WorldWideScience

Sample records for c1 transfergenes deduced

  1. Curiosities at c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsparg, P.

    1988-01-01

    We consider conformal field theories on a torus with central charge c=1, and in particular models based upon modding out string propagation on the SU(2) group manifold by its finite subgroups. We find that the partition functions for these models coincide with the continuum limit partition functions of a recently introduced class of RSOS models, defined in terms of the extended Dynkin diagrams of simply-laced Lie algebras, thus giving an alternative interpretation for the primary fields in these latter theories. Three of the models have no massless moduli and thus do not lie on the same line of critical points with the rest. The particular correspondence between simply-laced Lie algebras and finite subgroups of SU(2) that emerges coincides with that which has already appeared in other mathematical contexts. (orig.)

  2. C1-2 arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevrot, A [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Cermakova, E [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Vallee, C [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Chancelier, M D [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Chemla, N [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Rousselin, B [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France); Langer-Cherbit, A [Service de Radiologie B, Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-08-01

    One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

  3. C1-2 arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevrot, A.; Cermakova, E.; Vallee, C.; Chancelier, M.D.; Chemla, N.; Rousselin, B.; Langer-Cherbit, A.

    1995-01-01

    One hundred patients with the following conditions were studied: cervical pain or neuralgia without radiographic changes, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylarthritis and diverse conditions. The technique consists of lateral puncture of the posterior aspect of the C1-2 joint with a 20-gauge needle under fluoroscopic control, arthrography using 1 ml contrast medium, and a 1-ml long-acting steroid injection subsequently. The articular cavity has an anterior and a posterior recess. Sometimes the posterior recess is large. In 18% of cases the contralateral joint also opacifies. C1-2 arthrography appears to be an efficient and safe technique for the treatment of upper cervical pain due to C1-2 articular disorders. (orig.)

  4. The C1Σ+ state of KLi studied by polarization labelling spectroscopy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grochola, A.; Kowalczyk, P.; Jastrzebski, W.; Crozet, P.; Ross, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The polarization labelling spectroscopy method is applied to study the C 1 Σ + - X 1 Σ + band system of the KLi molecule. Rotationally resolved polarization spectra are observed in the spectral range 17150 - 20350 cm -1 . A set of Dunham coefficients describes the C 1 Σ + state to 95% of its potential well depth, and the potential curve is constructed by the Rydberg-Klein-Rees procedure. The molecular parameters deduced from this work are compared with theoretical calculations. (author)

  5. Deducing magnetic resonance neuroimages based on knowledge from samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuwei; Liu, Feng; Fan, Mingxia; Li, Xuzhou; Zhao, Zhiyong; Zeng, Zhaoling; Wang, Yi; Xu, Dongrong

    2017-12-01

    Because individual variance always exists, using the same set of predetermined parameters for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may not be exactly suitable for each participant. We propose a knowledge-based method that can repair MRI data of undesired contrast as if a new scan were acquired using imaging parameters that had been individually optimized. The method employed a strategy called analogical reasoning to deduce voxel-wise relaxation properties using morphological and biological similarity. The proposed framework involves steps of intensity normalization, tissue segmentation, relaxation time deducing, and image deducing. This approach has been preliminarily validated using conventional MRI data at 3T from several examples, including 5 normal and 9 clinical datasets. It can effectively improve the contrast of real MRI data by deducing imaging data using optimized imaging parameters based on deduced relaxation properties. The statistics of deduced images shows a high correlation with real data that were actually collected using the same set of imaging parameters. The proposed method of deducing MRI data using knowledge of relaxation times alternatively provides a way of repairing MRI data of less optimal contrast. The method is also capable of optimizing an MRI protocol for individual participants, thereby realizing personalized MR imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alcohol binding in the C1 (C1A + C1B) domain of protein kinase C epsilon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pany, Satyabrata; Das, Joydip

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol regulates the expression and function of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε). In a previous study we identified an alcohol binding site in the C1B, one of the twin C1 subdomains of PKCε. Methods In this study, we investigated alcohol binding in the entire C1 domain (combined C1A and C1B) of PKCε. Fluorescent phorbol ester, SAPD and fluorescent diacylglycerol (DAG) analog, dansyl-DAG were used to study the effect of ethanol, butanol, and octanol on the ligand binding using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). To identify alcohol binding site(s), PKCεC1 was photolabeled with 3-azibutanol and 3-azioctanol, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of alcohols and the azialcohols on PKCε were studied in NG108-15 cells. Results In the presence of alcohol, SAPD and dansyl-DAG showed different extent of FRET, indicating differential effects of alcohol on the C1A and C1B subdomains. Effects of alcohols and azialcohols on PKCε in NG108-15 cells were comparable. Azialcohols labeled Tyr-176 of C1A and Tyr-250 of C1B. Inspection of the model structure of PKCεC1 reveals that these residues are 40 Å apart from each other indicating that these residues form two different alcohol binding sites. Conclusions The present results provide evidence for the presence of multiple alcohol-binding sites on PKCε and underscore the importance of targeting this PKC isoform in developing alcohol antagonists. PMID:26210390

  7. Microbial growth on C1 compounds: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, R.L.; Hanson, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains individual papers prepared for the 4th International Symposium on Microbial Growth on One Carbon Compounds. Individual reports were abstracted and indexed for EDB. Topics presented were in the areas of the physiology and biochemistry of autotraps, physiology and biochemistry of methylotrophs and methanotrops, physiology and biochemistry of methanogens, genetics of microbes that use C 1 compounds, taxonomy and ecology of microbes tht grow on C 1 compounds, applied aspects of microbes that grow on C 1 compounds, and new directions in C 1 metabolism. (DT)

  8. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Depuy, Seth D; Burke, Peter G R; Abbott, Stephen B G

    2013-08-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension.

  9. C1 neurons: the body's EMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornetta, Ruth L.; Bochorishvili, Genrieta; DePuy, Seth D.; Burke, Peter G. R.; Abbott, Stephen B. G.

    2013-01-01

    The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception, and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brain stem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/inflammation, hemorrhage, and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension, and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses, and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity associated with diseases such as hypertension. PMID:23697799

  10. On the string equation at c=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, Toshio.

    1994-07-01

    The analogue of the string equation which specifies the partition function of c=1 string with a compactification radius β is an element of Z ≥1 is described in the framework of Toda lattice hierarchy. (author)

  11. On orientifolds of c=1 orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkstra, T.P.T. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gato-Rivera, B. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Riccioni, F. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: f.riccioni@damtp.cam.ac.uk; Schellekens, A.N. [NIKHEF, PO Box 41882, 1009 DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2004-10-25

    The aim of this paper is to study orientifolds of c=1 conformal field theories. A systematic analysis of the allowed orientifold projections for c=1 orbifold conformal field theories is given. We compare the Klein bottle amplitudes obtained at rational points with the orientifold projections that we claim to be consistent for any value of the orbifold radius. We show that the recently obtained Klein bottle amplitudes corresponding to exceptional modular invariants, describing bosonic string theories at fractional square radius, are also in agreement with those orientifold projections.

  12. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong.

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

  13. Temporal variability of TEC deduced from groundbased measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert, M.; Ezquer, R.G.; Jadur, C.; Radicella, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the behaviour of the integrated total electron content (ITEC) deduced from electron density profiles of two Argentine stations: Tucuman (26.9 S; 294.6 E) and San Juan (31.5 S; 290.4 E). The ITEC values have been obtained by the technique proposed by Reinisch and Huang (2000). The database includes electron density profiles derived from ionograms recorded at 4 typical hours of the day (00.00, 06.00, 12.00 and 18.00 LT) during different seasonal and solar activity conditions. An analysis of the day to day variability of ITEC has also been done. (author)

  14. Deducing Energy Consumer Behavior from Smart Meter Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebeid, Emad Samuel Malki; Heick, Rune; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg

    2017-01-01

    The ongoing upgrade of electricity meters to smart ones has opened a new market of intelligent services to analyze the recorded meter data. This paper introduces an open architecture and a unified framework for deducing user behavior from its smart main electricity meter data and presenting...... the results in a natural language. The framework allows a fast exploration and integration of a variety of machine learning algorithms combined with data recovery mechanisms for improving the recognition’s accuracy. Consequently, the framework generates natural language reports of the user’s behavior from...

  15. COOPERATIVE RESEARCH IN C1 CHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2001-04-30

    Faculty and students from five universities (Kentucky, West Virginia, Utah, Pittsburgh and Auburn) are collaborating on a basic research program to develop novel C1 chemistry processes for the production of clean, high quality transportation fuel. An Industrial Advisory Board (IAB) with members from Chevron, Eastman Chemical, Energy International, Teir Associates, and the Department of Defense has been formed to provide practical guidance to the program. The program has two principal objectives. (1) Develop technology for conversion of C1 source materials (natural gas, synthesis gas, carbon dioxide and monoxide, and methanol) into clean, high efficiency transportation fuel. (2) Develop novel processes for producing hydrogen from natural gas and other hydrocarbons. Some of the principal accomplishments of the program in its first two years are: (1) The addition of acetylenic compounds in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is found to produce significant amounts of oxygenated products in FT diesel fuels. Such oxygenated products should decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. (2) Nanoscale, binary, Fe-based catalysts supported on alumina have been shown to have significant activity for the decomposition of methane into pure hydrogen and potentially valuable multi-walled carbon nanotubes. (3) Catalytic synthesis processes have been developed for synthesis of diethyl carbonate, higher ethers, and higher alcohols from C1 source materials. Testing of the effect of adding these oxygenates to diesel fuel on PM emissions has begun using a well-equipped small diesel engine test facility. (4) Supercritical fluid (SCF) FT synthesis has been conducted under SCF hexane using both Fe and Co catalysts. There is a marked effect on the hydrocarbon product distribution, with a shift to higher carbon number products. These and other results are summarized.

  16. C1q protein binds to the apoptotic nucleolus and causes C1 protease degradation of nucleolar proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yitian; Teo, Boon Heng Dennis; Yeo, Joo Guan; Lu, Jinhua

    2015-09-11

    In infection, complement C1q recognizes pathogen-congregated antibodies and elicits complement activation. Among endogenous ligands, C1q binds to DNA and apoptotic cells, but whether C1q binds to nuclear DNA in apoptotic cells remains to be investigated. With UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, C1q initially bound to peripheral cellular regions in early apoptotic cells. By 6 h, binding concentrated in the nuclei to the nucleolus but not the chromatins. When nucleoli were isolated from non-apoptotic cells, C1q also bound to these structures. In vivo, C1q exists as the C1 complex (C1qC1r2C1s2), and C1q binding to ligands activates the C1r/C1s proteases. Incubation of nucleoli with C1 caused degradation of the nucleolar proteins nucleolin and nucleophosmin 1. This was inhibited by the C1 inhibitor. The nucleoli are abundant with autoantigens. C1q binding and C1r/C1s degradation of nucleolar antigens during cell apoptosis potentially reduces autoimmunity. These findings help us to understand why genetic C1q and C1r/C1s deficiencies cause systemic lupus erythematosus. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Unitarity relations in c=1 Liouville theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors consider the S-matrix of c = 1 Liouville theory with vanishing cosmological constant. The authors examine some of the constraints imposed by unitarity. These completely determine (N,2) amplitudes at tree level in terms of the (N,1) amplitudes when the plus tachyon momenta take generic values. A surprising feature of the matrix model results is the lack of particle creation branch cuts in the higher genus amplitudes. In fact, the authors show that the naive field theory limit of Liouville theory would predict such branch cuts. However, unitarity in the full string theory ensures that such cuts do not appear in genus one (N,1) amplitudes. The authors conclude with some comments about the genus one (N,2) amplitudes

  18. Complete cDNA sequence of human complement C1s and close physical linkage of the homologous genes C1s and C1r

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.; Duponchel, C.; Meo, T.; Julier, C.

    1987-01-01

    Overlapping molecular clones encoding the complement subcomponent C1s were isolated from a human liver cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence reconstructed from these clones spans about 85% of the length of the liver C1s messenger RNAs, which occur in three distinct size classes around 3 kilobases in length. Comparisons with the sequence of C1r, the other enzymatic subcomponent of C1, reveal 40% amino acid identity and conservation of all the cysteine residues. Beside the serine protease domain, the following sequence motifs, previously described in C1r, were also found in C1s: (a) two repeats of the type found in the Ba fragment of complement factor B and in several other complement but also noncomplement proteins, (b) a cysteine-rich segment homologous to the repeats of epidermal growth factor precursor, and (c) a duplicated segment found only in C1r and C1s. Differences in each of these structural motifs provide significant clues for the interpretation of the functional divergence of these interacting serine protease zymogens. Hybridizations of C1r and C1s probes to restriction endonuclease fragments of genomic DNA demonstrate close physical linkage of the corresponding genes. The implications of this finding are discussed with respect to the evolution of C1r and C1s after their origin by tandem gene duplication and to the previously observed combined hereditary deficiencies of Clr and Cls

  19. Summary of session C1: experimental gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmerzahl, C

    2008-01-01

    The fact that gravity is a metric theory follows from the Einstein equivalence principle. This principle consists of (i) the universality of free fall, (ii) the universality of the gravitational redshift and (iii) the local validity of Lorentz invariance. Many experiments searching for deviations from standard general relativity test the various aspects of the Einstein equivalence principle. Here we report on experiments covering the whole Einstein equivalence principle. Until now all experiments have been in agreement with the Einstein equivalence principle. As a consequence, gravity has to be described by a metric theory. Any metric theory of gravity leads to effects such as perihelion shift, deflection of light, gravitational redshift, gravitational time delay, Lense-Thirring effect, Schiff effect, etc. A particular theory of that sort is Einstein's general relativity. For weak gravitational fields which are asymptotically flat any deviation from Einstein's general relativity can be parametrized by a few constants, the PPN parameters. Many astrophysical observations and space experiments are devoted to a better measurement of the effects and, thus, of the PPN parameters. It is clear that gravity is best tested for intermediate ranges, that is, for distances between 1 m and several astronomical units. It is highly interesting to push forward our domain of experience and to strengthen the experimental foundation of gravity also beyond these scales. This point is underlined by the fact that many quantum gravity and unification-inspired theories suggest deviation from the standard laws of gravity at very small or very large scales. In this session summary we briefly outline the status and report on the talks presented in session C1 about experimental gravitation

  20. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-04-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data - the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely-sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (> 0.5), low correlation, and high negative correlation (Forecast(ECMWF) suggests that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity, and downward (upward) airflow. These facts indicate an interaction between dust-forced heating /cooling and atmospheric circulation. The April correlation results are supported by the analysis of vertical distribution of dust concentration, derived from the 24-hour dust prediction system at Tel Aviv University (website: http://earth.nasa.proj.ac.il/dust/current/). For other months the analysis is more complicated because of the essential increasing of humidity along with the northward progress of the ITCZ and the significant impact on the increments.

  1. Summary of breakout Session C1: C1, chemical countermeasures; dispersants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The discussions in breakout session C1 are summarized. The topics discussed include the pros and cons of dispersant use. Many of the positions which have been heard for the last twenty years were restated. Neither group convinced the other of the advisability of easing the use of dispersants. There was better agreement on the need for research and development programs to get a better handle on some of the questions being raised. The R ampersand D needs on which the participants could agree are summarized

  2. Physics-based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-07

    knowledge and capabilities in the use and development of inverse problem techniques to deduce atmospheric parameters. WORK COMPLETED The research completed...please find the Final Technical Report with SF 298 for Dr. Erin E. Hackett’s ONR grant entitled Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine...From- To) 07/03/2017 Final Technica l Dec 2012- Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Physics -based Inverse Problem to Deduce Marine

  3. Synthesis of ethanol {sup 14}C-1; Synthese d'ethanol {sup 14}C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R E; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The direct reduction by LiAlH{sub 4}, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-{sup 14}C by LiAlH{sub 4}, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-{sup 14}C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author) [French] Une etude de la reduction directe par LiAlH{sub 4}, de l'acetate de soude anhydre en suspension dans le tetrahydrofurfuryloxytetrahydropyrane est decrite. Cette etude a montre que l'on obtient de l'ethanol souille d'impuretes, avec un rendement variable. Par contre, la reduction du chlorure d'acetyle {sup 14}C-1 par LiAlH{sub 4}, dans le 'diethyl carbitol' conduit a l'ethanol {sup 14}C-1 de purete convenable avec un rendement de l'ordre de 71 pour cent. (auteur)

  4. Analysis list: NR3C1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NR3C1 Blood,Bone,Breast,Liver,Others,Prostate,Uterus + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosci...encedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.5.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Bone.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.bi

  5. Analysis list: Nr3c1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr3c1 Adipocyte,Blood,Breast,Embryo,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ta...rget/Nr3c1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  6. Integration of C1 and C2 Metabolism in Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Fernandes de Souza, Vinicius; Oikawa, Patty; Higuchi, Niro; Bill, Markus; Porras, Rachel; Niinemets, Ülo; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.

    2017-01-01

    C1 metabolism in plants is known to be involved in photorespiration, nitrogen and amino acid metabolism, as well as methylation and biosynthesis of metabolites and biopolymers. Although the flux of carbon through the C1 pathway is thought to be large, its intermediates are difficult to measure and relatively little is known about this potentially ubiquitous pathway. In this study, we evaluated the C1 pathway and its integration with the central metabolism using aqueous solutions of 13C-labele...

  7. Anti-C1q antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orbai, A-M; Truedsson, L; Sturfelt, G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Anti-C1q has been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis in previous studies. We studied anti-C1q specificity for SLE (vs rheumatic disease controls) and the association with SLE manifestations in an international multicenter study. METHODS: Information...... in combination with anti-dsDNA and low complement was the strongest serological association with renal involvement. These data support the usefulness of anti-C1q in SLE, especially in lupus nephritis....

  8. Direct interaction between CD91 and C1q

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Karen; Hansen, Erik W; Tacnet, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    . C1q binding to monocytes was shown to be correlated with CD91 expression and could be inhibited by the CD91 chaperone, receptor-associated protein. We also report data showing a direct interaction between CD91 and C1q. The interaction was investigated using various protein interaction assays....... A direct interaction between purified C1q and CD91 was observed both by ELISA and a surface plasmon resonance assay, with either C1q or CD91 immobilized. The interaction showed characteristics of specificity because it was time-dependent, saturable and could be inhibited by known ligands of both CD91 and C...

  9. Human genes for complement components C1r and C1s in a close tail-to-tail arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumoto, H.; Hirosawa, S.; Salier, J.P.; Hagen, F.S.; Kurachi, K.

    1988-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones for human C1s were isolated from cDNA libraries that were prepared with poly(A) + RNAs of human liver and HepG2 cells. A clone with the largest cDNA insert of 2,664 base pairs (bp) was analyzed for its complete nucleotide sequence. It contained 202 bp of a 5' untranslated region, 45 bp of coding for a signal peptide (15 amino acid residues), 2,019 bp for complement component C1s zymogen (673 amino acid residues), 378 bp for a 3' untranslated region, a stop codon, and 17 bp of a poly(A) tail. The amino acid sequence of C1s was 40.5% identical to that of C1r, with excellent matches of tentative disulfide bond locations conserving the overall domain structure of C1r. DNA blotting and sequencing analyses of genomic DNA and of an isolated genomic DNA clone clearly showed that the human genes for C1r and C1s are closely located in a tail-to-tail arrangement at a distance of about 9.5 kilobases. Furthermore, RNA blot analyses showed that both C1r and C1s genes are primarily expressed in liver, whereas most other tissues expressed both C1r and C1s genes at much lower levels (less than 10% of that in liver). Multiple molecular sizes of specific mRNAs were observed in the RNA blot analyses for both C1r and C1s, indicating that alternative RNA processing(s), likely an alternative polyadenylylation, might take place for both genes

  10. Synthesis of 1-13C-1-indanone and 2-13C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.E.; Wysocki, M.A.; Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis of 2- 13 C-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (5) via 1- 13 C-3-phenylpropanoic acid (1), 1- 13 C-1-indanone (2), 1- 13 C-1-indanone hydrazone (3) and 2- 13 C-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone (4) proceeded in 78, 96, 95, 79, and 85% individual yields respectively for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 61% overall yield of the latter from 1. (author)

  11. The Representation of Isometric Operators on C(1)(X)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingke

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce a new norm on C (1) (X), which is induced by a hexagon on R 2 , and prove that every isometric operator on C (1) (X) can be induced by a homeomorphism of X, where X is a connected subset of R.

  12. 17 CFR 240.16c-1 - Brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brokers. 240.16c-1 Section 240... Act of 1934 Exemption of Certain Transactions from Section 16(c) § 240.16c-1 Brokers. Any transaction... a broker of an order for an account in which the broker has no direct or indirect interest. ...

  13. Safety and Usage of C1-Inhibitor in Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riedl, Marc A; Bygum, Anette; Lumry, William

    2016-01-01

    , international patient registry documented widespread implementation of pnfC1-INH self-administration outside of a health care setting consistent with current HAE guidelines. These real-world data revealed pnfC1-INH usage for a variety of reasons in patients with HAE and showed a high level of safety regardless...... of this study was to describe safety and usage patterns of pnfC1-INH. METHODS: A multicenter, observational, registry was conducted between 2010 and 2014 at 30 United States and 7 European sites to obtain both prospective (occurring after enrollment) and retrospective (occurring before enrollment) safety...... and usage data on subjects receiving pnfC1-INH for any reason. RESULTS: Of 343 enrolled patients, 318 received 1 or more doses of pnfC1-INH for HAE attacks (11,848 infusions) or for prophylaxis (3142 infusions), comprising the safety population. Median dosages per infusion were 10.8 IU/kg (attack treatment...

  14. Deducing T, C, and P invariance for strong interactions in topological particle theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown here how the separate discrete invariances [time reversal (T), charge conjugation (C), and parity (P)] in strong interactions can be deduced as consequences of other S-matrix requirements in topological particle theory

  15. 17 CFR 270.3c-1 - Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of beneficial... AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.3c-1 Definition of beneficial ownership for certain 3(c)(1) funds. (a) As used in this section: (1) The term...

  16. Synthesis and chemical recycling of high polymers using C1 compounds; C1 kagobutsu ni yoru kobunshi no chemical recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T. [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The paper outlined a study of the synthesis of high polymers using C1 compounds which are continuously usable chemical materials and the related compounds such as the derivatives, and also the chemical recycle. In the case of waste plastics mixed in urban refuse, effective is the chemical recycle where C1 compounds obtained by gasifying the mixed waste are used as high polymer material. For the synthesis and recycle of high polymers using C1 compounds, there are three routes: Route A (recycle via high polymer materials), Route B (recycle via C1 compounds and high polymer materials), and Route C including global-scale carbon recycle (recycle via carbon dioxide from biodegradable plastics using microorganism). Among high polymers, those that can be synthesized from C1 compounds, for example, polymethylene, polyacetal and polyketone can be chemically recycled by Route B. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Interaction of C1q and mannan-binding lectin (MBL) with C1r, C1s, MBL-associated serine proteases 1 and 2, and the MBL-associated protein MAp19

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, S; Petersen, Steen Vang; Vorup-Jensen, T

    2000-01-01

    . There is controversy as to whether MBL can utilize C1r and C1s or, inversely, whether C1q can utilize MASP-1 and 2. Serum deficient in C1r produced no complement activation in IgG-coated microwells, whereas activation was seen in mannan-coated microwells. In serum, C1r and C1s were found to be associated only with C1q...

  18. Unilateral extended suboccipital approach for a C1 dumbbell schwanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgan R.M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Craniovertebral junction tumors represent a complex pathology carrying a high risk of injuring the vertebral artery and the lower cranial nerves. Dumbbell C1- C2 schannomas are very rare tumors in this location. We present a case of a 66 years old male accepted for left laterocervical localized pain, headache and vertigo, with a large C1 dumbbell schwannoma extending in lateral over the C1 arch and displacing the C3 segment of the vertebral artery superiorly and anteriorly. Complete removal of the tumor was achieved using a far lateral approach. The approach is discussed with focus on the vertebral artery anatomy as the approach should give enough space to gain control of the artery without creating instability. Safe removal of C1 nerve root schwanomas can be achieved even if they compress and displace the vertebral artery by entering a fibrous tissue plane between the tumor and the vertebral artery.

  19. An exact bosonization rule for c = 1 noncritical string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    We construct a string field theory for c = 1 noncritical strings using the loop variables as the string field. We show how one can express the nonrelativistic free fermions which describes the theory, in terms of these string fields

  20. 26 CFR 1.514(c)-1 - Acquisition indebtedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(c)-1... inherent in the performance or exercise of the purpose or function constituting the basis of the...

  1. Biosynthesis and isolation of C1 and Cx cellulases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panaiotov, Kh; Cholakov, G

    1981-01-01

    Aspergillus usamii, Aspergillus niger, and Trichoderma viridae were grown on media containing lactose, lignin, (NH4)2SO4, urea, KH2PO4, CaCl2, MgSO4, and yeast extract. Maximum activities of cellulase C1 and Cx in Aspergillus usamii were observed after 76 and 90 h to be approximately 6 and approximately 24 units/mug protein, respectively. Maximum production by Aspergillus niger was 5 units C1/mug at 90h and 44 units Cx/mug at 34 h and Trichoderma produced 32.5 units C1 at 34 h and 16.5 units Cx at 58 h. Thus, Trichoderma viride produces cellulases C1 and Cx in a more balanced ratio than the Aspergillus strains.

  2. Two-matrix models and c =1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, L.; Xiong Chuansheng

    1994-05-01

    We show that the most general two-matrix model with bilinear coupling underlies c = 1 string theory. More precisely we prove that W 1+∞ constraints, a subset of the correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy characterizing such two-matrix model, correspond exactly to the W 1+∞ constraints, to the discrete tachyon correlation functions and the integrable hierarchy of the c = 1 string theory. (orig.)

  3. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-1 - Trade or business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trade or business. 1.1402(c)-1 Section 1.1402(c... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-1 Trade or business. In order for an individual to have net earnings from self-employment, he must carry on a trade or business, either as an...

  4. Evaluation report on CCTF Core-I reflood tests C1-5 (Run 14), C1-7 (Run 16) and C1-14 (Run 23)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Muurao, Yoshio

    1983-02-01

    The present report describes the effects of the initial clad temperature on the reflood phenomena observed in the Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The evaluation is based on the data of tests C1-5, C1-7 and C1-14 of the CCTF-Core I test series. Nominal initial peak clad temperatures in these tests are 600 0 C, 700 0 C and 800 0 C, respectively. With the higher initial clad temperature, the higher loop mass flow rate and the lower water accumulation in the core and the upper plenum were obtained in an early reflood transient. However, the core inlet flow conditions, which is sensitive to the core cooling, were not much affected by the higher initial clad temperature. The slower quench front propagation was observed with the higher initial clad temperature. However, the heat transfer coefficient was almost identical with each other before the turnaround time, which resulted in the lower temperature rise with the highest initial clad temperature. This qualitatively agreed with the results of the forced feed FLECHT experiment. (author)

  5. String beta function equations from c=1 matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R

    1995-01-01

    We derive the \\sigma-model tachyon \\beta-function equation of 2-dimensional string theory, in the background of flat space and linear dilaton, working entirely within the c=1 matrix model. The tachyon \\beta-function equation is satisfied by a \\underbar{nonlocal} and \\underbar{nonlinear} combination of the (massless) scalar field of the matrix model. We discuss the possibility of describing the `discrete states' as well as other possible gravitational and higher tensor backgrounds of 2-dimensional string theory within the c=1 matrix model. We also comment on the realization of the W-infinity symmetry of the matrix model in the string theory. The present work reinforces the viewpoint that a nonlocal (and nonlinear) transform is required to extract the space-time physics of 2-dimensional string theory from the c=1 matrix model.

  6. Spinal instrumentation for unstable C1-2 injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, J; Nakagawa, H

    1999-06-01

    Seventeen patients with unstable C1-2 injuries were treated between 1990 and 1997. Various methods of instrumentation surgery were performed in 16 patients, excluding a case of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. Posterior stabilization was carried out in 14 cases using Halifax interlaminar clamp, Sof'wire or Danek cable, or more recently, transarticular screws. Transodontoid anterior screw fixation was performed in four cases of odontoid process fractures, with posterior instrumentation in two cases because of malunion. Rigid internal fixation by instrumentation surgery for the unstable C1-2 injury avoids long-term application of a Halo brace and facilitates early rehabilitation. However, the procedure is technically demanding with the risk of neural and vascular injuries, particularly with posterior screw fixation. Sagittal reconstruction of thin-sliced computed tomography scans at the C1-2 region, neuronavigator, and intraoperative fluoroscopy are essential to allow preoperative surgical planning and intraoperative guidance.

  7. Method of estimating horizontal vectors of ionospheric electric field deduced from HF Doppler data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsui, M.; Ogawa, T.; Kamide, Y.; Kroehl, H.W.; Hausman, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    An HF Doppler method for estimating the time variations of the horizontal electric field in the ionosphere is presented which takes into account, for long-lasting variations in the electric field, the effect of electron decay due to attachment and/or recombination processes. The method is applied to an isolated substorm event, using equivalent ionospheric current systems deduced from worldwide magnetometer data in the estimations. The present results are found to agree with data deduced from current systems and high latitude electrojet activity. 18 references

  8. Usefulness of C1 Esterase Inhibitor Protein Concentrate in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... 2018 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow ... of this case report is to describe the lifesaving use of a novel C1‑INH protein ... edema of the upper lip, uvula, and tongue [Figure 1].

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... lowest qualified benchmark is determined using the adjusted applicable stock price, as defined in § 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In.... Under section 1092(d)(3)(B)(i)(I), stock is personal property if the stock is part of a straddle that...

  10. C1q Nephropathy: The Unique Underrecognized Pathological Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Devasahayam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C1q nephropathy is a rare glomerular disease with characteristic mesangial C1q deposition noted on immunofluorescence microscopy. It is histologically defined and poorly understood. Light microscopic features are heterogeneous and comprise minimal change disease (MCD, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, and proliferative glomerulonephritis. Clinical presentation is also diverse, and ranges from asymptomatic hematuria or proteinuria to frank nephritic or nephrotic syndrome in both children and adults. Hypertension and renal insufficiency at the time of diagnosis are common findings. Optimal treatment is not clear and is usually guided by the underlying light microscopic lesion. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment, with immunosuppressive agents reserved for steroid resistant cases. The presence of nephrotic syndrome and FSGS appear to predict adverse outcomes as opposed to favorable outcomes in those with MCD. Further research is needed to establish C1q nephropathy as a universally recognized distinct clinical entity. In this paper, we discuss the current understanding of pathogenesis, histopathology, clinical features, therapeutic options, and outcomes of C1q nephropathy.

  11. Complete amino acid sequence of human intestinal aminopeptidase N as deduced from cloned cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowell, G M; Kønigshøfer, E; Danielsen, E M

    1988-01-01

    The complete primary structure (967 amino acids) of an intestinal human aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) was deduced from the sequence of a cDNA clone. Aminopeptidase N is anchored to the microvillar membrane via an uncleaved signal for membrane insertion. A domain constituting amino acid 250...

  12. CONSISTENT USE OF THE KALMAN FILTER IN CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELS (CTMS) FOR DEDUCING EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past research has shown that emissions can be deduced using observed concentrations of a chemical, a Chemical Transport Model (CTM), and the Kalman filter in an inverse modeling application. An expression was derived for the relationship between the "observable" (i.e., the con...

  13. A complex of cardiac cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Y L; Kaminsky, L S; King, T E

    1976-01-10

    The interactions of cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c from bovine cardiac mitochondria were investigated. Cytochrome c1 and cytochrome c formed a 1:1 molecular complex in aqueous solutions of low ionic strength. The complex was stable to Sephadex G-75 chromatography. The formation and stability of the complex were independent of the oxidation state of the cytochrome components as far as those reactions studied were concerned. The complex was dissociated in solutions of ionic strength higher than 0.07 or pH exceeding 10 and only partially dissociated in 8 M urea. No complexation occurred when cytochrome c was acetylated on 64% of its lysine residues or photooxidized on its 2 methionine residues. Complexes with molecular ratios of less than 1:1 (i.e. more cytochrome c) were obtained when polymerized cytochrome c, or cytochrome c with all lysine residues guanidinated, or a "1-65 heme peptide" from cyanogen bromide cleavage of cytochrome c was used. These results were interpreted to imply that the complex was predominantly maintained by ionic interactions probably involving some of the lysine residues of cytochrome c but with major stabilization dependent on the native conformations of both cytochromes. The reduced complex was autooxidizable with biphasic kinetics with first order rate constants of 6 X 10(-5) and 5 X U0(-5) s-1 but did not react with carbon monoxide. The complex reacted with cyanide and was reduced by ascorbate at about 32% and 40% respectively, of the rates of reaction with cytochrome c alone. The complex was less photoreducible than cytochrome c1 alone. The complex exhibited remarkably different circular dichroic behavior from that of the summation of cytochrome c1 plus cytochrome c. We concluded that when cytochromes c1 and c interacted they underwent dramatic conformational changes resulting in weakening of their heme crevices. All results available would indicate that in the complex cytochrome c1 was bound at the entrance to the heme crevice of

  14. Quantum and classical aspects of deformed c = 1 strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsu, T.; Tsujimaru, S.; Takasaki, K.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum and classical aspects of a deformed c=1 matrix model proposed by Jevicki and Yoneya are studied. String equations are formulated in the framework of the Toda lattice hierarchy. The Whittaker functions now play the role of generalized Airy functions in c<1 strings. This matrix model has two distinct parameters. Identification of the string coupling constant is thereby not unique, and leads to several different perturbative interpretations of this model as a string theory. Two such possible interpretations are examined. In both cases, the classical limit of the string equations, which turns out to give a formal solution of Polchinski's scattering equations, shows that the classical scattering amplitudes of massless tachyons are insensitive to deformations of the parameters in the matrix model. (author)

  15. Constructing C1 Continuous Surface on Irregular Quad Meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jun; GUO Qiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method is proposed for surface construction on irregular quad meshes as extensions to uniform B-spline surfaces. Given a number of control points, which form a regular or irregular quad mesh, a weight function is constructed for each control point. The weight function is defined on a local domain and is C1 continuous. Then the whole surface is constructed by the weighted combination of all the control points. The property of the new method is that the surface is defined by piecewise C1 bi-cubic rational parametric polynomial with each quad face. It is an extension to uniform B-spline surfaces in the sense that its definition is an analogy of the B-spline surface, and it produces a uniform bi-cubic B-spline surface if the control mesh is a regular quad mesh. Examples produced by the new method are also included.

  16. Cervical myelography via C1/C2 lateral puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, B.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the water soluble, tri-iodinated contrast medium, metrizamide, in cervical myelography via C1/C2 lateral puncture is described. Details of the tomographic apparatus and the technique employed are given. The advantages of water soluble myelography using metrizamide are overwhelming due to its miscibility with CSF, improved anatomical demonstration, radiographic visualisation and diagnostic accuracy and advantageous pharmacological properties with reduced toxicity. This technique provided successful diagnoses in a series of 104 patients. (U.K.)

  17. Isometric C1-immersions for pairs of Riemannian metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambra, Giuseppina; Datta, Mahuya

    2001-08-01

    Let h 1 , h 2 be two Euclidean metrics on R q , and let V be a C ∞ -manifold endowed with two Riemannian metrics g 1 and g 2 . We study the existence of C 1 -immersions f:(V,g 1 ,g 2 )→(R q ,h 1 ,h 2 ) such that f*(h i )=g i for i=1,2. (author)

  18. Safety and surgical techniques of C1 lateral mass screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinichiro; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Hanado, Shoji; Hamanaka, Hideaki; Inomata, Naoki; Kuroki, Shuji; Chosa, Etsuo

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the proper insertion techniques of C1 lateral mass screws. Eighteen consecutive patients were examined after upper cervical fusion using twenty-nine C1 lateral mass screws. Screws were placed by three different techniques; Goel's technique (4), Tan's technique (20), Notching technique (5). Pre and post-operative CT scans with multiplanar reconstruction were used to detect cortical breaches and direction of screws. No transverse foramen and vertebral groove violation was found in CT scans. Three had breached superior articular facet of the atlas. However, the range of motion (R.O.M) of atlanto-occipital joints had not changed postoperatively. Theses screws were inserted with Tan's technique and two of three were directed medially. It is feasible to safely insert C1 lateral mass screws when correct insertion point and direction are considered preoperatively. However, care should be taken because screws can violate the atlanto-occipital joint especially with Tan's technique. (author)

  19. Efficient C1-continuous phase-potential upwind (C1-PPU) schemes for coupled multiphase flow and transport with gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiamin; Younis, Rami M.

    2017-10-01

    In the presence of counter-current flow, nonlinear convergence problems may arise in implicit time-stepping when the popular phase-potential upwinding (PPU) scheme is used. The PPU numerical flux is non-differentiable across the co-current/counter-current flow regimes. This may lead to cycles or divergence in the Newton iterations. Recently proposed methods address improved smoothness of the numerical flux. The objective of this work is to devise and analyze an alternative numerical flux scheme called C1-PPU that, in addition to improving smoothness with respect to saturations and phase potentials, also improves the level of scalar nonlinearity and accuracy. C1-PPU involves a novel use of the flux limiter concept from the context of high-resolution methods, and allows a smooth variation between the co-current/counter-current flow regimes. The scheme is general and applies to fully coupled flow and transport formulations with an arbitrary number of phases. We analyze the consistency property of the C1-PPU scheme, and derive saturation and pressure estimates, which are used to prove the solution existence. Several numerical examples for two- and three-phase flows in heterogeneous and multi-dimensional reservoirs are presented. The proposed scheme is compared to the conventional PPU and the recently proposed Hybrid Upwinding schemes. We investigate three properties of these numerical fluxes: smoothness, nonlinearity, and accuracy. The results indicate that in addition to smoothness, nonlinearity may also be critical for convergence behavior and thus needs to be considered in the design of an efficient numerical flux scheme. Moreover, the numerical examples show that the C1-PPU scheme exhibits superior convergence properties for large time steps compared to the other alternatives.

  20. Heavy-ion optical potential for sub-barrier fusion deduced from a dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.T.; Kim, H.C.; Park, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The heavy-ion energy-dependent optical potentials for the 16 O+ 208 Pb system are deduced from a dispersion relation. These potentials are used to analyze the elastic scattering, fusion, and spin distributions of compound nuclei for the system in a unified way based on the direct reaction theory. It turns out that the energy dependence of the optical potential is essential in explaining the data at near- and sub-barrier energies. The real part of the energy-dependent optical potential deduced was also used in calculating the elastic and fusion cross sections by the conventional barrier penetration model using an incoming wave boundary condition. The predictions of the elastic scattering, fusion cross sections, and the spin distributions of compound nuclei are not satisfactory compared with those from the direct reaction approach. It seems to originate from the fact that this model neglects absorption around the Coulomb barrier region

  1. C1 Rational Quadratic Trigonometric Interpolation Spline for Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new C1 piecewise rational quadratic trigonometric spline with four local positive shape parameters in each subinterval is constructed to visualize the given planar data. Constraints are derived on these free shape parameters to generate shape preserving interpolation curves for positive and/or monotonic data sets. Two of these shape parameters are constrained while the other two can be set free to interactively control the shape of the curves. Moreover, the order of approximation of developed interpolant is investigated as O(h3. Numeric experiments demonstrate that our method can construct nice shape preserving interpolation curves efficiently.

  2. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  3. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  4. Comparisons of Satellite-Deduced Overlapping Cloud Properties and CALIPSO CloudSat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to the overlapped cloud properties derived from polar-orbiting (MODIS) and geostationary (GOES-12, -13, Meteosat-8, -9, etc.) meteorological satellites, which are produced at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) cloud research & development team (NASA lead scientist: Dr. Patrick Minnis). Comparison of the LaRC CERES MODIS Edition-3 overlapped cloud properties to the CALIPSO and the CloudSat active sensing data. High clouds and overlapped clouds occur frequently as deduced by CALIPSO (44 & 25%), CloudSat (25 & 4%), and MODIS (37 & 6%). Large fractions of optically-thin cirrus and overlapped clouds are deduced from CALIPSO, but much smaller fractions are from CloudSat and MODIS. For overlapped clouds, the averaged upper-layer CTHs are about 12.8 (CALIPSO), 10.9 (CloudSat) and 10 km (MODIS), and the averaged lower-layer CTHs are about 3.6 (CALIPSO), 3.2 (CloudSat) and 3.9 km (MODIS). Based on comparisons of upper and lower-layer cloud properties as deduced from the MODIS, CALIPSO and CloudSat data, more enhanced passive satellite methods for retrieving thin cirrus and overlapped cloud properties are needed and are under development.

  5. Coupling constants deduced for the resonances in kaon photo-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheoun, M. K.; Kim, K. S.; Choi, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    We deduced the coupling constants of nucleon and hyperon resonances, which participate in kaon productions as intermediate states that are formed by electro-magnetic probes and that finally decay into hadronic final states. We used an isobaric model based on an effective Lagrangian approach to describe the processes, in which relevant coupling constants regarding related resonances are effectively determined by fitting available experimental data. Our scheme to deduce the coupling constants was as follows: First, we calculated the lower and the upper limits on the coupling constants by using the experimental decay data available until now and/or theoretical predictions, such as those from quark models and SU(3) symmetry. Second, we exploited those limits as physical constraints on our fitting scheme for the kaon photo-production data. Finally, the deduced values and regions of the coupling constants, which satisfy not only the reaction data but also the decay data, are presented as figures with respect to the strong and the electro-magnetic coupling constants, and their multiplicative values. Our results for the coupling constants give physical values that are more restricted than those allowed by the experimental data nowadays.

  6. The DEDUCE Guided Query tool: providing simplified access to clinical data for research and quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Winfield, Stephanie; Evans, Steve; Slopek, Steve; Shang, Howard; Ferranti, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    In many healthcare organizations, comparative effectiveness research and quality improvement (QI) investigations are hampered by a lack of access to data created as a byproduct of patient care. Data collection often hinges upon either manual chart review or ad hoc requests to technical experts who support legacy clinical systems. In order to facilitate this needed capacity for data exploration at our institution (Duke University Health System), we have designed and deployed a robust Web application for cohort identification and data extraction--the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE). DEDUCE is envisioned as a simple, web-based environment that allows investigators access to administrative, financial, and clinical information generated during patient care. By using business intelligence tools to create a view into Duke Medicine's enterprise data warehouse, DEDUCE provides a Guided Query functionality using a wizard-like interface that lets users filter through millions of clinical records, explore aggregate reports, and, export extracts. Researchers and QI specialists can obtain detailed patient- and observation-level extracts without needing to understand structured query language or the underlying database model. Developers designing such tools must devote sufficient training and develop application safeguards to ensure that patient-centered clinical researchers understand when observation-level extracts should be used. This may mitigate the risk of data being misunderstood and consequently used in an improper fashion. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. C1,1 regularity for degenerate elliptic obstacle problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulos, Panagiota; Feehan, Paul M. N.

    2016-03-01

    The Heston stochastic volatility process is a degenerate diffusion process where the degeneracy in the diffusion coefficient is proportional to the square root of the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. The generator of this process with killing, called the elliptic Heston operator, is a second-order, degenerate-elliptic partial differential operator, where the degeneracy in the operator symbol is proportional to the distance to the boundary of the half-plane. In mathematical finance, solutions to the obstacle problem for the elliptic Heston operator correspond to value functions for perpetual American-style options on the underlying asset. With the aid of weighted Sobolev spaces and weighted Hölder spaces, we establish the optimal C 1 , 1 regularity (up to the boundary of the half-plane) for solutions to obstacle problems for the elliptic Heston operator when the obstacle functions are sufficiently smooth.

  8. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal

  9. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Garçon-Bocquet, Annelise; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautière, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Nagnan-le Meillour, Patricia; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2012-02-22

    In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS) after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR), which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q) was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal leech.

  10. 75 FR 53861 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Robert E. Rust... CFR part 39) to include an AD that would apply to all Robert E. Rust, Jr. Models DeHavilland DH.C1...

  11. Catalytic routes to fuels from C1 and oxygenate molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuai

    2017-02-23

    This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C-1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges. The hurdles in forming the first C-C bond from C-1 molecules are illustrated by the oxidative coupling of methane, in which surface O-atoms form OH radicals from O-2 and H2O molecules. These gaseous OH species act as strong H-abstractors and activate C-H bonds with earlier transition states than oxide surfaces, thus rendering activation rates less sensitive to the weaker C-H bonds in larger alkane products than in CH4 reactants. Anhydrous carbonylation of dimethyl ether forms a single C-C bond on protons residing within inorganic voids that preferentially stabilize the kinetically-relevant transition state through van der Waals interactions that compensate for the weak CO nucleophile. Similar solvation effects, but by intrapore liquids instead of inorganic hosts, also become evident as alkenes condense within MCM-41 channels containing isolated Ni2+ active sites during dimerization reactions. Intrapore liquids preferentially stabilize transition states for C-C bond formation and product desorption, leading to unprecedented reactivity and site stability at sub-ambient temperatures and to 1-alkene dimer selectivities previously achieved only on organometallic systems with co-catalysts or activators. C-1 homologation selectively forms C-4 and C-7 chains with a specific backbone (isobutane, triptane) on solid

  12. Catalytic routes to fuels from C1 and oxygenate molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Shuai; Agirrezabal-Telleria, Iker; Bhan, Aditya; Simonetti, Dante; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Iglesia, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    This account illustrates concepts in chemical kinetics underpinned by the formalism of transition state theory using catalytic processes that enable the synthesis of molecules suitable as fuels from C-1 and oxygenate reactants. Such feedstocks provide an essential bridge towards a carbon-free energy future, but their volatility and low energy density require the formation of new C-C bonds and the removal of oxygen. These transformations are described here through recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and site requirements in catalysis by surfaces, with emphasis on enabling concepts that tackle ubiquitous reactivity and selectivity challenges. The hurdles in forming the first C-C bond from C-1 molecules are illustrated by the oxidative coupling of methane, in which surface O-atoms form OH radicals from O-2 and H2O molecules. These gaseous OH species act as strong H-abstractors and activate C-H bonds with earlier transition states than oxide surfaces, thus rendering activation rates less sensitive to the weaker C-H bonds in larger alkane products than in CH4 reactants. Anhydrous carbonylation of dimethyl ether forms a single C-C bond on protons residing within inorganic voids that preferentially stabilize the kinetically-relevant transition state through van der Waals interactions that compensate for the weak CO nucleophile. Similar solvation effects, but by intrapore liquids instead of inorganic hosts, also become evident as alkenes condense within MCM-41 channels containing isolated Ni2+ active sites during dimerization reactions. Intrapore liquids preferentially stabilize transition states for C-C bond formation and product desorption, leading to unprecedented reactivity and site stability at sub-ambient temperatures and to 1-alkene dimer selectivities previously achieved only on organometallic systems with co-catalysts or activators. C-1 homologation selectively forms C-4 and C-7 chains with a specific backbone (isobutane, triptane) on solid

  13. 75 FR 34956 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Certification Office (ACO), 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337; telephone: (404) 474-5543; fax..., FAA, Atlanta Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337.... Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1 Chipmunk 22A Airplanes AGENCY: Federal...

  14. 75 FR 57846 - Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1701 Columbia Avenue, College Park, Georgia 30337; telephone: (404... Airworthiness Directives; Robert E. Rust, Jr. Model DeHavilland DH.C1 Chipmunk 21, DH.C1 Chipmunk 22, and DH.C1... the Docket Office (phone: 800-647-5527) is Document Management Facility, U.S. Department of...

  15. Intrinsic neutrino properties: As deduced from cosmology, astrophysics, accelerator and non-accelerator experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    I review the intrinsic properties of neutrinos as deduced from cosmological, astrophysical, and laboratory experiments. Bounds on magnetic moments and theoretical models which yield large moments but small masses are briefly discussed. The MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is reviewed in light of the existing data from the 37 Cl and Kamiokande II experiments. The combined data disfavor the adiabatic solution and tend to support either the large angle solution or the nonadiabatic one. In the former case the 71 Ga signal will be suppressed by the same factor as for 37 Cl, and in the latter case the suppression factor could be as large as 10 or more. 41 refs

  16. Dotaciones para la recuperación de activos revertibles como deducibles del impuesto sobre sociedades

    OpenAIRE

    Duplá Marín, María José

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo final que nos propusimos con este trabajo de investigación fue profundizar en el estudio jurídico-tributario de las dotaciones al fondo de reversión como gasto deducible para determinar la base imponible del impuesto sobre sociedades, en aquellas sociedades concesionarias de servicios públicos con cláusula de reversión de activos, partiendo de su realidad contable.En consecuencia el trabajo se ciñe al estudio crítico de la regulación jurídica del fondo de reversión como gasto fisc...

  17. Entanglement entropy of two disjoint intervals in c = 1 theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alba, Vincenzo; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    We study the scaling of the Rényi entanglement entropy of two disjoint blocks of critical lattice models described by conformal field theories with central charge c = 1. We provide the analytic conformal field theory result for the second order Rényi entropy for a free boson compactified on an orbifold describing the scaling limit of the Ashkin–Teller (AT) model on the self-dual line. We have checked this prediction in cluster Monte Carlo simulations of the classical two-dimensional AT model. We have also performed extensive numerical simulations of the anisotropic Heisenberg quantum spin chain with tree tensor network techniques that allowed us to obtain the reduced density matrices of disjoint blocks of the spin chain and to check the correctness of the predictions for Rényi and entanglement entropies from conformal field theory. In order to match these predictions, we have extrapolated the numerical results by properly taking into account the corrections induced by the finite length of the blocks on the leading scaling behavior

  18. Forkhead Box C1 Regulates Human Primary Keratinocyte Terminal Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianghua Bin

    Full Text Available The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1 was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation. This observation was validated in human normal primary KC from several different donors and human skin biopsies. Silencing FOXC1 in human normal primary KC undergoing differentiation led to significant down-regulation of late terminal differentiation genes markers including epidermal differentiation complex genes, keratinization genes, sphingolipid/ceramide metabolic process genes and epidermal specific cell-cell adhesion genes. We further demonstrated that FOXC1 works down-stream of ZNF750 and KLF4, and upstream of GRHL3. Thus, this study defines FOXC1 as a regulator specific for KC terminal differentiation and establishes its potential position in the genetic regulatory network.

  19. Potentiation of C1-esterase inhibitor by heparin and interactions with C1s protease as assessed by surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mohsen; Struble, Evi; Zhou, Zhaohua; Karnaukhova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) is a multifunctional plasma protein with a wide range of inhibitory and non-inhibitory properties, mainly recognized as a key down-regulator of the complement and contact cascades. The potentiation of C1-INH by heparin and other glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) regulates a broad spectrum of C1-INH activities in vivo both in normal and disease states. SCOPE OF RESEARCH: We have studied the potentiation of human C1-INH by heparin using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), circular dichroism (CD) and a functional assay. To advance a SPR for multiple-unit interaction studies of C1-INH we have developed a novel (consecutive double capture) approach exploring different immobilization and layout. Our SPR experiments conducted in three different design versions showed marked acceleration in C1-INH interactions with complement protease C1s as a result of potentiation of C1-INH by heparin (from 5- to 11-fold increase of the association rate). Far-UV CD studies suggested that heparin binding did not alter C1-INH secondary structure. Functional assay using chromogenic substrate confirmed that heparin does not affect the amidolytic activity of C1s, but does accelerate its consumption due to C1-INH potentiation. This is the first report that directly demonstrates a significant acceleration of the C1-INH interactions with C1s due to heparin by using a consecutive double capture SPR approach. The results of this study may be useful for further C-INH therapeutic development, ultimately for the enhancement of current C1-INH replacement therapies. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Deducing the kinetics of protein synthesis in vivo from the transition rates measured in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Rudorf

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The molecular machinery of life relies on complex multistep processes that involve numerous individual transitions, such as molecular association and dissociation steps, chemical reactions, and mechanical movements. The corresponding transition rates can be typically measured in vitro but not in vivo. Here, we develop a general method to deduce the in-vivo rates from their in-vitro values. The method has two basic components. First, we introduce the kinetic distance, a new concept by which we can quantitatively compare the kinetics of a multistep process in different environments. The kinetic distance depends logarithmically on the transition rates and can be interpreted in terms of the underlying free energy barriers. Second, we minimize the kinetic distance between the in-vitro and the in-vivo process, imposing the constraint that the deduced rates reproduce a known global property such as the overall in-vivo speed. In order to demonstrate the predictive power of our method, we apply it to protein synthesis by ribosomes, a key process of gene expression. We describe the latter process by a codon-specific Markov model with three reaction pathways, corresponding to the initial binding of cognate, near-cognate, and non-cognate tRNA, for which we determine all individual transition rates in vitro. We then predict the in-vivo rates by the constrained minimization procedure and validate these rates by three independent sets of in-vivo data, obtained for codon-dependent translation speeds, codon-specific translation dynamics, and missense error frequencies. In all cases, we find good agreement between theory and experiment without adjusting any fit parameter. The deduced in-vivo rates lead to smaller error frequencies than the known in-vitro rates, primarily by an improved initial selection of tRNA. The method introduced here is relatively simple from a computational point of view and can be applied to any biomolecular process, for which we have

  1. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  2. Deducing the pathogenic contribution of recessive ABCA4 alleles in an outbred population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Emily I; Nylen, Erik L; Ko, Audrey C; Affatigato, Louisa M; Heggen, Andrew C; Wang, Kai; Sheffield, Val C; Stone, Edwin M

    2010-10-01

    Accurate prediction of the pathogenic effects of specific genotypes is important for the design and execution of clinical trials as well as for meaningful counseling of individual patients. However, for many autosomal recessive diseases, it can be difficult to deduce the relative pathogenic contribution of individual alleles because relatively few affected individuals share the same two disease-causing variations. In this study, we used multiple regression analysis to estimate the pathogenicity of specific alleles of ABCA4 in patients with retinal phenotypes ranging from Stargardt disease to retinitis pigmentosa. This analysis revealed quantitative allelic effects on two aspects of the visual phenotype, visual acuity (P disease and will also aid in the optimal selection of subjects for clinical trials of new therapies.

  3. Behaviour of the Pleistocene marsupial lion deduced from claw marks in a southwestern Australian cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arman, Samuel D; Prideaux, Gavin J

    2016-02-15

    The marsupial lion, Thylacoleo carnifex, was the largest-ever marsupial carnivore, and is one of the most iconic extinct Australian vertebrates. With a highly-specialised dentition, powerful forelimbs and a robust build, its overall morphology is not approached by any other mammal. However, despite >150 years of attention, fundamental aspects of its biology remain unresolved. Here we analyse an assemblage of claw marks preserved on surfaces in a cave and deduce that they were generated by marsupial lions. The distribution and skewed size range of claw marks within the cave elucidate two key aspects of marsupial lion biology: they were excellent climbers and reared young in caves. Scrutiny of >10,000 co-located Pleistocene bones reveals few if any marsupial lion tooth marks, which dovetails with the morphology-based interpretation of the species as a flesh specialist.

  4. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; del Real, R. P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Vá zquez, M.

