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Sample records for c-terminal cytoplasmic domain

  1. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) glycoprotein B cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain regulates the energy requirement for EBV-induced membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Zhang, Xianming; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The entry of enveloped viruses into host cells is preceded by membrane fusion, which in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is thought to be mediated by the refolding of glycoprotein B (gB) from a prefusion to a postfusion state. In our current studies, we characterized a gB C-terminal tail domain (CTD) mutant truncated at amino acid 843 (gB843). This truncation mutant is hyperfusogenic as monitored by syncytium formation and in a quantitative fusion assay and is dependent on gH/gL for fusion activity. gB843 can rescue the fusion function of other glycoprotein mutants that have null or decreased fusion activity in epithelial and B cells. In addition, gB843 requires less gp42 and gH/gL for fusion, and can function in fusion at a lower temperature than wild-type gB, indicating a lower energy requirement for fusion activation. Since a key step in fusion is the conversion of gB from a prefusion to an active postfusion state by gH/gL, gB843 may access this activated gB state more readily. Our studies indicate that the gB CTD may participate in the fusion function by maintaining gB in an inactive prefusion form prior to activation by receptor binding. Importance: Diseases resulting from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in humans range from the fairly benign disease infectious mononucleosis to life-threatening cancer. As an enveloped virus, EBV must fuse with a host cell membrane for entry and infection by using glycoproteins gH/gL, gB, and gp42. Among these glycoproteins, gB is thought to be the protein that executes fusion. To further characterize the function of the EBV gB cytoplasmic C-terminal tail domain (CTD) in fusion, we used a previously constructed CTD truncation mutant and studied its fusion activity in the context of other EBV glycoprotein mutants. From these studies, we find that the gB CTD regulates fusion by altering the energy requirements for the triggering of fusion mediated by gH/gL or gp42. Overall, our studies may lead to a better understanding of EBV fusion

  2. TWEAK-independent Fn14 self-association and NF-κB activation is mediated by the C-terminal region of the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain.

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    Sharron A N Brown

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily member TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair. TWEAK binds to a 102-amino acid type I transmembrane cell surface receptor named fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14. TWEAK:Fn14 engagement activates several intracellular signaling cascades, including the NF-κB pathway, and sustained Fn14 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Although several groups are developing TWEAK- or Fn14-targeted agents for therapeutic use, much more basic science research is required before we fully understand the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling axis. For example, we and others have proposed that TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling may occur in cells when Fn14 levels are highly elevated, but this idea has never been tested directly. In this report, we first demonstrate TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling by showing that an Fn14 deletion mutant that is unable to bind TWEAK can activate the NF-κB pathway in transfected cells. We then show that ectopically-expressed, cell surface-localized Fn14 can self-associate into Fn14 dimers, and we show that Fn14 self-association is mediated by an 18-aa region within the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain. Endogenously-expressed Fn14 as well as ectopically-overexpressed Fn14 could also be detected in dimeric form when cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Additional experiments revealed that Fn14 dimerization occurs during cell lysis via formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond at cysteine residue 122. These findings provide insight into the Fn14 signaling mechanism and may aid current studies to develop therapeutic agents targeting this small cell surface receptor.

  3. Modulation of voltage-gated potassium Kv2.1 via the cytoplasmic C terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Jin; Peiyuan Lu

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels comprise 12 subtypes (Kv1-Kv12). Kv2.1, which is expressed in most mammalian central neurons, provides the majority of delayed-rectifier K current in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and plays an especially prominent role in repolarizing membrane potential, as well as in facilitation of exocytosis. Kv2.1-encoded K efflux is essential for neuronal apoptosis programming. The human form of the Kv2.1 potassium channel contains large intracellular regions. The cytoplasmic C-terminal plays a key role in modulating Kv2.1 gating. The present manuscript summarized Kv2.1 structure and modulation in neurons and analyzed the roles of the cytoplasmic C-terminal.

  4. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

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    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  5. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

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    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  6. Sequences determining the cytoplasmic localization of a chemoreceptor domain.

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    Seligman, L; Bailey, J; Manoil, C

    1995-01-01

    The Escherichia coli serine chemoreceptor (Tsr) is a protein with a simple topology consisting of two membrane-spanning sequences (TM1 and TM2) separating a large periplasmic domain from N-terminal and C-terminal cytoplasmic regions. We analyzed the contributions of several sequence elements to the cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain by using chemoreceptor-alkaline phosphatase gene fusions. The principal findings were as follows. (i) The cytoplasmic localization of the C-terminal domain depended on TM2 but was quite tolerant of mutations partially deleting or introducing charged residues into the sequence. (ii) The basal level of C-terminal domain export was significantly higher in proteins with the wild-type periplasmic domain than in derivatives with a shortened periplasmic domain, suggesting that the large size of the wild-type domain promotes partial membrane misinsertion. (iii) The membrane insertion of deletion derivatives with a single spanning segment (TM1 or TM2) could be controlled by either an adjacent positively charged sequence or an adjacent amphipathic sequence. The results provide evidence that the generation of the Tsr membrane topology is an overdetermined process directed by an interplay of sequences promoting and opposing establishment of the normal structure. PMID:7730259

  7. Contribution of N- and C-terminal Kv4.2 channel domains to KChIP interaction [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callsen, Britta; Isbrandt, Dirk; Sauter, Kathrin; Hartmann, L Sven; Pongs, Olaf; Bähring, Robert

    2005-10-15

    Association of Shal gene-related voltage-gated potassium (Kv4) channels with cytoplasmic Kv channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) influences inactivation gating and surface expression. We investigated both functional and biochemical consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic N and C-terminal Kv4.2 domains to characterize structural determinants for KChIP interaction. We performed a lysine-scanning mutagenesis within the proximal 40 amino acid portion and a structure-based mutagenesis in the tetramerization 1 (T1) domain of Kv4.2. In addition, the cytoplasmic Kv4.2 C-terminus was truncated at various positions. Wild-type and mutant Kv4.2 channels were coexpressed with KChIP2 isoforms in mammalian cell lines. The KChIP2-induced modulation of Kv4.2 currents was studied with whole-cell patch clamp and the binding of KChIP2 isoforms to Kv4.2 channels with coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Our results define one major interaction site for KChIPs, including amino acids in the proximal N-terminus between residues 11 and 23, where binding and functional modulation are essentially equivalent. A further interaction site includes residues in the T1 domain. Notably, C-terminal deletions also had marked effects on KChIP2-dependent gating modulation and KChIP2 binding, revealing a previously unknown involvement of domains within the cytoplasmic Kv4.2 C-terminus in KChIP interaction. Less coincidence of binding and functional modulation indicates a more loose 'anchoring' at T1- and C-terminal interaction sites. Our results refine and extend previously proposed structural models for Kv4.2/KChIP complex formation.

  8. The impact of the human DNA topoisomerase II C-terminal domain on activity.

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    Emma L Meczes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type II DNA topoisomerases (topos are essential enzymes needed for the resolution of topological problems that occur during DNA metabolic processes. Topos carry out an ATP-dependent strand passage reaction whereby one double helix is passed through a transient break in another. Humans have two topoII isoforms, alpha and beta, which while enzymatically similar are differentially expressed and regulated, and are thought to have different cellular roles. The C-terminal domain (CTD of the enzyme has the most diversity, and has been implicated in regulation. We sought to investigate the impact of the CTD domain on activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We have investigated the role of the human topoII C-terminal domain by creating constructs encoding C-terminally truncated recombinant topoIIalpha and beta and topoIIalpha+beta-tail and topoIIbeta+alpha-tail chimeric proteins. We then investigated function in vivo in a yeast system, and in vitro in activity assays. We find that the C-terminal domain of human topoII isoforms is needed for in vivo function of the enzyme, but not needed for cleavage activity. C-terminally truncated enzymes had similar strand passage activity to full length enzymes, but the presence of the opposite C-terminal domain had a large effect, with the topoIIalpha-CTD increasing activity, and the topoIIbeta-CTD decreasing activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In vivo complementation data show that the topoIIalpha C-terminal domain is needed for growth, but the topoIIbeta isoform is able to support low levels of growth without a C-terminal domain. This may indicate that topoIIbeta has an additional localisation signal. In vitro data suggest that, while the lack of any C-terminal domain has little effect on activity, the presence of either the topoIIalpha or beta C-terminal domain can affect strand passage activity. Data indicates that the topoIIbeta-CTD may be a negative regulator. This is the first report of in vitro

  9. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

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    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  10. Bacteriophage endolysin Lyt μ1/6: characterization of the C-terminal binding domain.

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    Tišáková, Lenka; Vidová, Barbora; Farkašovská, Jarmila; Godány, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The gene product of orf50 from actinophage μ1/6 of Streptomyces aureofaciens is a putative endolysin, Lyt μ1/6. It has a two-domain modular structure, consisting of an N-terminal catalytic and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). Comparative analysis of Streptomyces phage endolysins revealed that they all have a modular structure and contain functional C-terminal domains with conserved amino acids, probably associated with their binding function. A blast analysis of Lyt μ1/6 in conjunction with secondary and tertiary structure prediction disclosed the presence of a PG_binding_1 domain within the CBD. The sequence of the C-terminal domain of lyt μ1/6 and truncated forms of it were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The ability of these CBD variants fused to GFP to bind to the surface of S. aureofaciens NMU was shown by specific binding assays.

  11. Functional role of C-terminal domain of Thermus thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase

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    Tukalo M. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study a role of C-terminal domain of T. thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRSTT in the reactions of aminoacylation and editing. Methods. A mutant of LeuRSTT without C- terminal domain (ΔС was obtained by the method of mutagenesis. The kinetic constants in aminoacylation reaction catalyzed by LeuRS and its mutant (ΔС were determined by the methods of equilibrium enzyme kinetics. To evaluate the contribution of C-terminal domain to interaction of the enzyme with tRNALeu, Kd of a complex between tRNA and LeuRSTT and its mutant ΔС was determined by fluorescence titration. Results. The C-terminal domain is shown to play a significant role in the aminoacylation and editing reactions of LeuRSTT and not essential for the activity in the reaction of amino acid activation. The kinetic parameters of aminoacylation of tRNALeu and tRNATyr by LeuRS and ΔС mutant were also determined, their analysis suggests that the C-domain is not critical for the manifestation of specificity of the enzyme in the recognition of homologous RNAs. At the same time a significant influence of the C-terminal domain on the value of catalytic constant was shown. At the domain deletion the kcat value is lower by 152-fold. Conclusion. The C-terminal domain of LeuRSTT is evolutionarily acquired to enhance the rate of catalysis in the aminoacylation and editing reactions, and makes no significant contribution to the specificity of the enzyme in the recognition of tRNA.

  12. Structure discrimination for the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli trigger factor in solution

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    Yao Yong; Bhabha, Gira; Kroon, Gerard; Landes, Mindy; Dyson, H. Jane [Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States)], E-mail: dyson@scripps.edu

    2008-01-15

    NMR measurements can give important information on solution structure, without the necessity for a full-scale solution structure determination. The C-terminal protein binding domain of the ribosome-associated chaperone protein trigger factor is composed of non-contiguous parts of the polypeptide chain, with an interpolated prolyl isomerase domain. A construct of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli trigger factor containing residues 113-149 and 247-432, joined by a Gly-Ser-Gly-Ser linker, is well folded and gives excellent NMR spectra in solution. We have used NMR measurements on this construct, and on a longer construct that includes the prolyl isomerase domain, to distinguish between two possible structures for the C-terminal domain of trigger factor, and to assess the behavior of the trigger factor C-terminal domain in solution. Two X-ray crystal structures, of intact trigger factor from E. coli (Ferbitz et al., Nature 431:590-596, 2004), and of a truncated trigger factor from Vibrio cholerae (Ludlam et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:13436-13441, 2004) showed significant differences in the structure of the C-terminal domain, such that the two structures could not be superimposed. We show using NMR chemical shifts and long range nuclear Overhauser effects that the secondary and tertiary structure of the E. coli C-terminal domain in solution is consistent with the crystal structure of the E. coli trigger factor and not with the V. cholerae protein. Given the similarity of the amino acid sequences of the E. coli and V. cholerae proteins, it appears likely that the structure of the V. cholerae protein has been distorted as a result of truncation of a 44-amino acid segment at the C-terminus. Analysis of residual dipolar coupling measurements shows that the overall topology of the solution structure is completely inconsistent with both structures. Dynamics analysis of the C-terminal domain using T{sub 1}, T{sub 2} and heteronuclear NOE parameters show that the

  13. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

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    Raats Jos MH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL. However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers.

  14. Mutant Mice Lacking the p53 C-Terminal Domain Model Telomere Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, I.; Jaber, S.; Draskovic, I.; Bardot, B.; Fang, M.; Bouarich-Bourimi, R.; Lejour, V.; Charbonnier, L.; Soudais, C.; Bourdon, J.C.; Huerre, M.; Londono-Vallejo, A.; Toledo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53(Delta31), a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis,

  15. Resonance assignments and secondary structure of apolipoprotein E C-terminal domain in DHPC micelles.

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    Lo, Chi-Jen; Chyan, Chia-Lin; Chen, Yi-Chen; Chang, Chi-Fon; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Ta-Hsien

    2015-04-01

    Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) has been known to play a key role in the transport of plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. It is an apolipoprotein of 299 amino acids with a molecular mass, ~34 kDa. ApoE has three major isoforms, apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4 which differ only at residue 112 or 158. ApoE consists of two independently folded domains (N-terminal and C-terminal domain) separated by a hinge region. The N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain of apoE are responsible for the binding to receptor and to lipid, respectively. Since the high resolution structures of apoE in lipids are still unavailable to date, we therefore aim to resolve the structures in lipids by NMR. Here, we reported the resonance assignments and secondary structure distribution of the C-terminal domain of wild-type human apoE (residue 195-299) in the micelles formed by dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine. Our results may provide a novel structural model of apoE in micelles and may shed new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the apoE related biological processes.

  16. Dual Thermosensitive Hydrogels Assembled from the Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Dragline Silk.

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    Qian, Zhi-Gang; Zhou, Ming-Liang; Song, Wen-Wen; Xia, Xiao-Xia

    2015-11-09

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels have great potentials in biomedical and biotechnological applications. Due to the advantages of precise control over molecular weight and being biodegradable, protein-based hydrogels and their applications have been extensively studied. However, protein hydrogels with dual thermosensitive properties are rarely reported. Here we present the first report of dual thermosensitive hydrogels assembled from the conserved C-terminal domain of spider dragline silk. First, we found that recombinant C-terminal domain of major ampullate spidroin 1 (MaSp1) of the spider Nephila clavipes formed hydrogels when cooled to approximately 2 °C or heated to 65 °C. The conformational changes and self-assembly of the recombinant protein were studied to understand the mechanism of the gelation processes using multiple methods. It was proposed that the gelation in the low-temperature regime was dominated by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between folded protein molecules, whereas the gelation in the high-temperature regime was due to cross-linking of the exposed hydrophobic patches resulting from partial unfolding of the protein upon heating. More interestingly, genetic fusion of the C-terminal domain to a short repetitive region of N. clavipes MaSp1 resulted in a chimeric protein that formed a hydrogel with significantly improved mechanical properties at low temperatures between 2 and 10 °C. Furthermore, the formation of similar hydrogels was observed for the recombinant C-terminal domains of dragline silk of different spider species, thus demonstrating the conserved ability to form dual thermosensitive hydrogels. These findings may be useful in the design and construction of novel protein hydrogels with tunable multiple thermosensitivity for applications in the future.

  17. Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Tubuliform Spidroin 1 Contributes to Extensibility in Synthetic Fibers

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    Gnesa, Eric; Hsia, Yang; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Weber, Warner; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff; Tang, Simon; Agari, Kimiko; Vierra, Craig (AZU); (Pacific)

    2012-05-24

    Spider silk is renowned for its extraordinary mechanical properties, having a balance of high tensile strength and extensibility. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the production of dragline silks from synthetic spider silk gene products. Here we report the first mechanical analysis of synthetic egg case silk fibers spun from the Latrodectus hesperus tubuliform silk proteins, TuSp1 and ECP-2. We provide evidence that recombinant ECP-2 proteins can be spun into fibers that display mechanical properties similar to other synthetic spider silks. We also demonstrate that silks spun from recombinant thioredoxin-TuSp1 fusion proteins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain exhibit increased extensibility and toughness when compared to the identical fibers spun from fusion proteins lacking the C-terminus. Mechanical analyses reveal that the properties of synthetic tubuliform silks can be modulated by altering the postspin draw ratios of the fibers. Fibers subject to increased draw ratios showed elevated tensile strength and decreased extensibility but maintained constant toughness. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicate that postdrawn fibers containing the C-terminal domain of TuSp1 have more amorphous content when compared to fibers lacking the C-terminus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that recombinant tubuliform spidroins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain with embedded protein tags can be effectively spun into fibers, resulting in similar tensile strength but increased extensibility relative to nontagged recombinant dragline silk proteins spun from equivalently sized proteins.

  18. Mouse Noxa uses only the C-terminal BH3-domain to inactivate Mcl-1.

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    Weber, Arnim; Ausländer, David; Häcker, Georg

    2013-09-01

    Noxa is a member of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only group of Bcl-2 proteins that is known to bind specifically to anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 and A1, antagonizing their function. Mcl-1 has been reported to have a short half-life, and Noxa up-regulation accelerates Mcl-1 degradation by the proteasome. Unlike human Noxa, mouse Noxa has two BH3-domains, which both have affinity for Mcl-1. We here investigate two aspects of the molecular function of Noxa, namely the requirements for the two BH3-domains in mouse Noxa and the role of Noxa in Mcl-1-degradation. We found that only the C-terminal BH3-domain of mouse Noxa is active in neutralizing Mcl-1. This was the result of the targeting of Noxa to the outer mitochondrial membrane through its C-terminal alpha-helix, which allowed Mcl-1-neutralization only when the BH3-domain was immediately N-terminal of the membrane anchor. However, the N-terminal BH3-domain enhanced interaction with Mcl-1 and A1. The Noxa-dependent degradation of Mcl-1 was independent of the kinase GSK3 and the deubiquitinase Usp9x in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These data show that Noxa is targeted to the mitochondrial membrane where it neutralises Mcl-1 via its C-terminal BH3-domain and suggest that Noxa is co-degraded with Noxa, in a way independent of ubiquitin-modifying enzymes described for Mcl-1.

  19. BS69/ZMYND11 C-Terminal Domains Bind and Inhibit EBNA2.

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    Matthew R Harter

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2 plays an important role in driving immortalization of EBV-infected B cells through regulating the expression of many viral and cellular genes. We report a structural study of the tumor suppressor BS69/ZMYND11 C-terminal region, comprised of tandem coiled-coil-MYND domains (BS69CC-MYND, in complex with an EBNA2 peptide containing a PXLXP motif. The coiled-coil domain of BS69 self-associates to bring two separate MYND domains in close proximity, thereby enhancing the BS69 MYND-EBNA2 interaction. ITC analysis of BS69CC-MYND with a C-terminal fragment of EBNA2 further suggests that the BS69CC-MYND homodimer synergistically binds to the two EBNA2 PXLXP motifs that are respectively located in the conserved regions CR7 and CR8. Furthermore, we showed that EBNA2 interacts with BS69 and down-regulates its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in EBV-infected B cells. Ectopic BS69CC-MYND is recruited to viral target promoters through interactions with EBNA2, inhibits EBNA2-mediated transcription activation, and impairs proliferation of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Substitution of critical residues in the MYND domain impairs the BS69-EBNA2 interaction and abolishes the BS69 inhibition of the EBNA2-mediated transactivation and LCL proliferation. This study identifies the BS69 C-terminal domains as an inhibitor of EBNA2, which may have important implications in development of novel therapeutic strategies against EBV infection.

  20. A C-terminal membrane association domain of phototropin 2 is necessary for chloroplast movement.

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    Kong, Sam-Geun; Kagawa, Takatoshi; Wada, Masamitsu; Nagatani, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), plant-specific blue light receptor kinases, mediate a range of physiological responses in Arabidopsis, including phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movement, stomatal opening and leaf flattening. Phototropins consist of two photoreceptive domains at their N-terminus, LOV1 (light, oxygen or voltage 1) and LOV2, and a serine/threonine kinase domain at their C-terminus. Here, we determined the molecular moiety for the membrane association of phototropins using the yeast CytoTrap and Arabidopsis protoplast systems. We then examined the physiological significance of the membrane association of phototropins. This detailed study with serial deletions narrowed down the association domain to a relatively small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropin. The functional analysis of phot2 deletion mutants in the phot2-deficient Adiantum and Arabidopsis mutants revealed that the ability to mediate the chloroplast avoidance response correlated well with phot2's membrane association, especially with the Golgi apparatus. Taken together, our data suggest that a small part of the C-terminal domain of phototropins is necessary not only for membrane association but also for the physiological activities that elicit phototropin-specific responses.

  1. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Guillermo Salgado-Moran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residues ASH1051, ASN740, ASP1052, and ARG1055 should be critical in the binding of Ethambutol to C-terminal domain EmbC.

  2. Crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of the Salmonella type III secretion system export apparatus protein InvA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Liam J; Vuckovic, Marija; Strynadka, Natalie C J

    2010-05-01

    InvA is a prominent inner-membrane component of the Salmonella type III secretion system (T3SS) apparatus, which is responsible for regulating virulence protein export in pathogenic bacteria. InvA is made up of an N-terminal integral membrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain that is proposed to form part of a docking platform for the soluble export apparatus proteins notably the T3SS ATPase InvC. Here, we report the novel crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Salmonella InvA which shows a compact structure composed of four subdomains. The overall structure is unique although the first and second subdomains exhibit structural similarity to the peripheral stalk of the A/V-type ATPase and a ring building motif found in other T3SS proteins respectively.

  3. p53 Requires an Intact C-Terminal Domain for DNA Binding and Transactivation

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a critical role in mediating cellular response to a wide range of environmental stresses. p53 regulates these processes mainly by acting as a short-lived DNA binding protein that stimulates transcription from numerous genes involved in cell cycle arrest, programmed cell death, and other processes. To investigate the importance of C-terminal domain of p53, we generated a series of deletion and point mutations in this region and analyzed their effects on p53 trans...

  4. Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: functional characterization of the N- and C-terminal domains of human NFU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yushi; Qi, Wenbin; Cowan, J A

    2009-02-10

    Human NFU (also known as HIRIP5) has been implicated in cellular iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis. Bacterial and yeast forms are smaller than the human protein and are homologous to the C-terminal domain of the latter. This C-terminal domain contains a pair of redox active cysteines and demonstrates thioredoxin-like activity by mediating persulfide bond cleavage of sulfur-loaded NifS (an IscS-type protein), the sulfide donor for [2Fe-2S] cluster assembly on ISU-type scaffold proteins. Herein, the affinity of full-length human NFU and the individual N- and C-terminal domains for sulfide donor and cluster scaffold proteins is assessed. The influence of the N-terminal domain on C-terminal NFU binding to NifS and persulfide reductase activity is also examined. Only the C-terminal domain is required for persulfide reductase activity, while complex formation of NifS with full-length NFU is similar to that of the C-terminal domain alone (K(D) approximately 9.7 +/- 0.7 and 10.1 +/- 0.6 microM, respectively). There is negligible affinity between the isolated C- and N-terminal domains, while the N-terminal domain has negligible affinity for either sulfide donor or cluster scaffold proteins. The temperature dependence of the binding enthalpy for formation of the complex between NifS and the C-terminal domain of NFU yields a change in molar heat capacity (DeltaC(p) approximately 138 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) that suggests bonding at the protein-protein interface is dominated by electrostatic interactions. This is consistent with electrostatic potential maps for bacterial homologues of the N- and C-terminal domains of human NFU, which most likely reflect the structural characteristics expected for full-length human NFU.

  5. Structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Yong; Hakoshima, Toshio; Kitano, Ken

    2013-11-21

    Bloom syndrome is a rare genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and cancer predisposition. The disease is caused by mutations of the Bloom syndrome protein (BLM). Here we report the crystal structure of a RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain from human BLM. The structure reveals three novel features of BLM RQC which distinguish it from the previous structures of the Werner syndrome protein (WRN) and RECQ1. First, BLM RQC lacks an aromatic residue at the tip of the β-wing, a key element of the RecQ-family helicases used for DNA-strand separation. Second, a BLM-specific insertion between the N-terminal helices exhibits a looping-out structure that extends at right angles to the β-wing. Deletion mutagenesis of this insertion interfered with binding to Holliday junction. Third, the C-terminal region of BLM RQC adopts an extended structure running along the domain surface, which may facilitate the spatial positioning of an HRDC domain in the full-length protein.

  6. Conserved C-terminal nascent peptide binding domain of HYPK facilitates its chaperone-like activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swasti Raychaudhuri; Rachana Banerjee; Subhasish Mukhopadhyay; Nitai P Bhattacharyya

    2014-09-01

    Human HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast-two-hybrid Protein K) is an intrinsically unstructured chaperone-like protein with no sequence homology to known chaperones. HYPK is also known to be a part of ribosome-associated protein complex and present in polysomes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the evolutionary influence on HYPK primary structure and its impact on the protein’s function. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed 105 orthologs of human HYPK from plants, lower invertebrates to mammals. C-terminal part of HYPK was found to be particularly conserved and to contain nascent polypeptide-associated alpha subunit (NPAA) domain. This region experiences highest selection pressure, signifying its importance in the structural and functional evolution. NPAA domain of human HYPK has unique amino acid composition preferring glutamic acid and happens to be more stable from a conformational point of view having higher content of -helices than the rest. Cell biology studies indicate that overexpressed C-terminal human HYPK can interact with nascent proteins, co-localizes with huntingtin, increases cell viability and decreases caspase activities in Huntington’s disease (HD) cell culture model. This domain is found to be required for the chaperone-like activity of HYPK in vivo. Our study suggested that by virtue of its flexibility and nascent peptide binding activity, HYPK may play an important role in assisting protein (re)folding.

  7. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Salgado-Moran; Rodrigo Ramirez-Tagle; Daniel Glossman-Mitnik; Samuel Ruiz-Nieto; Pran Kishore-Deb; Marta Bunster; Francisco Lobos-Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residu...

  8. Molecular architecture of the nucleoprotein C-terminal domain from the Ebola and Marburg viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laura E; Ellena, Jeffrey F; Handing, Katarzyna B; Derewenda, Urszula; Utepbergenov, Darkhan; Engel, Daniel A; Derewenda, Zygmunt S

    2016-01-01

    The Filoviridae family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses is comprised of two species of Marburgvirus (MARV and RAVV) and five species of Ebolavirus, i.e. Zaire (EBOV), Reston (RESTV), Sudan (SUDV), Taï Forest (TAFV) and Bundibugyo (BDBV). In each of these viruses the ssRNA encodes seven distinct proteins. One of them, the nucleoprotein (NP), is the most abundant viral protein in the infected cell and within the viral nucleocapsid. It is tightly associated with the viral RNA in the nucleocapsid, and during the lifecycle of the virus is essential for transcription, RNA replication, genome packaging and nucleocapsid assembly prior to membrane encapsulation. The structure of the unique C-terminal globular domain of the NP from EBOV has recently been determined and shown to be structurally unrelated to any other known protein [Dziubańska et al. (2014), Acta Cryst. D70, 2420-2429]. In this paper, a study of the C-terminal domains from the NP from the remaining four species of Ebolavirus, as well as from the MARV strain of Marburgvirus, is reported. As expected, the crystal structures of the BDBV and TAFV proteins show high structural similarity to that from EBOV, while the MARV protein behaves like a molten globule with a core residual structure that is significantly different from that of the EBOV protein.

  9. Solution structure of the RecQ C-terminal domain of human Bloom syndrome protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chin-Ju; Ko, Junsang; Ryu, Kyoung-Seok; Choi, Byong-Seok

    2014-02-01

    RecQ C-terminal (RQC) domain is known as the main DNA binding module of RecQ helicases such as Bloom syndrome protein (BLM) and Werner syndrome protein (WRN) that recognizes various DNA structures. Even though BLM is able to resolve various DNA structures similarly to WRN, BLM has different binding preferences for DNA substrates from WRN. In this study, we determined the solution structure of the RQC domain of human BLM. The structure shares the common winged-helix motif with other RQC domains. However, half of the N-terminal has unstructured regions (α1-α2 loop and α3 region), and the aromatic side chain on the top of the β-hairpin, which is important for DNA duplex strand separation in other RQC domains, is substituted with a negatively charged residue (D1165) followed by the polar residue (Q1166). The structurally distinctive features of the RQC domain of human BLM suggest that the DNA binding modes of the BLM RQC domain may be different from those of other RQC domains.

  10. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yonggen; Zhao, Xinxin; Zou, Jingru; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated unicellular parasites which proliferate extracellularly in the mammalian host blood-stream and tissue spaces. They evade the hosts' antibody-mediated lyses by sequentially changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be divided into N- and C-terminal domains, based on cysteine distribution and sequence homology. N-terminal domain, the basis of antigenic variation, is hypervariable and contains all the exposed epitopes; C-terminal domain is relatively conserved and a full set of four or eight cysteines were generally observed. We cloned two genes from two distinct variants of T. evansi, utilizing RT-PCR with VSG-specific primers. One contained a VSG type A N-terminal domain followed a C-terminal domain lacking cysteine residues. To confirm that this gene is expressed as a functional VSG, the expression and localization of the corresponding gene product were characterized using Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining of living trypanosomes. Expression analysis showed that this protein was highly expressed, variant-specific, and had a ubiquitous cellular surface localization. All these results indicated that it was expressed as a functional VSG. Our finding showed that cysteine residues in VSG C-terminal domain were not essential; the conserved C-terminal domain generally in T. brucei like VSGs would possibly evolve for regulating the VSG expression.

  11. The effect of C-terminal helix on the stability of FF domain studied by molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liling; Cao, Zanxia; Wang, Jihua

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of C-terminal helix on the stability of the FF domain, we studied the native domain FF3-71 from human HYPA/FBP11 and the truncated version FF3-60 with C-terminal helix being deleted by molecular dynamics simulations with GROMACS package and GROMOS 43A1 force field. The results indicated that the structures of truncated version FF3-60 were evident different from those of native partner FF3-71. Compared with FF3-71, the FF3-60 lost some native contacts and exhibited some similar structural characters to those of intermediate state. The C-terminal helix played a major role in stabilizing the FF3-71 domain. To a certain degree, the FF domain had a tendency to form an intermediate state without the C-terminal helix. In our knowledge, this was the first study to examine the role of C-terminal helix of FF domain in detail by molecular dynamics simulations, which was useful to understand the three-state folding mechanism of the small FF domain.

  12. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eEnz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g. night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson´s disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors´ C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners.

  13. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction of mGluRs and interacting proteins may lead to impaired signal transduction and finally result in neurological disorders, e.g., night blindness, addiction, epilepsy, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and Parkinson's disease. In contrast to solved crystal structures of extracellular N-terminal domains of some mGluR types, only a few studies analyzed the conformation of intracellular receptor domains. Intracellular C-termini of most mGluR types are subject to alternative splicing and can be further modified by phosphorylation and SUMOylation. In this way, diverse interaction sites for intracellular proteins that bind to and regulate the glutamate receptors are generated. Indeed, most of the known mGluR binding partners interact with the receptors' C-terminal domains. Within the last years, different laboratories analyzed the structure of these domains and described the geometry of the contact surface between mGluR C-termini and interacting proteins. Here, I will review recent progress in the structure characterization of mGluR C-termini and provide an up-to-date summary of the geometry of these domains in contact with binding partners.

  14. Structural basis for the recognition of RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain by CREPT and p15RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Kunrong; Jin, Zhe; Ren, Fangli; Wang, Yinying; Chang, Zhijie; Wang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    CREPT and p15RS are two recently identified homologous proteins that regulate cell proliferation in an opposite way and are closely related to human cancer development. Both CREPT and p15RS consist of an N-terminal RPR domain and a C-terminal domain with high sequence homology. The transcription enhancement by CREPT is attributed to its interaction with RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Here we provide biochemical and structural evidence to support and extend this molecular mechanism. Through fluorescence polarization analysis, we show that the RPR domains of CREPT and p15RS (CREPT-RPR and p15RS-RPR) bind to different Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphoisoforms with similar affinity and specificity. We also determined the crystal structure of p15RS-RPR. Sequence and structural comparisons with RPR domain of Rtt103, a homolog of CREPT and p15RS in yeast, reveal structural basis for the similar binding profile of CREPT-RPR and p15RS-RPR with Pol II CTD. We also determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of CREPT (CREPT-CTD), which is a long rod-like dimer and each monomer adopts a coiled-coil structure. We propose that dimerization through the C-terminal domain enhances the binding strength between CREPT or p15RS with Pol II by increasing binding avidity. Our results collectively reveal the respective roles of N-terminal RPR domain and C-terminal domain of CREPT and p15RS in recognizing RNA Pol II.

  15. Phage Endolysin: A Way To Understand A Binding Function Of C-Terminal Domains A Mini Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jarábková Veronika; Tišáková Lenka; Godány Andrej

    2015-01-01

    Endolysins are bacteriophage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases, which are synthesized in the end of phage reproduction cycle, in an infected host cell. Usually, for endolysins from phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria, a modular structure is typical. Therefore, these are composed of at least two separate functional domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain (EAD) and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD). Specific ligand recognition of CBDs and following peptidoglycan (PG) binding most...

  16. Mutant mice lacking the p53 C-terminal domain model telomere syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Iva; Jaber, Sara; Draskovic, Irena; Bardot, Boris; Fang, Ming; Bouarich-Bourimi, Rachida; Lejour, Vincent; Charbonnier, Laure; Soudais, Claire; Bourdon, Jean-Christophe; Huerre, Michel; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Toledo, Franck

    2013-06-27

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53Δ31, a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis, hallmarks of syndromes caused by short telomeres. Indeed, p53Δ31/Δ31 mice had short telomeres and other phenotypic traits associated with the telomere disease dyskeratosis congenita and its severe variant the Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. Heterozygous p53+/Δ31 mice were only mildly affected, but decreased levels of Mdm4, a negative regulator of p53, led to a dramatic aggravation of their symptoms. Importantly, several genes involved in telomere metabolism were downregulated in p53Δ31/Δ31 cells, including Dyskerin, Rtel1, and Tinf2, which are mutated in dyskeratosis congenita, and Terf1, which is implicated in aplastic anemia. Together, these data reveal that a truncating mutation can activate p53 and that p53 plays a major role in the regulation of telomere metabolism.

