the action raises an issue of consistency with respect to the equations of motion. We discuss this issue and give an expression which neatly displays the difference between doing the substitution at the level of the Lagrangian or at the level of the equations of motion. Both operations do not commute in general. A very relevant exception is the case of auxiliary variables, which are discussed in detail together with some of their relevant applications. We discuss the conditions for the preservation of symmetries - Noether as well as non-Noether - under the reduction of degrees of freedom provided by the mechanism of substitution. We also examine how the gauge fixing procedures fit in our framework and give simple examples on the issue of consistency in this case.

  17. Cohomology of One-dimensional Mixed Substitution Tiling Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gähler, Franz

    2011-01-01

    We compute the Cech cohomology with integer coefficients of one-dimensional tiling spaces arising from not just one, but several different substitutions, all acting on the same set of tiles. These calculations involve the introduction of a universal version of the Anderson-Putnam complex. We show that, under a certain condition on the substitutions, the projective limit of this universal Anderson-Putnam complex is isomorphic to the tiling space, and we introduce a simplified universal Anderson-Putnam complex that can be used to compute Cech cohomology. We then use this simplified complex to place bounds on the rank of the first cohomology group of a one-dimensional substitution tiling space in terms of the number of tiles.

  18. Electronic and magnetic properties of Si substituted Fe3Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using first principles calculations, we studied the effect of Si substitution in the hexagonal Fe3Ge. We find the low temperature magnetic anisotropy in this system to be planar and originating mostly from the spin-orbit coupling in Fe-d states. Reduction of the unitcell volume reduces the magnitude of in-plane magnetic anisotropy, eventually turning it positive which reorients the magnetic moments to the axial direction. Substituting Ge with the smaller Si ions also increases the anisotropy, potentially enhancing the region of stability of the axial magnetization, which is beneficial for magnetic applications such as permanent magnets. Our experimental measurements on samples of Fe3Ge1−xSix confirm these predictions and show that substitution of about 6% of the Ge with Si increases by approximately 35 K the temperature range over which anisotropy is uniaxial

  19. Selected polyethylene glycols as DOP substitutes. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recommendation is made that Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators producing a polydisperse distribution for testing the integrity of filters and for testing respirator fit. Further, the recommendation is made that pentaethylene glycol (PTAEG) and possibly hexaethylene glycol be considered as a substitute for DOP in aerosol generators thermally producing monodisperse aerosol for quality acceptance tests according tu US federal specifications and standards. The toxicology data base available on the polyethylene glycol family of chemical compounds is discussed and the conclusion is drawn that the probability of approval and acceptance as a non-hazardous substance in the filter and filter media test role is high. Data and analysis supporting PTAEG performance equivalent to DOP in the filter and filter media test role are given or referenced. Cost and availability of the substitute materials is discussed. Conclusions based on the present data and information are given and recommendations for further work are made

  20. Fibrous growth of strontium substituted hydroxyapatite and its drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of strontium on the crystallization of helical ribbon of hydroxyapatite (HAp) was investigated by single diffusion technique in silica gel matrix at 27 deg. C and physiological pH. Fibers of HAp were obtained on addition of strontium. The length of the HAp fibers, were found to decrease as the strontium substitution increases. The presence of strontium ion increased the crystallinity as well as crystallite size of HAp. The strontium substituted HAp (Sr-HAp) has similar stoichiometry to that of biological apatite. Sr-HAp was found to have increased surface area (35%) compared to control. Further, strontium substitution leads to an enhancement of in vitro bioactivity. The cumulative in-vitro amoxicillin drug release in phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.2) showed a prolonged release profile for Sr-HAp.

  1. Influence of hydroxyl substitution on flavanone antioxidants properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Anna; Chrzescijanska, Ewa; Latos, Malgorzata; Zaborski, Marian

    2017-01-15

    The aim of our study was to determine the effect of the position of the hydroxyl group on the antioxidant properties of flavonoid derivatives. For this purpose, we performed electrochemical analysis and quantum-mechanical calculations to describe the mechanisms of electrochemical oxidation, and we selected the two methods of ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate), which allowed us to determine the ability to scavenge free radicals. On the basis of the research, we found that the derivatives of flavonoids, which have a hydroxyl group substituted at the R-3 position on the C ring, have outstanding antioxidant activity. Flavone, which had an OH group substituted at the R-6 and R-7 position on the ring A, showed similar antioxidant activity to flavone without -OH groups in the structure and slightly higher activity than the di-substituted flavone on the ring A. PMID:27542504

  2. Capacitively coupled electrical substitution for resistive bolometer enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electrical substitution method for resistive bolometers is proposed to operate them in a closed-loop configuration. This method was implemented and evaluated with a resistive bolometer based on metallic layers over a 120 µm thick glass membrane. Based on an electrical substitution (ES) directly at the place of the resistive sensing element, the new method allows for space savings and a simplification of the technological manufacturing while maintaining the time response improvement linked to a closed-loop operation. Compared to a previously available ES solution, this new method is applicable to all resistive bolometers. Time response and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were evaluated through measurements and compared for three operation configurations of the resistive bolometer: open loop, classical ES closed loop and with the proposed capacitively coupled electrical substitution (CCES) closed loop

  3. Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: Studies on the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Padma; Kumar, Subrahmanya K; Nair, Venugopalan S N

    2010-01-01

    In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyperus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). The study's strategy was to use modern phytochemical and pharmacological methods to test the two herbs for biochemical and metabolic similarities and differences, and literary studies to compare their Ayurvedic properties, a novel trans-disciplinary approach. No previous scientific paper has compared the two herbs' bioactivities or chemical profiles. Despite being taxonomically unrelated, the first choice, but relatively unavailable (Abhava) plant, A. heterophyllum, and its substitute (Pratinidhi) C. rotundus, are not only similar in Ayurvedic pharmacology (Dravyaguna) profile, but also in phytochemical and anti-diarrheal properties. These observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Further research into the nature of raw drugs named could open up new areas of medicinal plant classification, linking chemistry and bioactivity. Understanding the logic behind the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (drug substitution) could lead to new methods of identifying legitimate drug alternatives, and help solve industry's problems of crude drug shortage. PMID:21829299

  4. Fish mislabelling in France: substitution rates and retail types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bénard-Capelle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market policies have profound implications for consumers as well as for the management of resources. One of the major concerns in fish trading is species mislabelling: the commercial name used does not correspond to the product, most often because the product is in fact a cheaper or a more easily available species. Substitution rates depend heavily on species, some often being sold mislabelled while others rarely or never mislabelled. Rates also vary largely depending on countries. In this study, we analyse the first market-wide dataset collected for France, the largest sea food market in Europe, for fish species substitution. We sequenced and analysed 371 samples bearing 55 commercial species names, collected in fishmonger shops, supermarkets and restaurants; the largest dataset assembled to date in an European country. Sampling included fish fillets, both fresh and frozen, and prepared meals. We found a total of 14 cases of mislabelling in five species: bluefin tuna, cod, yellowfin tuna, sole and seabream, setting the overall substitution rate at 3.7% CI [2.2–6.4], one of the lowest observed for comparable surveys with large sampling. We detected no case of species mislabelling among the frozen fillets or in industrially prepared meals, and all the substitutions were observed in products sold in fishmongers shops or restaurants. The rate of mislabelling does not differ between species, except for bluefin tuna. Despite a very small sample size (n = 6, the rate observed for this species (83.3% CI [36–99] stands in sharp contrast with the low substitution rate observed for the other substituted species. In agreement with studies from other countries, this work shows that fish mislabelling can vary greatly within a country depending on the species. It further suggests that more efforts should be directed to the control of high value species like bluefin tuna.

  5. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  6. THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION AS A TRANSITION TO EXPORT ORIENTATION APC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolmachev A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goals of import substitution, import data and export resource features of the agrarian economy, through which you can generate significant competitive advantage are discussed. It is noted that the flight of the capital abroad creates jobs not for our economy, but for our competitors, that low interest rates on loans create obvious unequal starting opportunities throughout the domestic business. As a result the cost of imported food in value-chain terms reached in our country an enormous rate of $45 billion and that government realized the need of strengthening of food security, transferring of production of traditional kinds of products which form the basis of consumption of the population in our country, to the domestic market. It is noted that we need temporary moderate state protectionism and protection of the domestic market with the aim of modernizing the economy, attracting investors in the important field of production with high risks. The main problems and solutions that will help to further successful implementation of this strategy in the sectors of our economy are highlighted. It is proposed to establish a network of specialized information centers to support import substitution with a database of technological profiles of organizations. The author block diagram of the information support and import substitution is given. The importance of federal and regional programs functioning in the import substitution is noted. The author's plan for their implementation is given . Predictive modeling of short-term, medium-term and long-term positive and negative consequences of import substitution and export orientation are implemented. The authors stress that the substitution should be seen as a transition to export orientation of the agricultural economy.

  7. Biologically inactive growth hormone caused by an amino acid substitution.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Y.; Shirono, H; Arisaka, O; K. Takahashi; Yagi, T; Koga, J; Kaji, H; Okimura, Y; ABE, H.; Tanaka, T; Chihara, K.

    1997-01-01

    Short stature caused by biologically inactive growth hormone (GH) is characterized by lack of GH action despite high immunoassayable GH levels in serum and marked catch-up growth to exogenous GH administration. We found a heterozygous single-base substitution (A-->G) in exon 4 of the GH-1 gene of a girl with short stature, clinically suspected to indicate the presence of bioinactive GH and resulting in the substitution of glycine for aspartic acid at codon 112. We confirmed the presence of mu...

  8. Substitutive Arnoux-Rauzy sequences have pure discrete spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the symbolic dynamical system generated by a purely substitutive Arnoux-Rauzy sequence is measurably conjugate to a toral translation. The proof is based on an explicit construction of a fundamental domain with fractal boundary (a Rauzy fractal) for this toral translation. Such a fractal is obtained as the Hausdorff limit of a sequence of compact planar sets, where each set is the projection of a finite union of faces of unit cubes generated by a multidimensional version of the underlying Arnoux-Rauzy substitution.

  9. Evidence of N substitution by Mn in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Decoster, S; Correia, JG; da Silva, MR; Vantomme, A; Araújo, JP

    2012-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in wurtzite GaN using beta− emission channeling. In addition to the majority substituting for Ga, we locate up to 20% of the Mn atoms in N sites. We propose that the incorporation of Mn in N sites is enabled under sufficiently high concentrations of N vacancies, and stabilized by a highly charged state of the Mn cations. Since N substitution by Mn impurities in wurtzite GaN has never been observed experimentally or even considered theoretically before, it challenges the current paradigm of transition metal incorporation in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  10. SYNTHESIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLE ANALOGUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehendale Nitin P

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present scheme, we have an attempt to synthesize some novel benzimidazole derivatives by substituting triazole moiety at N-1 position of benzimidazole by fusion reaction of benzimidazole-1-acetic acid with thiocarbohydrazide. The substituted triazole was refluxed with different aromatic carboxylic acid in the presence of POCl3 yield different benzimidazole derivatives, respectively. The synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds were screened for antifungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger activities.