    2014-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  5. Systematics of criticality data of special actinide nuclides deduced through the Trombay criticality formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; SubbaRao, K.; Garg, S.B.; Acharya, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a number of interesting systematics and correlations deduced by analyzing the criticality data of special actinide nuclides using concepts embodied in the Trombay critically formula (TCF). The κ ∞ of fast metal actinide nuclides gives a remarkable linear correlation with the fissility parameter Z 2 /A. The neutron leakage probability of all fast metal cores characterized using a constant parameter σ std enables computation of the critical mass value of any unknown fissile nuclide knowing only its Z 2 /A value. Since the neutron leakage probability from dilute fissile solutions is primarily governed by the scattering/slowing down properties of the hydrogen present in water, critical masses and subcritical limits can be predicted for any water-reflected system at any specified hydrogen-to-actinide atomic ratio knowing only the κ ∞ value of the given fissile solution

  6. Genetic analysis of complement C1s deficiency associated with systemic lupus erythematosus highlights alternative splicing of normal C1s gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amano, Mariane T; Ferriani, Virgínia P L; Florido, Marlene P C

    2008-01-01

    Deficiencies of complement proteins of the classical pathway are strongly associated with the development of autoimmune diseases. Deficiency of C1r has been observed to occur concomitantly with deficiency in C1s and 9 out of 15 reported cases presented systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we...... describe a family in which all four children are deficient in C1s but only two of them developed SLE. Hemolytic activity mediated by the alternative and the lectin pathways were normal, but classical pathway activation was absent in all children's sera. C1s was undetectable, while in the parents' sera...

  7. Volatility study of [C1C1im][NTf2] and [C2C3im][NTf2] ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Marisa A.A.; Ribeiro, Filipe M.S.; Schröder, Bernd; Coutinho, João A.P.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vapor pressures of [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] ionic liquids are reported. • [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than expected. • The high volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] is a result from its asymmetric character. -- Abstract: Vapor pressures of 1,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ]) and 1-ethyl-3-propylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) ionic liquids were measured as a function of temperature using a Knudsen effusion apparatus combined with a quartz crystal microbalance. Enthalpies and entropies of vaporization were derived from the fitting of vapor pressure and temperature results to the Clarke and Glew equation. [C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] presents a higher enthalpy and entropy of vaporization than the neighboring members of the series. The enthalpy of vaporization of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] lies in between the asymmetric and symmetric ionic liquid series, reflecting a decrease in the electrostatic interactions due to a decrease of the charge accessibility between the ionic pairs when the methyl group is replaced by an ethyl group. The obtained higher volatility of [C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ] arises from its asymmetric character, leading to an higher entropic contribution that compensates the enthalpic penalty. The border conditions ([C 1 C 1 im][NTf 2 ], [C 2 C 1 im][NTf 2 ] and [C 2 C 2 im][NTf 2 ]), topology ([C 2 C 3 im][NTf 2 ]) and symmetry/asymmetry of the ILs effect were evaluated and rationalized based on a comparative analysis of the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies and entropies of vaporization

  8. Human diploid fibroblasts have receptors for the globular domain of C1Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordin, S.; Page, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors showed that mass cultures of fibroblasts grown from gingival explants in DB medium with 10% human serum are enriched in a phenotype that binds C1q with an affinity much higher than the rest of the population. Because of potential biologic importance of C1q receptors, the authors studied whether the interaction between C1q and this phenotype was mediated by the globular or collagenous domains of the molecule. Globular fragments were prepared by digesting C1q with collagenase, and collagenous fragments obtained after pepsin treatment. C1q binding on cells in suspension was determined by reaction with 125 I-C1q as reported. Competition experiments were performed under conditions in which intact 125 I-C1q binding saturated all available receptors. The results showed that collagenous fragments inhibited 20% of the 125 I-C1q binding to high affinity receptors, whereas inhibition by globular fragments was 70%. Unlabeled intact C1q and collagen type 1 were used as controls, and inhibited 92% and 17% of C1q binding, respectively. These studies show that C1q interacts with the fibroblast phenotype expressing high affinity receptors through its globular domain. The authors suggest that at sites of trauma, native C1 may bind to the surface of these cells via the globular domain of C1q, and that this unique phenotype may play an important role in tissue repair

  9. Prevalence and clinical significance of anti-C1q antibodies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asmaa Hegazy

    2012-04-21

    Apr 21, 2012 ... sists of 20 patients with musculoskeletal manifestations, mainly arthritis ... C1q have been found in many different autoimmune diseases, ... improve our diagnostic potential, from these, anti-C1q anti- ... Subjects and methods.

  10. Marked variability in clinical presentation and outcome of patients with C1q immunodeficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Schaarenburg, Rosanne A; Schejbel, Lone; Truedsson, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Globally approximately 60 cases of C1q deficiency have been described with a high prevalence of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). So far treatment has been guided by the clinical presentation rather than the underlying C1q deficiency. Recently, it was shown that C1q production can...

  11. 18 CFR 1c.1 - Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of natural gas market manipulation. 1c.1 Section 1c.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES PROHIBITION OF ENERGY MARKET MANIPULATION § 1c.1...

  12. 17 CFR 240.15c1-2 - Fraud and misrepresentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fraud and misrepresentation. 240.15c1-2 Section 240.15c1-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-2 Fraud and...

  13. 26 CFR 1.673(c)-1 - Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reversionary interest after income beneficiary's death. 1.673(c)-1 Section 1.673(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.673(c)-1 Reversionary interest after...

  14. 17 CFR 270.22c-1 - Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. 270.22c-1 Section 270.22c-1 Commodity and Securities... 1940 § 270.22c-1 Pricing of redeemable securities for distribution, redemption and repurchase. (a) No...

  15. C1-esterase inhibitor blocks T lymphocyte proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte generation in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Bregenholt, S; Nording, J A

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that activated C1s complement and activated T cells cleave beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) in vitro leading to the formation of desLys58 beta2m. This process can specifically be inhibited by C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh). Furthermore we showed that exogenously added desLys58...

  16. 26 CFR 1.860C-1 - Taxation of holders of residual interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of holders of residual interests. 1.860C-1 Section 1.860C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860C-1 Taxation of holders...

  17. Radial plasma drifts deduced from VLF whistler mode signals - A modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulter, E. M.; Andrews, M. K.; Bailey, G. J.; Moffett, R. J.

    1984-05-01

    VLF whistler mode signals have previously been used to infer radial plasma drifts in the equatorial plane of the plasmasphere and the field-aligned ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes. Physical models of the plasmasphere consisting of O(+) adn H(+) ions along dipole magnetic field lines, and including radial E x B drifts, are applied to a mid-latitude flux tube appropriate to whistler mode signals received at Wellington, New Zealand, from the fixed frequency VLF transmitter NLK (18.6 kHz) in Seattle, U.S.A. These models are first shown to provide a good representation of the recorded Doppler shift and group delay data. They are then used to simulate the process of deducing the drifts and fluxes from the recorded data. Provided the initial whistler mode duct latitude and the ionospheric contributions are known, the drifts at the equatorial plane can be estimated to about + or - 20 m/s (approximately 10-15 percent), and the two hemisphere ionosphere-protonosphere coupling fluxes to about + or - 10 to the 12th/sq m-sec (approximately 40 percent).

  18. Geodynamical behavior of some active area in Egypt, as deduced from geodetic and gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issawy, E.; Mrlina, J.; Radwan, A.; Mahmoud, S.; Rayan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Temporal gravity variation in parallel with the space geodetic technique (GPS) had been started in Egypt for real campaigns in 1997. The geodetic networks around the High Dam, Aswan area was the first net to be measured. More than five measurement epochs were performed. The results had a considerable limit of coincidence between gravity and GPS observations. The trend of gravity changes indicated a positive stress and had the vertical displacement observed for leveling points. The lowest gravity changes along Kalabsha fault reflect extensional and/or strike component of the stress field. Also, the areas around Cairo (Greater Cairo) and due to the occurrence of an earthquake of 1992, such type of measurements were useful for monitoring the recent activity. The data of the geodetic network around Cairo after 5 campaigns showed that, the estimated horizontal velocities for almost all points are 5.5± mm/year in approximately NW-SE direction. The non-tidal changes can explain the dynamic process within the upper crust related to the development of local stress conditions. The trends of gravity changes are more or less coincident with that deduced from GPS deformation analysis and the occurrence of the main shocks in the area. In additions, in 2005 the geodetic network around the southern part of Sinai and the Gulf of Suez were established. One campaign of measurements had been performed and the gravity values were obtained.

  19. Atmospheric response to Saharan dust deduced from ECMWF reanalysis (ERA) temperature increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, P.; Alpert, P.; Barkan, J.; Kirchner, I.; Machenhauer, B.

    2003-09-01

    This study focuses on the atmospheric temperature response to dust deduced from a new source of data the European Reanalysis (ERA) increments. These increments are the systematic errors of global climate models, generated in the reanalysis procedure. The model errors result not only from the lack of desert dust but also from a complex combination of many kinds of model errors. Over the Sahara desert the lack of dust radiative effect is believed to be a predominant model defect which should significantly affect the increments. This dust effect was examined by considering correlation between the increments and remotely sensed dust. Comparisons were made between April temporal variations of the ERA analysis increments and the variations of the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer aerosol index (AI) between 1979 and 1993. The distinctive structure was identified in the distribution of correlation composed of three nested areas with high positive correlation (>0.5), low correlation and high negative correlation (Forecast (ECMWF) suggest that the PCA (NCA) corresponds mainly to anticyclonic (cyclonic) flow, negative (positive) vorticity and downward (upward) airflow. These findings are associated with the interaction between dust-forced heating/cooling and atmospheric circulation. This paper contributes to a better understanding of dust radiative processes missed in the model.

  20. Epitopes of human testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase deduced from a cDNA sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan, J.L.; Driscoll, C.E.; LeVan, K.M.; Goldberg, E.

    1987-01-01

    The sequence and structure of human testis-specific L-lactate dehydrogenase [LDHC 4 , LDHX; (L)-lactate:NAD + oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27] has been derived from analysis of a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone comprising the complete protein coding region of the enzyme. From the deduced amino acid sequence, human LDHC 4 is as different from rodent LDHC 4 (73% homology) as it is from human LDHA 4 (76% homology) and porcine LDHB 4 (68% homology). Subunit homologies are consistent with the conclusion that the LDHC gene arose by at least two independent duplication events. Furthermore, the lower degree of homology between mouse and human LDHC 4 and the appearance of this isozyme late in evolution suggests a higher rate of mutation in the mammalian LDHC genes than in the LDHA and -B genes. Comparison of exposed amino acid residues of discrete anti-genic determinants of mouse and human LDHC 4 reveals significant differences. Knowledge of the human LDHC 4 sequence will help design human-specific peptides useful in the development of a contraceptive vaccine

  1. Modal effects on amplitude perturbations on subionospheric signals (trimpis) deduced from two-frequency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowden, R.L.; Adams, C.D.D.

    1989-01-01

    Interference between the first two modes of Earth-ionosphere waveguide propagation at the high end of the VLF band (> 18 kHz) increases with distance from the transmitter out to very large distances and can add amplitude perturbations to the phase perturbations (trimpis) produced by lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) on the great circle path. Since the two modes have slightly different phase velocities, an interference pattern or standing wave is formed which is shifted slightly along the propagation path by the LEP-induced change in differential phase velocity. The model effect at the receiver depends on the local gradient (along the great circle path) of amplitude with respect to the differential phase. Since this differential or mode beat phase varies with frequency, measurement of the resultant amplitude at two close frequencies enables an estimation of the modal effects. In this study, measurements were made at Dunedin at the two MSK frequencies, 22,250 Hz and 22,350 Hz, of the transmitter NWC, during a night of frequent one-dimensional trimpis (i.e., those produced by large-area LEP occurring close to the great circle path) and of strong and varying modal interference. Modal generation or modification of trimpi amplitude was related to the local gradient of amplitude as expected. From these results it was deduced that modal modification of echo trimpis (those produced by small area LEP occurring well off the great circle path), even under extreme conditions, is insignificant

  2. F-region Pedersen conductivity deduced using the TIMED/GUVI limb retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As a proxy of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth rate for equatorial plasma bubbles, we investigate the flux-tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity (ΣPF using the electron density profiles (EDPs provided by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI on board the Thermosphere Ionosphere and Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED satellite. The investigation is conducted using the EDPs obtained in the Atlantic sector at 19:00-22:00 LT during 4–17 August and 6-16 December 2002. The seasonal difference of the strength and location of the equatorial ionization anomalies (EIAs induces a significant difference in the deduced ΣPF. Much stronger EIAs are created at higher altitudes and latitudes in December rather than in August. At 19:00–20:00 LT, the peak value of the ΣPF has 23 mhos at 1100 km apex height during 14–16 December and 18mhos at 600 km during 15–17 August. The ΣPF decreases as local time progresses. Therefore, ΣPF provides a preferred condition for the growth of bubbles to higher altitudes at 19:00-20:00 LT than at later hours, in December rather than in August in the Atlantic sector.

  3. Supercritical fluid in the mantle transition zone deduced from H-D interdiffusion of wadsleyite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Yoshino, Takashi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2018-02-01

    Knowledge of the distribution of water in the Earth's mantle is key to understanding the mantle convection and geochemical evolution of the Earth. As wadsleyite and ringwoodite can incorporate large amounts of water in their crystal structures, proton conduction has been invoked to account for the widespread conductive anomalies observed in the mantle wedge, where descending slab stagnates at the transition zone. However, there is a lot of controversy on whether proton conduction by itself is able to explain such anomalies, because of large discrepancy in the extent of the water effect deduced from previous electrical conductivity measurements on hydrous polycrystalline wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Here we report the hydrogen self-diffusion coefficient obtained from H-D interdiffusion experiments in wadsleyite single-crystal couples. Our results demonstrate that the effect of water on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite is limited and hydrous wadsleyite by itself is unable to explain conductive anomalies in the transition zone. In contrast, the expected hydrogen effective diffusion does not allow the wide propagation of water between the stagnant slab and surrounding mantle, probably leading to persistence of local water saturation and continuous release of supercritical fluids at the stagnant slab roof on geological time scales. This phenomenon provides an alternative explanation for both the high-conductivity and seismic-velocity anomalies observed in the mantle wedge at the transition-zone depth.

  4. Safety of C1-Esterase Inhibitor in Acute and Prophylactic Therapy of Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busse, Paula; Bygum, Anette; Edelman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The plasma-derived, pasteurized C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) concentrate, Berinert has a 4-decade history of use in hereditary angioedema (HAE), with a substantial literature base that demonstrates safety and efficacy. Thromboembolic events have rarely been reported with C1-INH products......, typically with off-label use or at supratherapeutic doses. OBJECTIVES: Active surveillance of safety and clinical usage patterns of pasteurized C1-inhibitor concentrate and the more recent pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-INH, with a particular interest in thromboembolic events. METHODS: A registry...

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of a Chitinase-producing Biocontrol Bacterium Serratia sp. C-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seur Kee Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The chitinase-producing bacterial strain C-1 is one of the key chitinase-producing biocontrol agents used for effective bioformulations for biological control. These bioformulations are mixed cultures of various chitinolytic bacteria. However, the precise identification, biocontrol activity, and the underlying mechanisms of the strain C-1 have not been investigated so far. Therefore, we evaluated in planta biocontrol efficacies of C-1 and determined the draft genome sequence of the strain in this study. The bacterial C-1 strain was identified as a novel Serratia sp. by a phylogenic analysis of its 16S rRNA sequence. The Serratia sp. C-1 bacterial cultures showed strong in planta biocontrol efficacies against some major phytopathogenic fungal diseases. The draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. C-1 indicated that the C-1 strain is a novel strain harboring a subset of genes that may be involved in its biocontrol activities.

  6. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  7. Characteristics of Turbulent Airflow Deduced from Rapid Surface Thermal Fluctuations: An Infrared Surface Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminzadeh, Milad; Breitenstein, Daniel; Or, Dani

    2017-12-01

    The intermittent nature of turbulent airflow interacting with the surface is readily observable in fluctuations of the surface temperature resulting from the thermal imprints of eddies sweeping the surface. Rapid infrared thermography has recently been used to quantify characteristics of the near-surface turbulent airflow interacting with the evaporating surfaces. We aim to extend this technique by using single-point rapid infrared measurements to quantify properties of a turbulent flow, including surface exchange processes, with a view towards the development of an infrared surface anemometer. The parameters for the surface-eddy renewal (α and β ) are inferred from infrared measurements of a single-point on the surface of a heat plate placed in a wind tunnel with prescribed wind speeds and constant mean temperatures of the surface. Thermally-deduced parameters are in agreement with values obtained from standard three-dimensional ultrasonic anemometer measurements close to the plate surface (e.g., α = 3 and β = 1/26 (ms)^{-1} for the infrared, and α = 3 and β = 1/19 (ms)^{-1} for the sonic-anemometer measurements). The infrared-based turbulence parameters provide new insights into the role of surface temperature and buoyancy on the inherent characteristics of interacting eddies. The link between the eddy-spectrum shape parameter α and the infrared window size representing the infrared field of view is investigated. The results resemble the effect of the sampling height above the ground in sonic anemometer measurements, which enables the detection of larger eddies with higher values of α . The physical basis and tests of the proposed method support the potential for remote quantification of the near-surface momentum field, as well as scalar-flux measurements in the immediate vicinity of the surface.

  8. Deducing Electronic Unit Internal Response During a Vibration Test Using a Lumped Parameter Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    During random vibration testing of electronic boxes there is often a desire to know the dynamic response of certain internal printed wiring boards (PWBs) for the purpose of monitoring the response of sensitive hardware or for post-test forensic analysis in support of anomaly investigation. Due to restrictions on internally mounted accelerometers for most flight hardware there is usually no means to empirically observe the internal dynamics of the unit, so one must resort to crude and highly uncertain approximations. One common practice is to apply Miles Equation, which does not account for the coupled response of the board in the chassis, resulting in significant over- or under-prediction. This paper explores the application of simple multiple-degree-of-freedom lumped parameter modeling to predict the coupled random vibration response of the PWBs in their fundamental modes of vibration. A simple tool using this approach could be used during or following a random vibration test to interpret vibration test data from a single external chassis measurement to deduce internal board dynamics by means of a rapid correlation analysis. Such a tool might also be useful in early design stages as a supplemental analysis to a more detailed finite element analysis to quickly prototype and analyze the dynamics of various design iterations. After developing the theoretical basis, a lumped parameter modeling approach is applied to an electronic unit for which both external and internal test vibration response measurements are available for direct comparison. Reasonable correlation of the results demonstrates the potential viability of such an approach. Further development of the preliminary approach presented in this paper will involve correlation with detailed finite element models and additional relevant test data.

  9. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  10. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Tsai, Wen-Chieh; Kuoh, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Tian-Hsiang; Wang, Hei-Chia; Wu, Tian-Shung; Leu, Yann-Lii; Chen, Wen-Huei; Chen, Hong-Hwa

    2006-07-13

    Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs), and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST). Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives. This systems biology program combined

  11. The Sidebands of the Equatorial Electrojet: General Characteristic of the Westward Currents, as Deduced From CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Based on 5 years (2001-2005) of magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite, latitudinal profiles of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) have been derived. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the reverse current EEJ sidebands. These westward currents peak at ±5° quasi-dipole latitude with typical amplitudes of 35% of the main EEJ. The diurnal amplitude variation is quite comparable with that of the EEJ. Similarly to the EEJ, the intensity is increasing with solar EUV flux, but with a steeper slope, indicating that not only the conductivity plays a role. For the longitude distribution we find, in general, larger amplitudes in the Western than in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is presently a common understanding that the reverse current EEJ sidebands are generated by eastward zonal winds at altitudes above about 120 km. In particular, a positive vertical gradient of wind speed generates westward currents at magnetic latitudes outside of 2° dip latitude. Interesting information about these features can be deduced from the sidebands' tidal characteristics. The longitudinal variation of the amplitude is dominated by a wave-1 pattern, which can primarily be attributed to the tidal components SPW1 and SW3. In case of the hemispheric amplitude differences these same two wave-1 components dominate. The ratio between sideband amplitude and main EEJ is largely controlled by the tidal features of the EEJ. The longitudinal patterns of the latitude, where the sidebands peak, resemble to some extent those of the amplitude. Current densities become larger when the peaks move closer to the magnetic equator.

  12. Autoantibodies against C1q in systemic lupus erythematosus are antigen-driven

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaller, Monica; Bigler, Cornelia; Danner, Doris

    2009-01-01

    response against C1q at the molecular level, we screened a bone marrow-derived IgGkappa/IgGlambda Fab phage display library from a SLE patient with high anti-C1q Ab titer against purified human C1q. Six Fabs that exhibited strong binding to C1q in ELISA were isolated. The anti-C1q Fabs recognized...... neoepitopes that were only exposed on bound C1q and not present on soluble C1q mapping to different regions of the collagen-like region of C1q. Analysis of the genes encoding the variable H and L chains of the IgG-derived anti-C1q Fab revealed that all the variable H and L chain regions were highly mutated......, with nucleotide and amino acid homologies to the closest germline in the range of 71-97% (average 85 +/- 4) and 72-92% (average 88 +/- 6), respectively. In addition, the variable region of the Fabs exhibited high replacement to silent ratios. The six anti-C1q Fabs were shown to be of high affinity, with a K...

  13. Increased complement C1q level marks active disease in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complement functions as an important host defense system and complement C5 and C7 have been implicated in immunopathology of tuberculosis. However, little is known about the role of other complement components in tuberculosis. METHODS: Complement gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of tuberculosis patients and controls were determined using whole genome transcriptional microarray assays. The mRNA and protein levels of three C1q components, C1qA, C1qB, and C1qC, were further validated by qRT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The percentages of C1q expression in CD14 positive cells were determined by flow cytometry. Finally, C1qC protein level was quantified in the pleural fluid of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pleurisy. RESULTS: C1q expression increases significantly in the peripheral blood of patients with active tuberculosis compared to healthy controls and individuals with latent TB infection. The percentage of C1q-expressing CD14 positive cells is significantly increased in active TB patients. C1q expression in the peripheral blood correlates with sputum smear positivity in tuberculosis patients and is reduced after anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy. Notably, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that C1qC mRNA levels in peripheral blood efficiently discriminate active from latent tuberculosis infection and healthy controls. Additionally, C1qC protein level in pleural effusion shows improved power in discriminating tuberculosis from non-tuberculosis pleurisy when compared to other inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and TNF-α. CONCLUSIONS: C1q expression correlates with active disease in human tuberculosis. C1q could be a potential diagnostic marker to discriminate active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection as well as tuberculosis pleurisy from non-tuberculosis pleurisy.

  14. Production and characterization of a murine monoclonal IgM antibody to human C1q receptor (C1qR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebrehiwet, B.

    1986-01-01

    A hybridoma cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody (MAb) to cell surface C1q receptor (C1qr) has been produced by fusion of the P3 x 63-Ag8.653 mouse myeloma cell line with the spleen cells of a CD-1 mouse that had been hyperimmunized with viable Raji cell suspensions (5 x 10 7 cells/inoculum). This MAb, designated II1/D1, is an IgM antibody with lambda-light chain specificity. Radiolabeled or unlabeled, highly purified II1/D1 was used to determine that: a) this antibody competes for C1q binding sites on C1qR-bearing cells; b) the molecule recognized by this MAb is the C1qR; and c) cells that are known to bind C1q also bind II1/D1 in a specific manner. Western blot analysis of solubilized Raji, or U937 cell membranes, showed that the 125 I-MAb detected a major protein band of approximately 85000 m.w. in its unreduced state, indicating that the C1qR is similar, if not identical, in both types of cells. Analyses of 125 I-II/D1 binding experiments revealed that the antibody bound to Raji cells or u937 cells in a specific manner. Uptake of the antibody was saturable, with equilibrium virtually attained within 35 min. Scatchard analysis of the binding data using the intact MAb suggests that the affinity constant K/sub D/ is 2.9 x 10 -10 M, and at apparent saturation, 24.6 ng of the antibody were bound per 2 x 10 6 cells, giving an estimated 7.8 x 10 3 antibody molecules bound per cell. That the II1/D1 antibody is specifically directed to the C1q was further evidenced by an ELISA in which the ability of C1qR-bearing cells to bind the MAb was abrogated by c-C1q in a specific dose-dependent manner

  15. The C1q complement family of synaptic organizers: not just complementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2017-08-01

    Molecules that regulate formation, differentiation, and maintenance of synapses are called synaptic organizers. Recently, various 'C1q family' proteins have been shown to be released from neurons, and serve as a new class of synaptic organizers. Cbln1 and C1ql1 proteins regulate the formation and maintenance of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell and climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapses, respectively, in the cerebellum. Cbln1 also modulates the function of postsynaptic delta2 glutamate receptors to regulate synaptic plasticity. C1ql2 and C1ql3, released from mossy fibers, determine the synaptic localization of postsynaptic kainate receptors in the hippocampus. C1ql3 also regulates the formation of synapses between the basolateral amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate the diverse functions of C1q family proteins in various brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhanced Ig production by human peripheral lymphocytes induced by aggregated C1q

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daha, M. R.; Klar, N.; Hoekzema, R.; van Es, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    Because B cells express receptors for C1q, we have investigated the role of C1q in the stimulation of B cells. When B cells were cultured in the presence of C1q that had been frozen, T cells, and suboptimal concentrations of PWM, there was a dose-dependent enhancement of IgM, IgG, and IgA by the B

  17. Comparison of transcripts in Phalaenopsis bellina and Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae flowers to deduce monoterpene biosynthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tian-Shung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Floral scent is one of the important strategies for ensuring fertilization and for determining seed or fruit set. Research on plant scents has hampered mainly by the invisibility of this character, its dynamic nature, and complex mixtures of components that are present in very small quantities. Most progress in scent research, as in other areas of plant biology, has come from the use of molecular and biochemical techniques. Although volatile components have been identified in several orchid species, the biosynthetic pathways of orchid flower fragrance are far from understood. We investigated how flower fragrance was generated in certain Phalaenopsis orchids by determining the chemical components of the floral scent, identifying floral expressed-sequence-tags (ESTs, and deducing the pathways of floral scent biosynthesis in Phalaneopsis bellina by bioinformatics analysis. Results The main chemical components in the P. bellina flower were shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to be monoterpenoids, benzenoids and phenylpropanoids. The set of floral scent producing enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P to geraniol and linalool were recognized through data mining of the P. bellina floral EST database (dbEST. Transcripts preferentially expressed in P. bellina were distinguished by comparing the scent floral dbEST to that of a scentless species, P. equestris, and included those encoding lipoxygenase, epimerase, diacylglycerol kinase and geranyl diphosphate synthase. In addition, EST filtering results showed that transcripts encoding signal transduction and Myb transcription factors and methyltransferase, in addition to those for scent biosynthesis, were detected by in silico hybridization of the P. bellina unigene database against those of the scentless species, rice and Arabidopsis. Altogether, we pinpointed 66% of the biosynthetic steps from G3P to geraniol, linalool and their derivatives

  18. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  19. Observation of $B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi$ decay and study of $B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2}K^{*0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The first observation of the decay $B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi$ and a study of $B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2}K^{*0}$ decays are presented. The analysis is performed using a dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: \\begin{equation*} \\begin{array}{lll} \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi)}{\\cal{B}(B^0_s\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi)} &=& (18.9 \\pm1.8\\,(stat)\\pm1.3\\,(syst)\\pm0.8\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}K^{*0})}{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0})} &=& (19.8 \\pm1.1\\,(stat)\\pm1.2\\,(syst)\\pm0.9\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c2}K^{*0})}{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c 1}K^{*0})} &=& (17.1 \\pm5.0\\,(stat)\\pm1.7\\,(syst)\\pm1.1\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\end{array} \\end{equation*} where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge o...

  20. Overview of hereditary angioedema caused by C1-inhibitor deficiency: assessment and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, K; Davis-Lorton, M

    2013-02-01

    Hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency (HAE-C1-INH) is a rare, autosomal-dominant disease. HAE-C1-INH is characterized by recurrent attacks of marked, diffuse, nonpitting and nonpruritic skin swellings, painful abdominal attacks, and laryngeal edema. The extremities and the gastrointestinal tract are most commonly affected. Swelling of the upper respiratory mucosa poses the greatest risk because death from asphyxiation can result from laryngealedema. HAE-C1-INH attacks are variable, unpredictable, and may be induced by a variety of stimuli, including stress or physical trauma. Because the clinical presentation of HAE-C1-INH is similar to other types of angioedema, the condition may be a challenge to diagnose. Accurate identification of HAE-C1-INH is critical in order to avoid asphyxiation by laryngeal edema and to improve the burden of disease. Based on an understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of IHAE-C1-INH, drugs targeted specifically to the disease, such as C1-inhibitor therapy, bradykinin B2-receptor antagonists, and kallikrein-inhibitors, have become available for both treatment and prevention of angioedema attacks. This article reviews the clinical features, differential diagnosis, and current approaches to management of HAE-C1-INH.

  1. Contribution of the Federal Republic of Germany to chapter C.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The paper is a summary of two more detailed reports, covering the chapters of the WG 5 - C report C.1.3, C.1.4, C.1.5, and C.1.6. The main results of the investigations are that no environmental and ecological problems specific of FBR exist in comparison to thermal reactors. The ecological impact of spent fuel is quantified by generally adapted measures such as the ''Hazard Measure''. It is demonstrated that e.g. the ingestion ''Hazard Measure'' of the FBR over cooling times ranging from 0 to 10 6 years is lower than that of LWR once-through systems

  2. The C1q family of proteins: insights into the emerging non-traditional functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane eGhebrehiwet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted over the past 20 years have helped us unravel not only the hidden structural and functional subtleties of human C1q, but also has catapulted the molecule from a mere recognition unit of the classical pathway to a well-recognized molecular sensor of damage modified self or non-self antigens. Thus, C1q is involved in a rapidly expanding list of pathological disorders—including autoimmunity, trophoblast migration, preeclampsia and cancer. The results of two recent reports are provided to underscore the critical role C1q plays in health and disease. First is the observation by Singh and colleagues showing that pregnant C1q-/- mice recapitulate the key features of human preeclampsia that correlate with increased fetal death. Treatment of the C1q-/- mice with pravastatin restored trophoblast invasiveness, placental blood flow, and angiogenic balance and, thus, prevented the onset of preeclampsia. Second is the report by Hong et al., which showed that C1q can induce apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by activating the tumor suppressor molecule WW-domain containing oxydoreductase (WWOX or WOX1 and destabilizing cell adhesion. Downregulation of C1q on the other hand enhanced prostate hyperplasia and cancer formation due to failure of WOX1 activation. Recent evidence also shows that C1q belongs to a family of structurally and functionally related TNFα-like family of proteins that may have arisen from a common ancestral gene. Therefore C1q not only shares the diverse functions with the TNF family of proteins, but also explains why C1q has retained some of its ancestral cytokine-like activities. This review is intended to highlight some of the structural and functional aspects of C1q by underscoring the growing list of its non-traditional functions.

  3. Functional C1q is present in the skin mucus of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunxin; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xuguang; Song, Jiakun

    2015-01-01

    The skin mucus of fish acts as the first line of self-protection against pathogens in the aquatic environment and comprises a number of innate immune components. However, the presence of the critical classical complement component C1q, which links the innate and adaptive immune systems of mammalians, has not been explored in a primitive actinopterygian fish. In this study, we report that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). The skin mucus was able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. The bacteriostatic activity of the skin mucus was reduced by heating and by pre-incubation with EDTA or mouse anti-human C1q antibody. We also detected C1q protein in skin mucus using the western blot procedure and isolated a cDNA that encodes the Siberian sturgeon C1qC, which had 44.7-51.4% identity with C1qCs in teleosts and tetrapods. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that Siberian sturgeon C1qC lies at the root of the actinopterygian branch and is separate from the tetrapod branch. The C1qC transcript was expressed in many tissues as well as in skin. Our data indicate that C1q is present in the skin mucus of the Siberian sturgeon to protect against water-borne bacteria, and the C1qC found in the sturgeon may represent the primitive form of teleost and tetrapod C1qCs. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Identification of the srtC1 Transcription Start Site and Catalytically Essential Residues Required for Actinomyces oris T14V SrtC1 Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    report the identification of the tran scription starting site of the srtC1 determined by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method and several...When needed, kanamycin and trimethoprim were included in growth media at concentra tions of 50 and 100mg mL1, respectively. RNA isolation and...tation, resuspended in a small volume of RNase free water and stored at 80 1C. To determine the transcription start site(s) of A. oris srtC1, 50RACE PCR

  5. 17 CFR 240.15c1-9 - Use of pro forma balance sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pro forma balance sheets. The term manipulative, deceptive, or other fraudulent device or contrivance... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of pro forma balance sheets. 240.15c1-9 Section 240.15c1-9 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE...

  6. 26 CFR 1.280C-1 - Disallowance of certain deductions for wage or salary expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... salary expenses. 1.280C-1 Section 1.280C-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... certain deductions for wage or salary expenses. If an employer elects to claim the targeted jobs credit... deduction for wage or salary expenses paid or incurred in the year the credit is earned by the amount...

  7. Functional C1-inhibitor diagnostics in hereditary angioedema: assay evaluation and recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke G A; Drouet, Christian; Aygören-Pursun, Emel

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The most widespread underlying genetic deficiency is a heterozygous deficiency of the serine protease inhibitor C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh). In addition ...

  8. 26 CFR 1.641(c)-1 - Electing small business trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electing small business trust. 1.641(c)-1...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Estates, Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.641(c)-1 Electing small business trust. (a) In general. An electing small business trust (ESBT) within the meaning of section 1361...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6104(c)-1 - Disclosure of certain information to State officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the communication from the Internal Revenue Service to the organization which informs such... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of certain information to State officers. 301.6104(c)-1 Section 301.6104(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. Anti-C1q autoantibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Kimura, Akio; Hayashi, Yuichi; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2017-09-15

    We examined anti-complement C1q (C1q) autoantibody levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). We analyzed the correlations between anti-C1q autoantibody levels and the clinical and other CSF characteristics of NMOSD. Serum and CSF anti-C1q autoantibody levels increased during the acute phase of NMOSD, reverting to the same levels as controls during remission. CSF anti-C1q autoantibody levels during the acute phase correlated with several markers reflecting disease severity, Expanded Disability Status Scale worsening, spinal cord lesion length in cases with myelitis, CSF protein and interleukin-6 levels, and CSF/serum albumin ratios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Trichinella spiralis Calreticulin Binds Human Complement C1q As an Immune Evasion Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limei; Shao, Shuai; Chen, Yi; Sun, Ximeng; Sun, Ran; Huang, Jingjing; Zhan, Bin; Zhu, Xinping

    2017-01-01

    As a multicellular parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis regulates host immune responses by producing a variety of immunomodulatory molecules to escape from host immune attack, but the mechanisms underlying the immune evasion are not well understood. Here, we identified that T. spiralis calreticulin ( Ts -CRT), a Ca 2+ -binding protein, facilitated T. spiralis immune evasion by interacting with the first component of human classical complement pathway, C1q. In the present study, Ts -CRT was found to be expressed on the surface of different developmental stages of T. spiralis as well as in the secreted products of adult and muscle larval worms. Functional analysis identified that Ts -CRT was able to bind to human C1q, resulting in the inhibition of C1q-initiated complement classical activation pathway reflected by reduced C4/C3 generation and C1q-dependent lysis of antibody-sensitized sheep erythrocytes. Moreover, recombinant Ts -CRT (r Ts -CRT) binding to C1q suppressed C1q-induced THP-1-derived macrophages chemotaxis and reduced monocyte-macrophages release of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). Blocking Ts -CRT on the surface of newborn larvae (NBL) of T. spiralis with anti- Ts -CRT antibody increased the C1q-mediated adherence of monocyte-macrophages to larvae and impaired larval infectivity. All of these results suggest that T. spiralis -expressed Ts -CRT plays crucial roles in T. spiralis immune evasion and survival in host mostly by directly binding to host complement C1q, which not only reduces C1q-mediated activation of classical complement pathway but also inhibits the C1q-induced non-complement activation of macrophages.

  12. Pharmacogenetic characterization of naturally occurring germline NT5C1A variants to chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Jason; Zabriskie, Ryan; Ghosh, Rajarshi; Powell, Bradford C; Hicks, Stephanie; Kimmel, Marek; Meng, Qingchang; Ritter, Deborah I; Wheeler, David A; Gibbs, Richard A; Tsai, Francis T F; Plon, Sharon E

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations or alteration in expression of the 5’ nucleotidase gene family can confer altered responses to treatment with nucleoside analogs. While investigating leukemia susceptibility genes, we discovered a very rare p.L254P NT5C1A missense variant in the substrate recognition motif. Given the paucity of cellular drug response data from NT5C1A germline variation, we characterized p.L254P and eight rare variants of NT5C1A from genomic databases. Methods Through lentiviral infection, we created HEK293 cell lines that stably overexpress wildtype NT5C1A, p.L254P, or eight NT5C1A variants reported in the NHLBI Exome Variant server (one truncating and seven missense). IC50 values were determined by cytotoxicity assays after exposure to chemotherapeutic nucleoside analogs (Cladribine, Gemcitabine, 5-Fluorouracil). In addition, we used structure-based homology modeling to generate a 3D model for the C-terminal region of NT5C1A. Results The p.R180X (truncating), p.A214T, and p.L254P missense changes were the only variants that significantly impaired protein function across all nucleotide analogs tested (>5-fold difference versus WT; p<.05). Several of the remaining variants individually displayed differential effects (both more and less resistant) across the analogs tested. The homology model provided a structural framework to understand the impact of NT5C1A mutants on catalysis and drug processing. The model predicted active site residues within NT5C1A motif III and we experimentally confirmed that p.K314 (not p.K320) is required for NT5C1A activity. Conclusion We characterized germline variation and predicted protein structures of NT5C1A. Individual missense changes showed substantial variation in response to the different nucleoside analogs tested, which may impact patients’ responses to treatment. PMID:26906009

  13. χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} Resonance Parameters with the Decays χ_{c1,c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Alfonso Albero, A; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Atzeni, M; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Baranov, A; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baryshnikov, F; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Beiter, A; Bel, L J; Beliy, N; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Beranek, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Berninghoff, D; Bertholet, E; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Bjørn, M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bordyuzhin, I; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brundu, D; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Byczynski, W; Cadeddu, S; Cai, H; Calabrese, R; Calladine, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Chapman, M G; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chitic, S-G; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Chubykin, A; Ciambrone, P; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Colombo, T; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Del Buono, L; Dembinski, H-P; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Nezza, P; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Douglas, L; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziewiecki, M; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fazzini, D; Federici, L; Ferguson, D; Fernandez, G; Fernandez Declara, P; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gabriel, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabowski, J P; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greim, R; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruber, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hancock, T H; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Hasse, C; Hatch, M; He, J; Hecker, M; Heinicke, K; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P H; Hu, W; Huard, Z C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Ibis, P; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kazeev, N; Kecke, M; Keizer, F; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Klimkovich, T; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Kopecna, R; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kotriakhova, S; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreps, M; Kress, F; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, P-R; Li, T; Li, Y; Li, Z; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Lionetto, F; Lisovskyi, V; Liu, X; Loh, D; Loi, A; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luchinsky, A; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Macko, V; Mackowiak, P; Maddrell-Mander, S; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Maisuzenko, D; Majewski, M W; Malde, S; Malecki, B; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marangotto, D; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Mead, J V; Meadows, B; Meaux, C; Meier, F; Meinert, N; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Millard, E; Minard, M-N; Minzoni, L; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Mombächer, T; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Ossowska, A; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pisani, F; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poli Lener, M; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Ponce, S; Popov, A; Popov, D; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Prisciandaro, J; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Pullen, H; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Quintana, B; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Ravonel Salzgeber, M; Reboud, M; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Robert, A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Ruiz Vidal, J; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarpis, G; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schreiner, H F; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepulveda, E S; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stepanova, M; Stevens, H; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Stramaglia, M E; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, J; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szumlak, T; Szymanski, M; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Toriello, F; Tourinho Jadallah Aoude, R; Tournefier, E; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Usachov, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagner, A; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Verlage, T A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Weisser, C; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Winn, M; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, M; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zonneveld, J B; Zucchelli, S

    2017-12-01

    The decays χ_{c1}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} and χ_{c2}→J/ψμ^{+}μ^{-} are observed and used to study the resonance parameters of the χ_{c1} and χ_{c2} mesons. The masses of these states are measured to be m(χ_{c1})=3510.71±0.04(stat)±0.09(syst)  MeV and m(χ_{c2})=3556.10±0.06(stat)±0.11(syst)  MeV, where the knowledge of the momentum scale for charged particles dominates the systematic uncertainty. The momentum-scale uncertainties largely cancel in the mass difference m(χ_{c2})-m(χ_{c1})=45.39±0.07(stat)±0.03(syst)  MeV. The natural width of the χ_{c2} meson is measured to be Γ(χ_{c2})=2.10±0.20(stat)±0.02(syst)  MeV. These results are in good agreement with and have comparable precision to the current world averages.

  14. Experimental investigation on the combined use of C1O2 and NaC1O for drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sani, B.; Rossi, L.; Santianni, D.; Anichini, B.; Caretti, C.; Lubello, C.

    2005-01-01

    In Italy, most of the plants producing water for human consumption, use Chlorine Dioxide (C1O 2 ) and Sodium Hypochlorite (NaC1O) for the oxidation and disinfection treatments. These chemical disinfectants, which are very effective as regards the oxidation power, the disinfection capability and the bacteriostatic action, produce by-products harmful for human health: Chlorite and Trihalomethanes (THMs) respectively. The Italian Regulations (D.Lgs. 31/2001) sets very restrictive limits for the maximum concentration of these by-products in drinking water. Moreover, from December 2006, the limit for chlorite will be even more restrictive and, with present treatment process, the compliance with the regulation will be very difficult. Therefore the experimentation of alternative treatment techniques and products is of great interest. This article presents an experimental investigation on the combined use of C1O 2 and NaC1O in the treatment of final water from two different plants producing drinking water in Florence. The main objective of this investigation was to evaluate the use of these two products in combination so as to keep the advantages (disinfection efficiency and stability in water) and to minimize the disadvantages (by-products formation) present when using this products separately. Positive results achieved in the experimental phase were used to evaluate the possible applications on real drinking water treatment conditions [it

  15. COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND THE EFFECT OF MULLIGANS SNAG TECHNIQUE (C1-C2 VERSUS MAITLANDS TECHNIQUE (C1-C2 IN CERVICOGENIC HEADACHE AMONG INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Christian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Headache is a common condition which physiotherapists have to deal with in clinical practice.Headaches which arise from the cervical spine are termed as Cervicogenic headaches (CGH, and these types of headaches are common form of a chronic and recurrent headache.The diagnostic criteria for CGH are outlined by the IHS (International Headache Society. The upper cervical joints, namely the occiput-C1 and C1-C2 segments are the most common origin of pain. Office and computer workers have the highest incidence of neck disorders than other occupations; the prevalence of neck disorders is above 50% among them. The purpose of this study is to find the effectiveness of Mulligan’s SNAG technique (C1-C2 and Maitland’s technique (C1-C2 in CGH and to compare these manual therapy techniques (Mulligan’s SNAG technique and Maitland’s technique with a control group. Methods: 30 subjects were selected for the study among them 23 subjects completed the study. The subjects were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The range of motion (ROM and severity of a headache were assessed pre and post intervention using FRT and HDI respectively. Result: The comparison revealed that SNAG group had a greater increase in cervical rotation (p<0.01 range than the Maitland’s technique and control groups. The mean value between pre-post differences shows a decrease in severity of a headache among all three groups. The significant difference between 3 groups was found through Tukey’s post hoc test using ANOVA method (Group A versus Group C; p<0.01 and Group B versus Group C; p<0.05. Conclusion: The present study suggested that C1-C2 SNAG technique showed statistically significant improvement in reducing headache and disability when compared to the Maitland’s mobilization technique among cervicogenic headache subjects

  16. Correlation of anti C1Q antibodies with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, M.O.; Ahmed, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of anti C1q antibodies with disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Study Design: Cross sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of study: The Department of Immunology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Military Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad and Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, from Jan 2012 to Dec 2013. Material and Methods: Patients with a clinical diagnosis of SLE were included in the study on fulfilling revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria (1997). Main outcome measures were SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score and anti C1q antibody levels in serum. SLEDAI scores were calculated for each patient on the basis of physical examination, patient interviews and previous clinical records. Anti C1q antibody levels in the serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and correlated with the SLEDAI scores by calculating Pearson's correlation coefficient 'r'. The cutoff value for anti C1q antibody positivity in the serum was determined by evaluating the serum levels of anti C1q antibodies in 25 healthy subjects and was 12 U/ml. Results: Six male and forty nine female SLE patients with an age range of 16-47 years (mean 34.5 years) and 8-70 years (mean 31.7 years) respectively were studied. The correlation between anti C1q levels and SLEDAI scores in all patients was demonstrated by calculating the correlation coefficient and was not significant (r=0.19, p=0.14). However, there was an inverse correlation between anti C1q levels and SLEDAI scores in patients with severe disease and this was statistically significant (r=-0.448, p=0.037). The difference in anti C1q antibody positivity between patients with and without nephritis was not significant. The anti C1q antibody levels correlated poorly with anti double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (dsDNA) antibody positivity. A

  17. CMB and the elementary particles structure deduced from QFT of non-dot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In my paper ‘Planck Constant Deduced from Metrical Results of Doppler Effect of Moving Particle —Uncertainty Principle Caused by Collision of a Particle with CMB Photons and Virtual Photons (H05-0036-10)’ the absolute velocity is decided by CMB which as a mark of the vacuum. CMB come from the thermal radiation of stars via gravitational redshift about 10 (13) year (E14- 0032-08). In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a non-dot model basic cell, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit advance photons _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. QFT is no longer with divergence difficulty by the non-dot model. It is mathematically easy that from five-dimensional equations deduce out the Dirac, Klein-Gordan, Maxwell equations and Lorentz force formula, but appear some new results. The interactions between _{0}nuυ, nuυ _{0}, (0) nuυ, nuυ (0) , i.e., force f

  18. C1-esterase inhibitor protects against early vein graft remodeling under arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijnen, Paul A J; Kupreishvili, Koba; de Vries, Margreet R; Schepers, Abbey; Stooker, Wim; Vonk, Alexander B A; Eijsman, Leon; Van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; van Ham, Marieke; Quax, Paul H A; Niessen, Hans W M

    2012-01-01

    Arterial pressure induced vein graft injury can result in endothelial loss, accelerated atherosclerosis and vein graft failure. Inflammation, including complement activation, is assumed to play a pivotal role herein. Here, we analyzed the effects of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1inh) on early vein graft remodeling. Human saphenous vein graft segments (n=8) were perfused in vitro with autologous blood either supplemented or not with purified human C1inh at arterial pressure for 6h. The vein segments and perfusion blood were analyzed for cell damage and complement activation. In addition, the effect of purified C1inh on vein graft remodeling was analyzed in vivo in atherosclerotic C57Bl6/ApoE3 Leiden mice, wherein donor caval veins were interpositioned in the common carotid artery. Application of C1inh in the in vitro perfusion model resulted in significantly higher blood levels and significantly more depositions of C1inh in the vein wall. This coincided with a significant reduction in endothelial loss and deposition of C3d and C4d in the vein wall, especially in the circular layer, compared to vein segments perfused without supplemented C1inh. Administration of purified C1inh significantly inhibited vein graft intimal thickening in vivo in atherosclerotic C57Bl6/ApoE3 Leiden mice, wherein donor caval veins were interpositioned in the common carotid artery. C1inh significantly protects against early vein graft remodeling, including loss of endothelium and intimal thickening. These data suggest that it may be worth considering its use in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A microplate adaptation of the solid-phase C1q immune complex assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.S.; Kennedy, M.P.; Barber, K.E.; McGiven, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    A method has been developed for the detection of C1q binding immune complexes in serum in which microculture plates are used as the solid-phase matrix for adsorption of C1q. This micromethod used only one-tenth of the amount of both C1q and [ 125 I]antihuman immunoglobulin per test and enabled 7 times as many samples to be tested in triplicate in comparison with the number performed in duplicate by the standard tube assay. (Auth.)

  20. 17 CFR 240.15c1-7 - Discretionary accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... transactions or purchase or sale which are excessive in size or frequency in view of the financial resources... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-7 Discretionary...

  1. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael; Calo, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention

  2. Development of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) for NPOESS C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brann, C.; Kunkee, D.

    2008-12-01

    The National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System's Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is planned for flight on the first NPOESS mission (C1) in 2013. The C1 ATMS will be the second instrument of the ATMS series and will provide along with the companion Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles for NPOESS. The first flight of the ATMS is scheduled in 2010 on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite, which is an early instrument risk reduction component of the NPOESS mission. This poster will focus on the development of the ATMS for C1 including aspects of the sensor calibration, antenna beam and RF characteristics and scanning. New design aspects of the C1 ATMS, required primarily by parts obsolescence, will also be addressed in this poster.

  3. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the C(1)-C(11) Subunit of the Iejimalides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendlik, Matthew T.; Cottard, Muriel; Rein, Tobias

    1997-01-01

    An enantioselective synthesis of the C(1)-C(11) subunit of the iejimalides has been accomplished through a combination of an asymmetric Homer-Wadsworth-Emmons condensation and a chiral pool approach. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  4. Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins with sodium bicarbonates as the C1 source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jie; Mao, Xianwen; Jamison, Timothy F; Hatton, T Alan

    2014-03-25

    An effective transformation of alkenes into cyclic carbonates has been achieved using NaHCO3 as the C1 source in acetone-water under microwave heating, with selectivities and yields significantly surpassing those obtained using conventional heating.

  5. HAEdb: a novel interactive, locus-specific mutation database for the C1 inhibitor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Lajos; Hegedüs, Tamás; Farkas, Henriette; Nagy, Melinda; Tordai, Attila

    2005-01-01

    Hereditary angioneurotic edema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by episodic local subcutaneous and submucosal edema and is caused by the deficiency of the activated C1 esterase inhibitor protein (C1-INH or C1INH; approved gene symbol SERPING1). Published C1-INH mutations are represented in large universal databases (e.g., OMIM, HGMD), but these databases update their data rather infrequently, they are not interactive, and they do not allow searches according to different criteria. The HAEdb, a C1-INH gene mutation database (http://hae.biomembrane.hu) was created to contribute to the following expectations: 1) help the comprehensive collection of information on genetic alterations of the C1-INH gene; 2) create a database in which data can be searched and compared according to several flexible criteria; and 3) provide additional help in new mutation identification. The website uses MySQL, an open-source, multithreaded, relational database management system. The user-friendly graphical interface was written in the PHP web programming language. The website consists of two main parts, the freely browsable search function, and the password-protected data deposition function. Mutations of the C1-INH gene are divided in two parts: gross mutations involving DNA fragments >1 kb, and micro mutations encompassing all non-gross mutations. Several attributes (e.g., affected exon, molecular consequence, family history) are collected for each mutation in a standardized form. This database may facilitate future comprehensive analyses of C1-INH mutations and also provide regular help for molecular diagnostic testing of HAE patients in different centers.

  6. 17 CFR 240.15c1-8 - Sales at the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales at the market. 240.15c1... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Rules Relating to Over-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-8 Sales at the market... securities exchange that such security is being offered to such customer “at the market” or at a price...

  7. Analysis of healthy cohorts for single nucleotide polymorphisms in C1q gene cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA A. RADANOVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available C1q is the first component of the classical pathway of complement activation. The coding region for C1q is localized on chromosome 1p34.1–36.3. Mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in C1q gene cluster can cause developing of Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE because of C1q deficiency or other unknown reason. We selected five SNPs located in 7.121 kbp region on chromosome 1, which were previously associated with SLE and/or low C1q level, but not causing C1q deficiency and analyzed them in terms of allele frequencies and genotype distribution in comparison with Hispanic, Asian, African and other Caucasian cohorts. These SNPs were: rs587585, rs292001, rs172378, rs294179 and rs631090. One hundred eighty five healthy Bulgarian volunteers were genotyped for the selected five C1q SNPs by quantative real-time PCR methods. International HapMap Project has been used for information about genotype distribution and allele frequencies of the five SNPs in, Hispanics, Asians, Africans and others Caucasian cohorts. Bulgarian healthy volunteers and another pooled Caucasian cohort had similar frequencies of genotypes and alleles of rs587585, rs292001, rs294179 and rs631090 SNPs. Nevertheless, genotype AA of rs172378 was significantly overrepresented in Bulgarians when compared to other healthy Caucasians from USA and UK (60% vs 31%. Genotype distribution of rs172378 in Bulgarians was similar to Greek-Cyriot Caucasians. For all Caucasians the major allele of rs172378 was A. This is the first study analyzing the allele frequencies and genotype distribution of C1q gene cluster SNPs in Bulgarian healthy population.

  8. Complications of the lateral C1-C2 puncture myelography for cervical spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihale, J.; Traubner, P.

    1998-01-01

    This reviewed the complications of 106 patients of the lateral C1-C2 puncture myelography for cervical spinal canal and cervical spinal cord disorders. Spinal cord puncture and contrast injection, puncture between the occiput and C1, and blood vessel puncture were the main complications. These principally depended on the misdirection of the X ray beam. For preventing major arterial puncture determined the pathway of the vertebral arteries and incidence of anomaly. (authors)

  9. Transcriptional factor PU.1 regulates decidual C1q expression in early pregnancy in human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyaa Madhukaran Raj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available C1q is the first recognition subcomponent of the complement classical pathway, which in addition to being synthesized in the liver, is also expressed by macrophages and dendritic cells. Trophoblast invasion during early placentation results in accumulation of debris that triggers the complement system. Hence, both early and late components of the classical pathway are widely distributed in the placenta and decidua. In addition, C1q has recently been shown to significantly contribute to feto-maternal tolerance, trophoblast migration, and spiral artery remodeling, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Pregnancy in mice, genetically deficient in C1q, mirrors symptoms similar to that of human preeclampsia. Thus, regulated complement activation has been proposed as an essential requirement for normal successful pregnancy. Little is known about the molecular pathways that regulate C1q expression in pregnancy. PU.1, an Ets-family transcription factor, is required for the development of hematopoietic myeloid lineage immune cells, and its expression is tissue- specific. Recently, PU.1 has been shown to regulate C1q gene expression in dendritic cells and macrophages. Here, we have examined if PU.1 transcription factor regulates decidual C1q expression. We used immune-histochemical analysis, PCR and immunostaining to localize and study the gene expression of PU.1 transcription factor in early human decidua. PU.1 was highly expressed at gene and protein level in early human decidual cells including trophoblast and stromal cells. Surprisingly, nuclear as well as cytoplasmic PU.1 expression was observed. Decidual cells with predominantly nuclear PU.1 expression had higher C1q expression. It is likely that nuclear and cytoplasmic PU.1 localization has a role to play in early pregnancy via regulating C1q expression in the decidua during implantation.

  10. Minimum variance and variance of outgoing quality limit MDS-1(c1, c2) plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, the outgoing quality (OQ) and total inspection (TI) of multiple deferred state sampling plans MDS-1(c1,c2) are studied. It is assumed that the inspection is rejection rectification. Procedures for designing MDS-1(c1,c2) sampling plans with minimum variance of OQ and TI are developed. A procedure for obtaining a plan for a designated upper limit for the variance of the OQ (VOQL) is outlined.