  17. Structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1, a corepressor of transcription in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, E R; Redd, M J; Johnson, A D; Wolberger, C

    2000-06-15

    The Tup1-Ssn6 corepressor complex regulates the expression of several sets of genes, including genes that specify mating type in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Repression of mating-type genes occurs when Tup1-Ssn6 is brought to the DNA by the Matalpha2 DNA-binding protein and assembled upstream of a- and haploid-specific genes. We have determined the 2.3 A X-ray crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of Tup1 (accesion No. 1ERJ), a 43 kDa fragment that contains seven copies of the WD40 sequence motif and binds to the Matalpha2 protein. Moreover, this portion of the protein can partially substitute for full-length Tup1 in bringing about transcriptional repression. The structure reveals a seven-bladed beta propeller with an N-terminal subdomain that is anchored to the side of the propeller and extends the beta sheet of one of the blades. Point mutations in Tup1 that specifically affect the Tup1-Matalpha2 interaction cluster on one surface of the propeller. We identified regions of Tup1 that are conserved among the fungal Tup1 homologs and may be important in protein-protein interactions with additional components of the Tup1-mediated repression pathways.

  18. NMR assignments of SPOC domain of the human transcriptional corepressor SHARP in complex with a C-terminal SMRT peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Suzuka; Kanaba, Teppei; Ito, Yutaka; Mishima, Masaki

    2013-10-01

    The transcriptional corepressor SMRT/HDAC1-associated repressor protein (SHARP) recruits histone deacetylases. Human SHARP protein is thought to function in processes involving steroid hormone responses and the Notch signaling pathway. SHARP consists of RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) in the N-terminal region and the spen paralog and ortholog C-terminal (SPOC) domain in the C-terminal region. It is known that the SPOC domain binds the LSD motif in the C-terminal tail of corepressors silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptor (SMRT)/nuclear receptor corepressor (NcoR). We are interested in delineating the mechanism by which the SPOC domain recognizes the LSD motif of the C-terminal tail of SMRT/NcoR. To this end, we are investigating the tertiary structure of the SPOC/SMRT peptide using NMR. Herein, we report on the (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments of the SPOC domain in complex with a SMRT peptide, which contributes towards a structural understanding of the SPOC/SMRT peptide and its molecular recognition.

  19. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Häfner, Sabine; Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Gührs, Karl-Heinz; Görlach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical ‘wings’ of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short α-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short α-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first α-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  20. Solution structure and tandem DNA recognition of the C-terminal effector domain of PmrA from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Yuan-Chao; Wang, Iren; Rajasekaran, M.; Kao, Yi-Fen; Ho, Meng-Ru; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Chou, Shan-Ho; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Chen, Chinpan

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae PmrA is a polymyxin-resistance-associated response regulator. The C-terminal effector/DNA-binding domain of PmrA (PmrAC) recognizes tandem imperfect repeat sequences on the promoters of genes to induce antimicrobial peptide resistance after phosphorylation and dimerization of its N-terminal receiver domain (PmrAN). However, structural information concerning how phosphorylation of the response regulator enhances DNA recognition remains elusive. To gain insights, we determ...

  1. N-Terminal Domains in Two-Domain Proteins Are Biased to Be Shorter and Predicted to Fold Faster Than Their C-Terminal Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etai Jacob

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational analysis of proteomes in all kingdoms of life reveals a strong tendency for N-terminal domains in two-domain proteins to have shorter sequences than their neighboring C-terminal domains. Given that folding rates are affected by chain length, we asked whether the tendency for N-terminal domains to be shorter than their neighboring C-terminal domains reflects selection for faster-folding N-terminal domains. Calculations of absolute contact order, another predictor of folding rate, provide additional evidence that N-terminal domains tend to fold faster than their neighboring C-terminal domains. A possible explanation for this bias, which is more pronounced in prokaryotes than in eukaryotes, is that faster folding of N-terminal domains reduces the risk for protein aggregation during folding by preventing formation of nonnative interdomain interactions. This explanation is supported by our finding that two-domain proteins with a shorter N-terminal domain are much more abundant than those with a shorter C-terminal domain.

  2. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of Splicing Factor Prp8 Carrying Retinitis Pigmentosa Mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang,L.; Shen, J.; Guarnieri, M.; Heroux, A.; Yang, K.; Zhao, R.

    2007-01-01

    Prp8 is a critical pre-mRNA splicing factor. Prp8 is proposed to help form and stabilize the spliceosome catalytic core and to be an important regulator of spliceosome activation. Mutations in human Prp8 (hPrp8) cause a severe form of the genetic disorder retinitis pigmentosa, RP13. Understanding the molecular mechanism of Prp8's function in pre-mRNA splicing and RP13 has been hindered by its large size (over 2000 amino acids) and remarkably low-sequence similarity with other proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (the last 273 residues) of Caenorhabditis elegans Prp8 (cPrp8). The core of the C-terminal domain is an / structure that forms the MPN (Mpr1, Pad1 N-terminal) fold but without Zn{sup 2+} coordination. We propose that the C-terminal domain is a protein interaction domain instead of a Zn{sup 2+}-dependent metalloenzyme as proposed for some MPN proteins. Mapping of RP13 mutants on the Prp8 structure suggests that these residues constitute a binding surface between Prp8 and other partner(s), and the disruption of this interaction provides a plausible molecular mechanism for RP13.

  3. Solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of skeletal troponin C. Cation, trifluoperazine and troponin I binding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabikowski, W; Dalgarno, D C; Levine, B A; Gergely, J; Grabarek, Z; Leavis, P C

    1985-08-15

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the cation (Mg2+, Ca2+)-dependent conformational states of the C-terminal domain of rabbit skeletal troponin C under a variety of solution conditions. Nuclear Overhauser data and paramagnetic probe observations provide definition of the configuration of this region of troponin C. Comparative study of homologous proteins identify common features of the tertiary structure relevant to the cation binding reaction. Complex formation with troponin I and the drug trifluoperazine is observed to adjust the solution conformation of the C-terminal domain of troponin C. The interactive conformational response to cation coordination and the binding of the drug and troponin I are discussed.

  4. Generation of H9 T-cells stably expressing a membrane-bound form of the cytoplasmic tail of the Env-glycoprotein: lack of transcomplementation of defective HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Valerie

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract H9-T-cells do not support the replication of mutant HIV-1 encoding Env protein lacking its long cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Env-CT. Here we describe the generation of a H9-T-cell population constitutively expressing the HIV-1 Env-CT protein domain anchored in the cellular membrane by it homologous membrane-spanning domain (TMD. We confirmed that the Env-TMD-CT protein was associated with cellular membranes, that its expression did not have any obvious cytotoxic effects on the cells and that it did not affect wild-type HIV-1 replication. However, as measured in both a single-round assay as well as in spreading infections, replication competence of mutant pNL-Tr712, lacking the Env-CT, was not restored in this H9 T-cell population. This means that the Env-CT per se cannot transcomplement the replication block of HIV-1 virions encoding C-terminally truncated Env proteins and suggests that the Env-CT likely exerts its function only in the context of the complete Env protein.

  5. Bacillus subtilis GlnR contains an autoinhibitory C-terminal domain required for the interaction with glutamine synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Lewis V; Fisher, Susan H

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis GlnR transcription factor regulates gene expression in response to changes in nitrogen availability. Glutamine synthetase transmits the nitrogen regulatory signal to GlnR. The DNA-binding activity of GlnR is activated by a transient protein-protein interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase that stabilizes GlnR-DNA complexes. This signal transduction mechanism was analysed by creating mutant GlnR proteins with partial or complete truncations of their C-terminal domains. The truncated GlnR proteins were found to constitutively repress gene expression in vivo. This constitutive repression did not require glutamine synthetase. Purified mutant GlnR proteins bound DNA in vitro more tightly than wild-type GlnR protein and this binding was not activated by feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. While full-length GlnR is monomeric, the truncated GlnR proteins contained significant levels of dimers. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of GlnR acts as an autoinhibitory domain that prevents GlnR dimerization and thus impedes DNA binding. The GlnR C-terminal domain is also required for the interaction between GlnR and feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase. Compared with the full-length GlnR protein, the truncated GlnR proteins were defective in their interaction with feedback-inhibited glutamine synthetase in cross-linking experiments.

  6. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  7. Mode of inhibition of HIV-1 Integrase by a C-terminal domain-specific monoclonal antibody*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel George

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To further our understanding of the structure and function of HIV-1 integrase (IN we developed and characterized a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed against this protein. One of these antibodies, mAb33, which is specific for the C-terminal domain, was found to inhibit HIV-1 IN processing activity in vitro; a corresponding Fv fragment was able to inhibit HIV-1 integration in vivo. Our subsequent studies, using heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified six solvent accessible residues on the surface of the C-terminal domain that were immobilized upon binding of the antibody, which were proposed to comprise the epitope. Here we test this hypothesis by measuring the affinity of mAb33 to HIV-1 proteins that contain Ala substitutions in each of these positions. To gain additional insight into the mode of inhibition we also measured the DNA binding capacity and enzymatic activities of the Ala substituted proteins. Results We found that Ala substitution of any one of five of the putative epitope residues, F223, R224, Y226, I267, and I268, caused a decrease in the affinity of the mAb33 for HIV-1 IN, confirming the prediction from NMR data. Although IN derivatives with Ala substitutions in or near the mAb33 epitope exhibited decreased enzymatic activity, none of the epitope substitutions compromised DNA binding to full length HIV-1 IN, as measured by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Two of these derivatives, IN (I276A and IN (I267A/I268A, exhibited both increased DNA binding affinity and uncharacteristic dissociation kinetics; these proteins also exhibited non-specific nuclease activity. Results from these investigations are discussed in the context of current models for how the C-terminal domain interacts with substrate DNA. Conclusion It is unlikely that inhibition of HIV-1 IN activity by mAb33 is caused by direct interaction with residues that are essential for substrate binding. Rather

  8. Downstream signaling mechanism of the C-terminal activation domain of transcriptional coactivator CoCoA

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong Hoon; Yang, Catherine K.; Stallcup, Michael R

    2006-01-01

    The coiled-coil coactivator (CoCoA) is a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and enhances nuclear receptor function by the interaction with the bHLH-PAS domain (AD3) of p160 coactivators. The C-terminal activation domain (AD) of CoCoA possesses strong transactivation activity and is required for the coactivator function of CoCoA with nuclear receptors. To understand how CoCoA AD transmits its activating signal to the transcription machinery, we defined specific subregions, amino...

  9. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  10. Chaperone-like effect of the linker on the isolated C-terminal domain of rabbit muscle creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Chen, Xiang-Jun; Xia, Mengdie; He, Hua-Wei; Wang, Sha; Liu, Huihui; Gong, Haipeng; Yan, Yong-Bin

    2012-08-01

    Intramolecular chaperones (IMCs), which are specific domains/segments encoded in the primary structure of proteins, exhibit chaperone-like activity against the aggregation of the other domains in the same molecule. In this research, we found that the truncation of the linker greatly promoted the thermal aggregation of the isolated C-terminal domain (CTD) of rabbit muscle creatine kinase (RMCK). Either the existence of the linker covalently linked to CTD or the supply of the synthetic linker peptide additionally could successfully protect the CTD of RMCK against aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. Truncated fragments of the linker also behaved as a chaperone-like effect with lower efficiency, revealing the importance of its C-terminal half in the IMC function of the linker. The aggregation sites in the CTD of RMCK were identified by molecular dynamics simulations. Mutational analysis of the three key hydrophobic residues resulted in opposing effects on the thermal aggregation between the CTD with intact or partial linker, confirming the role of linker as a lid to protect the hydrophobic residues against exposure to solvent. These observations suggested that the linkers in multidomain proteins could act as IMCs to facilitate the correct folding of the aggregation-prone domains. Furthermore, the intactness of the IMC linker after proteolysis modulates the production of off-pathway aggregates, which may be important to the onset of some diseases caused by the toxic effects of aggregated proteolytic fragments.

  11. Phage Endolysin: A Way To Understand A Binding Function Of C-Terminal Domains A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarábková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endolysins are bacteriophage-encoded peptidoglycan hydrolases, which are synthesized in the end of phage reproduction cycle, in an infected host cell. Usually, for endolysins from phages that infect Gram-positive bacteria, a modular structure is typical. Therefore, these are composed of at least two separate functional domains: an N-terminal catalytic domain (EAD and a C-terminal cell wall binding domain (CBD. Specific ligand recognition of CBDs and following peptidoglycan (PG binding mostly allows a rapid lytic activity of an EAD. Here we briefly characterize phage endolysin CBDs in conjuction with their domain architecture, (nonnecessity for the following lytic activity and a high/low specificity of their ligands as well. Such an overall assessment of CBDs may help to find new ways to widen opportunities in their protein design to create ‛designer recombinant endolysins’ with diverse applications.

  12. Mutational analysis of the C-terminal domain of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides response regulator PrrA

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Denise F.; Stenzel, Rachelle A.; Donohue, Timothy J.

    2005-01-01

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides response regulator PrrA directly activates transcription of genes necessary for energy conservation at low O2 tensions and under anaerobic conditions. It is proposed that PrrA homologues contain a C-terminal DNA-binding domain (PrrA-CTD) that lacks significant amino acid sequence similarity to those found in other response regulators. To test this hypothesis, single amino acid substitutions were created at 12 residues in the PrrA-CTD. These mutant PrrA proteins wer...

  13. Membrane binding properties of EBV gp110 C-terminal domain; evidences for structural transition in the membrane environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Jean; Seo, Min-Duk; Lee, Suk Kyeong; Lee, Bong Jin

    2008-09-30

    Gp110 of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mainly localizes on nuclear/ER membranes and plays a role in the assembly of EBV nucleocapsid. The C-terminal tail domain (gp110 CTD) is essential for the function of gp110 and the nuclear/ER membranes localization of gp110 is ruled by its C-terminal unique nuclear localization signal (NLS), consecutive four arginines. In the present study, the structural properties of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics were investigated using CD, size-exclusion chromatography, and NMR, to elucidate the effect of membrane environment on the structural transition and to compare the structural feature of the protein in the solution state with that of the membrane-bound form. CD and NMR analysis showed that gp110 CTD in a buffer solution appears to adopt a stable folding intermediate which lacks compactness, and a highly helical structure is formed only in membrane environments. The helical content of gp110 CTD was significantly affected by the negative charge as well as the size of membrane mimics. Based on the elution profiles of the size-exclusion chromatography, we found that gp110 CTD intrinsically forms a trimer, revealing that a trimerization region may exist in the C-terminal domain of gp110 like the ectodomain of gp110. The mutation of NLS (RRRR) to RTTR does not affect the overall structure of gp110 CTD in membrane mimics, while the helical propensity in a buffer solution was slightly different between the wild-type and the mutant proteins. This result suggests that not only the helicity induced in membrane environment but also the local structure around NLS may be related to trafficking to the nuclear membrane. More detailed structural difference between the wild-type and the mutant in membrane environment was examined using synthetic two peptides including the wild-type NLS and the mutant NLS.

  14. C-terminal domain of hepatitis C virus core protein is essential for secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soo-Ho Choi; Kyu-Jin Park; So-Yeon Kim; Dong-Hwa Choi; Jung-Min Park; Soon B. Hwang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: We have previously demonstrated that hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is efficiently released into the culture medium in insect cells. The objective of this study is to characterize the HCV core secretion in insect cells.METHODS: We constructed recombinant baculoviruses expressing various-length of mutant core proteins, expressed these proteins in insect cells, and examined core protein secretion in insect cells.RESULTS: Only wild type core was efficiently released into the culture medium, although the protein expression level of wild type core was lower than those of other mutant core proteins. We found that the shorter form of the core construct expressed the higher level of protein. However, if more than 18 amino acids of the core were truncated at the C-terminus,core proteins were no longer seareted into the culture medium.Membrane flotation data show that the secreted core proteins are associated with the cellular membrane protein, indicating that HCV core is secreted as a membrane complex.CONCLUSION: The C-terminal 18 amino acids of HCV core were crucial for core secretion into the culture media.Since HCV replication occurs on lipid raft membrane structure,these results suggest that HCV may utilize a unique core release mechanism to escape immune surveillance, thereby potentially representing the feature of HCV morphogenesis.

  15. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca2+-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain

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    Anja eScharinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+-channel function is regulated by a C-terminal automodulatory domain (CTM. It affects channel binding of calmodulin and thereby tunes channel activity by interfering with Ca2+- and voltage-dependent gating. Alternative splicing generates short C-terminal channel variants lacking the CTM resulting in enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation and stronger voltage-sensitivity upon heterologous expression. However, the role of this modulatory domain for channel function in its native environment is unkown. To determine its functional significance in vivo, we interrupted the CTM with a hemagglutinin tag in mutant mice (Cav1.3DCRDHA/HA. Using these mice we provide biochemical evidence for the existence of long (CTM-containing and short (CTM-deficient Cav1.3 α1-subunits in brain. The long (HA-labeled Cav1.3 isoform was present in all ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells. CTM-elimination impaired Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+-currents in hair cells but increased it in chromaffin cells, resulting in hyperpolarized resting potentials and reduced pacemaking. CTM disruption did not affect hearing thresholds. We show that the modulatory function of the CTM is affected by its native environment in different cells and thus occurs in a cell-type specific manner in vivo. It is required to stabilize gating properties of Cav1.3 channels required for normal electrical excitability.

  16. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serek, Robert; Forwood, Jade K. [School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Hume, David A. [School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Chronic Inflammatory Diseases, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Martin, Jennifer L.; Kobe, Bostjan, E-mail: b.kobe@uq.edu.au [School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2006-02-01

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination.

  17. The C-Terminal Domain of Yeast PCNA Is Required for Physical And Functional Interactions With Cdc9 DNA Ligase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, S.; Chapados, B.R.; Schmidt, K.H.; Kolodner, R.D.; Tainer, J.A.; Tomkinson, A.E.

    2007-07-13

    There is compelling evidence that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA sliding clamp, co-ordinates the processing and joining of Okazaki fragments during eukaryotic DNA replication. However, a detailed mechanistic understanding of functional PCNA:ligase I interactions has been incomplete. Here we present the co-crystal structure of yeast PCNA with a peptide encompassing the conserved PCNA interaction motif of Cdc9, yeast DNA ligase I. The Cdc9 peptide contacts both the inter-domain connector loop (IDCL) and residues near the C-terminus of PCNA. Complementary mutational and biochemical results demonstrate that these two interaction interfaces are required for complex formation both in the absence of DNA and when PCNA is topologically linked to DNA. Similar to the functionally homologous human proteins, yeast RFC interacts with and inhibits Cdc9 DNA ligase whereas the addition of PCNA alleviates inhibition by RFC. Here we show that the ability of PCNA to overcome RFC-mediated inhibition of Cdc9 is dependent upon both the IDCL and the C-terminal interaction interfaces of PCNA. Together these results demonstrate the functional significance of the {beta}-zipper structure formed between the C-terminal domain of PCNA and Cdc9 and reveal differences in the interactions of FEN-1 and Cdc9 with the two PCNA interfaces that may contribute to the coordinated, sequential action of these enzymes.

  18. Intracellular Cleavage of the Cx43 C-Terminal Domain by Matrix-Metalloproteases: A Novel Contributor to Inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke De Bock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs that enable direct cell-cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexin (Cx proteins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms nonjunctional hemichannels (HCs in the plasma membrane that mediate the release of paracrine signaling molecules in the extracellular environment. Both HC and GJ channel function are regulated by protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications that predominantly take place in the C-terminal domain of Cx43. Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs are a major group of zinc-dependent proteases, known to regulate not only extracellular matrix remodeling, but also processing of intracellular proteins. Together with Cx43 channels, both GJs and HCs, MMPs contribute to acute inflammation and a small number of studies reports on an MMP-Cx43 link. Here, we build further on these reports and present a novel hypothesis that describes proteolytic cleavage of the Cx43 C-terminal domain by MMPs and explores possibilities of how such cleavage events may affect Cx43 channel function. Finally, we set out how aberrant channel function resulting from cleavage can contribute to the acute inflammatory response during tissue injury.

  19. Sequences within both the N- and C-terminal domains of phytochrome A are required for PFR ubiquitination and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, R C; Jordan-Beebe, E T; Lohman, K N; Marita, J M; Walker, J M; Gatz, C; Vierstra, R D

    1999-01-01

    Photoconversion of the plant photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) from its inactive Pr form to its biologically active Pfr from initiates its rapid proteolysis. Previous kinetic and biochemical studies implicated a role for the ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway in this breakdown and suggested that multiple domains within the chromoprotein are involved. To further resolve the essential residues, we constructed a series of mutant PHY genes in vitro and analyzed the Pfr-specific degradation of the resulting photoreceptors expressed in transgenic tobacco. One important site is within the C-terminal half of the polypeptide as its removal stabilizes oat phyA as Pfr. Within this half is a set of conserved lysines that are potentially required for ubiquitin attachment. Substitution of these lysines did not prevent ubiquitination or breakdown of Pfr, suggesting either that they are not the attachment sites or that other lysines can be used in their absence. A small domain just proximal to the C-terminus is essential for the form-dependent breakdown of the holoprotein. Removal of just six amino acids in this domain generated a chromoprotein that was not rapidly degraded as Pfr. Using chimeric photoreceptors generated from potato PHYA and PHYB, we found that the N-terminal half of phyA is also required for Pfr-specific breakdown. Only those chimeras containing the N-terminal sequences from phyA were ubiquitinated and rapidly degraded as Pfr. Taken together, our data demonstrate that, whereas an intact C-terminal domain is essential for phyA degradation, the N-terminal domain is responsible for the selective recognition and ubiquitination of Pfr.

  20. The BARD1 C-Terminal Domain Structure and Interactions with Polyadenylation Factor CstF-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ross A.; Lee, Megan S.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Williams, R. Scott; Tainer, John A.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-07-13

    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF- 50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins.Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.

  1. Identification of a binding element for the cytoplasmic regulator FROUNT in the membrane-proximal C-terminal region of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Etsuko; Terashima, Yuya; Esaki, Kaori; Yoshinaga, Sosuke; Sugihara, Minoru; Kofuku, Yutaka; Shimada, Ichio; Suwa, Makiko; Kanegasaki, Shiro; Terasawa, Hiroaki; Matsushima, Kouji

    2014-01-15

    Chemokine receptors mediate the migration of leucocytes during inflammation. The cytoplasmic protein FROUNT binds to chemokine receptors CCR2 [chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2] and CCR5, and amplifies chemotactic signals in leucocytes. Although the interaction between FROUNT and chemokine receptors is important for accurate chemotaxis, the interaction mechanism has not been elucidated. In the present study we identified a 16-amino-acid sequence responsible for high-affinity binding of FROUNT at the membrane-proximal C-terminal intracellular region of CCR2 (CCR2 Pro-C) by yeast two-hybrid analysis. Synthesized peptides corresponding to the CCR2 Pro-C sequence directly interacted with FROUNT in vitro. CCR2 Pro-C was predicted to form an amphipathic helix structure. Residues on the hydrophobic side are completely conserved among FROUNT-binding receptors, suggesting that the hydrophobic side is the responsible element for FROUNT binding. The L316T mutation to the hydrophobic side of the predicted helix decreased the affinity for FROUNT. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the CCR2 L316T mutation diminished the interaction between FROUNT and full-length CCR2 in cells. Furthermore, this mutation impaired the ability of the receptor to mediate chemotaxis. These findings provide the first description of the functional binding element in helix 8 of CCR2 for the cytosolic regulator FROUNT that mediates chemotactic signalling.

  2. NFAT1 C-terminal domains are necessary but not sufficient for inducing cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas V Faget

    Full Text Available The proteins belonging to the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT family of transcription factors are expressed in several cell types and regulate genes involved in differentiation, cell cycle and apoptosis. NFAT proteins share two conserved domains, the NFAT-homology region (NHR and a DNA-binding domain (DBD. The N- and C-termini display two transactivation domains (TAD-N and TAD-C that have low sequence similarity. Due to the high sequence conservation in the NHR and DBD, NFAT members have some overlapping roles in gene regulation. However, several studies have shown distinct roles for NFAT proteins in the regulation of cell death. The TAD-C shows low sequence similarity among NFAT family members, but its contribution to specific NFAT1-induced phenotypes is poorly understood. Here, we described at least two regions of NFAT1 TAD-C that confer pro-apoptotic activity to NFAT1. These regions extend from amino acids 699 to 734 and 819 to 850 of NFAT1. We also showed that the NFAT1 TAD-C is unable to induce apoptosis by itself and requires a functional DBD. Furthermore, we showed that when fused to NFAT1 TAD-C, NFAT2, which is associated with cell transformation, induces apoptosis in fibroblasts. Together, these results suggest that the NFAT1 TAD-C includes NFAT death domains that confer to different NFAT members the ability to induce apoptosis.

  3. The C-Terminal Domain of RNA Polymerase II Is Modified by Site-Specific Methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Robert J.; Rojas, Luis Alejandro; Beck, David B.; Bonasio, Roberto; Schüller, Roland; Drury, William J.; Eick, Dirk; Reinberg, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in mammals undergoes extensive posttranslational modification, which is essential for transcriptional initiation and elongation. Here, we show that the CTD of RNAPII is methylated at a single arginine (R1810) by the coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1). Although methylation at R1810 is present on the hyperphosphorylated form of RNAPII in vivo, Ser2 or Ser5 phosphorylation inhibits CARM1 activity toward this...

  4. NMR determines transient structure and dynamics in the disordered C-terminal domain of WASp interacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Noam Y; Gross, Renana; Novacek, Jiri; Shaked, Hadassa; Zidek, Lukas; Barda-Saad, Mira; Chill, Jordan H

    2013-07-16

    WASp-interacting protein (WIP) is a 503-residue proline-rich polypeptide expressed in human T cells. The WIP C-terminal domain binds to Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and regulates its activation and degradation, and the WIP-WASp interaction has been shown to be critical for actin polymerization and implicated in the onset of WAS and X-linked thrombocytopenia. WIP is predicted to be an intrinsically disordered protein, a class of polypeptides that are of great interest because they violate the traditional structure-function paradigm. In this first (to our knowledge) study of WIP in its unbound state, we used NMR to investigate the biophysical behavior of WIP(C), a C-terminal domain fragment of WIP that includes residues 407-503 and contains the WASp-binding site. In light of the poor spectral dispersion exhibited by WIP(C) and the high occurrence (25%) of proline residues, we employed 5D-NMR(13)C-detected NMR experiments with nonuniform sampling to accomplish full resonance assignment. Secondary chemical-shift analysis, (15)N relaxation rates, and protection from solvent exchange all concurred in detecting transient structure located in motifs that span the WASp-binding site. Residues 446-456 exhibited a propensity for helical conformation, and an extended conformation followed by a short, capped helix was observed for residues 468-478. The (13)C-detected approach allows chemical-shift assignment in the WIP(C) polyproline stretches and thus sheds light on their conformation and dynamics. The effects of temperature on chemical shifts referenced to a denatured sample of the polypeptide demonstrate that heating reduces the structural character of WIP(C). Thus, we conclude that the disordered WIP(C) fragment is comprised of regions with latent structure connected by flexible loops, an architecture with implications for binding affinity and function.

  5. C-terminal domain on the outer surface of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus capsid is required for Sf9 cell binding and internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somrit, Monsicha; Watthammawut, Atthaboon; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Ounjai, Puey; Suntimanawong, Wanida; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana

    2017-01-02

    We have shown that Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV) was able to infect Sf9 cells and that MrNV virus-like particles (MrNV-VLPs) were capable nanocontainers for delivering nucleic acid-based materials. Here, we demonstrated that chymotryptic removal of a C-terminal peptide and its truncated variant (F344-MrNV-VLPs) exhibited a drastically reduced ability to interact and internalize into Sf9 cells. Electron microscopic observations revealed that the loss of C-terminal domain either from enzyme hydrolysis or genetic truncation did not affect the generated MrNV-VLPs' icosahedral conformation, but did drastically affect the VLPs' internalization ability into Sf9 cells. Homology-based modelling of the MrNV capsid with other icosahedral capsid models revealed that this chymotrypsin-sensitive C-terminal domain was not only exposed on the capsid surface, but also constituted the core of the viral capsid protrusion. These results therefore suggest the importance of the C-terminal domain as a structure for targeted cell interaction which is presumably localized at the protruding domain. This work thus provided the functional insights into the role of the MrNV C-terminal domain in viral entry into Sf9 cells and lead to the development of strategies in combatting MrNV infection in susceptible cells.

  6. The impact of the C-terminal domain on the gating properties of MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Becker, Michael; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Krämer, Reinhard; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanosensitive (MS) channel MscCG from the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum functions as a major glutamate exporter. MscCG belongs to a subfamily of the bacterial MscS-like channels, which play an important role in osmoregulation. To understand the structural and functional features of MscCG, we investigated the role of the carboxyl-terminal domain, whose relevance for the channel gating has been unknown. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG), which is a fusion protein between the carboxyl terminal domain of MscCG and the MscS channel, was examined by the patch clamp technique. We found that the chimeric channel exhibited MS channel activity in Escherichia coli spheroplasts characterized by a lower activation threshold and slow closing compared to MscS. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG) was successfully reconstituted into azolectin liposomes and exhibited gating hysteresis in a voltage-dependent manner, especially at high pipette voltages. Moreover, the channel remained open after releasing pipette pressure at membrane potentials physiologically relevant for C. glutamicum. This contribution to the gating hysteresis of the C-terminal domain of MscCG confers to the channel gating properties highly suitable for release of intracellular solutes.

  7. Detailed topology mapping reveals substantial exposure of the "cytoplasmic" C-terminal tail (CTT sequences in HIV-1 Env proteins at the cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy surrounds the membrane topology of the HIV-1 gp41 C-terminal tail (CTT. While few studies have been designed to directly address the topology of the CTT, results from envelope (Env protein trafficking studies suggest that the CTT sequence is cytoplasmically localized, as interactions with intracellular binding partners are required for proper Env targeting. However, previous studies from our lab demonstrate the exposure of a short CTT sequence, the Kennedy epitope, at the plasma membrane of intact Env-expressing cells, the exposure of which is not observed on viral particles. To address the topology of the entire CTT sequence, we serially replaced CTT sequences with a VSV-G epitope tag sequence and examined reactivity of cell- and virion-surface Env to an anti-VSV-G monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate that the majority of the CTT sequence is accessible to antibody binding on the surface of Env expressing cells, and that the CTT-exposed Env constitutes 20-50% of the cell-surface Env. Cell surface CTT exposure was also apparent in virus-infected cells. Passive transfer of Env through cell culture media to Env negative (non-transfected cells was not responsible for the apparent cell surface CTT exposure. In contrast to the cell surface results, CTT-exposed Env was not detected on infectious pseudoviral particles containing VSV-G-substituted Env. Finally, a monoclonal antibody directed to the Kennedy epitope neutralized virus in a temperature-dependent manner in a post-attachment neutralization assay. Collectively, these results suggest that the membrane topology of the HIV gp41 CTT is more complex than the widely accepted intracytoplasmic model.

  8. Structural and biophysical characterization of the cytoplasmic domains of human BAP29 and BAP31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistgaard, Esben M; Löw, Christian; Moberg, Per; Guettou, Fatma; Maddi, Karthik; Nordlund, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Two members of the B-cell associated 31 (BAP31) family are found in humans; BAP29 and BAP31. These are ubiquitously expressed receptors residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP31 functions in sorting of membrane proteins and in caspase-8 mediated apoptosis, while BAP29 appears to mainly corroborate with BAP31 in sorting. The N-terminal half of these proteins is membrane-bound while the C-terminal half is cytoplasmic. The latter include the so called variant of death effector domain (vDED), which shares weak sequence homology with DED domains. Here we present two structures of BAP31 vDED determined from a single and a twinned crystal, grown at pH 8.0 and pH 4.2, respectively. These structures show that BAP31 vDED forms a dimeric parallel coiled coil with no structural similarity to DED domains. Solution studies support this conclusion and strongly suggest that an additional α-helical domain is present in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region, probably forming a second coiled coil. The thermal stability of BAP31 vDED is quite modest at neutral pH, suggesting that it may assemble in a dynamic fashion in vivo. Surprisingly, BAP29 vDED is partially unfolded at pH 7, while a coiled coil is formed at pH 4.2 in vitro. It is however likely that folding of the domain is triggered by other factors than low pH in vivo. We found no evidence for direct interaction of the cytoplasmic domains of BAP29 and BAP31.

  9. Structural and biophysical characterization of the cytoplasmic domains of human BAP29 and BAP31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben M Quistgaard

    Full Text Available Two members of the B-cell associated 31 (BAP31 family are found in humans; BAP29 and BAP31. These are ubiquitously expressed receptors residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP31 functions in sorting of membrane proteins and in caspase-8 mediated apoptosis, while BAP29 appears to mainly corroborate with BAP31 in sorting. The N-terminal half of these proteins is membrane-bound while the C-terminal half is cytoplasmic. The latter include the so called variant of death effector domain (vDED, which shares weak sequence homology with DED domains. Here we present two structures of BAP31 vDED determined from a single and a twinned crystal, grown at pH 8.0 and pH 4.2, respectively. These structures show that BAP31 vDED forms a dimeric parallel coiled coil with no structural similarity to DED domains. Solution studies support this conclusion and strongly suggest that an additional α-helical domain is present in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region, probably forming a second coiled coil. The thermal stability of BAP31 vDED is quite modest at neutral pH, suggesting that it may assemble in a dynamic fashion in vivo. Surprisingly, BAP29 vDED is partially unfolded at pH 7, while a coiled coil is formed at pH 4.2 in vitro. It is however likely that folding of the domain is triggered by other factors than low pH in vivo. We found no evidence for direct interaction of the cytoplasmic domains of BAP29 and BAP31.

  10. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle.