  11. An Application of Heterogeneous Reactor Theory to Substitution Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interpretation of substitution experiments by heterogeneous theory avoids many difficulties which are typical of the homogenized treatment (as, for example, the determination of the coupling coefficients of the two zones). As a consequence it seems feasible to reduce sensibly the-number of substitutions necessary for many experiments. A suitable method for the determination of the fuel element parameters which enter into the heterogeneous theory will be discussed. There exists a direct relationship between these parameters and some quantities that can be measured in oscillation experiments. (author)

  12. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2013-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  13. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals in consumer products are subject to binding or voluntary phase-out agreements that are based on international treaties such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants or on regulatory frameworks such as the European Union's Registration, Evaluation, Authorization...... similarity in chemical structures and, hence, similar hazard profiles between phase-out and substitute chemicals, leading to a rather incremental than fundamental substitution. A hampered phase-out process, the lack of implementing Green Chemistry principles in chemicals design, and lack of Sustainable...

  14. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  15. Dolichol alters brain membrane functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been well demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between increase in dolichol level in brain and aging. An abnormally high level of dolichol was found in brain tissue of patients with pathological aging disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the physiological significance of dolichol affecting membrane transport activity and phospholipid acyl group turnover. Dolichol added to synaptic plasma membranes resulted in a biphasic effect on (Na+, K+)-ATPase, i.e., an enhancement of activity at low concentrations (5 μg/125 mg protein) and an inhibition of activity at high concentrations (40-100 μg). To probe the membrane acyl group turnover, the incorporation of [14C]-arachidonate into plasma membrane phospholipids was examined in the presence and absence of dolichol. Dolichol elicited an increase in the incorporation of label into phospholipids. However, the effects varied depending on whether BSA is present. In the absence of BSA, the increase in labeling of phosphatidylinositols is higher than that of phosphatidylcholines. These results suggest that dolichols, when inserted into membranes, may alter membrane functions

  16. Dolichol alters brain membrane functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G.Y.; Sun, A.Y.; Schroeder, F.; Wood, G.; Strong, R.

    1986-03-05

    It has been well demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between increase in dolichol level in brain and aging. An abnormally high level of dolichol was found in brain tissue of patients with pathological aging disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the physiological significance of dolichol affecting membrane transport activity and phospholipid acyl group turnover. Dolichol added to synaptic plasma membranes resulted in a biphasic effect on (Na/sup +/, K/sup +/)-ATPase, i.e., an enhancement of activity at low concentrations (5 ..mu..g/125 mg protein) and an inhibition of activity at high concentrations (40-100 ..mu..g). To probe the membrane acyl group turnover, the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-arachidonate into plasma membrane phospholipids was examined in the presence and absence of dolichol. Dolichol elicited an increase in the incorporation of label into phospholipids. However, the effects varied depending on whether BSA is present. In the absence of BSA, the increase in labeling of phosphatidylinositols is higher than that of phosphatidylcholines. These results suggest that dolichols, when inserted into membranes, may alter membrane functions.

  17. Protamine alterations in human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Meritxell; Oliva, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Protamines are the major nuclear proteins in sperm cells, having a crucial role in the correct packaging of the paternal DNA. The fact that protamine haploinsufficiency in mice resulted in abnormal chromatin packaging and male infertility suggested that the protamines could also be important candidates in explaining some of the idiopathic male infertility cases in humans. The first clinical studies focused on analyzing protamines at the protein level. Various studies have found the presence of an altered amount of protamines in some infertile patients, in contrast to the normal situation in fertile individuals where the two protamines, protamine 1 and protamine 2, are both present in approximately equal quantities. Subsequently, the protamine genes were the subject of various mutational genetic screening studies in search of variants that could be associated with deregulation in the protamine expression observed. The results of these protamine mutational studies showed that the presence of high penetrant mutations is a very rare cause of male infertility. However, some variants and some haplotypes described may behave as risk factors for male infertility. More recently, the presence of RNA in the mature sperm cell has also been investigated. The present chapter will introduce the basic aspects of protamine evolution and function and review the various articles published to date on the relationship between the protamines studied at the DNA, RNA, and protein levels and male infertility. PMID:23955674

  18. Hyperglycaemia Alters Thymic Epithelial Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Alexandrovna Abramova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM is considered to be a consequence of unchecked auto-immune processes. Alterations in immune system responses are thought to be the cause of the disease, but the possibility that altered metabolite levels (glucose can establish the disease by specifically acting on and altering thymus stroma functions has not been investigated. Therefore, the direct effect of hyperglycaemia (HG on central tolerance mechanisms as a causative agent needs to be investigated.

  19. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maika Genz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S-selective amine transaminase (ATA, a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417 was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal, as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  20. A tetra-substituted chrysene: orientation of multiple electrophilic substitution and use of a tetra-substituted chrysene as a blue emitter for OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, Alex S; Marshall, William J; Fish, Brian M; Bryman, Lois M; Wang, Ying

    2008-05-28

    The first tetra-substituted non-fused chrysene, 3,6,9,12-tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl)chrysene with blue electroluminescence at 450 nm, and with a radiance of 500 cd m(-2), was synthesized by a two-step procedure: direct bromination of chrysene in trimethyl phosphate, followed by palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling of tetrabromochrysene and tert-butylphenylboronic acid . PMID:18473056

  1. The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Savastano

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview This paper identifies the stylized facts and common features of recent currency substitution episodes in Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. It discusses the relationship between macroeconomic policies and the pattern of currency substitution in these countries and investigates the effects that the presence of foreign currency deposits had on their demand for domestic money and on their ability to conduct monetary and exchangh rate policy. The paper argues that the decision to allow foreign currency deposits in the domestic financial system tends to increase the inflationary impact of fiscal imbalances and exchange role adjustments and jeopardizes the susfainability of a managed exchange rate regime.

  2. Synthesis and antiulcer activity studies of 2-(1′-iminothioimido substituted-1′-substituted phenylbenzoic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subudhi B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain 2-(1′-iminothioimido substituted-1′-substituted phenybenzoic acids (P 1-9 were synthesized by reaction of phthalic anhydride with benzotriazole, 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 2-p-amino phenyl benzimidazole, respectively (A 1-3 followed by imine formation with Schiff bases of thiourea with salicylaldehyde, furfuraldehyde and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using reduction in total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index as parameters. Compounds P 3 , P 6 , P 7 and P 9 (100 mg/kg showed significant (P< 0.001 antiulcer action compared to control and omeprazole (40 mg/kg.

  3. Dolomite effect on borosilicate glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Dolomite is a common mineral of clayey formations considered for radioactive waste disposals. ► Borosilicate glass/dolomite interaction have been studied by batch tests and solid analysis. ► Mg provided by dolomite combines with Si from glass to yield secondary Mg–silicates. ► This precipitation increases glass alteration, though in a moderate manner. ► Geochemical modeling allows to quantify the alteration mechanisms involved. - Abstract: Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2) is one of the common rock-forming minerals in many geological media, in particular in clayey layers that are currently considered as potential host formations for a deep radioactive waste disposal facility. Magnesium in solution is one of the elements known to potentially enhance the alteration of nuclear glasses. The alteration of borosilicate glasses with dolomite as a Mg-bearing mineral source was investigated for 8 months in batch tests at 90 °C. Glass composition effects were investigated through two compositions (SiBNaAlCaZrO and SiBNaAlZrO) differing in their Ca content. The Ca-rich glass alteration is slightly enhanced in the presence of dolomite compared to the alteration observed in pure water. This greater alteration is explained by the precipitation of Mg silicate phases on the dolomite and glass surfaces. In contrast, the Ca-free glass alteration decreases in the presence of dolomite compared to the alteration observed in pure water. This behavior is explained by Ca incorporation in the amorphous layer (formed during glass alteration) coming from dolomite dissolution. Calcium acts as a layer reorganizer and limits glass alteration by reducing the diffusion of reactive species through the altered layer. Modeling was performed using the GRAAL model implemented within the CHESS/HYTEC geochemical code to discriminate and interpret the mechanisms involved in glass/dolomite interactions. Magnesium released by dolomite dissolution reacts with silica provided by glass

  4. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  5. Interpretation of substitution experiments by homogenisation two-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes methods for interpretation of progressive substitution experiments for determining material buckling in homogeneous two-group approximation. These methods were applied for experiments on the zero power RB reactor in Vinca. Experiments were done on the reflected heavy water reactor core, the lattice pitch had unisotropy properties

  6. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Egawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  7. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  8. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  9. Boron-nitrogen substituted perylene obtained through photocyclisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Behnle, Stefan; Maichle-Mössmer, Cäcilia; Bettinger, Holger F

    2014-07-25

    A BN substituted hexabenzotriphenylene (B3N3) closes one C-C-bond upon irradiation with light of 280-400 nm in the presence of iodine to yield a phenanthrene annelated B3N3 tribenzoperylene. Upon hydrolysis a B2N2 dibenzoperylene is obtained. PMID:24905718

  10. Novel ceramic processing method for substitution of toxic plasticizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Teocoli, Francesca; Brodersen, K.;

    2016-01-01

    two other candidates did not require a co-plasticiser, such as a polyethylene glycol, thus simplifying the system and reducing the risk of unwanted cross-interactions. An effective and systematic procedure for substitution of the plasticiser, while maintaining chemical compatibility and mechanical...

  11. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  12. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen

    2011-01-01

    alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...

  13. Substitution and defect chemistry of La-Cu-O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper substitutional effects of strontium in La-Cu-O system and defects accommodating stoichiometric deviations is investigated. The extended shear defects are analyzed using electron microscopy and the role in superconducting transport properties has been examined by magnetic measurements. The initial results suggest that the defects enhance flux pinning

  14. Curvature and elasticity of substitution: what is the link?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matveenko, Andrei; Matveenko, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2014), s. 7-20. ISSN 1800-5845 Grant ostatní: UK(CZ) GAUK 308214 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : curvature * elasticity of substitution * production function Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  15. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    (2007) presence of candidate substances at 15 Danish printing houses including the examination of more than 1000 MSDS’s (i.e. products). About 90 of the mapped substances are candidates for substitution according to Danish legislation (List of Undesirable Substances) and more that 20 of these substances...

  16. A short proof of a theorem of Cobham on substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Coven, Ethan M; LeMasurier, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the lengths of constant length substitutions that generate topologically conjugate systems. We show that if the systems are infinite, then these lengths must be powers of the same integer. This result is a dynamical formulation of a special case of a 1969 theoretical computer science result of Alan Cobham. Our proof is rather simple.

  17. Relative entropy via non-sequential recursive pair substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, D; Cristadoro, G; Esposti, M Degli

    2010-01-01

    The entropy of an ergodic source is the limit of properly rescaled 1-block entropies of sources obtained applying successive non-sequential recursive pairs substitutions. In this paper we prove that the cross entropy and the Kullback-Leibler divergence can be obtained in a similar way.

  18. 40 CFR 72.41 - Phase I substitution plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... each substitution unit: (A) The unit's baseline. (B) Each of the following: the unit's 1985 actual SO2 emissions rate; the unit's 1985 allowable SO2 emissions rate; the unit's 1989 actual SO2 emissions rate; the unit's 1990 actual SO2 emissions rate; and, as of November 15, 1990, the most stringent...