  11. Microtubule Binding and Disruption and Induction of Premature Senescence by Disorazole C1S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierno, Marni Brisson; Kitchens, Carolyn A.; Petrik, Bethany; Graham, Thomas H.; Wipf, Peter; Xu, Fengfeng L.; Saunders, William S.; Raccor, Brianne S.; Balachandran, Raghavan; Day, Billy W.; Stout, Jane R.; Walczak, Claire E.; Ducruet, Alexander P.; Reese, Celeste E.; Lazo, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Disorazoles comprise a family of 29 macrocyclic polyketides isolated from the fermentation broth of the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. The major fermentation product, disorazole A1, was found previously to irreversibly bind to tubulin and to have potent cytotoxic activity against tumor cells, possibly because of its highly electrophilic epoxide moiety. To test this hypothesis, we synthesized the epoxide-free disorazole C1 and found it retained potent antiproliferative activity against tumor cells, causing prominent G2/M phase arrest and inhibition of in vitro tubulin polymerization. Furthermore, disorazole C1 produced disorganized microtubules at interphase, misaligned chromosomes during mitosis, apoptosis, and premature senescence in the surviving cell populations. Using a tubulin polymerization assay, we found disorazole C1 inhibited purified bovine tubulin polymerization, with an IC50 of 11.8 ± 0.4 μM, and inhibited [3H]vinblastine binding noncompetitively, with a Ki of 4.5 ± 0.6 μM. We also found noncompetitive inhibition of [3H]dolastatin 10 binding by disorazole C1, with a Ki of 10.6 ± 1.5 μM, indicating that disorazole C1 bound tubulin uniquely among known antimitotic agents. Disorazole C1 could be a valuable chemical probe for studying the process of mitotic spindle disruption and its relationship to premature senescence. PMID:19066338

  12. Vertebral artery variations at the C1-2 level diagnosed by magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Watadani, Takeyuki; Okada, Yoshitaka; Kozawa, Eito; Nishi, Naoko; Mizukoshi, Waka; Inoue, Kaiji; Nakajima, Reiko; Takahashi, Masahiro [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    The craniovertebral junction is clinically important. The vertebral artery (VA) in its several variations runs within this area. We report the prevalence of these VA variations on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). We retrospectively reviewed MRA images, obtained using two 1.5-T imagers, of 2,739 patients, and paid special attention to the course and branching of the VA at the level of the C1-2 vertebral bodies. There were three types of VA variation at the C1-2 level: (1) persistent first intersegmental artery (FIA), (2) VA fenestration, and (3) posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) originating from the C1/2 level. The overall prevalence of these three variations was 5.0%. There was no laterality in frequency, but we found female predominance (P < 0.05). We most frequently observed the persistent FIA (3.2%), which was sometimes bilateral. We found VA fenestration (0.9%) and PICA of C1/2 origin (1.1%) with almost equal frequency. Two PICAs of C1/2 origin had no normal VA branch. We frequently observed VA variations at the C1-2 level and with female predominance. The persistent FIA was most prevalent and sometimes seen bilaterally. Preoperative identification of these variations in VA is necessary to avoid complications during surgery at the craniovertebral junction. (orig.)

  13. Complement protein C1q induces maturation of human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csomor, Eszter; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Sándor, Noémi

    2007-01-01

    Maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) is known to be induced by several stimuli, including microbial products, inflammatory cytokines and immobilized IgG, as demonstrated recently. Since immune complexes formed in vivo also contain C1q, moreover apoptotic cells and several pathogens fix C1q...... activity of the cells was assessed by measuring cytokine secretion and their ability to activate allogeneic T lymphocytes. Cytokine production by T cells co-cultured with C1q-matured DCs was also investigated. C1q, but not the structurally related mannose-binding lectin was found to bind to imMDC in a dose......-dependent manner and induced NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus. Immobilized C1q induced maturation of MDCs and enhanced secretion of IL-12 and TNF-alpha, moreover, elevated their T-cell stimulating capacity. As IFN-gamma levels were increased in supernatants of MDC-T cell co-cultures, our data suggest that C1...

  14. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, A.; Mavilio, F.; Acampora, D.

    1987-01-01

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomains identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hybridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny

  15. Two human homeobox genes, c1 and c8: structure analysis and expression in embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, A; Mavilio, F; Acampora, D; Giampaolo, A; Faiella, A; Zappavigna, V; D'Esposito, M; Pannese, M; Russo, G; Boncinelli, E

    1987-07-01

    Two human cDNA clones (HHO.c1.95 and HHO.c8.5111) containing a homeobox region have been characterized, and the respective genomic regions have been partially analyzed. Expression of the corresponding genes, termed c1 and c8, was evaluated in different organs and body parts during human embryonic/fetal development. HHO.c1.95 apparently encodes a 217-amino acid protein containing a class I homeodomain that shares 60 out of 61 amino acid residues with the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila melanogaster. HHO.c8.5111 encodes a 153-amino acid protein containing a homeodomain identical to that of the frog AC1 gene. Clones HHO.c1 and HHO.c8 detect by blot-hydridization one and two specific polyadenylylated transcripts, respectively. These are differentially expressed in spinal cord, backbone rudiments, limb buds (or limbs), heart, and skin of human embryos and early fetuses in the 5- to 9-week postfertilization period, thus suggesting that the c1 and c8 genes play a key role in a variety of developmental processes. Together, the results of the embryonic/fetal expression of c1 and c8 and those of two previously analyzed genes (c10 and c13) indicate a coherent pattern of expression of these genes in early human ontogeny.

  16. Specific, sensitive, precise, and rapid functional chromogenic assay of activated first complement component (C1) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkvad, S; Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1990-01-01

    We present a new functional assay for the first complement component (C1) in plasma, based on its activation by inhibition of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) when monospecific antiserum to C1-inh is added to the plasma. After maximal activation, we can determine the concentration of activated ...

  17. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  18. Control of sympathetic vasomotor tone by catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Nephtali; Abdala, Ana P.L.; Korsak, Alla; Simms, Annabel E.; Allen, Andrew M.; Paton, Julian F.R.; Gourine, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Increased sympathetic tone in obstructive sleep apnoea results from recurrent episodes of systemic hypoxia and hypercapnia and might be an important contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we re-evaluated the role of a specific population of sympathoexcitatory catecholaminergic C1 neurones of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata in the control of sympathetic vasomotor tone, arterial blood pressure, and hypercapnia-evoked sympathetic and cardiovascular responses. Methods and results In anaesthetized rats in vivo and perfused rat working heart brainstem preparations in situ, C1 neurones were acutely silenced by application of the insect peptide allatostatin following cell-specific targeting with a lentiviral vector to express the inhibitory Drosophila allatostatin receptor. In anaesthetized rats with denervated peripheral chemoreceptors, acute inhibition of 50% of the C1 neuronal population resulted in ∼50% reduction in renal sympathetic nerve activity and a profound fall in arterial blood pressure (by ∼25 mmHg). However, under these conditions systemic hypercapnia still evoked vigorous sympathetic activation and the slopes of the CO2-evoked sympathoexcitatory and cardiovascular responses were not affected by inhibition of C1 neurones. Inhibition of C1 neurones in situ resulted in a reversible fall in perfusion pressure and the amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of thoracic sympathetic nerve activity. Conclusion These data confirm a fundamental physiological role of medullary catecholaminergic C1 neurones in maintaining resting sympathetic vasomotor tone and arterial blood pressure. However, C1 neurones do not appear to mediate sympathoexcitation evoked by central actions of CO2. PMID:21543384

  19. Changes in electron precipitation inferred from spectra deduced from D region electron densities during a post--magnetic storm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montbriand, L.E.; Belrose, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of enhanced ionization after geomagnetic storms, commonly referred to as storm aftereffect, is investigated on the hypothesis that the enhancement is due to a 'drizzle' of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. The study utilized electron density-height profiles obtained from the partial reflection experiment at Ottawa and available information on the height profile of the steady state loss coefficient for energetic electron events in combination with the ion pair production treatments of Ress (1963) and Berger et al. (1974) to deduce two-component differential energy spectra of the electron drizzle. The period studied, December 13--20, 1970, was unique for examining poststorm effects in that the geomagnetic storm on December 14--15 was intense and brief, and it was preceded and followed by periods of geomagnetic calm. The results indicate that the drizzle deduced was minimal before the storm and on the storm day and maximized 2--3 days after the peak of the storm at a time when geomagnetic activity had returned to calm. The results also suggest that the spectrum was hardest shortly after the drizzle maximized. No satisfactory source for the enhanced ionization during the poststorm other than particle drizzle could be found that would produce both the magnitude and the diurnal variation of the effect observed, a conclusion which establishes the validity of the hypothesis made

  20. Deposition Velocities of C1 - C5 Alkyl Nitrates at a Northern Colorado Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeleira, A.; Sive, B. C.; Farmer, D.; Swarthout, B.

    2017-12-01

    Organic nitrates (RONO2) are ubiquitous in the troposphere and are part of gas-phase oxidized nitrogen (NOy = NOx + HNO3 + HONO + N2O5 + HO2NO2 + PAN + NO3 + RONO2). RONO2 can act as both sinks and sources of HOx (RO + RO2 + OH) and NOx (NO + NO2), contributing to the nonlinearity of ozone (O3) formation. It is thus potentially important to understand sinks of RONO2, and how they change seasonally, in order to predict O3 on local, regional and global scales. We focus here on speciated C1 - C5 monofunctional alkyl nitrates (C1 - C5 ANs). In polluted continental regions the dominant source of C1 - C5 ANs is the OH-initiated oxidation of parent alkanes in the presence of NO, and thus changes seasonally with OH mixing ratios. Direct emissions of C1 - C2 ANs include oceanic sources and biomass burning. The sinks of C1 - C5 ANs include OH oxidation and photolysis, both of which release O3 precursors. Chemical transport models tend to overestimate the mixing ratios of small ANs indicating that a missing sink is not included. Wet deposition of C1 - C5 ANs is typically ignored due to the very low Henry's Law constants of these species. However, dry deposition of total organic nitrogen has been observed to be substantial. The dry deposition velocity of methyl nitrate has previously been estimated from summer observations at a rural New England site with a value of 0.13 cm s-1. Here we report deposition velocities for C1 - C5 ANs from surface observations at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in Erie, Colorado during winter 2011 and spring 2015. We calculate deposition velocities from the observed decay in C1 - C5 ANs at night during periods with a stable nocturnal boundary layer height of 100 - 200 meters. Ideal meteorological conditions were observed for 5 nights during the 2011 NACHTT campaign (February - March 2011), and for 5 nights during the 2015 SONGNEX campaign (March - May 2015). Deposition velocities increased with alkyl nitrate size, ranging from 0.15 cm

  1. In silico Analysis of osr40c1 Promoter Sequence Isolated from Indica Variety Pokkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.I. de Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region of a drought and abscisic acid (ABA inducible gene, osr40c1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant indica rice variety Pokkali, which is 670 bp upstream of the putative translation start codon. In silico promoter analysis of resulted sequence showed that at least 15 types of putative motifs were distributed within the sequence, including two types of common promoter elements, TATA and CAAT boxes. Additionally, several putative cis-acing regulatory elements which may be involved in regulation of osr40c1 expression under different conditions were found in the 5′-upstream region of osr40c1. These are ABA-responsive element, light-responsive elements (ATCT-motif, Box I, G-box, GT1-motif, Gap-box and Sp1, myeloblastosis oncogene response element (CCAAT-box, auxin responsive element (TGA-element, gibberellin-responsive element (GARE-motif and fungal-elicitor responsive elements (Box E and Box-W1. A putative regulatory element, required for endosperm-specific pattern of gene expression designated as Skn-1 motif, was also detected in the Pokkali osr40c1 promoter region. In conclusion, the bioinformatic analysis of osr40c1 promoter region isolated from indica rice variety Pokkali led to the identification of several important stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements, and therefore, the isolated promoter sequence could be employed in rice genetic transformation to mediate expression of abiotic stress induced genes.

  2. Kleinian singularities and the ground ring of c=1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoshal, D.; Jatkar, D.P.; Mukhi, S.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the ground ring of c=1 string theory at the special ADE points in the c=1 moduli space associated to discrete subgroups of SU(2). The chiral ground rings at these points are shown to define the ADE series of singular varieties introduced by Klein. The non-chiral ground rings relevant to closed-string theory are 3 real dimensional singular varieties obtained as U(1) quotients of the kleinian varieties. The unbroken symmetries of the theory at these points are the volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of these varieties. The theory of kleinian singularities has a close relation to that of complex hyperKaehler surfaces, or gravitational instantons. We speculate on the relevance of these instantons and of self-dual gravity in c=1 string theory. (orig.)

  3. Identification and Analysis of the Chloroplast rpoC1 Gene Differentially Expressed in Wild Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kwang-Ho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Panax ginseng is a well-known herbal medicine in traditional Asian medicine, and wild ginseng is widely accepted to be more active than cultivated ginseng in chemoprevention. However, little has actually been reported on the difference between wild ginseng and cultivated ginseng. Thus, to identify and analyze those differences, we used suppressive subtraction hybridization (SSH sequences with microarrays, realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs. One of the clones isolated in this research was the chloroplast rpoC1 gene, a β subunit of RNA polymerase. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that the expression of the rpoC1 gene was significantly upregulated in wild ginseng as compared to cultivated ginseng, so, we conclude that the rpoC1 gene may be one of the important markers of wild ginseng.

  4. C1 Polymerization: a unique tool towards polyethylene-based complex macromolecular architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De

    2017-05-09

    The recent developments in organoborane initiated C1 polymerization (chain grows by one atom at a time) of ylides opens unique horizons towards well-defined/perfectly linear polymethylenes (equivalent to polyethylenes, PE) and PE-based complex macromolecular architectures. The general mechanism of C1 polymerization (polyhomologation) involves the formation of a Lewis complex between a methylide (monomer) and a borane (initiator), followed by migration/insertion of a methylene into the initiator and after oxidation/hydrolysis to afford OH-terminated polyethylenes. This review summarizes efforts towards conventional and newly discovered borane-initiators and ylides (monomers), as well as a combination of polyhomologation with other polymerization methods. Initial efforts dealing with C3 polymerization and the synthesis of the first C1/C3 copolymers are also given. Finally, some thoughts for the future of these polymerizations are presented.

  5. C1 Polymerization: a unique tool towards polyethylene-based complex macromolecular architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, De; Zhang, Zhen; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    The recent developments in organoborane initiated C1 polymerization (chain grows by one atom at a time) of ylides opens unique horizons towards well-defined/perfectly linear polymethylenes (equivalent to polyethylenes, PE) and PE-based complex macromolecular architectures. The general mechanism of C1 polymerization (polyhomologation) involves the formation of a Lewis complex between a methylide (monomer) and a borane (initiator), followed by migration/insertion of a methylene into the initiator and after oxidation/hydrolysis to afford OH-terminated polyethylenes. This review summarizes efforts towards conventional and newly discovered borane-initiators and ylides (monomers), as well as a combination of polyhomologation with other polymerization methods. Initial efforts dealing with C3 polymerization and the synthesis of the first C1/C3 copolymers are also given. Finally, some thoughts for the future of these polymerizations are presented.

  6. A PP2C-1 Allele Underlying a Quantitative Trait Locus Enhances Soybean 100-Seed Weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Lu; Yong-Cai Lai; Wei-Guang Du; Wei-Qun Man; Shou-Yi Chen; Jin-Song Zhang; Qing Xiong; Tong Cheng; Qing-Tian Li; Xin-Lei Liu; Ying-Dong Bi; Wei Li; Wan-Ke Zhang; Biao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated soybeans may lose some useful genetic loci during domestication.Introgression of genes from wild soybeans could broaden the genetic background and improve soybean agronomic traits.In this study,through whole-genome sequencing of a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between a wild soybean ZYD7 and a cultivated soybean HN44,and mapping of quantitative trait loci for seed weight,we discovered that a phosphatase 2C-1 (PP2C-1) allele from wild soybean ZYD7 contributes to the increase in seed weight/size.PP2C-1 may achieve this function by enhancing cell size of integument and activating a subset of seed trait-related genes.We found that PP2C-1 is associated with GmBZR1,a soybean ortholog of Arabidopsis BZR1,one of key transcription factors in brassinosteroid (BR) signaling,and facilitate accumulation of dephosphorylated GmBZR1.In contrast,the PP2C-2 allele with variations of a few amino acids at the N-terminus did not exhibit this function.Moreover,we showed that GmBZR1 could promote seed weight/size in transgenic plants.Through analysis of cultivated soybean accessions,we found that 40% of the examined accessions do not have the PP2C-1 allele,suggesting that these accessions can be improved by introduction of this allele.Taken together,our study identifies an elite allele PP2C-1,which can enhance seed weight and/or size in soybean,and pinpoints that manipulation of this allele by molecular-assisted breeding may increase production in soybean and other legumes/crops.

  7. Development of diacyltetrol lipids as activators for the C1 domain of protein kinase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidi, Narsimha; Gorai, Sukhamoy; Mukherjee, Rakesh; Manna, Debasis

    2012-04-01

    The protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases is an attractive drug target for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. Diacylglycerol (DAG), phorbol esters and others act as ligands for the C1 domain of PKC isoforms. Inspection of the crystal structure of the PKCδ C1b subdomain in complex with phorbol-13-O-acetate shows that one carbonyl group and two hydroxyl groups play pivotal roles in recognition of the C1 domain. To understand the importance of two hydroxyl groups of phorbol esters in PKC binding and to develop effective PKC activators, we synthesized DAG like diacyltetrols (DATs) and studied binding affinities with C1b subdomains of PKCδ and PKCθ. DATs, with the stereochemistry of natural DAGs at the sn-2 position, were synthesized from (+)-diethyl L-tartrate in four to seven steps as single isomers. The calculated EC(50) values for the short and long chain DATs varied in the range of 3-6 μM. Furthermore, the fluorescence anisotropy values of the proteins were increased in the presence of DATs in a similar manner to that of DAGs. Molecular docking of DATs (1b-4b) with PKCδ C1b showed that the DATs form hydrogen bonds with the polar residues and backbone of the protein, at the same binding site, as that of DAG and phorbol esters. Our findings reveal that DATs represent an attractive group of C1 domain ligands that can be used as research tools or further structurally modified for potential drug development.

  8. C1-Pathways in Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5: Genome Wide Gene Expression and Mutagenesis Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan M. Good

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 utilizes single carbon compounds such as methanol or methylamine as a sole source of carbon and energy. Expression profiling reveals distinct sets of genes altered during growth on methylamine vs methanol. As expected, all genes for the N-methylglutamate pathway were induced during growth on methylamine. Among other functions responding to the aminated source of C1-carbon, are a heme-containing amine dehydrogenase (Qhp, a distant homologue of formaldehyde activating enzyme (Fae3, molybdenum-containing formate dehydrogenase, ferredoxin reductase, a set of homologues to urea/ammonium transporters and amino-acid permeases. Mutants lacking one of the functional subunits of the amine dehydrogenase (ΔqhpA or Δfae3 showed no growth defect on C1-compounds. M. universalis FAM5 strains with a lesion in the H4-folate pathway were not able to use any C1-compound, methanol or methylamine. Genes essential for C1-assimilation (the serine cycle and glyoxylate shunt and H4MTP-pathway for formaldehyde oxidation showed similar levels of expression on both C1-carbon sources. M. universalis FAM5 possesses three homologs of the formaldehyde activating enzyme, a key enzyme of the H4MTP-pathway. Strains lacking the canonical Fae (fae1 lost the ability to grow on both C1-compounds. However, upon incubation on methylamine the fae1-mutant produced revertants (Δfae1R, which regained the ability to grow on methylamine. Double and triple mutants (Δfae1RΔfae3, or Δfae1RΔfae2 or Δfae1RΔfae2Δfae3 constructed in the revertant strain background showed growth similar to the Δfae1R phenotype. The metabolic pathways for utilization of methanol and methylamine in Methyloversatilis universalis FAM5 are reconstructed based on these gene expression and phenotypic data.

  9. Endovascular Treatment of a Vertebral Artery Pseudoaneurysm Following Posterior C1-C2 Transarticular Screw Fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, Jose C.; Gonzalez-Llanos, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after a posterior C1-C2 transarticular screw fixation procedure that was effectively treated with endovascular coil occlusion. Vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm complicating posterior C1-C2 transarticular fixation is extremely rare, with only one previous case having been reported previously. Endovascular occlusion is better achieved in the subacute phase of the pseudoaneurysm, when the wall of the pseudoaneurysm has matured and stabilized. Further follow-up angiographies are mandatory in order to confirm that there is no recurrence of the lesion

  10. Gaussian quadrature rules for C 1 quintic splines with uniform knot vectors

    KAUST Repository

    Barton, Michael; Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Calo, Victor Manuel

    2017-01-01

    We provide explicit quadrature rules for spaces of C1C1 quintic splines with uniform knot sequences over finite domains. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids numerical solvers. Each rule is optimal, that is, requires the minimal number of nodes, for a given function space. For each of nn subintervals, generically, only two nodes are required which reduces the evaluation cost by 2/32/3 when compared to the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials over each knot span. Numerical experiments show fast convergence, as nn grows, to the “two-third” quadrature rule of Hughes et al. (2010) for infinite domains.

  11. Modular organization of proteins containing C1q-like globular domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, U; Reid, K B

    1999-05-01

    The first step in the activation of the classical pathway of complement cascade by immune complexes involves the binding of the six globular heads of C1q to the Fc regions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin M (IgM). The globular heads of C1q are located C-terminal to the six triple-helical stalks present in the molecule, each head is considered to be composed of the C-terminal halves (3 x 135 residues) of one A-, one B- and one C-chain. It is not known if the C-terminal globular regions, present in each of the three types of chains, are independently folded modules (with each chain having distinct binding properties towards immunoglobulins) or whether the different binding functions of C1q are dependent upon a globular structure which relies on contributions from all three chains. Recent reports of recombinant production and characterisation of soluble globular head regions of all the three chains indicate that the globular regions of C1q may adopt a modular organization, i.e., each globular head of C1q may be composed of three, structurally and functionally, independent domains, thus retaining multivalency in the form of a heterotrimer. Modules of the same type as the C1q C-terminal module are also found in a variety of noncomplement proteins that include the C-terminal regions of the human type VIII and type X collagens, precerebellin, the chipmunk hibernation proteins, the human endothelial cell protein, multimerin, the serum protein, Acrp-30 which is secreted from mouse adipocytes, and the sunfish inner-ear specific structural protein. The C1q molecule is the only one of these proteins for which, to date, a function has been ascribed to the module. The existence of a shared structural region between C1q and certain collagens may suggest an evolutionarily common ancestral precursor. Various structural and biochemical data suggest that these modules may be responsible for multimerisation through patches of aromatic residues within them.

  12. Direct 13C-1H coupling constants in the vinyl group of 1-vinylpyrazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, A.V.; Voronov, V.K.; Es'kova, L.A.; Domnina, E.S.; Petrova, E.V.; Zasyad'ko, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    In a continuation of a study of the rotational isomerism of 1-vinylpyrazoles, they studied the direct 13 C- 1 H coupling constants in the vinyl group of 1-vinylpyrazole, 1-vinyl-4-bromopyrazole, 1-vinyl-3-methylpyrazole, 1-vinyl-5-methylpyrazole, 1-vinyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazole, and 1-vinyl-4-nitro-3,5-dimethylpyrazole. The 13 C- 1 H direct coupling constants in the vinyl group of 1-vinylpyrazoles are stereo-specific and vary with change in the conformer ratio

  13. Gaussian quadrature rules for C 1 quintic splines with uniform knot vectors

    KAUST Repository

    Bartoň, Michael

    2017-03-21

    We provide explicit quadrature rules for spaces of C1C1 quintic splines with uniform knot sequences over finite domains. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids numerical solvers. Each rule is optimal, that is, requires the minimal number of nodes, for a given function space. For each of nn subintervals, generically, only two nodes are required which reduces the evaluation cost by 2/32/3 when compared to the classical Gaussian quadrature for polynomials over each knot span. Numerical experiments show fast convergence, as nn grows, to the “two-third” quadrature rule of Hughes et al. (2010) for infinite domains.

  14. $C^1$ actions on manifolds by lattices in Lie groups with sufficiently high rank

    OpenAIRE

    Damjanovic, Danijela; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study Zimmer's conjecture for $C^1$ actions of higher-rank lattices of a connected, semisimple Lie group with finite center on compact manifolds. We show that if the Lie group has no compact factor, and all of whose non-compact factors are of ranks in some sense sufficiently large with respect to the dimension of the manifold, then every $C^1$ action of an irreducible, co-compact lattice has a finite image. As a corollary of our results, for every (uniform or non-uniform) lat...

  15. 13C, 1H spin-spin coupling constants. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, R.; Guenther, H.

    1979-01-01

    One-bond, geminal, and vicinal 13 C, 1 H coupling constants have been determined for adamantane using α-and β-[D]adamantane and the relation sup(n)J( 13 C, 1 H)=6,5144sup(n)J( 13 C, 2 H) for the conversion of the measured sup(n)J( 13 C, 2 H) values. It is shown that the magnitude of 3 Jsub(trans) is strongly influenced by the substitution pattern. Relative H,D isotope effects for 13 C chemical shifts are given. (orig.) [de

  16. Coronal mass ejection kinematics deduced from white light (Solar Mass Ejection Imager) and radio (Wind/WAVES) observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, M. J.; Jackson, B. V.; Webb, D. F.; Mizuno, D. R.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    2005-09-01

    White-light and radio observations are combined to deduce the coronal and interplanetary kinematics of a fast coronal mass ejection (CME) that was ejected from the Sun at about 1700 UT on 2 November 2003. The CME, which was associated with an X8.3 solar flare from W56°, was observed by the Mauna Loa and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Large-Angle Spectrometric Coronograph (LASCO) coronagraphs to 14 R⊙. The measured plane-of-sky speed of the LASCO CME was 2600 km s-1. To deduce the kinematics of this CME, we use the plane-of-sky white light observations from both the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) all-sky camera on board the Coriolis spacecraft and the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph, as well as the frequency drift rate of the low-frequency radio data and the results of the radio direction-finding analysis from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft. In agreement with the in situ observations for this event, we find that both the white light and radio observations indicate that the CME must have decelerated significantly beginning near the Sun and continuing well into the interplanetary medium. More specifically, by requiring self-consistency of all the available remote and in situ data, together with a simple, but not unreasonable, assumption about the general characteristic of the CME deceleration, we were able to deduce the radial speed and distance time profiles for this CME as it propagated from the Sun to 1 AU. The technique presented here, which is applicable to mutual SMEI/WAVES CME events, is expected to provide a more complete description and better quantitative understanding of how CMEs propagate through interplanetary space, as well as how the radio emissions, generated by propagating CME/shocks, relate to the shock and CME. This understanding can potentially lead to more accurate predictions for the onset times of space weather events, such as those that were observed during this unique period of intense solar activity.

  17. Use of activity measurements in the plume from Chernobyl to deduce fuel state before, during and after the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, J.P.; Tobias, A.

    1986-07-01

    Work performed at Berkely Nuclear Laboratories both prior to the meeting in Vienna at which USSR gave full details of the Chernobyl accident and after that meeting is recorded. Plume data from Western Europe were used to deduce the likely damage to the fuel and its previous irradiation history. The note concludes that the source to the environment consisted of an initial dispersion of fuel particulate followed by a prolonged release at a lower rate, the total release being some 3% of the core inventory of fuel. Early and late in the release period it was enhanced in volatile species. Damage to the fuel was thus due both to mechanical disruption and to high temperatures. During the early dispersive event high temperatures (probably approaching fuel melting) were reached in some of the core, though the proportion of the fuel affected may have been small. (UK)

  18. Fracture-mechanics data deduced from thermal-shock and related experiments with LWR pressure-vessel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheverton, R.D.; Canonico, D.A.; Iskander, S.K.; Bolt, S.E.; Holz, P.P.; Nanstad, R.K.; Stelzman, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are susceptible to certain types of hypothetical accidents that can subject the reactor pressure vessel to severe thermal shock, that is, a rapid cooling of the inner surface of the vessel wall. The thermal-shock loading, coupled with the radiation-induced reduction in the material fracture toughness, introduces the possibility of propagation of preexistent flaws and what at one time were regarded as somewhat unique fracture-oriented conditions. Several postulated reactor accidents have been analyzed to discover flaw behavior trends; seven intermediate-scale thermal-shock experiments with steel cylinders have been conducted; and corresponding materials characterization studies have been performed. Flaw behavior trends and related fracture-mechanics data deduced from these studies are discussed

  19. Deducing 2D Crystal Structure at the Solid/Liquid Interface with Atomic Resolution by Combined STM and SFG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Arthur; Ahn, Seokhoon; Matzger, Adam J.; Chen, Zhan

    2009-03-01

    Supplemented by computed models, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) can provide detailed structure of 2D crystals formed at the liquid/solid interface with atomic resolution. However, some structural information such as functional group orientations in such 2D crystals needs to be tested experimentally to ensure the accuracy of the deduced structures. Due to the limited sensitivity, many other experimental techniques such as Raman and infrared spectroscopy have not been allowed to provide such structural information of 2D crystals. Here we showed that Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy (SFG) can measure average orientation of functional groups in such 2D crystals, or physisorbed monolayers, providing key experimental data to aid in the modeling and interpretation of the STM images. The usefulness of combining these two techniques is demonstrated with a phthalate diesters monolayer formed at the 1-phenyloctane/ highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) interface. The spatial orientation of the ester C=O of the monolayer was successfully determined using SFG.

  20. Functional C1-inhibitor diagnostics in hereditary angioedema: Assay evaluation and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke G. A.; Drouet, Christian; Aygoeren-Pursun, Emel; Bork, Konrad; Bucher, Christoph; Bygum, Anette; Farkas, Henriette; Fust, George; Gregorek, Hanna; Hack, C. Erik; Hickey, Alaco; Joller-Jemelka, Helen I.; Kapusta, Maria; Kreuz, Wolfhart; Longhurst, Hilary; Lopez-Trascasa, Margarita; Madalinski, Kazimierz; Naskalski, Jerzy; Nieuwenhuys, Ed; Ponard, Denise; Truedsson, Lennart; Varga, Lilian; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Wagner, Eric; Zingale, Lorenza; Cicardi, Marco; van Ham, S. Marieke

    2008-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of potentially life-threatening angioedema. The most widespread underlying genetic deficiency is a heterozygous deficiency of the serine protease inhibitor Cl esterase inhibitor (C1-Inh). In addition to

  1. C1-continuous Virtual Element Method for Poisson-Kirchhoff plate problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyrya, Vitaliy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mourad, Hashem Mohamed [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We present a family of C1-continuous high-order Virtual Element Methods for Poisson-Kirchho plate bending problem. The convergence of the methods is tested on a variety of meshes including rectangular, quadrilateral, and meshes obtained by edge removal (i.e. highly irregular meshes). The convergence rates are presented for all of these tests.

  2. C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Armstrong, Derek; Padfield, Nancy; Blaser, Susan [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Clarke, Howard [Hospital for Sick Children, Plastic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Hospital for Sick Children, Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability. To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS. (orig.)

  3. Hyperlipidemia and cutaneous abnormalities in transgenic mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M. C.; Gijbels, M. J.; Dahlmans, V. E.; Gorp, P. J.; Koopman, S. J.; Ponec, M.; Hofker, M. H.; Havekes, L. M.

    1998-01-01

    Transgenic mice were generated with different levels of human apolipoprotein C1 (APOC1) expression in liver and skin. At 2 mo of age, serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), and FFA were strongly elevated in APOC1 transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. These elevated levels of serum

  4. Conformal blocks related to the R-R states in the c^=1 superconformal field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2008-01-01

    We derive an explicit form of the family of four-point Neveu-Schwarz blocks with c^=1, external weights Δi=(1)/(8) and arbitrary intermediate weight Δ. The derivation is based on analytic properties of correlation functions of Ramond fields in the free superscalar theory.

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. J. Appel and J. M. Capron

    2007-07-25

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes.

  6. 17 CFR 240.8c-1 - Hypothecation of customers' securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hypothecation of customers... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Hypothecation of Customers' Securities § 240.8c-1 Hypothecation of customers... any customer under circumstances: (1) That will permit the commingling of securities carried for the...

  7. 12 CFR 563c.1 - Form and content of financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACCOUNTING REQUIREMENTS Form and Content of Financial Statements § 563c.1 Form and content of financial... statements shall: (1) Be prepared and presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form and content of financial statements. 563c...

  8. A South American Prehistoric Mitogenome: Context, Continuity, and the Origin of Haplogroup C1d

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Mónica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hughes, Cris E.; Lindo, John; Hidalgo, Pedro C.; Malhi, Ripan S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it has been estimated that at least 15 founder haplogroups peopled the Americas. Subhaplogroup C1d3 was defined based on the mitogenome of a living individual from Uruguay that carried a lineage previously identified in hypervariable region I sequences from ancient and modern Uruguayan individuals. When complete mitogenomes were studied, additional substitutions were found in the coding region of the mitochondrial genome. Using a complete ancient mitogenome and three modern mitogenomes, we aim to clarify the ancestral state of subhaplogroup C1d3 and to better understand the peopling of the region of the Río de la Plata basin, as well as of the builders of the mounds from which the ancient individuals were recovered. The ancient mitogenome, belonging to a female dated to 1,610±46 years before present, was identical to the mitogenome of one of the modern individuals. All individuals share the mutations defining subhaplogroup C1d3. We estimated an age of 8,974 (5,748–12,261) years for the most recent common ancestor of C1d3, in agreement with the initial peopling of the geographic region. No individuals belonging to the defined lineage were found outside of Uruguay, which raises questions regarding the mobility of the prehistoric inhabitants of the country. Moreover, the present study shows the continuity of Native lineages over at least 6,000 years. PMID:26509686

  9. Paleomagnetic study of areas B1, C1 and E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, C.; Sopher, C.

    1982-01-01

    Sediments from all three areas retain a stable primary remanence with a small viscous overprint which can be removed by AF cleaning. This marginally reduces the scatter in NRM data and improves the constraints on some reversal boundaries. Excellent reversal stratigraphies exist in all cores, particularly within area E2, with the exception of core B1-43P. This core is normally magnetized throughout and has a larger viscous component than other cores. Sedimentation rates are slower during the Brunhes epoch in all cores except C1-32P and C1-33P. Cores C1-34P and E2-46P have almost constant sedimentation rates throughout. The abnormally low average sedimentation rate during the Brunhes in core C1-35P suggest a loss of up to 2m of sediment, either during coring or by in situ erosion. Overall sedimentation rates are highest in area B1, lowest in area E2, and show least variation between cores in area E2. There is no general correlation between lithology and the paleomagnetic record. Ash layers and horizons with abnormally low water contents sometimes coincide with spikes in the paleomagnetic records

  10. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, M.J.; Capron, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-C-1, 105-C Solid Waste Burial Ground. This waste site was the primary burial ground for general wastes from the operation of the 105-C Reactor and received process tubes, aluminum fuel spacers, control rods, reactor hardware, spent nuclear fuel and soft wastes

  11. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-1 - Unlimited deduction for amounts paid for a charitable purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the election was made, (iii) The office of the district director, or the service center, where the....642(c)-1 Unlimited deduction for amounts paid for a charitable purpose. (a) In general. (1) Any part... election, to a related estate, as defined under § 1.645-1(b), for the amount so paid. (2) In determining...

  12. Mechanical test results on Dipole model C-1 25 mm aluminum collars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, C.

    1985-02-01

    This report is a summary of procedures used in collaring the SSC Dipole model C-1. Included are descriptions of the collars, instrumentation, collar pack preparation, collaring procedures, and collar dimension and coil pressure data measurements taken during and testing of the magnet

  13. Protection from obesity and insulin resistance in mice overexpressing human apolipoprotein C1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, M. C.; Voshol, P. J.; Muurling, M.; Dahlmans, V. E.; Romijn, J. A.; Pijl, H.; Havekes, L. M.

    2001-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (APO) C1 is a 6.6-kDa protein present in plasma and associated with lipoproteins. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, we previously found that in APOC1 transgenic mice, the whole-body insulin-mediated glucose uptake is increased concomitant with a decreased fatty acid

  14. C1-2 vertebral anomalies in 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, Osnat; Armstrong, Derek; Padfield, Nancy; Blaser, Susan; Clarke, Howard; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2008-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11DS) is characterized by cleft palate, cardiac anomalies, characteristic facies, high prevalence of skeletal anomalies and learning disability. To evaluate the prevalence of craniovertebral junction anomalies in children with 22q11DS and compare these findings to those in nonsyndromic children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI). Sequential CT scans performed for presurgical carotid assessment in 76 children (45 children positive for chromosome 22q11.2 deletion and 31 negative for the deletion) with VPI were retrospectively evaluated for assessment of C1-2 anomalies. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, specifically midline C1 defects, uptilted or upswept posterior elements of C2 and fusions of C2-3, were nearly universal in our cohort of 22q11DS patients with VPI. They were strikingly absent in the majority of non-22q11DS patients with VPI. C1-2 vertebral anomalies, particularly those listed above, are important radiographic markers for 22q11DS. (orig.)

  15. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A96C-1VDMG [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A96C-1VDMG 1A96 1VDM C G -EKYIVTWDMLQIHARKLASRLMPSEQWKGIIAVSRGGL...VPGALLARELGIRHVDTVCISSYDHD--NQRELKVLKRAEGDGEG--FIVIDDLVDTGGTAVAIREMYP-----KAHFVTIFAKPAGRPLVDDYVVDIPQDTWIEQPWDMG...A 145 LEU CA 201 1VDM G 1VDMG... 1VDM G 1VDMG 1VDMG LREYK-PDVII H - EE

  16. [Anaesthesic management of vaginal delivery in a parturient with C1 esterase deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, N; Schérier, S; Dubost, C; Franck, L; Rouquette, I; Tortosa, J-C; Rousseau, J-M

    2009-04-01

    Hereditary and acquired angioedema (HAE/AAE) are the clinical translation of a qualitative or a quantitative deficit of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH). The frequency and severity of clinical manifestations vary greatly, ranging from a moderate swelling of the extremities to obstruction of upper airway. Anaesthesiologists and intensivists must be prepared to manage acute manifestations of this disease in case of life-threatening laryngeal edema. Surgery, physical trauma and labour are classical triggers of the disease. The anaesthesiologists should be aware of the drugs used as prophylaxis and treatment of acute attacks when considering labour and caesarean section. Androgens are contraindicated during pregnancy. If prophylaxis is required, tranexamic acid may be used with caution. The safest obstetric approach appears to be to administer a predelivery infusion of C1 INH concentrate. It is important to avoid manipulation of the airway as much as possible by relying on regional techniques. We report the case of a patient suffering from an HAE discovered during pregnancy. The management included administration of C1 INH during labor and early epidural analgesia for pain relief. A short review of the pathophysiology and therapeutic options follows.

  17. 26 CFR 31.3405(c)-1 - Withholding on eligible rollover distributions; questions and answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... plan administrator withhold tax from an eligible rollover distribution for which a direct rollover..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3405(c)-1...

  18. 26 CFR 31.3306(c)(1)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3306(c)(1)-1 Section 31... Agricultural labor. Services performed by an employee for the person employing him which constitute “agricultural labor” as defined in section 3306(k) are excepted from employment. For provisions relating to the...

  19. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the LewisX antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poveda, Ana; Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus

    1997-01-01

    1 H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-α-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-β-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 4)[3-O-α-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, 13 C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The 1 H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The 13 C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the 1 H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS 2 . Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data

  20. Solution conformation and dynamics of a tetrasaccharide related to the Lewis{sup X} antigen deduced by NMR relaxation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poveda, Ana [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigacion (Spain); Asensio, Juan Luis; Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Instituto de Quimica Organica, CSIC, Grupo de Carbohidratos (Spain)

    1997-07-15

    {sup 1}H-NMR cross-relaxation rates and nonselective longitudinal relaxation times have been obtained at two magnetic fields (7.0 and 11.8 T) and at a variety of temperatures for the branched tetrasaccharide methyl 3-O-{alpha}-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl-(1{sup {yields}}4)[3-O-{alpha}-fucosyl] -glucopyranoside (1), an inhibitor of astrocyte growth. In addition, {sup 13}C-NMR relaxation data have also been recorded at both fields. The {sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data have been interpreted using different motional models to obtain proton-proton correlation times. The results indicate that the GalNAc and Fuc rings display more extensive local motion than the two inner Glc and Gal moieties, since those present significantly shorter local correlation times. The{sup 13}C-NMR relaxation parameters have been interpreted in terms of the Lipari-Szabo model-free approach. Thus, order parameters and internal motion correlation times have been deduced. As obtained for the{sup 1}H-NMR relaxation data, the two outer residues possess smaller order parameters than the two inner rings. Internal correlation times are in the order of 100 ps. The hydroxymethyl groups have also different behaviour,with the exocyclic carbon on the glucopyranoside unit showing the highestS{sup 2}. Molecular dynamics simulations using a solvated system have also been performed and internal motion correlation functions have been deduced from these calculations. Order parameters and interproton distances have been compared to those inferred from the NMR measurements. The obtained results are in fair agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Clinical Outcomes of Posterior C1 and C2 Screw-Rod Fixation for Atlantoaxial Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Hasan Serdar; Sandal, Evren; Çağli, Sedat

    2017-06-14

    In this study, we aimed at sharing our experiences and contributing to the literature by making a retrospective analysis of the patients we operated with screw-rod system for atlantoaxial instability in our clinic. Archive files of adult patients, who were operated for posterior C1-C2 stabilization with screw and rod in our clinic between January 2006 and January 2016, were analyzed. 28 patients, who had pre and post-operative images, follow-up forms and who were followed for at least one year, were analyzed. Preoperative clinical and radiological records, preoperative observations, postoperative complications, and clinical responses were evaluated. The average age of 28 patients (F:13 M:19) was 44.7 (21-73). Fixation was performed with C1-C2 screw-rod system on the basis of the following diagnoses; type 2 odontoid fracture (16), basilar invagination (5), C1-C2 instability (5), and atlantoaxial subluxation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis (2). Lateral mass screws were inserted at C1 segment. C2 screws inserted were bilateral pedicle in 12 cases, bilateral pars in 4, bilateral laminar in 8 and one side pars, one side laminar in 4 cases. There was no screw malposition. Neither implant failure nor recurrent instability was observed during follow-up. Significant clinical improvement was reported according to the assessments done with JOA and VAS scores. C1-C2 screw fixation is regarded as a more successful and safe method than other fixation methods in surgical treatment of atlantoaxial instability considering complications, success in reduction, fusion and fixation strength. C2 laminar screw technique is as successful as the other alternatives in fixation and fusion.

  2. International consensus on the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Farkas, H.; Martinez?Saguer, I.; Bork, K.; Bowen, T.; Craig, T.; Frank, M.; Germenis, A. E.; Grumach, A. S.; Luczay, A.; Varga, L.; Zanichelli, A.; Aberer, Werner; Andrejevic, Sladjana; Aygoeren?P?rs?n, Emel; Banerji, Alena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The consensus documents published to date on hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) have focused on adult patients. Many of the previous recommendations have not been adapted to pediatric patients. We intended to produce consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with C1-INH-HAE.METHODS: During an expert panel meeting that took place during the 9th C1 Inhibitor Deficiency Workshop in Budapest, 2015 (www.haenet.hu), ped...

  3. Complement C1q regulates LPS-induced cytokine production in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahide; Oritani, Kenji; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Ishikawa, Jun; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Kawamoto, Shinichirou; Ishida, Naoko; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Botto, Marina; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    We show here that C1q suppresses IL-12p40 production in LPS-stimulated murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC). Serum IL-12p40 concentration of C1q-deficient mice was higher than that of wild-type mice after intraperitoneal LPS-injection. Because neither globular head of C1q (gC1q) nor collagen-like region of C1q (cC1q) failed to suppress LPS-induced IL-12p40 production, both gC1q and cC1q, and/or some specialized conformation of native C1q may be required for the inhibition. While C1q did not affect mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), MD-2, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), BMDC treated with C1q showed the reduced activity of NF-kappaB and the delayed phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase after LPS-stimulation. CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-induced IL-12p40 and TNF-alpha production, another MyD88-dependent TLR-mediated signal, was also suppressed by C1q treatment. Therefore, C1q is likely to suppress MyD88-dependent pathway in TLR-mediated signals. In contrast, C1q failed to suppress colony formation of B cells responding to LPS or LPS-induced CD40 and CD86 expression on BMDC in MyD88-deficient mice, indicating that inhibitory effects of C1q on MyD88-independent pathways may be limited. Taken together, C1q may regulate innate and adaptive immune systems via modification of signals mediated by interactions between invading pathogens and TLR.

  4. 18 CFR 3c.1 - Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure regulations. 3c.1 Section 3c.1 Conservation of... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT § 3c.1 Cross-reference to employee ethical conduct standards and financial disclosure... branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634, the Standards of Ethical Conduct for...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1033(c)-1 - Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be involuntary conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... project deemed to be involuntary conversion. 1.1033(c)-1 Section 1.1033(c)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(c)-1 Disposition of excess property within irrigation project deemed to be... project or division shall be treated as an involuntary conversion to which the provisions of section 1033...

  6. Gennemgang af en ny type hereditært angioødem med normal komplement C1-inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm-Hansen, Maria Bach; Winther, Anna Hillert; Fagerberg, Christina

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is a rare, potentially fatal disease characterized by recurrent swelling of skin and mucosa. Besides HAE with quantitative (type I) or qualitative (type II) deficiency of complement C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), a new subtype of HAE is now described with normal levels of C1...

  7. 17 CFR 230.160 - Registered investment company exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exemption from Section 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. 230.160...(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. A prospectus for an... 101(c)(1) of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act. [65 FR 47284, Aug. 2, 2000] ...

  8. Evaluating the efficacy of subcutaneous C1-esterase inhibitor administration for use in rat models of inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, Reindert W.; Naaijkens, Benno A.; Roem, Dorina; Kramer, Klaas; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; van Ham, Marieke S.; Niessen, Hans W.; Krijnen, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) therapy is currently administered to patients with C1-inh deficiency through intravenous injections. The possibility of subcutaneous administration is currently being explored since this would alleviate need for hospitalization and increase mobility and

  9. Building information deduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Myrup Jensen, Morten; Beetz, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show that in p......In recent years, Building Information Models have become commonplace in building profession. The extensive use and increasing experience with BIM models offers new perspectives and potentials for design and planning. A recent stakeholder study conducted by the authors of this paper show...... that in practice models are no longer solely observed as culmination of knowledge in a 3d representation of future built structures, but as a source of information in itself. Experienced users of BIM want to Find Information within a model or across a set of these and Compare models in order to evaluate states...... of a model, differences in separate models or models from different point of time. Current BIM tools support both modes only in a rudimentary form. This paper discusses current modes of information query within and across BIM models, shows beneficial scenarios for building and planning practice through...

  10. Elucidating the Mechanism of Gain of Toxic Function From Mutant C1 Inhibitor Proteins in Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    antibodies to 5 specifically blot wild-type C1INH in the pathologic polymers.. A FLAG tag was placed into the wild-type C1INH cDNA located immediately...resulted in decreased secretion of the 3x-FLAG-WT-C1INH when cotransfected with the mutant cDNA . This was an important confirmation of our...C1INH plus mutant C1INH cDNA in the presence or absence of a lactacystin, a proteasome inhibitor. As shown in figure 2, blocking degradation of

  11. 1/2-BPS correlators as c = 1 S-matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jevicki, Antal; Yoneya, Tamiaki

    2007-01-01

    We argue from two complementary viewpoints of Holography that the 2-point correlation functions of 1/2-BPS multi-trace operators in the large-N (planar) limit are nothing but the (Wick-rotated) S-matrix elements of c = 1 matrix model. On the bulk side, we consider an Euclideanized version of the so-called bubbling geometries and show that the corresponding droplets reach the conformal boundary. Then the scattering matrix of fluctuations of the droplets gives directly the two-point correlators through the GKPW prescription. On the Yang-Mills side, we show that the two-point correlators of holomorphic and anti-holomorphic operators are essentially equivalent with the transformation functions between asymptotic in- and out-states of c = 1 matrix model. Extension to non-planar case is also discussed

  12. Advances in metabolic engineering in the microbial production of fuels and chemicals from C1 gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Christopher M; Minton, Nigel P

    2018-04-01

    The future sustainable production of chemicals and fuels from non-petrochemical sources, while at the same time reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, represent two of society's greatest challenges. Microbial chassis able to grow on waste carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) can provide solutions to both. Ranging from the anaerobic acetogens, through the aerobic chemoautotrophs to the photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, they are able to convert C1 gases into a range of chemicals and fuels which may be enhanced and extended through appropriate metabolic engineering. The necessary improvements will be facilitated by the increasingly sophisticated gene tools that are beginning to emerge as part of the Synthetic Biology revolution. These tools, in combination with more accurate metabolic and genome scale models, will enable C1 chassis to deliver their full potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytochrome c and c1 heme lyases are essential in Plasmodium berghei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posayapisit, Navaporn; Songsungthong, Warangkhana; Koonyosying, Pongpisid; Falade, Mofolusho O; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Shaw, Philip J; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    Malaria parasites possess a de novo heme synthetic pathway. Interestingly, this pathway is dispensable during the blood stages of development in mammalian hosts. The assembly of the two most important hemeproteins, cytochromes c and c1, is mediated by cytochrome heme lyase enzymes. Plasmodium spp. possess two cytochrome heme lyases encoded by separate genes. Given the redundancy of heme synthesis, we sought to determine if heme lyase function also exhibits redundancy. To answer this question, we performed gene knockout experiments. We found that the PBANKA_143950 and PBANKA_0602600 Plasmodium berghei genes encoding cytochrome c (Pbcchl) and cytochrome c1 (Pbcc 1 hl) heme lyases, respectively, can only be disrupted when a complementary gene is present. In contrast, four genes in the de novo heme synthesis pathway can be disrupted without complementation. This work provides evidence that Pbcchl and Pbcc 1 hl are both essential and thus may be antimalarial targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. C1-C2 arthrodesis after spontaneous Propionibacterium acnes spondylodiscitis: Case report and literature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Russo, Paolo; Tascini, Carlo; Benini, Maria Elena; Martini, Carlotta; Lepori, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a microaerophilic anaerobic Gram-positive rod responsible for acne vulgaris. Although it is often considered to be a skin contaminant, it may act as a virulent agent in implant-associated infections. Conversely, spontaneous infectious processes have been rarely described. Case Description: Here, we describe a 43-year-old female with C1-C2 spondylodiscitis attributed to P. acnes infection. Despite long-term antibiotic treatment, computed tomography demonstrated erosion of the C1 and C2 vertebral complex that later warranted a fusion. One year postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions: Clinical knowledge of P. acnes virulence in spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis allows early diagnosis, which is necessary to prevent or reduce complications such as cervical deformity with myelopathy or mediastinitis. PMID:29497567

  15. Electrodril system field test program. Phase II: Task C-1-deep drilling system demonstration. Final report for Phase II: Task C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P D

    1981-04-01

    The Electrodril Deep Drilling System field test demonstrations were aborted in July 1979, due to connector problems. Subsequent post test analyses concluded that the field replacable connectors were the probable cause of the problems encountered. The designs for both the male and female connectors, together with their manufacturing processes, were subsequently modified, as was the acceptance test procedures. A total of nine male and nine female connectors were manufactured and delivered during the 2nd Quarter 1980. Exhaustive testing was then conducted on each connector as a precursor to formal qualification testing conducted during the month of October 1980, at the Brown Oil Tool test facility located in Houston, Texas. With this report, requirements under Phase II, Task C-1 are satisfied. The report documents the results of the connector qualification test program which was successfully completed October 28, 1980. In general, it was concluded that connector qualification had been achieved and plans are now in progress to resume the field test demonstration program so that Electrodril System performance predictions and economic viability can be evaluated.

  16. Explicit Gaussian quadrature rules for C^1 cubic splines with symmetrically stretched knot sequence

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-06-19

    We provide explicit expressions for quadrature rules on the space of C^1 cubic splines with non-uniform, symmetrically stretched knot sequences. The quadrature nodes and weights are derived via an explicit recursion that avoids an intervention of any numerical solver and the rule is optimal, that is, it requires minimal number of nodes. Numerical experiments validating the theoretical results and the error estimates of the quadrature rules are also presented.

  17. Cloning and tissue expression of cytochrome P450 1B1 and 1C1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) is widely used as an indicator of exposure to environmental contaminants. In the study, two full-length complementary DNAs encode for CYP1B1 and CYP1C1 were cloned from medaka liver exposed to 500 ppb β-naphthoflavone for 24 h. CYP1B1, having 1984 bp, contains an open reading ...

  18. Impaired Autophagy in the Lipid-Storage Disorder Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sovan; Carroll, Bernadette; Buganim, Yosef; Maetzel, Dorothea; Ng, Alex H.M.; Cassady, John P.; Cohen, Malkiel A.; Chakraborty, Souvik; Wang, Haoyi; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde; Gsponer, Joerg; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy dysfunction has been implicated in misfolded protein accumulation and cellular toxicity in several diseases. Whether alterations in autophagy also contribute to the pathology of lipid-storage disorders is not clear. Here, we show defective autophagy in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease associated with cholesterol accumulation, where the maturation of autophagosomes is impaired because of defective amphisome formation caused by failure in SNARE machinery, whereas the lysosomal prot...

  19. Rapid Reactivation of Deep Subsurface Microbes in the Presence of C-1 Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauliina Rajala

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms in the deep biosphere are believed to conduct little metabolic activity due to low nutrient availability in these environments. However, destructive penetration to long-isolated bedrock environments during construction of underground waste repositories can lead to increased nutrient availability and potentially affect the long-term stability of the repository systems, Here, we studied how microorganisms present in fracture fluid from a depth of 500 m in Outokumpu, Finland, respond to simple carbon compounds (C-1 compounds in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. C-1 compounds such as methane and methanol are important intermediates in the deep subsurface carbon cycle, and electron acceptors such as sulphate are critical components of oxidation processes. Fracture fluid samples were incubated in vitro with either methane or methanol in the presence or absence of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Metabolic response was measured by staining the microbial cells with fluorescent dyes that indicate metabolic activity and transcriptional response with RT-qPCR. Our results show that deep subsurface microbes exist in dormant states but rapidly reactivate their transcription and respiration systems in the presence of C-1 substrates, particularly methane. Microbial activity was further enhanced by the addition of sulphate as an electron acceptor. Sulphate- and nitrate-reducing microbes were particularly responsive to the addition of C-1 compounds and sulphate. These taxa are common in deep biosphere environments and may be affected by conditions disturbed by bedrock intrusion, as from drilling and excavation for long-term storage of hazardous waste.