  11. Cloning, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal domain of Helicobacter pylori MotB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roujeinikova, Anna, E-mail: anna.roujeinikova@manchester.ac.uk [Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain of H. pylori MotB, a stator component of the bacterial flagellar motor, are reported. The C-terminal domain of MotB (MotB-C) contains a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif and is believed to anchor the MotA/MotB stator unit of the bacterial flagellar motor to the cell wall. Crystals of Helicobacter pylori MotB-C (138 amino-acid residues) were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. These crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.8, b = 89.5, c = 66.3 Å, β = 112.5°. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 1.6 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. Self-rotation function and Matthews coefficient calculations suggest that the asymmetric unit contains one tetramer with 222 point-group symmetry. The anomalous difference Patterson maps calculated for an ytterbium-derivative crystal using diffraction data at a wavelength of 1.38 Å showed significant peaks on the v = 1/2 Harker section, suggesting that ab initio phase information could be derived from the MAD data.

  12. The retromer subunit Vps26 has an arrestin fold and binds Vps35 through its C-terminal domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hang; Rojas, Raul; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Hurley, James H.

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian retromer complex consists of SNX1, SNX2, Vps26, Vps29, and Vps35, and retrieves lysosomal enzyme receptors from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The structure of human Vps26A at 2.1Å resolution reveals two curvedβ -sandwich domains connected by a polar core and a flexible linker. Vps26 has an unexpected structural relationship to arrestins. The Vps35-binding site on Vps26 maps to a mobile loop spanning residues 235–246, near the tip of the C-terminal domain. The loop is phylogenetically conserved and provides a mechanism for Vps26 integration into the complex that leaves the rest of the structure free for engagements with membranes and for conformational changes. Hydrophobic residues and a Gly in this loop are required for integration into the retromer complex and endosomal localization of human Vps26, and for the function of yeast Vps26 in carboxypeptidase Y sorting. PMID:16732284

  13. The disordered C-terminal domain of human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 contributes to its stability via intramolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Muralidhar L; Tsutakawa, Susan E; Hegde, Pavana M; Holthauzen, Luis Marcelo F; Li, Jing; Oezguen, Numan; Hilser, Vincent J; Tainer, John A; Mitra, Sankar

    2013-07-10

    NEIL1 [Nei (endonuclease VIII)-like protein 1], one of the five mammalian DNA glycosylases that excise oxidized DNA base lesions in the human genome to initiate base excision repair, contains an intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain (CTD; ~100 residues), not conserved in its Escherichia coli prototype Nei. Although dispensable for NEIL1's lesion excision and AP lyase activities, this segment is required for efficient in vivo enzymatic activity and may provide an interaction interface for many of NEIL1's interactions with other base excision repair proteins. Here, we show that the CTD interacts with the folded domain in native NEIL1 containing 389 residues. The CTD is poised for local folding in an ordered structure that is induced in the purified fragment by osmolytes. Furthermore, deletion of the disordered tail lacking both Tyr and Trp residues causes a red shift in NEIL1's intrinsic Trp-specific fluorescence, indicating a more solvent-exposed environment for the Trp residues in the truncated protein, which also exhibits reduced stability compared to the native enzyme. These observations are consistent with stabilization of the native NEIL1 structure via intramolecular, mostly electrostatic, interactions that were disrupted by mutating a positively charged (Lys-rich) cluster of residues (amino acids 355-360) near the C-terminus. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis confirms the flexibility and dynamic nature of NEIL1's CTD, a feature that may be critical to providing specificity for NEIL1's multiple, functional interactions.

  14. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  15. Crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of oligosaccharyltransferase from Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1.75 Å resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shunsuke; Igura, Mayumi; Nyirenda, James; Matsumoto, Masaki; Yuzawa, Satoru; Noda, Nobuo; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko; Kohda, Daisuke

    2012-05-22

    Protein N-glycosylation occurs in the three domains of life. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) transfers glycan to asparagine in the N-glycosylation sequon. The catalytic subunit of OST is called STT3 in eukaryotes, AglB in archaea, and PglB in eubacteria. The genome of a hyperthermophilic archaeon, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, encodes three AglB paralogs. Two of them are the shortest AglBs across all domains of life. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal globular domain of the smallest AglB to identify the minimal structural unit. The Archaeoglobus AglB lacked a β-barrel-like structure, which had been found in other AglB and PglB structures. In agreement, the deletion in a larger Pyrococcus AglB confirmed its dispensability for the activity. By contrast, the Archaeoglobus AglB contains a kinked helix bearing a conserved motif, called DK/MI motif. The lysine and isoleucine residues in the motif participate in the Ser/Thr recognition in the sequon. The Archaeoglobus AglB structure revealed that the kinked helix contained an unexpected insertion. A revised sequence alignment based on this finding identified a variant type of the DK motif with the insertion. A mutagenesis study of the Archaeoglobus AglB confirmed the contribution of this particular type of the DK motif to the activity. When taken together with our previous results, this study defined the classification of OST: one group consisting of eukaryotes and most archaea possesses the DK-type Ser/Thr pocket, and the other group consisting of eubacteria and the remaining archaea possesses the MI-type Ser/Thr pocket. This classification provides a useful framework for OST studies.

  16. Bio-molecular architects: a scaffold provided by the C-terminal domain of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mengmeng; Gill, Gordon N; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the transcription of genes is accurately orchestrated both spatially and temporally by the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD). The CTD provides a dynamic platform to recruit different regulators of the transcription apparatus. Different posttranslational modifications are precisely applied to specific sites of the CTD to coordinate transcription process. Regulators of the RNA polymerase II must identify specific sites in the CTD for cellular survival, metabolism, and development. Even though the CTD is disordered in the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II crystal structures due to its intrinsic flexibility, recent advances in the complex structural analysis of the CTD with its binding partners provide essential clues for understanding how selectivity is achieved for individual site recognition. The recent discoveries of the interactions between the CTD and histone modification enzymes disclose an important role of the CTD in epigenetic control of the eukaryotic gene expression. The intersection of the CTD code with the histone code discloses an intriguing yet complicated network for eukaryotic transcriptional regulation.

  17. Fission yeast Cdk7 controls gene expression through both its CAK and C-terminal domain kinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Maxime; Mommaerts, Elise; Migeot, Valerie; van Bakel, Harm; Hermand, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) activation and RNA polymerase II transcription are linked by the Cdk7 kinase, which phosphorylates Cdks as a trimeric Cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex, and serine 5 within the polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) as transcription factor TFIIH-bound CAK. However, the physiological importance of integrating these processes is not understood. Besides the Cdk7 ortholog Mcs6, fission yeast possesses a second CAK, Csk1. The two enzymes have been proposed to act redundantly to activate Cdc2. Using an improved analogue-sensitive Mcs6-as kinase, we show that Csk1 is not a relevant CAK for Cdc2. Further analyses revealed that Csk1 lacks a 20-amino-acid sequence required for its budding yeast counterpart, Cak1, to bind Cdc2. Transcriptome profiling of the Mcs6-as mutant in the presence or absence of the budding yeast Cak1 kinase, in order to uncouple the CTD kinase and CAK activities of Mcs6, revealed an unanticipated role of the CAK branch in the transcriptional control of the cluster of genes implicated in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth. The analysis of a Cdc2 CAK site mutant confirmed these data. Our data show that the Cdk7 kinase modulates transcription through its well-described RNA Pol II CTD kinase activity and also through the Cdc2-activating kinase activity.

  18. Expression and characterization of Kunitz domain 3 and C-terminal of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Zhu; Jiping Wang; Jingui Mu; Huijun Wang; Chenqi Zhang; Jue Wang; Xingang Liu; Xiaomin Yan; Linsen Dai; Duan Ma

    2009-01-01

    Human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (hTFPI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor and its inhibitory activity is enhanced by heparin. The Kunitz domain 3 and C-terminal of hTFPI-2 (bTFPI-2/KD3C), which has the activity toward heparin calcium, have been successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by SP-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),Raman spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD)experiment results implied that hTFPI-2/KD3C con-tained small contents of or-helix and β-strand, but large amounts of random coil and two kinds of disulfide bonds, gauche-gauche-gauche (ggg) and trans-gauche-trans (tgt). The interaction of hTFPI-2/KD3C with heparin calcium was investigated by CD. It was found that heparin calcium induced β-strands in hTFPI-2/KD3C to different extents depending on the ratio of hTFPI-2/KD3C and heparin calcium.

  19. Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Descostes, Nicolas; Hintermair, Corinna; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Imhof, Axel; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Eick, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression.

  20. A Superhelical Spiral in the Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase A C-terminal Domain Imparts Unidirectional Supercoiling Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthenburg,A.; Graybosch, D.; Huetsch, J.; Verdine, G.

    2005-01-01

    DNA gyrase is unique among type II topoisomerases in that its DNA supercoiling activity is unidirectional. The C-terminal domain of the gyrase A subunit (GyrA-CTD) is required for this supercoiling bias. We report here the x-ray structure of the Escherichia coli GyrA-CTD (Protein Data Bank code 1ZI0). The E. coli GyrA-CTD adopts a circular-shaped {beta}-pinwheel fold first seen in the Borrelia burgdorferi GyrA-CTD. However, whereas the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD is flat, the E. coli GyrA-CTD is spiral. DNA relaxation assays reveal that the E. coli GyrA-CTD wraps DNA inducing substantial (+) superhelicity, while the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD introduces a more modest (+) superhelicity. The observation of a superhelical spiral in the present structure and that of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ParC-CTD structure suggests unexpected similarities in substrate selectivity between gyrase and Topo IV enzymes. We propose a model wherein the right-handed ((+) solenoidal) wrapping of DNA around the E. coli GyrA-CTD enforces unidirectional (-) DNA supercoiling.

  1. Site-specific methylation and acetylation of lysine residues in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Kirsten; Forné, Ignasi; Descostes, Nicolas; Hintermair, Corinna; Schüller, Roland; Maqbool, Muhammad Ahmad; Heidemann, Martin; Flatley, Andrew; Imhof, Axel; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Eick, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modification of heptad-repeats with the consensus sequence Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7 of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) C-terminal domain (CTD) regulates transcription-coupled processes. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed that K7-residues in non-consensus repeats of human RNAPII are modified by acetylation, or mono-, di-, and tri-methylation. K7ac, K7me2, and K7me3 were found exclusively associated with phosphorylated CTD peptides, while K7me1 occurred also in non-phosphorylated CTD. The monoclonal antibody 1F5 recognizes K7me1/2 residues in CTD and reacts with RNAPIIA. Treatment of cellular extracts with phosphatase or of cells with the kinase inhibitor flavopiridol unmasked the K7me1/2 epitope in RNAPII0, consistent with the association of K7me1/2 marks with phosphorylated CTD peptides. Genome-wide profiling revealed high levels of K7me1/2 marks at the transcriptional start site of genes for sense and antisense transcribing RNAPII. The new K7 modifications further expand the mammalian CTD code to allow regulation of differential gene expression. PMID:26566685

  2. The identification of putative RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain associated proteins in red and green algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunlin; Hager, Paul W; Stiller, John W

    2014-01-01

    A tandemly repeated C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II is functionally essential and strongly conserved in many organisms, including animal, yeast and plant models. Although present in simple, ancestral red algae, CTD tandem repeats have undergone extensive modifications and degeneration during the evolutionary transition to developmentally complex rhodophytes. In contrast, CTD repeats are conserved in both green algae and their more complex land plant relatives. Understanding the mechanistic differences that underlie these variant patterns of CTD evolution requires knowledge of CTD-associated proteins in these 2 lineages. To provide an initial baseline comparison, we bound potential phospho-CTD associated proteins (PCAPs) to artificially synthesized and phosphorylated CTD repeats from the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicate that red and green algae share a number of PCAPs, including kinases and proteins involved in mRNA export. There also are important taxon-specific differences, including mRNA splicing-related PCAPs recovered from Chlamydomonas but not Cyanidioschyzon, consistent with the relative intron densities in green and red algae. Our results also offer the first experimental indication that different proteins bind 2 distinct types of repeats in Cyanidioschyzon, suggesting a division of function between the proximal and distal CTD, similar to patterns identified in more developmentally complex model organisms.

  3. C-terminal, endoplasmic reticulum-lumenal domain of prosurfactant protein C - structural features and membrane interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Cristina; Johansson, Hanna; Saenz, Alejandra; Gustafsson, Magnus; Alfonso, Carlos; Nordling, Kerstin; Johansson, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Surfactant protein C (SP-C) constitutes the transmembrane part of prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) and is alpha-helical in its native state. The C-terminal part of proSP-C (CTC) is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and binds to misfolded (beta-strand) SP-C, thereby preventing its aggregation and amyloid fibril formation. In this study, we investigated the structure of recombinant human CTC and the effects of CTC-membrane interaction on protein structure. CTC forms noncovalent trimers and supratrimeric oligomers. It contains two intrachain disulfide bridges, and its secondary structure is significantly affected by urea or heat only after disulfide reduction. The postulated Brichos domain of CTC, with homologs found in proteins associated with amyloid and proliferative disease, is up to 1000-fold more protected from limited proteolysis than the rest of CTC. The protein exposes hydrophobic surfaces, as determined by CTC binding to the environment-sensitive fluorescent probe 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate). Fluorescence energy transfer experiments further reveal close proximity between bound 1,1'-bis(4-anilino-5,5'-naphthalenesulfonate) and tyrosine residues in CTC, some of which are conserved in all Brichos domains. CTC binds to unilamellar phospholipid vesicles with low micromolar dissociation constants, and differential scanning calorimetry and CD analyses indicate that membrane-bound CTC is less structurally ordered than the unbound protein. The exposed hydrophobic surfaces and the structural disordering that result from interactions with phospholipid membranes suggest a mechanism whereby CTC binds to misfolded SP-C in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

  4. An antibody against the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 lowers LDL cholesterol levels in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Felix; Park, John; Redemann, Norbert; Luippold, Gerd; Nar, Herbert

    2014-02-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, a state of elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia can result in severe implications such as stroke and coronary heart disease. The inhibition of PCSK9 function by therapeutic antibodies that block interaction of PCSK9 with the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A domain of LDL receptor (LDLR) was shown to successfully lower LDL cholesterol levels in clinical studies. Here we present data on the identification, structural and biophysical characterization and in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a PCSK9 antibody (mAb1). The X-ray structure shows that mAb1 binds the module 1 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PCSK9. It blocks access to an area bearing several naturally occurring gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations. Although the antibody does not inhibit binding of PCSK9 to epidermal growth factor-like repeat A, it partially reverses PCSK9-induced reduction of the LDLR and LDL cholesterol uptake in a cellular assay. mAb1 is also effective in lowering serum levels of LDL cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys in vivo. Complete loss of PCSK9 is associated with insufficient liver regeneration and increased risk of hepatitis C infections. Blocking of the CTD is sufficient to partially inhibit PCSK9 function. Antibodies binding the CTD of PCSK9 may thus be advantageous in patients that do not tolerate complete inhibition of PCSK9.

  5. NifS-mediated assembly of [4Fe-4S] clusters in the N- and C-terminal domains of the NifU scaffold protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Archer D; Jameson, Guy N L; Dos Santos, Patricia C; Agar, Jeffrey N; Naik, Sunil; Krebs, Carsten; Frazzon, Jeverson; Dean, Dennis R; Huynh, Boi Hanh; Johnson, Michael K

    2005-10-04

    NifU is a homodimeric modular protein comprising N- and C-terminal domains and a central domain with a redox-active [2Fe-2S](2+,+) cluster. It plays a crucial role as a scaffold protein for the assembly of the Fe-S clusters required for the maturation of nif-specific Fe-S proteins. In this work, the time course and products of in vitro NifS-mediated iron-sulfur cluster assembly on full-length NifU and truncated forms involving only the N-terminal domain or the central and C-terminal domains have been investigated using UV-vis absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopies, coupled with analytical studies. The results demonstrate sequential assembly of labile [2Fe-2S](2+) and [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters in the U-type N-terminal scaffolding domain and the assembly of [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters in the Nfu-type C-terminal scaffolding domain. Both scaffolding domains of NifU are shown to be competent for in vitro maturation of nitrogenase component proteins, as evidenced by rapid transfer of [4Fe-4S](2+) clusters preassembled on either the N- or C-terminal domains to the apo nitrogenase Fe protein. Mutagenesis studies indicate that a conserved aspartate (Asp37) plays a critical role in mediating cluster transfer. The assembly and transfer of clusters on NifU are compared with results reported for U- and Nfu-type scaffold proteins, and the need for two functional Fe-S cluster scaffolding domains on NifU is discussed.

  6. Structural dynamics of native and V260E mutant C-terminal domain of HIV-1 integrase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, Balasubramanian; Muthukumaran, Rajagopalan; Amutha, Ramaswamy

    2015-04-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 integrase is a five stranded β-barrel resembling an SH3 fold. Mutational studies on isolated CTD and full-length IN have reported V260E mutant as either homo-dimerization defective or affecting the stability and folding of CTD. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation techniques were used to unveil the effect of V260E mutation on isolated CTD monomer and dimer. Both monomeric and dimeric forms of wild type and V260E mutant are highly stable during the simulated period. However, the stabilizing π-stacking interaction between Trp243 and Trp243' at the dimer interface is highly disturbed in CTD-V260E (>6 Å apart). The loss in entropy for dimerization is -30 and -25 kcal/mol for CTD-wt and CTD-V260E respectively signifying a weak hydrophobic interaction and its perturbation in CTD-V260E. The mutant Glu260 exhibits strong attraction/repulsion with all the basic/acidic residues of CTD. In addition to this, the dynamics of CTD-wild type and V260E monomers at 498 K was analyzed to elucidate the effect of V260E mutation on CTD folding. Increase in SASA and reduction in the number of contacts in CTD-V260E during simulation highlights the instability caused by the mutation. In general, V260E mutation affects both multimerization and protein folding with a pronounced effect on protein folding rather than multimerization. This study emphasizes the importance of the hydrophobic nature and SH3 fold of CTD in proper functioning of HIV integrase and perturbing this nature would be a rational approach toward designing more selective and potent allosteric anti-HIV inhibitors.

  7. N- and C-terminal domains determine differential nucleosomal binding geometry and affinity of linker histone isotypes H1(0) and H1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Payal; Brown, David T

    2012-04-01

    Eukaryotic linker or H1 histones modulate DNA compaction and gene expression in vivo. In mammals, these proteins exist as multiple isotypes with distinct properties, suggesting a functional significance to the heterogeneity. Linker histones typically have a tripartite structure composed of a conserved central globular domain flanked by a highly variable short N-terminal domain and a longer highly basic C-terminal domain. We hypothesized that the variable terminal domains of individual subtypes contribute to their functional heterogeneity by influencing chromatin binding interactions. We developed a novel dual color fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay system in which two H1 proteins fused to spectrally separable fluorescent proteins can be co-expressed and their independent binding kinetics simultaneously monitored in a single cell. This approach was combined with domain swap and point mutagenesis to determine the roles of the terminal domains in the differential binding characteristics of the linker histone isotypes, mouse H1(0) and H1c. Exchanging the N-terminal domains between H1(0) and H1c changed their overall binding affinity to that of the other variant. In contrast, switching the C-terminal domains altered the chromatin interaction surface of the globular domain. These results indicate that linker histone subtypes bind to chromatin in an intrinsically specific manner and that the highly variable terminal domains contribute to differences between subtypes. The methods developed in this study will have broad applications in studying dynamic properties of additional histone subtypes and other mobile proteins.

  8. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (King); (Cornell); (UAB); (Glasgow); (Florida)

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  9. Amyloidogenic Properties of a D/N Mutated 12 Amino Acid Fragment of the C-Terminal Domain of the Cholesteryl-Ester Transfer Protein (CETP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor García-González

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP facilitates the transfer of cholesterol esters and triglycerides between lipoproteins in plasma where the critical site for its function is situated in the C-terminal domain. Our group has previously shown that this domain presents conformational changes in a non-lipid environment when the mutation D470N is introduced. Using a series of peptides derived from this C-terminal domain, the present study shows that these changes favor the induction of a secondary β-structure as characterized by spectroscopic analysis and fluorescence techniques. From this type of secondary structure, the formation of peptide aggregates and fibrillar structures with amyloid characteristics induced cytotoxicity in microglial cells in culture. These supramolecular structures promote cell cytotoxicity through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and change the balance of a series of proteins that control the process of endocytosis, similar to that observed when β-amyloid fibrils are employed. Therefore, a fine balance between the highly dynamic secondary structure of the C-terminal domain of CETP, the net charge, and the physicochemical characteristics of the surrounding microenvironment define the type of secondary structure acquired. Changes in this balance might favor misfolding in this region, which would alter the lipid transfer capacity conducted by CETP, favoring its propensity to substitute its physiological function.

  10. Regulation of embryonic cell adhesion by the cadherin cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, C

    1992-04-17

    Differential adhesion between embryonic cells has been proposed to be mediated by a family of closely related glycoproteins called the cadherins. The cadherins mediate adhesion in part through an interaction between the cadherin cytoplasmic domain and intracellular proteins, called the catenins. To determine whether these interactions could regulate cadherin function in embryos, a form of N-cadherin was generated that lacks an extracellular domain. Expression of this mutant in Xenopus embryos causes a dramatic inhibition of cell adhesion. Analysis of the mutant phenotype shows that at least two regions of the N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain can inhibit adhesion and that the mutant cadherin can inhibit catenin binding to E-cadherin. These results suggest that cadherin-mediated adhesion can be regulated by cytoplasmic interactions and that this regulation may contribute to morphogenesis when emerging tissues coexpress several cadherin types.

  11. High-resolution crystal structure reveals a HEPN domain at the C-terminal region of S. cerevisiae RNA endonuclease Swt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shuxia, E-mail: pengsx@ihep.ac.cn; Zhou, Ke; Wang, Wenjia; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 was determined at 2.3 Å. • Structure of the CT domain was identified as HEPN domain superfamily member. • Low-resolution envelope of Swt1 full-length in solution was analyzed by SAXS. • The middle and CT domains gave good fit to SAXS structural model. - Abstract: Swt1 is an RNA endonuclease that plays an important role in quality control of nuclear messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in eukaryotes; however, its structural details remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which shares common characteristics of higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide binding (HEPN) domain superfamily. To study in detail the full-length protein structure, we analyzed the low-resolution architecture of Swt1 in solution using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. Both the CT domain and middle domain exhibited a good fit upon superimposing onto the molecular envelope of Swt1. Our study provides the necessary structural information for detailed analysis of the functional role of Swt1, and its importance in the process of nuclear mRNP surveillance.

  12. The RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphatase-Like Protein FIERY2/CPL1 Interacts with eIF4AIII and Is Essential for Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2016-02-18

    © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) is a posttranscriptional surveillance mechanism in eukaryotes that recognizes and degrades transcripts with premature translation-termination codons. The RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase-like protein FIERY2 (FRY2; also known as C-TERMINAL DOMAIN PHOSPHATASE-LIKE1 [CPL1]) plays multiple roles in RNA processing in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we found that FRY2/CPL1 interacts with two NMD factors, eIF4AIII and UPF3, and is involved in the dephosphorylation of eIF4AIII. This dephosphorylation retains eIF4AIII in the nucleus and limits its accumulation in the cytoplasm. By analyzing RNA-seq data combined with quantitative RT-PCR validation, we found that a subset of alternatively spliced transcripts and 59-extended mRNAs with NMD-eliciting features accumulated in the fry2-1 mutant, cycloheximidetreated wild type, and upf3 mutant plants, indicating that FRY2 is essential for the degradation of these NMD transcripts.

  13. Heterologous expression and catalytic properties of the C-terminal domain of starfish cdc25 dual-specificity phosphatase, a cell cycle regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Shungo; Miyake, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Tadamasa; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Endo, Yasuko; Yumoto, Noboru; Toraya, Tetsuo

    2002-05-01

    The 3'-terminal region of starfish Asterina pectinifera cdc25 cDNA encoding the C-terminal catalytic domain was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The C-terminal domain consisted of 226 amino acid residues containing the signature motif HCxxxxxR, a motif highly conserved among protein tyrosine and dual-specificity phosphatases, and showed phosphatase activity toward p-nitrophenyl phosphate. The enzyme activity was strongly inhibited by SH inhibitors. Mutational studies indicated that the cysteine and arginine residues in the conserved motif are essential for activity, but the histidine residue is not. These results suggest that the enzyme catalyzes the reaction through a two-step mechanism involving a phosphocysteine intermediate like in the cases of other protein tyrosine and dual-specificity phosphatases. The C-terminal domain of Cdc25 activated the histone H1 kinase activity of the purified, inactive form of Cdc2.cyclin B complex (preMPF) from extracts of immature starfish oocytes. Synthetic diphosphorylated di- to nonadecapeptides mimicking amino acid sequences around the dephosphorylation site of Cdc2 still retained substrate activity. Phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine underwent dephosphorylation in this order. This is the reverse order to that reported for the in vivo and in vitro dephosphorylation of preMPF. Monophosphopeptides having the same sequence served as much poorer substrates. As judged from the results with synthetic phosphopeptides, the presence of two phosphorylated residues was important for specific recognition of substrates by the Cdc25 phosphatase.

  14. Evidence for involvement of the C-terminal domain in the dimerization of the CopY repressor protein from Enterococcus hirae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazehoski, Kristina O., E-mail: pazehosk@pitt.edu [Division of Natural Sciences, University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg, Greensburg, PA 15601 (United States); Cobine, Paul A., E-mail: pac0006@auburn.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, 101 Rouse Life Science Building, Auburn University, AL 36849 (United States); Winzor, Donald J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Dameron, Charles T., E-mail: cdameron@francis.edu [Department of Chemistry, Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA 15940 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} A metal-binding protein domain is directly involved in protein dimerization. {yields} Fusing the metal-binding domain to a monomeric protein induces dimerization. {yields} Frontal size-exclusion chromatography measures the strength of dimer interaction. {yields} Ultracentrifugation studies confirm the influence of metal binding on dimerization. -- Abstract: Metal binding to the C-terminal region of the copper-responsive repressor protein CopY is responsible for homodimerization and the regulation of the copper homeostasis pathway in Enterococcus hirae. Specific involvement of the 38 C-terminal residues of CopY in dimerization is indicated by zonal and frontal (large zone) size-exclusion chromatography studies. The studies demonstrate that the attachment of these CopY residues to the immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB1) promotes dimerization of the monomeric protein. Although sensitivity of dimerization to removal of metal from the fusion protein is smaller than that found for CopY (as measured by ultracentrifugation studies), the demonstration that an unrelated protein (GB1) can be induced to dimerize by extending its sequence with the C-terminal portion of CopY confirms the involvement of this region in CopY homodimerization.

  15. Loss of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding by the C-terminal Tiam-1 pleckstrin homology domain prevents in vivo Rac1 activation without affecting membrane targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Mark A; Martinu, Lenka; Rossman, Kent L; Sondek, John; Lemmon, Mark A; Chou, Margaret M

    2003-03-28

    Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for Rho family small GTPases invariably contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain that immediately follows their Dbl homology (DH) domain. Although the DH domain is responsible for GEF activity, the role of the PH domain is less clear. We previously reported that PH domains from several Dbl family members bind phosphoinositides with very low affinity (K(d) values in the 10 microM range). This suggests that, unlike several other PH domains, those from Dbl proteins will not function as independent membrane-targeting modules. To determine the functional relevance of low affinity phosphoinositide binding, we mutated the corresponding PH domain from Tiam-1 to abolish its weak, specific binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. We first confirmed in vitro that phosphoinositide binding by the isolated DH/PH domain was impaired by the mutations but that intrinsic GEF activity was unaffected. We then introduced the PH domain mutations into full-length Tiam-1 and found that its ability to activate Rac1 or serum response factor in vivo was abolished. Immunofluorescence studies showed that membrane targeting of Tiam-1 was essentially unaffected by mutations in the C-terminal PH domain. Our studies therefore indicate that low affinity phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate binding by the C-terminal PH domain may be critical for in vivo regulation and activity of Tiam-1 but that the PH domain exerts its regulatory effects without altering membrane targeting. We suggest instead that ligand binding to the PH domain induces conformational and/or orientational changes at the membrane surface that are required for maximum exchange activity of its adjacent DH domain.

  16. A Chlamydia trachomatis OmcB C-Terminal Fragment Is Released into the Host Cell Cytoplasm and Is Immunogenic in Humans ▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) is an antigen with diagnostic and vaccine relevance. To further characterize OmcB, we generated antibodies against OmcB C-terminal (OmcBc) and N-terminal (OmcBn) fragments. Surprisingly, the anti-OmcBc antibody detected dominant signals in the host cell cytosol, while the anti-OmcBn antibody exclusively labeled intrainclusion signals in C. trachomatis-infected cells permeabilized with saponin. Western blot analyses revealed tha...

  17. The C-terminal domains of the GABA(b) receptor subunits mediate intracellular trafficking but are not required for receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, A R; Robbins, M J; Cosio, C; Rice, S Q; Babbs, A J; Hirst, W D; Boyfield, I; Wood, M D; Russell, R B; Price, G W; Couve, A; Moss, S J; Pangalos, M N

    2001-02-15

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate slow synaptic inhibition in the brain and spinal cord. These receptors are heterodimers assembled from GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits, neither of which is capable of producing functional GABA(B) receptors on homomeric expression. GABA(B1,) although able to bind GABA, is retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) when expressed alone. In contrast, GABA(B2) is able to access the cell surface when expressed alone but does not couple efficiently to the appropriate effector systems or produce any detectable GABA-binding sites. In the present study, we have constructed chimeric and truncated GABA(B1) and GABA(B2) subunits to explore further GABA(B) receptor signaling and assembly. Removal of the entire C-terminal intracellular domain of GABA(B1) results in plasma membrane expression without the production of a functional GABA(B) receptor. However, coexpression of this truncated GABA(B1) subunit with either GABA(B2) or a truncated GABA(B2) subunit in which the C terminal has also been removed is capable of functional signaling via G-proteins. In contrast, transferring the entire C-terminal tail of GABA(B1) to GABA(B2) leads to the ER retention of the GABA(B2) subunit when expressed alone. These results indicate that the C terminal of GABA(B1) mediates the ER retention of this protein and that neither of the C-terminal tails of GABA(B1) or GABA(B2) is an absolute requirement for functional coupling of heteromeric receptors. Furthermore although GABA(B1) is capable of producing GABA-binding sites, GABA(B2) is of central importance in the functional coupling of heteromeric GABA(B) receptors to G-proteins and the subsequent activation of effector systems.

  18. Sites of proteolytic processing and noncovalent association of the distal C-terminal domain of CaV1.1 channels in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Joanne T; Konoki, Keiichi; Lin, Teddy W-C; Gritsenko, Marina A; Camp, David G; Bigelow, Diana J; Catterall, William A

    2005-04-05

    In skeletal muscle cells, voltage-dependent potentiation of Ca2+ channel activity requires phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) anchored via an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP15), and the most rapid sites of phosphorylation are located in the C-terminal domain. Surprisingly, the site of interaction of the complex of PKA and AKAP15 with the alpha1-subunit of Ca(V)1.1 channels lies in the distal C terminus, which is cleaved from the remainder of the channel by in vivo proteolytic processing. Here we report that the distal C terminus is noncovalently associated with the remainder of the channel via an interaction with a site in the proximal C-terminal domain when expressed as a separate protein in mammalian nonmuscle cells. Deletion mapping of the C terminus of the alpha1-subunit using the yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that a distal C-terminal peptide containing amino acids 1802-1841 specifically interacts with a region in the proximal C terminus containing amino acid residues 1556-1612. Analysis of the purified alpha1-subunit of Ca(V)1.1 channels from skeletal muscle by saturation sequencing of the intracellular peptides by tandem mass spectrometry identified the site of proteolytic processing as alanine 1664. Our results support the conclusion that a noncovalently associated complex of the alpha1-subunit truncated at A1664 with the proteolytically cleaved distal C-terminal domain, AKAP15, and PKA is the primary physiological form of Ca(V)1.1 channels in skeletal muscle cells.

  19. Prokaryotic expression and purification of fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 3 C-terminal domain proteins in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cai; Jing Yang; He Huang; Fang Li; Ganqiu Wu; Jing Yang; Xuegang Luo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 3 (FLRT3) is related to injury and regeneration of the nervous system. However, the expression and biological characteristics of these proteins remain poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To obtain FLRT3 C-terminal gene fragments, to effectively express and purify the target proteins.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study of cellular and molecular biology was performed at the laboratory of Histology and Embryology in Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University between October 2007 and June 2008.MATERIALS: Three Sprague Dawley adult rats were used to extract total RNA from rat brains. The pGEX4T3 and Escherichia coli (E. Coli) JM109 were purchased from Promega. E. Coil BL21 was provided by Novagen.METHODS: FLRT3 protein coding C-terminal DNA fragments, at a length of 786 bp, were amplified using RT-PCR technique from rat total RNA. The amplified products were cloned into the expression vector pGEX4T3. A recombinant expression vector was then constructed and introduced into E. Coli BL21. IsopropyI-D-thiogalactopyranoside was applied to induce expression of recombinant GST fusion proteins, followed by isolation, purification, and renaturation of inclusion bodies that comprised recombinant proteins. Finally, the purified recombinant protein was obtained.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of FLRT3 C-terminal DNA sequence; expression of target proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis; purified recombinant protein was identified with Western blot methods.RESULTS: FLRT3 protein coding C-terminal DNA fragments, at a length of 786 bp, were successfully harvested through RT-PCR amplification, and were then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T3. The results of the sequence were consistent with the known gene sequence. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that there was a specific protein band in the recombinant GST fusion proteins at a relative molecular mass

  20. Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, E S; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, and the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 contains two serines (residues 197 and 198) which lie in a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by PKC. Other serine and threonine residues are present but not in a consensus seque...

  1. Structures of the thermophilic F1-ATPase epsilon subunit suggesting ATP-regulated arm motion of its C-terminal domain in F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hiromasa; Kajiwara, Nobumoto; Tanaka, Hideaki; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Kato-Yamada, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Masasuke; Akutsu, Hideo

    2007-07-03

    The epsilon subunit of bacterial and chloroplast F(o)F(1)-ATP synthases modulates their ATP hydrolysis activity. Here, we report the crystal structure of the ATP-bound epsilon subunit from a thermophilic Bacillus PS3 at 1.9-A resolution. The C-terminal two alpha-helices were folded into a hairpin, sitting on the beta sandwich structure, as reported for Escherichia coli. A previously undescribed ATP binding motif, I(L)DXXRA, recognizes ATP together with three arginine and one glutamate residues. The E. coli epsilon subunit binds ATP in a similar manner, as judged on NMR. We also determined solution structures of the C-terminal domain of the PS3 epsilon subunit and relaxation parameters of the whole molecule by NMR. The two helices fold into a hairpin in the presence of ATP but extend in the absence of ATP. The latter structure has more helical regions and is much more flexible than the former. These results suggest that the epsilon C-terminal domain can undergo an arm-like motion in response to an ATP concentration change and thereby contribute to regulation of F(o)F(1)-ATP synthase.