  19. 16 CFR 18.3 - Substitution of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to be construed as sanctioning the dissemination of an advertisement of an industry product or... substitution involved relates but to a product or products the total price of which is comparatively small, and... solicitation the industry member has a supply of such product or products sufficient to meet normal...

  20. 46 CFR 58.60-2 - Alternatives and substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY... substitute provides an equivalent level of safety. (b) In any case where it is shown to the satisfaction of... safety consistent with the minimum standards set forth in this subpart....

  1. Heart failure after aortic valve substitution due to severe hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Kim; Sørensen, Stine Heidenheim; Andersen, Niels Holmark;

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 70-year-old female with considerable co-morbidities (Type 2 diabetes, Leiden factor V mutation, mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and a recent biological aortic valve substitution, who was admitted due to circulatory collapse caused by severe heart fail...

  2. La-Zn Substituted Hexaferrites Prepared by Chemical Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La-Zn substituted M-type Ba hexaferrite powders were prepared by sol-gel (Mx) and organometallic precursor (Sk) methods with Fe/Ba ratio of 11.6 and 10.8, respectively. The compositions (LaZn)xBa1-xFe12-xO19 with 0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.6 were annealed at 975oC/2 h. The cationic site preferences of nonmagnetic La3+ instead of Ba2+ ions and Zn2+ instead of Fe3+ ions were determined by Moessbauer spectroscopy. The La3+ ions substitute the large Ba2+ ions at 2a site and for x ≥ 0.4 also at 4f2 site. The nearly all Zn2+ ions are placed at the 4f1 sites. The thermomagnetic analysis of χ(θ) confirms that only the small substitutions for x ≤ 0.4 can be taken as a single-phase hexaferrites. The coercivity Hc almost does not change at x = 0.2 for (Mx) samples and further decrease up to x = 0.6. For (Sk) samples at substitution x = 0.2 the values of Hc are decreasing and at higher x the values nearly do not change. The Curie points, Tc, slowly decrease with x for both (Mx) and (Sk) samples.

  3. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increasing awareness of cost issues in health care has led to the increasing use of policy-driven substitution of branded for generic medications, particularly relative to statin treatment for cardiovascular diseases. While there are potential short-term health care savings, the...

  4. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  5. Substitution af organiske opløsningsmidler med estre af

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Substitution of organic solvents, which are harmful to both man and environment, is often possible. Cleaning of machines in offset printing may to a large extent be performed with products, which are neither volatile nor toxic to man and environment. Apparently this experience may be transferred ...

  6. 46 CFR 298.16 - Substitution of participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VESSEL FINANCING ASSISTANCE OBLIGATION... substitute participants to a Mortgage and/or Security Agreement in a financing that is receiving assistance... Obligor and a proposed transferee of a Vessel or Shipyard Project, which is security for Title XI debt,...

  7. 12 CFR 27.6 - Substitute monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (12 CFR 202.13(d)). A bank collecting the data in compliance with § 27.3 of this part will be in... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute monitoring program. 27.6 Section 27.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME...

  8. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaun, C.C.; Larade, B.; Mehrez, H.;

    2002-01-01

    We report ab initio analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen substitution doping. For zigzag semiconducting tubes, doping with a single N impurity increases current flow and, for small radii tubes, narrows the current gap. Doping a N impurity per nanotube...

  9. 76 FR 41685 - Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 416 RIN 0960-AH02 Electronic Substitutions for Form SSA-538 AGENCY: Social Security... our use of electronic case processing at the initial and reconsideration levels of our...

  10. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  11. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2010-01-01

    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino...

  12. The synthesis of some unsaturated 4-substituted-g-lactones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUREN HUSINEC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of conjugated and nonconjugated unsaturated 4-substituted lactones of type 1 and 2 are described. The type 1 lactone was prepared by a two step procedure employing Bredereck's reagent. The type 2 lactone was synthesised by combining the Claisen-Ireland rearrangement and selenolactonisation.

  13. Mossbauer study of chromium-substituted nickel ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and magnetic properties of the Cr substituted NiCrxFe1-xO4 (0=3+ concentration has been explained on the basis of the driven cation distribution and it showed that the chrome-rich compositions can be explained in terms of the non-collinear spin model

  14. The Transition States for CO2 Capture by Substituted Ethanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangarapu, S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Alhamed, Y.A.; Zuilhof, H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum chemical studies are used to understand the electronic and steric effects on the mechanisms of the reaction of substituted ethanolamines with CO2. SCS-MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p) calculations are used to obtain the activation energy barriers and reaction energies for both the carbamate and bicarbonat

  15. Triflyloxy-substituted carboranes as useful weakly coordinating anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Loren P; McCulloch, Billy J; Gu, Weixing; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Foxman, Bruce M; Ozerov, Oleg V

    2015-09-25

    New carborane anions carrying one or three triflyloxy substituents are described. The mono-triflyloxy substituted carborane can be halogenated to give pentabromo and decachloro derivatives with preservation of the B-OTf linkage. The use of [HCB11Cl10OTf](-) as a weakly coordinating anion is demonstrated. PMID:26251850

  16. Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-10-substituted Hymenialdisine Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yi; WANG Yu; QIN Yong; SONG Hao

    2011-01-01

    A series of novel 2-phenyl-10-substituted hymenialdisine derivatives was synthesized via the microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the 2-phenyl derivative of hymenialdisine and boronic acid,which enabled the successful introduction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups to the 2-phenylhymenialdisine derivatives in good yields.

  17. Influence of N substitution on antimycobacterial activity of ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Haemers, A; Leysen, D C; Bollaert, W; ZHANG, M.Q.; Pattyn, S. R.

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin analogs with various substitutions on the piperazine nitrogen were tested against several mycobacteria. In contrast to what has been found with other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, alkyl analogs such as N-isopropylciprofloxacin were shown to be significantly more active than ciprofloxacin. MICs of 0.125 microgram/ml against Mycobacterium tuberculosis were found.

  18. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single Base Substitutions (SBS) that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE) and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing), and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT), i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST), i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC), healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic

  19. Tusk or Bone? An Example of Ivory Substitute in the Wildlife Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Sims

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone carvings (and other ivory substitutes are common in the modern-day lucrative international ivory trade.  Souvenirs for unknowing travelers and market shoppers can be made of non-biological material (plastic "ivory" beads or skillfully crafted natural objects made to resemble something other than their true origin.  Many of these items are received at the U. S. National Fish and Wildlife Forensics Laboratory (NFWFL for species identification as part of law enforcement investigations.  Morphologists at the Lab often receive uniquely carved ivory items that have been imported with little or no documentation.  In recent years, analysts examined several purported ivory tusks suspected to be walrus, a protected marine mammal.  After examination, the Lab determined their origin as carved leg bones of cattle using principles and methods of zooarchaeology and ancient DNA analysis.  The naturally long and straight ungulate metapodials had been cut, carved, filled, stained, and polished to closely resemble unmodified ivory tusks.  Morphological species identification of these bones proved to be a challenge since diagnostic characters of the bones had been altered and country of origin was unknown. Genetic analysis showed that the bones originated from cattle.  While bone is commonly used as a substitute for ivory, this style of artifact was not previously documented in the wildlife trade prior to our analysis.  Archaeological ethnobiologists commonly encounter bone tools and other forms of material culture from prehistoric and historic contexts; in this case bone tools come from a modern context, thus the application of methods common in zooarchaeology are situated in wildlife forensics.  In addition, results reported here pertain to cross-cultural ivory trade and conservation science.

  20. Increased frequency of single base substitutions in a population of transcripts expressed in cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchetti Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single Base Substitutions (SBS that alter transcripts expressed in cancer originate from somatic mutations. However, recent studies report SBS in transcripts that are not supported by the genomic DNA of tumor cells. Methods We used sequence based whole genome expression profiling, namely Long-SAGE (L-SAGE and Tag-seq (a combination of L-SAGE and deep sequencing, and computational methods to identify transcripts with greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Millions of tags produced by 40 healthy and 47 cancer L-SAGE experiments were compared to 1,959 Reference Tags (RT, i.e. tags matching the human genome exactly once. Similarly, tens of millions of tags produced by 7 healthy and 8 cancer Tag-seq experiments were compared to 8,572 RT. For each transcript, SBS frequencies in healthy and cancer cells were statistically tested for equality. Results In the L-SAGE and Tag-seq experiments, 372 and 4,289 transcripts respectively, showed greater SBS frequencies in cancer. Increased SBS frequencies could not be attributed to known Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP, catalogued somatic mutations or RNA-editing enzymes. Hypothesizing that Single Tags (ST, i.e. tags sequenced only once, were indicators of SBS, we observed that ST proportions were heterogeneously distributed across Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC, healthy differentiated and cancer cells. ESC had the lowest ST proportions, whereas cancer cells had the greatest. Finally, in a series of experiments carried out on a single patient at 1 healthy and 3 consecutive tumor stages, we could show that SBS frequencies increased during cancer progression. Conclusion If the mechanisms generating the base substitutions could be known, increased SBS frequency in transcripts would be a new useful biomarker of cancer. With the reduction of sequencing cost, sequence based whole genome expression profiling could be used to characterize increased SBS frequency in patient’s tumor and aid diagnostic.

  1. A kernel version of multivariate alteration detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2013-01-01

    Based on the established methods kernel canonical correlation analysis and multivariate alteration detection we introduce a kernel version of multivariate alteration detection. A case study with SPOT HRV data shows that the kMAD variates focus on extreme change observations....

  2. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  3. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Property of Cerium Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Yingguang; Yang Zhuoru; Cheng Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and cerium substituted hydroxyapatite (CeHAP) with the atomic ratio of Ce/[Ca+Ce] (xCe) from 0 to 0.2 were prepared by sol-gel-supercritical fluid drying (SCFD) method. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR, and the effects of cerium on crystal structure, crystallinity, and particle shape were discussed. With the tests of bacterial inhibition zone and antibacterial ratio, the antibacterial property of HAP and CeHAP nanoparticles on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus were researched. Results showed that the nanoparticles of HAP and CeHAP could be made by sol-gel-SCFD, cerium could partially substitute for calcium and enter the structure of HAP. After substitution, the crystallinity, the IR wavenumbers of bonds in CeHAP decreased gradually with increase of cerium substitution, and the morphology of the nanoparticles changed from the short rod-shaped HAP to the needle-shaped CeHAP. The nanoparticles of HAP and CeHAP with xCe below 0.08 had antibacterial property only forcibly contacting with the test bacteria at the test concentration of 0.1 g·ml-1, however, the CeHAP nanoparticles had antibacterial ability at that concentration no matter statically or dynamically contacting with the test bacteria when xCe was above 0.08, and the antibacterial ability gets better with the increase of xCe, indicating that the antibacterial property was improved after calcium was partially substituted by cerium. The improved antibacterial effects of CeHAP nanoparticle on Lactobacillus showed its potential ability to anticaries.