  20. Anaerobic C1 metabolism of the O-methyl-14C-labeled substituent of vanillate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazer, A.C.; Young, L.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The O-methyl substituents of aromatic compounds constitute a C 1 growth substrate for a number of taxonomically diverse anaerobic acetogens. In this study, strain TH-001, an O-demethylating obligate anaerobe, was chosen to represent this physiological group, and the carbon flow when cells were grown on O-methyl substituents as a C 1 substrate was determined by 14 C radiotracer techniques. O-[methyl- 14 C]vanillate (4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoate) was used as the labeled C 1 substrate. The data showed that for every O-methyl carbon converted to [ 14 C]acetate, two were oxidized to 14 CO 2 . Quantitation of the carbon recovered in the two products, acetate and CO 2 , indicated that acetate was formed in part by the fixation of unlabeled CO 2 . The specific activity of 14 C in acetate was 70% of that in the O-methyl substrate, suggesting that only one carbon of acetate was derived from the O-methyl group. Thus, it is postulated that the carboxyl carbon of the product acetate is derived from CO 2 and the methyl carbon is derived from the O-methyl substituent of vanillate

  1. Thermodynamics of the vaporization of non-stoichiometric thorium monocarbide ThC1±x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Koyama, Tadafumi; Takahashi, Yoichi

    1989-01-01

    Vaporization thermodynamics of thorium monocarbide phase ThC 1±x was studied by mass spectrometric Knudsen effusion method at the compositions of ThC 0.891 , ThC 0.975 , ThC 1.007 and ThC 1.074 . The partial vapor pressure of Th(g) and activities of Th and C in ThC 1±x were determined at 2060 to 2330 K. Gibbs energies of formation of ThC 1±x were also determined. Congruent vaporization composition of ThC 1±x was evaluated at 2300 K to be ThC 1.09 . Congruent vaporization and congruent effusing compositions were defined explicitly and their characteristics brought out. (orig.)

  2. cDNA, deduced polypeptide structure and chromosomal assignment of human pulmonary surfactant proteolipid, SPL(pVal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, S.W.; Korfhagen, T.R.; Weaver, T.E.; Clark, J.C.; Pilot-Matias, T.; Meuth, J.; Fox, J.L.; Whitsett, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    In hyaline membrane disease of premature infants, lack of surfactant leads to pulmonary atelectasis and respiratory distress. Hydrophobic surfactant proteins of M/sub r/ = 5000-14,000 have been isolated from mammalian surfactants which enhance the rate of spreading and the surface tension lowering properties of phospholipids during dynamic compression. The authors have characterized the amino-terminal amino acid sequence of pulmonary proteolipids from ether/ethanol extracts of bovine, canine, and human surfactant. Two distinct peptides were identified and termed SPL(pVal) and SPL(Phe). An oligonucleotide probe based on the valine-rich amino-terminal amino acid sequence of SPL(pVal) was utilized to isolate cDNA and genomic DNA encoding the human protein, termed surfactant proteolipid SPL(pVal) on the basis of its unique polyvaline domain. The primary structure of a precursor protein of 20,870 daltons, containing the SPL(pVal) peptide, was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNAs. Hybrid-arrested translation and immunoprecipitation of labeled translation products of human mRNA demonstrated a precursor protein, the active hydrophobic peptide being produced by proteolytic processing. Two classes of cDNAs encoding SPL(pVal) were identified. Human SPL(pVal) mRNA was more abundant in the adult than in fetal lung. The SPL(pVal) gene locus was assigned to chromosome 8

  3. Deducing the temporal order of cofactor function in ligand-regulated gene transcription: theory and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Edward J; Guo, Chunhua; Simons, S Stoney; Chow, Carson C

    2012-01-01

    Cofactors are intimately involved in steroid-regulated gene expression. Two critical questions are (1) the steps at which cofactors exert their biological activities and (2) the nature of that activity. Here we show that a new mathematical theory of steroid hormone action can be used to deduce the kinetic properties and reaction sequence position for the functioning of any two cofactors relative to a concentration limiting step (CLS) and to each other. The predictions of the theory, which can be applied using graphical methods similar to those of enzyme kinetics, are validated by obtaining internally consistent data for pair-wise analyses of three cofactors (TIF2, sSMRT, and NCoR) in U2OS cells. The analysis of TIF2 and sSMRT actions on GR-induction of an endogenous gene gave results identical to those with an exogenous reporter. Thus new tools to determine previously unobtainable information about the nature and position of cofactor action in any process displaying first-order Hill plot kinetics are now available.

  4. Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA for branched chain acyltransferase with analysis of the deduced protein structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, K.B.; Litwer, S.; Bradford, A.P.; Aitken, A.; Danner, D.J.; Yeaman, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence was determined for a 1.6-kilobase human cDNA putative for the branched chain acyltransferase protein of the branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Translation of the sequence reveals an open reading frame encoding a 315-amino acid protein of molecular weight 35,759 followed by 560 bases of 3'-untranslated sequence. Three repeats of the polyadenylation signal hexamer ATTAAA are present prior to the polyadenylate tail. Within the open reading frame is a 10-amino acid fragment which matches exactly the amino acid sequence around the lipoate-lysine residue in bovine kidney branched chain acyltransferase, thus confirming the identity of the cDNA. Analysis of the deduced protein structure for the human branched chain acyltransferase revealed an organization into domains similar to that reported for the acyltransferase proteins of the pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. This similarity in organization suggests that a more detailed analysis of the proteins will be required to explain the individual substrate and multienzyme complex specificity shown by these acyltransferases

  5. International consensus on the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, H; Martinez-Saguer, I; Bork, K; Bowen, T; Craig, T; Frank, M; Germenis, A E; Grumach, A S; Luczay, A; Varga, L; Zanichelli, A

    2017-02-01

    The consensus documents published to date on hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) have focused on adult patients. Many of the previous recommendations have not been adapted to pediatric patients. We intended to produce consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with C1-INH-HAE. During an expert panel meeting that took place during the 9th C1 Inhibitor Deficiency Workshop in Budapest, 2015 (www.haenet.hu), pediatric data were presented and discussed and a consensus was developed by voting. The symptoms of C1-INH-HAE often present in childhood. Differential diagnosis can be difficult as abdominal pain is common in pediatric C1-INH-HAE, but also commonly occurs in the general pediatric population. The early onset of symptoms may predict a more severe subsequent course of the disease. Before the age of 1 year, C1-INH levels may be lower than in adults; therefore, it is advisable to confirm the diagnosis after the age of one year. All neonates/infants with an affected C1-INH-HAE family member should be screened for C1-INH deficiency. Pediatric patients should always carry a C1-INH-HAE information card and medicine for emergency use. The regulatory approval status of the drugs for prophylaxis and for acute treatment is different in each country. Plasma-derived C1-INH, recombinant C1-INH, and ecallantide are the only agents licensed for the acute treatment of pediatric patients. Clinical trials are underway with additional drugs. It is recommended to follow up patients in an HAE comprehensive care center. The pediatric-focused international consensus for the diagnosis and management of C1-INH-HAE patients was created. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. In silico Analysis of osr40c1 Promoter Sequence Isolated from Indica Variety Pokkali

    OpenAIRE

    W.S.I. de Silva; M.M.N. Perera; K.L.N.S. Perera; A.M. Wickramasuriya; G.A.U. Jayasekera

    2017-01-01

    The promoter region of a drought and abscisic acid (ABA) inducible gene, osr40c1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant indica rice variety Pokkali, which is 670 bp upstream of the putative translation start codon. In silico promoter analysis of resulted sequence showed that at least 15 types of putative motifs were distributed within the sequence, including two types of common promoter elements, TATA and CAAT boxes. Additionally, several putative cis-acing regulatory elements which may be involv...

  7. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant parvovirus B19 vaccine formulated with MF59C.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, W Ripley; Reed, Jennifer L; Noble, William; Young, Neal S; Koenig, Scott

    2003-02-15

    A recombinant human parvovirus B19 vaccine (MEDI-491; MedImmune) composed of the VP1 and VP2 capsid proteins and formulated with MF59C.1 adjuvant was evaluated in a randomized, double-blind, phase 1 trial. Parvovirus B19-seronegative adults (n=24) received either 2.5 or 25 microg MEDI-491 at 0, 1, and 6 months. MEDI-491 was safe and immunogenic. All volunteers developed neutralizing antibody titers that peaked after the third immunization and were sustained through study day 364.

  8. Synthesis of C-9-14C-1,8-dihydroxy-3-carboxyanthraquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Witte, P.; Lemli, J.

    1988-01-01

    The synthesis of C-9- 14 C-rhein is reported using 14 CO 2 as a 14 C-source. After preparing 14 C-1, 8-dimethoxy-3-methylanthraquinone by a condensation reaction, the product is demethylated and the 3-methyl group converted to the corresponding 3-carboxy group. The radio-active yield of the total synthesis, starting with 1 Ci 14 CO 2 is 6,9% (6, 9 mCi); 352 mg 14 rhein is produced with a specific activity of 55,7 mCi/mmol. (author)

  9. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the posterior arch of C1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbaker, Donna G.; Tuite, Michael J.; Koplin, Stephanie A.; Salamat, M.S.; Hafez, Reza

    2008-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumor, also called pigmented villonodular synovitis, is a disease typically of the joints and which uncommonly involves the spine. We present a case of a mass of the posterior C1 arch which eroded bone and did not arise from the facet joint. The imaging findings of spinal tenosynovial giant cell tumor will be reviewed as well as the imaging findings in this case, where tenosynovial giant cell tumor arose presumably within a small bursa. One's understanding of the imaging characteristics can lead to the correct diagnosis and avoid an unnecessary work-up. (orig.)

  10. In-situ radiation measurements of the C1 and C2 waste storage tank vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, L.K.; Womble, P.C.; Weems, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    In August of 1996, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department (ARMD) of the Waste Management and Remedial Action Division (WMRAD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked with characterizing the radiation fields in the C 1 and C 2 Liquid Low Level Waste (LLLW) tank vault located at ORNL. These in-situ measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the potential radiological conditions for personnel working in or around the vault during future planned activities. This report describes the locations where measurements were made, the types of radiation detection instruments used, the methods employed, the problems encountered and resolved, and discusses the results obtained

  11. Quantum behavior near a spacelike boundary in the c=1 matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarek, Joanna L.

    2008-01-01

    Certain time-dependent configurations in the c=1 matrix model correspond to string theory backgrounds which have spacelike boundaries and appear geodesically incomplete. We investigate quantum mechanical properties of a class of such configurations in the matrix model, in terms of fermionic eigenvalues. We describe Hamiltonian evolution of the eigenvalue density using several different time variables, some of which are infinite and some of which are finite in extent. We derive unitary transformations relating these different descriptions, and use those to calculate fermion correlators in the time-dependent background. Using the chiral formalism, we write the time-dependent configurations as a state in the original matrix model Hilbert space.

  12. Essential Boundary Conditions with Straight C1 Finite Elements in Curved Domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, N.M.; Jardin, S.C.; Luo, X.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of essential boundary conditions in C1 finite element analysis requires proper treatment of both the boundary conditions on second-order differentials of the solution and the curvature of the domain boundary. A method for the imposition of essential boundary conditions using straight elements (where the elements are not deformed to approximate a curved domain) is described. It is shown that pre-multiplication of the matrix equation by the local rotation matrix at each boundary node is not the optimal transformation. The uniquely optimal transformation is found, which does not take the form of a similarity transformation due to the non-orthogonality of the transformation to curved coordinates.

  13. Structural Basis for Specificity of Propeptide-Enzyme Interaction in Barley C1A Cysteine Peptidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambra, Inés; Hernández, David; Diaz, Isabel; Martinez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    C1A cysteine peptidases are synthesized as inactive proenzymes. Activation takes place by proteolysis cleaving off the inhibitory propeptide. The inhibitory capacity of propeptides from barley cathepsin L and B-like peptidases towards commercial and barley cathepsins has been characterized. Differences in selectivity have been found for propeptides from L-cathepsins against their cognate and non cognate enzymes. Besides, the propeptide from barley cathepsin B was not able to inhibit bovine cathepsin B. Modelling of their three-dimensional structures suggests that most propeptide inhibitory properties can be explained from the interaction between the propeptide and the mature cathepsin structures. Their potential use as biotechnological tools is discussed. PMID:22615948

  14. Molecular basis of hereditary C1q deficiency-revisited: identification of several novel disease-causing mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schejbel, L; Skattum, L; Hagelberg, S

    2011-01-01

    C1q is the central pattern-recognition molecule in the classical pathway of the complement system and is known to have a key role in the crossroads between adaptive and innate immunity. Hereditary C1q deficiency is a rare genetic condition strongly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus...... and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections. However, the clinical symptoms may vary. For long, the molecular basis of C1q deficiency was ascribed to only six different mutations. In the present report, we describe five new patients with C1q deficiency, present the 12 causative mutations described till...... now and review the clinical spectrum of symptoms found in patients with C1q deficiency. With the results presented here, confirmed C1q deficiency is reported in 64 patients from at least 38 families....

  15. Human and pneumococcal cell surface glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) proteins are both ligands of human C1q protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasse, Rémi; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Moriscot, Christine; Pérard, Julien; Schoehn, Guy; Vernet, Thierry; Thielens, Nicole M; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Frachet, Philippe

    2012-12-14

    C1q, a key component of the classical complement pathway, is a major player in the response to microbial infection and has been shown to detect noxious altered-self substances such as apoptotic cells. In this work, using complementary experimental approaches, we identified the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a C1q partner when exposed at the surface of human pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and human apoptotic cells. The membrane-associated GAPDH on HeLa cells bound the globular regions of C1q as demonstrated by pulldown and cell surface co-localization experiments. Pneumococcal strains deficient in surface-exposed GAPDH harbored a decreased level of C1q recognition when compared with the wild-type strains. Both recombinant human and pneumococcal GAPDHs interacted avidly with C1q as measured by surface plasmon resonance experiments (K(D) = 0.34-2.17 nm). In addition, GAPDH-C1q complexes were observed by transmission electron microscopy after cross-linking. The purified pneumococcal GAPDH protein activated C1 in an in vitro assay unlike the human form. Deposition of C1q, C3b, and C4b from human serum at the surface of pneumococcal cells was dependent on the presence of surface-exposed GAPDH. This ability of C1q to sense both human and bacterial GAPDHs sheds new insights on the role of this important defense collagen molecule in modulating the immune response.

  16. Human and Pneumococcal Cell Surface Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Proteins Are Both Ligands of Human C1q Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasse, Rémi; Tacnet-Delorme, Pascale; Moriscot, Christine; Pérard, Julien; Schoehn, Guy; Vernet, Thierry; Thielens, Nicole M.; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie; Frachet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    C1q, a key component of the classical complement pathway, is a major player in the response to microbial infection and has been shown to detect noxious altered-self substances such as apoptotic cells. In this work, using complementary experimental approaches, we identified the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a C1q partner when exposed at the surface of human pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae and human apoptotic cells. The membrane-associated GAPDH on HeLa cells bound the globular regions of C1q as demonstrated by pulldown and cell surface co-localization experiments. Pneumococcal strains deficient in surface-exposed GAPDH harbored a decreased level of C1q recognition when compared with the wild-type strains. Both recombinant human and pneumococcal GAPDHs interacted avidly with C1q as measured by surface plasmon resonance experiments (KD = 0.34–2.17 nm). In addition, GAPDH-C1q complexes were observed by transmission electron microscopy after cross-linking. The purified pneumococcal GAPDH protein activated C1 in an in vitro assay unlike the human form. Deposition of C1q, C3b, and C4b from human serum at the surface of pneumococcal cells was dependent on the presence of surface-exposed GAPDH. This ability of C1q to sense both human and bacterial GAPDHs sheds new insights on the role of this important defense collagen molecule in modulating the immune response. PMID:23086952

  17. Borel and Stokes Nonperturbative Phenomena in Topological String Theory and c=1 Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquetti, Sara

    2010-01-01

    We address the nonperturbative structure of topological strings and c=1 matrix models, focusing on understanding the nature of instanton effects alongside with exploring their relation to the large-order behavior of the 1/N expansion. We consider the Gaussian, Penner and Chern-Simons matrix models, together with their holographic duals, the c=1 minimal string at self-dual radius and topological string theory on the resolved conifold. We employ Borel analysis to obtain the exact all-loop multi-instanton corrections to the free energies of the aforementioned models, and show that the leading poles in the Borel plane control the large-order behavior of perturbation theory. We understand the nonperturbative effects in terms of the Schwinger effect and provide a semiclassical picture in terms of eigenvalue tunneling between critical points of the multi-sheeted matrix model effective potentials. In particular, we relate instantons to Stokes phenomena via a hyperasymptotic analysis, providing a smoothing of the nonp...

  18. GRIM5-C1: Combination solution of the global gravity field to degree and order 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thomas; Bode, Albert; Reigber, Christoph; Schwintzer, Peter; Balmino, Georges; Biancale, Richard; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2000-12-01

    The new satellite Earth gravity field model GRIM5-S1 was recently prepared in a joint GFZ and GRGS effort. Based on this satellite solution and terrestrial and altimetric gravity anomalies from NIMA, a combined model GRIM5-C1, with full variance-covariance matrix up to degree and order 120, was computed. Surface gravity and altimetric gravity data are corrected for several systematic effects, such as ellipsoidal corrections and aliasing. A weighting scheme for gravity anomalies, according to their given standard deviations was developed. From each data set full normal equations were set up and finally combined with the GRIM5-S1 normals. To take into account good information from the satellite-only model a procedure was developed to identify such coefficients and appropriately weighed them in the final normal equation system. Internal error propagation and comparisons to external data sets show, that the GRIM5-C1 model represents the best state of long wavelength gravity field models.

  19. Cytochrome c1 exhibits two binding sites for cytochrome c in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-10-01

    In plants, channeling of cytochrome c molecules between complexes III and IV has been purported to shuttle electrons within the supercomplexes instead of carrying electrons by random diffusion across the intermembrane bulk phase. However, the mode plant cytochrome c behaves inside a supercomplex such as the respirasome, formed by complexes I, III and IV, remains obscure from a structural point of view. Here, we report ab-initio Brownian dynamics calculations and nuclear magnetic resonance-driven docking computations showing two binding sites for plant cytochrome c at the head soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1, namely a non-productive (or distal) site with a long heme-to-heme distance and a functional (or proximal) site with the two heme groups close enough as to allow electron transfer. As inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, the two binding sites exhibit different equilibrium dissociation constants, for both reduced and oxidized species, that are all within the micromolar range, thus revealing the transient nature of such a respiratory complex. Although the docking of cytochrome c at the distal site occurs at the interface between cytochrome c1 and the Rieske subunit, it is fully compatible with the complex III structure. In our model, the extra distal site in complex III could indeed facilitate the functional cytochrome c channeling towards complex IV by building a "floating boat bridge" of cytochrome c molecules (between complexes III and IV) in plant respirasome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic diversity of the HpyC1I restriction modification system in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehours, Philippe; Dupouy, Sandrine; Chaineux, Julien; Ruskoné-Fourmestraux, Agnès; Delchier, Jean-Charles; Morgner, Andrea; Mégraud, Francis; Ménard, Armelle

    2007-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is unique because of the unusually high number and diversity of its restriction modification (R-M) systems. HpyC1I R-M was recently characterized and contains an endonuclease which is an isoschizomer of the endonuclease BccI. This R-M is involved in adherence to gastric epithelial cells, a crucial step in bacterial pathogenesis. This observation illustrates the fact that R-M systems have other putative biological functions in addition to protecting the bacterial genome from external DNA. The genomic diversity of HpyC1I R-M was evaluated more precisely on a large collection of H. pylori strains by PCR, susceptibility to BccI digestion and sequencing. The results obtained support the mechanism of gain and loss of this R-M system in the H. pylori genome, and suggest that it is an ancestral system which gradually disappears during H. pylori evolution, following successive steps: (1) inactivation of the endonuclease gene, followed or accompanied by: (2) inactivation of the methyltransferase genes, and then: (3) definitive loss, leaving only short endonuclease remnant sequences.

  1. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  2. XMM-Newton study of the supersoft symbiotic system Draco C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Sara; Sasaki, Manami; Ducci, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of the analysis of thirty-one XMM-Newton observations of the symbiotic star Draco C1 located in the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. This object had been identified as a supersoft source based on ROSAT data. We analysed X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and optical data taken with XMM-Newton in order to obtain the physical parameters and the geometry of the system. We have also performed the first X-ray timing analysis of Draco C1. The X-ray spectrum is well fitted with a blackbody model with a temperature of (1.8 ± 0.3) × 105 K. We obtained a bolometric luminosity of ≳1038 erg s-1 for the white dwarf. The X-ray spectrum and luminosity suggest stable nuclear burning on the surface of the white dwarf. The low column density derived from the X-ray spectrum is consistent with the lack of nebular lines found in previous UV studies. The long-term variability in the optical and the UV suggests that the system is not observed face-on and that the variability is caused by the reflection effect. For the red giant companion, we estimate a radius of ∼110 R⊙ and an upper limit ≲1.5 M⊙ for its mass assuming Roche lobe overflow.

  3. Synthesis of the C1-C28 Portion of Spongistatin 1 (Altohyrtin A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Michelle M.; Hayes, Christopher J.; Heathcock, Clayton H.

    1999-10-29

    A synthetic approach was developed to the C1-C28 subunit of spongistatin 1 (altohyrtin A, 65). The key step was the coupling of the AB and CD spiroketal moieties via an anti-aldol reaction of aldehyde 62 and ethyl ketone 57. The development of a method for the construction of the AB spiroketal fragment is described and included the desymmetrization of C(2)-symmetric diketone 10 and the differentiation of the two primary alcohols of 16. Further elaboration of this advanced intermediate to the desired aldehyde 62 included an Evans' syn-aldol reaction and Tebbe olefination. The synthesis of the CD spiroketal fragment 56 involved the ketalization of a triol-dione, generated in situ by deprotection of 45, to provide a favorable ratio (6-7:1) of spiroketal isomers 46 and 47, respectively. The overall protecting group strategy, involving many selective manipulations of silyl protecting groups, was successfully developed to provide the desired C1-C28 subunit of spongistatin 1 (altohyrtin A) (65).

  4. Formation of carbon nano- and micro-structures on C+1 irradiated copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Shoaib

    2013-01-01

    A series of experiments has identified mechanisms of carbon nano- and micro-structure formation at room temperature, without catalyst and in the environment of immiscible metallic surroundings. The structures include threaded nano fibres, graphitic sheets and carbon onions. Copper as substrate was used due to its immiscibility with carbon. Energetic carbon ions (C + 1 ) of 0.2–2.0 MeV irradiated Cu targets. Cu substrates, apertures and 3 mm dia TEM Cu grids were implanted with the carbon. We observed wide range of μm-size structures formed on Cu grids and along the edges of the irradiated apertures. These are shown to be threaded nano fibers (TNF) of few μm thicknesses with lengths varying from 10 to 3000 μm. Secondary electron microscopy (SEM) identifies the μm-size structures while Confocal microscopy was used to learn about the mechanisms by which C + 1 irradiated Cu provides the growth environment. Huge carbon onions of diameters ranging from hundreds of nm to μm were observed in the as-grown and annealed samples. Transformations of the nanostructures were observed under prolonged electron irradiations of SEM and TEM. A mechanism for the formation of carbon nano- and micro-structures is proposed.

  5. Utilization of metabonomics to identify serum biomarkers in murine H22 hepatocarcinoma and deduce antitumor mechanism of Rhizoma Paridis saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Peiyu; Man, Shuli; Yang, He; Fan, Wei; Yu, Peng; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-25

    Murine H22 hepatocarcinoma model is so popular to be used for the preclinical anticancer candidate's evaluation. However, the metabolic biomarkers of this model were not identified. Meanwhile, Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have been found to show strong antitumor activity, while its anti-cancer mechanism is not clear. To search for potential metabolite biomarkers of this model, serum metabonomics approach was applied to detect the variation of metabolite biomarkers and the related metabolism genes and signaling pathway were used to deduce the antitumor mechanisms of RPS. As a result, ten serum metabolites were identified in twenty-four mice including healthy mice, non-treated cancer mice, RPS-treated cancer mice and RPS-treated healthy mice. RPS significantly decreased tumor weight correlates to down-regulating lactate, acetate, N-acetyl amino acid and glutamine signals (p < 0.05), which were marked metabolites screened according to the very important person (VIP), loading plot and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) tests. For the analysis of metabolic enzyme related genes, RPS reversed the aerobic glycolysis through activating tumor suppressor p53 and PTEN, and suppressed FASN to inhibit lipogenesis. What's more, RPS repressed Myc and GLS expression and decreased glutamine level. The regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR and HIF-1α/Myc/Ras networks also participated in these metabolic changes. Taken together, RPS suppressed ATP product made the tumor growth slow, which indicated a good anti-cancer effect and new angle for understanding the mechanism of RPS. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the utility of (1)H NMR metabolic profiles taken together with tumor weight and viscera index was a promising screening tool for evaluating the antitumor effect of candidates. In addition, RPS was a potent anticancer agent through inhibiting cancer cellular metabolism to suppress proliferation in hepatoma H22 tumor murine, which promoted the

  6. Deducing hybrid performance from parental metabolic profiles of young primary roots of maize by using a multivariate diallel approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Feher

    Full Text Available Heterosis, the greater vigor of hybrids compared to their parents, has been exploited in maize breeding for more than 100 years to produce ever better performing elite hybrids of increased yield. Despite extensive research, the underlying mechanisms shaping the extent of heterosis are not well understood, rendering the process of selecting an optimal set of parental lines tedious. This study is based on a dataset consisting of 112 metabolite levels in young roots of four parental maize inbred lines and their corresponding twelve hybrids, along with the roots' biomass as a heterotic trait. Because the parental biomass is a poor predictor for hybrid biomass, we established a model framework to deduce the biomass of the hybrid from metabolite profiles of its parental lines. In the proposed framework, the hybrid metabolite levels are expressed relative to the parental levels by incorporating the standard concept of additivity/dominance, which we name the Combined Relative Level (CRL. Our modeling strategy includes a feature selection step on the parental levels which are demonstrated to be predictive of CRL across many hybrid metabolites. We demonstrate that these selected parental metabolites are further predictive of hybrid biomass. Our approach directly employs the diallel structure in a multivariate fashion, whereby we attempt to not only predict macroscopic phenotype (biomass, but also molecular phenotype (metabolite profiles. Therefore, our study provides the first steps for further investigations of the genetic determinants to metabolism and, ultimately, growth. Finally, our success on the small-scale experiments implies a valid strategy for large-scale experiments, where parental metabolite profiles may be used together with profiles of selected hybrids as a training set to predict biomass of all possible hybrids.

  7. Exospheric Neutral Density at the Earth's subsolar magnetopause deduced from the XMM-Newton X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H. K.; Carter, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soft X-rays can be emitted when highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals exchange electrons. Astrophysics missions, such as XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray telescopes, have found that such solar wind charge exchange happens at the Earth's exosphere. The Earth's magnetosphere can be imaged via soft X-rays in order to understand its interaction with solar wind. Consequently, two soft X-ray telescope missions (CuPID and SMILE) are scheduled to launch in 2019 and 2021. They will provide wide field-of-view soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere. The imagers will track the location and movement of the cusps, magnetopause, and bow shock in response to solar wind variations. To support these missions, an understanding of exospheric neutral density profile is needed. The neutral density is one of the controlling factors of soft X-ray signals. Strong neutral density can help to obtain high-resolution and high-cadence of soft X-ray images. In this study, we estimate the exospheric neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point using XMM X-ray observations, Cluster plasma observations, and OpenGGCM global magnetosphere - ionosphere MHD model. XMM-Newton observes line-of-sight, narrow field-of-view, integrated soft X-ray emissions when it looks through the dayside magnetosphere. OpenGGCM reproduces soft X-ray signals seen by the XMM spacecraft, assuming exospheric neutral density as a function of the neutral density at the 10RE subsolar point and the radial distance. Cluster observations are used to confirm OpenGGCM plasma results. Finally, we deduce the neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point by adjusting the model results to the XMM-Newton soft X-ray observations.

  8. X-ray absorption edges and E.X.A.F.S.: application to the study of electronic and atomic structures of titanium and vanadium carbides TiC(1-x) and VC(1-x)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisy-Maurice, Virginie.

    1980-09-01

    This text presents a systematic study of the X-ray absorption fine structures evolution, at the K edge of titanium, with vacancy concentration in TiC(1-x). The absorption edges are situated in the 50 eV following the coefficient discontinuity: from the evaluation of their general aspect, it is deduced that the positive charge of titanium atoms decreases when vacancy concentration increases in TiC(1-x). This allowed us to determine the best band structure calculation model. The interpretation of EXAFS spectra (modulation of the absorption coefficient until 1500 eV above the edge) gives indications about the local atomic structure. Here, the contraction of the average titanium-carbon interatomic distances compared to the distances between crystallographic sites is of the order of the experimental resolution 0.02 A for Ti C(0.8). The study of the damping of the spectra in terms of Debye-Waller factors gave an evaluation of the relative static atomic mean square displacements between first neighbours. Last, it has been established that the disordering of vacancies in the order-disorder transition of V 8 C 7 is an atomic scale phenomenon [fr

  9. Evidence for a novel chemotactic C1q domain-containing factor in the leech nerve cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Muriel; Croq, Françoise; Vizioli, Jacopo; Sautiere, Pierre-Eric; Van Camp, Christelle; Salzet, Michel; Daha, Mohamed R; Pestel, Joël; Lefebvre, Christophe

    2009-02-01

    In vertebrates, central nervous system (CNS) protection is dependent on many immune cells including microglial cells. Indeed, activated microglial cells are involved in neuroinflammation mechanisms by interacting with numerous immune factors. Unlike vertebrates, some lophotrochozoan invertebrates can fully repair their CNS following injury. In the medicinal leech Hirudo medicinalis, the recruitment of microglial cells at the lesion site is essential for sprouting of injured axons. Interestingly, a new molecule homologous to vertebrate C1q was characterized in leech, named HmC1q (for H. medicinalis) and detected in neurons and glial cells. In chemotaxis assays, leech microglial cells were demonstrated to respond to human C1q. The chemotactic activity was reduced when microglia was preincubated with signaling pathway inhibitors (Pertussis Toxin or wortmannin) or anti-human gC1qR antibody suggesting the involvement of gC1qR in C1q-mediated migration in leech. Assays using cells preincubated with NO chelator (cPTIO) showed that C1q-mediated migration was associated to NO production. Of interest, by using anti-HmC1q antibodies, HmC1q released in the culture medium was shown to exhibit a similar chemotactic effect on microglial cells as human C1q. In summary, we have identified, for the first time, a molecule homologous to mammalian C1q in leech CNS. Its chemoattractant activity on microglia highlights a new investigation field leading to better understand leech CNS repair mechanisms.

  10. Epigenetics Reactivation of Nrf2 in Prostate TRAMP C1 Cells by Curcumin Analogue FN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenji; Pung, Doug; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Chengyue; Yang, Anne Yuqing; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhi-Yun; Zhang, Kun; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2016-04-18

    It has previously been shown that curcumin can effectively inhibit prostate cancer proliferation and progression in TRAMP mice, potentially acting through the hypomethylation of the Nrf2 gene promoter and hence activation of the Nrf2 pathway to enhance cell antioxidative defense. FN1 is a synthetic curcumin analogue that shows stronger anticancer activity than curcumin in other reports. We aimed to explore the epigenetic modification of FN1 that restores Nrf2 expression in TRAMP-C1 cells. Stably transfected HepG2-C8 cells were used to investigate the effect of FN1 on the Nrf2- antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were applied to study the influence of FN1 on endogenous Nrf2 and its downstream genes. Bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) were then performed to examine the methylation profile of the Nrf2 promoter. An anchorage-independent colony-formation analysis was conducted to examine the tumor inhibition activity of FN1. Epigenetic modification enzymes, including DNMTs and HDACs, were investigated by Western blotting. The luciferase reporter assay indicated that FN1 was more potent than curcumin in activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway. FN1 increased the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream detoxifying enzymes. FN1 significantly inhibited the colony formation of TRAMP-C1 cells. BGS and MeDIP assays revealed that FN1 treatment (250 nM for 3 days) reduced the percentage of CpG methylation of the Nrf2 promoter. FN1 also downregulated epigenetic modification enzymes. In conclusion, our results suggest that FN1 is a novel anticancer agent for prostate cancer. In the TRAMP-C1 cell line, FN1 can increase the level of Nrf2 and downstream genes via activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway and inhibit the colony formation potentially through the decreased expression of keap1 coupled with CpG demethylation of the Nrf2 promoter. This CpG demethylation effect may come from decreased

  11. A new mitochondrial C1 lineage from the prehistory of Uruguay: population genocide, ethnocide, and continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sans, Monica; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Hidalgo, Pedro C

    2012-06-01

    Uruguayan population has been considered as of European descent, as its Native populations victims of genocide apparently disappeared in the 19th century. Contradicting this national belief, genetic studies have shown a substantial Native contribution. However, the continuity between prehistoric, historic, and present populations remains unproved. With the aim of adding elements to prove a possible population continuity, we studied a mitochondrial lineage, part of haplogroup C1, analyzing the complete genome of a modern Uruguayan individual and the hypervariable region I (HVRI) in prehistoric, historic, and contemporary individuals. Several individuals carried the mutations that characterize this lineage: two from an archaeological mound located in the east of the country, the Charrúa Indian chief Vaimaca Perú and five individuals from the present population. The lineage was initially characterized by its HVRI sequence, having the four typical C1 mutations and adding 16051G and 16288C; other mutations were also found: 16140C was found in all but the oldest individual, dated 1,610 years BP, while 16209C, 16422C, and 16519C were found only in some individuals. Hypervariable region II showed the typical C1 mutations and 194T. The coding region, analyzed in modern individuals, was characterized by 12378T, while other mutations found were not common to all of them. In summary, we have found and described a new lineage that shows continuity from prehistoric mound builders to the present population, through a representative of the extinct Charrúa Indians. The lineage appeared at least 1,600 years ago and is carried by approximately 0.7% of the modern Uruguayan population. The continuity of the lineage supports alternative perspectives about Uruguayan national identity and the meaning of the genocide, best labeled as ethnocide because of its consequences. It also contributes to the discussion about who the prehistoric mound builders were, and to the origin, at least in

  12. Dietary cholesterol induces trafficking of intestinal Niemann-Pick Type C1 Like 1 from the brush border to endosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Marianne; Tønnesen, Carina K; Hansen, Gert H

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 (NPC1L1) belongs to the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) family of cholesterol transporters and is mainly expressed in the liver and the small intestine. NPC1L1 is believed to be the main transporter responsible for the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Lik...

  13. Cloning and characterization of the complementary DNA for the B chain of normal human serum C1q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, K B; Bentley, D R; Wood, K J

    1984-09-06

    Normal human C1q is a serum glycoprotein of 460 kDa containing 18 polypeptide chains (6A, 6B, 6C) each 226 amino acids long and each containing an N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal globular domain. Two unusual forms of C1q have been described: a genetically defective form, which has a molecular mass of approximately 160 kDa and is found in the sera of homozygotes for the defect who show a marked susceptibility to immune complex related disease; a fibroblast form, shown to be synthesized and secreted, in vitro, with a molecular mass of about 800 kDa and with chains approximately 16 kDa greater than those of normal C1q. A higher than normal molecular mass form of C1q has also been described in human colostrum and a form of C1q has been claimed to represent one of the types of Fc receptor on guinea-pig macrophages. To initiate studies, at the genomic level, on these various forms of C1q, and to investigate the possible relation between the C1q genes and the procollagen genes, the complementary DNA corresponding to the B chain of normal C1q has been cloned and characterized.

  14. The first report of the vanC1 gene in Enterococcus faecium isolated from a human clinical specimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Sun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vanC1 gene, which is chromosomally located, confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Enterococcus faecium TJ4031 was isolated from a blood culture and harbours the vanC1gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays were performed to detect vanXYc and vanTc genes. Only the vanXYc gene was found in the E. faecium TJ4031 isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin and teicoplanin were 2 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL, respectively. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR results revealed that the vanC1and vanXYc genes were not expressed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and southern hybridisation results showed that the vanC1 gene was encoded in the chromosome. E. faecalis isolated from animals has been reported to harbour vanC1gene. However, this study is the first to report the presence of the vanC1gene in E. faecium of human origin. Additionally, our research showed the vanC1gene cannot serve as a species-specific gene of E. gallinarum and that it is able to be transferred between bacteria. Although the resistance marker is not expressed in the strain, our results showed that E. faecium could acquire the vanC1gene from different species.

  15. Suppression of complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor in vascular endothelial activation by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Haimou; Qin, Gangjian; Liang, Gang; Li, Jinan; Chiu, Isaac; Barrington, Robert A.; Liu, Dongxu

    2007-01-01

    Increased expression of adhesion molecules by activated endothelium is a critical feature of vascular inflammation associated with the several diseases such as endotoxin shock and sepsis/septic shock. Our data demonstrated complement regulatory protein C1 inhibitor (C1INH) prevents endothelial cell injury. We hypothesized that C1INH has the ability of an anti-endothelial activation associated with suppression of expression of adhesion molecule(s). C1INH blocked leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayer in both static assay and flow conditions. In inflammatory condition, C1INH reduced vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression associated with its cytoplasmic mRNA destabilization and nuclear transcription level. Studies exploring the underlying mechanism of C1INH-mediated suppression in VCAM-1 expression were related to reduction of NF-κB activation and nuclear translocation in an IκBα-dependent manner. The inhibitory effects were associated with reduction of inhibitor IκB kinase activity and stabilization of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB. These findings indicate a novel role for C1INH in inhibition of vascular endothelial activation. These observations could provide the basis for new therapeutic application of C1INH to target inflammatory processes in different pathologic situations

  16. International consensus on the diagnosis and management of pediatric patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farkas, H; Martinez-Saguer, I; Bork, K

    2017-01-01

    : The symptoms of C1-INH-HAE often present in childhood. Differential diagnosis can be difficult as abdominal pain is common in pediatric C1-INH-HAE, but also commonly occurs in the general pediatric population. The early onset of symptoms may predict a more severe subsequent course of the disease. Before...

  17. 17 CFR 240.19c-1 - Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing certain off-board agency transactions by members of national securities exchanges. 240.19c-1 Section 240.19c-1 Commodity... members of national securities exchanges. The rules of each national securities exchange shall provide as...

  18. 17 CFR 270.22e-2 - Pricing of redemption requests in accordance with Rule 22c-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pricing of redemption requests in accordance with Rule 22c-1. 270.22e-2 Section 270.22e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....22e-2 Pricing of redemption requests in accordance with Rule 22c-1. An investment company shall not be...

  19. ELISA to measure neutralizing capacity of anti-C1-inhibitor antibodies in plasma of angioedema patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Ruchira; Rensink, Irma; Roem, Dorina; Brouwer, Mieke; Kalei, Asma; Perry, Dawn; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana; Hamann, Dörte

    2015-01-01

    Neutralizing autoantibodies (NAbs) against plasma serpin C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) are implicated in the rare disorder, acquired angioedema (AAE). There is insufficient understanding of the process of antibody formation and its correlation with disease progression and severity. We have developed an

  20. In situ detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in wetland sediments with a nested PCR assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Aiken, Judd M.

    1999-01-01

    A nested PCR was developed for detection of the Clostridium botulinum type C1 toxin gene in sediments collected from wetlands where avian botulism outbreaks had or had not occurred. The C1 toxin gene was detected in 16 of 18 sites, demonstrating both the ubiquitous distribution of C. botulinum type C in wetland sediments and the sensitivity of the detection assay.

  1. 17 CFR 240.15c1-3 - Misrepresentation by brokers, dealers and municipal securities dealers as to registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misrepresentation by brokers...-The-Counter Markets § 240.15c1-3 Misrepresentation by brokers, dealers and municipal securities..., as used in section 15(c)(1) of the Act, is hereby defined to include any representation by a broker...

  2. Magnetism in ordered metallic perovskite compound GdPd3BxC1-x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Dattagupta, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report results of dc-magnetization, ac-susceptibility and magnetoresistance measurements on crystalline metallic-perovskite compounds GdPd 3 B x C 1-x (x=0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00) and the parent cubic compound GdPd 3 . The interest in these materials stems from the observation of negative temperature coefficient of resistance and negative thermal expansion in some of the members of this series. In the present study, we show that by substitution of non-magnetic elements, boron and carbon, the nature of the magnetic interaction can be varied from dominating ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic and finally to a canted magnetic structure without altering the crystal symmetry of the compounds. The variation of magnetic interaction by modifying the lattice parameter resembles Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) oscillations.

  3. W-infinity ward identities and correlation functions in the c = 1 matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Dhar, A.; Mandal, G.; Wadia, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore consequences of W-infinity symmetry in the fermionic field theory of the c = 1 matrix model. The authors derive exact Ward identities relating correlation functions of the bilocal operator. These identities can be expressed as equations satisfied by the effective action of a three-dimensional theory and contain non-perturbative information about the model. The authors use thee identities to calculate the two-point function of the bilocal operator in the double scaling limit. The authors extract the operator whose two-point correlator has a single pole at an (imaginary) integer value of the energy. The authors then rewrite the W-infinity charges in terms of operators in the matrix model and use this to derive constraints satisfied by the partition function of the matrix model with a general time dependent potential

  4. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  5. Manganese-Catalyzed Aminomethylation of Aromatic Compounds with Methanol as a Sustainable C1 Building Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastalir, Matthias; Pittenauer, Ernst; Allmaier, Günter; Kirchner, Karl

    2017-07-05

    This study represents the first example of a manganese-catalyzed environmentally benign, practical three-component aminomethylation of activated aromatic compounds including naphtols, phenols, pyridines, indoles, carbazoles, and thiophenes in combination with amines and MeOH as a C1 source. These reactions proceed with high atom efficiency via a sequence of dehydrogenation and condensation steps which give rise to selective C-C and C-N bond formations, thereby releasing hydrogen and water. A well-defined hydride Mn(I) PNP pincer complex, recently developed in our laboratory, catalyzes this process in a very efficient way, and a total of 28 different aminomethylated products were synthesized and isolated yields of up to 91%. In a preliminary study, a related Fe(II) PNP pincer complex was shown to catalyze the methylation of 2-naphtol rather than its aminomethylation displaying again the divergent behavior of isoelectronic Mn(I) and Fe(II) PNP pincer systems.

  6. Summary Report for April, May and June, 1951, Chemistry Division, Section C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W. M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemistry Division; Osborne, D. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemistry Division

    1951-08-01

    This is a summary report for April, May and June, 1951, in the Chemistry Division, Section C-1 of Argonne National Laboratory. Topics include Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry with specifics about the following: 1) U238 (n,2n) Cross Section WIthin a Uranium Slug, and 2) Possible Occurrence of Si32 in Nature. Basic Chemistry is also covered, going into the following subjects: 1) Heats of Solution of Salts in Organic Solvents, 2) Effect of Coordination on Absorption Spectra of Anions, 3) Entropy, Enthalpy, and Heat Capacity of Thorium Dioxide from 10 to 300°K, 4) The Thermodynamics of Neptunium Ions, 5) Migration of Ions in Ion-Exchange Resins During Electrolysis, and 5) Mutual Separation of Lanthanides and Actinides by Solvent Extraction Techniques.

  7. Selection and characterization of DNA aptamers against Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yukun; Chen, Xiujuan; Duan, Nuo; Wu, Shijia; Wang, Zhouping; Wei, Xinlin; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxins from pathogenic bacteria are known as the main reason that can cause the bacterial foodborne diseases. In this study, aptamers that bound to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) with high affinity and selectivity were generated in vitro by twelve rounds of selection based on magnetic separation technology, with a low-level dissociation constant (Kd) value of 65.14 ± 11.64 nmol/L of aptamer C10. Aptamer-based quantification of SEC1 in the food sample by a graphene oxide (GO)-based method was implemented to investigate the potential of the aptamer against SEC1 with a limit of detection of 6 ng/mL. On the basis of this work, biosensors using the selected SEC1 aptamers as new molecular recognition elements could be applied for innovative determinations of SEC1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. HPA axis dysregulation, NR3C1 polymorphisms and glucocorticoid receptor isoforms imbalance in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarissa Silva; Elias, Daniel; Colli, Leandro Machado; Couri, Carlos Eduardo; Souza, Manoel Carlos L A; Moreira, Ayrton C; Foss, Milton C; Elias, Lucila L K; de Castro, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) shares several similarities with hypercortisolism. To evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX), NR3C1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms and cytokines in peripheral immune cells of MetS patients and controls. Prospective study with 40 MetS patients and 40 controls was conducted at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured in basal conditions and after 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg of DEX given at 2300 h. In addition, p.N363S (rs6195), p.ER22/23EK (rs6189-6190), and BclI (rs41423247) SNPs were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination. Exons 3 to 9 and exon/intron boundaries of NR3C1 were sequenced. GR isoforms and cytokines (IL1B, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IFNγ, TNFα) expression were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Plasma and salivary cortisol (nmol/L) after 1-mg DEX were higher in MetS patients compared with controls (PF: 70.2 ± 17.3 vs 37.9 ± 2.6, P = .02, and SF: 4.9 ± 1.7 vs 2.2 ± 0.3, P molecular mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in MetS. Thus, HPA axis dysregulation might contribute to MetS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Transcriptome profiling of whole blood cells identifies PLEK2 and C1QB in human melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchun Luo

    Full Text Available Developing analytical methodologies to identify biomarkers in easily accessible body fluids is highly valuable for the early diagnosis and management of cancer patients. Peripheral whole blood is a "nucleic acid-rich" and "inflammatory cell-rich" information reservoir and represents systemic processes altered by the presence of cancer cells.We conducted transcriptome profiling of whole blood cells from melanoma patients. To overcome challenges associated with blood-based transcriptome analysis, we used a PAXgene™ tube and NuGEN Ovation™ globin reduction system. The combined use of these systems in microarray resulted in the identification of 78 unique genes differentially expressed in the blood of melanoma patients. Of these, 68 genes were further analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR using blood samples from 45 newly diagnosed melanoma patients (stage I to IV and 50 healthy control individuals. Thirty-nine genes were verified to be differentially expressed in blood samples from melanoma patients. A stepwise logit analysis selected eighteen 2-gene signatures that distinguish melanoma from healthy controls. Of these, a 2-gene signature consisting of PLEK2 and C1QB led to the best result that correctly classified 93.3% melanoma patients and 90% healthy controls. Both genes were upregulated in blood samples of melanoma patients from all stages. Further analysis using blood fractionation showed that CD45(- and CD45(+ populations were responsible for the altered expression levels of PLEK2 and C1QB, respectively.The current study provides the first analysis of whole blood-based transcriptome biomarkers for malignant melanoma. The expression of PLEK2, the strongest gene to classify melanoma patients, in CD45(- subsets illustrates the importance of analyzing whole blood cells for biomarker studies. The study suggests that transcriptome profiling of blood cells could be used for both early detection of melanoma and monitoring of patients

  10. Molecular scaffold reorganization at the transmitter release site with vesicle exocytosis or botulinum toxin C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Elise F; Reese, Tom S; Wang, Gary Z

    2003-10-01

    Neurotransmitter release sites at the freeze-fractured frog neuromuscular junction are composed of inner and outer paired rows of large membrane particles, the putative calcium channels, anchored by the ribs of an underlying protein scaffold. We analysed the locations of the release site particles as a reflection of the scaffold structure, comparing particle distributions in secreting terminals with those where secretion was blocked with botulinum toxin A, which cleaves a small segment off SNAP-25, or botulinum toxin C1, which cleaves the cytoplasmic domain of syntaxin. In the idle terminal the inner and outer paired rows were located approximately 25 and approximately 44 nm, respectively, from the release site midline. However, adjacent to vesicular fusion sites both particle rows were displaced towards the midline by approximately 25%. The intervals between the particles along each row were examined by a nearest-neighbour approach. In control terminals the peak interval along the inner row was approximately 17 nm, consistent with previous reports and the spacing of the scaffold ribs. While the average distance between particles in the outer row was also approximately 17 nm, a detailed analysis revealed short 'linear clusters' with a approximately 14 nm interval. These clusters were enriched at vesicle fusion sites, suggesting an association with the docking sites, and were eliminated by botulinum C1, but not A. Our findings suggest, first, that the release site scaffold ribs undergo a predictable, and possibly active, shortening during exocytosis and, second, that at the vesicle docking site syntaxin plays a role in the cross-linking of the rib tips to form the vesicle docking sites.

  11. Complement component C1r mediated cleavage of the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility class I antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1992-01-01

    Apart from cleaving C1s, we demonstrate for the first time that: 1) at concentrations found in serum, the activated forms of the complement components C1r in addition to C1s can cleave the heavy chain of MHC class I antigens, 2) the cleavage by C1r and C1s is seemingly dependent upon a native con......-chain of MHC class I was shown to take place between the alpha 2- and alpha 3- domains as estimated by the Con A-Sepharose precipitation pattern on SDS-PAGE. The alpha 1/alpha 2 fragment was still shown to interact with beta 2-microglobulin as shown by immunoprecipitation....

  12. Chlamydomonas DYX1C1/PF23 is essential for axonemal assembly and proper morphology of inner dynein arms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Yamamoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasmic assembly of ciliary dyneins, a process known as preassembly, requires numerous non-dynein proteins, but the identities and functions of these proteins are not fully elucidated. Here, we show that the classical Chlamydomonas motility mutant pf23 is defective in the Chlamydomonas homolog of DYX1C1. The pf23 mutant has a 494 bp deletion in the DYX1C1 gene and expresses a shorter DYX1C1 protein in the cytoplasm. Structural analyses, using cryo-ET, reveal that pf23 axonemes lack most of the inner dynein arms. Spectral counting confirms that DYX1C1 is essential for the assembly of the majority of ciliary inner dynein arms (IDA as well as a fraction of the outer dynein arms (ODA. A C-terminal truncation of DYX1C1 shows a reduction in a subset of these ciliary IDAs. Sucrose gradients of cytoplasmic extracts show that preassembled ciliary dyneins are reduced compared to wild-type, which suggests an important role in dynein complex stability. The role of PF23/DYX1C1 remains unknown, but we suggest that DYX1C1 could provide a scaffold for macromolecular assembly.

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  14. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  15. Structure and function of complement protein C1q and its role in the development of autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Smykał-Jankowiak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Complement plays an important role in the immune system. Three different pathways of complement activation are known: the classical, alternative, and lectin dependent. They involve more than 30 serum peptides. C1q is the first subcomponent of the classical pathway of complement activation. It is composed of three types of chains, A, B, and C, which form a molecule containing 18 peptides. Each of the chains has a short amino-terminal region followed by a collagen-like region (playing a role in the activation of C1r2C1s2 and a carboxy-terminal head, which binds to immune complexes. Recent studies have shown a great number of ligands for C1q, including aggregated IgG, IgM, human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I, gp21 peptide, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 gp21 peptide, β-amyloid, fragments of bacterial walls, apoptotic cells, and many others. However, the role of C1q is not only associated with complement activation. It also helps in the removal of immune complexes and necrotic cells, stimulates the production of some cytokines, and modulates the function of lymphocytes. Complete C1q deficiency is a rare genetic disorder. The C1q gene is located on the short arm of chromosome 1. So far, only a few mutations in C1q gene have been reported. The presence of these mutations is strongly associated with recurrent bacterial infections and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Recent clinical studies point to the significance of anti-C1q antibodies in the diagnosis and assessment of lupus nephritis activity.

  16. The feasibility of inserting a C1 pedicle screw in patients with ponticulus posticus: a retrospective analysis of eleven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Liang; Huang, Da-Geng; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhu, Jin-Wen; Li, Yi-Bing; He, Bao-Rong; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Ponticulus posticus is a common anatomic variation that can be mistaken for a broad posterior arch during C1 pedicle screw placement. When the atlas lateral mass screws are placed via the posterior arch, injury to the vertebral artery may result. To our knowledge, there are few clinical studies that have analyzed the feasibility of C1 pedicle screw fixation in patients with ponticulus posticus, in clinical practice. To evaluate the feasibility of inserting a C1 pedicle screw in patients with ponticulus posticus. Between January 2008 and January 2012, 11 consecutive patients with atlantoaxial instability, and with a ponticulus posticus at C1, underwent posterior fusion surgery in our institution. According to preoperative computed tomography (CT) reconstruction, a complete ponticulus posticus was found unilaterally in nine patients and bilaterally in two. Postoperative CT reconstructive imaging was performed to assess whether C1 pedicle screw placement was successful. Patients were followed up at regular intervals and evaluated for symptoms of ponticulus posticus syndrome. Thirteen C1 pedicles (atlas vertebral artery groove), each with a complete ponticulus posticus, were successfully inserted with thirteen 3.5- or 4.0-mm diameter pedicle screws, without resection of the bony anomaly. No intraoperative complications (venous plexus, vertebral artery, or spinal cord injury) occurred. The mean follow-up period was 21 (range 14-30) months. Postoperative CT reconstructive images showed that all 13 pedicle screws were inserted in the C1 pedicles without destruction of the atlas pedicle cortical bone. In the follow-up period, none of the patients demonstrated clinical symptoms of ponticulus posticus syndrome or developed bone fusion. Three-dimensional CT imaging should be considered prior to C1 pedicle screw fixation in patients with ponticulus posticus, to avoid mistaking the ponticulus posticus for a widened dorsal arch of the atlas. If there is no ponticulus posticus

  17. C1-C2 instability with severe occipital headache in the setting of vertebral artery facet complex erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Fadi; Bokums, Kristaps; Aichmair, Alexander; Hughes, Alexander P

    2014-05-01

    An exact understanding of patient vertebral artery anatomy is essential to safely place screws at the atlanto-axial level in posterior arthrodesis. We aim to report a case of erosion of the left vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex with resultant rotatory and lateral listhesis presenting with severe occipital headache. This represents a novel etiology for this diagnosis and our report illustrates technical considerations when instrumenting the C1-C2 segment. We report a case of severe occipital headache due to C1-C2 instability with resultant left C2 nerve compression in the setting of erosion of the vertebral artery into the C1-C2 facet complex. A 68-year-old woman presented with a 12-month history of progressively debilitating headache and neck pain with atlanto-axial instability. Computed tomography (CT) angiography demonstrated erosion of the left vertebral artery into the left C1-C2 facet complex. In addition, the tortuous vertebral arteries had eroded into the C2 pedicles, eliminating the possibility for posterior pedicle screw placement. The patient underwent posterior arthrodesis of C1-C2 utilizing bilateral lateral mass fixation into C1 and bilateral trans-laminar fixation into C2 with resolution of all preoperative complaints. This study constitutes the first report of a tortuous vertebral artery causing the partial destruction of a C1-C2 facet complex, as well as instability, with the clinical presentation of severe occipital headache. It hereby presents a novel etiology for both the development of C1-C2 segment instability as well as the development of occipital headache. Careful evaluation of such lesions utilizing CT angiography is important when formulating a surgical plan.