  2. Chemical shift assignments and secondary structure prediction of the C-terminal domain of the response regulator BfmR from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Andrew L; Thompson, Richele J; Melander, Christian; Cavanagh, John

    2014-04-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for severe nocosomial infections by forming biofilms in healthcare environments. The two-domain response regulator BfmR has been shown to be the master controller for biofilm formation. Inactivation of BfmR resulted in an abolition of pili production and consequently biofilm creation. Here we report backbone and sidechain resonance assignments and secondary structure prediction for the C-terminal domain of BfmR (residues 130-238) from A. baumannii.

  3. Interaction of the growth hormone receptor cytoplasmic domain with the JAK2 tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, S J; Gilliland, G; Kraft, A S; Arnold, C S

    1994-11-01

    An early step in GH action involves tyrosine phosphorylation of various cellular proteins. Recently, it has been shown in murine preadipocytes that GH promotes the association of its receptor (the GHR) with and the activation of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase. In this study, we confirmed the human (h) GH-induced association of JAK2 with hGHR in IM-9 cells by coimmunoprecipitation experiments using anti-hGHR serum. We further examined the interaction of JAK2 with the GHR cytoplasmic domain by two lines of investigation. For in vitro studies, we assayed by immunoblotting the ability of cell-derived JAK2 to interact with glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins containing elements of the hGHR cytoplasmic domain. A fusion protein containing the entire hGHR cytoplasmic domain (residues 271-620) specifically associated with JAK2 independent of prior stimulation of cells with hGH. This interaction was not dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation of either partner. Mutational analysis of the hGHR cytoplasmic domain component of the fusions indicated that a membrane-proximal 20-residue region that includes the proline-rich box 1 was necessary for the interaction. This region appeared to cooperate with another region(s), largely in the N-terminal one third of the cytoplasmic domain, to promote full interaction with JAK2. For in vivo reconstitution experiments, wild-type (WT) and mutant rabbit GHRs (rGHRs) along with murine JAK2 were expressed by transient transfection in COS-7 cells. rGHR mutations were confined to the cytoplasmic domain and included C-terminal truncations as well as internal deletions of residues 297-406 and 278-292 (the latter contains box 1). All mutant rGHRs were expressed at the cell surface and bound hGH to a degree similar to the WT rGHR. Receptors were tested for their ability to mediate the hGH-induced immunoprecipitability of JAK2 with phosphotyrosine (APT) antibodies. A rGHR truncated to residue 275 [rGHR-(1-275)], which contains only five cytoplasmic

  4. Novel human mutation and CRISPR/Cas genome-edited mice reveal the importance of C-terminal domain of MSX1 in tooth and palate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Noji, Sumihare; Imoto, Issei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-12-05

    Several mutations, located mainly in the MSX1 homeodomain, have been identified in non-syndromic tooth agenesis predominantly affecting premolars and third molars. We identified a novel frameshift mutation of the highly conserved C-terminal domain of MSX1, known as Msx homology domain 6 (MH6), in a Japanese family with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. To investigate the importance of MH6 in tooth development, Msx1 was targeted in mice with CRISPR/Cas system. Although heterozygous MH6 disruption did not alter craniofacial development, homozygous mice exhibited agenesis of lower incisors with or without cleft palate at E16.5. In addition, agenesis of the upper third molars and the lower second and third molars were observed in 4-week-old mutant mice. Although the upper second molars were present, they were abnormally small. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of MSX1 is important for tooth and palate development, and demonstrate that that CRISPR/Cas system can be used as a tool to assess causality of human disorders in vivo and to study the importance of conserved domains in genes.

  5. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A; Enghild, Jan J; Thøgersen, Ida B; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-03-23

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway.

  6. Activation of the plasma membrane Na/H antiporter salt-overly-sensitive 1 (SOS1) by phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory C-terminal domain

    KAUST Repository

    Quintero, Francisco J.

    2011-01-24

    The plasma membrane sodium/proton exchanger Salt-Overly-Sensitive 1 (SOS1) is a critical salt tolerance determinant in plants. The SOS2-SOS3 calcium-dependent protein kinase complex upregulates SOS1 activity, but the mechanistic details of this crucial event remain unresolved. Here we show that SOS1 is maintained in a resting state by a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain that is the target of SOS2-SOS3. The auto-inhibitory domain interacts intramolecularly with an adjacent domain of SOS1 that is essential for activity. SOS1 is relieved from auto-inhibition upon phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory domain by SOS2-SOS3. Mutation of the SOS2 phosphorylation and recognition site impeded the activation of SOS1 in vivo and in vitro. Additional amino acid residues critically important for SOS1 activity and regulation were identified in a genetic screen for hypermorphic alleles.

  7. The C-terminal domain of human grp94 protects the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) against thermal aggregation. Role of disulfide bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roher, N; Miró, F; Boldyreff, B

    2001-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (residues 518-803) of the 94 kDa glucose regulated protein (grp94) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a His6-N-terminal tag (grp94-CT). This truncated form of grp94 formed dimers and oligomers that could be dissociated into monomers by treatment...... with dithiothreitol. Grp94-CT conferred protection against aggregation on the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha), although it did not protect against thermal inactivation. This anti-aggregation effect of grp94-CT was concentration dependent, with full protection achieved at grp94-CT/CK2alpha molar...

  8. Functional implications of C-terminus of TBX5 with high homology to C-terminal domain of yeast DNA-directed RNA polymerase Ⅱ largest subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhu-ren; GONG Li-guo; GENG Wen-qing; QIU Guang-rong; SUN Kai-lai

    2008-01-01

    @@ TBX5, as a member of the T-box-containing transcription factor family, encodes a protein of 518 amino acids and is expressed in the embryonic heart and developing limb tissues.1 The coding region of TBX5 cDNA is 1.5 kb with eight exons including the N-terminal portion, the DNA binding domain and C-terminal region. We reported that the abnormality in transcription level of the TbX5 gene might be the mechanism underlying human simple congenital heart disease in the absence of TBX5 mutations.

  9. Contribution of the C-terminal region within the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 integrase to yeast lethality, chromatin binding and viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhumeur Pierre

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 integrase (IN is a key viral enzymatic molecule required for the integration of the viral cDNA into the genome. Additionally, HIV-1 IN has been shown to play important roles in several other steps during the viral life cycle, including reverse transcription, nuclear import and chromatin targeting. Interestingly, previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of HIV-1 IN induces the lethal phenotype in some strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses of the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN in order to delineate the critical amino acid(s and/or motif(s required for the induction of the lethal phenotype in the yeast strain HP16, and to further elucidate the molecular mechanism which causes this phenotype. Results Our study identified three HIV-1 IN mutants, V165A, A179P and KR186,7AA, located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of IN that do not induce the lethal phenotype in yeast. Chromatin binding assays in yeast and mammalian cells demonstrated that these IN mutants were impaired for the ability to bind chromatin. Additionally, we determined that while these IN mutants failed to interact with LEDGF/p75, they retained the ability to bind Integrase interactor 1. Furthermore, we observed that VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 containing these IN mutants was unable to replicate in the C8166 T cell line and this defect was partially rescued by complementation with the catalytically inactive D64E IN mutant. Conclusion Overall, this study demonstrates that three mutations located in the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN inhibit the IN-induced lethal phenotype in yeast by inhibiting the binding of IN to the host chromatin. These results demonstrate that the C-terminal region of the catalytic core domain of HIV-1 IN is important for binding to host chromatin and is crucial for both viral replication and the promotion of

  10. CD248 facilitates tumor growth via its cytoplasmic domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens Tom

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal fibroblasts participate in the development of a permissive environment for tumor growth, yet molecular pathways to therapeutically target fibroblasts are poorly defined. CD248, also known as endosialin or tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on activated fibroblasts. We recently showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in facilitating an inflammatory response in a mouse model of arthritis. Others have reported that CD248 gene inactivation in mice results in dampened tumor growth. We hypothesized that the conserved cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in regulating tumor growth. Methods Mice lacking the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 (CD248CyD/CyD were generated and evaluated in tumor models, comparing the findings with wild-type mice (CD248WT/WT. Results As compared to the response in CD248WT/WT mice, growth of T241 fibrosarcomas and Lewis lung carcinomas was significantly reduced in CD248CyD/CyD mice. Tumor size was similar to that seen with CD248-deficient mice. Conditioned media from CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts were less effective at supporting T241 fibrosarcoma cell survival. In addition to our previous observation of reduced release of activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts also had impaired PDGF-BB-induced migration and expressed higher transcripts of tumor suppressor factors, transgelin (SM22α, Hes and Hey1. Conclusions The multiple pathways regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 highlight its potential as a therapeutic target to treat cancer.

  11. In Sup35p filaments (the [PSI+] prion), the globular C-terminal domains are widely offset from the amyloid fibril backbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, U.; Wall, J.; Keller, P. W.; Cheng, N.; Steven, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    In yeast cells infected with the [PSI+] prion, Sup35p forms aggregates and its activity in translation termination is downregulated. Transfection experiments have shown that Sup35p filaments assembled in vitro are infectious, suggesting that they reproduce or closely resemble the prion. We have used several EM techniques to study the molecular architecture of filaments, seeking clues as to the mechanism of downregulation. Sup35p has an N-terminal 'prion' domain; a highly charged middle (M-)domain; and a C-terminal domain with the translation termination activity. By negative staining, cryo-EM and scanning transmission EM (STEM), filaments of full-length Sup35p show a thin backbone fibril surrounded by a diffuse 65-nm-wide cloud of globular C-domains. In diameter ({approx}8 nm) and appearance, the backbones resemble amyloid fibrils of N-domains alone. STEM mass-per-unit-length data yield -1 subunit per 0.47 nm for N-fibrils, NM-filaments and Sup35p filaments, further supporting the fibril backbone model. The 30 nm radial span of decorating C-domains indicates that the M-domains assume highly extended conformations, offering an explanation for the residual Sup35p activity in infected cells, whereby the C-domains remain free enough to interact with ribosomes.

  12. Identification of two Amino Acids in the C-terminal Domain of Mouse CRY2 Essential for PER2 Interaction

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    Ozber Natali

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptochromes (CRYs are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants and animals, and they control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. They also act as integral parts of the central circadian oscillator in humans and other animals. In mammals, the CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimer activates transcription of the Per and Cry genes as well as clock-regulated genes. The PER2 proteins interact with CRY and CKIε, and the resulting ternary complexes translocate into the nucleus, where they negatively regulate the transcription of Per and Cry core clock genes and other clock-regulated output genes. Recent studies have indicated that the extended C-termini of the mammalian CRYs, as compared to photolyase proteins, interact with PER proteins. Results We identified a region on mCRY2 (between residues 493 and 512 responsible for direct physical interaction with mPER2 by mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, using oligonucleotide-based degenerate PCR, we discovered that mutation of Arg-501 and Lys-503 of mCRY2 within this C-terminal region totally abolishes interaction with PER2. Conclusions Our results identify mCRY2 amino acid residues that interact with the mPER2 binding region and suggest the potential for rational drug design to inhibit CRYs for specific therapeutic approaches.

  13. Drosophila DBT Autophosphorylation of Its C-Terminal Domain Antagonized by SPAG and Involved in UV-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-Yuan; Means, John C; Bjes, Edward S; Price, Jeffrey L

    2015-07-01

    Drosophila DBT and vertebrate CKIε/δ phosphorylate the period protein (PER) to produce circadian rhythms. While the C termini of these orthologs are not conserved in amino acid sequence, they inhibit activity and become autophosphorylated in the fly and vertebrate kinases. Here, sites of C-terminal autophosphorylation were identified by mass spectrometry and analysis of DBT truncations. Mutation of 6 serines and threonines in the C terminus (DBT(C/ala)) prevented autophosphorylation-dependent DBT turnover and electrophoretic mobility shifts in S2 cells. Unlike the effect of autophosphorylation on CKIδ, DBT autophosphorylation in S2 cells did not reduce its in vitro activity. Moreover, overexpression of DBT(C/ala) did not affect circadian behavior differently from wild-type DBT (DBT(WT)), and neither exhibited daily electrophoretic mobility shifts, suggesting that DBT autophosphorylation is not required for clock function. While DBT(WT) protected S2 cells and larvae from UV-induced apoptosis and was phosphorylated and degraded by the proteasome, DBT(C/ala) did not protect and was not degraded. Finally, we show that the HSP-90 cochaperone spaghetti protein (SPAG) antagonizes DBT autophosphorylation in S2 cells. These results suggest that DBT autophosphorylation regulates cell death and suggest a potential mechanism by which the circadian clock might affect apoptosis.

  14. Extensive de novo solid-state NMR assignments of the 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenstein, Birgit [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France); Wasmer, Christian [Harvard Medical School (United States); Bousset, Luc; Sourigues, Yannick [UPR 3082 CNRS, Laboratoire d' Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales (France); Schuetz, Anne [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Loquet, Antoine [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Melki, Ronald, E-mail: melki@lebs.cnrs-gif.fr [UPR 3082 CNRS, Laboratoire d' Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales (France); Boeckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France)

    2011-11-15

    We present the de novo resonance assignments for the crystalline 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion using an optimized set of five 3D solid-state NMR spectra. We obtained, using a single uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeled protein sample, sequential chemical-shift information for 74% of the N, C{alpha}, C{beta} triples, and for 80% of further side-chain resonances for these spin systems. We describe the procedures and protocols devised, and discuss possibilities and limitations of the assignment of this largest protein assigned today by solid-state NMR, and for which no solution-state NMR shifts were available. A comparison of the NMR chemical shifts with crystallographic data reveals that regions with high crystallographic B-factors are particularly difficult to assign. While the secondary structure elements derived from the chemical shift data correspond mainly to those present in the X-ray crystal structure, we detect an additional helical element and structural variability in the protein crystal, most probably originating from the different molecules in the asymmetric unit, with the observation of doubled resonances in several parts, including entire stretches, of the protein. Our results provide the point of departure towards an atomic-resolution structural analysis of the C-terminal Ure2p domain in the context of the full-length prion fibrils.

  15. Effect of pH on the structure of the recombinant C-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes dragline silk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Martin; Leclerc, Jérémie; Lefèvre, Thierry; Gagné, Stéphane M; Auger, Michèle

    2014-12-08

    Spider silk proteins undergo a complex series of molecular events before being converted into an outstanding hierarchically organized fiber. Recent literature has underlined the crucial role of the C-terminal domain in silk protein stability and fiber formation. However, the effect of pH remains to be clarified. We have thus developed an efficient purification protocol to obtain stable native-like recombinant MaSp1 C-terminal domain of Nephila clavipes (NCCTD). Its structure was investigated as a function of pH using circular dichroism, fluorescence and solution NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the NCCTD structure is very sensitive to pH and suggest that a molten globule state occurs at pH 5.0 and below. Electronic microscopy images also indicate fiber formation at low pH and coarser globular particles at more basic pH. The results are consistent with a spinning process model where the NCCTD acts as an aggregation nucleus favoring the β-aggregation of the hydrophobic polyalanine repeats upon spinning.

  16. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the addiction antidote CcdA in complex with its toxin CcdB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buts, Lieven; De Jonge, Natalie; Loris, Remy, E-mail: reloris@vub.ac.be; Wyns, Lode; Dao-Thi, Minh-Hoa [Department of Molecular and Cellular Interactions, Vlaams Interinuversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie and Laboratorium voor Ultrastructuur, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussel (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    The CcdA C-terminal domain was crystallized in complex with CcdB in two crystal forms that diffract to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. CcdA and CcdB are the antidote and toxin of the ccd addiction module of Escherichia coli plasmid F. The CcdA C-terminal domain (CcdA{sub C36}; 36 amino acids) was crystallized in complex with CcdB (dimer of 2 × 101 amino acids) in three different crystal forms, two of which diffract to high resolution. Form II belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 37.6, b = 60.5, c = 83.8 Å and diffracts to 1.8 Å resolution. Form III belongs to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 41.0, b = 37.9, c = 69.6 Å, β = 96.9°, and diffracts to 1.9 Å resolution.

  17. The GSTM2 C-Terminal Domain Depresses Contractility and Ca2+ Transients in Neonatal Rat Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewawasam, Ruwani P.; Liu, Dan; Casarotto, Marco G.; Board, Philip G.; Dulhunty, Angela F.

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) is an intracellular ion channel that regulates Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) during excitation–contraction coupling in the heart. The glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of phase II detoxification enzymes with additional functions including the selective inhibition of RyR2, with therapeutic implications. The C-terminal half of GSTM2 (GSTM2C) is essential for RyR2 inhibition, and mutations F157A and Y160A within GSTM2C prevent the inhibitory action. Our objective in this investigation was to determine whether GSTM2C can enter cultured rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes and influence contractility. We show that oregon green-tagged GSTM2C (at 1 μM) is internalized into the myocytes and it reduces spontaneous contraction frequency and myocyte shortening. Field stimulation of myocytes evoked contraction in the same percentage of myocytes treated either with media alone or media plus 15 μM GSTM2C. Myocyte shortening during contraction was significantly reduced by exposure to 15 μM GSTM2C, but not 5 and 10 μM GSTM2C and was unaffected by exposure to 15 μM of the mutants Y160A or F157A. The amplitude of the Ca2+ transient in the 15 μM GSTM2C - treated myocytes was significantly decreased, the rise time was significantly longer and the decay time was significantly shorter than in control myocytes. The Ca2+ transient was not altered by exposure to Y160A or F157A. The results are consistent with GSTM2C entering the myocytes and inhibiting RyR2, in a manner that indicates a possible therapeutic potential for treatment of arrhythmia in the neonatal heart. PMID:27612301

  18. A Novel Bmal1 Mutant Mouse Reveals Essential Roles of the C-Terminal Domain on Circadian Rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noheon Park

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian clock is an endogenous biological timer comprised of transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes. Bmal1 encodes an indispensable transcription factor for the generation of circadian rhythms. Here, we report a new circadian mutant mouse from gene-trapped embryonic stem cells harboring a C-terminus truncated Bmal1 (Bmal1GTΔC allele. The homozygous mutant (Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice immediately lost circadian behavioral rhythms under constant darkness. The heterozygous (Bmal1+/GTΔC mice displayed a gradual loss of rhythms, in contrast to Bmal1+/- mice where rhythms were sustained. Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice also showed arrhythmic mRNA and protein expression in the SCN and liver. Lack of circadian reporter oscillation was also observed in cultured fibroblast cells, indicating that the arrhythmicity of Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice resulted from impaired molecular clock machinery. Expression of clock genes exhibited distinct responses to the mutant allele in Bmal1+/GTΔC and Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice. Despite normal cellular localization and heterodimerization with CLOCK, overexpressed BMAL1GTΔC was unable to activate transcription of Per1 promoter and BMAL1-dependent CLOCK degradation. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of Bmal1 has pivotal roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the Bmal1GTΔC mice constitute a novel model system to evaluate circadian functional mechanism of BMAL1.

  19. Bound or free: interaction of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) with the tetrameric core of SSB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xun-Cheng; Wang, Yao; Yagi, Hiromasa; Shishmarev, Dmitry; Mason, Claire E; Smith, Paul J; Vandevenne, Marylène; Dixon, Nicholas E; Otting, Gottfried

    2014-04-01

    Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein (SSB) protects ssDNA from degradation and recruits other proteins for DNA replication and repair. Escherichia coli SSB is the prototypical eubacterial SSB in a family of tetrameric SSBs. It consists of a structurally well-defined ssDNA binding domain (OB-domain) and a disordered C-terminal domain (C-domain). The eight-residue C-terminal segment of SSB (C-peptide) mediates the binding of SSB to many different SSB-binding proteins. Previously published nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data of the monomeric state at pH 3.4 showed that the C-peptide binds to the OB-domain at a site that overlaps with the ssDNA binding site, but investigating the protein at neutral pH is difficult because of the high molecular mass and limited solubility of the tetramer. Here we show that the C-domain is highly mobile in the SSB tetramer at neutral pH and that binding of the C-peptide to the OB-domain is so weak that most of the C-peptides are unbound even in the absence of ssDNA. We address the problem of determining intramolecular binding affinities in the situation of fast exchange between two states, one of which cannot be observed by NMR and cannot be fully populated. The results were confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and microscale thermophoresis. The C-peptide-OB-domain interaction is shown to be driven primarily by electrostatic interactions, so that binding of 1 equiv of (dT)35 releases practically all C-peptides from the OB-domain tetramer. The interaction is much more sensitive to NaCl than to potassium glutamate, which is the usual osmolyte in E. coli. As the C-peptide is predominantly in the unbound state irrespective of the presence of ssDNA, long-range electrostatic effects from the C-peptide may contribute more to regulating the activity of SSB than any engagement of the C-peptide by the OB-domain.

  20. The 60-kilodalton protein encoded by orf2 in the cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan functions like a C-terminal crystallization domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Corona, J Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A

    2012-03-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC(95)] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC(95) = 8.2 μg/ml).

  1. A novel COL4A1 frameshift mutation in familial kidney disease: the importance of the C-terminal NC1 domain of type IV collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Daniel P.; Oygar, D. Deren; Lin, Fujun; Oygar, P. Derin; Khan, Nadia; Connor, Thomas M.F.; Lapsley, Marta; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Neild, Guy H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hereditary microscopic haematuria often segregates with mutations of COL4A3, COL4A4 or COL4A5 but in half of families a gene is not identified. We investigated a Cypriot family with autosomal dominant microscopic haematuria with renal failure and kidney cysts. Methods We used genome-wide linkage analysis, whole exome sequencing and cosegregation analyses. Results We identified a novel frameshift mutation, c.4611_4612insG:p.T1537fs, in exon 49 of COL4A1. This mutation predicts truncation of the protein with disruption of the C-terminal part of the NC1 domain. We confirmed its presence in 20 family members, 17 with confirmed haematuria, 5 of whom also had stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease. Eleven family members exhibited kidney cysts (55% of those with the mutation), but muscle cramps or cerebral aneurysms were not observed and serum creatine kinase was normal in all individuals tested. Conclusions Missense mutations of COL4A1 that encode the CB3 [IV] segment of the triple helical domain (exons 24 and 25) are associated with HANAC syndrome (hereditary angiopathy, nephropathy, aneurysms and cramps). Missense mutations of COL4A1 that disrupt the NC1 domain are associated with antenatal cerebral haemorrhage and porencephaly, but not kidney disease. Our findings extend the spectrum of COL4A1 mutations linked with renal disease and demonstrate that the highly conserved C-terminal part of the NC1 domain of the α1 chain of type IV collagen is important in the integrity of glomerular basement membrane in humans. PMID:27190376

  2. The Role of MUC1 Cytoplasmic Domain in Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    5 AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0476 TITLE: The Role of MUCI Cytoplasmic Domain in Tumorigenesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Assah Al-Masri CONTRACTING ...The overall aim of the research is to develop a better understanding of the role of MUCI in breast cancer. Loss of Mucl (mouse homologue of MUC1...significant delay in tumor progression that is observed in the absence of Mucl . We suggest that the interaction of Mucl with c-Src, a key player in PyV MT

  3. A protein kinase binds the C-terminal domain of the readthrough protein of Turnip yellows virus and regulates virus accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Medina, Caren; Boissinot, Sylvaine; Chapuis, Sophie; Gereige, Dalya; Rastegar, Maryam; Erdinger, Monique; Revers, Frédéric; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    Turnip yellows virus (TuYV), a phloem-limited virus, encodes a 74kDa protein known as the readthrough protein (RT) involved in virus movement. We show here that a TuYV mutant deleted of the C-terminal part of the RT protein (TuYV-∆RTCter) was affected in long-distance trafficking in a host-specific manner. By using the C-terminal domain of the RT protein as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a phloem cDNA library from Arabidopsis thaliana we identified the calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase-7 (AtCIPK7). Transient expression of a GFP:CIPK7 fusion protein in virus-inoculated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves led to local increase of wild-type TuYV accumulation, but not that of TuYV-∆RTCter. Surprisingly, elevated virus titer in inoculated leaves did not result in higher TuYV accumulation in systemic leaves, which indicates that virus long-distance movement was not affected. Since GFP:CIPK7 was localized in or near plasmodesmata, CIPK7 could negatively regulate TuYV export from infected cells.

  4. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Baisakhi; Banerjee, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700) forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D) also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS) was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS. PMID:26617997

  5. Urea Unfolding Study of E. coli Alanyl-tRNA Synthetase and Its Monomeric Variants Proves the Role of C-Terminal Domain in Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baisakhi Banerjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available E. coli alanyl-tRNA exists as a dimer in its native form and the C-terminal coiled-coil part plays an important role in the dimerization process. The truncated N-terminal containing the first 700 amino acids (1–700 forms a monomeric variant possessing similar aminoacylation activity like wild type. A point mutation in the C-terminal domain (G674D also produces a monomeric variant with a fivefold reduced aminoacylation activity compared to the wild type enzyme. Urea induced denaturation of these monomeric mutants along with another alaRS variant (N461 alaRS was studied together with the full-length enzyme using various spectroscopic techniques such as intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, 1-anilino-8-naphthalene-sulfonic acid binding, near- and far-UV circular dichroism, and analytical ultracentrifugation. Aminoacylation activity assay after refolding from denatured state revealed that the monomeric mutants studied here were unable to regain their activity, whereas the dimeric full-length alaRS gets back similar activity as the native enzyme. This study indicates that dimerization is one of the key regulatory factors that is important in the proper folding and stability of E. coli alaRS.

  6. The C-terminal domain of the Arabinosyltransferase Mycobacterium tuberculosis EmbC is a lectin-like carbohydrate binding module.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J Alderwick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The D-arabinan-containing polymers arabinogalactan (AG and lipoarabinomannan (LAM are essential components of the unique cell envelope of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosynthesis of AG and LAM involves a series of membrane-embedded arabinofuranosyl (Araf transferases whose structures are largely uncharacterised, despite the fact that several of them are pharmacological targets of ethambutol, a frontline drug in tuberculosis therapy. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ethambutol-sensitive Araf transferase M. tuberculosis EmbC, which is essential for LAM synthesis. The structure of the C-terminal domain of EmbC (EmbC(CT encompasses two sub-domains of different folds, of which subdomain II shows distinct similarity to lectin-like carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM. Co-crystallisation with a cell wall-derived di-arabinoside acceptor analogue and structural comparison with ligand-bound CBMs suggest that EmbC(CT contains two separate carbohydrate binding sites, associated with subdomains I and II, respectively. Single-residue substitution of conserved tryptophan residues (Trp868, Trp985 at these respective sites inhibited EmbC-catalysed extension of LAM. The same substitutions differentially abrogated binding of di- and penta-arabinofuranoside acceptor analogues to EmbC(CT, linking the loss of activity to compromised acceptor substrate binding, indicating the presence of two separate carbohydrate binding sites, and demonstrating that subdomain II indeed functions as a carbohydrate-binding module. This work provides the first step towards unravelling the structure and function of a GT-C-type glycosyltransferase that is essential in M. tuberculosis.

  7. A novel missense mutation in the C-terminal domain of lipoprotein lipase (Glu410-->Val) leads to enzyme inactivation and familial chylomicronemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previato, L; Guardamagna, O; Dugi, K A; Ronan, R; Talley, G D; Santamarina-Fojo, S; Brewer, H B

    1994-09-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a complex enzyme consisting of multiple functional domains essential for the initial hydrolysis of triglycerides present in plasma lipoproteins. Previous studies have localized the catalytic domain of LPL, responsible for the hydrolytic function of the enzyme, to the N-terminus whereas the C-terminal end may play a role in lipid and heparin binding. To date, most described missense mutations resulting in a nonfunctional LPL have been located in the N-terminal region of the enzyme. In this manuscript we describe the defect in the LPL gene of a patient with triglycerides ranging from normal to 12,000 mg/dl, low LPL mass, and no LPL activity in post-heparin plasma. Sequencing of patient PCR-amplified DNA identified two separate mutations in the C-terminal domain of LPL: an A-->T transversion at nucleotide 1484 resulting in a Glu410-->Val substitution and a C-->G mutation at position 1595 that introduces a premature stop codon at position 447. Digestion with MaeIII and MnII established that the patient is a true homozygote for both mutations. In order to investigate the functional significance of these defects, mutant enzymes containing either the Val410 or the Ter447 mutations as well as both Val410 and Ter447, were expressed in vitro. Compared to the wild-type enzyme, LPL447 demonstrated a moderate reduction of specific activity using triolein (70% of normal) and tributyrin (74% of normal) substrates, while LPL410 had a significant (11% and 23% of normal) reduction of the normal lipase and esterase specific activities, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Peptide from the C-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) inhibits membrane activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Mikhailova, Margarita; Chen, Zhihua; Pal, Sanjay; Robichaud, Trista K; Lafer, Eileen M; Baber, Sam; Steffensen, Bjorn

    2011-09-01

    Cellular activation of latent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) requires formation of a cell membrane-associated activation complex that involves specific binding between the hemopexin domain of proMMP-2 (PEX) and the C-terminal domain of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (C-TIMP-2). In this study, we tested the feasibility of inhibiting activation of proMMP-2 by exogenous inhibitors, which block the binding between PEX and TIMP-2. The recombinant C-TIMP-2 and synthetic peptides from C-TIMP-2 were used as inhibitors for proMMP-2 activation. Recombinant C-TIMP-2 bound specifically to both the catalytically inactive MMP-2(E404A) and the C-terminal domain of MMP-2 (PEX) in a concentration dependent manner with apparent K(d) of 3.9×10(-7)M and 1.7×10(-7)M, respectively. Moreover, C-TIMP-2 competed the binding between MMP-2(E404A) and full-length TIMP-2. Finally, activity assays showed that addition of C-TIMP-2 to HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells inhibited proMMP-2 activation in a concentration-dependent manner. We then designed a synthetic peptide, P175L, consisting of 20 residues from the PEX-binding tail region of C-TIMP-2. P175L bound PEX and inhibited cell membrane-mediated activation of proMMP-2 in a concentration dependent manner. Deletion of the last 9 tail residues of C-TIMP-2 in P175L abrogated the inhibitory activities of the peptide showing that these residues were essential for function. Overall, these experiments have demonstrated that proMMP-2 activation can be inhibited by exogenous inhibitors which points to a potential strategy for MMP-2 specific inhibition.

  9. Interaction between the tRNA-binding and C-terminal domains of Yeast Gcn2 regulates kinase activity in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lageix

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The stress-activated protein kinase Gcn2 regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α. Gcn2 is activated in amino acid-deprived cells by binding of uncharged tRNA to the regulatory domain related to histidyl-tRNA synthetase, but the molecular mechanism of activation is unclear. We used a genetic approach to identify a key regulatory surface in Gcn2 that is proximal to the predicted active site of the HisRS domain and likely remodeled by tRNA binding. Mutations leading to amino acid substitutions on this surface were identified that activate Gcn2 at low levels of tRNA binding (Gcd- phenotype, while other substitutions block kinase activation (Gcn- phenotype, in some cases without altering tRNA binding by Gcn2 in vitro. Remarkably, the Gcn- substitutions increase affinity of the HisRS domain for the C-terminal domain (CTD, previously implicated as a kinase autoinhibitory segment, in a manner dampened by HisRS domain Gcd- substitutions and by amino acid starvation in vivo. Moreover, tRNA specifically antagonizes HisRS/CTD association in vitro. These findings support a model wherein HisRS-CTD interaction facilitates the autoinhibitory function of the CTD in nonstarvation conditions, with tRNA binding eliciting kinase activation by weakening HisRS-CTD association with attendant disruption of the autoinhibitory KD-CTD interaction.

  10. A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    . In dopamine transporter-AAA neurons, but not in wild-type neurons, surface levels are rescued in part by expression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutation (K44A). Our findings suggest that PDZ-domain interactions are critical for synaptic distribution of dopamine transporter in vivo and thereby for proper...

  11. Recombinant expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal DUF490963–1138 domain of TamB from Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josts, Inokentijs; Grinter, Rhys; Kelly, Sharon M.; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander; Cogdell, Richard; Smith, Brian O.; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    TamB is a recently described inner membrane protein that, together with its partner protein TamA, is required for the efficient secretion of a subset of autotransporter proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the C-terminal DUF490963–1138 domain of TamB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli K-12, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.34, c = 220.74 Å, and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary secondary-structure and X-ray diffraction analyses are reported. Two molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit. Experimental phasing using selenomethionine-labelled protein will be undertaken in the future. PMID:25195908

  12. Crystallographic characterization of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of adhesion molecule CD44

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Tomoyuki; Kitano, Ken; Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Maesaki, Ryoko; Hakoshima, Toshio, E-mail: hakosima@bs.naist.jp [Structural Biology Laboratory, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Keihanna Science City, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    The radixin FERM domain complexed with the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide has been crystallized. A diffraction data set from the complex was collected to 2.1 Å. CD44 is an important adhesion molecule that specifically binds hyaluronic acid and regulates cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Increasing evidence has indicated that CD44 is assembled in a regulated manner into the membrane–cytoskeletal junction, a process that is mediated by ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins. Crystals of a complex between the radixin FERM domain and the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD44 have been obtained. The crystal of the radixin FERM domain bound to the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.70, b = 66.18, c = 86.22 Å, and contain one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å.

  13. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Maria A; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-05-03

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called "nucleoid occlusion" (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator-CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ-regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA-DNA-FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA's NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins.