  4. Long-term alteration of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

  5. Aqueous Alteration on Mars. Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Clark, Benton C.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous alteration is the change in composition of a rock, produced in response to interactions with H2O-bearing ices, liquids, and vapors by chemical weathering. A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Mineralogical indicators for aqueous alteration include goethite (lander), jarosite (lander), kieserite (orbiter), gypsum (orbiter) and other Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-sulfates (landers), halides (meteorites, lander), phyllosilicates (orbiter, meteorites), hematite and nanophase iron oxides (telescopic, orbiter, lander), and Fe-, Mg-, and Ca-carbonates (meteorites). Geochemical indicators (landers only) for aqueous alteration include Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-sulfates, halides, and secondary aluminosilicates such as smectite. Based upon these indicators, several styles of aqueous alteration have been suggested on Mars. Acid-sulfate weathering (e.g., formation of jarosite, gypsum, hematite, and goethite), may occur during (1) the oxidative weathering of ultramafic igneous rocks containing sulfides, (2) sulfuric acid weathering of basaltic materials, and (3) acid fog (i.e., vapors rich in H2SO4) weathering of basaltic or basaltic-derived materials. Near-neutral or alkaline alteration occurs when solutions with pH near or above 7 move through basaltic materials and form phases such as phyllosilicates and carbonates. Very low water:rock ratios appear to have been prominent at most of the sites visited by landed missions because there is very little alteration (leaching) of the original basaltic composition (i.e., the alteration is isochemical or in a closed hydrologic system). Most of the aqueous alteration appears to have occurred early in the history of the planet (3 to 4.5 billion years ago); however, minor aqueous alteration may be occurring at the

  6. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 1910, Subpart L, Sections 1910.160 and 1910.162. 2—Per OSHA requirements, protective gear (SCBA... extinguishing systems where employees may be exposed. See 29 CFR 1910.160(b)(11). Aerosols—Unacceptable... Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999 H Appendix H to Subpart G of Part...

  7. Estimating intertemporal and intratemporal substitutions when both income and substitution effects are present: the role of durable goods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pakoš, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2011), s. 439-454. ISSN 0735-0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : durable goods * intertemporal substitution * nonhomotheticity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.779, year: 2011

  8. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  9. 40 CFR 721.267 - N-[2-[(substituted dinitrophenyl)azo]diallylamino-4- substituted phenyl] acetamide (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N- diallylamino-4- substituted phenyl] acetamide (generic name). 721.267 Section 721.267 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  10. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Calculations differ between kinetically-controlled and thermodynamic precipitation. • There is an initial increase in dissolution rate when analcime precipitates. • Analcime precipitation rate affects glass rate initially, but glass controls at long time. - Abstract: Understanding the mechanisms that control the durability of nuclear waste glass is paramount if reliable models are to be constructed so that the glass dissolution rate in a given geological repository can be calculated. Presently, it is agreed that (boro)silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) with higher [H4SiO4] leading to lower dissolution rates. Once the reaction has slowed as a result of the buildup of H4SiO4, another increase in the rate has been observed that corresponds to the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products. However, it has also been observed that the concentration of silica-bearing solution species does not significantly decrease, indicating saturation, while other glass tracer elements concentrations continue to increase, indicating that the glass is still dissolving. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a representative zeolitic silica-bearing alteration product, analcime [Na(AlSi2O6)⋅H2O]. To simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix for amorphous silica was substituted for the glass pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix because it has been shown that silicate glasses act as a silica-only solid with respect to kinetic considerations. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution

  11. Activity of C-7 substituted cyclic acetal derivatives of mitomycin C and porfiromycin against hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, S; Keyes, S R; Loomis, R; Kelley, M; Vyas, D M; Wong, H; Doyle, T W; Sartorelli, A C

    1991-06-01

    A series of cyclic acetal derivatives of mitomycin C (MC) and porfiromycin (POR) were tested for their ability to kill hypoxic and oxygenated EMT6 tumor cells. Amino methyl acetal and thioacetal substitutions at C-7 of MC and POR dramatically increased the cytotoxicity of the compounds to hypoxic EMT6 tumor cells in vitro but had little effect on the aerobic toxicities. In contrast, a methyl substitution at N1a markedly decreased the aerobic cytotoxicities of the compounds but did not alter the hypoxic cytotoxicities. The POR acetal, BMY-42355, had the largest differential between hypoxic and aerobic cytotoxicities yet observed among MC analogs. Preliminary studies in mice showed that BMY-42355 had good antineoplastic activity when used alone or in combination with radiation and was less toxic than POR; the therapeutic ratio of this compound in these initial studies was higher than those of either MC or POR. PMID:2049227

  12. Spectral Properties of Substituted Coumarins in Solution and Polymer Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Donovalová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra of substituted coumarins (2-oxo-2H-chromenes were investigated in solvents and in polymer matrices. The substitutions involved were: (1 by groups with varying electron donating ability such as CH3, OCH3 and N(CH32, mainly, but not exclusively, in positions 7 and (2, by either CHO or 4-PhNHCONHN=CH- in position 3. While the spectra of non-substituted coumarin-3-carbaldehyde has absorptions at approximately 305 and 350 nm, substitution at position 7 leads to remarkable changes in the shape of the absorption spectrum and shifts the absorption to a longer wavelength. Similarly, the replacement of the formyl group with a semicarbazide group substantially influences the shape of the absorption spectrum, and coumarins which have only N(CH32 in position 7 experience small changes. These changes are associated with the increasing intramolecular charge transfer (ICT character and increasing conjugation length of the chromophoric system, respectively, in the studied molecules. The fluorescence is almost negligible for derivatives which have H in this position. With increasing electron donating ability, and the possibility of a positive mesomeric (+M effect of the substituent in position 7 of the coumarin moiety, the fluorescence increases, and this increase is most intense when N(CH32 substitutes in this position, for both 3-substituted derivatives. Spectral measurements of the studied coumarins in polymer matrices revealed that the absorption and fluorescence maxima lay within the maxima for solvents, and that coumarins yield more intense fluorescence in polymer matrices than when they are in solution. The quantum yield of derivatives which have a dimethylamino group in position 7 in polymer matrices approaches 1, and the fluorescence lifetime is within the range of 0.5–4 ns. The high quantum yield of 7-dimethylamino derivatives qualifies them as laser dyes which have kF higher than knr in the given medium. This

  13. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine Analogues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    2-substituted hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine analogues were synthesized starting from N,N?-dibenzyl-1,3-propylene diamine and methyl-2,3-dibromo propionate through nucleophilic substitution, reduction, chlorination and debenzylation.

  14. On the Topological Orbit Equivalence in a Class of Substitution Minimal Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yuasa, Hisatoshi

    2002-01-01

    We give numerical, complete invariants for topological orbit equivalence and Kakutani orbit equivalence in a class of substitution systems arising from primitive substitutions whose composition matrices have rational Perron-Frobenius eigenvalues.

  15. Effect of nickel substitution on thermal properties of Na0.9CoO2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Meena Devi; N Gayathri; A Bharathi; K Ramachandran

    2007-08-01

    We report on the effect of nickel substitution in Na0.9CoO2 by examining their thermal properties at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced upon nickel substitution in sodium cobaltate.

  16. Factors influencing pallet material substitution by the U.S. grocery distribution industry

    OpenAIRE

    Engle, Catherine Anna

    1994-01-01

    Persons involved in pallet decisions at U.S. grocery distribution centers were surveyed to investigate the degree of material substitution, assess factors influencing pallet material substitution, and quantify consumer perceptions of wood pallets compared to substitutes. A total of 444 questionnaires were mailed nationwide. Underlying reasons for material substitution were investigated through in-depth interviews with 20 respondents. Cost per use was considered by grocery...

  17. Synthesis and reactivity of aliphatic sulfur pentafluorides from substituted (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Vida, Norbert; Václavík, Jiří; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Oxidation of 3- and 4-pentafluorosulfanyl-substituted anisoles and phenols with hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid provided a mixture of SF5-substituted muconolactone, maleic, and succinic acids. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the aliphatic SF5 compounds was presented and their chemical reactivity was investigated. SF5-substituted para-benzoquinone was synthesized; its oxidation led to an improved yield of 2-(pentafluorosulfanyl)maleic acid. The reaction of SF5-substituted maleic...

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    CERN Document Server

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  19. Synthesis and Characterization of Bionic Nano-silicon-substituted Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Qian-Qian, ZHAO Shi-Gui, WANG Xiao-Hai, LI Xiu-Zhi, LI Wen-Jie, ZHENG Ya-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the synthesis condition of the bionic nano-silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and the impact of the silicon content on its crystallization properties, hydroxyapatite of different silicon content were synthesized from Ca(NO32, (NH42HPO4 and Si(OCH2CH34(TEOS via an aqueous precipitation reaction. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray fluorescence spectrum (XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were used for hydroxyapatite characterization. The results show that relative low temperature (40¡䧠is conducive to obtain pure bionic nano-silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite. Under this condition, SiO44- enters the lattice of hydroxyapatite and replaces part of PO43-. The more the content of silicon is, the lower the crystallinity is, the smaller the grain size is and the higher the lattice parameters a and c are.

  20. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar

    2011-02-01

    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model. PMID:20213182

  1. Effects of metastability on hydrogen sorption in fluorine substituted hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatel, E.R.; Corno, M.; Ugliengo, P.; Baricco, M., E-mail: marcello.baricco@unito.it

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine substitution in simple metal hydrides has been modelled. • The stability of the MH{sub (1−x)}F{sub x} solid solutions has been discussed. • Conditions for reversibility of sorption reactions have been suggested. - Abstract: In this work ab initio calculations and Calphad modelling have been coupled to describe the effect of fluorine substitution on the thermodynamics of hydrogenation–dehydrogenation in simple hydrides (NaH, AlH{sub 3} and CaH{sub 2}). These example systems have been used to discuss the conditions required for the formation of a stable hydride–fluoride solid solution necessary to obtain a reversible hydrogenation reaction.

  2. Invariant measures for non-primitive tiling substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, María Isabel

    2010-01-01

    We consider self-affine tiling substitutions in Euclidean space and the corresponding tiling dynamical systems. It is well-known that in the primitive case the dynamical system is uniquely ergodic. We investigate invariant measures when the substitution is not primitive, and the tiling dynamical system is non-minimal. We prove that all ergodic invariant probability measures are supported on minimal components, but there are other natural ergodic invariant measures, which are infinite. Under some mild assumptions, we completely characterize $\\sigma$-finite invariant measures which are positive and finite on a cylinder set. A key step is to establish recognizability of non-periodic tilings in our setting. Examples include the "integer Sierpi\\'nski gasket and carpet" tilings. For such tilings the only invariant probability measure is supported on trivial periodic tilings, but there is a fully supported $\\sigma$-finite invariant measure, which is locally finite and unique up to scaling.

  3. Detailed assessment of homology detection using different substitution matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Homology detection plays a key role in bioinformatics, whereas substitution matrix is one of the most important components in homology detection. Thus, besides the improvement of alignment algorithms, another effective way to enhance the accuracy of homology detection is to use proper substitution matrices or even construct new matrices.A study on the features of various matrices and on the comparison of the performances between different matrices in homology detection enable us to choose the most proper or optimal matrix for some specific applications. In this paper, by taking BLOSUM matrices as an example, some detailed features of matrices in homology detection are studied by calculating the distributions of numbers of recognized proteins over different sequence identities and sequence lengths. Our results clearly showed that different matrices have different preferences and abilities to the recognition of remote homologous proteins. Furthermore, detailed features of the various matrices can be used to improve the accuracy of homology detection.