  18. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: The Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M.; Rusincovitch, Shelley A.; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C.; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Methods Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of “smart dimensions”, and dynamically-generated user interfaces. Results DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort “join” functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Conclusions Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source

  19. Modular design, application architecture, and usage of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery: the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Monica M; Rusincovitch, Shelley A; Brinson, Stephanie; Shang, Howard C; Evans, Steve; Ferranti, Jeffrey M

    2014-12-01

    Data generated in the care of patients are widely used to support clinical research and quality improvement, which has hastened the development of self-service query tools. User interface design for such tools, execution of query activity, and underlying application architecture have not been widely reported, and existing tools reflect a wide heterogeneity of methods and technical frameworks. We describe the design, application architecture, and use of a self-service model for enterprise data delivery within Duke Medicine. Our query platform, the Duke Enterprise Data Unified Content Explorer (DEDUCE), supports enhanced data exploration, cohort identification, and data extraction from our enterprise data warehouse (EDW) using a series of modular environments that interact with a central keystone module, Cohort Manager (CM). A data-driven application architecture is implemented through three components: an application data dictionary, the concept of "smart dimensions", and dynamically-generated user interfaces. DEDUCE CM allows flexible hierarchies of EDW queries within a grid-like workspace. A cohort "join" functionality allows switching between filters based on criteria occurring within or across patient encounters. To date, 674 users have been trained and activated in DEDUCE, and logon activity shows a steady increase, with variability between months. A comparison of filter conditions and export criteria shows that these activities have different patterns of usage across subject areas. Organizations with sophisticated EDWs may find that users benefit from development of advanced query functionality, complimentary to the user interfaces and infrastructure used in other well-published models. Driven by its EDW context, the DEDUCE application architecture was also designed to be responsive to source data and to allow modification through alterations in metadata rather than programming, allowing an agile response to source system changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  20. Study of the $B^{0}\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2} K^{*0}$ decays at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Polyakov, Ivan

    In this research, the ratios of the branching fractions of the $B^{0}\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1} K^{*0}$, $B^{0}\\rightarrow\\chi_{c2} K^{*0}$ and $B^{0}\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0}$ decays are measured: \\begin{equation*} \\begin{array}{lll} \\dfrac{{\\cal B}(B^{0}\\rightarrow \\chi_{c1} K^{*0})}{{\\cal B}(B^{0}\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0})} &=& (19.8~\\pm1.1~(stat)\\pm1.2~(syst)\\pm0.9\\,({\\cal B}_{\\chi_{c1}}))\\times 10^{-2}, \

  1. Application of Normative Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval Measurements to Detect Atlanto-Occipital Injury in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, B; Linscott, L L; Leach, J L; Vadivelu, S

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies have found that widening or asymmetry of the occipital condyle-C1 interval on CT is a sensitive and specific marker for atlanto-occipital dislocation. Previously reported abnormal occipital condyle-C1 interval values are not age-specific, possibly leading to false-positive findings in younger children, in whom this joint space is normally larger than that in adults. This study assesses the utility of applying age-specific normative occipital condyle-C1 interval ranges to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury compared with previously reported abnormal cutoff values. Retrospective review of CT and MR imaging of 14 subjects with atlanto-occipital injury was performed, and occipital condyle-C1 interval measurements were made for each subject. Sensitivities and specificities of proposed occipital condyle-C1 interval cutoffs of 2 and 3 SDs above the mean and previously published occipital condyle-C1 interval cutoffs for atlanto-occipital injury were then calculated on the basis of occipital condyle-C1 interval measurements for each subject. An occipital condyle-C1 interval 2 SDs above the age-specific mean has a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 89%-100%, depending on the age group. An occipital condyle-C1 interval 3 SDs above the age-specific mean has a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 95%-100%. A 4.0-mm occipital condyle-C1 interval has a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 100% in all age groups. A 2.5-mm occipital condyle-C1 interval has a sensitivity of 93% and a specificity of 18%-100%. Occipital condyle-C1 interval widening cutoffs used to establish atlanto-occipital injury lack both sensitivity and specificity in children and young teenagers. MR imaging is necessary to establish a diagnosis of atlanto-occipital injury in children and young teenagers when the appropriate mechanism of injury is present. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. Global significance of a sub-Moho boundary layer (SMBL) deduced from high-resolution seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, K.; Tittgemeyer, M.; Ryberg, T.; Wenzel, F.; Mooney, W.

    2002-01-01

    an on-going processes; nevertheless, the derived quantitative estimates of the SMBL properties provide important constraints for any hypothesis on scale-forming processes. Models to be tested by future numerical and field experiments are, for example, repeated subduction-convection stretching of oceanic lithosphere (marble-cake model) and schlieren formation at mid-ocean ridges. It is also proposed that the modeling of the observed blocking of Sn and Pn propagation at active plate margins offers a new tool to study the depth range of tectonics below the crust-mantle boundary. Finally, the deduced schlieren structure of the SMBL closes an important scale gap of three to four orders of magnitude between structural dimensions studied in petrological analysis of mantle samples (xenoliths or outcrop of oceanic lithosphere) and those imaged in classical seismological studies of the lithosphere.

  3. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, D.; Boersma, K. F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Weiss, A. K.; Folini, D.; Eskes, H. J.; Buchmann, B.

    2006-08-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs) retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy) with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK) of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration) and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively). The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns) is -7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a priori and

  4. Comparison of GOME tropospheric NO2 columns with NO2 profiles deduced from ground-based in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schaub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 vertical tropospheric column densities (VTCs retrieved from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME are compared to coincident ground-based tropospheric NO2 columns. The ground-based columns are deduced from in situ measurements at different altitudes in the Alps for 1997 to June 2003, yielding a unique long-term comparison of GOME NO2 VTC data retrieved by a collaboration of KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute and BIRA/IASB (Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy with independently derived tropospheric NO2 profiles. A first comparison relates the GOME retrieved tropospheric columns to the tropospheric columns obtained by integrating the ground-based NO2 measurements. For a second comparison, the tropospheric profiles constructed from the ground-based measurements are first multiplied with the averaging kernel (AK of the GOME retrieval. The second approach makes the comparison independent from the a priori NO2 profile used in the GOME retrieval. This allows splitting the total difference between the column data sets into two contributions: one that is due to differences between the a priori and the ground-based NO2 profile shapes, and another that can be attributed to uncertainties in both the remaining retrieval parameters (such as, e.g., surface albedo or aerosol concentration and the ground-based in situ NO2 profiles. For anticyclonic clear sky conditions the comparison indicates a good agreement between the columns (n=157, R=0.70/0.74 for the first/second comparison approach, respectively. The mean relative difference (with respect to the ground-based columns is −7% with a standard deviation of 40% and GOME on average slightly underestimating the ground-based columns. Both data sets show a similar seasonal behaviour with a distinct maximum of spring NO2 VTCs. Further analysis indicates small GOME columns being systematically smaller than the ground-based ones. The influence of different shapes in the a

  5. Assimilation of formaldehyde and other C1-compounds by Gliocladium deliquescens and Paecilomyces varioti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Kenji; Kurane, Ryuichiro; Murata, Machiko

    1975-01-01

    Two fungi were isolated from soil which grew on 0.1--0.2% formaldehyde as the sole carbon source, and identified as Gliocladium deliquescens and Paecilomyces varioti. Both the strains could grow on 5% methanol and 5% Na-formate, while the former could grow even on 7% methanol. Metabolic pathways were traced through two dimensional paper chromatography and autoradiographic techniques using 14 C-formaldehyde, 14 C-methanol or 14 C-CO 2 as substrates. The intracellular metabolites were persued and their quantitative variation with time was measured. Along with the fact that serine and malate appeared in the earlier time, then appeared organic acids and amino acids belonging to TCA cycle, and the fact that hydroxy-pyruvate reductase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities were much stronger in methanol culture than in ethanol culture, it was concluded that the two fungi followed the serine pathway in assimilating C 1 -compounds. Oxidation enzymes of methanol and formaldehyde were also studied, and an oxidizing system was found besides usual NAD linked methanol or formaldehyde dehydrogenases. (auth.)

  6. Modeling Niemann Pick type C1 using human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, M Paulina; Steele, John W

    2017-02-01

    Data generated in Niemann Pick type C1 (NPC1) human embryonic and human induced pluripotent stem cell derived neurons complement on-going studies in animal models and provide the first example, in disease-relevant human cells, of processes that underlie preferential neuronal defects in a NPC1. Our work and that of other investigators in human neurons derived from stem cells highlight the importance of performing rigorous mechanistic studies in relevant cell types to guide drug discovery and therapeutic development, alongside of existing animal models. Through the use of human stem cell-derived models of disease, we can identify and discover or repurpose drugs that revert early events that lead to neuronal failure in NPC1. Together with the study of disease pathogenesis and efficacy of therapies in animal models, these strategies will fulfill the promise of stem cell technology in the development of new treatments for human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Exploiting human neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired Autophagy in the Lipid-Storage Disorder Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovan Sarkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy dysfunction has been implicated in misfolded protein accumulation and cellular toxicity in several diseases. Whether alterations in autophagy also contribute to the pathology of lipid-storage disorders is not clear. Here, we show defective autophagy in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 disease associated with cholesterol accumulation, where the maturation of autophagosomes is impaired because of defective amphisome formation caused by failure in SNARE machinery, whereas the lysosomal proteolytic function remains unaffected. Expression of functional NPC1 protein rescues this defect. Inhibition of autophagy also causes cholesterol accumulation. Compromised autophagy was seen in disease-affected organs of Npc1 mutant mice. Of potential therapeutic relevance is that HP-β-cyclodextrin, which is used for cholesterol-depletion treatment, impedes autophagy, whereas stimulating autophagy restores its function independent of amphisome formation. Our data suggest that a low dose of HP-β-cyclodextrin that does not perturb autophagy, coupled with an autophagy inducer, may provide a rational treatment strategy for NPC1 disease.

  8. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells. Additionally, after administration of two different therapy approaches using either a combination of miglustat, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and allopregnanolone or a monotherapy with HPβCD, we recorded a remarkable reduction of morphological damages in NPC1−/− mice and an up to four-fold increase of proliferating cells within the olfactory epithelium. Numbers of mature olfactory receptor neurons doubled after both therapy approaches. Interestingly, we also observed therapy-induced alterations in treated NPC1+/+ controls. Thus, olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1.

  9. Impaired autophagy in the lipid-storage disorder Niemann-Pick type C1 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sovan; Carroll, Bernadette; Buganim, Yosef; Maetzel, Dorothea; Ng, Alex H M; Cassady, John P; Cohen, Malkiel A; Chakraborty, Souvik; Wang, Haoyi; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde; Gsponer, Joerg; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2013-12-12

    Autophagy dysfunction has been implicated in misfolded protein accumulation and cellular toxicity in several diseases. Whether alterations in autophagy also contribute to the pathology of lipid-storage disorders is not clear. Here, we show defective autophagy in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease associated with cholesterol accumulation, where the maturation of autophagosomes is impaired because of defective amphisome formation caused by failure in SNARE machinery, whereas the lysosomal proteolytic function remains unaffected. Expression of functional NPC1 protein rescues this defect. Inhibition of autophagy also causes cholesterol accumulation. Compromised autophagy was seen in disease-affected organs of Npc1 mutant mice. Of potential therapeutic relevance is that HP-β-cyclodextrin, which is used for cholesterol-depletion treatment, impedes autophagy, whereas stimulating autophagy restores its function independent of amphisome formation. Our data suggest that a low dose of HP-β-cyclodextrin that does not perturb autophagy, coupled with an autophagy inducer, may provide a rational treatment strategy for NPC1 disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Niemann-pick type C1 (NPC1) overexpression alters cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, E E; Srivastava, K; Traub, L M; Schaffer, J E; Ory, D S

    2000-12-08

    The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein is a key participant in intracellular trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol, but its role in regulation of sterol homeostasis is not well understood. To characterize further the function of NPC1, we generated stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines overexpressing the human NPC1 protein (CHO/NPC1). NPC1 overexpression increases the rate of trafficking of low density lipoprotein cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum and the rate of delivery of endosomal cholesterol to the plasma membrane (PM). CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit a 1.5-fold increase in total cellular cholesterol and up to a 2.9-fold increase in PM cholesterol. This increase in PM cholesterol is closely paralleled by a 3-fold increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis results in marked redistribution of PM cholesterol to intracellular sites, suggesting an unsuspected role for NPC1 in internalization of PM cholesterol. Despite elevated total cellular cholesterol, CHO/NPC1 cells exhibit increased cholesterol synthesis, which may be attributable to both resistance to oxysterol suppression of sterol-regulated gene expression and to reduced endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol levels under basal conditions. Taken together, these studies provide important new insights into the role of NPC1 in the determination of the levels and distribution of cellular cholesterol.

  11. Synthesis and biological activity of fused tetracyclic Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel K. Annor-Gyamfi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains the second major cause of death in the world. Thus, there is a pressing need to identify potential synthetic route for the development of novel anticancer agents which will serve as lead compounds to effectively combat this life-threatening epidemic. Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs have sparked a great interest as lead compounds because of their cancerostatic and anti-infective properties. The twisted molecular structure of PBD analogs provides both helical and chiral elements. In an effort to expand novel PBDs that interact with the key exocyclic amino group of the DNA-guanine base, we hypothesized that construction of a fused cyclic active system, would likely serve as an electrophilic site when compared to traditional electrophilic C11-N10 imine group. To examine our theory, we report herein the synthesis and cell viability/cytotoxicity of a series of PBD analogs using NCI-60 cell lines screening. Thus, compounds 1–13 were synthesized and fully characterized. The selected PBDs were found to have marginal inhibition of growth, up to 30%, for certain cell lines.

  12. Small molecule inhibitors reveal Niemann-Pick C1 is essential for Ebola virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Marceline; Misasi, John; Ren, Tao; Bruchez, Anna; Lee, Kyungae; Filone, Claire Marie; Hensley, Lisa; Li, Qi; Ory, Daniel; Chandran, Kartik; Cunningham, James

    2011-08-24

    Ebola virus (EboV) is a highly pathogenic enveloped virus that causes outbreaks of zoonotic infection in Africa. The clinical symptoms are manifestations of the massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to infection and in many outbreaks, mortality exceeds 75%. The unpredictable onset, ease of transmission, rapid progression of disease, high mortality and lack of effective vaccine or therapy have created a high level of public concern about EboV. Here we report the identification of a novel benzylpiperazine adamantane diamide-derived compound that inhibits EboV infection. Using mutant cell lines and informative derivatives of the lead compound, we show that the target of the inhibitor is the endosomal membrane protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). We find that NPC1 is essential for infection, that it binds to the virus glycoprotein (GP), and that antiviral compounds interfere with GP binding to NPC1. Combined with the results of previous studies of GP structure and function, our findings support a model of EboV infection in which cleavage of the GP1 subunit by endosomal cathepsin proteases removes heavily glycosylated domains to expose the amino-terminal domain, which is a ligand for NPC1 and regulates membrane fusion by the GP2 subunit. Thus, NPC1 is essential for EboV entry and a target for antiviral therapy.

  13. Ebola Viral Glycoprotein Bound to Its Endosomal Receptor Niemann-Pick C1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Shi, Yi; Song, Jian; Qi, Jianxun; Lu, Guangwen; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-01-14

    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg, cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates. Understanding how these viruses enter host cells could help to develop effective therapeutics. An endosomal protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), has been identified as a necessary entry receptor for this process, and priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) to a fusion-competent state is a prerequisite for NPC1 binding. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the primed GP (GPcl) of Ebola virus bound to domain C of NPC1 (NPC1-C) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. NPC1-C utilizes two protruding loops to engage a hydrophobic cavity on head of GPcl. Upon enzymatic cleavage and NPC1-C binding, conformational change in the GPcl further affects the state of the internal fusion loop, triggering membrane fusion. Our data therefore provide structural insights into filovirus entry in the late endosome and the molecular basis for design of therapeutic inhibitors of viral entry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Discrete state moduli of string theory from c=1 matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R

    1995-01-01

    We propose a new formulation of the space-time interpretation of the c=1 matrix model. Our formulation uses the well-known leg-pole factor that relates the matrix model amplitudes to that of the 2-dimensional string theory, but includes fluctuations around the fermi vacuum on {\\sl both sides} of the inverted harmonic oscillator potential of the double-scaled model, even when the fluctuations are small and confined entirely within the asymptotes in the phase plane. We argue that including fluctuations on both sides of the potential is essential for a consistent interpretation of the leg-pole transformed theory as a theory of space-time gravity. We reproduce the known results for the string theory tree level scattering amplitudes for flat space and linear dilaton background as a special case. We show that the generic case corresponds to more general space-time backgrounds. In particular, we identify the parameter corresponding to background metric perturbation in string theory (black hole mass) in terms of the ...

  15. The determination of neutron energy spectrum in reactor core C1 of reactor VR-1 Sparrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vins, M. [Department of Nuclear Reactors, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: vinsmiro@seznam.cz

    2008-07-15

    This contribution overviews neutron spectrum measurement, which was done on training reactor VR-1 Sparrow with a new nuclear fuel. Former nuclear fuel IRT-3M was changed for current nuclear fuel IRT-4M with lower enrichment of 235U (enrichment was reduced from former 36% to 20%) in terms of Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program. Neutron spectrum measurement was obtained by irradiation of activation foils at the end of pipe of rabit system and consecutive deconvolution of obtained saturated activities. Deconvolution was performed by computer iterative code SAND-II with 620 groups' structure. All gamma measurements were performed on Canberra HPGe. Activation foils were chosen according physical and nuclear parameters from the set of certificated foils. The Resulting differential flux at the end of pipe of rabit system agreed well with typical spectrum of light water reactor. Measurement of neutron spectrum has brought better knowledge about new reactor core C1 and improved methodology of activation measurement. (author)

  16. C1 finite elements on non-tensor-product 2d and 3d manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thien; Karčiauskas, Kęstutis; Peters, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Geometrically continuous (Gk) constructions naturally yield families of finite elements for isogeometric analysis (IGA) that are Ck also for non-tensor-product layout. This paper describes and analyzes one such concrete C1 geometrically generalized IGA element (short: gIGA element) that generalizes bi-quadratic splines to quad meshes with irregularities. The new gIGA element is based on a recently-developed G1 surface construction that recommends itself by its a B-spline-like control net, low (least) polynomial degree, good shape properties and reproduction of quadratics at irregular (extraordinary) points. Remarkably, for Poisson’s equation on the disk using interior vertices of valence 3 and symmetric layout, we observe O(h3) convergence in the L∞ norm for this family of elements. Numerical experiments confirm the elements to be effective for solving the trivariate Poisson equation on the solid cylinder, deformations thereof (a turbine blade), modeling and computing geodesics on smooth free-form surfaces via the heat equation, for solving the biharmonic equation on the disk and for Koiter-type thin-shell analysis. PMID:26594070

  17. Measurement of the $\\eta_c (1S)$ production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay $\\eta_c (1S) \\rightarrow p \\bar{p}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Graverini, Elena; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gavrilov, Gennadii; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrie, Mauro; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Seco, Marcos; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szilard, Daniela; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; Voss, Helge; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The production of the $\\eta_c (1S)$ state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the $p \\bar{p}$ final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range $2.0 6.5$ GeV/c. The cross-section for prompt production of $\\eta_c (1S)$ mesons relative to the prompt $J/\\psi$ cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be $\\sigma_{\\eta_c (1S)}/\\sigma_{J/\\psi} = 1.74 \\pm 0.29 \\pm 0.28 \\pm 0.18 _{B}$ at a centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb$^{-1}$, and $\\sigma_{\\eta_c (1S)}/\\sigma_{J/\\psi} = 1.60 \\pm 0.29 \\pm 0.25 \\pm 0.17 _{B}$ at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV using 2.0 fb$^{-1}$. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the $\\eta_c (1S)$ and $J/\\psi$ decays to the $p \\bar{p}$ final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of $b$-hadron decays into $\\eta_c (1S)$ mesons is measured, for the first time, to be $B ( b \\rightarrow \\eta_c X ) = (4.88 \\pm 0.64 \\pm ...

  18. 76 FR 76867 - Delegation of Certain Function and Authority Conferred Upon the President by Section 1535(c)(1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., Public Law 111-383, to make the specified report to the Committees on Armed Services, Foreign Relations...--Delegation of Certain Function and Authority Conferred Upon the President by Section 1535 (c)(1) of the Ike...

  19. aThe dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosin Gustaf

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. Methods DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox model. Results DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42] of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. Conclusion We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life with Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor for Prevention of Attacks of Hereditary Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumry, William R; Craig, Timothy; Zuraw, Bruce; Longhurst, Hilary; Baker, James; Li, H Henry; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Anderson, John; Riedl, Marc A; Manning, Michael E; Keith, Paul K; Levy, Donald S; Caballero, Teresa; Banerji, Aleena; Gower, Richard G; Farkas, Henriette; Lawo, John-Philip; Pragst, Ingo; Machnig, Thomas; Watson, Douglas J

    2018-01-31

    Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The objective of this study was to assess HRQoL outcomes in patients self-administering subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. Post hoc analysis of data from the placebo-controlled, crossover phase III COMPACT study (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy). Ninety patients with C1-INH-HAE were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences: C1-INH(SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 16 weeks, preceded or followed by 16 weeks of twice weekly placebo injections. All HAE attacks were treated with open-label on-demand treatment as necessary. HRQoL assessments at week 14 (last visit) included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). Compared with placebo (on-demand treatment alone), treatment with twice weekly C1-INH(SC) (both doses combined) was associated with better EQ-5D visual analog scale general health, less HADS anxiety, less WPAI presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment, and greater TSQM effectiveness and overall treatment satisfaction. More patients self-reported a "good/excellent" response during routine prevention with C1-INH(SC) compared with on-demand only (placebo prophylaxis) management. For each HRQoL measure, a greater proportion of patients had a clinically meaningful improvement during C1-INH(SC) treatment compared with placebo. In patients with frequent HAE attacks, a treatment strategy of routine prevention with self-administered twice weekly C1-INH(SC) had a greater impact on improving multiple HAE-related HRQoL impairments, most notably anxiety and work productivity, compared with on

  1. aThe dyslexia candidate gene DYX1C1 is a potential marker of poor survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosin, Gustaf; Hannelius, Ulf; Lindström, Linda; Hall, Per; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan; Kere, Juha

    2012-01-01

    The dyslexia candidate gene, DYX1C1, shown to regulate and interact with estrogen receptors and involved in the regulation of neuronal migration, has recently been proposed as a putative cancer biomarker. This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value and therapy-predictive potential of DYX1C1 mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer. DYX1C1 mRNA expression was assessed at the mRNA level in three independent population-derived patient cohorts. An association to estrogen/progesterone receptor status, Elston grade, gene expression subtype and lymph node status was analyzed within these cohorts. DYX1C1 protein expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in cancer and normal breast tissue. The statistical analyses were performed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test, ANOVA, Fisher's exact test and a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox) model. DYX1C1 mRNA is significantly more highly expressed in tumors that have been classified as estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor-positive. The expression of DYX1C1 among the molecular subtypes shows the lowest median expression within the basal type tumors, which are considered to have the worst prognosis. The expression of DYX1C1 is significantly lower in tumors graded as Elston grade 3 compared with grades 1 and 2. DYX1C1 protein is expressed in 88% of tumors and in all 10 normal breast tissues examined. Positive protein expression was significantly correlated to overall survival (Hazard ratio 3.44 [CI 1.84-6.42]) of the patients but not to any of the variables linked with mRNA expression. We show that the expression of DYX1C1 in breast cancer is associated with several clinicopathological parameters and that loss of DYX1C1 correlates with a more aggressive disease, in turn indicating that DYX1C1 is a potential prognostic biomarker in breast cancer

  2. Percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation: salvage of failed percutaneous odontoid screw fixation for odontoid fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ai-Min; Jin, Hai-Ming; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Chi, Yong-Long; Wang, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate the outcomes and safety of using percutaneous anterior C1/2 transarticular screw fixation as a salvage technique for odontoid fracture if percutaneous odontoid screw fixation fails. Methods Fifteen in 108 odontoid fracture patients (planned to be treated by percutaneous anterior odontoid screw fixation) were failed to introduce satisfactory odontoid screw trajectory. To salvage this problem, we chose the percutaneous anterior C1/2 trans...

  3. Measurement of B(psi -> gamma chi(c1)) and search for psi -> gamma chi(c2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, H. P.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Liao, J. B.; Liao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Komicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiging; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, R. Q.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pu, Y. N.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ren, H. L.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Santoro, V.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thomdike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H. W.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheruchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, Li; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    We report a measurement of the branching fraction for psi(3770) -> gamma chi(c1) and search for the transition psi(3770) -> gamma chi(c2) based on 2.92 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) data accumulated at root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider. We measure B(psi(3770) -> gamma chi(c1))

  4. Modelling of NSTX hot vertical displacement events using M 3 D -C 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S. C.; Krebs, I.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-05-01

    The main results of an intense vertical displacement event (VDE) modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 are presented. A pair of nonlinear 3D simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of a so-called NSTX frozen VDE where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase is solved assuming axisymmetry until the plasma contacts the first wall, at which point the intricate evolution of the plasma, decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D nonlinear simulations. The faster 2D nonlinear runs allow to assess the sensitivity of the simulations to parameter changes. In the limit of perfectly conducting wall, the expected linear relation between vertical growth rate and wall resistivity is recovered. For intermediate wall resistivities, the halo region contributes to slowing the plasma down, and the characteristic VDE time depends on the choice of halo temperature. The evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed in detail. The 3D simulations highlight a rich structure of toroidal modes, penetrating inwards from edge to core and cascading from high-n to low-n mode numbers. The break-up of flux-surfaces results in a progressive stochastisation of field-lines precipitating the thermalisation of the plasma with the wall. The plasma current then decays rapidly, inducing large currents in the halo region and the wall. Analysis of normal currents flowing in and out of the divertor plate reveals rich time-varying patterns.

  5. A novel mutation in the albumin gene (c.1A>C) resulting in analbuminemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridi, Gianluca; Dagnino, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Shalev, Stavit A; Campagnoli, Monica; Galliano, Monica; Spiegel, Ronen; Minchiotti, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Analbuminemia (OMIM # 103600) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder manifested by the absence or severe reduction of circulating serum albumin in homozygous or compound heterozygous subjects. The trait is caused by a variety of mutations within the albumin gene. We report here the clinical and molecular characterisation of two new cases of congenital analbuminemia diagnosed in two members of the Druze population living in a Galilean village (Northern Israel) on the basis of their low level of circulating albumin. The albumin gene was screened by single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex analysis, and the mutated region was submitted to DNA sequencing. Both the analbuminemic subjects resulted homozygous for a previously unreported c.1 A>C transversion, for which we suggest the name Afula from the hospital where the two cases were investigated. This mutation causes the loss of the primary start codon ATG for Met1, which is replaced by a - then untranslated - triplet CTG for Leu. (p.Met1Leu). The use of an alternative downstream ATG codon would probably give rise to a completely aberrant polypeptide chain, leading to a misrouted intracellular transport and a premature degradation. The discovery of this new ALB mutation, probably inherited from a common ancestor, sheds light on the molecular mechanism underlying the analbuminemic trait and may serve in the development of a rapid genetic test for the identification of a-symptomatic heterozygous carriers in the Druze population in the Galilee. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2012 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  6. Deficits in learning and memory in mice with a mutation of the candidate dyslexia susceptibility gene Dyx1c1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Amanda R; Tarkar, Aarti; Contreras-Mora, Hector M; LoTurco, Joseph J; Fitch, R Holly

    2017-09-01

    Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by difficulty learning to read and write. The underlying biological and genetic etiology remains poorly understood. One candidate gene, dyslexia susceptibility 1 candidate 1 (DYX1C1), has been shown to be associated with deficits in short-term memory in dyslexic populations. The purpose of the current study was to examine the behavioral phenotype of a mouse model with a homozygous conditional (forebrain) knockout of the rodent homolog Dyx1c1. Twelve Dyx1c1 conditional homozygous knockouts, 7 Dyx1c1 conditional heterozygous knockouts and 6 wild-type controls were behaviorally assessed. Mice with the homozygous Dyx1c1 knockout showed deficits on memory and learning, but not on auditory or motor tasks. These findings affirm existing evidence that DYX1C1 may play an underlying role in the development of neural systems important to learning and memory, and disruption of this function could contribute to the learning deficits seen in individuals with dyslexia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of a C1 Inhibitor Concentrate in Adults ≥65 Years of Age with Hereditary Angioedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Martinez-Saguer, Inmaculada; Bas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in 'older adults' (those aged ≥65 years) has not been well studied. The international Berinert Patient Registry collected data on the use of intravenous plasma-derived, pasteurized, nanofiltered C1-inhibitor concentrate (pnfC1-INH; Berinert......(®)/CSL Behring) in patients of any age, including many older adults. METHODS: This observational registry, conducted from 2010 to 2014 at 30 US and seven European sites, gathered prospective (post-enrollment) and retrospective (pre-enrollment) usage and adverse event (AE) data on subjects treated with pnfC1-INH....... RESULTS: The registry documented 1701 pnfC1-INH infusions in 27 older adults. A total of 1511 HAE attacks treated with pnfC1-INH administration were reported among 25 of the 27 (92.6 %) older adults. Among the older adults, mean (standard deviation [SD]) (8.8 [4.1] IU/kg) and median (6.4 IU/kg) pnfC1-INH...

  8. PAM-Dependent Target DNA Recognition and Cleavage by C2c1 CRISPR-Cas Endonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hui; Gao, Pu; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MSKCC); (Cornell); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2016-12-01

    C2c1 is a newly identified guide RNA-mediated type V-B CRISPR-Cas endonuclease that site-specifically targets and cleaves both strands of target DNA. We have determined crystal structures of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris C2c1 (AacC2c1) bound to sgRNA as a binary complex and to target DNAs as ternary complexes, thereby capturing catalytically competent conformations of AacC2c1 with both target and non-target DNA strands independently positioned within a single RuvC catalytic pocket. Moreover, C2c1-mediated cleavage results in a staggered seven-nucleotide break of target DNA. crRNA adopts a pre-ordered five-nucleotide A-form seed sequence in the binary complex, with release of an inserted tryptophan, facilitating zippering up of 20-bp guide RNA:target DNA heteroduplex on ternary complex formation. Notably, the PAM-interacting cleft adopts a “locked” conformation on ternary complex formation. Structural comparison of C2c1 ternary complexes with their Cas9 and Cpf1 counterparts highlights the diverse mechanisms adopted by these distinct CRISPR-Cas systems, thereby broadening and enhancing their applicability as genome editing tools.

  9. [Acquired angioedema – clinical characteristic of the patients diagnosed in 2012-2016 with acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobiecki, Marcin; Czarnobilska, Ewa; Obtułowicz, Krystyna

    Acquired angioedema is a rare disease caused by a deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor with recurrent swelling symptoms. It may occur in the course of lymphoproliferative disorders or autoimmune diseases. Symptoms resemble hereditary angioedema, and the only differentiating features is negative family history, late onset of symptoms and accompanying lymphoproliferative disorder. The aim of the study was to analyze the cases of acquired angioedema. The retrospective analysis of 341 patients from the registry of patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency. Results: We identified 4 patients among 119 with HAE (3.57%) diagnosed in this same period of time 2012-2016 who fulfilled the criteria of acquired edema. In two cases the primary reason of angioedema was lymphoproliferive disease, in two monoclonal gammapathy of unknown reason. We analyzed also the results of laboratory tests C4, C1 inhibitor, C1q. In all cases the face was dominated localization. After the treatment of primary lymphoproliferive disease, in two cases, we observed total remission of angioedema. Only one patient with gammapathy require treatment with C1 inhibitor during the attacks. In these case we observed both plasma deriver, and recombinant C1 inhibitor were effective.

  10. Surgical treatment of upper cervical spine injuries (c1-c2): experience in 26 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.F.; Qureshi, M.A.; Khalique, A.B.; Afzal, W.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe the spectrum of operations in unstable upper cervical spinal injuries in (atlanto-axial) region at our unit. Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place And Duration: Spine Unit, Department of Orthopedics, Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Rawalpindi from Jan 2001 to Dec 2008. Patients and Methods: Frequency of different kind of operations in 26 patients operated for upper cervical spinal injuries was reviewed. A performa was made for each patient and records were kept in a custom built Microsoft access database. Results: Average age of patients studied was 27 years with male pre dominance. Total 12(46%) patients had Atlanto-axial instability, 8(31%) had Hangman's fracture and 6(23%) patients had odontoid peg fracture. While 11(42%) patients had no neurological deficit according to American spinal injury association impairment scale (AIS-E) and 15(58%) had partial neurological deficit. The patients were divided into three groups. Group A had odontoid peg fracture, Group B had atlanto-axial instability and Group C had Hangman's fracture. The spine was approached posteriorly in 19(73(Yo) cases and anteriorly in 7(27%). Pedicle screw fixation was done in 6(23%) patients, odontoid peg screw fixation in 6(23%), Gallie's fusion in 5(19%), occipito-cervical fusion in 4(15%), posterior transarticular fixation in 3(12%), anterior transarticular fixation and decompression in others, 9(60%) patients improved neurologically postoperatively and there was no deterioration of neurological status. Nonunion in two (8%) cases and implant failure in one (4%) were complications. Conclusion: Upper cervical injuries (C1-C2) are rare and their management is complex, necessitating lot of experience for their management. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is essential for good outcome. Each injury has to be managed at its own merit and a single operation may not be appropriate in all situations. General guidelines can be drawn from our study for the

  11. Geometrical properties of the human child cervical spine with a focus on the C1 vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Lew, Sean M; Rao, Raj D

    2014-01-01

    Child dummies and injury criteria used in automotive crashworthiness environments are based on scaling from the adult and/or between children of different ages. Cartilage-to-bone ossification, spinal canal and joint developments of the spine, and strength attainments do not grow linearly from birth to maturity. Though this is known to medical professionals, age-based quantitative analyses are needed to accurately model the pediatric spine. The objective of this study was to quantify longitudinal growths of various regions of the first cervical vertebrae, responsible for transmitting the axial load from the base of the skull through the condyles to the neck/torso. Computed tomography (CT) images of 54 children from one day to 18 years of age were retrospectively used to determine the following geometrical properties: bilateral neurocentral synchondroses widths, the width of posterior synchondrosis, outer and inner anteroposterior and transverse diameters, spinal canal area, and depths of the anterior and posterior arches of the C1 vertebra. Both axial and sagittal CT images were used in the analysis. Sagittal images were used to quantify data for the anterior and posterior arches and axial images were used for all described cross-sectional parameters. Geometrical properties were extracted and reported for the various parameters at 6 months; one year; 18 months; and 3, 6, and 10 years of age corresponding to the dummy family ages routinely used in motor vehicle crashworthiness research and other applications. The outer transverse diameter ranged from 4.97 to 7.08 cm; outer and inner antero-posterior diameters ranged from 2.99 to 4.18 and 2.19 to 3.03 mm; and spinal canal area ranged from 4.34 to 6.68 mm(2). Other data are given in the body of the article. The growths of the first cervical vertebra quantified in terms of the above variables occurred nonlinearly with age and the degree of nonlinearity depended on the type of the geometrical parameter. Growths did not

  12. Expression of CYP1C1 and CYP1A in Fundulus heteroclitus during PAH-induced carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Camus, Alvin C. [Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Dong, Wu; Thornton, Cammi [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States); Willett, Kristine L., E-mail: kwillett@olemiss.edu [Pharmacology and Environmental Toxicology, University of Mississippi, University, MS (United States)

    2010-09-15

    CYP1C1 is a relatively newly identified member of the cytochrome P450 family 1 in teleost fish. However, CYP1C1's expression and physiological roles relative to the more recognized CYP1A in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced toxicities are unclear. Fundulus heteroclitus fry were exposed at 6-8 days post-hatch (dph) and again at 13-15 dph for 6 h to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, 5 mg/L benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or 5 mg/L dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). Fry were euthanized at 0, 6, 18, 24 and 30 h after the second exposure. In these groups, both CYP1A and CYP1C1 protein expression were induced within 6 h after the second exposure. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results from fry revealed strongest CYP1C1 expression in renal tubular and intestinal epithelial cells. Additional fish were examined for liver lesions 8 months after initial exposure. Gross lesions were observed in 20% of the BaP and 35% of the DMBA-treated fish livers. Histopathologic findings included foci of cellular alteration and neoplasms, including hepatocellular adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangioma. Strong CYP1A immunostaining was detected diffusely in altered cell foci and on the invading margin of hepatocelluar carcinomas. Lower CYP1A expression was seen in central regions of the neoplasms. In contrast, CYP1C1 was only detectable and highly expressed in proliferated bile duct epithelial cells. Our CYP1C1 results suggest the potential for tissue specific CYP1C1-mediated PAH metabolism but not a more chronic role in progression to liver hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Research on simulation calculation method of biomechanical characteristics of C1-3 motion segment damage mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Ju-ying

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To develop the finite element model (FEM of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment, and to make biomechanical finite element analysis (FEA on C1-3 motion segment and thus simulate the biomechanical characteristics of C1-3 motion segment in distraction violence, compression violence, hyperextension violence and hyperflexion violence. Methods According to CT radiological data of a healthy adult, the vertebrae and intervertebral discs of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment were respectively reconstructed by Mimics 10.01 software and Geomagic 10.0 software. The FEM of C1-3 motion segment was reconstructed by attaching the corresponding material properties of cervical spine in Ansys software. The biomechanical characteristics of cervical spinal C1-3 motion segment model were simulated under the 4 loadings of distraction violence, compression violence, hyperextension violence and hyperflexion violence by finite element method. Results In the loading of longitudinal stretch, the stress was relatively concentrated in the anterior arch of atlas, atlantoaxial joint and C3 lamina and spinous process. In the longitudinal compressive loads, the maximum stress of the upper cervical spine was located in the anterior arch of atlas. In the loading of hyperextension moment, the stress was larger in the massa lateralis atlantis, the lateral and posterior arch junction of atlas, the posterior arch nodules of the atlas, superior articular surface of axis and C2 isthmus. In the loading of hyperflexion moment, the stress was relatively concentrated in the odontoid process of axis, the posterior arch of atlas, the posterior arch nodules of atlas, C2 isthmic and C2 inferior articular process. Conclusion Finite element biomechanical testing of C1-3 motion segment can predict the biomechanical mechanism of upper cervical spine injury.

  14. PhaM is the physiological activator of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase (PhaC1) in Ralstonia eutropha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Daniel; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) synthase (PhaC1) is the key enzyme of PHB synthesis in Ralstonia eutropha and other PHB-accumulating bacteria and catalyzes the polymerization of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to PHB. Activity assays of R. eutropha PHB synthase are characterized by the presence of lag phases and by low specific activity. It is assumed that the lag phase is caused by the time necessary to convert the inactive PhaC1 monomer into the active dimeric form by an unknown priming process. The lag phase can be reduced by addition of nonionic detergents such as hecameg [6-O-(N-heptyl-carbamoyl)-methyl-α-D-glucopyranoside], which apparently accelerates the formation of PhaC1 dimers. We identified the PHB granule-associated protein (PGAP) PhaM as the natural primer (activator) of PHB synthase activity. PhaM was recently discovered as a novel type of PGAP with multiple functions in PHB metabolism. Addition of PhaM to PHB synthase assays resulted in immediate polymerization of 3HB coenzyme A with high specific activity and without a significant lag phase. The effect of PhaM on (i) PhaC1 activity, (ii) oligomerization of PhaC1, (iii) complex formation with PhaC1, and (iv) PHB granule formation in vitro and in vivo was shown by cross-linking experiments of purified proteins (PhaM, PhaC1) with glutardialdehyde, by size exclusion chromatography, and by fluorescence microscopic detection of de novo-synthesized PHB granules.

  15. Normal Development and Measurements of the Occipital Condyle-C1 Interval in Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Linscott, L L; Vadivelu, S; Zhang, B; Leach, J L

    2016-05-01

    Widening of the occipital condyle-C1 interval is the most specific and sensitive means of detecting atlanto-occipital dislocation. Recent studies attempting to define normal measurements of the condyle-C1 interval in children have varied substantially. This study was performed to test the null hypothesis that condyle-C1 interval morphology and joint measurements do not change as a function of age. Imaging review of subjects undergoing CT of the upper cervical spine for reasons unrelated to trauma or developmental abnormality was performed. Four equidistant measurements were obtained for each bilateral condyle-C1 interval on sagittal and coronal images. The cohort was divided into 7 age groups to calculate the mean, SD, and 95% CIs for the average condyle-C1 interval in both planes. The prevalence of a medial occipital condyle notch was calculated. Two hundred forty-eight joints were measured in 124 subjects with an age range of 2 days to 22 years. The condyle-C1 interval varies substantially by age. Average coronal measurements are larger and more variable than sagittal measurements. The medial occipital condyle notch is most prevalent from 1 to 12 years and is uncommon in older adolescents and young adults. The condyle-C1 interval increases during the first several years of life, is largest in the 2- to 4-year age range, and then decreases through late childhood and adolescence. A single threshold value to detect atlanto-occipital dissociation may not be sensitive and specific for all age groups. Application of this normative data to documented cases of atlanto-occipital injury is needed to determine clinical utility. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  16. Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  17. FdC1 and Leaf-Type Ferredoxins Channel Electrons From Photosystem I to Different Downstream Electron Acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaoqian; Chen, Shuai; Voon, Chia Pao; Wong, Kam-Bo; Tikkanen, Mikko; Lim, Boon L

    2018-01-01

    Plant-type ferredoxins in Arabidopsis transfer electrons from the photosystem I to multiple redox-driven enzymes involved in the assimilation of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Leaf-type ferredoxins also modulate the switch between the linear and cyclic electron routes of the photosystems. Recently, two novel ferredoxin homologs with extra C-termini were identified in the Arabidopsis genome (AtFdC1, AT4G14890; AtFdC2, AT1G32550). FdC1 was considered as an alternative electron acceptor of PSI under extreme ferredoxin-deficient conditions. Here, we showed that FdC1 could interact with some, but not all, electron acceptors of leaf-type Fds, including the ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR), sulfite reductase (SiR), and nitrite reductase (NiR). Photoreduction assay on cytochrome c and enzyme assays confirmed its capability to receive electrons from PSI and donate electrons to the Fd-dependent SiR and NiR but not to the ferredoxin-NADP + oxidoreductase (FNR). Hence, FdC1 and leaf-type Fds may play differential roles by channeling electrons from photosystem I to different downstream electron acceptors in photosynthetic tissues. In addition, the median redox potential of FdC1 may allow it to receive electrons from FNR in non-photosynthetic plastids.

  18. Study of the decay $B^0 \\to \\chi_{c1} K^+ \\pi^-$ and search of exotic resonances at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, Francesco; Alves Junior, Antonio Augusto

    In 2008 the Belle Collaboration reported the observation of two charged resonance-like structures in the ${\\chi_c}_1 \\pi^-$ mass spectrum produced in the decay $B^0 \\to {\\chi_c}_1 K^+ \\pi^-$. These were labelled as $Z_1(4050)^-$ and $Z_2(4250)^-$. Alternatively, a single wider resonance hypothesis was also pursued by Belle, and labelled as $Z(4150)^-$. The fact that these are charged states would be a clear sample, if they really exist, of four quark bound systems; for this reason this observation has given rise to a great deal of interest. In 2012 the BABAR Collaboration has searched for these resonances in the channels $B^{0,+} \\to {\\chi_c}_1 K^{+,0} \\pi^-$ and did not find any evidence of them. In this thesis a search for these claimed exotic charmonium-like states $Z_1(4050)^-$ and $Z_2(4250)^-$ is presented, in the decay $B^0 \\to {\\chi_c}_1 K^+ \\pi^-$, where ${\\chi_c}_1 \\to J/\\psi \\gamma$ and $J/\\psi \\to \\mu^+ \\mu^-$. Charged conjugate are implied throughout the whole thesis. The analysis is performed us...

  19. The effect of C1-esterase inhibitor in definite and suspected streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Report of seven patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronhoffs, S; Luyken, J; Steuer, K; Hansis, M; Vetter, H; Walger, P

    2000-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of adjunctive C1-esterase inhibitor substitution therapy on clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Observational. Medizinische Poliklinik, University of Bonn, Germany. Seven patients with direct or indirect evidence of streptococcal TSS. In addition to conventional and supportive therapy, all patients received 2-3 single doses of C1-esterase inhibitor totaling 6,000-10,000 U within the first 24 h after admission. All patients developed fulminant septic shock, multiorgan failure and/or capillary leak syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis within 10-72 h following the onset of first symptoms. Between 1 and 4 days following administration of C1-esterase inhibitor, a marked shift of fluid from extravascular to intravascular compartments took place in all but one patient, accompanied by a transient intra-alveolar lung edema and rapidly decreasing need for adrenergic agents. Six of seven patients survived. These clinical observations in a small series of patients and the favorable outcome point towards a positive effect of early and high-dose administration of C1-esterase inhibitor as adjunctive therapy in streptococcal TSS. The possible mechanism involved may be the attenuation of capillary leak syndrome (CLS) via early inactivation of complement and contact systems. Controlled studies are needed to establish an improvement of the survival rates of patients with streptococcal TSS following administration of C1-esterase inhibitor.

  20. The balancing act of transcription factors C-1-1 and Runx2 in articular cartilage development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Koyama, Eiki; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    In previous studies we found that the ets transcription factor C-1-1 is involved in articular chondrocyte development, and we and others found that the transcription factor Runx2 is required for growth plate chondrocyte maturation and ossification. We determined here whether the two factors exert reciprocal influences on their expression and function and in so doing, steer chondrocyte developmental paths. Virally driven Runx2 over-expression in cultured chick chondrocytes did indeed lead to decreased C-1-1 expression, accompanied by decreased expression of articular cartilage marker tenascin-C, decreased proliferation, and increased expression of maturation marker collagen X. In good agreement, over-expression of a dominant-negative Runx2 form had opposite phenotypic consequences. When C-1-1 itself was over-expressed in chondrocytes already undergoing maturation, maturation was halted and the cells became small, rich in tenascin-C, and mitotically quite active. To extend these observations, we misexpressed C-1-1 in mouse cartilage and found that it caused a severe inhibition of chondrocyte maturation and widespread tenascin-C expression. In sum, C-1-1 and Runx2 do influence their respective expression patterns. The factors are powerful chondrocyte regulators and their functional interrelationships may be important for steering the cells toward alternative developmental paths

  1. Ionic liquid promoted one pot approach for the synthesis of pyrido[1,2-c][1,3,5]thiadiazin-4-ones and thiazolo[3,2-c][1,3,5]thiadiazin-4-ones in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Siddiqui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel three component one pot methodology for rapid access to pyrido[1,2-c][1,3,5]thiadiazin-4-ones and thiazolo[3,2-c][1,3,5]thiadiazin-4-ones has been developed. A task specific ionic liquid [bmIm]SCN has been used as thiocyanating reagent. The reaction provides high yields of the product and proceeds at ambient reaction conditions in water. The use of water as the reaction medium and easy recyclability of the ionic liquid used as a reagent as well as promoter of the reaction endows the reaction with green aspects.

  2. Nucleotide sequence of Phaseolus vulgaris L. alcohol dehydrogenase encoding cDNA and three-dimensional structure prediction of the deduced protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, Kassim; Khor, Chin Yin; Shah, Farida Habib; Bhore, Subhash J

    2015-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are widely consumed as a source of proteins and natural products. However, its yield needs to be increased. In line with the agenda of Phaseomics (an international consortium), work of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) generation from bean pods was initiated. Altogether, 5972 ESTs have been isolated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (AD) encoding gene cDNA was a noticeable transcript among the generated ESTs. This AD is an important enzyme; therefore, to understand more about it this study was undertaken. The objective of this study was to elucidate P. vulgaris L. AD (PvAD) gene cDNA sequence and to predict the three-dimensional (3D) structure of deduced protein. positive and negative strands of the PvAD cDNA clone were sequenced using M13 forward and M13 reverse primers to elucidate the nucleotide sequence. Deduced PvAD cDNA and protein sequence was analyzed for their basic features using online bioinformatics tools. Sequence comparison was carried out using bl2seq program, and tree-view program was used to construct a phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures and 3D structure of PvAD protein were predicted by using the PHYRE automatic fold recognition server. The sequencing results analysis showed that PvAD cDNA is 1294 bp in length. It's open reading frame encodes for a protein that contains 371 amino acids. Deduced protein sequence analysis showed the presence of putative substrate binding, catalytic Zn binding, and NAD binding sites. Results indicate that the predicted 3D structure of PvAD protein is analogous to the experimentally determined crystal structure of s-nitrosoglutathione reductase from an Arabidopsis species. The 1294 bp long PvAD cDNA encodes for 371 amino acid long protein that contains conserved domains required for biological functions of AD. The predicted deduced PvAD protein's 3D structure reflects the analogy with the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana s-nitrosoglutathione reductase. Further study is required

  3. Crystal structure of conjugated polyketone reductase (CPR-C1) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 complexed with NADPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hui-Min; Yamamura, Akihiro; Miyakawa, Takuya; Kataoka, Michihiko; Maruoka, Shintaro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nagata, Koji; Shimizu, Sakayu; Tanokura, Masaru

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated polyketone reductase (CPR-C1) from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708 is a member of the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily and reduces ketopantoyl lactone to d-pantoyl lactone in a NADPH-dependent and stereospecific manner. We determined the crystal structure of CPR-C1.NADPH complex at 2.20 Å resolution. CPR-C1 adopted a triose-phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel fold at the core of the structure in which Thr25 and Lys26 of the GXGTX motif bind uniquely to the adenosine 2'-phosphate group of NADPH. This finding provides a novel structural basis for NADPH binding of the AKR superfamily. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Characterization of the honeybee venom proteins C1q-like protein and PVF1 and their allergenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russkamp, Dennis; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Etzold, Stefanie

    2018-01-01

    -like protein (C1q) and PDGF/VEGF-like factor 1 (PVF1). C1q and PVF1 were produced as recombinant proteins in insect cells. Their allergenic properties were examined by determining the level of specific IgE antibodies in the sera of HBV-allergic patients (n = 26) as well as by their capacity to activate...... frugiperda insect cells exhibited specific IgE reactivity with approximately 38.5% of sera of HBV-allergic patients. Interestingly, both proteins were unable to activate basophils of the patients, questioning their role in the context of clinically relevant sensitization. Recombinant C1q and PVF1 can build...

  5. Proteolysis of the heavy chain of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens by complement component C1s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, H; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    1990-01-01

    weights of the fragments are in agreement with the cleavage located in the area between the disulphide loops of the alpha 2-and alpha 3-domains of the heavy chain. In addition human C1s complement is able to cleave H-2 antigens from mouse in a similar fashion but not rat MHC class I antigen or mouse MHC...... class II antigen (I-Ad). Mouse MHC class I antigen-specific determinants could also be detected in supernatant from mouse spleen cells incubated with C1r and C1s. These results indicate the presence in the body fluids of a non-membrane-bound soluble form of the alpha 1-and alpha 2-domains which...

  6. Cloning and heterologous expression of a novel insecticidal gene (tccC1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo Lee, Pom; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Wook Kim, Seung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Park, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeewon

    2004-01-01

    We have identified and cloned a novel toxin gene (tccC1/xptB1) from Xenorhabdus nematophilus strain isolated from Korea-specific entomophagous nematode Steinernema glaseri MK. The DNA sequence of cloned toxin gene (3048 bp) has an open reading frame encoding 1016 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 111058 Da. The toxin sequence shares 50-96% identical amino acid residues with the previously reported tccC1 cloned from X. nematophilus (AJ308438), Photorhabdus luminescens W14 (AF346499) P. luminescens TTO1 (BX571873), and Yersinia pestis CO92 (NC 0 03143). The toxin gene was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant toxin protein caused a rapid cessation in mortality of Galleria mellonella larvae (80% death of larvae within 2 days). Conclusively, the heterologous expression of the novel gene tccC1 cloned into E. coli plasmid vector produced recombinant toxin with high insecticidal activity

  7. Presence of the resistance genes vanC1 and pbp5 in phenotypically vancomycin and ampicillin susceptible Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Karin; Bauer, Johann; Hörmansdorfer, Stefan; Mölle, Gabriele; Preikschat, Petra; Kämpf, Peter; Bauer-Unkauf, Ilse; Bischoff, Meike; Hölzel, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Ampicillin and vancomycin are important antibiotics for the therapy of Enterococcus faecalis infections. The ampicillin resistance gene pbp5 is intrinsic in Enterococcus faecium. The vanC1 gene confers resistance to vancomycin and serves as a species marker for Enterococcus gallinarum. Both genes are chromosomally located. Resistance to ampicillin and vancomycin was determined in 484 E. faecalis of human and porcine origin by microdilution. Since E. faecalis are highly skilled to acquire resistance genes, all strains were investigated for the presence of pbp5 (and, in positive strains, for the penicillin-binding protein synthesis repressor gene psr) and vanC1 (and, in positive strains, for vanXYc and vanT) by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One porcine and one human isolate were phenotypically resistant to ampicillin; no strain was vancomycin resistant. Four E. faecalis (3/1 of porcine/human origin) carried pbp5 (MIC=1 mg/L), and four porcine strains were vanC1 positive (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]=1 mg/L). Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR revealed that the genes were not expressed. The psr gene was absent in the four pbp5-positive strains; the vanXYc gene was absent in the four vanC1-positive strains. However, vanT of the vanC gene cluster was detected in two vanC1-positive strains. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of pbp5, identical with the "E. faecium pbp5 gene," and of vanC1/vanT in E. faecalis. Even if resistance is not expressed in these strains, this study shows that E. faecalis have a strong ability to acquire resistance genes-and potentially to spread them to other bacteria. Therefore, close monitoring of this species should be continued.