  14. Central domain of DivIB caps the C-terminal regions of the FtsL/DivIC coiled-coil rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Soizic; Kern, Thomas; Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Giustini, Cécile; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Callow, Philip; Vernet, Thierry; Gabel, Frank; Zapun, André

    2009-10-02

    DivIB(FtsQ), FtsL, and DivIC(FtsB) are enigmatic membrane proteins that are central to the process of bacterial cell division. DivIB(FtsQ) is dispensable in specific conditions in some species, and appears to be absent in other bacterial species. The presence of FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) appears to be conserved despite very low sequence conservation. The three proteins form a complex at the division site, FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) being associated through their extracellular coiled-coil region. We report here structural investigations by NMR, small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering, and interaction studies by surface plasmon resonance, of the complex of DivIB, FtsL, and DivIC from Streptococcus pneumoniae, using soluble truncated forms of the proteins. We found that one side of the "bean"-shaped central beta-domain of DivIB interacts with the C-terminal regions of the dimer of FtsL and DivIC. This finding is corroborated by sequence comparisons across bacterial genomes. Indeed, DivIB is absent from species with shorter FtsL and DivIC proteins that have an extracellular domain consisting only of the coiled-coil segment without C-terminal conserved regions (Campylobacterales). We propose that the main role of the interaction of DivIB with FtsL and DivIC is to help the formation, or to stabilize, the coiled-coil of the latter proteins. The coiled-coil of FtsL and DivIC, itself or with transmembrane regions, could be free to interact with other partners.

  15. Structural insights into the recognition of β3 integrin cytoplasmic tail by the SH3 domain of Src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Priya; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga

    2013-10-01

    Src kinase plays an important role in integrin signaling by regulating cytoskeletal organization and cell remodeling. Previous in vivo studies have revealed that the SH3 domain of c-Src kinase directly associates with the C-terminus of β3 integrin cytoplasmic tail. Here, we explore this binding interface with a combination of different spectroscopic and computational methods. Chemical shift mapping, PRE, transferred NOE and CD data were used to obtain a docked model of the complex. This model suggests a different binding mode from the one proposed through previous studies wherein, the C-terminal end of β3 spans the region in between the RT and n-Src loops of SH3 domain. Furthermore, we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of β3 prevents this interaction, supporting the notion of a constitutive interaction between β3 integrin and Src kinase.

  16. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-08

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP.

  17. The TAF9 C-terminal conserved region domain is required for SAGA and TFIID promoter occupancy to promote transcriptional activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint, Malika; Sawhney, Sonal; Sinha, Ishani; Singh, Rana Pratap; Dahiya, Rashmi; Thakur, Anushikha; Siddharthan, Rahul; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2014-05-01

    A common function of the TFIID and SAGA complexes, which are recruited by transcriptional activators, is to deliver TBP to promoters to stimulate transcription. Neither the relative contributions of the five shared TBP-associated factor (TAF) subunits in TFIID and SAGA nor the requirement for different domains in shared TAFs for transcriptional activation is well understood. In this study, we uncovered the essential requirement for the highly conserved C-terminal region (CRD) of Taf9, a shared TAF, for transcriptional activation in yeast. Transcriptome profiling performed under Gcn4-activating conditions showed that the Taf9 CRD is required for induced expression of ∼9% of the yeast genome. The CRD was not essential for the Taf9-Taf6 interaction, TFIID or SAGA integrity, or Gcn4 interaction with SAGA in cell extracts. Microarray profiling of a SAGA mutant (spt20Δ) yielded a common set of genes induced by Spt20 and the Taf9 CRD. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that, although the Taf9 CRD mutation did not impair Gcn4 occupancy, the occupancies of TFIID, SAGA, and the preinitiation complex were severely impaired at several promoters. These results suggest a crucial role for the Taf9 CRD in genome-wide transcription and highlight the importance of conserved domains, other than histone fold domains, as a common determinant for TFIID and SAGA functions.

  18. A Conserved C-Terminal Domain of the Aspergillus fumigatus Developmental Regulator MedA Is Required for Nuclear Localization, Adhesion and Virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Abdallah, Qusai; Choe, Se-In; Campoli, Paolo; Baptista, Stefanie; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Lee, Mark J.; Sheppard, Donald C.

    2012-01-01

    MedA is a developmental regulator that is conserved in the genome of most filamentous fungi. In the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus MedA regulates conidiogenesis, adherence to host cells, and pathogenicity. The mechanism by which MedA governs these phenotypes remains unknown. Although the nuclear import of MedA orthologues has been reported in other fungi, no nuclear localization signal, DNA-binding domain or other conserved motifs have been identified within MedA. In this work, we performed a deletion analysis of MedA and identified a novel domain within the C-terminal region of the protein, designated MedA346–557, that is necessary and sufficient for nuclear localization of MedA. We further demonstrate that MedA nuclear localization is required for the function of MedA. Surprisingly, expression of the minimal nuclear localization fragment MedA346–557 alone was sufficient to restore conidogenesis, biofilm formation and virulence to the medA mutant strain. Collectively these results suggest that MedA functions in the regulation of transcription, and that the MedA346–557 domain is both necessary and sufficient to mediate MedA function. PMID:23185496

  19. The C-terminal domains of NF-H and NF-M subunits maintain axonal neurofilament content by blocking turnover of the stationary neurofilament network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala V Rao

    Full Text Available Newly synthesized neurofilaments or protofilaments are incorporated into a highly stable stationary cytoskeleton network as they are transported along axons. Although the heavily phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal tail domains of the heavy and medium neurofilament (NF subunits have been proposed to contribute to this process and particularly to stability of this structure, their function is still obscure. Here we show in NF-H/M tail deletion [NF-(H/M(tailΔ] mice that the deletion of both of these domains selectively lowers NF levels 3-6 fold along optic axons without altering either rates of subunit synthesis or the rate of slow axonal transport of NF. Pulse labeling studies carried out over 90 days revealed a significantly faster rate of disappearance of NF from the stationary NF network of optic axons in NF-(H/M(tailΔ mice. Faster NF disappearance was accompanied by elevated levels of NF-L proteolytic fragments in NF-(H/M(tailΔ axons. We conclude that NF-H and NF-M C-terminal domains do not normally regulate NF transport rates as previously proposed, but instead increase the proteolytic resistance of NF, thereby stabilizing the stationary neurofilament cytoskeleton along axons.

  20. Identification and Preparation of a Novel Chemokine Receptor-Binding Domain in the Cytoplasmic Regulator FROUNT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Akihiro; Yoshinaga, Sosuke; Yunoki, Kaori; Ezaki, Soichiro; Yano, Kotaro; Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Toda, Etsuko; Terashima, Yuya; Matsushima, Kouji; Terasawa, Hiroaki

    2017-03-24

    FROUNT is a cytoplasmic protein that binds to the membrane-proximal C-terminal regions (Pro-Cs) of chemokine receptors, CCR2 and CCR5. The FROUNT-chemokine receptor interactions play a pivotal role in the migration of inflammatory immune cells, indicating the potential of FROUNT as a drug target for inflammatory diseases. To provide the foundation for drug development, structural information of the Pro-C binding region of FROUNT is desired. Here, we defined the novel structural domain (FNT-CB), which mediates the interaction with the chemokine receptors. A recombinant GST-tag-fused FNT-CB protein expression system was constructed. The protein was purified by affinity chromatography and then subjected to in-gel protease digestion of the GST-tag. The released FNT-CB was further purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified FNT-CB adopts a helical structure, as indicated by CD. NMR line-broadening indicated that weak aggregation occurred at sub-millimolar concentrations, but the line-broadening was mitigated by using a deuterated sample in concert with transverse relaxation-optimized spectroscopy. The specific binding of FNT-CB to CCR2 Pro-C was confirmed by the fluorescence-based assay. The improved NMR spectral quality and the retained functional activity of FNT-CB support the feasibility of further structural and functional studies targeted at the anti-inflammatory drug development.

  1. The structure of the RNA m5C methyltransferase YebU from Escherichia coli reveals a C-terminal RNA-recruiting PUA domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, B Martin; Ericsson, Ulrika B; Johnson, Kenneth A; Andersen, Niels Møller; Douthwaite, Stephen; Nordlund, Pär; Beuscher, Albert E; Erlandsen, Heidi

    2006-07-21

    Nucleotide methylations are the most common type of rRNA modification in bacteria, and are introduced post-transcriptionally by a wide variety of site-specific enzymes. Three 5-methylcytidine (m(5)C) bases are found in the rRNAs of Escherichia coli and one of these, at nucleotide 1407 in 16 S rRNA, is the modification product of the methyltransferase (MTase) YebU (also called RsmF). YebU requires S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) and methylates C1407 within assembled 30 S subunits, but not in naked 16 S rRNA or within tight-couple 70 S ribosomes. Here, we describe the three-dimensional structure of YebU determined by X-ray crystallography, and we present a molecular model for how YebU specifically recognizes, binds and methylates its ribosomal substrate. The YebU protein has an N-terminal SAM-binding catalytic domain with structural similarity to the equivalent domains in several other m(5)C RNA MTases including RsmB and PH1374. The C-terminal one-third of YebU contains a domain similar to that in pseudouridine synthases and archaeosine-specific transglycosylases (PUA-domain), which was not predicted by sequence alignments. Furthermore, YebU is predicted to contain extended regions of positive electrostatic potential that differ from other RNA-MTase structures, suggesting that YebU interacts with its RNA target in a different manner. Docking of YebU onto the 30 S subunit indicates that the PUA and MTase domains make several contacts with 16 S rRNA as well as with the ribosomal protein S12. The ribosomal protein interactions would explain why the assembled 30 S subunit, and not naked 16 S rRNA, is the preferred substrate for YebU.

  2. Crystal structures of histone and p53 methyltransferase SmyD2 reveal a conformational flexibility of the autoinhibitory C-terminal domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Jiang

    Full Text Available SmyD2 belongs to a new class of chromatin regulators that control gene expression in heart development and tumorigenesis. Besides methylation of histone H3 K4, SmyD2 can methylate non-histone targets including p53 and the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor. The methyltransferase activity of SmyD proteins has been proposed to be regulated by autoinhibition via the intra- and interdomain bending of the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD. However, there has been no direct evidence of a conformational change in the CTD. Here, we report two crystal structures of SmyD2 bound either to the cofactor product S-adenosylhomocysteine or to the inhibitor sinefungin. SmyD2 has a two-lobed structure with the active site located at the bottom of a deep crevice formed between the CTD and the catalytic domain. By extensive engagement with the methyltransferase domain, the CTD stabilizes the autoinhibited conformation of SmyD2 and restricts access to the catalytic site. Unexpectedly, despite that the two SmyD2 structures are highly superimposable, significant differences are observed in the first two helices of the CTDs: the two helices bend outwards and move away from the catalytic domain to generate a less closed conformation in the sinefungin-bound structure. Although the overall fold of the individual domains is structurally conserved among SmyD proteins, SmyD2 appear to be a conformational "intermediate" between a close form of SmyD3 and an open form of SmyD1. In addition, the structures reveal that the CTD is structurally similar to tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR, a motif through which many cochaperones bind to the heat shock protein Hsp90. Our results thus provide the first evidence for the intradomain flexibility of the TPR-like CTD, which may be important for the activation of SmyD proteins by Hsp90.

  3. Pub1p C-terminal RRM domain interacts with Tif4631p through a conserved region neighbouring the Pab1p binding site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M Santiveri

    Full Text Available Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3 shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM. Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to β-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1-402 of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p, very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role.

  4. Structural Insights into the Calcium-Mediated Allosteric Transition in the C-Terminal Domain of Calmodulin from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukic, Predrag; Lundström, Patrik; Camilloni, Carlo; Evenäs, Johan; Akke, Mikael; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2016-01-12

    Calmodulin is a two-domain signaling protein that becomes activated upon binding cooperatively two pairs of calcium ions, leading to large-scale conformational changes that expose its binding site. Despite significant advances in understanding the structural biology of calmodulin functions, the mechanistic details of the conformational transition between closed and open states have remained unclear. To investigate this transition, we used a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments on the Ca(2+)-saturated E140Q C-terminal domain variant. Using chemical shift restraints in replica-averaged metadynamics simulations, we obtained a high-resolution structural ensemble consisting of two conformational states and validated such an ensemble against three independent experimental data sets, namely, interproton nuclear Overhauser enhancements, (15)N order parameters, and chemical shift differences between the exchanging states. Through a detailed analysis of this structural ensemble and of the corresponding statistical weights, we characterized a calcium-mediated conformational transition whereby the coordination of Ca(2+) by just one oxygen of the bidentate ligand E140 triggers a concerted movement of the two EF-hands that exposes the target binding site. This analysis provides atomistic insights into a possible Ca(2+)-mediated activation mechanism of calmodulin that cannot be achieved from static structures alone or from ensemble NMR measurements of the transition between conformations.

  5. Penicillin-binding protein 2x of Streptococcus pneumoniae: the mutation Ala707Asp within the C-terminal PASTA2 domain leads to destabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Inga; Peters, Katharina; Stahlmann, Christoph; Hakenbeck, Regine; Denapaite, Dalia

    2014-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) is an enzyme involved in the last stages of peptidoglycan assembly and essential for bacterial growth and survival. PBP2x localizes to the division site, a process that depends on its Penicillin-Binding Protein And Serine-Threonine-kinase Associated (PASTA) domains, which was previously demonstrated via GFP-PBP2x in living cells. During this study a mutant strain was isolated in which the GFP-PBP2x fusion protein did not localize at division sites and it contained reduced amounts of the full-length GFP-PBP2x. We now show that this defect is due to a point mutation within the C-terminal PASTA2 domain of PBP2x. The mutant protein was analyzed in detail in terms of beta-lactam binding, functionality, and localization in live cells. We demonstrate that the mutation affects the GFP-tagged PBP2x variant severely and renders it susceptible to the protease/chaperone HtrA.

  6. Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase: role of amino acids conserved in the linker region and in the C-terminal domain on the specific recognition of the initiator tRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gite, S; Li, Y; Ramesh, V; RajBhandary, U L

    2000-03-01

    The formylation of initiator methionyl-tRNA by methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTF) is important for the initiation of protein synthesis in eubacteria. We are studying the molecular mechanisms of recognition of the initiator tRNA by Escherichia coli MTF. MTF from eubacteria contains an approximately 100-amino acid C-terminal extension that is not found in the E. coli glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase, which, like MTF, use N(10)-formyltetrahydrofolate as a formyl group donor. This C-terminal extension, which forms a distinct structural domain, is attached to the N-terminal domain through a linker region. Here, we describe the effect of (i) substitution mutations on some nineteen basic, aromatic and other conserved amino acids in the linker region and in the C-terminal domain of MTF and (ii) deletion mutations from the C-terminus on enzyme activity. We show that the positive charge on two of the lysine residues in the linker region leading to the C-terminal domain are important for enzyme activity. Mutation of some of the basic amino acids in the C-terminal domain to alanine has mostly small effects on the kinetic parameters, whereas mutation to glutamic acid has large effects. However, the deletion of 18, 20, or 80 amino acids from the C-terminus has very large effects on enzyme activity. Overall, our results support the notion that the basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal domain provide a positively charged channel that is used for the nonspecific binding of tRNA, whereas some of the amino acids in the linker region play an important role in activity of MTF.

  7. Elongation of the C-terminal domain of an anti-amyloid β single-chain variable fragment increases its thermodynamic stability and decreases its aggregation tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hernández, Geovanny; Marin-Argany, Marta; Blasco-Moreno, Bernat; Bonet, Jaume; Oliva, Baldo; Villegas, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) immunotherapy is considered a promising approach to Alzheimer disease treatment. In contrast to the use of complete antibodies, administration of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) has not been associated with either meningoencephalitis or cerebral hemorrhage. ScFv-h3D6 is known to preclude cytotoxicity of the Aβ 1-42 peptide by removing its oligomers from the amyloid pathway. As is the case for other scFv molecules, the recombinant production of scFv-h3D6 is limited by its folding and stability properties. Here, we show that its urea-induced unfolding pathway is characterized by the presence of an intermediate state composed of the unfolded VL domain and the folded VH domain, which suggests the VL domain as a target for thermodynamic stability redesign. The modeling of the 3D structure revealed that the VL domain, located at the C-terminal of the molecule, was ending before its latest β-strand was completed. Three elongation mutants, beyond VL-K107, showed increased thermodynamic stability and lower aggregation tendency, as determined from urea denaturation experiments and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Because the mutants maintained the capability of removing Aβ-oligomers from the amyloid pathway, we expect these traits to increase the half-life of scFv-h3D6 in vivo and, consequently, to decrease the effective doses. Our results led to the improvement of a potential Alzheimer disease treatment and may be extrapolated to other class-I scFv molecules of therapeutic interest.

  8. A novel C-terminal domain of RecJ is critical for interaction with HerA in Deinococcus radiodurans

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    Kaiying eCheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination (HR generates error-free repair products, which plays an important role in double strand break repair and replication fork rescue processes. DNA end resection, the critical step in HR, is usually performed by a series of nuclease/helicase. RecJ was identified as a 5’-3’ exonuclease involved in bacterial DNA end resection. Typical RecJ possesses a conserved DHH domain, a DHHA1 domain, and an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB fold. However, RecJs from Deinococcus-Thermus phylum, such as Deinococcus radiodurans RecJ (DrRecJ, possess an extra C-terminal domain (CTD, of which the function has not been characterized. Here, we showed that a CTD-deletion of DrRecJ (DrRecJΔC could not restore drrecJ mutant growth and mitomycin C (MMC-sensitive phenotypes, indicating that this domain is essential for DrRecJ in vivo. DrRecJΔC displayed reduced DNA nuclease activity and DNA binding ability. Direct interaction was identified between DrRecJ-CTD and DrHerA, which stimulates DrRecJ nuclease activity by enhancing its DNA binding affinity. Moreover, DrNurA nuclease, another partner of DrHerA, inhibited the stimulation of DrHerA on DrRecJ nuclease activity by interaction with DrHerA. Opposing growth and MMC-resistance phenotypes between the recJ and nurA mutants were observed. A novel modulation mechanism among DrRecJ, DrHerA, and DrNurA was also suggested.

  9. CBF mediates adenovirus Ela trans-activation by interaction at the C-terminal promoter targeting domain of conserved region 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoff, S N; Wu, B

    1994-12-01

    Genetic and biochemical evidence suggest that conserved region 3 (CR3) of the adenovirus Ela polypeptide can provide two distinct and separable functions: an N-terminal transcriptional activation region and a C-terminal promoter targeting region. It is thought that the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 interacts with promoter-specific transcription factors, thereby bringing the activation region of Ela CR3 in proximity of the promoter. Here we report that CBF, a CCAAT-box-binding factor that regulates hsp70 gene expression and mediates Ela trans-activation in vivo, interacts with the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 in vitro. Point mutations in Ela CR3 that are defective in stimulating transcription from the hsp70 promoter are also defective in stimulating transcription directed by a synthetic activator, GAL-CBF, composed of the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4 fused to CBF. These mutations fall into two classes with respect to their abilities to interact with CBF in vitro. Mutations in the transcriptional activation region of Ela CR3 do not affect binding to CBF, but mutation of the promoter targeting region of Ela CR3 prevents association with CBF in vitro.

  10. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  11. Characterization of the promoter and extended C-terminal domain of Arabidopsis WRKY33 and functional analysis of tomato WRKY33 homologues in plant stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Zuyu; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-08-01

    Arabidopsis AtWRKY33 plays a critical role in broad plant stress responses. Whether there are evolutionarily conserved homologues of AtWRKY33 in other plants and what make AtWRKY33 such an important protein in plant stress responses are largely unknown. We compared AtWRKY33 with its close homologues to identify AtWRKY33-specific regulatory and structural elements, which were then functionally analysed through complementation. We also performed phylogenetic analysis to identify structural AtWRKY33 homologues in other plants and functionally analysed two tomato homologues through complementation and gene silencing. AtWRKY33 has an extended C-terminal domain (CTD) absent in its close homologue AtWRKY25. Both its CTD and the strong pathogen/stress-responsive expression of AtWRKY33 are necessary to complement the critical phenotypes of atwrky33. Structural AtWRKY33 homologues were identified in both dicot and monocot plants including two (SlWRKY33A and SlWRKY33B) in tomato. Molecular complementation and gene silencing confirmed that the two tomato WRKY genes play a critical role similar to that of AtWRKY33 in plant stress responses. Thus, WRKY33 proteins are evolutionarily conserved with a critical role in broad plant stress responses. Both its CTD and promoter are critical for the uniquely important roles of WRKY33 in plant stress responses.

  12. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 phosphorylates s/t-p sites in the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain and is incorporated into viral capsids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludgate, Laurie; Ning, Xiaojun; Nguyen, David H; Adams, Christina; Mentzer, Laura; Hu, Jianming

    2012-11-01

    Phosphorylation of the hepadnavirus core protein C-terminal domain (CTD) is important for viral RNA packaging, reverse transcription, and subcellular localization. Hepadnavirus capsids also package a cellular kinase. The identity of the host kinase that phosphorylates the core CTD or gets packaged remains to be resolved. In particular, both the human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) core CTDs harbor several conserved serine/threonine-proline (S/T-P) sites whose phosphorylation state is known to regulate CTD functions. We report here that the endogenous kinase in the HBV capsids was blocked by chemical inhibitors of the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), in particular, CDK2 inhibitors. The kinase phosphorylated the HBV CTD at the serine-proline (S-P) sites. Furthermore, we were able to detect CDK2 in purified HBV capsids by immunoblotting. Purified CDK2 phosphorylated the S/T-P sites of the HBV and DHBV CTD in vitro. Inhibitors of CDKs, of CDK2 in particular, decreased both HBV and DHBV CTD phosphorylation in vivo. Moreover, CDK2 inhibitors blocked DHBV CTD phosphorylation, specifically at the S/T-P sites, in a mammalian cell lysate. These results indicate that cellular CDK2 phosphorylates the functionally critical S/T-P sites of the hepadnavirus core CTD and is incorporated into viral capsids.

  13. Evidence that the amyloid-β protein precursor intracellular domain, AICD, derives from β-secretase-generated C-terminal fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammang, Brice; Pardossi-Piquard, Raphaëlle; Sevalle, Jean; Debayle, Delphine; Dabert-Gay, Anne-Sophie; Thévenet, Aurélie; Lauritzen, Inger; Checler, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    One of the major pathological hallmarks of brains affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the senile plaque, an extracellular deposit mainly composed of a set of highly insoluble peptides of various lengths (39-43 amino acids) referred to as amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Aβ peptides are derived from combined proteolytic cleavages undergone on the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by a set of enzymes called secretases. Several lines of anatomical and biological evidence suggest that Aβ peptides would not account for all pathological stigmata and molecular dysfunctions taking place in AD. In amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways, AβPP first undergoes β- or α-secretases-mediated cleavages yielding C99 and C83, respectively. These two membrane-embedded C-terminal fragments are both potential targets of subsequent γ-secretase-mediated proteolysis. The latter cleavage not only generates either p3 or Aβ peptides but similarly gives rise to an AβPP IntraCellular Domain (AICD fragment) that could modulate the transcription of several genes linked to AD pathology. It is therefore striking that AICD theoretically derives from both amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic AβPP processing pathways. Here we show that AICD predominantly derives from C99 by means of recombinant substrates and transiently transfected cells expressing C99. Our data suggest a preferred pathogenic pathway for AICD production and suggests that this fragment, in addition to C99 and Aβ peptides, could contribute to AD pathology.

  14. Loss of c-Kit and bone marrow failure upon conditional removal of the GATA-2 C-terminal zinc finger domain in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan S; Jin, Jin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Matatall, Katie A; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Huiyuan; Ullrich, Stephen E; King, Katherine Y; Sun, Shao-Cong; Watowich, Stephanie S

    2016-09-01

    Heterozygous mutations in the transcriptional regulator GATA-2 associate with multilineage immunodeficiency, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The majority of these mutations localize in the zinc finger (ZnF) domains, which mediate GATA-2 DNA binding. Deregulated hematopoiesis with GATA-2 mutation frequently develops in adulthood, yet GATA-2 function in the bone marrow remains unresolved. To investigate this, we conditionally deleted the GATA-2 C-terminal ZnF (C-ZnF) coding sequences in adult mice. Upon Gata2 C-ZnF deletion, we observed rapid peripheral cytopenia, bone marrow failure, and decreased c-Kit expression on hematopoietic progenitors. Transplant studies indicated GATA-2 has a cell-autonomous role in bone marrow hematopoiesis. Moreover, myeloid lineage populations were particularly sensitive to Gata2 hemizygosity, while molecular assays indicated GATA-2 regulates c-Kit expression in multilineage progenitor cells. Enforced c-Kit expression in Gata2 C-ZnF-deficient hematopoietic progenitors enhanced myeloid colony activity, suggesting GATA-2 sustains myelopoiesis via a cell intrinsic role involving maintenance of c-Kit expression. Our results provide insight into mechanisms regulating hematopoiesis in bone marrow and may contribute to a better understanding of immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure associated with GATA-2 mutation.

  15. Fcp1 directly recognizes the C-terminal domain (CTD) and interacts with a site on RNA polymerase II distinct from the CTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Man-Hee; Ye, Ping; Zhang, Mincheng; Hausmann, Stéphane; Shuman, Stewart; Gnatt, Averell L.; Fu, Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Fcp1 is an essential protein phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphoserines within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Fcp1 plays a major role in the regulation of CTD phosphorylation and, hence, critically influences the function of Pol II throughout the transcription cycle. The basic understanding of Fcp1–CTD interaction has remained ambiguous because two different modes have been proposed: the “dockingsite” model versus the “distributive” mechanism. Here we demonstrate biochemically that Fcp1 recognizes and dephosphorylates the CTD directly, independent of the globular non-CTD part of the Pol II structure. We point out that the recognition of CTD by the phosphatase is based on random access and is not driven by Pol II conformation. Results from three different types of experiments reveal that the overall interaction between Fcp1 and Pol II is not stable but dynamic. In addition, we show that Fcp1 also interacts with a region on the polymerase distinct from the CTD. We emphasize that this non-CTD site is functionally distinct from the docking site invoked previously as essential for the CTD phosphatase activity of Fcp1. We speculate that Fcp1 interaction with the non-CTD site may mediate its stimulatory effect on transcription elongation reported previously. PMID:16301539

  16. Deficiency of syntrophin, dystroglycan, and merosin in a female infant with a congenital muscular dystrophy phenotype lacking cysteine-rich and C-terminal domains of dystrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachi, N; Ohya, K; Chiba, S; Matsuo, M; Patria, S Y; Matsumura, K

    1997-08-01

    Primary deficiency of merosin is the cause of the classic form of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) accompanied by brain white matter abnormalities. We report a female infant with dystrophinopathy who was deficient in merosin in skeletal muscle. The patient had a phenotype of typical CMD and white matter abnormalities on brain MRI. Merosin was greatly reduced in the biopsied skeletal muscle. However, the expression of dystroglycan and syntrophin was also greatly reduced, and the immunoreactivity for the antibodies against the cysteine-rich/C-terminal domains of dystrophin was absent in the sarcolemma. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of the dystrophin gene revealed a complete lack of exons 71 through 74. In skeletal muscle, only the mutant gene was expressed. These results suggest that the patient is a symptomatic Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier with skewed X-inactivation. This patient illustrates for the first time that a dystrophin abnormality can cause a secondary deficiency of merosin in dystrophinopathy. The reduction of merosin may account for the clinical phenotype of CMD and correlate with the white matter abnormalities in our patient.

  17. The C-terminal domain of the Plasmodium falciparum acyl-CoA synthetases PfACS1 and PfACS3 functions as ligand for ankyrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Maria- del-Mar; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Alcina, Antonio

    2003-07-01

    Infection of erythrocytes by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum results in the export of several parasite proteins into the erythrocyte cytoplasm establishing novel interactions between host and parasite proteins, particularly at the membrane skeleton that modifies both the structural and functional properties of the red cell. We present evidences that two members of the P. falciparum acyl-CoA synthetase (PfACS) family, responsible for the activation of long-chain fatty acids by thio-esterification with CoA, are transported in vesicle-like structures toward the host erythrocyte cytoplasm where they interact with the cytoskeletal protein ankyrin. Carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) overlay studies indicated that PfACS1 and PfACS3 bind to the 78-kDa fragment of ankyrin corresponding with its spectrin-binding domain. Co-immunoprecipitation of ankyrin and PfACS1/3 indicates that at least a fraction of these proteins are physically associated in the infected erythrocytes and provide evidence for a novel specific interaction which suggest that such a binding may bring these enzymes closer to the host erythrocyte membrane where exogenous fatty acids are available.

  18. Mutational and haplotype analyses of families with familial partial lipodystrophy (Dunnigan variety) reveal recurrent missense mutations in the globular C-terminal domain of lamin A/C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speckman, R A; Garg, A; Du, F; Bennett, L; Veile, R; Arioglu, E; Taylor, S I; Lovett, M; Bowcock, A M

    2000-04-01

    Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), Dunnigan variety, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by marked loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue from the extremities and trunk but by excess fat deposition in the head and neck. The disease is frequently associated with profound insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. We have localized a gene for FPLD to chromosome 1q21-q23, and it has recently been proposed that nuclear lamin A/C is altered in FPLD, on the basis of a novel missense mutation (R482Q) in five Canadian probands. This gene had previously been shown to be altered in autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD-AD) and in dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction-system disease. We examined 15 families with FPLD for mutations in lamin A/C. Five families harbored the R482Q alteration that segregated with the disease phenotype. Seven families harbored an R482W alteration, and one family harbored a G465D alteration. All these mutations lie within exon 8 of the lamin A/C gene-an exon that has also been shown to harbor different missense mutations that are responsible for EDMD-AD. Mutations could not be detected in lamin A/C in one FPLD family in which there was linkage to chromosome 1q21-q23. One family with atypical FPLD harbored an R582H alteration in exon 11 of lamin A. This exon does not comprise part of the lamin C coding region. All mutations in FPLD affect the globular C-terminal domain of the lamin A/C protein. In contrast, mutations responsible for dilated cardiomyopathy and conduction-system disease are observed in the rod domain of the protein. The FPLD mutations R482Q and R482W occurred on different haplotypes, indicating that they are likely to have arisen more than once.

  19. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte Bang; Birkelund, S; Holm, A;

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...

  20. Adaptive immunity against Leishmania nucleoside hydrolase maps its c-terminal domain as the target of the CD4+ T cell-driven protective response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirlei Nico

    Full Text Available Nucleoside hydrolases (NHs show homology among parasite protozoa, fungi and bacteria. They are vital protagonists in the establishment of early infection and, therefore, are excellent candidates for the pathogen recognition by adaptive immune responses. Immune protection against NHs would prevent disease at the early infection of several pathogens. We have identified the domain of the NH of L. donovani (NH36 responsible for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy against murine visceral leishmaniasis (VL. Using recombinant generated peptides covering the whole NH36 sequence and saponin we demonstrate that protection against L. chagasi is related to its C-terminal domain (amino-acids 199-314 and is mediated mainly by a CD4+ T cell driven response with a lower contribution of CD8+ T cells. Immunization with this peptide exceeds in 36.73±12.33% the protective response induced by the cognate NH36 protein. Increases in IgM, IgG2a, IgG1 and IgG2b antibodies, CD4+ T cell proportions, IFN-γ secretion, ratios of IFN-γ/IL-10 producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and percents of antibody binding inhibition by synthetic predicted epitopes were detected in F3 vaccinated mice. The increases in DTH and in ratios of TNFα/IL-10 CD4+ producing cells were however the strong correlates of protection which was confirmed by in vivo depletion with monoclonal antibodies, algorithm predicted CD4 and CD8 epitopes and a pronounced decrease in parasite load (90.5-88.23%; p = 0.011 that was long-lasting. No decrease in parasite load was detected after vaccination with the N-domain of NH36, in spite of the induction of IFN-γ/IL-10 expression by CD4+ T cells after challenge. Both peptides reduced the size of footpad lesions, but only the C-domain reduced the parasite load of mice challenged with L. amazonensis. The identification of the target of the immune response to NH36 represents a basis for the rationale development of a bivalent vaccine against leishmaniasis and

  1. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodri M L Morgan

    Full Text Available Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation, R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE of TOMM20.

  2. Structure of the TPR domain of AIP: lack of client protein interaction with the C-terminal α-7 helix of the TPR domain of AIP is sufficient for pituitary adenoma predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rhodri M L; Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Zhou, Lihong; Roe, S Mark; Korbonits, Márta; Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2012-01-01

    Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) have been associated with familial isolated pituitary adenomas predisposing to young-onset acromegaly and gigantism. The precise tumorigenic mechanism is not well understood as AIP interacts with a large number of independent proteins as well as three chaperone systems, HSP90, HSP70 and TOMM20. We have determined the structure of the TPR domain of AIP at high resolution, which has allowed a detailed analysis of how disease-associated mutations impact on the structural integrity of the TPR domain. A subset of C-terminal α-7 helix (Cα-7h) mutations, R304* (nonsense mutation), R304Q, Q307* and R325Q, a known site for AhR and PDE4A5 client-protein interaction, occur beyond those that interact with the conserved MEEVD and EDDVE sequences of HSP90 and TOMM20. These C-terminal AIP mutations appear to only disrupt client-protein binding to the Cα-7h, while chaperone binding remains unaffected, suggesting that failure of client-protein interaction with the Cα-7h is sufficient to predispose to pituitary adenoma. We have also identified a molecular switch in the AIP TPR-domain that allows recognition of both the conserved HSP90 motif, MEEVD, and the equivalent sequence (EDDVE) of TOMM20.

  3. The Small C-terminal Domain Phosphatase 1 Inhibits Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion by Dephosphorylating Ser(P)68-Twist1 to Accelerate Twist1 Protein Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Fu, Junjiang; Shen, Tao; Lin, Xia; Liao, Lan; Feng, Xin-Hua; Xu, Jianming

    2016-05-27

    Twist1 is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that strongly promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, migration, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells. The MAPK-phosphorylated Twist1 on its serine 68 (Ser(P)(68)-Twist1) has a significantly enhanced stability and function to drive cancer cell invasion and metastasis. However, the phosphatase that dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and destabilizes Twist1 has not been identified and characterized. In this study, we screened a serine/threonine phosphatase cDNA expression library in HEK293T cells with ectopically coexpressed Twist1. We found that the small C-terminal domain phosphatase 1 (SCP1) specifically dephosphorylates Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 in both cell-free reactions and living cells. SCP1 uses its amino acid residues 43-63 to interact with the N terminus of Twist1. Increased SCP1 expression in cells decreased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins, whereas knockdown of SCP1 increased Ser(P)(68)-Twist1 and total Twist1 proteins. Furthermore, the levels of SCP1 are negatively correlated with Twist1 protein levels in several cancer cell lines. SCP1-dephosphorylated Twist1 undergoes fast degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Importantly, an increase in SCP1 expression in breast cancer cells with either endogenous or ectopically expressed Twist1 largely inhibits the Twist1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype and the migration and invasion capabilities of these cells. These results indicate that SCP1 is the phosphatase that counterregulates the MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of Ser(68)-Twist1. Thus, an increase in SCP1 expression and activity may be a useful strategy for eliminating the detrimental roles of Twist1 in cancer cells.