  4. New 1-Aryl-3-Substituted Propanol Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Monge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity against a P. falciparum 3D7 strain of some new 1-aryl-3-substituted propanol derivatives. Twelve of the tested compounds showed an IC50 lower than 1 μM. These compounds were also tested for cytotoxicity in murine J774 macrophages. The most active compounds were evaluated for in vivo activity against P. berghei in a 4-day suppressive test. Compound 12 inhibited more than 50% of parasite growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day. In addition, an FBIT test was performed to measure the ability to inhibit ferriprotoporphyrin biocrystallization. This data indicates that 1-aryl-3-substituted propanol derivatives hold promise as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of malaria.

  5. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Komlev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  6. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn

    1997-01-01

    can be replaced with monoesters of fatty acids from vegetable oils (VOFA). The paper describes the selection of other industrial cleaning or degreasing processes where VOC could be replaced by VOFA. Manual degreasing and cleaning processes in metal industry, maintenance and repair of vehicles, and...... industrial coating processes are likely candidates for substitution of VOC with VOFA. Requirements to the resulting surfaces may, however, hinder the replacement. This is especially important when the surface has to be coated in a subsequent step.......Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  7. Energy substitution game under the supply capacity restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-zhuo; Chen Jian

    2008-01-01

    Along with Chinese economic growth, energy plays a more and more important role in the national economy. The imbalance between insufficient energy supply and huge energy demand has become a major problem in energy utilization, and energy substitution is attracting more and more attention as a key to the sustainable and sound development of Chinese economy. Explored the possibilities of the mutual substitution of the two types of energy with different functions with game theory in light of the supply capacity. As a con-clusion, there are four equilibrium results corresponding to different levels of supply capac-ity. Subsequently, we carry on the study further by numerical simulation, investigate in one group of results most close to Chinese energy status and find the equilibrium price as well as the demand variation pattern.

  8. Antibactericidal effect of some substituted-1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The syntheses of a series of some substituted-1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives are described. The reaction of sodium salt of a-sulphonated of stearic acid hydrazide (1) with carbon disulphide in alcoholic KOH yielded the corresponding sodium 1-(4-amino-5-mercapto-4H-[1, 2, 4]-triazol-3yl)-heptadecane-1-sulfonate (2). The reaction of compound (2) with urea, chloroacetyl chloride, chloroacetaldehyde and phenacyl bromides yielded the substituted 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives (3), (4), (5) and (6) respectively. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, PMR, Mass spectral data and elemental analyses. All newly synthesized compounds have been assayed for their antibacterial activities against S. aureus, E. coli, B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa. (author)

  9. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lakshmi Kantam Mannepalli; Venkanna Dupati; Swarna Jaya Vallabha; Manorama Sunkara V

    2013-11-01

    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). The heterogeneous catalyst afforded moderate to good yields (∼ 50-60 %) of substituted guanidines in toluene at 110°C in 12 h. The catalyst was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for three cycles with consistent activity. The XRD and FTIR studies of the used catalyst shows no variation in the structure of the catalyst even after three recycles.

  10. Cement substitution by a combination of metakaolin and limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoni, M., E-mail: mathieu.antoni@epfl.ch [EPFL-STI-IMX-Laboratoires des Materiaux de Construction, Station12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Rossen, J. [EPFL-STI-IMX-Laboratoires des Materiaux de Construction, Station12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Martirena, F. [CIDEM-UCLV, Universidad Las Villas, Santa Clara (Cuba); Scrivener, K. [EPFL-STI-IMX-Laboratoires des Materiaux de Construction, Station12, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-12-15

    This study investigates the coupled substitution of metakaolin and limestone in Portland cement (PC). The mechanical properties were studied in mortars and the microstructural development in pastes by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, mercury intrusion porosimetry and isothermal calorimetry. We show that 45% of substitution by 30% of metakaolin and 15% of limestone gives better mechanical properties at 7 and 28 days than the 100% PC reference. Our results show that calcium carbonate reacts with alumina from the metakaolin, forming supplementary AFm phases and stabilizing ettringite. Using simple mass balance calculations derived from thermogravimetry results, we also present the thermodynamic simulation for the system, which agrees fairly well with the experimental observations. It is shown that gypsum addition should be carefully balanced when using calcined clays because it considerably influences the early age strength by controlling the very rapid reaction of aluminates.

  11. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    KAUST Repository

    Cheneviere, Yohan

    2010-10-20

    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tunable electronic properties of phosphorene by substitutional doping

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Weiyang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Li, Chong; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we investigate the geometries, electronic structures, and thermodynamic stabilities of substitutionally doped phosphorene sheets with group III, IV, V, and VI elements. We find that the electronic properties of phosphorene are drastically modified by the number of valence electrons in dopant atoms. The dopants with even number of valence electrons enable the doped phosphorenes to have a metallic feature, while the dopants with odd number of valence electrons keep the semiconducting feature with a larger band gap than the undoped phosphorene. This even-odd behavior is attributed to the peculiar bonding characteristics of phosphorene and the strong hybridization of sp orbitals between dopants and phosphorene. The calculated formation energies of various substitutional dopants in phosphorene show that such doped systems can be thermodynamically stable.

  13. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  14. Synthesis of Novel 5-(-Substituted-Anilino)-8-Hydroxyquinolines via Hartwig-Buchwald Amination Reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Walaa A E Omar; Osmo E O Hormi

    2015-11-01

    Three novel 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinoline derivatives were efficiently synthesized via Hartwig–Buchwald amination reaction. The new 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinolines were reduced for 1–3 h to give the corresponding 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-hydroxyquinolines. Extending the reduction reaction time to 7 h afforded the corresponding 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  16. The Use of Substitutes - Continuity and the-Group-as-a-Whole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    continuity, i.e. the self- sustaining power of the group and the limits of this is illustrated and discussed in connection with planned versus unplanned substitute periods, showing the importance of preparation when the therapist has to be away, and a substitute is used. Key words: substitute, locum......, continuity, conductor, leadership, group-as-a-whole...

  17. Substituted plan analysis in the environmental impact assessment of Yongchuan wastewater treatment project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun-hua

    2006-01-01

    Substituted plan in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) mainly means the treatment technology and the substituted site of plant, and it also includes the many kinds of environment protection measures. This paper will make detailed analysis on the treatment technology, the substituted site of plant, the purpose of discharged water and the dispose of sludge in the Yongchuan wastewater treatment project.

  18. 40 CFR 721.7220 - Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of substituted phenol... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7220 Polymer of substituted phenol... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of substituted...

  19. 76 FR 17487 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ...: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives... Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New... expanding the list of acceptable substitutes for use in the motor vehicle air conditioning end-use as...

  20. A Synthetic Approach of New Trans-Substituted Hydroxylporphyrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Daphnomili

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of new trans A2B2-substituted porphyrins bearing oxygenic substituent (methoxy, acetoxy, hydroxy at the periphery of the ring are described. All of the synthesized products were characterized by H-N.M.R., C-N.M.R., and H.R.M.S. Electrochemical studies revealed two one-electron oxidations and two reductions. In addition, the X-ray structure of one methoxy-derivative was determined.

  1. A UNIFORM SUBSTITUTE DEMAND MODEL WITH VARYING COEFFICIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mark G. Brown; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2000-01-01

    This study extends Barten's synthetic demand modeling approach to increase the flexibility of the uniform substitute specification of the Rotterdam demand system. Marginal propensities to consume (MPC) vary with budget shares and Slutsky coefficients are defined in terms of varying MPCs. An application of the model to orange-juice products shows that the pattern of income and price elasticities over time is much different than when MPCs are restricted to be constant.

  2. Mutation Rate Distribution Inferred from Coincident SNPs and Coincident Substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Philip L F; Hellmann, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Mutation rate variation has the potential to bias evolutionary inference, particularly when rates become much higher than the mean. We first confirm prior work that inferred the existence of cryptic, site-specific rate variation on the basis of coincident polymorphisms—sites that are segregating in both humans and chimpanzees. Then we extend this observation to a longer evolutionary timescale by identifying sites of coincident substitutions using four species. From these data, we develop anal...

  3. Municipal solid waste ash as a cement raw material substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Somnuk Tangtermsirikul; Pichaya Rachdawong; Kritsada Sisomphon

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of using municipal solid waste (MSW) ash as a cement raw material substitute was performed to evaluate the potential use of ash in construction. The use of incineratior ash in cement production would not only get rid of the ash, but also alleviate many environmental problems, for example, reducing raw materials required for cement production, reducing CO2 emission into the atmosphere, and reducing landfill space requirement for the residue ash disposal. The metallic oxide con...

  4. Are Banks and Stock Markets Complements or Substitutes?

    OpenAIRE

    Malay K. Dey

    2007-01-01

    We examine the determinants of stock market and bank liquidity in an economy in a SUR framework in which stock market turnover and available bank credit denoting access to long and short term capital respectively are interdependent and the errors are correlated. The SUR results suggest that available bank credit and stock market turnover are inversely related to each other, confirming their substitutability in terms of external financing needed by corporations. Other significant common factor...

  5. Structural properties and hyperfine characterization of Sn-substituted goethites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larralde, A.L. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Arcondo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Bs. As. (Argentina); Tufo, A.E. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Sileo, E.E., E-mail: sileo@qi.fcen.uba.ar [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and tin-doped goethites were synthesized from Sn(II) solutions at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement of PXRD data indicated that Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substitution provoked unit cell expansion, and a distortion of the coordination polyhedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy showed a lower magnetic coupling as tin concentration increased. - Abstract: Tin-doped goethites obtained by a simple method at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data, and {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The particles size and the length to width ratios decreased with tin-doping. Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions provoking unit cell expansion and increasing the crystallinity of the particles with enlarged domains that grow in the perpendicular and parallel directions to the anisotropic broadening (1 1 1) axis. Intermetallic E, E Prime and DC distances also change although the variations are not monotonous, indicating different variations in the coordination polyhedron. In general, the Sn-substituted samples present larger intermetallic distances than pure goethite, and the greatest change is shown in the E Prime distance which coincides with the c-parameter. {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV) in the samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) presence was not detected by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, suggesting the existence of vacancies in the Sn-doped samples. A lower magnetic coupling is also evidenced from the average magnetic hyperfine field values obtained as tin

  6. Preparation of linear hydroxy substituted polyphosphazenes. [flame retardant polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciorek, K. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The synthesis of partially hydroxy-substituted phosphazene prepolymers amenable to processing into cellular, flexible polyurethane foams was investigated. Factors determined include (1) the environment of the hydroxyl group; (2) the ease of the hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene polymerization; (3) the nature of the nonreactive substituents; and (4) the mode of introduction of the hydroxyl entity. The specific approaches taken, the rationale of the selections made, and the results are discussed.