  8. High-affinity, noninhibitory pathogenic C1 domain antibodies are present in patients with hemophilia A and inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsuli, Glaivy; Deng, Wei; Healey, John F.; Parker, Ernest T.; Baldwin, W. Hunter; Cox, Courtney; Nguyen, Brenda; Kahle, Joerg; Königs, Christoph; Li, Renhao; Lollar, Pete

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor formation in hemophilia A is the most feared treatment-related complication of factor VIII (fVIII) therapy. Most inhibitor patients with hemophilia A develop antibodies against the fVIII A2 and C2 domains. Recent evidence demonstrates that the C1 domain contributes to the inhibitor response. Inhibitory anti-C1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been identified that bind to putative phospholipid and von Willebrand factor (VWF) binding epitopes and block endocytosis of fVIII by antigen presenting cells. We now demonstrate by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry that 7 of 9 anti-human C1 mAbs tested recognize an epitope distinct from the C1 phospholipid binding site. These mAbs, designated group A, display high binding affinities for fVIII, weakly inhibit fVIII procoagulant activity, poorly inhibit fVIII binding to phospholipid, and exhibit heterogeneity with respect to blocking fVIII binding to VWF. Another mAb, designated group B, inhibits fVIII procoagulant activity, fVIII binding to VWF and phospholipid, fVIIIa incorporation into the intrinsic Xase complex, thrombin generation in plasma, and fVIII uptake by dendritic cells. Group A and B epitopes are distinct from the epitope recognized by the canonical, human-derived inhibitory anti-C1 mAb, KM33, whose epitope overlaps both groups A and B. Antibodies recognizing group A and B epitopes are present in inhibitor plasmas from patients with hemophilia A. Additionally, group A and B mAbs increase fVIII clearance and are pathogenic in a hemophilia A mouse tail snip bleeding model. Group A anti-C1 mAbs represent the first identification of pathogenic, weakly inhibitory antibodies that increase fVIII clearance. PMID:27381905

  9. C1 Inhibitor in Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection Nonresponsive to Conventional Therapy in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglietti, D; Gosset, C; Loupy, A; Deville, L; Verine, J; Zeevi, A; Glotz, D; Lefaucheur, C

    2016-05-01

    Complement inhibitors have not been thoroughly evaluated in the treatment of acute antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR). We performed a prospective, single-arm pilot study to investigate the potential effects and safety of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) Berinert added to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the treatment of acute ABMR that is nonresponsive to conventional therapy. Kidney recipients with nonresponsive active ABMR and acute allograft dysfunction were enrolled between April 2013 and July 2014 and received C1-INH and IVIG for 6 months (six patients). The primary end point was the change in eGFR at 6 months after inclusion (M+6). Secondary end points included the changes in histology and DSA characteristics and adverse events as evaluated at M+6. All patients showed an improvement in eGFR between inclusion and M+6: from 38.7 ± 17.9 to 45.2 ± 21.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p = 0.0277). There was no change in histological features, except a decrease in the C4d deposition rate from 5/6 to 1/6 (p = 0.0455). There was a change in DSA C1q status from 6/6 to 1/6 positive (p = 0.0253). One deep venous thrombosis was observed. In a secondary analysis, C1-INH patients were compared with a similar historical control group (21 patients). C1-INH added to IVIG is safe and may improve allograft function in kidney recipients with nonresponsive acute ABMR. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Remarks on surfaces with $c_1^2 =2\\chi -1$ having non-trivial 2-torsion

    OpenAIRE

    MURAKAMI, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    We shall show that any complex minimal surface of general type with $c_1^2 = 2\\chi -1$ having non-trivial 2-torsion divisors, where $c_1^2$ and $\\chi$ are the first Chern number of a surface and the Euler characteristic of the structure sheaf respectively, has the Euler characteristic $\\chi$ not exceeding 4. Moreover, we shall give a complete description for the surfaces of the case $\\chi =4$, and prove that the coarse moduli space for surfaces of this case is a unirational variety of dimensi...

  11. Fibulin-1C, C1 esterase inhibitor and glucose regulated protein 75 interact with the CREC proteins, calumenin and reticulocalbin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gry Aune Westergaard; Ludvigsen, Maja; Jacobsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify fibulin-1C, C1 esterase inhibitor and glucose regulated protein 75, grp75, as binding partners of the CREC proteins, calumenin and reticulocalbin. Surface plasmon resonance was used to verify...... the interaction of all three proteins with each of the CREC proteins. Fibulin-1C interacts with calumenin and reticulocalbin with an estimated dissociation constant around 50-60 nM. The interaction, at least for reticulocalbin, was not dependent upon the presence of Ca2+. C1 esterase inhibitor interacted...

  12. Association of anti C1q and ds-DNA levels with the pathogenesis of Lupus Nephritis among SLE patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Sohail

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lupus nephritis (LN is the most common and serious complication associated with SLE and it results in significant morbidity and mortality. It is known by several studies that patients of LN have higher levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q compared with SLE patients without renal involvement. The current study was designed to determine and compare the level of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q in patients of SLE with and without lupus nephritis in the Pakistani population. This current study was also aimed at providing proof that anti-C1q levels are more prominent in LN/non-LN SLE as compared to anti-dsDNA. This project may help in the determination of results in Pakistan and contribute to the further confirmation of the sensitivity of anti-C1q. Method: The patient samples were collected from Sheikh Zayed hospital, Lahore. These patients were clinically diagnosed by the Rheumatologists as SLE and LN positive on the basis of ACR and SLEDAI scoring criteria. This study was performed and samples were analyzed in the Department of Medical and Laboratory Sciences, Imperial College of Business Study, Lahore on the patient’s serum by ELISA technique. Result: About 38% (12 patients with LN were positive for anti-dsDNA and 31% (9 SLE patients without LN were positive whereas about 38.7% (12 were anti-dsDNA negative in LN cases and 58.6% (17 in SLE without LN. In case of anti-C1q 100% (31 of these LN patients were positive and 93.1% (27 patients SLE without LN showed positive anti C1q results. Only 6.9% (2 patients showed negative results for anti-C1q in LN negative patients Conclusion: The higher levels of anti-C1q suggest that it may be a better diagnostic marker for LN than that of anti-dsDNA and that it can be helpful in the prognosis of SLE patients.

  13. Solvothermal synthesis and characterisation of new one-dimensional indium and gallium sulphides: [C1N4H26]0.5[InS2] and [C1N4H26]0.5[GaS2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaqueiro, Paz

    2006-01-01

    Two new main group metal sulphides, [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [InS 2 ] (1) and [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [GaS 2 ] (2) have been prepared solvothermally in the presence of 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isostructural and crystallise in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /n (Z=4), with a=6.5628(5), b=11.2008(9), c=12.6611(9) A and β=94.410(4) o (wR=0.035) for compound (1) and a=6.1094(5), b=11.2469(9), c=12.7064(10) A and β=94.313(4) o (wR=0.021) for compound (2). The structure of [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [MS 2 ] (M=In,Ga) consists of one-dimensional [MS 2 ] - chains which run parallel to the crystallographic a axis and are separated by diprotonated amine molecules. These materials represent the first example of solvothermally prepared one-dimensional gallium and indium sulphides. -- Graphical abstract: [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [InS 2 ] and [C 1 N 4 H 26 ] 0.5 [GaS 2 ], prepared under solvothermal conditions, consist of one-dimensional [MS 2 ] - chains separated by diprotonated 1,4-bis(3-aminopropyl)piperazine molecules

  14. A Hypothesis: Life Initiated from Two Genes, as Deduced from the RNA World Hypothesis and the Characteristics of Life-Like Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Kawamura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential for forming a life-like system. At the same time, I have conducted a conceptual analysis of the characteristics of biosystems as a useful approach to deduce a realistic life-like system in relation to the definition of life. For instance, an RNA-based life-like system should possess enough stability to resist environmental perturbations, by developing a cell-like compartment, for instance. Here, a conceptual viewpoint is summarized to provide a realistic life-like system that is compatible with the primitive Earth environment and the capabilities of RNA molecules. According to the empirical and conceptual analysis, I propose the hypothesis that the first life-like system could have initiated from only two genes.

  15. Atmospheric CO2 variations over the last three glacial-interglacial climatic cycles deduced from the Dome Fuji deep ice core, Antarctica using a wet extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kenji; Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Aoki, Shuji

    2003-01-01

    A deep ice core drilled at Dome Fuji, East Antarctica was analyzed for the CO 2 concentration using a wet extraction method in order to reconstruct its atmospheric variations over the past 320 kyr, which includes three full glacial-interglacial climatic cycles, with a mean time resolution of about 1.1 kyr. The CO 2 concentration values derived for the past 65 kyr are very close to those obtained from other Antarctic ice cores using dry extraction methods, although the wet extraction method is generally thought to be inappropriate for the determination of the CO 2 concentration. The comparison between the CO 2 and Ca 2+ concentrations deduced from the Dome Fuji core suggests that calcium carbonate emitted from lands was mostly neutralized in the atmosphere before reaching the central part of Antarctica, or that only a small part of calcium carbonate was involved in CO 2 production during the wet extraction process. The CO 2 concentration for the past 320 kyr deduced from the Dome Fuji core varies between 190 and 300 ppmv, showing clear glacial-interglacial variations similar to the result of the Vostok ice core. However, for some periods, the concentration values of the Dome Fuji core are higher by up to 20 ppmv than those of the Vostok core. There is no clear indication that such differences are related to variations of chemical components of Ca 2+ , microparticle and acidity of the Dome Fuji core

  16. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Kenji

    2016-01-26

    It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event-the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids-as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  17. Evolutionary Steps in the Emergence of Life Deduced from the Bottom-Up Approach and GADV Hypothesis (Top-Down Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ikehara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is no doubt quite difficult to solve the riddle of the origin of life. So, firstly, I would like to point out the kinds of obstacles there are in solving this riddle and how we should tackle these difficult problems, reviewing the studies that have been conducted so far. After that, I will propose that the consecutive evolutionary steps in a timeline can be rationally deduced by using a common event as a juncture, which is obtained by two counter-directional approaches: one is the bottom-up approach through which many researchers have studied the origin of life, and the other is the top-down approach, through which I established the [GADV]-protein world hypothesis or GADV hypothesis on the origin of life starting from a study on the formation of entirely new genes in extant microorganisms. Last, I will describe the probable evolutionary process from the formation of Earth to the emergence of life, which was deduced by using a common event—the establishment of the first genetic code encoding [GADV]-amino acids—as a juncture for the results obtained from the two approaches.

  18. Synthesis of [2-13C, 2-14C] 2-aminoethanol, [1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethylamine, N,N'-bis([1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(BCNU) and N-([1-13C, 1-14C] 2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(CNU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayan, R.; Chang, C-j.

    1982-01-01

    [2- 13 C, 2- 14 C]2-Aminoethanol hydrochloride was prepared in good yield from Na*CN in a two step sequence by first converting the Na*CN to OHCH 2 *CN and then reducing the nitrile directly with a solution of borane-tetrahydrofuran complex. The reaction procedure was simple and the pure product could be obtained readily. Using this specifically labelled precursor, the synthesis of [1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethylamine hydrochloride, N-([1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(CNU) and N,N'-bis([1- 13 C, 1- 14 C]2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea(BCNU) in good yield without isotope scrambling was also reported. (author)

  19. COOH-terminal substitutions in the serpin C1 inhibitor that cause loop overinsertion and subsequent multimerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldering, E.; Verpy, E.; Roem, D.; Meo, T.; Tosi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The region COOH-terminal to the reactive center loop is highly conserved in the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family. We have studied the structural consequences of three substitutions (Val451-->Met, Phe455-->Ser, and Pro476-->Ser) found in this region of C1 inhibitor in patients suffering from

  20. STABILITAS EPIGALOKATEKIN GALAT DALAM KRIM EKSTRAK TEH HIJAU DENGAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI ANTIOKSIDAN VITAMIN C 1% DAN VITAMIN E 1%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nining Sugihartini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epigallocatechingallate (EGCG in green tea extract has activity as an anti-inflammatory agent. On the other hand the stability of EGCG is poor because of the oxidation. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Vitamine C and Vitamine E in formulation of green tea extract cream to the stabiliy of EGCG. The green tea extract was obtained from the extraction process by infundation followed by fractination with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The three formulas were compiled in similar composition with the concentration of vitamine C 1% (FI, Vitamine E 1% (FII and there was no Vitamine C and Vitamine E (FIII as a control. The EGCG level was determinated by TLC-densitometry methode. The stability parameter was determinated by calculated of the Q10 of each formula. The result of this study showed that the parameter of t90 of EGCG with Vitamine C 1%, Vitamine E 1% and control addition were 0.0108 hours, 0.0087 hours, 0.0084 hours, respectively. Stability of EGCG in green tea leaf extract cream with addition of the vitamin C 1% was higher than it stability with the addition of vitamin E 1%. The concentration of Vitamin C 1% was the optimum concentration as antioxidant in formulation of green tea extract cream.

  1. ImprimatinC1, a novel plant immune-priming compound, functions as a partial agonist of salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutoshi, Yoshiteru; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kamiya, Yuji; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Plant activators are agrochemicals that protect crops from pathogens. They confer durable resistance to a broad range of diseases by activating intrinsic immune mechanisms in plants. To obtain leads regarding useful compounds, we have screened a chemical library using an established method that allows selective identification of immune-priming compounds. Here, we report the characterisation of one of the isolated chemicals, imprimatinC1, and its structural derivative imprimatinC2. ImprimatinC1 functions as a weak analogue of salicylic acid (SA) and activates the expression of defence-related genes. However, it lacks antagonistic activity toward jasmonic acid. Structure-activity relationship analysis suggests that imprimatinC1 and C2 can be metabolised to 4-chlorobenzoic acid and 3,4-chlorobenzoic acid, respectively, to function in Arabidopsis. We also found that imprimatinC1 and C2 and their potential functional metabolites acted as partial agonists of SA. Thus, imprimatinC compounds could be useful tools for dissecting SA-dependent signal transduction pathways.

  2. Observation of chi(c1) Decays into Vector Meson Pairs phi phi, omega omega, and omega phi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; An, L.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Baldini, R.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cao, G. F.; Cao, X. X.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, M. Y.; Fan, R. R.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Feng, C. Q.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Greco, M.; Grishin, S.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, G. C.; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Y. W.; Liu, Yong; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Z. Q.; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X.; Ma, X. Y.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Sonoda, S.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tang, X. F.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Varner, G. S.; Wan, X.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xu, Z. Z.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, M.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, L.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, Jiawei; Zhao, Jingwei; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhao, Z. L.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhong, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.; Zweber, P.

    2011-01-01

    Using (106 +/- 4) x 10(6) psi(3686) events accumulated with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+) e(-) collider, we present the first measurement of decays of chi(c1) to vector meson pairs phi phi, omega omega, and omega phi. The branching fractions are measured to be (4.4 +/- 0.3 +/- 0.5) x

  3. A case of tongue edema associated with radiation-induced ulcer with low level of C1 inhibitor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Tsuyoshi; Hosoda, Masaru

    2003-01-01

    A 66-year-old man became aware of sudden swelling of the tongue with swallowing disturbance. He had a medical history of tongue cancer treated by interstitial radiotherapy and had undergone a cytological examination of an ulcer on the right side of the tongue three weeks earlier because of suspected recurrence. The cytological examination result was class I with no malignant findings. Angioneurotic edema, so-called ''Quincke's edema'', associated with radiation-induced ulcer of the tongue, was diagnosed. Tranexamic acid, d-chlorpheniramine maleate, and epinephrine were administered. After six days, the tongue edema had almost disappeared. Laboratory examination revealed a low level of C1 inhibitor activity with normal levels of CH50, C1, C3, and C4 at the time of swelling. Hereditary angioneurotic edema with absence of hereditary trait was suspected based on the sudden edema attack and low level of C1 inhibitor activity. The C1 inhibitor activity returned to normal after disappearance of the tongue edema. (author)

  4. Characterization and mode of action of two acetyl xylan esterases from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 active towards acetylated xylans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouvreau, L.A.M.; Jonathan, M.C.; Kabel, M.A.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two novel acetyl xylan esterases, Axe2 and Axe3, from Chrysosporium lucknowense (C1), belonging to the carbohydrate esterase families 5 and 1, respectively, were purified and biochemically characterized. Axe2 and Axe3 are able to hydrolyze acetyl groups both from simple acetylated

  5. "1"3CO/C"1"8O Gradients across the Disks of Nearby Spiral Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Donaire, María J.; Cormier, Diane; Bigiel, Frank; Leroy, Adam K.; Gallagher, Molly; Krumholz, Mark R.; Usero, Antonio; Hughes, Annie; Kramer, Carsten; Meier, David; Murphy, Eric; Pety, Jérôme; Schuster, Karl; Schinnerer, Eva; Sliwa, Kazimierz; Tomicic, Neven; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We use the IRAM Large Program EMPIRE and new high-resolution ALMA data to measure "1"3CO(1-0)/C"1"8O(1-0) intensity ratios across nine nearby spiral galaxies. These isotopologues of "1"2CO are typically optically thin across most of the area in galaxy disks, and this ratio allows us to gauge their relative abundance due to chemistry or stellar nucleosynthesis effects. Resolved "1"3CO/C"1"8O gradients across normal galaxies have been rare due to the faintness of these lines. We find a mean "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio of 6.0 ± 0.9 for the central regions of our galaxies. This agrees well with results in the Milky Way, but differs from results for starburst galaxies (3.4 ± 0.9) and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (1.1 ± 0.4). In our sample, the "1"3CO/C"1"8O ratio consistently increases with increasing galactocentric radius and decreases with increasing star formation rate surface density. These trends could be explained if the isotopic abundances are altered by fractionation; the sense of the trends also agrees with those expected for carbon and oxygen isotopic abundance variations due to selective enrichment by massive stars.

  6. C1q nephropathy and isolated CD59 deficiency manifesting as necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis: A rare association of two diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C1q nephropathy is a recently described clinico-pathologic entity with a variable clinical presentation and pathology. Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN has been reported in only two patients in the available literature. CD59 deficiency, along with lack of CD55, is responsible for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. Few cases of isolated CD59 deficiency have been described with PNH-like features. A middle-aged adult male presented with rapidly progressive renal failure. Serological investigations were negative. A renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic GN with rupture of Bowman′s capsule. Immunofluorescence on the frozen sections showed dominant mesangial deposits of C1q along with IgM. Hematological work-up of the patient revealed isolated CD59 deficiency. Hence, a final diagnosis of C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency manifesting as crescentic GN and hemolytic anemia was made. The co-existence of two rare disorders, C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency, in a patient with necrotizing crescentic GN is described for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The pathogenetic link of these two entities with the clinical manifestation requires further study.

  7. "NR3C1" Methylation as a Moderator of the Effects of Maternal Support and Stress on Insecure Attachment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the prediction that the interaction between Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene ("NR3C1") methylation, stress, and experienced maternal support predicts anxious and avoidant attachment development. This was tested in a general population sample of 487 children and adolescents (44% boys, M[subscript age] = 11.84, SD[subscript age] =…

  8. Structural Differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae Housekeeping and Pilus-Specific Sortases: SrtA and SrtC1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khare, B.; Krishnan, V.; Rajashankar, K.R.; I-Hsiu, H.; Xin, M.; Ton-That, H.; Narayana, S.V. (Texas-HSC); (Cornell); (UAB)

    2011-10-21

    The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2) and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104). Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y) motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  9. Structural differences between the Streptococcus agalactiae housekeeping and pilus-specific sortases: SrtA and SrtC1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Khare

    Full Text Available The assembly of pili on the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria requires transpeptidase enzymes called sortases. In Streptococcus agalactiae, the PI-1 pilus island of strain 2603V/R encodes two pilus-specific sortases (SrtC1 and SrtC2 and three pilins (GBS80, GBS52 and GBS104. Although either pilus-specific sortase is sufficient for the polymerization of the major pilin, GBS80, incorporation of the minor pilins GBS52 and GBS104 into the pilus structure requires SrtC1 and SrtC2, respectively. The S. agalactiae housekeeping sortase, SrtA, whose gene is present at a different location and does not catalyze pilus polymerization, was shown to be involved in cell wall anchoring of pilus polymers. To understand the structural basis of sortases involved in such diverse functions, we determined the crystal structures of S. agalactiae SrtC1 and SrtA. Both enzymes are made of an eight-stranded beta-barrel core with variations in their active site architecture. SrtA exhibits a catalytic triad arrangement similar to that in Streptococcus pyogenes SrtA but different from that in Staphylococcus aureus SrtA. In contrast, the SrtC1 enzyme contains an N-terminal helical domain and a 'lid' in its putative active site, which is similar to that seen in Streptococcus pneumoniae pilus-specific sortases, although with subtle differences in positioning and composition. To understand the effect of such differences on substrate recognition, we have also determined the crystal structure of a SrtC1 mutant, in which the conserved DP(W/F/Y motif was replaced with the sorting signal motif of GBS80, IPNTG. By comparing the structures of WT wild type SrtA and SrtC1 and the 'lid' mutant of SrtC1, we propose that structural elements within the active site and the lid may be important for defining the role of specific sortase in pili biogenesis.

  10. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Human C1q Deficiency: The Karolinska Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Richard F; Hagelberg, Stefan; Schiller, Bodil; Ringdén, Olle; Truedsson, Lennart; Åhlin, Anders

    2016-06-01

    Human C1q deficiency is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and increased susceptibility to severe bacterial infections. These patients require extensive medical therapy and some develop treatment-resistant disease. Because C1q is produced by monocytes, it has been speculated that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) may cure this disorder. We have so far treated 5 patients with C1q deficiency. In 3 cases, SLE symptoms remained relatively mild after the start of medical therapy, but 2 patients developed treatment-resistant SLE, and we decided to pursue treatment with allo-HSCT. For this purpose, we chose a conditioning regimen composed of treosulfan (14 g/m) and fludarabine (30 mg/m) started on day -6 and given for 3 and 5 consecutive days, respectively. Thymoglobulin was given at a cumulative dose of 8 mg/kg, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis was composed of cyclosporine and methotrexate. A 9-year-old boy and a 12-year-old girl with refractory SLE restored C1q production after allo-HSCT. This resulted in normal functional properties of the classical complement pathway followed by reduced severity of SLE symptoms. The boy developed posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease, which resolved after treatment with rituximab and donor lymphocyte infusion. Unfortunately, donor lymphocyte infusion induced severe cortisone-resistant gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease, and the patient died from multiple organ failure 4 months after transplantation. The girl is doing well 33 months after transplantation, and clinically, all signs of SLE have resolved. Allo-HSCT can cure SLE in human C1q deficiency and should be considered early in subjects resistant to medical therapy.

  11. Comparison of gene expression profiles of HepG2 cells exposed to Crambescins C1 and A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María R. Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crambescins are guanidine alkaloids firstly isolated in the early 90s from the encrusting Mediterranean sponge Crambe crambe (Schmidt, 1862 (Bondu et al., 2012, Laville et al., 2009, Berlinck et al., 1990. C. crambe derivatives are divided in two families named crambescins and crambescidins (Gerlinck et al., 1992. Although data on the bioactivity of these compounds is scarce, crambescidins have recognized cytotoxic, antifungal, antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral activities (Buscema and Van de Vyver, 1985, Jares-Erijman., 1998, Olszewski et al., 2004, Lazaro et al., 2006, Suna et al., 2007, AOKI et al., 2004. Recently we have carefully evaluated the cytotoxic activity of C816 over several human tumor cell types and characterized some of the cellular mechanisms responsible of the anti-proliferative effect of this compound on human liver-derived tumor cells (Rubiolo et al., 2013. Taking this into account, and to better understand the mechanism of action of crambescins and their potential as therapeutic agents, we made a comparative gene expression profiling of HepG2 cells after crambescin C1 (C1 and crambescin A1 (CA1 exposures. Results have shown that C1 induces genes involved in sterol and glucose metabolisms and metabolism involving growth factors. It also down regulates genes mainly involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, recombination and repair, and drug metabolism. Flow cytometry assays revealed that C1 produces a G0/G1 arrest in HepG2 cell cycle progression. CA1 also down-regulates genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA recombination and pathways related to tumor cells proliferation with lower potency when compared to C1.

  12. N- and O-glycosylation Analysis of Human C1-inhibitor Reveals Extensive Mucin-type O-Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavenhagen, Kathrin; Kayili, H Mehmet; Holst, Stephanie; Koeleman, Carolien A M; Engel, Ruchira; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha; Salih, Bekir; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2018-06-01

    Human C1-inhibitor (C1-Inh) is a serine protease inhibitor and the major regulator of the contact activation pathway as well as the classical and lectin complement pathways. It is known to be a highly glycosylated plasma glycoprotein. However, both the structural features and biological role of C1-Inh glycosylation are largely unknown. Here, we performed for the first time an in-depth site-specific N - and O -glycosylation analysis of C1-Inh combining various mass spectrometric approaches, including C18-porous graphitized carbon (PGC)-LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS applying stepping-energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) and electron-transfer dissociation (ETD). Various proteases were applied, partly in combination with PNGase F and exoglycosidase treatment, in order to analyze the (glyco)peptides. The analysis revealed an extensively O -glycosylated N-terminal region. Five novel and five known O -glycosylation sites were identified, carrying mainly core1-type O -glycans. In addition, we detected a heavily O -glycosylated portion spanning from Thr 82 -Ser 121 with up to 16 O -glycans attached. Likewise, all known six N -glycosylation sites were covered and confirmed by this site-specific glycosylation analysis. The glycoforms were in accordance with results on released N -glycans by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. The comprehensive characterization of C1-Inh glycosylation described in this study will form the basis for further functional studies on the role of these glycan modifications. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Accumulation of free oligosaccharides and tissue damage in cytosolic α-mannosidase (Man2c1)-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciotti, Silvia; Persichetti, Emanuele; Klein, Katharina; Tasegian, Anna; Duvet, Sandrine; Hartmann, Dieter; Gieselmann, Volkmar; Beccari, Tommaso

    2014-04-04

    Free Man(7-9)GlcNAc2 is released during the biosynthesis pathway of N-linked glycans or from misfolded glycoproteins during the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation process and are reduced to Man5GlcNAc in the cytosol. In this form, free oligosaccharides can be transferred into the lysosomes to be degraded completely. α-Mannosidase (MAN2C1) is the enzyme responsible for the partial demannosylation occurring in the cytosol. It has been demonstrated that the inhibition of MAN2C1 expression induces accumulation of Man(8-9)GlcNAc oligosaccharides and apoptosis in vitro. We investigated the consequences caused by the lack of cytosolic α-mannosidase activity in vivo by the generation of Man2c1-deficient mice. Increased amounts of Man(8-9)GlcNAc oligosaccharides were recognized in all analyzed KO tissues. Histological analysis of the CNS revealed neuronal and glial degeneration with formation of multiple vacuoles in deep neocortical layers and major telencephalic white matter tracts. Enterocytes of the small intestine accumulate mannose-containing saccharides and glycogen particles in their apical cytoplasm as well as large clear vacuoles in retronuclear position. Liver tissue is characterized by groups of hepatocytes with increased content of mannosyl compounds and glycogen, some of them undergoing degeneration by hydropic swelling. In addition, lectin screening showed the presence of mannose-containing saccharides in the epithelium of proximal kidney tubules, whereas scattered glomeruli appeared collapsed or featured signs of fibrosis along Bowman's capsule. Except for a moderate enrichment of mannosyl compounds and glycogen, heterozygous mice were normal, arguing against possible toxic effects of truncated Man2c1. These findings confirm the key role played by Man2c1 in the catabolism of free oligosaccharides.

  14. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  15. Nikkaji Dictionary: フモニシンC1 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term フモニシンC1 名詞 一般 * * * * フモニシン...C1 ... Nikkaji J838.612I 200906067023527905 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 フモニシン C 1

  16. Distinct pathways of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)- and C1-complex autoactivation revealed by reconstitution of MBL with recombinant MBL-associated serine protease-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, T; Petersen, Steen Vang; Hansen, A G

    2000-01-01

    proteolytic activation of both C1r and C1s, reconstitution with MASP-2 alone is sufficient for complement activation by MBL. The results suggest that the catalytic activities of MASP-2 split between the two proteases of the C1 complex during the course of vertebrate complement evolution. Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  17. Observation of B{sub s}{sup 0}→χ{sub c1}ϕ decay and study of B{sup 0}→χ{sub c1,2}K{sup ⁎0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Adrover, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Albrecht, J. [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Alessio, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Alexander, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ali, S. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Gatchina (Russian Federation); Alvarez Cartelle, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves, A.A. [Sezione INFN di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Amato, S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amerio, S. [Sezione INFN di Padova, Padova (Italy); Amhis, Y. [LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Anderlini, L. [Sezione INFN di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Anderson, J. [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Andreassen, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andrews, J.E. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); and others

    2013-09-21

    The first observation of the decay B{sub s}{sup 0}→χ{sub c1}ϕ and a study of B{sup 0}→χ{sub c1,2}K{sup ⁎0} decays are presented. The analysis is performed using a dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb{sup −1}, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: (table) where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fractions of χ{sub c}→J/ψγ modes.

  18. Evolutionary history of Calosomina ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabinae) of the world as deduced from sequence comparisons of the mitochondrial ND 5 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi-Hui; Imura, Yûki; Osawa, Syozo

    2005-11-07

    We deduced the phylogenetic relationships of 54 individuals representing 27 species of the Calosomina (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from various regions of the world from the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND 5) gene sequences. The results suggest that these Calosomina radiated into 17 lineages within a short time about 30 million years ago (Mya). Most of the lineages are composed of a single genus containing only one or a few species. In some cases, several species classified into the same genus (e.g., Calosoma maximowiczi, Calos. inquisitor and Calos. frigidum) appear separately in independent lineages, while in others a series of species classified into different genera fall into one lineage (e.g., Chrysostigma calidum, Blaptosoma chihuahua, Microcallisthenes wilkesi and Callisthenes spp.). Based on this molecular phylogeny and morphological data, the probable evolutionary history and mode of morphological differentiation of the Calosomina are discussed.

  19. Isolated angioedema of the bowel due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Shivangi T

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a rare, classic case of isolated angioedema of the bowel due to C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency. It is a rare presentation and very few cases have been reported worldwide. Angioedema has been classified into three categories. Case presentation A 66-year-old Caucasian man presented with a ten-month history of episodic severe cramping abdominal pain, associated with loose stools. A colonoscopy performed during an acute attack revealed nonspecific colitis. Computed tomography of the abdomen performed at the same time showed a thickened small bowel and ascending colon with a moderate amount of free fluid in the abdomen. Levels of C4 ( Conclusion In addition to a detailed comprehensive medical history, laboratory data and imaging studies are required to confirm a diagnosis of angioedema due to C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency.

  20. NLO NRQCD disfavors the interpretation of X(3872) as {chi}{sub c1}(2P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butenschoen, Mathias [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; He, Zhi-Guo; Kniehl, Bernd A. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-03-15

    We study {chi}{sub c1}(2P) inclusive hadroproduction at next-to-leading order (NLO) within the factorization formalism of nonrelativistic quantum chromodynamics (NRQCD), including both the color-singlet {sup 3}P{sub 1}{sup [1]} and color-octet {sup 3}S{sub 1}{sup [8]} c anti c Fock states. Assuming the recently discovered X(3872) hadron to be the 2P (1{sup ++}) charmonium state, we perform a fit to the cross sections measured by the CDF, CMS, and LHCb Collaborations. We either obtain an unacceptably high value of {chi}{sup 2} or a value of vertical stroke R{sub 2P}{sup '}(0) vertical stroke incompatible with well-established potential models. We thus conclude that NLO NRQCD is incompatible with the hypothesis X(3872){identical_to}{chi}{sub c1}(2P).

  1. SO(2,C) invariant ring structure of BRST cohomology and singular vectors in 2D gravity with C<1 matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, N.; Dobrev, V.K.; Kanno, H.

    1992-01-01

    We consider BRST quantized 2D gravity coupled to conformal matter with arbitrary central change c M = c(p,q) M = 1 chiral ground ring. We show that the ring structure generated by the (relative BRST cohomology) discrete states in the (matter x Liouville x ghosts) Fock module may be obtained by this rotation. We give also explicit formulae for the discrete states. For some of them we use new formulae for c<1 Fock modules singular vectors which we present in terms of Schur polynomials generalizing the c = 1 expressions of Goldstone, while the rest of the discrete states we obtain by finding the proper SO(2,C) rotation. Our formulae give the extra physical states (arising from the relative BRST cohomology) on the boundaries of the p x q rectangles of the conformal lattice and thus all such states in (1,q) or (p,1) models. (author). 24 refs

  2. Summertime C1-C5 alkyl nitrates over Beijing, northern China: Spatial distribution, regional transport, and formation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjing; Li, Zeyuan; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xinfeng; Gao, Jian; Nie, Wei; Simpson, Isobel J.; Gao, Rui; Blake, Donald R.; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-05-01

    Alkyl nitrates (RONO2) are an important class of nitrogen oxides reservoirs in the atmosphere and play a key role in tropospheric photochemistry. Despite the increasing concern for photochemical air pollution over China, the knowledge of characteristics and formation mechanisms of alkyl nitrates in this region is limited. We analyzed C1-C5 alkyl nitrates measured in Beijing at a polluted urban site in summer 2008 and at a downwind rural site in summers of both 2005 and 2008. Although the abundances of NOx and hydrocarbons were much lower at the rural site, the mixing ratios of RONO2 were comparable between both sites, emphasizing the regional nature of alkyl nitrate pollution. Regional transport of urban plumes governed the elevated RONO2 levels at the rural site. The concentrations of C1-C2 RONO2 were significantly higher at the rural site in 2008 compared to 2005 despite a decline in NOx and anthropogenic VOCs, mainly owing to enhanced contributions from biogenic VOCs. The photochemical formation regimes of RONO2 were evaluated by both a simplified sequential reaction model and a detailed master chemical mechanism box model. The observed C4-C5 RONO2 levels can be well explained by the photochemical degradation of n-butane and n-pentane, while the sources of C1-C3 RONO2 were rather complex. In addition to the C1-C3 alkanes, biogenic VOCs and reactive aromatics were also important precursors of methyl nitrate, and alkenes and long-chain alkanes contributed to the formation of C2-C3 RONO2. This study provides insights into the spatial distribution, inter-annual variation and photochemical formation mechanisms of alkyl nitrate pollution over the Beijing area.

  3. Control region variability of haplogroup C1d and the tempo of the peopling of the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Figueiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the founding mitochondrial haplogroups involved in the peopling of the Americas, haplogroup C1d has been viewed as problematic because of its phylogeny and because of the estimates of its antiquity, apparently being much younger than other founding haplogroups. Several recent analyses, based on data from the entire mitochondrial genome, have contributed to an advance in the resolution of these problems. The aim of our analysis is to compare the conclusions drawn from the available HVR-I and HVR-II data for haplogroup C1d with the ones based on whole mitochondrial genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HVR-I and HVR-II sequences defined as belonging to haplogroup C1d by standard criteria were gathered from the literature as well as from population studies carried out in Uruguay. Sequence phylogeny was reconstructed using median-joining networks, geographic distribution of lineages was analyzed and the age of the most recent common ancestor estimated using the ρ-statistic and two different mutation rates. The putative ancestral forms of the haplogroup were found to be more widespread than the derived lineages, and the lineages defined by np 194 were found to be widely distributed and of equivalent age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis of control region sequences is found to still harbor great potential in tracing microevolutionary phenomena, especially those found to have occurred in more recent times. Based on the geographic distributions of the alleles of np 7697 and np 194, both discussed as possible basal mutations of the C1d phylogeny, we suggest that both alleles were part of the variability of the haplogroup at the time of its entrance. Moreover, based on the mutation rates of the different sites stated to be diagnostic, it is possible that the anomalies found when analyzing the haplogroup are due to paraphyly.

  4. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; DuRoss, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP?CD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HP?CD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (e...

  5. The triterpenoid corosolic acid blocks transformation and epigenetically reactivates Nrf2 in TRAMP-C1 prostate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Wu, Renyi; Li, Wenji; Gao, Linbo; Yang, Yuqing; Li, Ping; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2018-04-01

    Corosolic acid (CRA) is found in various plants and has been used as a health food supplement worldwide. Although it has been reported that CRA exhibits significant anticancer activity, the effect of this compound on prostate cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of CRA on cellular transformation and the reactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) through epigenetic regulation in TRAMP-C1 prostate cells. Specifically, we found that CRA inhibited anchorage-independent growth of prostate cancer TRAMP-C1 cells but not Nrf2 knockout prostate cancer TRAMP-C1 cells. Moreover, CRA induced mRNA and protein expression of Nrf2, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Bisulfite genomic sequencing and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation results revealed that CRA treatment decreased the level of methylation of the first five CpG sites of the Nrf2 promoter. Histone modification was analyzed using a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, which revealed that CRA treatment increased the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) while decreasing the trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the promoter region of Nrf2. Furthermore, CRA treatment attenuated the protein expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). These findings indicate that CRA has a significant anticancer effect in TRAMP-C1 cells, which could be partly attributed to epigenetics including its ability to epigenetically restore the expression of Nrf2. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Docetaxel Hidrat Menghambat Proliferasi dan Metastasis Sel Kanker Oral SP-C1 melalui Induksi Protein Maspin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatno Supriatno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human oral tongue cancer (SP-C1 is thought to be a high grade malignancy. Despite advances in surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and combination therapy, prognosis and survival of patients with human tongue cancer have not significantly improved over the past several decades. Treatment options for recurrent or refractory tongue cancer are limited. Therefore, as a strategy for refractory cancer, anti-mitotic chemotherapy and its mechanisms are of considerable interest, including those using docetaxel hydrate for inducing maspin protein. In the current study, the mechanisms responsible for growth suppression and metastasis of SP-C1 by docetaxel hydrate through induction of maspin regulation were investigated. To evaluate in vitro cell proliferation and cell metastasis, MTT and out-growth assays were performed, respectively. Furthermore, the expression of maspin mediated by docetaxel hydrate was analysed by Western blotting. The results showed that treatment with 50 g/ml docetaxel hydrate significantly suppressed SP-C1 cell growth from day 1. Strong inhibition of metastasis of SP-C1 cells was also shown by treatment with 50 g/ml of docetaxel hydrate. Moreover, a significant induction of maspin regulation was detected in cells treated with 10 and 50 g/ml of docetaxel hydrate. However, the same protein level was demonstrated in -tubulin expression. These findings suggest that docetaxel hydrate may have potential for powerful anti-mitotic chemotherapy through induction of maspin regulation.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i1.77

  7. Misdiagnosis and management of iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm of vertebral artery after Harms technique of C1-C2 fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIN Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Harms technique of C1-C2 fixation for atlantoaxial complex becomes more popular due to good fusion rate and low vertebral artery injury (VAI rate. But considering the unique and variable anatomy of atlanto-axial complex, iatrogenic VAI will result in catastrophic con-sequences and provides particular surgical challenges for surgeons. To our knowledge, comparing with iatrogenic VAI in the screw hole, iatrogenic VAI in the “open space” is much rarer during the Harms technique of C1-C2 fixation. In this article, we present a case of iatrogenic vertebral artery pseudoaneurysm after Harms technique of posterior C1-C2 fixation. This case of iatrogenic VAI effectively treated by endovascular coil occlusion and external local compression was initially misdiagnosed as VAI by pedicle screw perforation. It can be concluded that intraoperative or post-operative computed angiography is very helpful to diag-nose the exact site of VAI and the combination of endovascular coil occlusion as well as external local com-pression can further prevent bleeding and abnormal verte-bral artery flow in the pseudoaneurysm. However, patients treated require further follow-up to confirm that there is no recurrence of the pseudoaneurysm. Key words: Vertebral artery; Aneurysm, false; Endovascular procedures

  8. and Epigenetic Dysregulation in Diabetes-prone Bicongenic B6.NODC11bxC1tb Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Garrigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Type 1 diabetic (T1D human monocytes, STAT5 aberrantly binds to epigenetic regulatory sites of two proinflammatory genes, CSF2 (encoding granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor and PTGS2 (encoding prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2. Bicongenic B6.NOD C11bxC1tb mice re-create this phenotype of T1D monocytes with only two nonobese diabetic (NOD Idd subloci (130.8 Mb–149.7 Mb, of Idd5 on Chr 1 and 32.08–53.85 Mb of Idd4.3 on Chr11 on C57BL/6 genetic background. These two Idd loci interact through STAT5 binding at upstream regulatory regions affecting Csf2 ( Chr 11 and Ptgs2 ( Chr 1 expression. B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice exhibited hyperglycemia and immune destruction of pancreatic islets between 8 and 30 weeks of age, with 12%–22% penetrance. Thus, B6.NODC11bxC1tb mice embody NOD epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression in myeloid cells, and this defect appears to be sufficient to impart genetic susceptibility to diabetes in an otherwise genetically nonautoimmune mouse.

  9. Studies on the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide O (II): A Stereoselective Synthesis of C1-C11 Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Mi Yeon; Kim, Jong Woo; Lee, Duck Hyung [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Two ketones and, the C1-C11 fragment of Amphidinolide O, were prepared stereoselectively via 14 and 16 step sequences in 8.7% and 2.0% overall yield, respectively. The amphidinolides were isolated from the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp., which produces a host of secondary metabolites endowed with potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Amphidinolide O displayed potent in vitro cytotoxicity against L1210 marine leukemia cells and human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells with 1.7 and 3.6 μg/mL of IC50s, respectively. In addition to our recent reports regarding to the synthesis of C12-C17 and C3-C11 fragments of amphidinolide O, we describe herein a new route to diastereoselective synthesis of C1-C11 fragment of. The retrosynthetic analysis of led to the C1-C11 fragment and C12-C17 fragment. The hemiketal was expected from acyclic precursor 4 which, in turn, would be derived by diastereoselective aldol reaction between ketone and aldehyde.

  10. Expression of cancer-testis antigens MAGE-A4 and MAGE-C1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, José Raphael de Moura Campos; Mamede, Rui Celso Martins; Neder Serafini, Luciano; Saggioro, Fabiano Pinto; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Silva, Wilson Araújo da; Jungbluth, Achim A; Spagnoli, Giulio Cesare; Zago, Marco Antônio

    2012-08-01

    Tumor markers are genes or their products expressed exclusively or preferentially in tumor cells and cancer-testis antigens (CTAs) form a group of genes with a typical expression pattern expressed in a variety of malignant neoplasms. CTAs are considered potential targets for cancer vaccines. It is possible that the CTA MAGE-A4 (melanoma antigen) and MAGE-C1 are expressed in carcinoma of the oral cavity and are related with survival. This study involved immunohistochemical analysis of 23 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and was carried out using antibodies for MAGE-A4 and MAGE-C1. Fisher's exact test and log-rank test were used to evaluate the results. The expression of the MAGE-A4 and MAGE-C1 were 56.5% and 47.8% without statistical difference in studied variables and survival. The expression of at least 1 CTA was present in 78.3% of the patients, however, without correlation with clinicopathologic variables and survival. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Anterior transarticular C1-C2 fixation with contralateral screw insertion: a report of two cases and technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lvov, Ivan; Grin, Andrey; Kaykov, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vladimir; Krylov, Vladimir

    2017-08-08

    Anterior transarticular fixation of the C1-C2 vertebrae is a well-known technique that involves screw insertion through the body of the C2 vertebra into the lateral masses of the atlas through an anterior transcervical approach. Meanwhile, contralateral screw insertion has been previously described only in anatomical studies. We describe two case reports of the clinical application of this new technique. In Case 1, the patient was diagnosed with an unstable C1 fracture. The clinical features of the case did not allow for any type of posterior atlantoaxial fusion, Halo immobilization, or routine anterior fixation using the Reindl and Koller techniques. The possible manner of screw insertion into the anterior third of the right lateral mass was via a contralateral trajectory, which was performed in this case. Case 2 involved a patient with neglected posteriorly dislocated dens fracture who could not lie in the prone position due to concomitant cardiac pathology. Reduction of atlantoaxial dislocation was insufficient, even after scar tissue resection at the fracture, while transdental fusion was not possible. Considering the success of the previous case, atlantoaxial fixation was performed through the small approach, using the Reindl technique and contralateral screw insertion. These two cases demonstrate the potential of anterior transarticular fixation of C1-C2 vertebrae in cases where posterior atlantoaxial fusion is not achievable. This type of fixation can be performed through a single approach if one screw is inserted using the Reindl technique and another is inserted via a contralateral trajectory.

  12. Identification of rabbit cytochromes P450 2C1 and 2C2 as arachidonic acid epoxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laethem, R M; Koop, D R

    1992-12-01

    Microsomes prepared from COS-1 cells transiently expressing rabbit cytochromes P450 2C1 and 2C2 catalyzed the metabolism of arachidonic acid to predominantly 11,12- and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) when microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity was inhibited by 0.2 mM 1,2-epoxy-3,3,3-trichloropropane. P450 2C2 catalyzed the formation of 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET at a ratio of 3.0 and also produced 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE). The 11,12-EET, 14,15-EET, and 19-HETE represented 48.3, 15.9, and 12.8%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. P450 2C1 produced a similar but distinct ratio of 11,12-EET to 14,15-EET (2.0) and did not produce any detectable 19-HETE. The 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET represented 63.0 and 31.1%, respectively, of the total metabolites formed. The 8,9- and 5,6-EETs were not detected with either enzyme. The ratio of the 11,12-EET to 14,15-EET was 1.5 with P450 2CAA, a P450 arachidonic acid epoxygenase (P450 2CAA) that had an amino-terminal sequence identical to that of P450 2C2 [J. Biol. Chem. 267:5552-5559 (1992)]. P450 2C1, 2C2, and 2CAA metabolized lauric acid. The ratio of omega-1- to omega-hydroxylated laurate was 3.6, 3.4, and 2.4 for P450 2CAA, P450 2C2, and P450 2C1, respectively. Purified P450 2CAA had a slightly greater apparent molecular weight than expressed P450 2C2 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The results clearly establish that rabbit P450 2C1 and 2C2 are arachidonic acid epoxygenases, and they suggest that P450 2CAA and 2C2 are very similar but may not be identical isoforms.

  13. In Vitro Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Silica Nanoparticles in C1 Coal 
in Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian LI

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective China’s Xuan Wei County in Yunnan Province have the world’s highest incidence of lung cancer in nonsmoking women-20 times higher than the rest of China. Previous studies showed, this high lung cancer incidence may be associated with the silica particles embedded in the production combustion from the C1 coal. The aim of this study is to separate the silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal in Xuan Wei County of Yunnan Province, and study in vitro toxicity of naturally occurring silica particles on BEAS-2B. Methods ①Separating the silica particles from combustion products of C1 bituminous coal by physical method, observing the morphology by Scanning Electron Microscope, analysis elements by SEM-EDX, observed the single particle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscope, analyed its particle size distribution by Laser particle size analyzer, the surface area of silica particles were determined by BET nitrogen adsorption analysis; ②Cell viability of the experimental group (silica; naturally occurring, control group (silica; industrial produced and crystalline silica was detected by assay used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT method, and the reactive oxygen species (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were determined after 24 h-72 h exposed to these particles. Results ①The physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal, which have different size, and from 30 nm to 120 nm particles accounted for 86.8%, different morphology, irregular surface area and containing trace of aluminum, calcium and iron and other elements; ②Under the same concentration, the experiment group have higher toxicity on BEAS-2B than control groups. Conclusion ①Physical method can separate silica particles from production combustion from the C1 bituminous coal and not change the original morphology and containing trace;

  14. Artrodesis C1C2 con tornillos transarticulares en artritis reumatoidea: experiencia y revisión de la literatura Artrodese C1 C2 com parafusos transarticulares em artrite reumatoide: experiência e revisão de literatura C1 C2 arthrodesis with transarticular screws in rheumatoid arthritis: experience and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyonel Beaulieu Lalanne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir los resultados clínicos e imagenológicos utilizando la técnica de fijación C1 C2 con tornillos transarticulares y asas de alambre en pacientes portadores de AR en un seguimiento a largo plazo y revisar la literatura actual. MÉTODO: Entre los años 2002 y 2006, 11 pacientes (9 mujeres y 2 hombres con inestabilidad C1 C2 secundaria a AR fueron intervenidos quirúrgicamente. Se realizó fijación C1 C2 con tornillos transarticulares por vía posterior más asas de alambre y aplicación de injerto óseo autólogo de cresta ilíaca. Se registró Índice de Ranawat pre y posoperatorio, Distancia Anterior Atlas Odontoides (DAAO pre y posoperatorio, tiempo operatorio, días de hospitalización, complicaciones intra y posoperatorias y tiempo de consolidación radiológica, con un seguimiento promedio de 34 meses. RESULTADOS: Todos los pacientes presentaron mejoría del Índice de Ranawat en el postoperatorio. La DAAO preoperatoria promedio fue de 11,9 mm (DS ± 2,57, rango 7 a 16, y la DAAO postoperatoria promedio fue de 3 mm (DS ± 1,20, rango 2 a 6. El tiempo quirúrgico fue de 94 minutos en promedio y el promedio de días de hospitalización fue de 7 días. No se presentaron complicaciones intraoperatorias. Un caso presentó seroma de herida operatoria que requirió tratamiento quirúrgico. El tiempo de consolidación fue en promedio 14 semanas. CONCLUSIÓN: La artrodesis atlantoaxial con tornillos y amarras es una buena alternativa para el manejo de la inestabilidad C1-C2 en pacientes portadores de AR, consiguiendo buenos resultados clínicos e imagenológicos en un seguimiento a largo plazo.OBJETIVO: Apresentar a experiência com a técnica de fixação C1-C2 com parafusos transarticulares e cerclagem de fio metálico nos pacientes portadores de AR, assim como a revisão da literatura. MÉTODO: Entre os anos 2002 e 2006, 11 pacientes (9 mulheres e 2 homens com instabilidade C1-C2 e portadores de AR foram submetidos a

  15. Exposure‐Response Model of Subcutaneous C1‐Inhibitor Concentrate to Estimate the Risk of Attacks in Patients With Hereditary Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorici, Michael A.; Pawaskar, Dipti; Pragst, Ingo; Machnig, Thomas; Hutmacher, Matthew; Zuraw, Bruce; Cicardi, Marco; Craig, Timothy; Longhurst, Hilary; Sidhu, Jagdev

    2018-01-01

    Subcutaneous C1‐inhibitor (HAEGARDA, CSL Behring), is a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)‐approved, highly concentrated formulation of a plasma‐derived C1‐esterase inhibitor (C1‐INH), which, in the phase III Clinical Studies for Optimal Management in Preventing Angioedema with Low‐Volume Subcutaneous C1‐inhibitor Replacement Therapy (COMPACT) trial, reduced the incidence of hereditary angioedema (HAE) attacks when given prophylactically. Data from the COMPACT trial were used to develop a repeated time‐to‐event model to characterize the timing and frequency of HAE attacks as a function of C1‐INH activity, and then develop an exposure–response model to assess the relationship between C1‐INH functional activity levels (C1‐INH(f)) and the risk of an attack. The C1‐INH(f) values of 33.1%, 40.3%, and 63.1% were predicted to correspond with 50%, 70%, and 90% reductions in the HAE attack risk, respectively, relative to no therapy. Based on trough C1‐INH(f) values for the 40 IU/kg (40.2%) and 60 IU/kg (48.0%) C1‐INH (SC) doses, the model predicted that 50% and 67% of the population, respectively, would see at least a 70% decrease in the risk of an attack. PMID:29316335

  16. Molecular phylogeny of C1 inhibitor depicts two immunoglobulin-like domains fusion in fishes and ray-finned fishes specific intron insertion after separation from zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bhandari, Anita; Sarde, Sandeep J.; Goswami, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • C1 inhibitors of fishes have two Ig domains fused in the N-terminal end. • Spliceosomal introns gain in two Ig domains of selected ray-finned fishes. • C1 inhibitors gene is maintained from 450 MY on the same locus. • C1 inhibitors gene is missing in frog and lampreys. • C1 inhibitors of tetrapod and fishes differ in the RCL region. - Abstract: C1 inhibitor (C1IN) is a multi-facet serine protease inhibitor in the plasma cascades, inhibiting several proteases, notably, regulates both complement and contact system activation. Despite huge advancements in the understanding of C1IN based on biochemical properties and its roles in the plasma cascades, the phylogenetic history of C1IN remains uncharacterized. To date, there is no comprehensive study illustrating the phylogenetic history of C1IN. Herein, we explored phylogenetic history of C1IN gene in vertebrates. Fishes have C1IN with two immunoglobulin like domains attached in the N-terminal region. The RCL regions of CIIN from fishes and tetrapod genomes have variations at the positions P2 and P1′. Gene structures of C1IN gene from selected ray-finned fishes varied in the Ig domain region with creation of novel intron splitting exon Im2 into Im2a and Im2b. This intron is limited to ray-finned fishes with genome size reduced below 1 Gb. Hence, we suggest that genome compaction and associated double-strand break repairs are behind this intron gain. This study reveals the evolutionary history of C1IN and confirmed that this gene remains the same locus for ∼450 MY in 52 vertebrates analysed, but it is not found in frogs and lampreys

  17. Molecular phylogeny of C1 inhibitor depicts two immunoglobulin-like domains fusion in fishes and ray-finned fishes specific intron insertion after separation from zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Abhishek, E-mail: akumar@bot.uni-kiel.de [Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology in Botany, Institute of Botany, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Bhandari, Anita [Molecular Physiology, Zoological Institute, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Sarde, Sandeep J. [Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology in Botany, Institute of Botany, Christian-Albrechts-University at Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Goswami, Chandan [National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, Orissa (India)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • C1 inhibitors of fishes have two Ig domains fused in the N-terminal end. • Spliceosomal introns gain in two Ig domains of selected ray-finned fishes. • C1 inhibitors gene is maintained from 450 MY on the same locus. • C1 inhibitors gene is missing in frog and lampreys. • C1 inhibitors of tetrapod and fishes differ in the RCL region. - Abstract: C1 inhibitor (C1IN) is a multi-facet serine protease inhibitor in the plasma cascades, inhibiting several proteases, notably, regulates both complement and contact system activation. Despite huge advancements in the understanding of C1IN based on biochemical properties and its roles in the plasma cascades, the phylogenetic history of C1IN remains uncharacterized. To date, there is no comprehensive study illustrating the phylogenetic history of C1IN. Herein, we explored phylogenetic history of C1IN gene in vertebrates. Fishes have C1IN with two immunoglobulin like domains attached in the N-terminal region. The RCL regions of CIIN from fishes and tetrapod genomes have variations at the positions P2 and P1′. Gene structures of C1IN gene from selected ray-finned fishes varied in the Ig domain region with creation of novel intron splitting exon Im2 into Im2a and Im2b. This intron is limited to ray-finned fishes with genome size reduced below 1 Gb. Hence, we suggest that genome compaction and associated double-strand break repairs are behind this intron gain. This study reveals the evolutionary history of C1IN and confirmed that this gene remains the same locus for ∼450 MY in 52 vertebrates analysed, but it is not found in frogs and lampreys.

  18. "-o C1) (Q

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edm deur die Franse Protestamse vlugtelinge. Wat die verstrekte inligting betref, is hoofsaaklik van Charles Weiss se reeds genoemde publika~ sies gebruik gemaak. (a) Brandenburg (na 1701 die koninkryk Pruise). In Brandenburg het keurvors Frederik Willem. (1640-1688) in 1640 die troon bestyg. Deur oorlogsgeweld.

  19. A family with atypical Hailey Hailey disease--is there more to the underlying genetics than ATP2C1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina van Beek

    Full Text Available The autosomal dominant Hailey Hailey disease (HHD is caused by mutations in the ATP2C1 gene encoding for human secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+ ATPase protein (hSPCA1 in the Golgi apparatus. Clinically, HHD presents with erosions and hyperkeratosis predominantly in the intertrigines. Here we report an exome next generation sequencing (NGS based analysis of ATPase genes in a Greek family with 3 HHD patients presenting with clinically atypical lesions mainly localized on the neck and shoulders. By NGS of one HHD-patient and in silico SNP calling and SNP filtering we identified a SNP in the expected ATP2C1 gene and SNPs in further ATPase genes. Verification in all 3 affected family members revealed a heterozygous frameshift deletion at position 2355_2358 in exon 24 of ATP2C1 in all three patients. 7 additional SNPs in 4 ATPase genes (ATP9B, ATP11A, ATP2B3 and ATP13A5 were identified. The SNPs rs138177421 in the ATP9B gene and rs2280268 in the ATP13A5 gene were detected in all 3 affected, but not in 2 non affected family members. The SNPs in the ATP2B3 and ATP11A gene as well as further SNPs in the ATP13A5 gene could not be confirmed in all affected family members. One may speculate that besides the level of functional hSPCA1 protein, levels of other ATPase proteins may influence expressivity of the disease and might also contribute, as in this case, to atypical presentations.