  4. The C-terminal pentapeptide of Nanog tryptophan repeat domain interacts with Nac1 and regulates stem cell proliferation but not pluripotency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tianhua; Wang, Zhe; Guo, Yunqian; Pei, Duanqing

    2009-06-12

    Overexpression of Nanog in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells has been shown to abrogate the requirement of leukemia inhibitory factor for self-renewal in culture. Little is known about the molecular mechanism of Nanog function. Here we describe the role of the tryptophan repeat (WR) domain, one of the two transactivators at its C terminus, in regulating stem cell proliferation as well as pluripotency. We first created a supertransactivator, W2W3x10, by duplicating repeats W2W3 10 times and discovered that it can functionally substitute for wild type WR at sustaining pluripotency, albeit with a significantly slower cell cycle, phenocopying Nanog(9W) with the C-terminal pentapeptide (WNAAP) of WR deleted. ES cells carrying both W2W3x10 and Nanog(9W) have a longer G1 phase, a shorter S phase in cell cycle distribution and progression analysis, and a lower level of pAkt(Ser473) compared with wild type Nanog, suggesting that both mutants impact the cell cycle machinery via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Both mutants remain competent in dimerizing with Nanog but cannot form a complex with Nac1 efficiently, suggesting that WNAAP may be involved in Nac1 binding. By tagging Gal4DBD with WNAAP, we demonstrated that this pentapeptide is sufficient to confer Nac1 binding. Furthermore, we can rescue W2W3x10 by placing WNAAP at the corresponding locations. Finally, we found that Nanog and Nac1 synergistically up-regulate ERas expression and promote the proliferation of ES cells. These results suggest that Nanog interacts with Nac1 through WNAAP to regulate the cell cycle of ES cells via the ERas/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, but not pluripotency, thus decoupling cell cycle control from pluripotency.

  5. Domain Structure of the Redβ Single-Strand Annealing Protein: the C-terminal Domain is Required for Fine-Tuning DNA-binding Properties, Interaction with the Exonuclease Partner, and Recombination in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher E; Bell, Charles E

    2016-02-13

    Redβ is a component of the Red recombination system of bacteriophage λ that promotes a single strand annealing (SSA) reaction to generate end-to-end concatemers of the phage genome for packaging. Redβ interacts with λ exonuclease (λexo), the other component of the Red system, to form a "synaptosome" complex that somehow integrates the end resection and annealing steps of the reaction. Previous work using limited proteolysis and chemical modification revealed that Redβ consists of an N-terminal DNA binding domain, residues 1-177, and a flexible C-terminal "tail", residues 178-261. Here, we quantitatively compare the binding of the full-length protein (Redβ(FL)) and the N-terminal domain (Redβ(177)) to different lengths of ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product. We find that in general, Redβ(FL) binds more tightly to annealed duplex product than to ssDNA substrate, while Redβ(177) binds more tightly to ssDNA. In addition, the C-terminal region of Redβ corresponding to residues 182-261 was purified and found to fold into an α-helical domain that is required for the interaction with λexo to form the synaptosome complex. Deletion analysis of Redβ revealed that removal of just eleven residues from the C-terminus disrupts the interaction with λexo as well as ssDNA and dsDNA recombination in vivo. By contrast, the determinants for self-oligomerization of Redβ appear to reside solely within the N-terminal domain. The subtle but significant differences in the relative binding of Redβ(FL) and Redβ(177) to ssDNA substrate and annealed duplex product may be important for Redβ to function as a SSA protein in vivo.

  6. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin N Leen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652-1132. Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy.

  7. Structure and function of the C-terminal domain of MrpA in the Bacillus subtilis Mrp-antiporter complex--the evolutionary progenitor of the long horizontal helix in complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzintiene, Egle; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Al-Eryani, Yusra; Shumbe, Leonard; Górecki, Kamil; Hägerhäll, Cecilia

    2013-10-11

    MrpA and MrpD are homologous to NuoL, NuoM and NuoN in complex I over the first 14 transmembrane helices. In this work, the C-terminal domain of MrpA, outside this conserved area, was investigated. The transmembrane orientation was found to correspond to that of NuoJ in complex I. We have previously demonstrated that the subunit NuoK is homologous to MrpC. The function of the MrpA C-terminus was tested by expression in a previously used Bacillus subtilis model system. At neutral pH, the truncated MrpA still worked, but at pH 8.4, where Mrp-complex formation is needed for function, the C-terminal domain of MrpA was absolutely required.

  8. The secondary cell wall polysaccharide of Bacillus anthracis provides the specific binding ligand for the C-terminal cell wall-binding domain of two phage endolysins, PlyL and PlyG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Jhuma; Low, Lieh Y; Kamal, Nazia; Saile, Elke; Forsberg, L Scott; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Liddington, Robert; Quinn, Conrad P; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L

    2013-07-01

    Endolysins are bacteriophage enzymes that lyse their bacterial host for phage progeny release. They commonly contain an N-terminal catalytic domain that hydrolyzes bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) and a C-terminal cell wall-binding domain (CBD) that confers enzyme localization to the PG substrate. Two endolysins, phage lysin L (PlyL) and phage lysin G (PlyG), are specific for Bacillus anthracis. To date, the cell wall ligands for their C-terminal CBD have not been identified. We recently described structures for a number of secondary cell wall polysaccharides (SCWPs) from B. anthracis and B. cereus strains. They are covalently bound to the PG and are comprised of a -ManNAc-GlcNAc-HexNAc- backbone with various galactosyl or glucosyl substitutions. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that the endolysins PlyL and PlyG bind to the SCWP from B. anthracis (SCWPBa) with high affinity (i.e. in the μM range with dissociation constants ranging from 0.81 × 10(-6) to 7.51 × 10(-6) M). In addition, the PlyL and PlyG SCWPBa binding sites reside with their C-terminal domains. The dissociation constants for the interactions of these endolysins and their derived C-terminal domains with the SCWPBa were in the range reported for other protein-carbohydrate interactions. Our findings show that the SCWPBa is the ligand that confers PlyL and PlyG lysin binding and localization to the PG. PlyL and PlyG also bound the SCWP from B. cereus G9241 with comparable affinities to SCWPBa. No detectable binding was found to the SCWPs from B. cereus ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 10987 and ATCC 14579, thus demonstrating specificity of lysin binding to SCWPs.

  9. Truncating variants in the majority of the cytoplasmic domain of PCDH15 are unlikely to cause Usher syndrome 1F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault-Micale, Cynthia; Frieden, Alexander; Kennedy, Caleb J; Neitzel, Dana; Sullivan, Jessica; Faulkner, Nicole; Hallam, Stephanie; Greger, Valerie

    2014-11-01

    Loss of function variants in the PCDH15 gene can cause Usher syndrome type 1F, an autosomal recessive disease associated with profound congenital hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, and retinitis pigmentosa. The Ashkenazi Jewish population has an increased incidence of Usher syndrome type 1F (founder variant p.Arg245X accounts for 75% of alleles), yet the variant spectrum in a panethnic population remains undetermined. We sequenced the coding region and intron-exon borders of PCDH15 using next-generation DNA sequencing technology in approximately 14,000 patients from fertility clinics. More than 600 unique PCDH15 variants (single nucleotide changes and small indels) were identified, including previously described pathogenic variants p.Arg3X, p.Arg245X (five patients), p.Arg643X, p.Arg929X, and p.Arg1106X. Novel truncating variants were also found, including one in the N-terminal extracellular domain (p.Leu877X), but all other novel truncating variants clustered in the exon 33 encoded C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (52 patients, 14 variants). One variant was observed predominantly in African Americans (carrier frequency of 2.3%). The high incidence of truncating exon 33 variants indicates that they are unlikely to cause Usher syndrome type 1F even though many remove a large portion of the gene. They may be tolerated because PCDH15 has several alternate cytoplasmic domain exons and differentially spliced isoforms may function redundantly. Effects of some PCDH15 truncating variants were addressed by deep sequencing of a panethnic population.

  10. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M.; Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [Laboratory of Structural Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  11. Mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin-binding protein 2x: importance of the C-terminal penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains for beta-lactam binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Patrick; Todorova, Katya; Sauerbier, Julia; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2012-06-01

    Penicillin-binding protein 2x (PBP2x) mutations that occur during the selection with beta-lactams are located within the central penicillin-binding/transpeptidase (TP) domain, and are believed to mediate resistance by interfering with the formation of a covalent complex of the active site serine with the antibiotic. We now investigated the effect of two point mutations found in two independently obtained laboratory mutants that are located at the surface of the TP domain with their side chains facing outside (G422D respectively R426C). They have no significant effect on resistance to cefotaxime in vivo or on binding to Bocillin™FL to the active site in vitro using purified PBP2x derivatives, thus apparently do not affect the active site directly. In contrast, in silico modeling revealed that they affect van der Waal's interactions with the PASTA1 (PBP and serine/threonine kinase associated) domain of the C-terminal extension and a noncovalent cefuroxime molecule found in the X-ray structure of an acylated PBP2x, suggesting some effect of the mutations on the interaction of the TP domain with PASTA1 and/or with the antibiotic associated with PASTA1. The effect of the PASTA domains on covalent binding of PBP2x to Bocillin FL was then investigated using a series of soluble truncated PBP2x derivatives. Deletion of 127 C-terminal residues, that is, of both PASTA domains, decreased binding dramatically by ∼90%. Surprisingly, deletion of only 40 amino acids resulted in the same phenotype, whereas the absence of 30 amino acids affected binding marginally by 10%, documenting a crucial role of the C-terminal domain for beta-lactam binding.

  12. The selenium-rich C-terminal domain of mouse selenoprotein P is necessary for the supply of selenium to brain and testis but not for the maintenance of whole body selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristina E; Zhou, Jiadong; Austin, Lori M; Motley, Amy K; Ham, Amy-Joan L; Olson, Gary E; Atkins, John F; Gesteland, Raymond F; Burk, Raymond F

    2007-04-13

    Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) has two domains with respect to selenium content: the N-terminal, selenium-poor domain and the C-terminal, selenium-rich domain. To assess domain function, mice with deletion of the C-terminal domain have been produced and compared with Sepp1-/- and Sepp1+/+ mice. All mice studied were males fed a semipurified diet with defined selenium content. The Sepp1 protein in the plasma of mice with the C-terminal domain deleted was determined by mass spectrometry to terminate after serine 239 and thus was designated Sepp1Delta240-361. Plasma Sepp1 and selenium concentrations as well as glutathione peroxidase activity were determined in the three types of mice. Glutathione peroxidase and Sepp1Delta240-361 accounted for over 90% of the selenium in the plasma of Sepp1Delta240-361 mice. Calculations using results from Sepp1+/+ mice revealed that Sepp1, with a potential for containing 10 selenocysteine residues, contained an average of 5 selenium atoms per molecule, indicating that shortened and/or selenium-depleted forms of the protein were present in these wild-type mice. Sepp1Delta240-361 mice had low brain and testis selenium concentrations that were similar to those in Sepp1-/- mice but they better maintained their whole body selenium. Sepp1Delta240-361 mice had depressed fertility, even when they were fed a high selenium diet, and their spermatozoa were defective and morphologically indistinguishable from those of selenium-deficient mice. Neurological dysfunction and death occurred when Sepp1Delta240-361 mice were fed selenium-deficient diet. These phenotypes were similar to those of Sepp1-/- mice but had later onset or were less severe. The results of this study demonstrate that the C terminus of Sepp1 is critical for the maintenance of selenium in brain and testis but not for the maintenance of whole body selenium.

  13. Evolution of NMDA receptor cytoplasmic interaction domains: implications for organisation of synaptic signalling complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emes Richard D

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamate gated postsynaptic receptors in the central nervous system (CNS are essential for environmentally stimulated behaviours including learning and memory in both invertebrates and vertebrates. Though their genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and role in behaviour have been intensely studied in vitro and in vivo, their molecular evolution and structural aspects remain poorly understood. To understand how these receptors have evolved different physiological requirements we have investigated the molecular evolution of glutamate gated receptors and ion channels, in particular the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, which is essential for higher cognitive function. Studies of rodent NMDA receptors show that the C-terminal intracellular domain forms a signalling complex with enzymes and scaffold proteins, which is important for neuronal and behavioural plasticity Results The vertebrate NMDA receptor was found to have subunits with C-terminal domains up to 500 amino acids longer than invertebrates. This extension was specific to the NR2 subunit and occurred before the duplication and subsequent divergence of NR2 in the vertebrate lineage. The shorter invertebrate C-terminus lacked vertebrate protein interaction motifs involved with forming a signaling complex although the terminal PDZ interaction domain was conserved. The vertebrate NR2 C-terminal domain was predicted to be intrinsically disordered but with a conserved secondary structure. Conclusion We highlight an evolutionary adaptation specific to vertebrate NMDA receptor NR2 subunits. Using in silico methods we find that evolution has shaped the NMDA receptor C-terminus into an unstructured but modular intracellular domain that parallels the expansion in complexity of an NMDA receptor signalling complex in the vertebrate lineage. We propose the NR2 C-terminus has evolved to be a natively unstructured yet flexible hub organising postsynaptic signalling. The evolution of

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Cytoplasmic Domain Affects ErbB Protein Degradation by the Lysosomal and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Pathway in Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Glogowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic domains of EGF-like ligands, including EGF cytoplasmic domain (EGFcyt, have important biological functions. Using specific constructs and peptides of human EGF cytoplasmic domain, we demonstrate that EGFcyt facilitates lysosomal and proteasomal protein degradation, and this coincided with growth inhibition of human thyroid and glioma carcinoma cells. EGFcyt and exon 22–23-encoded peptide (EGF22.23 enhanced procathepsin B (procathB expression and procathB-mediated lysosomal degradation of EGFR/ErbB1 as determined by inhibitors for procathB and the lysosomal ATPase inhibitor BafA1. Presence of mbEGFctF, EGFcyt, EGF22.23, and exon 23-encoded peptides suppressed the expression of the deubiqitinating enzyme ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1. This coincided with hyperubiquitination of total cellular proteins and ErbB1/2 and reduced proteasome activity. Upon small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of endogenously expressed UCH-L1, a similar hyperubiquitinylation phenotype, reduced ErbB1/2 content, and attenuated growth was observed. The exon 23-encoded peptide region of EGFcyt was important for these biologic actions. Structural homology modeling of human EGFcyt showed that this molecular region formed an exposed surface loop. Peptides derived from this EGFcyt loop structure may aid in the design of novel peptide therapeutics aimed at inhibiting growth of cancer cells.

  15. Segments in the C-terminal folding domain of lipoprotein lipase important for binding to the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein and to heparan sulfate proteoglycans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Brejning, Jeanette; García, R.;

    1997-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C-terminal ......Lipoprotein lipase (LpL) can mediate cellular uptake of chylomicron and VLDL remnants via binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and the endocytic alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR/LRP). Whereas it is established that the C...

  16. Apical localization of ASIP/PAR-3:EGFP in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells involves the oligomerization domain CR1, the PDZ domains, and the C-terminal portion of the protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Trotha, Jakob W; Campos-Ortega, José A; Reugels, Alexander M

    2006-04-01

    Neurulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos is characterized by oriented cell divisions and the progressive establishment of cellular polarity. Mitoses in the neural plate and neural tube are planar, but in the neural keel/rod stage, the mitotic spindle rotates by 90 degrees, causing cell divisions to occur perpendicular to the plane of the neuroepithelium. The mechanisms and molecules that establish cellular polarity and cause the stereotypic orientation of the mitotic spindle during neurulation are largely unknown. In Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, the PAR/aPKC complex has been shown to be involved in both establishment of cellular polarity and spindle orientation. Here, we show that the conserved N-terminal oligomerization domain (CR1) and the PDZ domains of ASIP/PAR-3:EGFP are involved in its localization to the apical membrane in zebrafish neuroepithelial cells. We further show that the C-terminal part of ASIP/PAR-3 contributes to proper localization and that the apical localization signals in ASIP/PAR-3 prevent the basolateral localization of a Numb:PAR-3 fusion protein. The parallel orientation of the mitotic spindle in the neural tube, however, is only weakly impaired upon overexpression of various ASIP/PAR-3:EGFP constructs.

  17. New type of starch-binding domain: the direct repeat motif in the C-terminal region of Bacillus sp. no. 195 alpha-amylase contributes to starch binding and raw starch degrading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, J; Tottori, T; Kawaguchi, T; Arai, M

    2000-09-01

    The alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp. no. 195 (BAA) consists of two domains: one is the catalytic domain similar to alpha-amylases from animals and Streptomyces in the N-terminal region; the other is the functionally unknown domain composed of an approx. 90-residue direct repeat in the C-terminal region. The gene coding for BAA was expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK24. Three active forms of the gene products were found. The pH and thermal profiles of BAAs, and their catalytic activities for p-nitrophenyl maltopentaoside and soluble starch, showed almost the same behaviours. The largest, 69 kDa, form (BAA-alpha) was of the same molecular mass as that of the mature protein estimated from the nucleotide sequence, and had raw-starch-binding and -degrading abilities. The second largest, 60 kDa, form (BAA-beta), whose molecular mass was the same as that of the natural enzyme from Bacillus sp. no. 195, was generated by proteolytic processing between the two repeat sequences in the C-terminal region, and had lower activities for raw starch binding and degrading than those of BAA-alpha. The smallest, 50 kDa, form (BAA-gamma) contained only the N-terminal catalytic domain as a result of removal of the C-terminal repeat sequence, which led to loss of binding and degradation of insoluble starches. Thus the starch adsorption capacity and raw-starch-degrading activity of BAAs depends on the existence of the repeat sequence in the C-terminal region. BAA-alpha was specifically adsorbed on starch or dextran (alpha-1,4 or alpha-1,6 glucan), and specifically desorbed with maltose or beta-cyclodextrin. These observations indicated that the repeat sequence of the enzyme was functional in the starch-binding domain (SBD). We propose the designation of the homologues to the SBD of glucoamylase from Aspergillus niger as family I SBDs, the homologues to that of glucoamylase from Rhizopus oryzae as family II, and the homologues of this repeat sequence of BAA as family III.

  18. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  19. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Koprowski

    Full Text Available Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  20. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Piotr; Grajkowski, Wojciech; Balcerzak, Marcin; Filipiuk, Iwona; Fabczak, Hanna; Kubalski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS) channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS) family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  1. Aquareovirus NS80 recruits viral proteins to its inclusions, and its C-terminal domain is the primary driving force for viral inclusion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ling; Guo, Hong; Yan, Li-Ming; Liu, Huan; Fang, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies formed in reovirus-infected cells are the sites of viral replication and assembly. Previous studies have suggested that the NS80 protein of aquareovirus may be involved in the formation of viral inclusion bodies. However, it remains unknown whether other viral proteins are involved in the process, and what regions of NS80 may act coordinately in mediating inclusion formation. Here, we observed that globular cytoplasmic inclusions were formed in virus-infected cells and viral proteins NS80 and NS38 colocalized in the inclusions. During transfection, singly expressed NS80 could form cytoplasmic inclusions and recruit NS38 and GFP-tagged VP4 to these structures. Further treatment of cells with nocodazole, a microtubule inhibitor, did not disrupt the inclusion, suggesting that inclusion formation does not rely on microtubule network. Besides, we identified that the region 530-742 of NS80 was likely the minimal region required for inclusion formation, and the C-tail, coiled-coil region as well as the conserved linker region were essential for inclusion phenotype. Moreover, with series deletions from the N-terminus, a stepwise conversion occurred from large condensed cytoplasmic to small nuclear inclusions, then to a diffused intracellular distribution. Notablely, we found that the nuclear inclusions, formed by NS80 truncations (471 to 513-742), colocalized with cellular protein β-catenin. These data indicated that NS80 could be a major mediator in recruiting NS38 and VP4 into inclusion structures, and the C-terminus of NS80 is responsible for inclusion formation.

  2. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica invasin enhances the efficacy of classical swine-fever-vectored vaccine based on human adenovirus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helin Li; Pengbo Ning; Zhi Lin; Wulong Liang; Kai Kang; Lei He; Yanming Zhang

    2015-03-01

    The use of adenovirus vector-based vaccines is a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immune responses. Improving vaccine potency is necessary in other approaches to address their inadequate protection for the majority of infectious diseases. This study is the first to reconstruct a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus co-expressing E2 and invasin C-terminal (InvC) glycoproteins (rAd-E2-InvC). rAd-E2-InvC with 2×106 TCID50 was intramuscularly administered two times to CSFV-free pigs at 14 day intervals. No adverse clinical reactions were observed in any of the pigs after the vaccination. The CSFV E2-specific antibody titer was significantly higher in the rAd-E2-InvC group than that in the rAdV-E2 group as measured by NPLA and blocking ELISA. Pigs immunized with rAd-E2-InvC were completely protected against lethal challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues after CSFV challenge. These results demonstrate that rAd-E2-InvC could be an alternative to the existing CSF vaccine. Moreover, InvC that acts as an adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of rAdV-E2 and induce high CSFV E2-specific antibody titer and protection level.

  3. Drosophila model of Meier-Gorlin syndrome based on the mutation in a conserved C-Terminal domain of Orc6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasov, Maxim; Akhmetova, Katarina; Chesnokov, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by microtia, primordial dwarfism, small ears, and skeletal abnormalities. Patients with MGS often carry mutations in the genes encoding the components of the pre-replicative complex such as Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) subunits Orc1, Orc4, Orc6, and helicase loaders Cdt1 and Cdc6. Orc6 is an important component of ORC and has functions in both DNA replication and cytokinesis. Mutation in conserved C-terminal motif of Orc6 associated with MGS impedes the interaction of Orc6 with core ORC. In order to study the effects of MGS mutation in an animal model system we introduced MGS mutation in Orc6 and established Drosophila model of MGS. Mutant flies die at third instar larval stage with abnormal chromosomes and DNA replication defects. The lethality can be rescued by elevated expression of mutant Orc6 protein. Rescued MGS flies are unable to fly and display multiple planar cell polarity defects. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cdc73 subunit of the Paf1 complex contains a C-terminal Ras-like domain that promotes association of Paf1 complex with chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrich C. G.; Heroux A.; Davis, C. P.; Rogal, W. P.; Shirra, M. K.; Gardner, R. G.; Arndt, K. M.; VanDemark, A. P.

    2012-03-30

    The conserved Paf1 complex localizes to the coding regions of genes and facilitates multiple processes during transcription elongation, including the regulation of histone modifications. However, the mechanisms that govern Paf1 complex recruitment to active genes are undefined. Here we describe a previously unrecognized domain within the Cdc73 subunit of the Paf1 complex, the Cdc73 C-domain, and demonstrate its importance for Paf1 complex occupancy on transcribed chromatin. Deletion of the C-domain causes phenotypes associated with elongation defects without an apparent loss of complex integrity. Simultaneous mutation of the C-domain and another subunit of the Paf1 complex, Rtf1, causes enhanced mutant phenotypes and loss of histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation. The crystal structure of the C-domain reveals unexpected similarity to the Ras family of small GTPases. Instead of a deep nucleotide-binding pocket, the C-domain contains a large but comparatively flat surface of highly conserved residues, devoid of ligand. Deletion of the C-domain results in reduced chromatin association for multiple Paf1 complex subunits. We conclude that the Cdc73 C-domain probably constitutes a protein interaction surface that functions with Rtf1 in coupling the Paf1 complex to the RNA polymerase II elongation machinery.

  5. Nucleoplasmin-like domain of FKBP39 from Drosophila melanogaster forms a tetramer with partly disordered tentacle-like C-terminal segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Małgorzata; Tarczewska, Aneta; Jakób, Michał; Bystranowska, Dominika; Taube, Michał; Kozak, Maciej; Czarnocki-Cieciura, Mariusz; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Orłowski, Marek; Tkocz, Katarzyna; Ożyhar, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Nucleoplasmins are a nuclear chaperone family defined by the presence of a highly conserved N-terminal core domain. X-ray crystallographic studies of isolated nucleoplasmin core domains revealed a β-propeller structure consisting of a set of five monomers that together form a stable pentamer. Recent studies on isolated N-terminal domains from Drosophila 39-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP39) and from other chromatin-associated proteins showed analogous, nucleoplasmin-like (NPL) pentameric structures. Here, we report that the NPL domain of the full-length FKBP39 does not form pentameric complexes. Multi-angle light scattering (MALS) and sedimentation equilibrium ultracentrifugation (SE AUC) analyses of the molecular mass of the full-length protein indicated that FKBP39 forms homotetrameric complexes. Molecular models reconstructed from small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the NPL domain forms a stable, tetrameric core and that FK506-binding domains are linked to it by intrinsically disordered, flexible chains that form tentacle-like segments. Analyses of full-length FKBP39 and its isolated NPL domain suggested that the distal regions of the polypeptide chain influence and determine the quaternary conformation of the nucleoplasmin-like protein. These results provide new insights regarding the conserved structure of nucleoplasmin core domains and provide a potential explanation for the importance of the tetrameric structural organization of full-length nucleoplasmins. PMID:28074868

  6. Downregulation of 5-HT7 Serotonin Receptors by the Atypical Antipsychotics Clozapine and Olanzapine. Role of Motifs in the C-Terminal Domain and Interaction with GASP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfra, Ornella; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Skieterska, Kamila; Frimurer, Thomas; Schwartz, Thue W; Levy, Finn Olav; Andressen, Kjetil Wessel

    2015-07-15

    The human 5-HT7 serotonin receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), activates adenylyl cyclase constitutively and upon agonist activation. Biased ligands differentially activate 5-HT7 serotonin receptor desensitization, internalization and degradation in addition to G protein activation. We have previously found that the atypical antipsychotics clozapine and olanzapine inhibited G protein activation and, surprisingly, induced both internalization and lysosomal degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism of clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5-HT7 receptors. In the C-terminus of the 5-HT7 receptor, we identified two YXXΦ motifs, LR residues, and a palmitoylated cysteine anchor as potential sites involved in receptor trafficking to lysosomes followed by receptor degradation. Mutating either of these sites inhibited clozapine- and olanzapine-mediated degradation of 5-HT7 receptors and also interfered with G protein activation. In addition, we tested whether receptor degradation was mediated by the GPCR-associated sorting protein-1 (GASP-1). We show that GASP-1 binds the 5-HT7 receptor and regulates the clozapine-mediated degradation. Mutations of the identified motifs and residues, located in or close to Helix-VIII of the 5-HT7 receptor, modified antipsychotic-stimulated binding of proteins (such as GASP-1), possibly by altering the flexibility of Helix-VIII, and also interfered with G protein activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that binding of clozapine or olanzapine to the 5-HT7 receptor leads to antagonist-mediated lysosomal degradation by exposing key residues in the C-terminal tail that interact with GASP-1.

  7. The 18-kilodalton Chlamydia trachomatis histone H1-like protein (Hc1) contains a potential N-terminal dimerization site and a C-terminal nucleic acid-binding domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LB; Birkelund, Svend; Holm, A

    1996-01-01

    , in part, be due to Hc1-mediated alterations of DNA topology. To locate putative functional domains within Hc1, polypeptides Hc1(2-57) and Hc1(53-125), corresponding to the N- and C-terminal parts of Hc1, respectively, were generated. By chemical cross-linking with ethylene glycol-bis (succinic acid N...... retardation assays, Hc1(53-125) was shown to contain a domain capable of binding both DNA and RNA. Under the same conditions, Hc1(2-57) had no nucleic acid-binding activity. Electron microscopy of Hc1-DNA and Hc1(53-125)-DNA complexes revealed differences suggesting that the N-terminal part of Hc1 may affect...

  8. Potent inhibition of angiotensin AT1 receptor signaling by RGS8: importance of the C-terminal third exon part of its RGS domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dan; Nishiyama, Mariko; Kimura, Sadao

    2016-10-01

    R4/B subfamily RGS (regulator of G protein signaling) proteins play roles in regulation of many GPCR-mediated responses. Multiple RGS proteins are usually expressed in a cell, and it is difficult to point out which RGS protein species are functionally important in the cell. To evaluate intrinsic potency of these RGS proteins, we compared inhibitory effects of RGS1, RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, RGS5, RGS8 and RGS16 on AT1 receptor signaling. Intracellular Ca(2+) responses to angiotensin II were markedly attenuated by transiently expressed RGS2, RGS3 and RGS8, compared to weak inhibition by RGS1, RGS4, RGS5 and RGS16. N-terminally deleted RGS2 (RGS2 domain) lost this potent inhibitory effect, whereas RGS domains of RGS3 and RGS8 showed strong inhibition similar to those of the full-length proteins. To investigate key determinants that specify the differences in potency, we constructed chimeric domains by replacing one or two of three exon parts of RGS8 domain with the corresponding part of RGS5. The chimeric RGS8 domains containing the first or the second exon part of RGS5 showed strong inhibitory effects similar to that of wild type RGS8, but the chimeric domain with the third exon part of RGS5 lost its activity. On the contrary, replacement of the third exon part of RGS5 with the corresponding residues of RGS8 increased the inhibitory effect. The role of the third exon part of RGS8 domain was further confirmed with the chimeric RGS8/RGS4 domains. These results indicate the potent inhibitory activity of RGS8 among R4/B subfamily proteins and importance of the third exon.

  9. Transformation of the mechanism of triple-helix peptide folding in the absence of a C-terminal nucleation domain and its implications for mutations in collagen disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buevich, Alexei V; Silva, Teresita; Brodsky, Barbara; Baum, Jean

    2004-11-05

    Folding abnormalities of the triple helix have been demonstrated in collagen diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta in which the mutation leads to the substitution of a single Gly in the (Gly-X-Y)n sequence pattern by a larger residue. Model peptides can be used to clarify the details of normal collagen folding and the consequences of the interruption of that folding by a Gly substitution. NMR and CD studies show that placement of a (GPO)4 nucleation domain at the N terminus rather than the C terminus of a native collagen sequence allows the formation of a stable triple helix but alters the folding mechanism. Although C- to N-terminal directional folding occurs when the nucleation domain is at the C terminus, there is no preferential folding direction when the nucleation domain is at the N terminus. The lack of zipper-like directional folding does not interfere with triple-helix formation, and when a Gly residue is replaced by Ser to model an osteogenesis imperfecta mutation, the peptide with the N-terminal (GPO)4 domain can still form a good triple helix N-terminal to the mutation site. These peptide studies raise the possibility that mutant collagen could fold in a C to N direction in a zipper-like manner up to the mutation site and that completion of the triple helix N-terminal to the mutation would involve an alternative mechanism.

  10. The Lectin Domain of the Polypeptide GalNAc Transferase Family of Glycosyltransferases (ppGalNAc Ts) Acts as a Switch Directing Glycopeptide Substrate Glycosylation in an N- or C-terminal Direction, Further Controlling Mucin Type O-Glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Thomas A; Revoredo, Leslie; Thome, Joseph J C

    2013-01-01

    Mucin type O-glycosylation is initiated by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc transferases (ppGalNAc Ts) that add α-GalNAc to the Ser and Thr residues of peptides. Of the 20 human isoforms, all but one are composed of two globular domains linked by a short flexible linker: a catalytic domain...... relative to the nonglycosylated control peptides. This N- and/or C-terminal selectivity is presumably due to weak glycopeptide binding to the lectin domain, whose orientation relative to the catalytic domain is dynamic and isoform-dependent. Such N- or C-terminal glycopeptide selectivity provides...

  11. Effects of C-terminal truncations on trafficking of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A Brett; Allen, Kenneth E; Slayman, Carolyn W

    2006-08-18

    Within the large family of P-type cation-transporting ATPases, members differ in the number of C-terminal transmembrane helices, ranging from two in Cu2+-ATPases to six in H+-, Na+,K+-, Mg2+-, and Ca2+-ATPases. In this study, yeast Pma1 H+-ATPase has served as a model to examine the role of the C-terminal membrane domain in ATPase stability and targeting to the plasma membrane. Successive truncations were constructed from the middle of the major cytoplasmic loop to the middle of the extended cytoplasmic tail, adding back the C-terminal membrane-spanning helices one at a time. When the resulting constructs were expressed transiently in yeast, there was a steady increase in half-life from 70 min in Pma1 delta452 to 348 min in Pma1 delta901, but even the longest construct was considerably less stable than wild-type ATPase (t(1/2) = 11 h). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that 11 of 12 constructs were arrested in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded in the proteasome. The only truncated ATPase that escaped the ER, Pma1 delta901, traveled slowly to the plasma membrane, where it hydrolyzed ATP and supported growth. Limited trypsinolysis showed Pma1 delta901 to be misfolded, however, resulting in premature delivery to the vacuole for degradation. As model substrates, this series of truncations affirms the importance of the entire C-terminal domain to yeast H+-ATPase biogenesis and defines a sequence element of 20 amino acids in the carboxyl tail that is critical to ER escape and trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  12. Crystal Structure of the Human Pol α B Subunit in Complex with the C-terminal Domain of the Catalytic Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, Yoshiaki; Gu, Jianyou; Baranovskiy, Andrey G; Babayeva, Nigar D; Pavlov, Youri I; Tahirov, Tahir H

    2015-06-05

    In eukaryotic DNA replication, short RNA-DNA hybrid primers synthesized by primase-DNA polymerase α (Prim-Pol α) are needed to start DNA replication by the replicative DNA polymerases, Pol δ and Pol ϵ. The C terminus of the Pol α catalytic subunit (p180C) in complex with the B subunit (p70) regulates the RNA priming and DNA polymerizing activities of Prim-Pol α. It tethers Pol α and primase, facilitating RNA primer handover from primase to Pol α. To understand these regulatory mechanisms and to reveal the details of human Pol α organization, we determined the crystal structure of p70 in complex with p180C. The structured portion of p70 includes a phosphodiesterase (PDE) domain and an oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding (OB) domain. The N-terminal domain and the linker connecting it to the PDE domain are disordered in the reported crystal structure. The p180C adopts an elongated asymmetric saddle shape, with a three-helix bundle in the middle and zinc-binding modules (Zn1 and Zn2) on each side. The extensive p180C-p70 interactions involve 20 hydrogen bonds and a number of hydrophobic interactions resulting in an extended buried surface of 4080 Å(2). Importantly, in the structure of the p180C-p70 complex with full-length p70, the residues from the N-terminal to the OB domain contribute to interactions with p180C. The comparative structural analysis revealed both the conserved features and the differences between the human and yeast Pol α complexes.