  7. Pyrolysis and Gasification of Industrial Waste Towards Substitution Fuels Valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Céline Gisèle

    2010-01-01

    Industrial waste is usually sorted in order to valorise most of minerals, polymers and metals. This sorting does generate a sorting residue with a rather high calorific value. The present study shows the opportunities of producing gaseous or liquid substitution fuels by pyrolysis or gasification of industrial sorting residues. By the use of the predictive model, it is possible to evaluate, for various inputs (tyres, fluffs, mixed plastics and biomass residues), the mass en energy balance for ...

  8. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Grabellus Florian; Hilken Gero; Broecker-Preuss Martina; Neuerburg Laura; Bachmann Hagen S; Kauther Max D; Koehler Gabriele; von Knoch Marius; Wedemeyer Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin) deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT ...

  9. A Combinatorial Substitute for the Degree Theorem in Auter Space

    CERN Document Server

    Bux, Kai-Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Auter space A_n is contractible. A. Hatcher and K. Vogtmann constructed a stratification of A_n into subspaces A_{n,k} such that A_{n,k} is k-connected. Their argument that A_{n,k} is (k-1)-connected, the Degree Theorem and its proof, is somewhat global in nature. Here we present a combinatorial substitute for the Degree Theorem that uses only local considerations to show that A_{n,k} is (k-1)-connected.

  10. SMALL AGRO-BUSINESS IN THE IMPORT SUBSTITUTION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovskaya R. N.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems and possibilities in agriculture import substitution conditions and considers the significant role of small agrarian forms in this economy processes. The article notes that the main aim of import substitution is improving the competitiveness of domestic agricultural products through greater motivation of technological, modernization and innovation policy in production, through the development of new innovative, more competitive food products with higher consumer parameters. Practice shows that the most effective substitution is carried out in the agricultural sector and the food industry. The Krasnodar region has the most efficient developed agriculture production structure with the best natural and investment climate in the country, with enlarged of crop rotation fields, excessive and relatively low labor cost with the best experience in agricultural production. The author discusses about the detail problems of import substitution with participation of small businesses in the areas of grain production, sugar beet, about the difficulties in material and technical equipment, provision of seed and other problems. The problems of the financial component in large and small businesses specifically mentions, also in the field of cost management processing, pricing, formation of gross profit. The article emphasizes the importance of recovering the lost possibilities of breeding in animal husbandry, especially in pig and cattle. The most difficult situation is with lending, where the author recommends the reduction of rates for farmers in the short and medium term lending to the level of 3-5%. The author considers a changes in the mechanism of redistribution of public support in favor of livestock very important, where there are large risks, difficulties of long-term credits, problems of technological discipline observance and more

  11. Time to Substitute Wood Bioenergy for Nuclear Power in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis E. Putz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by the recent earthquake and tsunami that hit northern Japan should stimulate consideration of alternative sources of energy. In particular, if managed appropriately, the 25.1 million ha of Japanese forests could be an important source of wood biomass for bioenergy production. Here, we discuss policy incentives for substituting wood bioenergy for nuclear power, thereby creating a safer society while better managing the forest resources in Japan.

  12. Trace maps over M3(K) associated with the substitutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文志雄

    2002-01-01

    Let K be a field of characteristic zero and M3(K) the ring of matrices 3 x 3 over K. In this paper, we establish first the certain identities of traces of some algebras of M3(K), then we define the trace mapping of 3 × 3 matrices associated with a substitution over a two-letter alphabet on some algebraic variety and study their properties.``

  13. Substitutional effect of magnetic behaviour in calcium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, C. S.; Nanoti, V. M.; Kulkarni, D. K.; Rao, G. M.

    1995-02-01

    Three hexaferrites CaFe 4Me 8O 19 (Me  Al, Cr, or Co) are prepared and found to have M-structure. The substitution of Al +3 or Cr +3 ions in the lattice reduces the magnetization, whereas Co +3 enhances it with higher Curie temperature. These differences are explained on the basis of exchange interactions within the sub-lattices. Static electrical resistivity of the samples is also studied and results show that they are semiconductors.

  14. Migration as a Substitute for Informal Activities: Evidence from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulloev, Ilhom; Ira N. Gang; Landon-Lane, John

    2011-01-01

    How is migration related to informal activities? They may be complementary since new migrants may have difficulty finding employment in formal work, so many of them end up informally employed. Alternatively, migration and informality may be substitutes since migrants' incomes in their new locations and income earned in the home informal economy (without migration) are an imperfect trade-off. Tajikistan possesses both a very large informal sector and extensive international emigration. Using t...

  15. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto

    A series of reactions of ring-substituted 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-oxazaphospholanes, 1,2-oxaphospholes, and phosphetanes bearing the leaving groups Cl, OR, or NR2 on phosphorus, with the nucleophiles HCl, MeO-, MeOH, PhOH, Me2NH, Et2NH, and [CH 2]5NH have been studied. N.m.r. signals (1H and...

  16. Microbiological Quality of Various Medicinal Herbal Teas and Coffee Substitutes

    OpenAIRE

    V.H. Tournas; E.J. Katsoudas

    2008-01-01

    Various herbal teas including German chamomile, Chrysanthemum Vascuflow herb tea, hop, jasmine and orange flowers, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme leaves, and papaya-mint tea as well as coffee substitutes (Bambu instant Swiss, Teeccino chocolate-mint, and Teeccino Mediterranean Espresso) were analyzed for fungal contamination and the presence of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (APC). The results of this investigation showed that fungal counts reached levels as high as 5.8 × 105 colony forming...

  17. Economic substitutability of electrical brain stimulation, food, and water.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L.; Rachlin, H

    1991-01-01

    Concurrent variable-ratio schedules of electrical brain stimulation, food, and water were paired in various combinations as reinforcement of rats' lever presses. Relative prices of the concurrent reinforcers were varied by changing the ratio of the response requirements on the two levers. Economic substitutability, measured by the sensitivity of response ratio to changes in relative price, was highest with brain stimulation reinforcement of presses on both levers and lowest with food reinforc...

  18. INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT: ARE THEY COMPLEMENTS OR SUBSTITUTES?

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Clark

    1980-01-01

    Inflation and unemployment plagued the U S economy during the decade of the seventies Some economic models suggest that inflation and unemployment are bi-polar events - they cannot occur at the same time This article reviews two models that have been in the economics literature since the thirties and that explain inflation and unemployment as complements, not substitutes One is the well-known IS/LM framework, the other is sometimes called the structural unemployment framework A third model wh...

  19. The effect of welfare reforms on benefit substitution

    OpenAIRE

    Reiso, Katrine Holm

    2014-01-01

    Policy-makers have confronted welfare dependence and poverty among single mothers by imposing work requirements and time limits on the receipt of welfare benefits. Reforms with such features have generally reduced programme case-loads and increased the employment and earnings of single mothers. There is little evidence, however, on the amount of benefit substitution associated with such reforms. In this paper, we test whether reductions in welfare dependence may be offset by in...

  20. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K;

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access to...... optically enriched dihydroxy 1,2-dioxanes 4. The synthesized 1,2-dioxanes were converted to other erythro sugar analogues and tetrahydrofurans through controlled cleavage of the endoperoxide linkage....

  1. Determining the economic consequences of natural gas substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The economics of the extraction and usage of Australian gas and coal are examined. • Effect of feedstock substitution on power, hydrogen and ammonia costs is studied. • Influence of capital cost, transfer price, discount rate and carbon tax is studied. • Black coal has lower transfer price than gas but results in higher overall costs. • Conventional gas and coal seam gas can be substituted with little economic penalty. - Abstract: Resource depletion is a key aspect of sustainability, because the consumption of finite resources impacts on their availability for future generations. There are many proposed methods for accounting for the depletion of a particular resource, amongst which include the proportion of the resource depleted, the rate of resource depletion, and the energy, exergy, or monetary cost of extraction as the resource becomes harder to find or extract. This paper is part of a wider study to measure resource depletion using its environmental and economic impacts for the case of natural gas, where depletion of natural gas requires substitution by black coal or coal seam gas. The capital and operating costs are estimated both for upstream fuel extraction and purification and downstream use of the fuel to produce electricity, hydrogen and ammonia. These costs are based on a commercial scale of operation, using the same basis for economic modelling in each case. Black coal was found to have the lowest transfer price from upstream to downstream processing among the three feedstocks, but the highest capital and operating costs in the downstream processes. Conventional gas produced slightly higher transfer prices and downstream processing costs compared to coal seam gas. The favourable economic and environmental indicators for natural gas and coal seam gas are expected to lead to increased demand for these resources over coal, running the risk of a gas shortage. The economic consequence of a scarcity of either gas resource will be a

  2. Tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2012-01-01

    4-tert-Butylphenyl-substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins 1 and 2 are prepared for the first time. They show (1) intense one-photon absorption in the far-red/near-infrared region, (2) enhanced two-photon absorption compared with aromatic porphyrin monomers, and (3) amphoteric redox behavior. Their geometry and electronic structure are studied by DFT calculations. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Do Youths Substitute Alcohol and Marijuana? Some Econometric Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Frank J. Chaloupka; Adit Laixuthai

    1997-01-01

    Data from the 1982 and 1989 Monitoring the Future Surveys are used to examine the substitutability of alcoholic beverages and marijuana among youths. Beer prices and minimum legal drinking ages are used as measures of the full price of alcohol, while an indicator of marijuana decriminalization and its money price capture the full price of marijuana. Results indicate that drinking frequency and heavy drinking episodes are negatively related to beer prices, but positively related to the full pr...

  4. Navigation Using Sensory Substitution in Real and Virtual Mazes

    OpenAIRE

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Under certain specific conditions people who are blind have a perception of space that is equivalent to that of sighted individuals. However, in most cases their spatial perception is impaired. Is this simply due to their current lack of access to visual information or does the lack of visual information throughout development prevent the proper integration of the neural systems underlying spatial cognition? Sensory Substitution devices (SSDs) can transfer visual information via other senses ...

  5. SPR0 SUBSTITUTIONS AND FAMILIES OF ALGEBRAIC RICCATI EQUATIONS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Anaya, G.; Martínez-García, J.C.; Kučera, Vladimír; Aguilar-George, D.

    Roč. 42, č. 5 ( 2006 ), s. 605-616. ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear time invariant systems * positive real substitutions * properties preservation * algebraic Riccati equations * H-infinity-norm bounded systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.293, year: 2006

  6. Immigrant-Native Substitutability: The Role of Language Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Ethan G. Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Wage evidence suggests that immigrant workers are imperfectly substitutable for native-born workers with similar education and experience. Using U.S. Censuses and recent American Community Survey data, I ask to what extent differences in language skills drive this. I find they are important. I estimate that the response of immigrants' relative wages to immigration is concentrated among immigrants with poor English skills. Similarly, immigrants who arrive at young ages, as adults, both have st...

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    OpenAIRE

    Atassi, Yomen; Darwich, Iyad Seyd; Tally, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conv...

  8. Correlated Mutations: A Hallmark of Phenotypic Amino Acid Substitutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kowarsch, Andreas; Fuchs, Angelika; Frishman, Dmitrij; Pagel, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Point mutations resulting in the substitution of a single amino acid can cause severe functional consequences, but can also be completely harmless. Understanding what determines the phenotypical impact is important both for planning targeted mutation experiments in the laboratory and for analyzing naturally occurring mutations found in patients. Common wisdom suggests using the extent of evolutionary conservation of a residue or a sequence motif as an indicator of its functional importance an...