  20. Characterization of the C1 and C2 waste tanks located in the BVEST system at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.

    1998-02-01

    There was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The characterization data summarized in this report was needed to address waste processing options, address concerns dealing with the performance assessment (PA) data for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), evaluate the waste characteristics with respect to the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for WIPP and Nevada Test Site (NTS), address criticality concerns, and meet DOT requirements for transporting the waste. This report discusses the analytical characterization data for the supernatant and sludge in the BVEST waste tanks C-1 and C-2. The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ( 233 U and 235 U) and plutonium ( 239 Pu and 241 Pu) were denatured as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the sludge in tanks C1 and C2 was found to be hazardous based on RCRA characteristics and the transuranic alpha activity was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. Additional characteristics of the C1 and C2 sludge inventory relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP

  1. a-SixC1−x:H thin films with subnanometer surface roughness for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera-Celis, José; Reyes-Betanzo, Claudia; Itzmoyotl-Toxqui, Adrián; Orduña-Díaz, Abdu; Pérez-Coyotl, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of a-Si x C 1−x :H thin films by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition with high hydrogen dilution for biological applications is addressed. A root mean square roughness less than 1 nm was measured via atomic force microscopy for an area of 25 μm 2 . Structural analysis was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the middle infrared region. It was found that under the deposition conditions, the formation of Si–C bonds is promoted. Electrical dark conductivity measurements were performed to evaluate the effect of high hydrogen dilution and to find the relation between carrier transport properties and the structural arrangement. Conductivities of the order of 10 −7 to 10 −9 S/cm at room temperature for methane–silane gas flow ratio from 0.35 to 0.85 were achieved, respectively. UV-visible spectra were used to obtain the optical band gap and the Tauc parameter. Optical band gap as wide as 3.55 eV was achieved in the regime of high carbon incorporation. Accordingly, deposition under low power density and high hydrogen dilution reduces the roughness, improves the structure of the network, and stabilizes the film properties as a greater percentage of carbon is incorporated. The biofunctionalization of a-Si x C 1−x :H surfaces with NH 2 -terminated self-assembled monolayers was obtained through silanization with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. This knowledge opens a window for the inclusion of these a-Si x C 1−x :H thin films in devices such as biosensors

  2. C1 metabolism plays an important role during formaldehyde metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tang, Lijuan; Sun, Huiqun; Han, Shuang; Wang, Xinjia; Zhou, Shengen; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2014-10-01

    Petunia hybrida is a model ornamental plant grown worldwide. To understand the HCHO-uptake efficiency and metabolic mechanism of petunia, the aseptic petunia plants were treated in HCHO solutions. An analysis of HCHO-uptake showed that petunia plants effectively removed HCHO from 2, 4 and 6 mM HCHO solutions. The (13)C NMR analyses indicated that H(13)CHO was primarily used to synthesize [5-(13)C]methionine (Met) via C1 metabolism in petunia plants treated with 2 mM H(13)CHO. Pretreatment with cyclosporin A (CSA) or l-carnitine (LC), the inhibitors of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, did not affect the synthesis of [5-(13)C]Met in petunia plants under 2 mM H(13)CHO stress, indicating that the Met-generated pathway may function in the cytoplasm. Under 4 or 6 mM liquid H(13)CHO stress, H(13)CHO metabolism in petunia plants produced considerable amount of H(13)COOH and [2-(13)C]glycine (Gly) through C1 metabolism and a small amount of [U-(13)C]Gluc via the Calvin Cycle. Pretreatment with CSA or LC significantly inhibited the production of [2-(13)C]Gly in 6 mM H(13)CHO-treated petunia plants, which suggests that chloroplasts and peroxisomes might be involved in the generation of [2-(13)C]Gly. These results revealed that the C1 metabolism played an important role, whereas the Calvin Cycle had only a small contribution during HCHO metabolism and detoxification in petunia under liquid HCHO stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Upper limits for the circular dichroism for the C 1s and O 1s core excitation of methyl oxirane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruemper, G; Lischke, T; Fukuzawa, H; Reinkoester, A; Ueda, K

    2007-01-01

    The circular dichroism (CD) in the total and partial ion yields of methyl-oxirane C 3 H 6 O was measured at the C 1s and O 1s edges. The difference of the response of the chiral molecule to circularly polarized light with opposite handedness was found to be less than 0.2% for the total ion yield and less than 0.5% for the partial ion yield. Additionally we tried to find a dipole allowed molecular orientation CD effect by analysing the fragmentation in the forward and backward direction. For this effect we found an upper limit of 1-2% for all abundant ionic fragments

  4. Distribution of Prochlorococcus Ecotypes in the Red Sea Basin Based on Analyses of rpoC1 Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.; Haroon, Mohamed; Ngugi, David; Thompson, Luke R.; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    The marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus represent a significant fraction of the global pelagic bacterioplankton community. Specifically, in the surface waters of the Red Sea, they account for around 91% of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Previous work suggested a widespread presence of high-light (HL)-adapted ecotypes in the Red Sea with the occurrence of low-light (LL)-adapted ecotypes at intermediate depths in the water column. To obtain a more comprehensive dataset over a wider biogeographical scope, we used a 454-pyrosequencing approach to analyze the diversity of the Prochlorococcus rpoC1 gene from a total of 113 samples at various depths (up to 500 m) from 45 stations spanning the Red Sea basin from north to south. In addition, we analyzed 45 metagenomes from eight stations using hidden Markov models based on a set of reference Prochlorococcus genomes to (1) estimate the relative abundance of Prochlorococcus based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and (2) identify and classify rpoC1 sequences as an assessment of the community structure of Prochlorococcus in the northern, central and southern regions of the basin without amplification bias. Analyses of metagenomic data indicated that Prochlorococcus occurs at a relative abundance of around 9% in samples from surface waters (25, 50, 75 m), 3% in intermediate waters (100 m) and around 0.5% in deep-water samples (200–500 m). Results based on rpoC1 sequences using both methods showed that HL II cells dominate surface waters and were also present in deep-water samples. Prochlorococcus communities in intermediate waters (100 m) showed a higher diversity and co-occurrence of low-light and high-light ecotypes. Prochlorococcus communities at each depth range (surface, intermediate, deep sea) did not change significantly over the sampled transects spanning most of the Saudi waters in the Red Sea. Statistical analyses of rpoC1 sequences from metagenomes indicated that the vertical distribution of Prochlorococcus in the water

  5. High prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype C/C1 in the Minangkabau ethnic group in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siburian Marlinang D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117 was C (72.6% followed by B (24.8% and co-infection with B and C (2.6%. The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively. From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among

  6. Distribution of Prochlorococcus Ecotypes in the Red Sea Basin Based on Analyses of rpoC1 Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Shibl, Ahmed A.

    2016-06-25

    The marine picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus represent a significant fraction of the global pelagic bacterioplankton community. Specifically, in the surface waters of the Red Sea, they account for around 91% of the phylum Cyanobacteria. Previous work suggested a widespread presence of high-light (HL)-adapted ecotypes in the Red Sea with the occurrence of low-light (LL)-adapted ecotypes at intermediate depths in the water column. To obtain a more comprehensive dataset over a wider biogeographical scope, we used a 454-pyrosequencing approach to analyze the diversity of the Prochlorococcus rpoC1 gene from a total of 113 samples at various depths (up to 500 m) from 45 stations spanning the Red Sea basin from north to south. In addition, we analyzed 45 metagenomes from eight stations using hidden Markov models based on a set of reference Prochlorococcus genomes to (1) estimate the relative abundance of Prochlorococcus based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and (2) identify and classify rpoC1 sequences as an assessment of the community structure of Prochlorococcus in the northern, central and southern regions of the basin without amplification bias. Analyses of metagenomic data indicated that Prochlorococcus occurs at a relative abundance of around 9% in samples from surface waters (25, 50, 75 m), 3% in intermediate waters (100 m) and around 0.5% in deep-water samples (200–500 m). Results based on rpoC1 sequences using both methods showed that HL II cells dominate surface waters and were also present in deep-water samples. Prochlorococcus communities in intermediate waters (100 m) showed a higher diversity and co-occurrence of low-light and high-light ecotypes. Prochlorococcus communities at each depth range (surface, intermediate, deep sea) did not change significantly over the sampled transects spanning most of the Saudi waters in the Red Sea. Statistical analyses of rpoC1 sequences from metagenomes indicated that the vertical distribution of Prochlorococcus in the water

  7. Assessment of TRAC-PD2 reflood core thermo-hydraulic model by CCTF Test C1-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1982-11-01

    The TRAC-PD2 reflood core thermo-hydraulic model was assessed by CCTF Test C1-16. The measured data were utilized as core boundary conditions in the TRAC calculations. The results indicate that the core inlet liquid temperature and the core heater rod temperatures are in reasonable agreement with data, but the pressure distribution in the core and water pool formation in the upper plenum are not in good agreement. The parametric effects of the droplet critical Weber number, the material properties of the heater rod, the noding of the upper plenum, and the minimum stable film boiling temperature are also discussed. (author)

  8. Congenital defects of C1 arches and odontoid process in a child with Down′s syndrome: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hatzantonis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 2-year-old child with Down′s syndrome who presented to our unit with torticollis. Imaging studies revealed the rare occurrence of anterior and posterior C1 arch defects, absent odontoid process, and atlantoaxial subluxation. We managed her conservatively for 3 years without neurological deficits or worsening of atlantoaxial subluxation. We discuss the rare occurrences of anterior and posterior arch defects of the atlas, the radiological presentations of axis defects in patients, and the occurrence of atlantoaxial instability in patients with Down′s syndrome. Management options with consideration to surgery in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients are also discussed.

  9. Some Properties of the M3D-C1 Form of the 3D Magnetohydrodynamics Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breslau, J.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a set of scalar variables and projection operators for the vector momentum and magnetic field evolution equations that have several unique and desirable properties, making them a preferred system for solving the magnetohydrodynamics equations in a torus with a strong toroidal magnetic field. We derive a 'weak form' of these equations that explicitly conserves energy and is suitable for a Galerkin finite element formulation provided the basis elements have C1 continuity. Systems of reduced equations are discussed, along with their energy conservation properties. An implicit time advance is presented that adds diagonally dominant self-adjoint energy terms to the mass matrix to obtain numerical stability.

  10. Case report 400: Unilateral fusion of odontoid to lateral mass of C1 with pseudoarthrosis on left

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyska, M; Margulies, J Y; Gomori, J M; Beauvoir, G

    1986-11-01

    A case is described of a 19-year-old woman who presented with pain in the neck of several months duration. Torticolis and limitation of rotation of the head and neck to the right were observed. Plain films of the cervical spine were interpreted as normal, but plain film tomography and CT studies demonstrated an unusual anomaly, consisting of fusion of the odontoid process to the right lateral mass of C1 and a pseudoarthrosis in the anterior mass on the left side. (orig./SHA).

  11. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Juliana R; Nunes, Francis M F; Cristino, Alexandre S; Simões, Zilá L P; Bitondi, Márcia M G

    2010-03-26

    Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that, in addition to their primary

  12. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Juliana R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110 diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp, a target of juvenile hormone (JH. The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body

  13. The four hexamerin genes in the honey bee: structure, molecular evolution and function deduced from expression patterns in queens, workers and drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the hexamerin genes found in the honey bee genome by exploring their structural characteristics, expression profiles, evolution, and functions in the life cycle of workers, drones and queens. Results The hexamerin genes of the honey bee (hex 70a, hex 70b, hex 70c and hex 110) diverge considerably in structure, so that the overall amino acid identity shared among their deduced protein subunits varies from 30 to 42%. Bioinformatics search for motifs in the respective upstream control regions (UCRs) revealed six overrepresented motifs including a potential binding site for Ultraspiracle (Usp), a target of juvenile hormone (JH). The expression of these genes was induced by topical application of JH on worker larvae. The four genes are highly transcribed by the larval fat body, although with significant differences in transcript levels, but only hex 110 and hex 70a are re-induced in the adult fat body in a caste- and sex-specific fashion, workers showing the highest expression. Transcripts for hex 110, hex 70a and hex70b were detected in developing ovaries and testes, and hex 110 was highly transcribed in the ovaries of egg-laying queens. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that HEX 110 is located at the most basal position among the holometabola hexamerins, and like HEX 70a and HEX 70c, it shares potential orthology relationship with hexamerins from other hymenopteran species. Conclusions Striking differences were found in the structure and developmental expression of the four hexamerin genes in the honey bee. The presence of a potential binding site for Usp in the respective 5' UCRs, and the results of experiments on JH level manipulation in vivo support the hypothesis of regulation by JH. Transcript levels and patterns in the fat body and gonads suggest that

  14. X(3872), IG(JPC) = 0+(1++), as the χc1(2P) charmonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achasov, N. N.; Rogozina, E. V.

    2015-09-01

    Contrary to almost standard opinion that the X(3872) resonance is the D∗0D¯0 + c.c. molecule or the qcq¯c¯ four-quark state, we discuss the scenario where the X(3872) resonance is the cc¯ = χc1(2P) charmonium which “sits on” the D∗0D¯0 threshold. We explain the shift of the mass of the X(3872) resonance with respect to the prediction of a potential model for the mass of the χc1(2P) charmonium by the contribution of the virtual D∗D¯ + c.c. intermediate states into the self energy of the X(3872) resonance. This allows us to estimate the coupling constant of the X(7872) resonance with the D∗0D¯0 channel, the branching ratio of the X(3872) → D∗0D¯0 + c.c. decay, and the branching ratio of the X(3872) decay into all non-D∗0D¯0 + c.c. states. We predict a significant number of unknown decays of X(3872) via two gluon: X(3872) →gluon gluon →hadrons. We suggest a physically clear program of experimental researches for verification of our assumption.

  15. Integral experiments on in-vessel coolability and vessel creep: results and analysis of the FOREVER-C1 test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Dinh, T.N.; Karbojian, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology, Drottning Kristinas Vaeg., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the FOREVER (Failure Of REactor VEssel Retention) experimental program, which is currently underway at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS). The objectives of the FOREVER experiments are to obtain data and develop validated models (i) on the melt coolability process inside the vessel, in the presence of water (in particular, on the efficacy of the postulated gap cooling to preclude vessel failure); and (ii) on the lower head failure due to the creep process in the absence of water inside and/or outside the lower head. The paper presents the experimental results and analysis of the first FOREVER-C1 test. During this experiment, the 1/10th scale pressure vessel, heated to about 900degC and pressurized to 26 bars, was subjected to creep deformation in a non-stop 24-hours test. The vessel wall displacement data clearly shows different stages of the vessel deformation due to thermal expansion, elastic, plastic and creep processes. The maximum displacement was observed at the lowermost region of the vessel lower plenum. Information on the FOREVER-C1 measured thermal characteristics and analysis of the observed thermal and structural behavior is presented. The coupled nature of thermal and mechanical processes, as well as the effect of other system conditions (such as depressurization) on the melt pool and vessel temperature responses are analyzed. (author)

  16. Synapse formation and maintenance by C1q family proteins: a new class of secreted synapse organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2010-07-01

    Several C1q family members, especially the Cbln and C1q-like subfamilies, are highly and predominantly expressed in the central nervous system. Cbln1, a member of the Cbln subfamily, plays two unique roles at parallel fiber (PF)-Purkinje cell synapses in the cerebellum: the formation and stabilization of synaptic contact, and the control of functional synaptic plasticity by regulating the postsynaptic endocytotic pathway. The delta2 glutamate receptor (GluD2), which is predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells, plays similar critical roles in the cerebellum. In addition, viral expression of GluD2 or the application of recombinant Cbln1 induces PF-Purkinje cell synaptogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Antigen-unmasking methods were necessary to reveal the immunoreactivities for endogenous Cbln1 and GluD2 at the synaptic junction of PF synapses. We propose that Cbln1 and GluD2 are located at the synaptic cleft, where various proteins undergo intricate molecular interactions with each other, and serve as a bidirectional synaptic organizer. © The Author (2010). Journal Compilation © Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. AKR1C1 as a Biomarker for Differentiating the Biological Effects of Combustible from Non-Combustible Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sangsoon; Gao, Hong; Henderson, David; Zacharias, Wolfgang; Liu, Gang; Tran, Quynh T; Prasad, G L

    2017-05-03

    Smoking has been established as a major risk factor for developing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but less attention has been paid to the effects of smokeless tobacco products. Our objective is to identify potential biomarkers to distinguish the biological effects of combustible tobacco products from those of non-combustible ones using oral cell lines. Normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC), non-metastatic (101A) and metastatic (101B) OSCC cell lines were exposed to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs) including cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM), smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva (STE), or nicotine (NIC) alone. We performed microarray-based gene expression profiling and found 3456 probe sets from 101A, 1432 probe sets from 101B, and 2717 probe sets from HGEC to be differentially expressed. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) revealed xenobiotic metabolism and steroid biosynthesis were the top two pathways that were upregulated by combustible but not by non-combustible TPPs. Notably, aldo-keto reductase genes, AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 , were the core genes in the top enriched pathways and were statistically upregulated more than eight-fold by combustible TPPs. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results statistically support AKR1C1 as a potential biomarker for differentiating the biological effects of combustible from non-combustible tobacco products.

  18. Photochemical Formation of C1-C5 Alkyl Nitrates in Suburban Hong Kong and over the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lewei; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao

    2018-04-24

    Alkyl nitrates (RONO 2 ) are important reservoirs of atmospheric nitrogen, regulating nitrogen cycling and ozone (O 3 ) formation. In this study, we found that propane and n-butane were significantly lower at the offshore site (WSI) in Hong Kong ( p 0.05). Stronger oxidative capacity at WSI led to more efficient RONO 2 formation. Relative incremental reactivity (RIR) was for the first time used to evaluate RONO 2 -precursor relationships. In contrast to a consistently volatile organic compounds (VOC)-limited regime at TC, RONO 2 formation at WSI switched from VOC-limited regime during O 3 episodes to VOC and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) colimited regime during nonepisodes. Furthermore, unlike the predominant contributions of parent hydrocarbons to C 4 -C 5 RONO 2 , the production of C 1 -C 3 RONO 2 was more sensitive to other VOCs like aromatics and carbonyls, which accounted for ∼40-90% of the productions of C 1 -C 3 alkylperoxy (RO 2 ) and alkoxy radicals (RO) at both sites. This resulted from the decomposition of larger RO 2 /RO and the change of OH abundance under the photochemistry of other VOCs. This study advanced our understanding of the photochemical formation of RONO 2 , particularly the relationships between RONO 2 and their precursors, which were not confined to the parent hydrocarbons.

  19. Dyslexia risk variant rs600753 is linked with dyslexia-specific differential allelic expression of DYX1C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Müller

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An increasing number of genetic variants involved in dyslexia development were discovered during the last years, yet little is known about the molecular functional mechanisms of these SNPs. In this study we investigated whether dyslexia candidate SNPs have a direct, disease-specific effect on local expression levels of the assumed target gene by using a differential allelic expression assay. In total, 12 SNPs previously associated with dyslexia and related phenotypes were suitable for analysis. Transcripts corresponding to four SNPs were sufficiently expressed in 28 cell lines originating from controls and a family affected by dyslexia. We observed a significant effect of rs600753 on expression levels of DYX1C1 in forward and reverse sequencing approaches. The expression level of the rs600753 risk allele was increased in the respective seven cell lines from members of the dyslexia family which might be due to a disturbed transcription factor binding sites. When considering our results in the context of neuroanatomical dyslexia-specific findings, we speculate that this mechanism may be part of the pathomechanisms underlying the dyslexia-specific brain phenotype. Our results suggest that allele-specific DYX1C1 expression levels depend on genetic variants of rs600753 and contribute to dyslexia. However, these results are preliminary and need replication.

  20. Fibulin-1C, C1 Esterase Inhibitor and Glucose Regulated Protein 75 Interact with the CREC Proteins, Calumenin and Reticulocalbin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Aune Westergaard Hansen

    Full Text Available Affinity purification, immunoprecipitation, gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were used to identify fibulin-1C, C1 esterase inhibitor and glucose regulated protein 75, grp75, as binding partners of the CREC proteins, calumenin and reticulocalbin. Surface plasmon resonance was used to verify the interaction of all three proteins with each of the CREC proteins. Fibulin-1C interacts with calumenin and reticulocalbin with an estimated dissociation constant around 50-60 nM. The interaction, at least for reticulocalbin, was not dependent upon the presence of Ca2+. C1 esterase inhibitor interacted with both proteins with an estimated dissociation constant at 1 μM for reticulocalbin and 150 nM for calumenin. The interaction, at least for calumenin, was dependent upon the presence of Ca2+ with strong interaction at 3.5 mM while no detectable interaction could be found at 0.1 mM. Grp75 binds with an affinity of approximately 3-7 nM with reticulocalbin as well as with calumenin. These interactions suggest functional participation of the CREC proteins in chaperone activity, cell proliferation and transformation, cellular aging, haemostasis and thrombosis as well as modulation of the complement system in fighting bacterial infection.

  1. HvPap-1 C1A Protease Participates Differentially in the Barley Response to a Pathogen and an Herbivore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-evolutionary processes in plant–pathogen/herbivore systems indicate that protease inhibitors have a particular value in biotic interactions. However, little is known about the defensive role of their targets, the plant proteases. C1A cysteine proteases are the most abundant enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity during different processes like germination, development and senescence in plants. To identify and characterize C1A cysteine proteases of barley with a potential role in defense, mRNA and protein expression patterns were analyzed in response to biotics stresses. A barley cysteine protease, HvPap-1, previously related to abiotic stresses and grain germination, was particularly induced by flagellin or chitosan elicitation, and biotic stresses such as the phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae or the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae. To elucidate the in vivo participation of this enzyme in defense, transformed barley plants overexpressing or silencing HvPap-1 encoding gene were subjected to M. oryzae infection or T. urticae infestation. Whereas overexpressing plants were less susceptible to the fungus than silencing plants, the opposite behavior occurred to the mite. This unexpected result highlights the complexity of the regulatory events leading to the response to a particular biotic stress.

  2. Reaction of Br/sub 3/. /sup 2 -/ with 2-deoxy-D-ribose. A preferred attack at C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, B J; Schulte-Frohlinde, D; von Sonntag, C [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kohlenforschung, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenchemie

    1978-06-01

    In the photolysis of 5-bromouracil containing DNA Br atoms are expected intermediates. In order to evaluate the possible site of attack of the Br atom at the sugar moiety of DNA the reaction of 2-deoxy-D-Ribose with the Br atom (complexed with two bromide ions) was investigated. Hydroxyl radicals generated by the radiolysis of N/sub 2/O saturated aqueous solutions were converted into Br/sub 3/./sup 2 -/-radicals by 1 M bromide ions. Br/sub 3/./sup 2 -/-reacts with 2-deoxy-D-ribose (k = 3.7 x 10/sup 4/M/sup -1/s/sup -1/, pulse radiolysis). The major product is 2-deoxy-D-erythro-pentonic acid (G = 2.4, ..gamma..-radiolysis). It is formed by hydrogen abstraction from C-1 and oxidation of this radical by other radicals. An alternative route via the radical at C-2 is neglible. It follows that Br/sub 3/./sup 2 -/ reacts preferentially at C-1 of 2-deoxy-D-ribose.

  3. Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noisakran, Sansanee; Sengsai, Suchada; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Puttikhunt, Chunya

    2008-01-01

    Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells

  4. Athletic training in badminton players modulates the early C1 component of visual evoked potentials: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hua; Xu, Guiping; Zhang, John X; Ye, Zuoer; Wang, Shufang; Zhao, Lun; Lin, Chong-De; Mo, Lei

    2010-12-01

    One basic question in brain plasticity research is whether individual life experience in the normal population can affect very early sensory-perceptual processing. Athletes provide a possible model to explore plasticity of the visual cortex as athletic training in confrontational ball games is quite often accompanied by training of the visual system. We asked professional badminton players to watch video clips related to their training experience and predict where the ball would land and examined whether they differed from non-player controls in the elicited C1, a visual evoked potential indexing V1 activity. Compared with controls, the players made judgments significantly more accurately, albeit not faster. An early ERP component peaking around 65 ms post-stimulus with a scalp topography centering at the occipital pole (electrode Oz) was observed in both groups and interpreted as the C1 component. With comparable latency, amplitudes of this component were significantly enhanced for the players than for the non-players, suggesting that it can be modulated by long-term physical training. The results present a clear case of experience-induced brain plasticity in primary visual cortex for very early sensory processing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Deduced sequences of the membrane fusion and attachment proteins of canine distemper viruses isolated from dogs and wild animals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Chae-Wun; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Choi, In-Soo

    2013-08-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1% and 88.2-91.8% identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4% and 87.8-90.7% identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.

  6. cDNA and deduced primary structure of basic phospholipase A2 with neurotoxic activity from the venom secretion of the Crotalus durissus collilineatus rattlesnake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.R. Fagundes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To illustrate the construction of precursor complementary DNAs, we isolated mRNAs from whole venom samples. After reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, we amplified the cDNA coding for a neurotoxic protein, phospholipase A2 D49 (PLA2 D49, from the venom of Crotalus durissus collilineatus (Cdc PLA2. The cDNA encoding Cdc PLA2 from whole venom was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of this cDNA has high overall sequence identity with the group II PLA2 protein family. Cdc PLA2 has 14 cysteine residues capable of forming seven disulfide bonds that characterize this group of PLA2 enzymes. Cdc PLA2 was isolated using conventional Sephadex G75 column chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. The molecular mass was estimated using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We tested the neuromuscular blocking activities on chick biventer cervicis neuromuscular tissue. Phylogenetic analysis of Cdc PLA2 showed the existence of two lines of N6-PLA2, denominated F24 and S24. Apparently, the sequences of the New World’s N6-F24-PLA2 are similar to those of the agkistrodotoxin from the Asian genus Gloydius. The sequences of N6-S24-PLA2 are similar to the sequence of trimucrotoxin from the genus Protobothrops, found in the Old World.

  7. Metabolic switches and adaptations deduced from the proteomes of Streptomyces coelicolor wild type and phoP mutant grown in batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Louise; Hodgson, David A; Wentzel, Alexander; Nieselt, Kay; Ellingsen, Trond E; Moore, Jonathan; Morrissey, Edward R; Legaie, Roxane; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Martín, Juan F; Burroughs, Nigel J; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Smith, Margaret C M

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria in the genus Streptomyces are soil-dwelling oligotrophs and important producers of secondary metabolites. Previously, we showed that global messenger RNA expression was subject to a series of metabolic and regulatory switches during the lifetime of a fermentor batch culture of Streptomyces coelicolor M145. Here we analyze the proteome from eight time points from the same fermentor culture and, because phosphate availability is an important regulator of secondary metabolite production, compare this to the proteome of a similar time course from an S. coelicolor mutant, INB201 (ΔphoP), defective in the control of phosphate utilization. The proteomes provide a detailed view of enzymes involved in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism. Trends in protein expression over the time courses were deduced from a protein abundance index, which also revealed the importance of stress pathway proteins in both cultures. As expected, the ΔphoP mutant was deficient in expression of PhoP-dependent genes, and several putatively compensatory metabolic and regulatory pathways for phosphate scavenging were detected. Notably there is a succession of switches that coordinately induce the production of enzymes for five different secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways over the course of the batch cultures.

  8. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2017-06-01

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Hemispheric Asymmetry in Transition from Equatorial Plasma Bubble to Blob as Deduced from 630.0 nm Airglow Observations at Low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeheung; Martinis, Carlos R.; Luehr, Hermann; Pfaff, Robert F.; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2016-01-01

    Transitions from depletions to enhancements of 630.0 nm nighttime airglow have been observed at Arecibo. Numerical simulations by Krall et al. (2009) predicted that they should occur only in one hemisphere, which has not yet been confirmed observationally. In this study we investigate the hemispheric conjugacy of the depletion-to-enhancement transition using multiple instruments. We focus on one event observed in the American longitude sector on 22 December 2014: 630.0 nm airglow depletions evolved into enhancements in the Northern Hemisphere while the evolution did not occur in the conjugate location in the Southern Hemisphere. Concurrent plasma density measured by low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and 777.4 nm airglow images support that the depletions and enhancements of 630.0 nm night time airglow reflect plasma density decreases and increases (blobs), respectively. Characteristics of the airglow depletions, in the context of the LEO satellite data, further suggest that the plasma density depletion deduced from the airglow data represents equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) rather than medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances from midlatitudes. Hence, the event in this study can be interpreted as EPB-to-blob transition.

  10. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. RT-PCR was performed to detect AKR1C1 expression on mRNA level in HepG2 and HepG2.2.15 cell. The promoter activity of AKR1C1 was assayed by transient transfection and Dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The AKR1C1 promoter sequence was screened using the TFSEARCH database and the ALIBABA 2.0 software. The potential transcription factors binding sites were identified using 5' functional deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. In this study, we found that HBx promoted AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells. Knockdown of HBx inhibited AKR1C1 activation. The role of HBx expression in regulating the promoter activity of human AKR1C1 gene was analyzed. The 5'functional deletion analysis identified that the region between -128 and -88 was the minimal promoter region of HBx to activate AKR1C1 gene expression. Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggested that nuclear factor-Y (NF-Y) plays an important role in this HBx-induced AKR1C1 activation. In HepG2.2.1.5 cell, HBx can promote AKR1C1 promoter activity and thus activates the basal transcription of AKR1C1 gene. This process is mediated by the transcription factor NF-Y. This study explored the mechanism for the regulation of HBV on AKR1C1 expression and has provided a new understanding of HBV-induced HCC.

  12. Plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor does not prevent mechanical ventilation-induced pulmonary complement activation in a rat model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, F. M.; Aslami, H.; Hoeksma, J.; van Mierlo, G.; Wouters, D.; Zeerleder, S.; Roelofs, J. J. T. H.; Juffermans, N. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Lagrand, W. K.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation has the potential to cause lung injury, and the role of complement activation herein is uncertain. We hypothesized that inhibition of the complement cascade by administration of plasma-derived human C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) prevents ventilation-induced pulmonary

  13. International consensus and practical guidelines on the gynecologic and obstetric management of female patients with hereditary angioedema caused by C1 inhibitor deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Teresa; Farkas, Henriette; Bouillet, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    devices, and progestins can be used. Pregnancy: Attenuated androgens are contraindicated and should be discontinued before attempting conception. Plasma-derived human C1 inhibitor concentrate (pdhC1INH) is preferred for acute treatment, short-term prophylaxis, or long-term prophylaxis. Tranexamic acid...

  14. Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2-14C]-1-indanon)-2-YL]-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020-14C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimura, Youichi; Mishima, Mannen; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    1989-01-01

    1-Benzyl-4-[(5,6-dimethoxy[2- 14 C]-1-indanon)-2-yl]-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020- 14 C), and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for studying the pharmacokinetic profiles of E2020, was synthesized from 5,6-dimethoxy[2- 14 C]-1-indanone as the labelled starting material. (author)

  15. Synthesis of 1-benzyl-4-((5,6-dimethoxy(2- sup 14 C)-1-indanon)-2-YL)-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020- sup 14 C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimura, Youichi; Mishima, Mannen; Sugimoto, Hachiro (Eisai Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Research Labs.)

    1989-07-01

    1-Benzyl-4-((5,6-dimethoxy(2-{sup 14}C)-1-indanon)-2-yl)-methylpiperidine hydrochloride (E2020-{sup 14}C), and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor for studying the pharmacokinetic profiles of E2020, was synthesized from 5,6-dimethoxy(2-{sup 14}C)-1-indanone as the labelled starting material. (author).

  16. Cytoadhesion to gC1qR through Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 in severe malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magallón-Tejada, Ariel; Machevo, Sónia; Cisteró, Pau

    2016-01-01

    Cytoadhesion of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes to gC1qR has been associated with severe malaria, but the parasite ligand involved is currently unknown. To assess if binding to gC1qR is mediated through the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, we analyzed...

  17. DMPD: Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs andCTRPs. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17681884 Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs an...ng) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like receptors, C1q/TNFs andC...TRPs. PubmedID 17681884 Title Adipose tissue as an immunological organ: Toll-like

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: C1化学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term C1化学 名詞 一般 * * * * C1化学 C1カガク シーイチカガク Thesaurus2015 200906030752224148 C CA01 MULTI_WORD C 1 化学

  19. Critical regions with central charge c=1/2,7/10,4/5 in the spin-1 quantum chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.

    1991-01-01

    The phase diagramm of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths spin-1-quantum chain is calculated by finite-size scaling with respect to all four parameters. We locate the three-dimensional critical manifold and determine a two-dimensional tricritical surface where the spectra exhibit conformal invariance corresponding to the central charges c=7/10 and 4/5. Choosing one parameter to be zero, we can treat the model analytically and from this the spectrum on a large part of the Ising-like critical region can be understood: there the spectrum consists of conformal c=1/2-levels on which a massive spectrum is superimposed. Calculating three-point functions we study which perturbations by primary fields lead from c=4/5 or c=7/10-critical points to Ising-type regions. (orig.) [de

  20. Structure and dynamics of mica-confined films of [C10C1Pyrr][NTf2] ionic liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Adilson Alves de; Shimizu, Karina; Smith, Alexander M.; Perkin, Susan; Canongia Lopes, José Nuno

    2018-05-01

    The structure of the ionic liquid 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis[(trifluoromethane)sulfonyl]imide, [C10C1Pyrr][NTf2], has been probed using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The simulations endeavour to model the behaviour of the ionic liquid in bulk isotropic conditions and also at interfaces and in confinement. The MD results have been confronted and validated with scattering and surface force experiments reported in the literature. The calculated structure factors, distribution functions, and density profiles were able to provide molecular and mechanistic insights into the properties of these long chain ionic liquids under different conditions, in particular those that lead to the formation of multi-layered ionic liquid films in confinement. Other properties inaccessible to experiment such as in-plane structures and relaxation rates within the films have also been analysed. Overall the work contributes structural and dynamic information relevant to many applications of ionic liquids with long alkyl chains, ranging from nanoparticle synthesis to lubrication.

  1. Cross section and asymmetry parameter calculations for the C 1s photoionization of CH4, CF4, and CCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalense, Alexandra P. P.; Brescansin, Luiz M.; Lucchese, Robert R.

    2003-01-01

    We have computed cross sections and asymmetry parameters for the C 1s photoionization of CX 4 (X=H, F, Cl) using the Schwinger variational method with Pade corrections. We present a comparative study that shows the influence of the identity of the X atom on the computed cross sections. Predicted cross sections are in good agreement with available photoionization and photoabsorption experimental data. We conclude that the presence of heavy outer atoms produces resonance structures in the photoionization cross sections and in the asymmetry parameters. We find a single nonvalence resonant state in the photoionization of CF 4 and multiple resonances in CCl 4 that have significant d-orbital character in the vicinity of the Cl atoms

  2. Restarting stalled autophagy a potential therapeutic approach for the lipid storage disorder, Niemann-Pick type C1 disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sovan; Maetzel, Dorothea; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy is essential for cellular homeostasis and its dysfunction in human diseases has been implicated in the accumulation of misfolded protein and in cellular toxicity. We have recently shown impairment in autophagic flux in the lipid storage disorder, Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease associated with abnormal cholesterol sequestration, where maturation of autophagosomes is impaired due to defective amphisome formation caused by failure in SNARE machinery. Abrogation of autophagy also causes cholesterol accumulation, suggesting that defective autophagic flux in NPC1 disease may act as a primary causative factor not only by imparting its deleterious effects, but also by increasing cholesterol load. However, cholesterol depletion treatment with HP-β-cyclodextrin impedes autophagy, whereas pharmacologically stimulating autophagy restores its function independent of amphisome formation. Of potential therapeutic relevance is that a low dose of HP-β-cyclodextrin that does not perturb autophagy, coupled with an autophagy inducer, may rescue both the cholesterol and autophagy defects in NPC1 disease.

  3. Single-Cell mRNA-Seq Using the Fluidigm C1 System and Integrated Fluidics Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haibiao; Do, Devin; Ramakrishnan, Ramesh

    2018-01-01

    Single-cell mRNA-seq is a valuable tool to dissect expression profiles and to understand the regulatory network of genes. Microfluidics is well suited for single-cell analysis owing both to the small volume of the reaction chambers and easiness of automation. Here we describe the workflow of single-cell mRNA-seq using C1 IFC, which can isolate and process up to 96 cells. Both on-chip procedure (lysis, reverse transcription, and preamplification PCR) and off-chip sequencing library preparation protocols are described. The workflow generates full-length mRNA information, which is more valuable compared to 3' end counting method for many applications.

  4. Ionic fragmentation of a natural product, limonene (C10H16), following core [C 1s] photoionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castilho, R.B. de; Nunez, C.V.; Coutinho, L.H.; Lago, A.F.; Bernini, R.B.; Souza, G.G.B. de

    2007-01-01

    Photoionization of the limonene [C 10 H 16 ] molecule was studied for the first time following C 1s ionization, using synchrotron radiation and time-of-fight mass spectrometry. As a reference for further analysis of the photon induced fragmentation of the limonene molecule, the He(I) mass spectrum was also obtained. Previously unreported singly charged species have been observed at 310 eV: H + , C + , CH + , CH 2 + , CH 3 + . A close similarity has been observed between the high photon energy mass spectrum and the standard electron impact mass spectrum of limonene, obtained at 70 eV. In particular, the base peak [C 5 H 8 + , m/q = 68], known to result from a Retro Diels-Alder reaction, remains the same in both cases. Approximate values for the mean kinetic energy were determined for all ionic species

  5. Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 gene expression is down-regulated by LXR activators in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, Caroline; Touche, Veronique; Tailleux, Anne; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Fievet, Catherine; Clavey, Veronique; Staels, Bart; Lestavel, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) is a protein critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and liver X receptors (LXRα and LXRβ) are major regulators of cholesterol homeostasis and their activation results in a reduced absorption of intestinal cholesterol. The goal of this study was to define the role of PPARα and LXR nuclear receptors in the regulation of NPC1L1 gene expression. We show that LXR activators down-regulate NPC1L1 mRNA levels in the human enterocyte cell line Caco-2/TC7, whereas PPARα ligands have no effect. Furthermore, NPC1L1 mRNA levels are decreased in vivo, in duodenum of mice treated with the LXR agonist T0901317. In conclusion, the present study identifies NPC1L1 as a novel LXR target gene further supporting a crucial role of LXR in intestinal cholesterol homeostasis

  6. PrP-C1 fragment in cattle brains reveals features of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy associated PrPsc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Fabienne; Müller, Joachim; Gray, John; Lüthi, Ramona; Dudas, Sandor; Czub, Stefanie; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2017-03-15

    Three different types of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are known and supposedly caused by distinct prion strains: the classical (C-) BSE type that was typically found during the BSE epidemic, and two relatively rare atypical BSE types, termed H-BSE and L-BSE. The three BSE types differ in the molecular phenotype of the disease associated prion protein, namely the N-terminally truncated proteinase K (PK) resistant prion protein fragment (PrP res ). In this study, we report and analyze yet another PrP res type (PrP res-2011 ), which was found in severely autolytic brain samples of two cows in the framework of disease surveillance in Switzerland in 2011. Analysis of brain tissues from these animals by PK titration and PK inhibitor assays ruled out the process of autolysis as the cause for the aberrant PrP res profile. Immunochemical characterization of the PrP fragments present in the 2011 cases by epitope mapping indicated that PrP res-2011 corresponds in its primary sequence to the physiologically occurring PrP-C1 fragment. However, high speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient assay and NaPTA precipitation revealed biochemical similarities between PrP res-2011 and the disease-associated prion protein found in BSE affected cattle in terms of detergent insolubility, PK resistance and PrP aggregation. Although it remains to be established whether PrP res-2011 is associated with a transmissible disease, our results point out the need of further research on the role the PrP-C1 aggregation and misfolding in health and disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A comparison C1-C2 transarticular screw placement after self-education and mentored education of orthopaedic residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, John S

    2012-08-01

    Prospective randomized trial. This study will provide preliminary data on whether residents can be "self-taught" and to what extent a lecture, demonstration, and coaching can improve skills and knowledge. Practice-based learning is an essential competency in Accreditation Council for graduate Medical Education-accredited residencies. Little has been done to demonstrate whether residents can be self-taught or benefit from mentoring in understanding and performing difficult surgical tasks. A written test was given to orthopedic residents on C1-C2 transarticular screw placement. They were then provided reading on C1-C2 transarticular screw placement. Residents were then divided into a "self-directed learning" group and a "mentored learning" group. All residents then performed the technique on models, with the "mentored" group receiving a lecture and coaching from the mentor. The models were analyzed for technique errors and the previous test was administered again as a posttest. The test and screw placement were repeated 4 months later. Residents without mentoring had an average improvement of 4.5 points, those with mentoring had average improvement of 8.6 points (P=0.0068). The screw placement technique error rate for the nonmentored group (n=8) was 2.55, and for the mentored group (n=9) was 1.47 (P=0.004). Sixteen residents completed the delayed test, 7 from the nonmentored groups and 8 from the mentored group. Nine residents were able to repeat the screw placement technique 4 months after the initial test and screw placement, 3 nonentored, and 6 mentored. Although there were some trends toward the mentored group having better retention, neither knowledge nor skill was statistically different. This preliminary trial seems to indicate that residents provided a lecture and guided technical instruction will obtain knowledge and perform procedures better than those that do not. Conclusions based upon Post Graduate year, motivation, and interest in spine surgery could

  8. Amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds C1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-02-01

    In this study we characterized Amblyomma americanum (Aam) tick calreticulin (CRT) homolog in tick feeding physiology. In nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. This suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. From this perspective it's plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as CRT to regulate and facilitate feeding. CRT is a multi-functional protein found in most taxa that is injected into the vertebrate host during tick feeding. Apart from it's current use as a biomarker for human tick bites, role(s) of this protein in tick feeding physiology have not been elucidated. Here we show that annotated functional CRT amino acid motifs are well conserved in tick CRT. However our data show that despite high amino acid identity levels to functionally characterized CRT homologs in other organisms, AamCRT is apparently functionally different. Pichia pastoris expressed recombinant (r) AamCRT bound C1q, the first component of the classical complement system, but it did not inhibit activation of this pathway. This contrast with reports of other parasite CRT that inhibited activation of the classical complement pathway through sequestration of C1q. Furthermore rAamCRT did not bind factor Xa in contrast to reports of parasite CRT binding factor Xa, an important protease in the blood clotting system. Consistent with this observation, rAamCRT did not affect plasma clotting or platelet aggregation. We discuss our findings in the context of tick feeding physiology.

  9. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1 Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sharp

    Full Text Available The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1. In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases.

  10. Homozygous HLA-C1 is Associated with Reduced Risk of Relapse after HLA-Matched Transplantation in Patients with Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, Nobuyoshi; Kanda, Junya; Tanaka, Junji; Yabe, Toshio; Morishima, Yasuo; Kim, Sung-Won; Najima, Yuho; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Eto, Tetsuya; Kanamori, Heiwa; Mori, Takehiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Kondo, Tadakazu; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Uchida, Naoyuki; Inoue, Masami; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ichinohe, Tatsuo; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells assume graft-versus-leukemia alloreactivity after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) through their inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). KIR2D family members recognize HLA-C alleles with Asn80 (HLA-C1) or Lys80 (HLA-C2). The predominance of HLA-C1 over HLA-C2 and the frequent presence of KIR2DL1 are characteristic of Japanese people. We compared clinical outcomes among homozygous HLA-C1 (HLA-C1/C1) patients and heterozygous HLA-C1/C2 patients who underwent HLA-matched HSCT for hematologic malignancies by assessing the data of 10,638 patients from the Japanese national registry. HLA-C1/C1 recipients had a lower rate of relapse than HLA-C1/C2 recipients after transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (hazard ratio [HR], .79; P = .006) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (HR, .48; P = .025), but not for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (HR, 1.36), lymphoma (HR, .97), or low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (HR, 1.40). We then grouped AML and CML patients together and divided them into several subgroups. Advantages of HLA-C1/C1 recipients over HLA-C1/C2 recipients regarding relapse were observed irrespective of donor relation (related: HR, .79, P = .069; unrelated: HR, .77, P = .022), preparative regimen (myeloablative: HR, .79, P = .014; reduced intensity: HR, .73, P = .084), and occurrence of acute graft-versus-host disease (yes: HR, .70, P = .122; no, HR .71, P = .026) or cytomegalovirus reactivation (reactivated: HR .67,P = .054; nonreactivated: HR .71, P = .033); however, these advantages were not observed in recipients with a delay in achieving complete chimerism (HR, 1.06). The advantage of decreasing relapse and extending relapse-free survival of C1/1 over C1/2 KIR-ligand status was most pronounced in T cell-depleted HSCT (HR, .27; P < .001 and HR, .30; P = .002, respectively) and in children age <15 years (HR, .29; P < .001 and HR .31; P

  11. Long term carbon dioxide exchange above a mixed forest in the Belgian Ardennes: evaluation of different approaches to deduce total ecosystem respiration from Eddy covariance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jérôme, Elisabeth; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    The general aim of this research is to analyze inter annual variability of carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes exchanged by a mixed forest located at the Vielsalm experimental site in Belgium. At this site, CO2 flux measurements started in 1996 and are still going on. Thirteen complete years of measurements are thus available. Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) inter annual variability may be driven by gross primary productivity (GPP) or Total Ecosystem Respiration (TER), which should thus be both quantified. Using flux partitioning methods, TER is deduced from NEE measurements. GPP is then obtained by subtracting TER from NEE. Initially, a robust estimation of TER is required. This work seeks to compare two independent approaches to assess TER in order to quantify the implications on inter-annual variability. The comparison was performed on twelve complete years. TER estimates can be deduced by extrapolating to the whole day NEE measurements taken during selected night or day periods. In both case, the extrapolation is performed by using a respiration response to temperature. The first approach, referred as the night-time approach, consisted in calculating TER using a temperature response function derived from night-time data sets (Reichstein et al., 2005). The second approach, referred as the daytime approach, consisted in assessing TER from the intercept of the NEE/Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) response (Wohlfahrt et al., 2005). For each approach, different modalities were compared: the use of long term (annual) or short term (15 days) data sets for the night-time approach and the use of different types of regression for the daytime approach. In addition, the impact of the temperature choice was studied for each of the approaches. For the night-time approach, main results showed that air temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration derived from annual data did not reflect the short-term air temperature sensitivity. Vielsalm is a summer active ecosystem

  12. Complement and alcoholic liver disease: role of C1q in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jessica I; Roychowdhury, Sanjoy; McMullen, Megan R; Stavitsky, Abram B; Nagy, Laura E

    2010-08-01

    Complement is involved in the development of alcoholic liver disease in mice; however, the mechanisms for complement activation during ethanol exposure have not been identified. C1q, the recognition subunit of the first complement component, binds to apoptotic cells, thereby activating the classical complement pathway. Because ethanol exposure increases hepatocellular apoptosis, we hypothesized that ethanol-induced apoptosis would lead to activation of complement via the classical pathway. Wild-type and C1qa-/- mice were allowed free access to ethanol-containing diets or pair-fed control diets for 4 or 25 days. Ethanol feeding for 4 days increased apoptosis of Kupffer cells in both wild-type and C1qa-/- mice. Ethanol-induced deposition of C1q and C3b/iC3b/C3c was colocalized with apoptotic Kupffer cells in wild-type, but not C1qa-/-, mice. Furthermore, ethanol-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 expression at this early time point were suppressed in C1q-deficient mice. Chronic ethanol feeding (25 days) increased steatosis, hepatocyte apoptosis, and activity of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases in wild-type mice. These markers of hepatocyte injury were attenuated in C1qa-/- mice. In contrast, chronic ethanol (25 days)-induced increases in cytochrome P450 2E1 expression and oxidative stress did not differ between wild-type and C1qa-/- mice. For the first time, these data indicate that ethanol activates the classical complement pathway via C1q binding to apoptotic cells in the liver and that C1q contributes to the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced liver injury. Copyright (c) 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of TaxC1-x coatings deposited on biomedical 316L stainless steel by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, M.H.; Wang, B.L.; Li, L.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, Ta x C 1-x coatings were deposited on 316L stainless steel (316L SS) by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering at various substrate temperatures (T s ) in order to improve its corrosion resistance and hemocompatibility. XRD results indicated that T s could significantly change the microstructure of Ta x C 1-x coatings. When T s was x C 1-x coatings were in amorphous condition, whereas when T s was ≥150 deg. C, TaC phase was formed, exhibiting in the form of particulates with the crystallite sizes of about 15-25 nm (T s = 300 deg. C). Atomic force microscope (AFM) results showed that with the increase of T s , the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the Ta x C 1-x coatings decreased. The nano-indentation experiments indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coating deposited at 300 deg. C had a higher hardness and modulus. The scratch test results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited above 150 deg. C exhibited good adhesion performance. Tribology tests results demonstrated that Ta x C 1-x coatings exhibited excellent wear resistance. The results of potentiodynamic polarization showed that the corrosion resistance of the 316L SS was improved significantly because of the deposited Ta x C 1-x coatings. The platelet adhesion test results indicated that the Ta x C 1-x coatings deposited at T s of 150 deg. C and 300 deg. C possessed better hemocompatibility than the coating deposited at T s of 25 deg. C. Additionally, the hemocompatibility of the Ta x C 1-x coating on the 316L SS was found to be influenced by its surface roughness, hydrophilicity and the surface energy.

  14. The integration of gravity, magnetic and seismic data in delineating the sedimentary basins of northern Sinai and deducing their structural controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, El Sayed Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a part of the Sinai sub-plate that located between the southeast Nubian-Arabian shield and the southeastern Mediterranean northward. The main objectives of this investigation are to deduce the main sedimentary basin and its subdivisions, identify the subsurface structural framework that affects the study area and determine the thickness of sedimentary cover of the basement surface. The total intensity magnetic map, Bouguer gravity map and seismic data were used to achieve the study aims. Structural interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data were done by applying advanced processing techniques. These techniques include; Reduce to the pole (RTP), Power spectrum, Tile derivative and Analytical Signal techniques were applied on gravity and magnetic data. Two dimensional gravity and magnetic modeling and interpretation of seismic sections were done to determine the thickness of sedimentary cover of the study area. The integration of our interpretation suggests that, the northern Sinai area consists of elongated troughs that contain many high structural trends. Four major structural trends have been identified, that, reflecting the influence of district regional tectonic movements. These trends are: (1) NE-SW trend; (2) NNW-SSE trend; (3) ENE-WSW trend and (4) WNW-ESE trend. There are also many minor trends, E-W, NW-SE and N-S structural trends. The main sedimentary basin of North Sinai is divided into four sub-basins; (1) Northern Maghara; (2) Northeastern Sinai; (3) Northwestern Sinai and (4) Central Sinai basin. The sedimentary cover ranges between 2 km and 7 km in the northern part of the study area.

  15. Mimic Phosphorylation of a βC1 Protein Encoded by TYLCCNB Impairs Its Functions as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing and a Symptom Determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xueting; Wang, Zhan Qi; Xiao, Ruyuan; Cao, Linge; Wang, Yaqin; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xueping

    2017-08-15

    Phosphorylation of the βC1 protein encoded by the betasatellite of tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNB-βC1) by SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) plays a critical role in defense of host plants against geminivirus infection in Nicotiana benthamiana However, how phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 impacts its pathogenic functions during viral infection remains elusive. In this study, we identified two additional tyrosine residues in TYLCCNB-βC1 that are phosphorylated by SnRK1. The effects of TYLCCNB-βC1 phosphorylation on its functions as a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant were investigated via phosphorylation mimic mutants in N. benthamiana plants. Mutations that mimic phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 at tyrosine 5 and tyrosine 110 attenuated disease symptoms during viral infection. The phosphorylation mimics weakened the ability of TYLCCNB-βC1 to reverse transcriptional gene silencing and to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing and abolished its interaction with N. benthamiana ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 in N. benthamiana leaves. The mimic phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 had no impact on its protein stability, subcellular localization, or self-association. Our data establish an inhibitory effect of phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 on its pathogenic functions as a VSR and a symptom determinant and provide a mechanistic explanation of how SnRK1 functions as a host defense factor. IMPORTANCE Tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), which causes a severe yellow leaf curl disease in China, is a monopartite geminivirus associated with the betasatellite (TYLCCNB). TYLCCNB encodes a single pathogenicity protein, βC1 (TYLCCNB-βC1), which functions as both a viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) and a symptom determinant. Here, we show that mimicking phosphorylation of TYLCCNB-βC1 weakens its ability to reverse transcriptional gene silencing, to suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing, and to interact with N

  16. Avaliação de série de pacientes com artrodese C1-C2 Evaluación de diferentes casos con artrodesis C1-C2 Evaluation of different cases with C1-C2 arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Salge Ghilardi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Análise retrospectiva de prontuários de pacientes com instabilidade C1-C2 de causas traumáticas e não-traumáticas, submetidos à artrodese C1-C2. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada análise retrospectiva de prontuários de 20 pacientes do ambulatório de coluna do IOT-HCFMUSP com idades entre 7 e 83 anos (média de 43 anos, de ambos os sexos. Os parâmetros radiográficos para instabilidade foram baseados na medida do intervalo atlanto-axial superior a 3 mm em adultos e a 5 mm em crianças, utilizando-se medidas obtidas através de radiografia simples analisada no perfil. RESULTADOS: Foram operados 20 pacientes com instabilidade cervical alta, a maioria de origem traumática. A técnica cirúrgica mais utilizada foi a artrodese descrita por Magerl. Não foram observadas lesões vasculares. Foi registrada complicação infecciosa em dois pacientes. Obteve-se uma taxa de consolidação da artrodese de 85% e não foram necessárias cirurgias de revisão. CONCLUSÃO: Todas as técnicas utilizadas produziram a consolidação óssea satisfatória e foram excelentes para controlar a instabilidade atlanto-axial.OBJETIVO: Estudio retrospectivo de fichas depacientes con inestabilidad C1-C2, de causas traumáticas y no traumáticas, quienes se sometieron a artrodesis C1-C2. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un análisis retrospectivo de los historiales clínicos de 20 pacientes externos de la columna en el IOT-HC.FM.USP de edades comprendidas entre 07 y 83 años (promedio de 43 años de ambos sexos. Los parámetros radiológicos de inestabilidad se basaron en la medición del intervalo atlantoaxial superior a 3 mm en adultos y a 5 mm en niños, utilizándose medidas obtenidas a partir de radiografías simples analizadas en el perfil. RESULTADOS: Se operaron 20 pacientes con inestabilidad cervical alta, la mayoría con inestabilidad de origen traumático. La técnica quirúrgica más utilizada fue la artrodesis descrita por Magerl. No se observaron lesiones

  17. Artrodese Cervical C1-C2 pelas técnicas de Harms e Magerl Artrodesis cervical C1-C2 por las técnicas de Harms y Magerl Harms and Magerl types of C1-C2 cervical artrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Varino Sousa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A instabilidade atlantoaxial pode resultar em alterações neurológicas, dor e limitação da mobilidade cervical. É uma situação grave pelo risco de tetraparésia ou morte súbita. Na literatura estão descritas várias técnicas de estabilização cirúrgica C1-C2 e neste artigo foram comentadas com maior ênfase as técnicas de Harms e Magerl, as mais utilizadas em nossa instituição. OBJETIVO: Descrever a casuística das artrodeses atlantoaxiais realizadas nos últimos cinco anos no Centro Hospitalar do Porto, particularmente, taxa de consolidações, complicações observadas, reintervenções e comparação com os estudos publicados. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo, com cinco anos, dos doentes submetidos a artrodese atlantoaxial no Centro Hospitalar do Porto. RESULTADOS: Foram operados 11 doentes no período do estudo, a maioria com instabilidade de causa traumática. O método de artrodese mais utilizado foi o descrito por Magerl. Não foram observadas lesões vasculares. Foram registradas complicações infecciosas em quatro doentes, sendo que essas infecções foram mais comuns em doentes com patologias inflamatórias de base. Obteve-se uma taxa de consolidação da artrodese de 100%; não foram necessárias cirurgias de revisão. CONCLUSÃO: Em nossa série, as artrodeses posteriores pelas técnicas de Harms e de Magerl resultaram em um ótimo controle da instabilidade C1-C2. Doentes com indicação de artrodese por instabilidade reumática apresentaram alta taxa de complicações infecciosas.INTRODUCCIÓN: la inestabilidad atlantoaxial puede resultar en alteraciones neurológicas, dolor y limitación de la movilidad cervical. Es una situación grave por el riesgo de tetraparesia o muerte súbita. En la literatura están descritas varias técnicas de estabilización quirúrgica C1-C2 y en este artículo serán comentadas con mayor énfasis las técnicas de Harms y Magerl, las más utilizadas en nuestra instituci

  18. TaPP2C1, a Group F2 Protein Phosphatase 2C Gene, Confers Resistance to Salt Stress in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hu

    Full Text Available Group A protein phosphatases 2Cs (PP2Cs are essential components of abscisic acid (ABA signaling in Arabidopsis; however, the function of group F2 subfamily PP2Cs is currently less known. In this study, TaPP2C1 which belongs to group F2 was isolated and characterized from wheat. Expression of the TaPP2C1-GFP fusion protein suggested its ubiquitous localization within a cell. TaPP2C1 expression was downregulated by abscisic acid (ABA and NaCl treatments, but upregulated by H2O2 treatment. Overexpression of TaPP2C1 in tobacco resulted in reduced ABA sensitivity and increased salt resistance of transgenic seedlings. Additionally, physiological analyses showed that improved resistance to salt stress conferred by TaPP2C1 is due to the reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, the improved antioxidant system, and the increased transcription of genes in the ABA-independent pathway. Finally, transgenic tobacco showed increased resistance to oxidative stress by maintaining a more effective antioxidant system. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TaPP2C1 negatively regulates ABA signaling, but positively regulates salt resistance. TaPP2C1 confers salt resistance through activating the antioxidant system and ABA-independent gene transcription process.