  13. Role of the C-Terminal SH3 Domain and N-Terminal Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Regulation of Tim and Related Dbl-Family Proteins†

    OpenAIRE

    Marielle E Yohe; Rossman, Kent; Sondek, John

    2008-01-01

    Dbl-related oncoproteins are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) specific for Rho-family GTPases and typically possess tandem Dbl (DH) and pleckstrin homology (PH) domains that act in concert to catalyze exchange. Although the exchange potential of many Dbl-family proteins is constitutively activated by truncation, the precise mechanisms of regulation for many Dbl-family proteins are unknown. Tim and Vav are distantly related Dbl-family proteins that are similarly regulated; their Dbl ...

  14. Recombinant expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal DUF490(963-1138) domain of TamB from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josts, Inokentijs; Grinter, Rhys; Kelly, Sharon M; Mosbahi, Khedidja; Roszak, Aleksander; Cogdell, Richard; Smith, Brian O; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    TamB is a recently described inner membrane protein that, together with its partner protein TamA, is required for the efficient secretion of a subset of autotransporter proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, the C-terminal DUF490963-1138 domain of TamB was overexpressed in Escherichia coli K-12, purified and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive trigonal space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 57.34, c = 220.74 Å, and diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution. Preliminary secondary-structure and X-ray diffraction analyses are reported. Two molecules are predicted to be present in the asymmetric unit. Experimental phasing using selenomethionine-labelled protein will be undertaken in the future.

  15. Calmodulin and calcium interplay in the modulation of TRPC5 channel activity. Identification of a novel C-terminal domain for calcium/calmodulin-mediated facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordaz, Benito; Tang, Jisen; Xiao, Rui; Salgado, Alfonso; Sampieri, Alicia; Zhu, Michael X; Vaca, Luis

    2005-09-02

    TRPC5 forms Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channels important for neurite outgrowth and growth cone morphology of hippocampal neurons. Here we studied the activation of mouse TRPC5 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary and human embryonic kidney 293 cells by agonist stimulation of several receptors that couple to the phosphoinositide signaling cascade and the role of calmodulin (CaM) on the activation. We showed that exogenous application of 10 microM CaM through patch pipette accelerated the agonist-induced channel activation by 2.8-fold, with the time constant for half-activation reduced from 4.25 +/- 0.4 to 1.56 +/- 0.85 min. We identified a novel CaM-binding site located at the C terminus of TRPC5, 95 amino acids downstream from the previously determined common CaM/IP3R-binding (CIRB) domain for all TRPC proteins. Deletion of the novel CaM-binding site attenuated the acceleration in channel activation induced by CaM. However, disruption of the CIRB domain from TRPC5 rendered the channel irresponsive to agonist stimulation without affecting the cell surface expression of the channel protein. Furthermore, we showed that high (>5 microM) intracellular free Ca2+ inhibited the current density without affecting the time course of TRPC5 activation by receptor agonists. These results demonstrated that intracellular Ca2+ has dual and opposite effects on the activation of TRPC5. The novel CaM-binding site is important for the Ca2+/CaM-mediated facilitation, whereas the CIRB domain is critical for the overall response of receptor-induced TRPC5 channel activation.

  16. Proteolytic cleavage of cadherins: Functional role of the cleaved extracellular and cytoplasmic domains

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion is crucial for morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Cadherin adhesive function can be regulated by distinct proteolytic cleavage events, resulting in release of either the ectodomain or cytoplasmic domain. However, it is unclear if the released fragments have biological activity by themselves. This thesis analyses the functional significance of the generated cadherin fragments. Using Xenopus laevis development as model system, it was...

  17. Critical amino acids in syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain modulation of turkey satellite cell growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; McFarland, Douglas C; Velleman, Sandra G

    2012-02-01

    Syndecan-4 is composed of a core protein and covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and N-linked glycosylated (N-glycosylated) chains. The core protein is divided into extracellular, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain has two conserved regions and a variable region in the middle. The Ser residue in the conserved region 1 and the Tyr residue in the variable region are important in regulating protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) membrane localization and focal adhesion formation. The objective of the current study was to investigate the role of syndecan-4 Ser and Tyr residues in combination with the GAG and N-glycosylated chains in turkey satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) responsiveness, and PKCα membrane localization. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate Ser and Tyr mutants with or without GAG and N-glycosylated chains. The wild type and mutant syndecan-4 constructs were transfected into turkey satellite cells. The over-expression of Ser and Tyr mutants increased cell proliferation and differentiation and decreased membrane localization of PKCα. Furthermore, Ser mutants enhanced cellular responsiveness to FGF2. The results from this study are the first demonstration of a role of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain Ser and Tyr residues in regulating satellite cell proliferation, differentiation, and the modulation of cellular responsiveness to FGF2.

  18. Hepatitis B virus DNA-negative dane particles lack core protein but contain a 22-kDa precore protein without C-terminal arginine-rich domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tatsuji; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Terada, Nobuo; Rokuhara, Akinori; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Yagi, Shintaro; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Ohno, Shinichi; Maki, Noboru

    2005-06-10

    DNA-negative Dane particles have been observed in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected sera. The capsids of the empty particles are thought to be composed of core protein but have not been studied in detail. In the present study, the protein composition of the particles was examined using new enzyme immunoassays for the HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and for the HBV precore/core proteins (core-related antigens, HBcrAg). HBcrAg were abundant in fractions slightly less dense than HBcAg and HBV DNA. Three times more Dane-like particles were observed in the HBcrAg-rich fraction than in the HBV DNA-rich fraction by electron microscopy. Western blots and mass spectrometry identified the HBcrAg as a 22-kDa precore protein (p22cr) containing the uncleaved signal peptide and lacking the arginine-rich domain that is involved in binding the RNA pregenome or the DNA genome. In sera from 30 HBV-infected patients, HBcAg represented only a median 10.5% of the precore/core proteins in enveloped particles. These data suggest that most of the Dane particles lack viral DNA and core capsid but contain p22cr. This study provides a model for the formation of the DNA-negative Dane particles. The precore proteins, which lack the arginine-rich nucleotide-binding domain, form viral RNA/DNA-negative capsid-like particles and are enveloped and released as empty particles.

  19. Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin C-terminal domain labeled to fluorescent dyes for in vivo visualization of micrometastatic chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Emiliano; Shapiro, Erik M; Gasparrini, Sara; Lopez, Salvatore; Schwab, Carlton L; Bellone, Stefania; Bortolomai, Ileana; Sumi, Natalia J; Bonazzoli, Elena; Nicoletti, Roberta; Deng, Yang; Saltzman, W Mark; Zeiss, Caroline J; Centritto, Floriana; Black, Jonathan D; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Ratner, Elena; Azodi, Masoud; Rutherford, Thomas J; Schwartz, Peter E; Pecorelli, Sergio; Santin, Alessandro D

    2015-12-01

    Identification of micrometastatic disease at the time of surgery remains extremely challenging in ovarian cancer patients. We used fluorescence microscopy, an in vivo imaging system and a fluorescence stereo microscope to evaluate fluorescence distribution in Claudin-3- and -4-overexpressing ovarian tumors, floating tumor clumps isolated from ascites and healthy organs. To do so, mice harboring chemotherapy-naïve and chemotherapy-resistant human ovarian cancer xenografts or patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) were treated with the carboxyl-terminal binding domain of the Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (c-CPE) conjugated to FITC (FITC-c-CPE) or the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent tag IRDye CW800 (CW800-c-CPE) either intraperitoneally (IP) or intravenously (IV). We found tumor fluorescence to plateau at 30 min after IP injection of both the FITC-c-CPE and the CW800-c-CPE peptides and to be significantly higher than in healthy organs (p < 0.01). After IV injection of CW800-c-CPE, tumor fluorescence plateaued at 6 hr while the most favorable tumor-to-background fluorescence ratio (TBR) was found at 48 hr in both mouse models. Importantly, fluorescent c-CPE was highly sensitive for the in vivo visualization of peritoneal micrometastatic tumor implants and the identification of ovarian tumor spheroids floating in malignant ascites that were otherwise not detectable by conventional visual observation. The use of the fluorescent c-CPE peptide may represent a novel and effective optical approach at the time of primary debulking surgery for the real-time detection of micrometastatic ovarian disease overexpressing the Claudin-3 and -4 receptors or the identification of residual disease at the time of interval debulking surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment.

  20. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Nora F. [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt); Jasirwan, Chyntia [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Division of Hepatobiliary, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia (Indonesia); Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Nagamata, Satoshi [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Kawabata, Akiko [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Tang, Huamin [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Mori, Yasuko, E-mail: ymori@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Clinical Virology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. - Highlights: • Glycoprotein B (gB) is highly conserved among herpesviruses. • HHV-6 gB is also abundantly expressed in virions. • In the present study, we showed the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). • We found that deletion of gB CTD impairs the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN), and CTD of gB is critical for HHV-6 propagation.

  1. LC8 dynein light chain (DYNLL1) binds to the C-terminal domain of ATM-interacting protein (ATMIN/ASCIZ) and regulates its subcellular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapali, Peter [Dept. Biochemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Garcia-Mayoral, Maria Flor [Dept. Biological Physical Chemistry, IQFR, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Moreno, Monica [Dept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Tarnok, Krisztian; Schlett, Katalin [Dept. Physiology and Neurobiology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Albar, Juan Pablo [Proteomics Facility, CNB, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Bruix, Marta [Dept. Biological Physical Chemistry, IQFR, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Nyitray, Laszlo, E-mail: nyitray@elte.hu [Dept. Biochemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary); Rodriguez-Crespo, Ignacio, E-mail: nacho@bbm1.ucm.es [Dept. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have screened a human library with dynein light chain DYNLL1 (DLC8) as bait. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynein light chain DYNLL1 binds to ATM-kinase interacting protein (ATMIN). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ATMIN has 17 SQ/TQ motifs, a motif frequently found in DYNLL1-binding partners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The two proteins interact in vitro, with ATMIN displaying at least five binding sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction of ATMIN and DYNNL1 in transfected cells can also be observed. -- Abstract: LC8 dynein light chain (now termed DYNLL1 and DYNLL2 in mammals), a dimeric 89 amino acid protein, is a component of the dynein multi-protein complex. However a substantial amount of DYNLL1 is not associated to microtubules and it can thus interact with dozens of cellular and viral proteins that display well-defined, short linear motifs. Using DYNLL1 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart library we identified ATMIN, an ATM kinase-interacting protein, as a DYNLL1-binding partner. Interestingly, ATMIN displays at least 18 SQ/TQ motifs in its sequence and DYNLL1 is known to bind to proteins with KXTQT motifs. Using pepscan and yeast two-hybrid techniques we show that DYNLL1 binds to multiple SQ/TQ motifs present in the carboxy-terminal domain of ATMIN. Recombinant expression and purification of the DYNLL1-binding region of ATMIN allowed us to obtain a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass in gel filtration close to 400 kDa that could bind to DYNLL1 in vitro. The NMR data-driven modelled complexes of DYNLL1 with two selected ATMIN peptides revealed a similar mode of binding to that observed between DYNLL1 and other peptide targets. Remarkably, co-expression of mCherry-DYNLL1 and GFP-ATMIN mutually affected intracellular protein localization. In GFP-ATMIN expressing-cells DNA damage induced efficiently nuclear foci formation, which was partly impeded by the presence of mCherry-DYNLL1

  2. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  3. Positioning lipid membrane domains in giant vesicles by micro-organization of aqueous cytoplasm mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cans, Ann-Sofie; Andes-Koback, Meghan; Keating, Christine D

    2008-06-11

    We report localization of lipid membrane microdomains to specific "poles" of asymmetric giant vesicles (GVs) in response to local internal composition. Interior aqueous microdomains were generated in a simple model cytoplasm composed of a poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG)/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) encapsulated in the vesicles. The GV membrane composition used here was a modification of a DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol mixture known to form micrometer-scale liquid ordered and liquid disordered domains; we added lipids with PEG 2000 Da-modified headgroups. Osmotically induced budding of the ATPS-containing GVs led to structures where the PEG-rich and dextran-rich interior aqueous phases were in contact with different regions of the vesicle membrane. Liquid ordered (L o) membrane domains rich in PEG-terminated lipids preferentially coated the PEG-rich aqueous phase vesicle "body", while coexisting liquid disordered (L d) membrane domains coated the dextran-rich aqueous phase "bud". Membrane domain positioning resulted from interactions between lipid headgroups and the interior aqueous polymer solutions, e.g., PEGylated headgroups with PEG and dextran polymers. Heating resulted first in patchy membranes where L o and L d domains no longer showed any preference for coating the PEG-rich vs dextran-rich interior aqueous volumes, and eventually complete lipid mixing. Upon cooling lipid domains again coated their preferred interior aqueous microvolume. This work shows that nonspecific interactions between interior aqueous contents and the membrane that encapsulates them can drive local chemical heterogeneity, and offers a primitive experimental model for membrane and cytoplasmic polarity in biological cells.

  4. Mutagenesis of tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain results in a loss of Env-mediated fusion and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claiborne Daniel T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y and dileucine (LL motifs. Studies suggest that the motifs distal to major endocytosis motif (Y712HRL, located at residues 712-715 of Env, may contribute to Env functionality in the viral life cycle. In order to examine the biological contribution of these motifs in the biosynthesis, transport, and function of Env, we constructed two panels of mutants in which the conserved Y- and LL-motifs were sequentially substituted by alternative residues, either in the presence or absence of Y712. Additional mutants targeting individual motifs were then constructed. Results All mutant Envs, when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, maintained at least WT levels of Env surface staining by multiple antibodies. The Y712 mutation (Y712C contributed to at least a 4-fold increase in surface expression for all mutants containing this change. Sequential mutagenesis of the Y- and LL-motifs resulted in a generally progressive decrease in Env fusogenicity. However, additive mutation of dileucine and tyrosine motifs beyond the tyrosine at residue 768 resulted in the most dramatic effects on Env incorporation into virions, viral infectivity, and virus fusion with target cells. Conclusions From the studies reported here, we show that mutations of the Y- and LL-motifs, which effectively eliminate the amphipathic nature of the lytic peptide 2 (LLP2 domain or disrupt YW and LL motifs in a region spanning residues 795-803 (YWWNLLQYW, just C-terminal of LLP2, can dramatically interfere with biological functions of HIV-1 Env and abrogate virus replication. Because these mutant proteins are expressed at the cell surface, we conclude that tyrosine and di-leucine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 play critical roles in HIV-1 replication that are distinct from that of

  5. The novel 2Fe–2S outer mitochondrial protein mitoNEET displays conformational flexibility in its N-terminal cytoplasmic tethering domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Andrea R.; Paddock, Mark L.; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Cohen, Aina E.; Abresch, Edward C.; Wiley, Sandra; Roy, Melinda; Nechushtai, Rachel; Jennings, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    A primary role for mitochondrial dysfunction is indicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. A widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of molecules. MitoNEET, a 2Fe–2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein, binds pioglitazone [Colca et al. (2004 ▶), Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 286, E252–E260]. The soluble domain of the human mitoNEET protein has been expressed C-terminal to the superfolder green fluorescent protein and the mitoNEET protein has been isolated. Comparison of the crystal structure of mitoNEET isolated from cleavage of the fusion protein (1.4 Å resolution, R factor = 20.2%) with other solved structures shows that the CDGSH domains are superimposable, indicating proper assembly of mitoNEET. Furthermore, there is considerable flexibility in the position of the cytoplasmic tethering arms, resulting in two different conformations in the crystal structure. This flexibility affords multiple orientations on the outer mitochondrial membrane. PMID:19574633

  6. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Yasuo [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Brown, R. Lane [Neurological Science Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006 (United States); Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); VALWAY Technology Center, NEC Soft Ltd, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  7. Fertilization in C. elegans requires an intact C-terminal RING finger in sperm protein SPE-42

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumbley Jon N

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C. elegans sperm protein SPE-42, a membrane protein of unknown structure and molecular function, is required for fertilization. Sperm from worms with spe-42 mutations appear normal but are unable to fertilize eggs. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 8 conserved cysteine residues in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of this protein suggesting these residues form a zinc-coordinating RING finger structure. Results We made an in silico structural model of the SPE-42 RING finger domain based on primary sequence analysis and previously reported RING structures. To test the model, we created spe-42 transgenes coding for mutations in each of the 8 cysteine residues predicted to coordinate Zn++ ions in the RING finger motif. Transgenes were crossed into a spe-42 null background and protein function was measured by counting progeny. We found that all 8 cysteines are required for protein function. We also showed that sequence differences between the C-terminal 29 and 30 amino acids in C. elegans and C. briggsae SPE-42 following the RING finger domain are not responsible for the failure of the C. briggsae SPE-42 homolog to rescue C. elegans spe-42 mutants. Conclusions The results suggest that a bona fide RING domain is present at the C-terminus of the SPE-42 protein and that this motif is required for sperm-egg interactions during C. elegans fertilization. Our structural model of the RING domain provides a starting point for further structure-function analysis of this critical region of the protein. The C-terminal domain swap experiment suggests that the incompatibility between the C. elegans and C. briggsae SPE-42 proteins is caused by small amino acid differences outside the C-terminal domain.

  8. Regulation of adherence and virulence by the Entamoeba histolytica lectin cytoplasmic domain, which contains a beta2 integrin motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, R R; Ramakrishnan, G; Rogers, J B; Lockhart, L A; Mann, B J; Petri, W A

    1998-08-01

    Killing of human cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica requires adherence via an amebic cell surface lectin. Lectin activity in the parasite is regulated by inside-out signaling. The lectin cytoplasmic domain has sequence identity with a region of the beta2 integrin cytoplasmic tail implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion. Intracellular expression of a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the lectin has a dominant negative effect on extracellular lectin-mediated cell adherence. Mutation of the integrin-like sequence abrogates the dominant negative effect. Amebae expressing the dominant negative mutant are less virulent in an animal model of amebiasis. These results suggest that inside-out signaling via the lectin cytoplasmic domain may control the extracellular adhesive activity of the amebic lectin and provide in vivo demonstration of the lectin's role in virulence.

  9. Deletion of the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin reduces, but does not eliminate, traction force-transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eliot; Ewald, Makena L; Sedarous, Mary; Kim, Timothy; Weyers, Brent W; Truong, Rose Hong; Yamada, Soichiro

    2016-09-30

    Collective migration of epithelial cells is an integral part of embryonic development, wound healing, tissue renewal and carcinoma invasion. While previous studies have focused on cell-extracellular matrix adhesion as a site of migration-driving, traction force-transmission, cadherin mediated cell-cell adhesion is also capable of force-transmission. Using a soft elastomer coated with purified N-cadherin as a substrate and a Hepatocyte Growth Factor-treated, transformed MDCK epithelial cell line as a model system, we quantified traction transmitted by N-cadherin-mediated contacts. On a substrate coated with purified extracellular domain of N-cadherin, cell surface N-cadherin proteins arranged into puncta. N-cadherin mutants (either the cytoplasmic deletion or actin-binding domain chimera), however, failed to assemble into puncta, suggesting the assembly of focal adhesion like puncta requires the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic domain deleted N-cadherin expressing cells exerted lower traction stress than the full-length or the actin binding domain chimeric N-cadherin. Our data demonstrate that N-cadherin junctions exert significant traction stress that requires the cytoplasmic domain of N-cadherin, but the loss of the cytoplasmic domain does not completely eliminate traction force transmission.

  10. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng-Hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. Results We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Conclusion Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  11. The Robo4 cytoplasmic domain is dispensable for vascular permeability and neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Prahst, Claudia; Mathivet, Thomas; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Zhang, Jiasheng; Genet, Gael; Tong, Raymond; Dubrac, Alexandre; Eichmann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Vascular permeability and neovascularization are implicated in many diseases including retinopathies and diabetic wound healing. Robo4 is an endothelial-specific transmembrane receptor that stabilizes the vasculature, as shown in Robo4−/− mice that develop hyperpermeability, but how Robo4 signals remained unclear. Here we show that Robo4 deletion enhances permeability and revascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and accelerates cutaneous wound healing. To determine Robo4 signalling pathways, we generated transgenic mice expressing a truncated Robo4 lacking the cytoplasmic domain (Robo4ΔCD). Robo4ΔCD expression is sufficient to prevent permeability, and inhibits OIR revascularization and wound healing in Robo4−/− mice. Mechanistically, Robo4 does not affect Slit2 signalling, but Robo4 and Robo4ΔCD counteract Vegfr2-Y949 (Y951 in human VEGFR2) phosphorylation by signalling through the endothelial UNC5B receptor. We conclude that Robo4 inhibits angiogenesis and vessel permeability independently of its cytoplasmic domain, while activating VEGFR2-Y951 via ROBO4 inhibition might accelerate tissue revascularization in retinopathy of prematurity and in diabetic patients. PMID:27882935

  12. The lectin domain of the polypeptide GalNAc transferase family of glycosyltransferases (ppGalNAc Ts) acts as a switch directing glycopeptide substrate glycosylation in an N- or C-terminal direction, further controlling mucin type O-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerken, Thomas A; Revoredo, Leslie; Thome, Joseph J C; Tabak, Lawrence A; Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Clausen, Henrik; Gahlay, Gagandeep K; Jarvis, Donald L; Johnson, Roy W; Moniz, Heather A; Moremen, Kelley

    2013-07-01

    Mucin type O-glycosylation is initiated by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc transferases (ppGalNAc Ts) that add α-GalNAc to the Ser and Thr residues of peptides. Of the 20 human isoforms, all but one are composed of two globular domains linked by a short flexible linker: a catalytic domain and a ricin-like lectin carbohydrate binding domain. Presently, the roles of the catalytic and lectin domains in peptide and glycopeptide recognition and specificity remain unclear. To systematically study the role of the lectin domain in ppGalNAc T glycopeptide substrate utilization, we have developed a series of novel random glycopeptide substrates containing a single GalNAc-O-Thr residue placed near either the N or C terminus of the glycopeptide substrate. Our results reveal that the presence and N- or C-terminal placement of the GalNAc-O-Thr can be important determinants of overall catalytic activity and specificity that differ between transferase isoforms. For example, ppGalNAc T1, T2, and T14 prefer C-terminally placed GalNAc-O-Thr, whereas ppGalNAc T3 and T6 prefer N-terminally placed GalNAc-O-Thr. Several transferase isoforms, ppGalNAc T5, T13, and T16, display equally enhanced N- or C-terminal activities relative to the nonglycosylated control peptides. This N- and/or C-terminal selectivity is presumably due to weak glycopeptide binding to the lectin domain, whose orientation relative to the catalytic domain is dynamic and isoform-dependent. Such N- or C-terminal glycopeptide selectivity provides an additional level of control or fidelity for the O-glycosylation of biologically significant sites and suggests that O-glycosylation may in some instances be exquisitely controlled.

  13. The cytoplasmic and the transmembrane domains are not sufficient for class I MHC signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, H; Geppert, T D; Wacholtz, M C; Lipsky, P E

    1999-02-01

    Class I MHC molecules deliver activation signals to T cells. To analyze the role of the cytoplasmic and the transmembrane (TM) domains of class I MHC molecules in T cell activation, Jurkat cells were transfected with genes for truncated class I MHC molecules which had only four intracytoplasmic amino acids and no potential phosphorylation sites or native molecules or both. Cross-linking either the native or the truncated molecules induced IL-2 production even under limiting stimulation conditions of low engagement of the stimulating mAb. Moreover, direct comparison of transfected truncated and native class I MHC molecules expressed on the same cell revealed significant stimulation induced by cross-linking the truncated molecules, despite low expression. In addition, truncated class I MHC molecules were as able to synergize with CD3, CD2, or CD28 initiated IL-2 production as native molecules. In further experiments, hybrid constructs made of the extracellular portion of the murine CD8 alpha chain and of the TM and the intracytoplasmic domains of H-2Kk class I MHC molecule were transfected into Jurkat T cells. The expression of the transfected hybrid molecules was comparable to that of the native HLA-B7 molecules. Cross-linking the intact monomorphic HLA-A,B,C epitope or the polymorphic HLA-B7 epitope induced IL-2 production upon costimulation with PMA. In contrast, cross-linking the hybrid molecules generated neither an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) nor stimulated IL-2 production. By contrast, cross-linking intact murine class I MHC molecules induced [Ca2+]i, signal and IL-2 production in transfected Jurkat cells. The data therefore indicate that unlike many other signaling molecules, signaling via class I MHC molecules does not involve the cytoplasmic and the TM portions of the molecule, but rather class I MHC signal transduction is likely to be mediated by the extracellular domain of the molecule.

  14. Phosphorylation of the dimeric cytoplasmic domain of the phytosulfokine receptor, PSKR1

    KAUST Repository

    Muleya, V.

    2016-08-04

    Phytosulfokines (PSKs) are plant peptide hormones that co-regulate plant growth, differentiation and defense responses. PSKs signal through a plasma membrane localized leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase (phytosulfokine receptor 1, PSKR1) that also contains a functional cytosolic guanylate cyclase with its cyclase catalytic center embedded within the kinase domain. To functionally characterize this novel type of overlapping dual catalytic function, we investigated the phosphorylation of PSKR1 in vitro Tandem mass spectrometry of the cytoplasmic domain of PSKR1 (PSKR1cd) revealed at least 11 phosphorylation sites (8 serines, 2 threonines and 1 tyrosine) within the PSKR1cd. Phosphomimetic mutations of three serine residues (Ser686, Ser696 and Ser698) in tandem at the juxta-membrane position resulted in enhanced kinase activity in the on-mutant that was suppressed in the off-mutant, but both mutations reduced guanylate cyclase activity. Both the on and off phosphomimetic mutations of the phosphotyrosine (Tyr888) residue in the activation loop suppressed kinase activity, while neither mutation affected guanylate cyclase activity. Size exclusion and analytical ultracentrifugation analysis of the PSKR1cd suggest that it is reversibly dimeric in solution, which was further confirmed by biflourescence complementation. Taken together, these data suggest that in this novel type of receptor domain architecture, specific phosphorylation and dimerization are possibly essential mechanisms for ligand-mediated catalysis and signaling.

  15. Alternative Splicing of Toll-Like Receptor 9 Transcript in Teleost Fish Grouper Is Regulated by NF-κB Signaling via Phosphorylation of the C-Terminal Domain of the RPB1 Subunit of RNA Polymerase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Frank Fang-Yao; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chang, Tien-Hsien; Chiou, Pinwen Peter

    2016-01-01

    Similar to its mammalian counterparts, teleost Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA presented in the genome of bacteria or DNA viruses and initiates signaling pathway(s) for immune responses. We have previously shown that the TLR9 pathway in grouper, an economically important teleost, can be debilitated by an inhibitory gTLR9B isoform, whose production is mediated by RNA alternative splicing. However, how does grouper TLR9 (gTLR9) signaling impinge on the RNA splicing machinery to produce gTlr9B is unknown. Here we show that the gTlr9 alternative splicing is regulated through ligand-induced phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (Pol II). We first observed that ligand-activated NF- κB pathway biased the production of the gTlr9B isoform. Because NF- κB is known to recruit p-TEFb kinase, which phosphorylates the Pol II CTD at Ser2 residues, we examined p-TEFb’s role in alternative splicing. We found that promoting p-TEFb kinase activity significantly favored the production of the gTlr9B isoform, whereas inhibiting p-TEFb yielded an opposite result. We further showed that p-TEFb-mediated production of the gTlr9B isoform down-regulates its own immune responses, suggesting a self-limiting mechanism. Taken together, our data indicate a feedback mechanism of the gTLR9 signaling pathway to regulate the alternative splicing machinery, which in turn produces an inhibitor to the pathway. PMID:27658294

  16. The C-terminal Domain (CTD) of Human DNA Glycosylase NEIL1 Is Required for Forming BERosome Repair Complex with DNA Replication Proteins at the Replicating Genome: DOMINANT NEGATIVE FUNCTION OF THE CTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Pavana M; Dutta, Arijit; Sengupta, Shiladitya; Mitra, Joy; Adhikari, Sanjay; Tomkinson, Alan E; Li, Guo-Min; Boldogh, Istvan; Hazra, Tapas K; Mitra, Sankar; Hegde, Muralidhar L

    2015-08-21

    The human DNA glycosylase NEIL1 was recently demonstrated to initiate prereplicative base excision repair (BER) of oxidized bases in the replicating genome, thus preventing mutagenic replication. A significant fraction of NEIL1 in cells is present in large cellular complexes containing DNA replication and other repair proteins, as shown by gel filtration. However, how the interaction of NEIL1 affects its recruitment to the replication site for prereplicative repair was not investigated. Here, we show that NEIL1 binarily interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen clamp loader replication factor C, DNA polymerase δ, and DNA ligase I in the absence of DNA via its non-conserved C-terminal domain (CTD); replication factor C interaction results in ∼8-fold stimulation of NEIL1 activity. Disruption of NEIL1 interactions within the BERosome complex, as observed for a NEIL1 deletion mutant (N311) lacking the CTD, not only inhibits complete BER in vitro but also prevents its chromatin association and reduced recruitment at replication foci in S phase cells. This suggests that the interaction of NEIL1 with replication and other BER proteins is required for efficient repair of the replicating genome. Consistently, the CTD polypeptide acts as a dominant negative inhibitor during in vitro repair, and its ectopic expression sensitizes human cells to reactive oxygen species. We conclude that multiple interactions among BER proteins lead to large complexes, which are critical for efficient BER in mammalian cells, and the CTD interaction could be targeted for enhancing drug/radiation sensitivity of tumor cells.

  17. The Cytoplasmic Domain of CD4 Is Sufficient for Its Down-Regulation from the Cell Surface by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nef

    OpenAIRE

    S. J. Anderson; Lenburg, M; Landau, N R; Garcia, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef down-regulates surface expression of murine and human CD4 but not human CD8. We recently reported that the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is required for its down-regulation by Nef. Using a chimeric molecule composed of the extracellular and transmembrane domains of human CD8 fused to the cytoplasmic domain of human CD4, we show here that the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is sufficient for down-regulation by Nef. Since the cytoplasmic domain of CD4 is also the s...

  18. Cytoplasmic dynein crosslinks and slides anti-parallel microtubules using its two motor domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Vale, Ronald D; McKenney, Richard J

    2013-09-03

    Cytoplasmic dynein is the predominant minus-end-directed microtubule (MT) motor in most eukaryotic cells. In addition to transporting vesicular cargos, dynein helps to organize MTs within MT networks such as mitotic spindles. How dynein performs such non-canonical functions is unknown. Here we demonstrate that dynein crosslinks and slides anti-parallel MTs in vitro. Surprisingly, a minimal dimeric motor lacking a tail domain and associated subunits can cause MT sliding. Single molecule imaging reveals that motors pause and frequently reverse direction when encountering an anti-parallel MT overlap, suggesting that the two motor domains can bind both MTs simultaneously. In the mitotic spindle, inward microtubule sliding by dynein counteracts outward sliding generated by kinesin-5, and we show that a tailless, dimeric motor is sufficient to drive this activity in mammalian cells. Our results identify an unexpected mechanism for dynein-driven microtubule sliding, which differs from filament sliding mechanisms described for other motor proteins. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00943.001.

  19. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowsky, Katharina; Luksza, Julia; Dittmar, Matthias T

    2008-06-20

    The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion. HeLaP4 cells expressing different HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs showed reduced acetylated tubulin levels whereas the cytoplasmic tail of MLV did not alter microtubule stability indicating a unique function for the lentiviral cytoplasmic tail. The effect on tubulin is mediated through the membrane proximal region of the HIV cytoplasmic tail and was independent of membrane localization. Site-directed mutagenesis identified three motifs in the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail required to effect the reduction in acetylated tubulin. Both the YxxPhi domain and amino acids 21 to 45 of the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail need to be present to change the level of acetylated tubulin in transfected cells. T-cells stably expressing one HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail derived construct showed also a reduction in acetylated tubulin thus confirming the importance of this effect not only for HeLaP4 and 293T cells. Challenge experiments using transiently transfected HeLaP4 cells and T cells stably expressing an HIV cytoplasmic tail construct revealed both reduced virus-cell fusion and replication of HIV-1(NL4.3) compared to control cells. In the virus-cell fusion assay only virions pseudotyped with either HIV or MLV envelopes showed reduced fusion efficiency, whereas VSV-G pseudotyped virions where not affected by the expression of HIV derived cytoplasmic tail constructs, indicating that fusion at the plasma but not endosomal membrane is affected. Overexpression of human histone-deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and constitutively active RhoA resulted in a reduction of acetylated tubulin and reduced virus-cell fusion as significant as that observed following expression of HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs. Inhibition of HDAC6 showed a strong increase in acetylated tubulin and increase of

  20. 鸡大肠杆菌FimH基因C端结构域克隆及特性分析%Cloning and characterization of C terminal domain of avian E .coli ’Fim H gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白宇琛; 谢金峰; 周广防; 冯秀丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective]Through further study of Fim H ,the the main structure gene of avian Escherichia coli type I , the research aimed to provide necessary theoretical foundation for pathogenic mechanism of avian E .coli and develop-ment of gene engineering vaccinE.[Methods]Based on the published C terminal domain nucleotide sequence of Fim H gene for reference,this research designed and synthesized primers,amplified three strains of the relevant Fim H genes in avian E .coli including JS1,JS2 and JS6,used Lasergene software for sequence alignment and protein structure pre-diction,and the evolutionary tree was drew,etc.[Results]The results showed that the homology of gene nucleotide sequences between Reference strain and JS1,JS2 or JS6 were 97.3%,97.7% and 97.3%,and their amino acid se-quences was 95.3%,97.6% and 95.3%,respectively.Although their Fim H antigenic nucleotide sequences between Reference strain and JS1,JS2 or JS6 were 97.3%,97.7% and 97.3%,and their amino acid sequences was 95.3%, 97.6% and 95.3%,respectively.Although their Fim H antigenic determinants are basically similar,amino acids changes at 78 th and 79 th caused the different antigenic determinant at C terminal domain of Fim H ,which indicated that amino acid variation of Fim H sequences might have the minor effect on the antigenic property of Fim H .Further-more,the evolutionary tree analysis showed the close evolutionary relationship among three isolated strains and the do-mestic avian E .coli strains.[Conclusion]The results indicated that the Fim H gene of avian E .coli had no significant variation,which makes important foundation for further research on molecular mechanism of avian E .coli and the con-trol strategies against pathogenic avian E .coli.%[目的]通过进一步研究禽大肠杆菌 I 型菌毛主要结构基因 FimH 的基因结构及其抗原特性,为深入探索鸡大肠杆菌致病机理及研制基因工程疫苗奠定必要的理论基础。[方法]本文以已发表的 Fim H

  1. Mechanistic insight into the function of the C-terminal PKD domain of the collagenolytic serine protease deseasin MCP-01 from deep sea Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913: binding of the PKD domain to collagen results in collagen swelling but does not unwind the collagen triple helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Kai; Zhao, Guo-Yan; Li, Yang; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Xie, Bin-Bin; Su, Hai-Nan; Lv, Yao-Hui; He, Hai-Lun; Liu, Hong; Hu, Jun; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2010-05-07

    Deseasin MCP-01 is a bacterial collagenolytic serine protease. Its catalytic domain alone can degrade collagen, and its C-terminal PKD domain is a collagen-binding domain (CBD) that can improve the collagenolytic efficiency of the catalytic domain by an unknown mechanism. Here, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential, and circular dichroism spectroscopy were used to clarify the functional mechanism of the PKD domain in MCP-01 collagenolysis. The PKD domain observably swelled insoluble collagen. Its collagen-swelling ability and its improvement to the collagenolysis of the catalytic domain are both temperature-dependent. SEM observation showed the PKD domain swelled collagen fascicles with an increase of their diameter from 5.3 mum to 8.8 mum after 1 h of treatment, and the fibrils forming the fascicles were dispersed. AFM observation directly showed that the PKD domain bound collagen, swelled the microfibrils, and exposed the monomers. The PKD mutant W36A neither bound collagen nor disturbed its structure. Zeta potential results demonstrated that PKD treatment increased the net positive charges of the collagen surface. PKD treatment caused no change in the content or the thermostability of the collagen triple helix. Furthermore, the PKD-treated collagen could not be degraded by gelatinase. Therefore, though the triple helix monomers were exposed, the PKD domain could not unwind the collagen triple helix. Our study reveals the functional mechanism of the PKD domain of the collagenolytic serine protease MCP-01 in collagen degradation, which is distinct from that of the CBDs of mammalian matrix metalloproteases.