  9. The effect of cobalt substitution on magnetic hardening of magnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M., E-mail: mozafari@sci.ui.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadadian, Y. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aftabi, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 66177-15175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oveisy Moakhar, M. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    In this work cobalt-substituted magnetite (Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, x=0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction was carried out and the results show that all of the samples have single phase spinel structure. Microstructure of the samples was studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope and the results show that particle sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were uniform and in the 50–55 nm range. Room temperature magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were measured by an alternating gradient force magnetometer and the results revealed that substituting cobalt for iron in magnetite structure, changes the magnetite from a soft magnetic material to a hard one. So that coercivity changes from 0 (a superparamagnetic state) to 337 Oe (a hard magnetic material), which is a remarkable change. Curie temperatures of the samples were determined by recording their susceptibility-temperature (χ–T) curves and the results show that by increasing cobalt content, Curie temperature of the samples also increases. Also χ–T curves of the samples were recorded from above Curie temperature to room temperature (first cooling), while the curves in the second heating and second cooling have the same behaviour as the first cooling curve. The results depict that all samples have different behaviour in the first cooling and in the first heating processes. This shows remarkable changes of the cation distribution in the course of first heating. - Highlights: • It is possible to get Co substituted magnetite nanoparticles by coprecipitation method. • Prepared nanoparticles have different cation distribution in comparison with that of bulk counterparts. • Co substitution increases coercivity of the magnetite.

  10. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    OpenAIRE

    Paillet-Loilier M; Cesbron A; Le Boisselier R; Bourgine J; Debruyne D

    2014-01-01

    Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A), Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-...

  11. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential

  12. On the Relation between Dual-Rate Discounting and Substitutability

    OpenAIRE

    Kögel, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    To justify substantial emission reductions, recent literature on cost-benefit analysis of climate change suggests discounting environment consumption with an environmental discount rate instead of a consumption discount rate that is usually used in cost-benefit analysis. The present study clarifies that whether or not this dual-rate discounting approach succeeds in justifying substantial emission reductions depends on whether or not environment and goods consumption are substitutes in the Hic...

  13. Revisiting Import-Substituting Industrialisation in Post-War Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Colistete, Renato P.

    2010-01-01

    This article reassesses the classic period of Import-Substituting Industrialisation (ISI) in Brazil between 1945 and 1979. New data presented here show that Brazilian industry achieved significant labour productivity growth during the post-war years and became more technologically sophisticated, when measured by manufacturing exports and evidence of specific industries and firms. We also found that Brazil’s labour productivity growth lagged behind what was achieved in other industrialising an...

  14. A Refinement of Perfect Equilibria Based On Substitute Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Aliprantis, C. D.; I. Topolyan

    2009-01-01

    We propose an equilibrium refinement of strict perfect equilibrium for the finite normal form games, which is not known in the literature. Okada came up with the idea of strict perfect equilibrium by strengthening the main definition of a perfect equilibrium, due to Selten [14]. We consider the alternative (and equivalent) definition of perfect equilibrium, based on the substitute sequences, as appeared in Selten [14]. We show that by strengthening and modifiyng this definition slightly, one ...

  15. A class of primitive substitutions and scrambled sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Consider the subshifts induced by constant-length primitive substitutions on two symbols. By investigating the equivalent version for the existence of Li-Yorke scrambled sets and by proving the non-existence of Schweizer-Smítal scrambled sets, we completely reveal for this class of subshifts the chaotic behaviors possibly occurring in the sense of Li-Yorke and Schweizer-Smítal.

  16. Substitute Based SCODE Word Embeddings in Supervised NLP Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Cirik, Volkan; Yuret, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a word embedding method in supervised tasks. It maps words on a sphere such that words co-occurring in similar contexts lie closely. The similarity of contexts is measured by the distribution of substitutes that can fill them. We compared word embeddings, including more recent representations, in Named Entity Recognition (NER), Chunking, and Dependency Parsing. We examine our framework in multilingual dependency parsing as well. The results show that the proposed method achieves as...

  17. Newspaper and internet display advertising - co-existence or substitution?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Newspapers have been experiencing declining circulation figures and diminishing advertising revenues for several years – both effects might pose a threat to the continuing existence of (print) newspapers. In an earlier paper, Lindstädt & Budzinski (2011) argued from a theoretical viewpoint that industry-specific patterns exist that determine substitution or complementation effects between internet and newspaper advertising. It was argued that retail advertising, in particular, may offer a nic...

  18. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babasaheeb P Bandgar; Pradip B Gujarathi

    2008-03-01

    The synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins has been described. A new modified Adler method was used for the synthesis of two unsymmetrical porphyrins. Reactions of these unsymmetrical porphyrins with metal acetates afforded the corresponding metalloporphyrins in high yields with excellent purity. These porphyrins and their metal derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods. However, the copper complexes were further studied by ESR spectra and zinc complex by fluorescence spectrum.

  19. The effect of cobalt substitution on magnetic hardening of magnetite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work cobalt-substituted magnetite (CoxFe1−xFe2O4, x=0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction was carried out and the results show that all of the samples have single phase spinel structure. Microstructure of the samples was studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope and the results show that particle sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were uniform and in the 50–55 nm range. Room temperature magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were measured by an alternating gradient force magnetometer and the results revealed that substituting cobalt for iron in magnetite structure, changes the magnetite from a soft magnetic material to a hard one. So that coercivity changes from 0 (a superparamagnetic state) to 337 Oe (a hard magnetic material), which is a remarkable change. Curie temperatures of the samples were determined by recording their susceptibility-temperature (χ–T) curves and the results show that by increasing cobalt content, Curie temperature of the samples also increases. Also χ–T curves of the samples were recorded from above Curie temperature to room temperature (first cooling), while the curves in the second heating and second cooling have the same behaviour as the first cooling curve. The results depict that all samples have different behaviour in the first cooling and in the first heating processes. This shows remarkable changes of the cation distribution in the course of first heating. - Highlights: • It is possible to get Co substituted magnetite nanoparticles by coprecipitation method. • Prepared nanoparticles have different cation distribution in comparison with that of bulk counterparts. • Co substitution increases coercivity of the magnetite

  20. Low density gravel substitute gravel pack in Marlim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albino, E.

    1996-12-31

    Successful gravel pack completion means optimization of production. This has been PETROBRAS` task regarding completion of the giant Marlim field. Significant improvement have been noticed recently with the introduction of techniques such as horizontal drilling, frac pack and low density gravel substitute gravel pack. This paper discusses the introduction and results of the system, its advantages and trends since this technique can become an excellent alternative when a more aggressive technique is no economical. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Brillouin function characteristics for La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites with the chemical formula of Ba1−xLaxFe12−xCoxO19 (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5), prepared by a conventional ceramic method, were systematically investigated by Raman spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The result manifests that all the compounds are crystallized in magnetoplumbite hexagonal structure. Trivalent cobalt ions prevailingly occupy the 2a, 4f1, and 12k sites. According to Néel model of collinear-spin ferrimagnetism, the molecular-field coefficients ωbf2, ωkf1, ωaf1, ωkf2, and ωbk of La-Co substituted barium hexaferrites have been calculated using the nonlinear fitting method, and the magnetic moment of five sublattices (2a, 2b, 4f1, 4f2, and 12k) versus temperature T has been also investigated. The fitting results are coincided well with the experimental data. Moreover, with the increase of La-Co substitution amount x, the molecular-field coefficients ωbf2 and ωaf1 decrease constantly, while the molecular-field coefficients ωkf1, ωkf2, and ωbk show a slight change

  2. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  3. On the relevance of polyynyl-substituted PAHs to astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Rouillé, G; Carpentier, Y; Jäger, C; Huisken, F; Henning, Th; Czerwonka, R; Theumer, G; Börger, C; Bauer, I; Knölker, H -J

    2012-01-01

    We report on the absorption spectra of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene carrying either an ethynyl (-C2H) or a butadiynyl (-C4H) group. Measurements were carried out in the mid infrared at room temperature on grains embedded in CsI pellets and in the near ultraviolet at cryogenic temperature on molecules isolated in Ne matrices. The infrared measurements show that interstellar populations of polyynyl-substituted PAHs would give rise to collective features in the same way non-substituted PAHs give rise to the aromatic infrared bands. The main features characteristic of the substituted molecules correspond to the acetylenic CH stretching mode near 3.05 mum and to the almost isoenergetic acetylenic CCH in- and out-of-plane bending modes near 15.9 mum. Sub-populations defined by the length of the polyynyl side group cause collective features which correspond to the various acetylenic CC stretching modes. The ultraviolet spectra reveal that the addition of an...

  4. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Cu substituted Co-ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, B.; Rao, G. S. N.; Caltun, O. F.; Dhana Lakshmi, B.; Parvatheeswara Rao, B.; Subba Rao, P. S. V.

    2016-01-01

    Copper substituted cobalt ferrite, Co1-xCuxFe2O4 (x=0.00-0.25), nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction analysis on the samples was done to confirm the cubic spinel structures and Scherrer equation was used to estimate the mean crystallite size as 40 nm. Using the obtained nanoparticles, fabrication of the sintered pellets was done by standard ceramic technique. Magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements on the samples were made by strain gauge and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. Maximum magnetostriction and strain derivative values were deduced from the field dependent magnetostriction curves while the magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization (51.7-61.9 emu/g) and coercivity (1045-1629 Oe) on the samples were estimated from the obtained magnetic hysteresis loops. Curie temperature values (457-315 °C) were measured by a built in laboratory set-up. Copper substituted cobalt ferrites have shown improved strain derivative values as compared to the pure cobalt ferrite and thus making them suitable for stress sensing applications. The results have been explained on the basis of cationic distributions, strength of exchange interactions and net decreased anisotropic contributions due to the increased presence of Co2+ ions in B-sites as a result of Cu substitutions.

  5. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna B. Lovati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.

  6. Caveats when interpreting intravenous urograms following ileal orthotopic bladder substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoeny, Harriet C.; Sonnenschein, Martin J.; Vock, Peter [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Bern, 3010, Bern (Switzerland); Studer, Urs E.; Madersbacher, Stephan [Department of Urology, University Hospital of Bern, 3010, Bern (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the appearance of the upper urinary tract following cystectomy and ileal orthotopic bladder substitution. Intravenous urograms (IVUs) performed preoperatively and at regular intervals postoperatively on 87 long-term survivors (minimum survival, 5 years) following ileal orthotopic bladder substitution were reviewed. Distention of the collecting system with blunted or rounded fornices was defined as dilatation. If in addition contrast medium excretion was delayed on the 5-min film, this was defined as obstruction. Collecting system dilatation was present on all IVU films obtained from most patients (80%) within 6 months of surgery, even in the absence of urinary tract obstruction. In contrast, dilatation was commonly seen only on the 20-min postinjection films (79%) on urograms performed more than 1 year following surgery, but not encountered on the other two postinjection radiographs (at 5 and 60 min). Five years after surgery, permanent obstruction was observed in only five (3%) renoureteral units. Dilatation of the upper urinary tract after ileal orthotopic bladder substitution is a frequent finding on the 5-min, 20-min, and 60-min films during the early postoperative period but is found only on the 20-min film 1 year and later after surgery. These findings should not be overinterpreted as obstruction. (orig.)