  19. Curcumin Derivative Epigenetically Reactivates Nrf2 Antioxidative Stress Signaling in Mouse Prostate Cancer TRAMP C1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenji; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Chengyue; Wu, Renyi; Gao, Linbo; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhi-Yun; Zhang, Kun; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2018-02-19

    The carcinogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) in TRAMP model is highly correlated with hypermethylation in the promoter region of Nrf2 and the accompanying reduced transcription of Nrf2 and its regulated detoxifying genes. We aimed to investigate the effects of (3E,5E)-3,5-bis-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-tetrahydro-thiopyran-4-one (F10) and (3E,5E)-3,5-bis-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzylidene)-tetrahydropyran-4-one (E10), two synthetic curcumin derivatives, on restoring Nrf2 activity in TRAMP C1 cells. HepG2-C8 cells transfected with an antioxidant-response element (ARE)-luciferase vector were treated with F10, E10, curcumin, and sulforaphane (SFN) to compare their effects on Nrf2-ARE pathways. We performed real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting to investigate the effects of F10 and E10 on Nrf2, correlated phase II detoxification genes. We also measured expression and activity of DNMTand HDAC enzymes. Enrichment of H3K27me3 on the promoter region of Nrf2 was explored with a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Methylation of the CpG region in Nrf2 promoter was doubly examined by bisulfite genomic sequencing (BGS) and methylation DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP). Compared with curcumin and SFN, F10 is more potent in activating Nrf2-ARE pathways. Both F10 and E10 enhanced level of Nrf2 and the correlated phase II detoxifying genes. BGS and MeDIP assays indicated that F10 but not E10 hypomethylated the Nrf2 promoter. F10 also downregulated the protein level of DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, HDAC1, HDAC4, and HDAC7 and the activity of DNMTs and HDACs. F10 but not E10 effectively reduced the accumulation of H3k27me3 on the promoter of Nrf2. F10 and E10 can activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway and increase the level of Nrf2 and correlated phase II detoxification genes. The reactivation effect on Nrf2 by F10 in TRAMP C1 may come from demethylation, decrease of HDACs, and inhibition of H3k27me3 accumulation.

  20. Influence of NR3C1 and VDR polymorphisms on stable warfarin dose in patients with mechanical cardiac valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Eun; Chung, Jee Eun; Yi, Boram; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Gwan Yung; Kim, Joo Hee; Chang, Byung Chul; Gwak, Hye Sun

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between polymorphisms of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP4F2, NR3C1 and VDR genes and stable warfarin doses in Korean patients with mechanical heart valves. Seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 204 patients with stable warfarin dose were analyzed: VKORC1 (rs9934438), CYP2C9 (rs1057910), CYP4F2 (rs2108622), NR3C1 (rs41423247, rs1800445, rs56149945, rs10052957, rs6198, rs33388, rs6196, and rs244465), and VDR (rs1544410, rs11568820, rs731236, rs757343, rs7975232, and rs2228570). Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of gene variations with stable warfarin dose. Number needed to genotype was obtained by calculating the percentage of patients whose predicted dose was at least 20% higher or lower than the actual stable dose. The combined genotypes of rs7975232 and rs2228570 of the VDR gene revealed a significant association with stable warfarin dose, along with VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 polymorphisms. Patients with the genotype combination GT,TT/CT,CC of VDR rs7975232/rs2228570 required significantly higher stable warfarin dose (5.79±2.02mg) than those with the other genotypic combinations (5.19±1.78mg, p=0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that VDR rs7975232/rs2228570 explained 2.0% of the 47.5% variability in overall warfarin dose. Adding VDR SNP combinations to the base model including non-genetic variables (age, sex, and body weight) and genetic variables (VKORC1 rs9934438, CYP2C9 rs1057910, and CYP4F2 rs2108622) gave a number needed to genotype of 41. This study showed that stable warfarin dose is associated with VDR SNPs along with VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 SNPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface-bound capsular polysaccharide of type Ia group B Streptococcus mediates C1 binding and activation of the classic complement pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, N.J.; Kasper, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The role of surface-bound type Ia group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide in anti-body-independent binding of C1 and activation of the classic component pathway was investigated. In a radiolabeled bacterial-polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) association assay, a measure of bacterial opsonization, preincubation of 3 H-type Ia GBS with purified F(ab') 2 to the organism blocked the association of the bacteria with PMN', and the inhibitory effect was dose dependent. The specificity of F(ab') 2 blocking was shown after adsorption of F(ab') 2 with type Ia polysaccharide-sensitized erythrocytes. Polysaccharide-adsorbed F(ab') 2 had a 70% decrease in ability to block the association of bacteria with PMN. Neuraminidase digestion removed 80% of the terminal sialic acid residues from the native polysaccharide. These neuraminidase-digested organisms had a 72% decrease in binding and transfer of purified C1 compared with non-enzyme-treated organisms. Type Ia capsular polysaccharide bound to sheep erythrocytes promoted classic complement pathway-mediated hemolysis of the cells. The role of C1 inhibitor (INH) in modulation of C1 activation by the organisms was investigated. The possibility existed that the C1 INH could be bound by the bacteria, allowing C1 activation to occur in the fluid phase. The inhibitor was purified from human serum, and its activity was measured before and after incubation with type Ia GBS. The organisms had no effect on C1 INH activity. Thus surface-bound capsular polysacchardie of type Ia GBS mediates C1 binding and classic pathway activation, and this does not involve the C1 INH

  2. Phase 1 trial of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel plus CPG 7909: an asexual blood-stage vaccine for Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E D Mullen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1, a polymorphic merozoite surface protein, is a leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate. This is the first reported use in humans of an investigational vaccine, AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel, with the novel adjuvant CPG 7909.A phase 1 trial was conducted at the University of Rochester with 75 malaria-naive volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 malaria vaccine. Participants were sequentially enrolled and randomized within dose escalating cohorts to receive three vaccinations on days 0, 28 and 56 of either 20 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+564 microg CPG 7909 (n = 15, 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel (n = 30, or 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+564 microg CPG 7909 (n = 30.Local and systemic adverse events were significantly more likely to be of higher severity with the addition of CPG 7909. Anti-AMA1 immunoglobulin G (IgG were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and the immune sera of volunteers that received 20 microg or 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 had up to 14 fold significant increases in anti-AMA1 antibody concentration compared to 80 microg of AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel alone. The addition of CPG 7909 to the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel vaccine in humans also elicited AMA1 specific immune IgG that significantly and dramatically increased the in vitro growth inhibition of homologous parasites to levels as high as 96% inhibition.The safety profile of the AMA1-C1/Alhydrogel+CPG 7909 malaria vaccine is acceptable, given the significant increase in immunogenicity observed. Further clinical development is ongoing.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00344539.

  3. TgrC1 mediates cell-cell adhesion by interacting with TgrB1 via mutual IPT/TIG domains during development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiaoqun; Wu, Xiangfu; Piao, Ruihan; Siu, Chi-Hung

    2013-06-01

    Cell-cell adhesion plays crucial roles in cell differentiation and morphogenesis during development of Dictyostelium discoideum. The heterophilic adhesion protein TgrC1 (Tgr is transmembrane, IPT, IG, E-set, repeat protein) is expressed during cell aggregation, and disruption of the tgrC1 gene results in the arrest of development at the loose aggregate stage. We have used far-Western blotting coupled with MS to identify TgrB1 as the heterophilic binding partner of TgrC1. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down studies showed that TgrB1 and TgrC1 are capable of binding with each other in solution. TgrB1 and TgrC1 are encoded by a pair of adjacent genes which share a common promoter. Both TgrB1 and TgrC1 are type I transmembrane proteins, which contain three extracellular IPT/TIG (immunoglobulin, plexin, transcription factor-like/transcription factor immunoglobulin) domains. Antibodies raised against TgrB1 inhibit cell reassociation at the post-aggregation stage of development and block fruiting body formation. Ectopic expression of TgrB1 and TgrC1 driven by the actin15 promoter leads to heterotypic cell aggregation of vegetative cells. Using recombinant proteins that cover different portions of TgrB1 and TgrC1 in binding assays, we have mapped the cell-binding regions in these two proteins to Lys(537)-Ala(783) in TgrB1 and Ile(336)-Val(360) in TgrC1, corresponding to their respective TIG3 and TIG2 domain.

  4. ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells in human normal tissues and protects from C1q-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamae, Yuka; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Abe, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Shuji; Kazuno, Saiko; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Ochiai, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Yuko; Okada, Yasunori

    2016-05-01

    ADAM28 (disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28), which was originally reported to be lymphocyte-specific, is over-expressed by carcinoma cells and plays a key role in cell proliferation and progression in human lung and breast carcinomas. We studied ADAM28 expression in human normal tissues and examined its biological function. By using antibodies specific to ADAM28, ADAM28 was immunolocalized mainly to epithelial cells in several tissues, including epididymis, bronchus and stomach, whereas lymphocytes in lymph nodes and spleen were negligibly immunostained. RT-PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA analyses confirmed the expression in these tissues, and low or negligible expression by lymphocytes was found in the lymph node and spleen. C1q was identified as a candidate ADAM28-binding protein from a human lung cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system, and specific binding was demonstrated by binding assays, immunoprecipitation and surface plasmon resonance. C1q treatment of normal bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B and NHBE cells, both of which showed low-level expression of ADAM28, caused apoptosis through activation of p38 and caspase-3, and cell death with autophagy through accumulation of LC3-II and autophagosomes, respectively. C1q-induced cell death was attenuated by treatment of the cells with antibodies against the C1q receptor gC1qR/p33 or cC1qR/calreticulin. Treatment of C1q with recombinant ADAM28 prior to addition to culture media reduced C1q-induced cell death, and knockdown of ADAM28 using siRNAs increased cell death. These data demonstrate that ADAM28 is expressed by epithelial cells of several normal organs, and suggest that ADAM28 plays a role in cell survival by suppression of C1q-induced cytotoxicity in bronchial epithelial cells. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) in lipid rafts mediates hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer by regulating IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haojun; Fang, Winston; Liu, Minda; Fu, Deliang

    2017-10-01

    Pancreatic cancer shows a remarkable predilection for hepatic metastasis. Complement component 1, q subcomponent binding protein (C1QBP) can mediate growth factor-induced cancer cell chemotaxis and distant metastasis by activation of receptor tyrosine kinases. Coincidentally, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) derived from the liver and cancer cells itself has been recognized as a critical inducer of hepatic metastasis. However, the mechanism underlying IGF-1-dependent hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer, in which C1QBP may be involved, remains unknown. In the study, we demonstrated a significant association between C1QBP expression and hepatic metastasis in patients with pancreatic cancer. IGF-1 induced the translocation of C1QBP from cytoplasm to lipid rafts and further drove the formation of CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6)/C1QBP complex in pancreatic cancer cells. C1QBP interacting with CD44v6 in lipid rafts promoted phosphorylation of IGF-1R and thus activated downstream PI3K and MAPK signaling pathways which mediated metastatic potential of pancreatic cancer cells including proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, adhesion and energy metabolism. Furthermore, C1QBP knockdown suppressed hepatic metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in nude mice. We therefore conclude that C1QBP in lipid rafts serves a key regulator of IGF-1/IGF-1R-induced hepatic metastasis from pancreatic cancer. Our findings about C1QBP in lipid rafts provide a novel strategy to block IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling in pancreatic cancer and a reliable premise for more efficient combined modality therapies. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Transient Transcriptional Regulation of the CYS-C1 Gene and Cyanide Accumulation upon Pathogen Infection in the Plant Immune Response1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Irene; Rosas, Tábata; Bejarano, Eduardo R.; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide is produced concomitantly with ethylene biosynthesis. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) detoxifies cyanide primarily through the enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase, mainly by the mitochondrial CYS-C1. CYS-C1 loss of function is not toxic for the plant and leads to an increased level of cyanide in cys-c1 mutants as well as a root hairless phenotype. The classification of genes differentially expressed in cys-c1 and wild-type plants reveals that the high endogenous cyanide content of the cys-c1 mutant is correlated with the biotic stress response. Cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated during compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions. In addition, cys-c1 plants present an increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea and an increased tolerance to the biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 bacterium and Beet curly top virus. The cys-c1 mutation produces a reduction in respiration rate in leaves, an accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and an induction of the alternative oxidase AOX1a and pathogenesis-related PR1 expression. We hypothesize that cyanide, which is transiently accumulated during avirulent bacterial infection and constitutively accumulated in the cys-c1 mutant, uncouples the respiratory electron chain dependent on the cytochrome c oxidase, and this uncoupling induces the alternative oxidase activity and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which act by stimulating the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. PMID:23784464

  7. Understanding the branching ratios of \\chi_{c1}\\to\\phi\\phi, \\omega\\omega, \\omega\\phi observed at BES-III

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dian-Yong; He, Jun; Li, Xue-Qian; Liu, Xiang

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we discuss the contribution of the mesonic loops to the decay rates of $\\chi_{c1}\\to \\phi\\phi,\\,\\omega\\omega$ which are suppressed by the helicity selection rules and $\\chi_{c1}\\to \\phi\\omega$ which is a double-OZI forbidden process. We find that the mesonic loop effects naturally explain the clear signals of $\\chi_{c1}\\to \\phi\\phi,\\,\\omega\\omega$ decay modes observed by the BES collaboration. Moreover, we investigate the effects of the $\\omega-\\phi$ mixing which may result in t...

  8. Estimated pKa values for the environmentally relevant C1 through C8 perfluorinated sulfonic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-10-14

    In order to estimate isomer-specific acidity constants (pKa) for the perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA) environmental contaminants, the parameterization method 6 (PM6) pKa prediction method was extensively validated against a wide range of carbon oxyacids and related sulfonic/sulfinic acids. Excellent pKa prediction performance was observed for the carbon oxyacids using the PM6 method, but this approach was found to have a severe positive bias for sulfonic/sulfinic acids. To overcome this obstacle, a correlation was developed between non-adjusted PM6 pKa values and the corresponding experimentally obtained/estimated acidity constants for a range of representative alkyl, aryl and halogen-substituted sulfonic acids. Application of this correction to the PM6 values allows for extension of this computational method to a new acid functional group. When used to estimate isomer-specific pKa values for the C1 through C8 PFSAs, the modified PM6 approach suggests an adjusted pKa range from -5.3 to -9.0, indicating that all members of this class of well-known environmental contaminants will be effectively completely dissociated in aquatic systems.

  9. Design of Online Spheroidization Process for 1.0C-1.5Cr Bearing Steel and Microstructure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Li, Chang-Sheng; Ren, Jin-Yi; Li, Bin-Zhou; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2018-02-01

    Using thermo-mechanical control process, the online spheroidization annealing process of 1.0C-1.5Cr bearing steel was designed. Apart from intercritical online spheroidization (IS), a novel subcritical online spheroidization (SS) process was proposed, which is characterized by water-cooling to around 773 K (500 °C) after the final rolling pass, and then directly reheating to 973 K (700 °C) for isothermal holding. Compared with the results from the traditional offline spheroidization (TS) process, the size of spheroidized carbides is similar in both the TS and IS processes, whereas it is much smaller in the SS process. After spheroidization annealing, microstructure evolution during austenitization and quenching treatment was examined. It is shown that the refining of spheroidized carbides accelerates the dissolution of carbides during the austenitizing process, and decreases the size of undissolved carbides. In addition, the SS process can obtain finer prior austenite grain after quenching, which contributes to the enhancement of final hardness.

  10. Technical Note: Reactivity of C1 and C2 organohalogens formation – from plant litter to bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available C1/C2 organohalogens (organohalogens with one or two carbon atoms can have significant environmental toxicity and ecological impact, such as carcinogenesis, ozone depletion and global warming. Natural halogenation processes have been identified for a wide range of natural organic matter, including soils, plant and animal debris, algae, and fungi. Yet, few have considered these organohalogens generated from the ubiquitous bacteria, one of the largest biomass pools on earth. Here, we report and confirm the formation of chloroform (CHCl3 dichloro-acetonitrile (CHCl2CN, chloral hydrate (CCl3CH(OH2 and their brominated analogues by direct halogenation of seven strains of common bacteria and nine cellular monomers. Comparing different major C stocks during litter decomposition stages in terrestrial ecosystems, from plant litter, decomposed litter, to bacteria, we found increasing reactivity for nitrogenous organohalogen yield with decreasing C/N ratio. Our results raise the possibility that natural halogenation of bacteria represents a significant and overlooked contribution to global organohalogen burdens. As bacteria are decomposers that alter the C quality by transforming organic matter pools from high to low C/N ratio and constitute a large organic N pool, the bacterial activity is expected to affect the C, N, and halogen cycling through natural halogenation reactions.

  11. Reduction of VLDL secretion decreases cholesterol excretion in niemann-pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Marshall

    Full Text Available An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP, which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.

  12. Virasoro algebra with central charge c=1 on the horizon of a two-dimensional-Rindler space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, Valter; Pinamonti, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Using the holographic machinery built up in a previous work, we show that the hidden SL(2,R) symmetry of a scalar quantum field propagating in a Rindler space-time admits an enlargement in terms of a unitary positive-energy representation of Virasoro algebra defined in the Fock representation. That representation has central charge c=1. The Virasoro algebra of operators gets a manifest geometrical meaning if referring to the holographically associated quantum field theory on the horizon: It is nothing but a representation of the algebra of vector fields defined on the horizon equipped with a point at infinity. All that happens provided the Virasoro ground energy hcoloneμ 2 /2 vanishes and, in that case, the Rindler Hamiltonian is associated with a certain Virasoro generator. If a suitable regularization procedure is employed, for h=1/2, the ground state of that generator seems to correspond to a thermal state when examined in the Rindler wedge, taking the expectation value with respect to Rindler time. Finally, under Wick rotation in Rindler time, the pair of quantum field theories which are built up on the future and past horizon defines a proper two-dimensional conformal quantum field theory on a cylinder

  13. New insight into the spatiotemporal variability and source apportionments of C1-C4 alkyl nitrates in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zhenhao; Guo, Hai; Simpson, Isobel Jane; Saunders, Sandra Maria; Lam, Sean Ho Man; Lyu, Xiaopu; Blake, Donald Ray

    2016-07-01

    C1-C4 alkyl nitrates (RONO2) were measured concurrently at a mountain site, Tai Mo Shan (TMS), and an urban site, Tsuen Wan (TW), at the base of the same mountain in Hong Kong from September to November 2010. Although the levels of parent hydrocarbons were much lower at TMS (p TMS mainly resulted from the photooxidation of the parent hydrocarbons at TW during mesoscale circulation, i.e., valley breezes, corresponding to 52-86 % of the alkyl nitrate levels at TMS. Furthermore, regional transport from the inland PRD region made significant contributions to the levels of alkyl nitrates (˜ 58-82 %) at TMS in the non-meso scenario, resulting in similar levels of alkyl nitrates observed at the two sites. The simulation of secondary formation pathways using a photochemical box model found that the reaction of alkyl peroxy radicals (RO2) with nitric oxide (NO) dominated the formation of RONO2 at both sites, and the formation of alkyl nitrates contributed negatively to O3 production, with average reduction rates of 4.1 and 4.7 pptv pptv-1 at TMS and TW, respectively.

  14. Surgical Treatment for Occipital Condyle Fracture, C1 Dislocation, and Cerebellar Contusion with Hemorrhage after Blunt Head Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo Ueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occipital condyle fractures (OCFs have been treated as rare traumatic injuries, but the number of reported OCFs has gradually increased because of the popularization of computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The patient in this report presented with OCFs and C1 dislocation, along with traumatic cerebellar hemorrhage, which led to craniovertebral junction instability. This case was also an extremely rare clinical condition in which the patient presented with traumatic lower cranial nerve palsy secondary to OCFs. When the patient was transferred to our hospital, the occipital bone remained defective extensively due to surgical treatment of cerebellar hemorrhage. For this reason, concurrent cranioplasty was performed with resin in order to fix the occipital bone plate strongly. The resin-made occipital bone was used to secure a titanium plate and screws enabled us to perform posterior fusion of the craniovertebral junction. Although the patient wore a halo vest for 3 months after surgery, lower cranial nerve symptoms, including not only neck pain but also paralysis of the throat and larynx, improved postoperatively. No complications were detected during outpatient follow-up, which continued for 5 years postoperatively.

  15. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; Duross, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1-/-) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1-/- cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders.

  16. Two-Dimensional Layered Double Hydroxides for Reactions of Methanation and Methane Reforming in C1 Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Panpan; Yu, Feng; Altaf, Naveed; Zhu, Mingyuan; Li, Jiangbing; Dai, Bin; Wang, Qiang

    2018-01-31

    CH₄ as the paramount ingredient of natural gas plays an eminent role in C1 chemistry. CH₄ catalytically converted to syngas is a significant route to transmute methane into high value-added chemicals. Moreover, the CO/CO₂ methanation reaction is one of the potent technologies for CO₂ valorization and the coal-derived natural gas production process. Due to the high thermal stability and high extent of dispersion of metallic particles, two-dimensional mixed metal oxides through calcined layered double hydroxides (LDHs) precursors are considered as the suitable supports or catalysts for both the reaction of methanation and methane reforming. The LDHs displayed compositional flexibility, small crystal sizes, high surface area and excellent basic properties. In this paper, we review previous works of LDHs applied in the reaction of both methanation and methane reforming, focus on the LDH-derived catalysts, which exhibit better catalytic performance and thermal stability than conventional catalysts prepared by impregnation method and also discuss the anti-coke ability and anti-sintering ability of LDH-derived catalysts. We believe that LDH-derived catalysts are promising materials in the heterogeneous catalytic field and provide new insight for the design of advance LDH-derived catalysts worthy of future research.

  17. The Effect of Nitrogen Enrichment on C1-Cycling Microorganisms and Methane Flux in Salt Marsh Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Catherine Irvine

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 flux from ecosystems is driven by C1-cycling microorganisms – the methanogens and the methylotrophs. Little is understood about what regulates these communities, complicating predictions about how global change drivers such as nitrogen enrichment will affect methane cycling. Using a nitrogen addition gradient experiment in three Southern California salt marshes, we show that sediment CH4 flux increased linearly with increasing nitrogen addition (1.23 µg CH4 m-2 d-1 for each g N m-2 yr-1 applied after seven months of fertilization. To test the reason behind this increased CH4 flux, we conducted a microcosm experiment altering both nitrogen and carbon availability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Methanogenesis appeared to be both nitrogen and carbon (acetate limited. N and C each increased methanogenesis by 18%, and together by 44%. In contrast, methanotrophy was stimulated by carbon (methane addition (830%, but was unchanged by nitrogen addition. Sequence analysis of the sediment methylotroph community with the methanol dehydrogenase gene (mxaF revealed three distinct clades that fall outside of known lineages. However, in agreement with the microcosm results, methylotroph abundance (assayed by qPCR and composition (assayed by T-RFLP did not vary across the experimental nitrogen gradient in the field. Together, these results suggest that nitrogen enrichment to salt marsh sediments increases methane flux by stimulating the methanogen community.

  18. Transcription elongation factors are involved in programming hormone production in pituitary neuroendocrine GH4C1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2010-05-05

    Transcription elongation of many eukaryotic genes is regulated. Two negative transcription elongation factors, 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) and negative elongation factor (NELF) are known to stall collaboratively RNA polymerase II promoter proximally. We discovered that DSIF and NELF are linked to hormone expression in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. When NELF-E, a subunit of NELF or Spt5, a subunit of DSIF was stably knocked-down, prolactin (PRL) expression was increased both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, stable knock-down of only Spt5 abolished growth hormone (GH) expression. Transient NELF-E knock-down increased coincidentally PRL expression and enhanced transcription of a PRL-promoter reporter gene. However, no direct interaction of NELF with the PRL gene could be demonstrated by chromatin immuno-precipitation. Thus, NELF suppressed PRL promoter activity indirectly. In conclusion, transcription regulation by NELF and DSIF is continuously involved in the control of hormone production and may contribute to neuroendocrine cell differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lycopene reduces cholesterol absorption through the downregulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jun; Feng, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Elevated blood cholesterol is an important risk factor associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Tomato lycopene has been found to have a hypocholesterolemic effect, and the effect was considered to be related to inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. However, since plasma cholesterol levels are also influenced by the absorption of cholesterol in the gut, the present study is to investigate whether lycopene affects cholesterol absorption in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. The Caco-2 cells were pretreated with lycopene at different concentrations for 24 h and then incubated with radioactive micellar cholesterol for 2 h. The absorption of radioactive cholesterol was quantified by liquid scintillation. The expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and liver X receptor α (LXRα) was analyzed by Western blot and qPCR. We found that lycopene dose dependently inhibited cholesterol absorption and the expression of NPC1L1 protein and NPC1L1 mRNA. The inhibitory effects of lycopene on cholesterol absorption and NPC1L1 expression could be prevented by blockade of the LXRα pathway. This study provides the first evidence that lycopene inhibits cholesterol absorption in the intestinal cells and this inhibitory effect of lycopene is mediated, at least in part, by LXRα-NPC1L1 signaling pathway. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Role of Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Prognostication and Treatment Monitoring in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghann W. Lau

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Disease, type C1 (NPC1 is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cholesterol sequestration within late endosomes and lysosomes, for which no reliable imaging marker exists for prognostication and management. Cerebellar volume deficits are found to correlate with disease severity and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI of the corpus callosum and brainstem, which has shown that microstructural disorganization is associated with NPC1 severity. This study investigates the utility of cerebellar DTI in clinical severity assessment. We hypothesize that cerebellar volume, fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD negatively correlate with NIH NPC neurological severity score (NNSS and motor severity subscores. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was obtained for thirty-nine NPC1 subjects, ages 1–21.9 years (mean = 11.1, SD = 6.1. Using an atlas-based automated approach, the cerebellum of each patient was measured for FA, MD and volume. Additionally, each patient was given an NNSS. Decreased cerebellar FA and volume, and elevated MD correlate with higher NNSS. The cognition subscore and motor subscores for eye movement, ambulation, speech, swallowing, and fine motor skills were also statistically significant. Microstructural disorganization negatively correlated with motor severity in subjects. Additionally, Miglustat therapy correlated with lower severity scores across ranges of FA, MD and volume in all regions except the inferior peduncle, where a paradoxical effect was observed at high FA values. These findings suggest that DTI is a promising prognostication tool.

  1. Sensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay for staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 based on the use of dye-encapsulated mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Liang; Zhang, Chunmei; Sun, Yuanjie; Jin, Boquan; Yang, Kun; Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhujun; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yan, Kuocheng

    2016-01-01

    A chemiluminescent immunoassay for the staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 (SEC1) based on the use of dye-encapsulated mesoporous silica nanoparticles (m-SiNPs) as a label is described. The dyes are retained in the m-SiNPs via strong hydrophobic interactions. The assay comprises the following steps: (a) Microplates coated with antibody against SEC1 are filled with sample upon which the SEC antigen will be bound to the surface; (b) following a washing step, secondary antibody linked to m-SiNPs (that were covalently labeled with rhodamine 6G and fluorescein) were added to form the sandwich complex; (c) after another washing step, bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) oxalate, H_2O_2 and imidazole are added to generate chemiluminescence whose intensity is proportional to the number of m-SiNPs and thus to the number of antigen (SEC) molecules. It is found that the use of functionalized m-SiNPs strongly amplifies the signal. Enterotoxin SEC1 can be detected by this method in the 0.025 to 2 ng⋅mL"-"1 concentration range, the detection limit is 19 pg⋅mL"-"1 (at 3σ), and the relative standard deviation (for 11 parallel measurements at a 1 ng⋅mL"-"1 level) is 4.6 %. The use of an automated chemiluminescence analyzer further improves detection. (author)

  2. Receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 suppresses gastric tumor progression through nuclear factor-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong-Zheng, X; Wan-Li, M; Ji-Ming, M; Xue-Qun, R

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activity is crucial for survival and proliferation of many kinds of malignancies, including gastric cancer (GC). The receptor for activated protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) is known to regulate tumor development, whereas the underlined mechanism has not been described clearly. We analyzed expression of RACK1 in paired human GC samples by both real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. Effects of RACK inhibition with small interfering RNA or its overexpression in cultured GC cell lines were evaluated in cell viabilities. NF-kB signaling was investigated using luciferase reporter assay and real-time PCR. RACK1 was significantly decreased in GC samples. Knockdown of RACK elevated GC cell viabilities, whereas overexpression of RACK1 suppressed tumorigenesis of GC cells. Importantly, NF-kB signaling was enhanced after RACK1 expression was inhibited, suggesting the negative regulation of the pro-oncogenic NF-kB activity by RACK1 might contribute to its tumor suppressor role in GC cells. Our results support that RACK1 suppresses gastric tumor progression through the NF-kB signaling pathway.

  3. Elevated C1orf63 expression is correlated with CDK10 and predicts better outcome for advanced breast cancers: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chao-Qun; Zhang, Fan; You, Yan-Jie; Qiu, Wei-Li; Giuliano, Armando E.; Cui, Xiao-Jiang; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Cui, Yu-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 1 open reading frame 63 (C1orf63) is located on the distal short arm of chromosome 1, whose allelic loss has been observed in several human cancers. C1orf63 has been reported to be up-regulated in IL-2-starved T lymphocytes, which suggests it might be involved in cell cycle control, a common mechanism for carcinogenesis. Here we investigated the expression and clinical implication of C1orf63 in breast cancer. Paraffin-embedded specimens, clinicopathological features and follow-up data of the breast cancer patients were collected. Publicly available microarray and RNA-seq datasets used in this study were downloaded from ArrayExpress of EBI and GEO of NCBI. KM plotter tool was also adopted. The expression of C1orf63 and CDK10, one known cell cycle-dependent tumor suppressor in breast cancer, was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting was performed to detect C1orf63 protein in human breast cancer cell lines, purchased from the Culture Collection of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai. In a group of 12 human breast tumors and their matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues, C1orf63 expression was observed in 7 of the 12 breast tumors, but not in the 12 adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P < 0.001). Similar results were observed of C1orf63 mRNA expression both in breast cancer and several other cancers, including lung cancer, prostate cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. In another group of 182 breast cancer patients, C1orf63 expression in tumors was not correlated with any clinicopathological features collected in this study. Survival analyses showed that there was no significant difference of overall survival (OS) rates between the C1orf63 (+) group and the C1orf63 (−) group (P = 0.145). However, the analyses of KM plotter displayed a valid relationship between C1orf63 and RFS (relapse free survival)/OS (P < 0.001; P = 0.007). Notablely, in breast cancers with advanced TNM stages (III ~ IV) among these 182 patients, C1orf63 expression was an

  4. Outcomes following attempted en bloc resection of cervical chordomas in the C-1 and C-2 region versus the subaxial region: a multiinstitutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Camilo A; Ames, Christopher P; Chou, Dean; Rhines, Laurence D; Hsieh, Patrick C; Zadnik, Patricia L; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2014-09-01

    Chordomas involving the mobile spine are ideally managed via en bloc resection with reconstruction to optimize local control and possibly offer cure. In the cervical spine, local anatomy poses unique challenges, limiting the feasibility of aggressive resection. The authors present a multi-institutional series of 16 cases of cervical chordomas removed en bloc. Particular attention was paid to clinical outcome, complications, and recurrence. In addition, outcomes were assessed according to position of tumor at the C1-2 level versus the subaxial (SA) spine (C3-7). The authors reviewed cases involving patients who underwent en bloc resection of cervical chordoma at 4 large spine centers. Patients were included if the lesion epicenter involved the C-1 to C-7 vertebral bodies. Demographic data and details of surgery, follow-up course, exposure to adjuvant therapy, and complications were obtained. Outcome was correlated with presence of tumor in C1-2 versus subaxial spine via a Student t-test. Sixteen patients were identified (mean age at presentation 55 ± 14 years). Seven cases (44%) cases involved C1-2, and 16 involved the subaxial spine. Median survival did not differ significantly different between the C1-2 (72 months) and SA (60 months) groups (p = 0.65). A combined (staged anteroposterior) approach was used in 81% of the cases. Use of the combined approach was significantly more common in treatment of subaxial than C1-2 tumors (100% vs 57%, p = 0.04). En bloc resection was attempted via an anterior approach in 6% of cases (C1-2: 14.3%; SA: 0%; p = 0.17) and a posterior approach in 13% of cases (C1-2: 29%; SA: 0%; p = 0.09). The most commonly reported margin classification was marginal (56% of cases), followed by violated (25%) and wide (19%). En bloc excision of subaxial tumors was significantly more likely to result in marginal margins than excision of C1-2 tumors (C1-2: 29%; SA: 78%; p = 0.03). C1-2 tumors were associated with significantly higher rates of

  5. 64 kDa protein is a candidate for a thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor in prolactin-producing rat pituitary tumor cells (GH4C1 cells)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.; Hogset, A.; Alestrom, P.; Gautvik, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    A thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) binding protein of 64 kDa has been identified by covalently crosslinking [ 3 H]TRH to GH4C1 cells by ultraviolet illumination. The crosslinkage of [ 3 H]TRH is UV-dose dependent and is inhibited by an excess of unlabeled TRH. A 64 kDa protein is also detected on immunoblots using an antiserum raised against GH4C1 cell surface epitopes. In a closely related cell line (GH12C1) which does not bind [ 3 H]TRH, the 64 kDa protein cannot be demonstrated by [ 3 H]TRH crosslinking nor by immunoblotting. These findings indicate that the 64 kDa protein is a candidate for a TRH-receptor protein in GH4C1 cells

  6. Promotion of cooperation in the form C0C1D classified by 'degree grads' in a scale-free network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Li; Ye, Xiang-Jun; Huang, Zi-Gang; Sun, Jin-Tu; Yang, Lei; Wang, Ying-Hai; Do, Younghae

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit the issue of the public goods game (PGG) on a heterogeneous graph. By introducing a new effective topology parameter, 'degree grads' ψ, we clearly classify the agents into three kinds, namely, C 0 , C 1 , and D. The mechanism for the heterogeneous topology promoting cooperation is discussed in detail from the perspective of C 0 C 1 D, which reflects the fact that the unreasoning imitation behaviour of C 1 agents, who are 'cheated' by the well-paid C 0 agents inhabiting special positions, stabilizes the formation of the cooperation community. The analytical and simulation results for certain parameters are found to coincide well with each other. The C 0 C 1 D case provides a picture of the actual behaviours in real society and thus is potentially of interest

  7. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G

    1999-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators.

  8. Fc RIIA Genotypes and Its Association with Anti-C1q Autoantibodies in Lupus Nephritis (LN Patients from Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Pradhan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To identify Fc RIIA genotypes in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE patients and their association with anti-C1q antibodies. Methods. Fc RIIA genotyping was done in eighty Indian SLE patients and eighty healthy controls using allele-specific PCR. Anti-C1q antibodies were measured by ELISA. Results. LN patients showed higher SLEDAI (6–32 as compared to SLE patients without renal manifestations and had SLEDAI between 6–23. Fc RIIA polymorphic frequency in SLE patients was R131/H131 (67.5%, R131/R131 (20% and H131/ H131 (12.5% as against that of normal population (62.5%, 10%, and 27.5%, respectively. Sixty two patients (77.5% showed positivity for anti-C1q antibodies. LN patients showed elevated levels of anti-C1q antibodies (258.2u/ml±38.5U/mL as compared to SLE patients without nephritis (134.6±24.6 U/mL. Among anti-C1q positive patients, 71% had R131/H131 genotype, 22.6% had R131/R131 and remaining 6.4%, patients had H131/H131 genotype. All anti-C1q positive patients with R131/R131 genotype had elevated levels of anti-C1q antibodies (>100 U/ml, whereas among anti-C1q negative patients, none had R131/R131 genotype. Conclusion. This first report on Indian SLE patients supports the hypothesis that Fc RIIA R131 variant over expression may constitute a susceptibility factor for development of severe SLE manifestations in LN patients.

  9. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Deletion of C1EIS Inhibits Chicken Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Into Male Germ Cells (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Qisheng; Jin, Kai; Wang, Yingjie; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Yani; Li, Bichun

    2017-08-01

    We previously found that C1EIS is preferentially expressed in Chicken spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), so our current study focused on C1EIS's role in Chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differentiation into male germ cells. We constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 vector targeting C1EIS. T7 endonuclease I (T7EI) digestion method and sequencing of TA cloning were used to detect the knock-out efficiency of the Single guide RNA (sgRNA) after the cas9/gRNA vector transfected into D fibroblasts 1(DF-1), ESCs, and Chicken embryos. The results showed that CRISPR/Cas9 gene knockout efficiency is about 40%. Differentiation of the targeted ESCs into SSCs was inhibited at the embryoid body stage due to C1EIS deficiency. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that the mutagenized ESCs (RA (Retinoic Acid) with C1EIS Knock out) expressed lower levels of integrin α6 and integrin β1 compared to wild type cells. Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) revealed Oct4 and Sox2 expression significantly increased, contrarily integrin β1 and Stra8 expression significantly decreased than RA induced group and RA with C1EIS Overexpression. During retinoic acid-induced differentiation, knockout of C1EIS in ESCs inhibited formation of SSC-like cells, suggesting C1EIS plays a vital role in promoting differentiation of avian ESCs to SSCs by regulating expression of multiple pluripotency-related genes. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2380-2386, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The catalytic chain of human complement subcomponent C1r. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequences of the major cyanogen bromide-cleavage fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlaud, G J; Gagnon, J; Porter, R R

    1982-01-01

    1. The a- and b-chains of reduced and alkylated human complement subcomponent C1r were separated by high-pressure gel-permeation chromatography and isolated in good yield and in pure form. 2. CNBr cleavage of C1r b-chain yielded eight major peptides, which were purified by gel filtration and high-pressure reversed-phase chromatography. As determined from the sum of their amino acid compositions, these peptides accounted for a minimum molecular weight of 28 000, close to the value 29 100 calculated from the whole b-chain. 3. N-Terminal sequence determinations of C1r b-chain and its CNBr-cleavage peptides allowed the identification of about two-thirds of the amino acids of C1r b-chain. From our results, and on the basis of homology with other serine proteinases, an alignment of the eight CNBr-cleavage peptides from C1r b-chain is proposed. 4. The residues forming the 'charge-relay' system of the active site of serine proteinases (His-57, Asp-102 and Ser-195 in the chymotrypsinogen numbering) are found in the corresponding regions of C1r b-chain, and the amino acid sequence around these residues has been determined. 5. The N-terminal sequence of C1r b-chain has been extended to residue 60 and reveals that C1r b-chain lacks the 'histidine loop', a disulphide bond that is present in all other known serine proteinases.

  11. Acquisition of C1 inhibitor by Bordetella pertussis virulence associated gene 8 results in C2 and C4 consumption away from the bacterial surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovingh, Elise S; van den Broek, Bryan; Kuipers, Betsy; Pinelli, Elena; Rooijakkers, Suzan H M; Jongerius, Ilse

    2017-07-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract that is re-emerging worldwide despite high vaccination coverage. The causative agent of this disease is the Gram-negative Bordetella pertussis. Knowledge on complement evasion strategies of this pathogen is limited. However, this is of great importance for future vaccine development as it has become apparent that a novel pertussis vaccine is needed. Here, we unravel the effect of Virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8) of B. pertussis on the human complement system at the molecular level. We show that both recombinant and endogenously secreted Vag8 inhibit complement deposition on the bacterial surface at the level of C4b. We reveal that Vag8 binding to human C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) interferes with the binding of C1-inh to C1s, C1r and MASP-2, resulting in the release of active proteases that subsequently cleave C2 and C4 away from the bacterial surface. We demonstrate that the depletion of these complement components in the bacterial surrounding and subsequent decreased deposition on B. pertussis leads to less complement-mediated bacterial killing. Vag8 is the first protein described that specifically prevents C1s, C1r and MASP-2 binding to C1-inh and thereby mediates complement consumption away from the bacterial surface. Unravelling the mechanism of this unique complement evasion strategy of B. pertussis is one of the first steps towards understanding the interactions between the first line of defense complement and B. pertussis.

  12. Surgical Morphometry of C1 and C2 Vertebrae: A Three-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis of 180 Chinese, Indian, and Malay Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee Kean; Tan, Tiam Siong; Chan, Chris Yin Wei; Kwan, Mun Keong

    2017-04-01

    Clinical imaging study. To study the surgical morphometry of C1 and C2 vertebrae in Chinese, Indian, and Malay patients. C1 lateral mass and C2 pedicle screw fixation is gaining popularity. However, there is a lack of C1-C2 morphometric data for the Asian population. Computed tomography analysis of 180 subjects (60 subjects each belonging to Chinese, Indian, and Malay populations) using simulation software was performed. Length and angulations of C1 lateral mass (C1LM) and C2 pedicle (C2P) screws were assessed. The predicted C1LM screw length was between 23.2 and 30.2 mm. The safe zone of trajectories was within 11.0°±7.7° laterally to 29.1°±6.2° medially in the axial plane and 37.0°±10.2° caudally to 20.9°±7.8° cephalically in the sagittal plane. The shortest and longest predicted C2P screw lengths were 22.1±2.8 mm and 28.5±3.2 mm, respectively. The safe trajectories were from 25.1° to 39.3° medially in the axial plane and 32.3° to 45.9° cephalically in the sagittal plane. C1LM screw length was 23-30 mm with the axial safe zone from 11° laterally to 29° medially and sagittal safe zone at 21° cephalically. C2P screw length was 22-28 mm with axial safe zone from 26° to 40° medially and sagittal safe zone from 32° to 46° cephalically. These data serve as an important reference for Chinese, Indian, and Malay populations during C1-C2 instrumentation.

  13. Acquisition of C1 inhibitor by Bordetella pertussis virulence associated gene 8 results in C2 and C4 consumption away from the bacterial surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovingh, Elise S.; Kuipers, Betsy; Pinelli, Elena; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract that is re-emerging worldwide despite high vaccination coverage. The causative agent of this disease is the Gram-negative Bordetella pertussis. Knowledge on complement evasion strategies of this pathogen is limited. However, this is of great importance for future vaccine development as it has become apparent that a novel pertussis vaccine is needed. Here, we unravel the effect of Virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8) of B. pertussis on the human complement system at the molecular level. We show that both recombinant and endogenously secreted Vag8 inhibit complement deposition on the bacterial surface at the level of C4b. We reveal that Vag8 binding to human C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) interferes with the binding of C1-inh to C1s, C1r and MASP-2, resulting in the release of active proteases that subsequently cleave C2 and C4 away from the bacterial surface. We demonstrate that the depletion of these complement components in the bacterial surrounding and subsequent decreased deposition on B. pertussis leads to less complement-mediated bacterial killing. Vag8 is the first protein described that specifically prevents C1s, C1r and MASP-2 binding to C1-inh and thereby mediates complement consumption away from the bacterial surface. Unravelling the mechanism of this unique complement evasion strategy of B. pertussis is one of the first steps towards understanding the interactions between the first line of defense complement and B. pertussis. PMID:28742139

  14. Collaborative Development of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin for the Treatment of Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Elizabeth A.; Kao, Mark L.; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Yanjanin, Nicole; Shankar, Roopa Kanakatti; Janssen, Marjo; Brewster, Marcus; Scott, Ilona; Xu, Xin; Cradock, Jim; Terse, Pramod; Dehdashti, Seameen; Marugan, Juan; Zheng, Wei; Portilla, Lili; Hubbs, Alan; Pavan, William J.; Heiss, John; Vite, Charles H.; Walkley, Steven U.; Ory, Daniel S.; Silber, Steven A.; Porter, Forbes D.; Austin, Christopher P.; McKew, John C.

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases (TRND) program within the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS), which was created to stimulate drug discovery and development for rare and neglected tropical diseases through a collaborative model between the NIH, academic scientists, nonprofit organizations, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. This paper describes one of the first TRND programs, the development of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) for the treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1). NPC is a neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive rare disease caused by a mutation in either the NPC1 (about 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene (about 5% of cases). These mutations affect the intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids, which leads to a progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the CNS and visceral organs. Affected individuals typically exhibit ataxia, swallowing problems, seizures, and progressive impairment of motor and intellectual function in early childhood, and usually die in adolescence. There is no disease modifying therapy currently approved for NPC1 in the US. A collaborative drug development program has been established between TRND, public and private partners that has completed the pre-clinical development of HP-β-CD through IND filing for the current Phase I clinical trial that is underway. Here we discuss how this collaborative effort helped to overcome scientific, clinical and financial challenges facing the development of new drug treatments for rare and neglected diseases, and how it will incentivize the commercialization of HP-β-CD for the benefit of the NPC patient community. PMID:24283970

  15. DNA ligase C1 mediates the LigD-independent nonhomologous end-joining pathway of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Hitesh; Gupta, Richa; Glickman, Michael S

    2014-10-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described bacterial DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that has been best characterized for mycobacteria. NHEJ can religate transformed linear plasmids, repair ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells, and seal I-SceI-induced chromosomal DSBs. The core components of the mycobacterial NHEJ machinery are the DNA end binding protein Ku and the polyfunctional DNA ligase LigD. LigD has three autonomous enzymatic modules: ATP-dependent DNA ligase (LIG), DNA/RNA polymerase (POL), and 3' phosphoesterase (PE). Although genetic ablation of ku or ligD abolishes NHEJ and sensitizes nonreplicating cells to ionizing radiation, selective ablation of the ligase activity of LigD in vivo only mildly impairs NHEJ of linearized plasmids, indicating that an additional DNA ligase can support NHEJ. Additionally, the in vivo role of the POL and PE domains in NHEJ is unclear. Here we define a LigD ligase-independent NHEJ pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis that requires the ATP-dependent DNA ligase LigC1 and the POL domain of LigD. Mycobacterium tuberculosis LigC can also support this backup NHEJ pathway. We also demonstrate that, although dispensable for efficient plasmid NHEJ, the activities of the POL and PE domains are required for repair of IR-induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells. These findings define the genetic requirements for a LigD-independent NHEJ pathway in mycobacteria and demonstrate that all enzymatic functions of the LigD protein participate in NHEJ in vivo. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. MicroRNA-661 Enhances TRAIL or STS Induced Osteosarcoma Cell Apoptosis by Modulating the Expression of Cytochrome c1

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    Lin Fan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive bone malignancy that affects rapidly growing bones and is associated with a poor prognosis. Our previous study showed that cytochrome c1 (CYC1, a subunit of the cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III of the mitochondrial electron chain, is overexpressed in human OS tissues and cell lines and its silencing induces apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying the modulation of CYC1 expression in OS and its role in the resistance of OS to apoptosis. Methods: qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assay, western blotting, fow cytometry, and animal experiments were performed in this study. Results: MicroRNA (miR-661 was identified as a downregulated miRNA in OS tissues and cells and shown to directly target CYC1. Ectopically expressed miR-661 inhibited OS cell growth, promoted apoptosis, and reduced the activity of mitochondrial complex III. miR-661 overexpression enhanced TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis and promoted the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, which induced caspase-9 activation, and these effects were abolished by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Overexpression of CYC1 rescued the effects of miR-661 on sensitizing OS cells to TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis, indicating that the antitumor effect of miR-661 is mediated by the downregulation of CYC1. In vivo, miR-661 overexpression sensitized tumors to TRAIL or STS induced apoptosis in a xenograft mouse model, and these effects were attenuated by co-expression of CYC1. Conclusion: Taken together, our results indicate that miR-661 plays a tumor suppressor role in OS mediated by the downregulation of CYC1, suggesting a potential mechanism underlying cell death resistance in OS.

  17. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone induce DNA damage and cell signalling in Hepa1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landvik, N E; Arlt, V M; Nagy, E; Solhaug, A; Tekpli, X; Schmeiser, H H; Refsnes, M; Phillips, D H; Lagadic-Gossmann, D; Holme, J A

    2010-02-03

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutant found in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. In the present work we have characterised the effects of 3-NBA and its metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) on cell death and cytokine release in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. These effects were related to induced DNA damage and changes in cell signalling pathways. 3-NBA resulted in cell death and caused most DNA damage as judged by the amount of DNA adducts ((32)P-postlabelling assay), single strand (ss)DNA breaks and oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay) detected. An increased phosphorylation of H2AX, chk1, chk2 and partly ATM was observed using flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. Both compounds increased phosphorylation of p53 and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK). However, only 3-NBA caused an accumulation of p53 in the nucleus and a translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis, indicating that cell death was a result of the triggering of DNA signalling pathways. The highest phosphorylation of Akt and degradation of IkappaB-alpha (suggesting activation of NF-kappaB) were also seen after treatment with 3-NBA. In contrast 3-ABA increased IL-6 release, but caused little or no toxicity. Cytokine release was inhibited by PD98059 and curcumin, suggesting that ERK and NF-kappaB play a role in this process. In conclusion, 3-NBA seems to have a higher potency to induce DNA damage compatible with its cytotoxic effects, while 3-ABA seems to have a greater effect on the immune system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone induce DNA damage and cell signalling in Hepa1c1c7 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvik, N.E. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 404 Torshov N-4303 Oslo (Norway); Arlt, V.M.; Nagy, E. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Brookes Lawley Building, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Solhaug, A. [Section for Toxicology, Department of Feed and Food Safety, National Veterinary Institute Pb 750 Sentrum, N-0106 Oslo (Norway); Tekpli, X. [EA SeRAIC, Equipe labellisee Ligue contre le Cancer, IFR 140, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Schmeiser, H.H. [Research Group Genetic Alteration in Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Refsnes, M. [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 404 Torshov N-4303 Oslo (Norway); Phillips, D.H. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Brookes Lawley Building, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Lagadic-Gossmann, D. [EA SeRAIC, Equipe labellisee Ligue contre le Cancer, IFR 140, Universite de Rennes 1, Rennes (France); Holme, J.A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 404 Torshov N-4303 Oslo (Norway)

    2010-02-03

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutant found in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. In the present work we have characterised the effects of 3-NBA and its metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) on cell death and cytokine release in mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells. These effects were related to induced DNA damage and changes in cell signalling pathways. 3-NBA resulted in cell death and caused most DNA damage as judged by the amount of DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabelling assay), single strand (ss)DNA breaks and oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay) detected. An increased phosphorylation of H2AX, chk1, chk2 and partly ATM was observed using flow cytometry and/or Western blotting. Both compounds increased phosphorylation of p53 and MAPKs (ERK, p38 and JNK). However, only 3-NBA caused an accumulation of p53 in the nucleus and a translocation of Bax to the mitochondria. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-alpha inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis, indicating that cell death was a result of the triggering of DNA signalling pathways. The highest phosphorylation of Akt and degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha} (suggesting activation of NF-{kappa}B) were also seen after treatment with 3-NBA. In contrast 3-ABA increased IL-6 release, but caused little or no toxicity. Cytokine release was inhibited by PD98059 and curcumin, suggesting that ERK and NF-{kappa}B play a role in this process. In conclusion, 3-NBA seems to have a higher potency to induce DNA damage compatible with its cytotoxic effects, while 3-ABA seems to have a greater effect on the immune system.

  19. Reduced combustion mechanism for C1-C4 hydrocarbons and its application in computational fluid dynamics flare modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodara, Vijaya; Chen, Daniel H; Lou, Helen H; Rasel, Kader M A; Richmond, Peyton; Wang, Anan; Li, Xianchang

    2017-05-01

    Emissions from flares constitute unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), soot, and other partially burned and altered hydrocarbons along with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water. Soot or visible smoke is of particular concern for flare operators/regulatory agencies. The goal of the study is to develop a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of predicting flare combustion efficiency (CE) and soot emission. Since detailed combustion mechanisms are too complicated for (CFD) application, a 50-species reduced mechanism, LU 3.0.1, was developed. LU 3.0.1 is capable of handling C 4 hydrocarbons and soot precursor species (C 2 H 2 , C 2 H 4 , C 6 H 6 ). The new reduced mechanism LU 3.0.1 was first validated against experimental performance indicators: laminar flame speed, adiabatic flame temperature, and ignition delay. Further, CFD simulations using LU 3.0.1 were run to predict soot emission and CE of air-assisted flare tests conducted in 2010 in Tulsa, Oklahoma, using ANSYS Fluent software. Results of non-premixed probability density function (PDF) model and eddy dissipation concept (EDC) model are discussed. It is also noteworthy that when used in conjunction with the EDC turbulence-chemistry model, LU 3.0.1 can reasonably predict volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions as well. A reduced combustion mechanism containing 50 C 1 -C 4 species and soot precursors has been developed and validated against experimental data. The combustion mechanism is then employed in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of modeling of soot emission and combustion efficiency (CE) of co