  7. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Isakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye.

  8. Systematic B-metal substitution in CaNi5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels

    The aim of this work has been to study the effect of B metal substitutions in CaNi5 (AB(5)) which is known to suffer from poor cycling stability as a hydride electrode material. Systematic monosubstitutions of nickel with the most common other B metals (i.e. Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sn) and...... Mg were performed. The overall composition was in all cases CaNi5-xMx (x=0.5 or 1) where M is the substituting element. The alloys were prepared by mechanical alloying. The hydrogen storage capacity was measured electrochemically ranging from 39 to 390 mAh/g, but none of the substitutions increased...... the cycling stability to any significant extend compared to pure CaNi5. X-ray diffraction patterns of the alloys revealed that only in a few cases the hexagonal CaCu5 structure of a true AB(5) alloy was preserved. In most cases diffraction patterns matching Ca2Ni7, CaNi3 or CaNi2 were seen. It can be...

  9. Evidence of domain wall pinning in aluminum substituted cobalt ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, J. C.; Janrao, P. S.; Datar, A. A.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.

    2016-08-01

    In the present work spinel structured cobalt ferrites with aluminum substitution having composition CoAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Their microstructural, magnetic, magnetostriction and magnetoimpedance properties have been investigated. The piezomagnetic coefficient (dλ/dH) obtained from magnetostriction data is found to enhance with 0.1 Al substitutions in place of iron which decreases with further increase of Al content. It is noticed that 0.3 Al substitutions in place of Fe introduces domain wall pinning as evidenced from magnetostriction, magnetoimpedance and dc magnetization data. It is noted that ferrites so prepared using a simple procedure are magnetostrictive in good measure and with the addition of very small amount of non-magnetic aluminum their magnetostriction has shown saturation at relatively low magnetic fields. Such magnetostrictive ferrites find their applications in magnetic sensors and actuators.

  10. Development of biomimetic bone-graft substitute by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this project is to develop the high-performance industrial and biomedical new materials and finally contribute to the advancement of the national radiation technology industry. Development of manufacturing of calcium phosphate-based bone substitution powders by radiation fusion technology. -Development of high value radiation fusion process technique differ from a process of calcium phosphate base by typical high temperature sintering process. Manufacturing technology of biomimatic bone substitution -We developed to improve the mechanical properties of organic/inorganic materials for a limitation of processability of using bone substition in the market Biocompatibility assessment of bone substitution -Spherical high purity β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanopowders were prepared by radiation using calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as starting materials. From the in-vitro study, it was confirmed that porous β-TCP bodies showed excellent biocompatibility. Also, biodegradable PCL/BCP hybrid scaffolds were fabricated by salt leaching and freeze drying processes using NaCl powder as a pore forming agent

  11. Altering Flashlamp Output for Realistic Solar Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. L.; Seaman, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial glass optical filter corrects spectrum of xenon flashtubes used to test photovoltaic solar cells. Filter withstands thousands of flashes without perceptible alteration of passband characteristics. With filter, calibration errors reduced to less than 1 percent.

  12. Borosilicate glass alteration driven by magnesium carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We studied borosilicate glass/hydromagnesite interaction. ► Magnesium silicate precipitation increases glass alteration. ► Geochemical modeling allows to quantify the alteration mechanisms involved. - Abstract: The alteration of simplified synthetic glass, representative of the French reference nuclear glass R7T7, in presence of hydromagnesite has been experimentally investigated and modeled. Magnesium in solution is known to potentially enhance glass alteration; nuclear glass clayed host rocks contain magnesium and can dissolve to maintain the concentration of magnesium in solution. For modeling purposes, it was suitable to study a simple system. Hydromagnesite was therefore chosen as a simple model mineral in order to check the influence of an Mg-rich mineral on glass alteration. Since the models use thermodynamic and kinetic parameters measured in pure water and pH-buffered solutions, changing the solution composition or adding minerals is a key step towards the validation of the modeling assumptions before using the model for predictive purposes. Experiments revealed that glass alteration is enhanced in presence of hydromagnesite. Modeling was performed using the GRAAL model implemented within the CHESS/HYTEC reactive transport code. Modeling proved useful both for explaining the mechanisms involved and quantifying the impact on glass alteration: Mg coming from hydromagnesite dissolution reacts with Si provided by the glass in order to form magnesium silicates. This reaction decreases the pH down to neutral conditions where magnesium silicates are more soluble than at the natural alkali pH imposed by glass or hydromagnesite dissolution. The driving force of the magnesium silicate precipitation is eventually the interdiffusion of alkali within the altered amorphous glass layer as this mechanism consumes protons. The model’s ability to describe the concentrations of elements in solution and formed solids whatever the glass

  13. Diabetes and mitochondrial bioenergetics: Alterations with age

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Fernanda M.; Palmeira, Carlos M.; Seiça, Raquel; Moreno, António J.; Santos, Maria S.

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have been carried out to evaluate the alterations in mitochondrial functions of diabetic rats. However, some of the results reported are controversial, since experimental conditions, such as aging, and/or strain of animals used were different. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic changes in liver mitochondria, both in the presence of severe hyperglycaemia (STZ-treated rats) and mild hyperglycaemia (Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats). Moreover, metabolic alterations we...

  14. Sleep Deprivation Alters Choice Strategy Without Altering Uncertainty or Loss Aversion Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation alters decision making; however, it is unclear what specific cognitive processes are modified to drive altered choices. In this manuscript, we examined how one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD alters economic decision making. We specifically examined changes in uncertainty preferences dissociably from changes in the strategy with which participants engage with presented choice information. With high test-retest reliability, we show that TSD does not alter uncertainty preferences or loss aversion. Rather, TSD alters the information the participants rely upon to make their choices. Utilizing a choice strategy metric which contrasts the influence of maximizing and satisficing information on choice behavior, we find that TSD alters the relative reliance on maximizing information and satisficing information, in the gains domain. This alteration is the result of participants both decreasing their reliance on cognitively-complex maximizing information and a concomitant increase in the use of readily-available satisficing information. TSD did not result in a decrease in overall information use in either domain. These results show that sleep deprivation alters decision making by altering the informational strategies that participants employ, without altering their preferences.

  15. Role of a single amino acid substitution of VP3 H142D for increased acid resistance of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Jitendra K; Das, Biswajit; Sharma, Gaurav K; Khulape, Sagar A; Pattnaik, Bramhadev

    2016-04-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) particles lose infectivity due to their dissociation into pentamers at pH value below 6.5. After the uptake of FMDV by receptor-mediated endocytosis, the acid-dependent dissociation process is required for the release of FMDV genome inside endosomes. Nevertheless, dissociation of FMDV particles in mildly acidic conditions renders the inactivated FMD vaccine less effective. To improve the acid stability of inactivated FMD vaccine during the manufacturing process, a serotype A IND 40/2000 (in-use vaccine strain) mutant with increased resistance to acid inactivation was generated through reverse genetics approach. Based upon the earlier reports, the crucial amino acid residue, H142 of VP3 capsid protein was substituted separately to various amino acid residues Arg (R), Phe (F), Ala (A), and Asp (D) on the full-genome length cDNA clone. While the H142 → R or H142 → F or H142 → A substitutions resulted in non-infectious FMDV, H142 → D mutation on VP3 protein (H3142D) resulted in the generation of mutant virus with enhanced resistance to acid-induced inactivation. In addition, H3142D substitution did not alter the replication ability and antigenicity of mutant as compared to the parental virus. However, the virus competition experiments revealed that the H3142D substitution conferred a loss of fitness for the mutant virus. Results from this study demonstrate that the H3142D substitution is the molecular determinant of acid-resistant phenotype in FMDV serotype A. PMID:26873406

  16. Alteration features in natural zirconolite from carbonatites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nature, zirconolite occurs as an accessory mineral in many different rock types, but the majority of reported occurrences are from carbonatites (magmatic carbonates) of geological age varying from a few million years to 2 billion years old. Within these 19 carbonatite occurrences, of which 15 have been studied in some detail, zirconolite displays varying degrees of alteration in six samples. This alteration ranges from incipient minor effects to major corrosion, recrystallization and complete replacement by secondary phases. The degree of alteration broadly correlates with either the age, or actinide content of the zirconolite (or both), and thus the extent and degree of metamictization. Changes in zirconolite composition with alteration include an increase in hydration (H2O), Si, Ba and Pb (possibly radiogenic in origin), and a decrease primarily in Ca and Fe. Th can be remobilized, and of the rare earth elements (REE), there is evidence that the heavy-REE are mobilized more readily than the light-REE. Using backscattered electron images and electron microprobe analyses, this study documents and illustrates the range of alteration features observed in zirconolite from several carbonatites, in terms of both compositional and textural changes, and provides some physico-chemical information on the fluids responsible for the alteration. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  17. Chronic hyperammonemia, glutamatergic neurotransmission and neurological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Cauli, Omar; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Agustí, Ana; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; González-Usano, Alba; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-06-01

    This mini-review focus on our studies on alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission and their role in neurological alterations in rat models of chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hyperammonemia impairs the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in cerebellum, which is responsible for reduced learning ability. We studied the underlying mechanisms and designed treatments to restore the pathway and learning. This was achieved by treatment with: phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, cGMP, anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen), p38 inhibitors or GABAA receptor antagonists (bicuculline). Hyperammonemia alters signal transduction associated to metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Hypokinesia in hyperammonemia and HE is due to increased extracellular glutamate and mGluR1 activation in substantia nigra; blocking this receptor restores motor activity. The motor responses to mGluRs activation in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are altered in hyperammonemia and HE, with reduced dopamine and increased glutamate release. This leads to activation of different neuronal circuits and enhanced motor responses. These studies show that altered responses to activation of NMDA receptors and mGluRs play essential roles in cognitive and motor alterations in hyperammonemia and HE and provide new treatments restoring cognitive and motor function. PMID:23010935

  18. Synthesis and Study of Second-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of 3-Substituted-6- (substituted-phenylazo) coumarins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua-Can; WEN Huan; LIANG Dong; SUN Yi-Feng

    2003-01-01

    @@ It has attracted a lot of attentions to synthesize and investigate the behaviors of organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. [1,2] We have ever reported that acridine derivatives ,[3] 4-substituted-benzylideneoxazol-5(4H)-one[4] and 4,4′-di-styryl-biphenyl derivatives[5] possess good second-order NLO properties. Coumarin derivatives are good organic optical materials and azobenzene derivatives possess a higher second-order nonlinear polarization values, however, there are few reports about the study on the synthetic method, optical behavior, especially,second-order NLO properties of 3-substitued-6-(substituted-phenylazo) coumarin derivatives. Therefore, a series of the following compounds were prepared in order to investigate their NLO behavior.

  19. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paillet-Loilier M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension and psychiatric

  20. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.