  2. Active and accurate trans-translation requires distinct determinants in the C-terminal tail of SmpB protein and the mRNA-like domain of transfer messenger RNA (tmRNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenares, Devin; Dulebohn, Daniel P; Svetlanov, Anton; Karzai, A Wali

    2013-10-18

    Unproductive ribosome stalling in eubacteria is resolved by the actions of SmpB protein and transfer messenger (tm) RNA. We examined the functional significance of conserved regions of SmpB and tmRNA to the trans-translation process. Our investigations reveal that the N-terminal 20 residues of SmpB, which are located near the ribosomal decoding center, are dispensable for all known SmpB activities. In contrast, a set of conserved residues that reside at the junction between the tmRNA-binding core and the C-terminal tail of SmpB play an important role in tmRNA accommodation. Our data suggest that the highly conserved glycine 132 acts as a flexible hinge that enables movement of the C-terminal tail, thus permitting proper positioning and establishment of the tmRNA open reading frame (ORF) as the surrogate template. To gain further insights into the function of the SmpB C-terminal tail, we examined the tagging activity of hybrid variants of tmRNA and the SmpB protein, in which the tmRNA ORF or the SmpB C-terminal tail was substituted with the equivalent but highly divergent sequences from Francisella tularensis. We observed that the hybrid tmRNA was active but resulted in less accurate selection of the resume codon. Cognate hybrid SmpB was necessary to restore activity. Furthermore, accurate tagging was observed when the identity of the resume codon was reverted from GGC to GCA. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of the tmRNA ORF and the selection of the correct translation resumption point are distinct activities that are influenced by independent tmRNA and SmpB determinants.

  3. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction between the cytoplasmic domain (CD of MHC-I, Nef, and the clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1. The CD of MHC-I contains a key tyrosine within the sequence YSQA that is required for down-regulation by Nef, but this sequence does not conform to the canonical AP-binding tyrosine-based motif Yxxphi, which mediates binding to the medium (micro subunits of AP complexes. We previously proposed that Nef allows the MHC-I CD to bind the mu subunit of AP-1 (micro1 as if it contained a Yxxphimotif. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that a direct interaction between the MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 plays a primary role in the down-regulation of MHC-I: GST pulldown assays using recombinant proteins indicated that most of the MHC-I CD and Nef residues that are required for the down-regulation in human cells contribute to direct interactions with a truncated version of micro1. Specifically, the tyrosine residue of the YSQA sequence in the MHC-I CD as well as Nef residues E62-65 and P78 each contributed to the interaction between MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 in vitro, whereas Nef M20 had little to no role. Conversely, residues F172/D174 and V392/L395 of the binding pocket on micro1 for Yxxphi motifs were required for a robust interaction. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain, Nef, and the C-terminal two thirds of the mu subunit of AP-1 are sufficient to constitute a biologically relevant interaction. The data also reveal an unexpected role for a hydrophobic pocket in micro1 for interaction with MHC-I CD/Nef.

  4. CEACAM1 Long Cytoplasmic Domain Isoform is Associated with Invasion and Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Shigehisa; Yokoyama, Shozo; Ueno, Masaki; Hayami, Shinya; Ieda, Junji; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Mitani, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Tani, Masaji; Mishra, Lopa; Shively, John E.; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Background The two isoforms of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), 1 with a long cytoplasmic domain (CEACAM1-L) and 1 with a short (CEACAM1-S), are involved in different signaling pathways. β2-spectrin (β2SP) is an adaptor protein that plays critical roles in the proper control of Smad access to activate receptors involved in regulation of TGF-β signaling. In this study, we examined the association between CEACAM1 isoform balance and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) malignant potential and investigated the possibility of a molecular interaction between CEACAM1 and β2SP. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was carried out with CEACAM1-L or CEACAM1-S antibodies on 154 HCC tissues to correlate with the factors of malignancy. Invasion assay was performed for the effect of CEACAM1 expression on HCC cell lines. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis and immunoprecipitation analysis were performed to investigate the association between CEACAM1 isoform balance and β2SP. Results In immunohistochemical analysis, CEACAM1-L expression dominance was a risk factor for HCC recurrence (p = 0.04) and was significantly associated with a shorter survival compared with CEACAM1-S expression dominance. Invasion assay indicated that CEACAM1-4L-transfected HLF and PLC/PRF/5 cells showed significantly increased invasion (p<0.0001) and CEACAM1-4S-transfected HLF cells showed significantly decreased invasion. Immunohistochemical analysis of β2SP suggested that the HCCs with CEACAM1-L-dominant expression were more strongly stained with β2SP than the HCCs with CEACAM1-S-dominant expression (p = 0.013), and coprecipitation assays indicated that CEACAM1-L could bind to β2SP. Conclusions CEACAM1-L may enhance the HCC invasiveness through an interaction with β2SP and subsequent effects on TGF-β signaling. PMID:24390710

  5. The Extracellular and Cytoplasmic Domains of Syndecan Cooperate Postsynaptically to Promote Synapse Growth at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret U Nguyen

    Full Text Available The heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG Syndecan (Sdc is a crucial regulator of synapse development and growth in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In Drosophila, Sdc binds via its extracellular heparan sulfate (HS sidechains to the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase LAR to promote the morphological growth of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ. To date, however, little else is known about the molecular mechanisms by which Sdc functions to promote synapse growth. Here we show that all detectable Sdc found at the NMJ is provided by the muscle, strongly suggesting a post-synaptic role for Sdc. We also show that both the cytoplasmic and extracellular domains of Sdc are required to promote synapse growth or to rescue Sdc loss of function. We report the results of a yeast two-hybrid screen using the cytoplasmic domains of Sdc as bait, and identify several novel candidate binding partners for the cytoplasmic domains of Sdc. Together, these studies provide new insight into the mechanism of Sdc function at the NMJ, and provide enticing future directions for further exploring how Sdc promotes synapse growth.

  6. Pyridoxal phosphate as a probe of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins: Application to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Ramirez, B.; Martinez-Carrion, M. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

    1989-06-13

    A novel procedure has been developed to specifically label the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins with the aldehyde pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP). Torpedo californica acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) vesicles were loaded with ({sup 3}H)pyridoxine 5-phosphate (({sup 3}H)PNP) and pyridoxine-5-phosphate oxidase, followed by intravesicular enzymatic oxidation of ({sup 3}H)PNP at 37{degree}C in the presence of externally added cytochrome c as a scavenger of possible leaking PLP product. The four receptor subunits were labeled whether the reaction was carried out on the internal surface or separately designed to mark the external one. On the other hand, the relative pyridoxylation of the subunits differed in both cases, reflecting differences in accessible lysyl residues in each side of the membrane. Even though there are no large differences in the total lysine content among the subunits and there are two copies of the {alpha}-subunit, internal surface labeling by PLP was greatest for the highest molecular weight ({delta}) subunit, reinforcing the concept that the four receptor subunits are transmembranous and may protrude into the cytoplasmic face in a fashion that is proportional to their subunit molecular weight. Yet, the labeling data do not fit well to any of the models proposed for AcChR subunit folding. The method described can be used for selective labeling of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane proteins in sealed membrane vesicles.

  7. Study of the arrangement of the functional domains along the yeast cytoplasmic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, G; Eriani, G; Kern, D; Dirheimer, G; Gangloff, J

    1989-03-15

    Aspartyl-tRNA synthetase from yeast (AspRS) was screened for functional domains by measuring the effect of two types of amino acid mutations on its catalytic properties: (a) insertion of a dipeptide or a tetrapeptide along the polypeptide chain, (b) deletion of various lengths from the enzyme C-terminal. It was shown that insertion mutations significantly affect the kinetic properties of AspRS only when occurring in the second quarter of the molecule and the two centrally located mutations even inactivate the enzyme completely. Analysis of kinetic data strongly suggests that, in fact, all the observed activity modifications result from alteration of the activation reaction rate constant, kappa cat only. This led to the conclusion that the domain involved in aspartic acid activation should be located in the second quarter of the molecule. Furthermore, a deletion mutant with a modification of the last five amino acid residues was isolated. This mutant is fully active in the activation step, but has lost 80% of the wild-type aminoacylation activity. This involvement of the C-terminus in acylation implies that it has to be folded towards strategic regions of the enzyme, thus favouring conformations required for catalysis or maintaining the tRNA in a functional position.

  8. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M; Stebbins, C Erec

    2010-06-01

    Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  9. A Conserved Domain in Type III Secretion Links the Cytoplasmic Domain of InvA to Elements of the Basal Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, M.; Quezada, C; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  10. Intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of two cytokine receptors mediate conserved interactions with membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxholm, Gitte Wolfsberg; Nikolajsen, Louise Fletcher; Olsen, Johan Gotthardt;

    2015-01-01

    Class 1 cytokine receptors regulate essential biological processes through complex intracellular signaling networks. However, the structural platform for understanding their functions is currently incomplete as structure-function studies of the intracellular domains (ICDs) are critically lacking...

  11. Localization and trafficking of an isoform of the AtPRA1 family to the Golgi apparatus depend on both N- and C-terminal sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chan Jin; Lee, Myoung Hui; Min, Myung Ki; Hwang, Inhwan

    2011-02-01

    Prenylated Rab acceptors (PRAs) bind to prenylated Rab proteins and possibly aid in targeting Rabs to their respective compartments. In Arabidopsis, 19 isoforms of PRA1 have been identified and, depending upon the isoforms, they localize to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus and endosomes. Here, we investigated the localization and trafficking of AtPRA1.B6, an isoform of the Arabidopsis PRA1 family. In colocalization experiments with various organellar markers, AtPRA1.B6 tagged with hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminus localized to the Golgi apparatus in protoplasts and transgenic plants. The valine residue at the C-terminal end and an EEE motif in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain were critical for anterograde trafficking from the ER to the Golgi apparatus. The N-terminal region contained a sequence motif for retention of AtPRA1.B6 at the Golgi apparatus. In addition, anterograde trafficking of AtPRA1.B6 from the ER to the Golgi apparatus was highly sensitive to the HA:AtPRA1.B6 level. The region that contains the sequence motif for Golgi retention also conferred the abundance-dependent trafficking inhibition. On the basis of these results, we propose that AtPRA1.B6 localizes to the Golgi apparatus and its ER-to-Golgi trafficking and localization to the Golgi apparatus are regulated by multiple sequence motifs in both the C- and N-terminal cytoplasmic domains.

  12. The modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus is cell-attached, and its C-terminal domain has several putative homologues among cell-attached proteins within the phylum Bacteroidetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Hachem, Maher Abou; Ramchuran, Santosh

    2004-01-01

    cell attachment. To confirm this theory, R. marinus was grown, and activity assays showed that the major part of the xylanase activity was connected to whole cells. Moreover, immunocytochemical detection using a Xyn10A-specific antibody proved presence of Xyn10A on the R. marinus cell surface......-termini of proteins that were predominantly extra-cellular/cell attached. A primary structure motif of three conserved regions including structurally important glycines and a proline was also identified suggesting a conserved 3D fold. This bioinformatic evidence suggested a possible role of this domain in mediating....... In the light of this, a revision of experimental data present on both Xyn10A and Man26A was performed, and the results all indicate a cell-anchoring role of the domain, suggesting that this domain represents a novel type of module that mediates cell attachment in proteins originating from members of the phylum...

  13. Flexibility of the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Phototaxis Transducer II from Natronomonas pharaonis

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    Ivan L. Budyak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemo- and phototaxis systems in bacteria and archaea serve as models for more complex signal transduction mechanisms in higher eukaryotes. Previous studies of the cytoplasmic fragment of the phototaxis transducer (pHtrII-cyt from the halophilic archaeon Natronomonas pharaonis showed that it takes the shape of a monomeric or dimeric rod under low or high salt conditions, respectively. CD spectra revealed only approximately 24% helical structure, even in 4 M KCl, leaving it an open question how the rod-like shape is achieved. Here, we conducted CD, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopic studies under different conditions to address this question. We provide evidence that pHtrII-cyt is highly dynamic with strong helical propensity, which allows it to change from monomeric to dimeric helical coiled-coil states without undergoing dramatic shape changes. A statistical analysis of predicted disorder for homologous sequences suggests that structural flexibility is evolutionarily conserved within the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein family.

  14. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain...... of the membrane protein band 3, which liberates glycolytic enzymes from this site. This study aims to investigate the role of fetal HbF (that has lower anion-binding capacity than HbA) in fetal red cells (that are subjected to low O2 tensions), and to elucidate possible linkage (e.g. via the major red cell...... membrane organising centre, band 3) between the individual oxygenation-linked reactions encountered in red cells. Methods: The interaction between band 3 and Hb is analysed in terms of the effects, measured under different conditions, of a 10-mer peptide that corresponds to the N-terminus of human band 3...

  15. Intracellular cytoplasm-specific delivery of SH3 and SH2 domains of SLAP inhibits TcR-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Moon, Jae-Seung; Yu, JiSang; Lee, Sang-Kyou

    2015-05-08

    Signaling events triggered by T cell receptor (TcR) stimulation are important targets for the development of common therapeutics for various autoimmune diseases. SLAP is a negative regulator of TcR-mediated signaling cascade via targeting TcR zeta chain for degradation through recruiting the ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl. In this study, we generated a transducible form of SH3 and SH2 domains of SLAP (ctSLAPΔC) which can be specifically targeted to the cytoplasm of a cell. ctSLAPΔC inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of signaling mediators such as ZAP-70 and LAT involved in T cell activation, and effectively suppressed transcriptional activity of NFAT and NFκB upon TcR stimulation. The transduced ctSLAPΔC in T cells blocked the secretion of T cell-specific cytokines such as IL-2, IFNγ, IL-17A, and IL-4 and induced the expression of CD69 and CD25 on effector T cells without influencing the cell viability. Inhibition of TcR-mediated signaling via SLAP blocked the differentiation of naïve T cells into Th1, Th2 or Treg cells with different sensitivity, suggesting that qualitative and quantitative intensity of TcR-mediated signaling in the context of polarizing cytokines environment may be a critical factor to determine the differentiation fate of naïve T cells. These results suggest that cytoplasm-specific transduction of the SH3 and SH2 domains of SLAP has a therapeutic potential of being an immunosuppressive reagent for the treatment of various autoimmune diseases.

  16. The C-Terminal Domain of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5 Promotes Start Codon Recognition by Its Dynamic Interplay with eIF1 and eIF2β

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    Rafael E. Luna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the proper start codon on mRNAs is essential for protein synthesis, which requires scanning and involves eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2, and eIF5. The carboxyl terminal domain (CTD of eIF5 stimulates 43S preinitiation complex (PIC assembly; however, its precise role in scanning and start codon selection has remained unknown. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, we identified the binding sites of eIF1 and eIF2β on eIF5-CTD and found that they partially overlapped. Mutating select eIF5 residues in the common interface specifically disrupts interaction with both factors. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that these eIF5-CTD mutations impair start codon recognition and impede eIF1 release from the PIC by abrogating eIF5-CTD binding to eIF2β. This study provides mechanistic insight into the role of eIF5-CTD's dynamic interplay with eIF1 and eIF2β in switching PICs from an open to a closed state at start codons.

  17. Contribution of intracellular calcium and pH in ischemic uncoupling of cardiac gap junction channels formed of connexins 43, 40, and 45: a critical function of C-terminal domain.

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    Giriraj Sahu

    Full Text Available Ischemia is known to inhibit gap junction (GJ mediated intercellular communication. However the detail mechanisms of this inhibition are largely unknown. In the present study, we determined the vulnerability of different cardiac GJ channels formed of connexins (Cxs 43, 40, and 45 to simulated ischemia, by creating oxygen glucose deprived (OGD condition. 5 minutes of OGD decreased the junctional conductance (Gj of Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45 by 53±3%, 64±1% and 85±2% respectively. Reduction of Gj was prevented completely by restricting the change of both intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+]i and pH (pHi with potassium phosphate buffer. Clamping of either [Ca(2+]i or pHi, through BAPTA (2 mM or HEPES (80 mM respectively, offered partial resistance to ischemic uncoupling. Anti-calmodulin antibody attenuated the uncoupling of Cx43 and Cx45 significantly but not of Cx40. Furthermore, OGD could reduce only 26±2% of Gj in C-terminus (CT truncated Cx43 (Cx43-Δ257. Tethering CT of Cx43 to the CT-truncated Cx40 (Cx40-Δ249, and Cx45 (Cx45-Δ272 helped to resist OGD mediated uncoupling. Moreover, CT domain played a significant role in determining the junction current density and plaque diameter. Our results suggest; OGD mediated uncoupling of GJ channels is primarily due to elevated [Ca(2+]i and acidic pHi, though the latter contributes more. Among Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45, Cx43 is the most resistant to OGD while Cx45 is the most sensitive one. CT of Cx43 has major necessary elements for OGD induced uncoupling and it can complement CT of Cx40 and Cx45.

  18. Alba-domain proteins of Trypanosoma brucei are cytoplasmic RNA-binding proteins that interact with the translation machinery.

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    Jan Mani

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei and related pathogens transcribe most genes as polycistronic arrays that are subsequently processed into monocistronic mRNAs. Expression is frequently regulated post-transcriptionally by cis-acting elements in the untranslated regions (UTRs. GPEET and EP procyclins are the major surface proteins of procyclic (insect midgut forms of T. brucei. Three regulatory elements common to the 3' UTRs of both mRNAs regulate mRNA turnover and translation. The glycerol-responsive element (GRE is unique to the GPEET 3' UTR and regulates its expression independently from EP. A synthetic RNA encompassing the GRE showed robust sequence-specific interactions with cytoplasmic proteins in electromobility shift assays. This, combined with column chromatography, led to the identification of 3 Alba-domain proteins. RNAi against Alba3 caused a growth phenotype and reduced the levels of Alba1 and Alba2 proteins, indicative of interactions between family members. Tandem-affinity purification and co-immunoprecipitation verified these interactions and also identified Alba4 in sub-stoichiometric amounts. Alba proteins are cytoplasmic and are recruited to starvation granules together with poly(A RNA. Concomitant depletion of all four Alba proteins by RNAi specifically reduced translation of a reporter transcript flanked by the GPEET 3' UTR. Pulldown of tagged Alba proteins confirmed interactions with poly(A binding proteins, ribosomal protein P0 and, in the case of Alba3, the cap-binding protein eIF4E4. In addition, Alba2 and Alba3 partially cosediment with polyribosomes in sucrose gradients. Alba-domain proteins seem to have exhibited great functional plasticity in the course of evolution. First identified as DNA-binding proteins in Archaea, then in association with nuclear RNase MRP/P in yeast and mammalian cells, they were recently described as components of a translationally silent complex containing stage-regulated mRNAs in Plasmodium. Our results are

  19. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  20. The cytoplasmic domain is essential for transport function of the integral membrane transport protein SLC4A11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Sampath K; Lukowski, Chris M; Casey, Joseph R

    2016-01-15

    Large cytoplasmic domains (CD) are a common feature among integral membrane proteins. In virtually all cases, these CD have a function (e.g., binding cytoskeleton or regulatory factors) separate from that of the membrane domain (MD). Strong associations between CD and MD are rare. Here we studied SLC4A11, a membrane transport protein of corneal endothelial cells, the mutations of which cause genetic corneal blindness. SLC4A11 has a 41-kDa CD and a 57-kDa integral MD. One disease-causing mutation in the CD, R125H, manifests a catalytic defect, suggesting a role of the CD in transport function. Expressed in HEK-293 cells without the CD, MD-SLC4A11 is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, indicating a folding defect. Replacement of CD-SLC4A11 with green fluorescent protein did not rescue MD-SLC4A11, suggesting some specific role of CD-SLC4A11. Homology modeling revealed that the structure of CD-SLC4A11 is similar to that of the Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange protein AE1 (SLC4A1) CD. Fusion to CD-AE1 partially rescued MD-SLC4A11 to the cell surface, suggesting that the structure of CD-AE1 is similar to that of CD-SLC4A11. The CD-AE1-MD-SLC4a11 chimera, however, had no functional activity. We conclude that CD-SLC4A11 has an indispensable role in the transport function of SLC4A11. CD-SLC4A11 forms insoluble precipitates when expressed in bacteria, suggesting that the domain cannot fold properly when expressed alone. Consistent with a strong association between CD-SLC4A11 and MD-SLC4A11, these domains specifically associate when coexpressed in HEK-293 cells. We conclude that SLC4A11 is a rare integral membrane protein in which the CD has strong associations with the integral MD, which contributes to membrane transport function.

  1. Regulation of Murine Ovarian Epithelial Carcinoma by Vaccination against the Cytoplasmic Domain of Anti-Müllerian Hormone Receptor II

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    Cagri Sakalar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-Müllerian hormone receptor, type II (AMHR2, is a differentiation protein expressed in 90% of primary epithelial ovarian carcinomas (EOCs, the most deadly gynecologic malignancy. We propose that AMHR2 may serve as a useful target for vaccination against EOC. To this end, we generated the recombinant 399-amino acid cytoplasmic domain of mouse AMHR2 (AMHR2-CD and tested its efficacy as a vaccine target in inhibiting growth of the ID8 transplantable EOC cell line in C57BL/6 mice and in preventing growth of autochthonous EOCs that occur spontaneously in transgenic mice. We found that AMHR2-CD immunization of C57BL/6 females induced a prominent antigen-specific proinflammatory CD4+ T cell response that resulted in a mild transient autoimmune oophoritis that resolved rapidly with no detectable lingering adverse effects on ovarian function. AMHR2-CD vaccination significantly inhibited ID8 tumor growth when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically, and protection against EOC growth was passively transferred into naive recipients with AMHR2-CD-primed CD4+ T cells but not with primed B cells. In addition, prophylactic AMHR2-CD vaccination of TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic mice significantly inhibited growth of autochthonous EOCs and provided a 41.7% increase in mean overall survival. We conclude that AMHR2-CD vaccination provides effective immunotherapy of EOC with relatively benign autoimmune complications.

  2. Single-molecule imaging of the H-ras membrane-anchor reveals domains in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Lommerse, Piet H M; Cognet, Laurent; Harms, Gregory S; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, Herman P; Schmidt, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade evidence has accumulated that small domains of 50-700 nm in diameter are located in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Most of these domains supposedly consist of specific sets of lipids and proteins, and are believed to coordinate signal transduction cascades. Whether similar domains are also present in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane is unclear so far. To investigate the presence of cytoplasmic leaflet domains, the H-Ras membrane-targeting sequence was fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, trajectories of individual molecules diffusing in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane were recorded. From these trajectories, the diffusion of individual membrane-anchored enhanced yellow fluorescent protein molecules was studied in live cells on timescales from 5 to 200 ms. The results show that the diffusion of 30-40% of the molecules is constrained in domains with a typical size of 200 n...

  3. Characterization of phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of the 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosorius, O; Mieskes, G; Issinger, O G;

    1993-01-01

    kinases phosphorylate the cytoplasmic tail exclusively on serine residues. Inhibition studies using synthetic peptides, partial sequencing of isolated tryptic phosphopeptides and co-migration with tryptic phosphopeptides from MPR 300 labelled in vivo showed that (i) PKA phosphorylates the cytoplasmic MPR...... which may play a role in the transport function of MPR 300 and/or interaction with other proteins....

  4. Heparan sulfate regulates fibrillin-1 N- and C-terminal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Stuart A; Baldwin, Andrew K; Mahalingam, Yashithra;

    2008-01-01

    in response to soluble PF1. Within domains encoded by exons 59-62 near the fibrillin-1 C terminus are novel conformation-dependent high affinity heparin and tropoelastin binding sites. Heparin disrupted tropoelastin binding but did not disrupt N- and C-terminal fibrillin-1 interactions. Thus, fibrillin-1 N......-terminal interactions with heparin/heparan sulfate directly influence cell behavior, whereas C-terminal interactions with heparin/heparan sulfate regulate elastin deposition. These data highlight how heparin/heparan sulfate controls fibrillin-1 interactions....

  5. Single particle electron microscopy analysis of the bovine anion exchanger 1 reveals a flexible linker connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansen Jiang

    Full Text Available Anion exchanger 1 (AE1 is the major erythrocyte membrane protein that mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the erythrocyte membrane facilitating CO₂ transport by the blood, and anchors the plasma membrane to the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. This multi-protein cytoskeletal complex plays an important role in erythrocyte elasticity and membrane stability. An in-frame AE1 deletion of nine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain in a proximity to the membrane domain results in a marked increase in membrane rigidity and ovalocytic red cells in the disease Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO. We hypothesized that AE1 has a flexible region connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains, which is partially deleted in SAO, thus causing the loss of erythrocyte elasticity. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a new non-denaturing method of AE1 purification from bovine erythrocyte membranes. A three-dimensional (3D structure of bovine AE1 at 2.4 nm resolution was obtained by negative staining electron microscopy, orthogonal tilt reconstruction and single particle analysis. The cytoplasmic and membrane domains are connected by two parallel linkers. Image classification demonstrated substantial flexibility in the linker region. We propose a mechanism whereby flexibility of the linker region plays a critical role in regulating red cell elasticity.

  6. C-terminal interactors of the AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit Shisa9.

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    Anna R Karataeva

    Full Text Available Shisa9 (initially named CKAMP44 has been identified as auxiliary subunit of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors and was shown to modulate its physiological properties. Shisa9 is a type-I transmembrane protein and contains a C-terminal PDZ domain that potentially interacts with cytosolic proteins. In this study, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening that yielded eight PDZ domain-containing interactors of Shisa9, which were independently validated. The identified interactors are known scaffolding proteins residing in the neuronal postsynaptic density. To test whether C-terminal scaffolding interactions of Shisa9 affect synaptic AMPA receptor function in the hippocampus, we disrupted these interactions using a Shisa9 C-terminal mimetic peptide. In the absence of scaffolding interactions of Shisa9, glutamatergic AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in the lateral perforant path of the mouse hippocampus had a faster decay time, and paired-pulse facilitation was reduced. Furthermore, disruption of the PDZ interactions between Shisa9 and its binding partners affected hippocampal network activity. Taken together, our data identifies novel interaction partners of Shisa9, and shows that the C-terminal interactions of Shisa9 through its PDZ domain interaction motif are important for AMPA receptor synaptic and network functions.

  7. The C-terminal domain of Nrf1 negatively regulates the full-length CNC-bZIP factor and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; both are also inhibited by the small dominant-negative Nrf1γ/δ isoforms that down-regulate ARE-battery gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiguo Zhang

    Full Text Available The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686-741 of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1 shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa. Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2. Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ.

  8. The C-terminal domain of Nrf1 negatively regulates the full-length CNC-bZIP factor and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β; both are also inhibited by the small dominant-negative Nrf1γ/δ isoforms that down-regulate ARE-battery gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiguo; Qiu, Lu; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Chen, Jiayu; Ren, Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD, aa 686-741) of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 1 (Nrf1) shares 53% amino acid sequence identity with the equivalent Neh3 domain of Nrf2, a homologous transcription factor. The Neh3 positively regulates Nrf2, but whether the Neh3-like (Neh3L) CTD of Nrf1 has a similar role in regulating Nrf1-target gene expression is unknown. Herein, we report that CTD negatively regulates the full-length Nrf1 (i.e. 120-kDa glycoprotein and 95-kDa deglycoprotein) and its shorter isoform LCR-F1/Nrf1β (55-kDa). Attachment of its CTD-adjoining 112-aa to the C-terminus of Nrf2 yields the chimaeric Nrf2-C112Nrf1 factor with a markedly decreased activity. Live-cell imaging of GFP-CTD reveals that the extra-nuclear portion of the fusion protein is allowed to associate with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane through the amphipathic Neh3L region of Nrf1 and its basic c-tail. Thus removal of either the entire CTD or the essential Neh3L portion within CTD from Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2-C112Nrf1, results in an increase in their transcriptional ability to regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven reporter genes. Further examinations unravel that two smaller isoforms, 36-kDa Nrf1γ and 25-kDa Nrf1δ, act as dominant-negative inhibitors to compete against Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β and Nrf2. Relative to Nrf1, LCR-F1/Nrf1β is a weak activator, that is positively regulated by its Asn/Ser/Thr-rich (NST) domain and acidic domain 2 (AD2). Like AD1 of Nrf1, both AD2 and NST domain of LCR-F1/Nrf1β fused within two different chimaeric contexts to yield Gal4D:Nrf1β607 and Nrf1β:C270Nrf2, positively regulate their transactivation activity of cognate Gal4- and Nrf2-target reporter genes. More importantly, differential expression of endogenous ARE-battery genes is attributable to up-regulation by Nrf1 and LCR-F1/Nrf1β and down-regulation by Nrf1γ and Nrf1δ.

  9. Functional analysis of the leading malaria vaccine candidate AMA-1 reveals an essential role for the cytoplasmic domain in the invasion process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Treeck

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A key process in the lifecycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is the fast invasion of human erythrocytes. Entry into the host cell requires the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1, a type I transmembrane protein located in the micronemes of the merozoite. Although AMA-1 is evolving into the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine candidate, its precise role in invasion is still unclear. We investigate AMA-1 function using live video microscopy in the absence and presence of an AMA-1 inhibitory peptide. This data reveals a crucial function of AMA-1 during the primary contact period upstream of the entry process at around the time of moving junction formation. We generate a Plasmodium falciparum cell line that expresses a functional GFP-tagged AMA-1. This allows the visualization of the dynamics of AMA-1 in live parasites. We functionally validate the ectopically expressed AMA-1 by establishing a complementation assay based on strain-specific inhibition. This method provides the basis for the functional analysis of essential genes that are refractory to any genetic manipulation. Using the complementation assay, we show that the cytoplasmic domain of AMA-1 is not required for correct trafficking and surface translocation but is essential for AMA-1 function. Although this function can be mimicked by the highly conserved cytoplasmic domains of P. vivax and P. berghei, the exchange with the heterologous domain of the microneme protein EBA-175 or the rhoptry protein Rh2b leads to a loss of function. We identify several residues in the cytoplasmic tail that are essential for AMA-1 function. We validate this data using additional transgenic parasite lines expressing AMA-1 mutants with TY1 epitopes. We show that the cytoplasmic domain of AMA-1 is phosphorylated. Mutational analysis suggests an important role for the phosphorylation in the invasion process, which might translate into novel therapeutic strategies.

  10. Deletion analysis of the C-terminal region of the alpha-amylase of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Huei-Fen; Lin, Long-Liu; Chiang, Wen-Ying; Chie, Meng-Chun; Hsu, Wen-Hwei; Chang, Chen-Tien

    2002-08-01

    The alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 is a secreted starch hydrolase with a domain organization similar to that of other microbial alpha-amylases and an additional functionally unknown domain (amino acids 517-613) in the C-terminal region. By sequence comparison, we found that this latter domain contained a sequence motif typical for raw-starch binding. To investigate the functional role of the C-terminal region of the alpha-amylase of Bacillus sp. strain TS-23, four His(6)-tagged mutants with extensive deletions in this region were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE and activity staining analyses showed that the N- and C-terminally truncated alpha-amylases had molecular masses of approximately 65, 58, 54, and 49 kDa. Progressive loss of raw-starch-binding activity occurred upon removal of C-terminal amino acid residues, indicating the requirement for the entire region in formation of a functional starch-binding domain. Up to 98 amino acids from the C-terminal end of the alpha-amylase could be deleted without significant effect on the raw-starch hydrolytic activity or thermal stability. Furthermore, the active mutants hydrolyzed raw corn starch to produce maltopentaose as the main product, suggesting that the raw-starch hydrolytic activity of the Bacillus sp. strain TS-23 alpha-amylase is functional and independent from the starch-binding domain.

  11. Mutational analysis of the cytoplasmic tail of the human transferrin receptor. Identification of a sub-domain that is required for rapid endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironès, N; Alverez, E; Seth, A; Lin, I M; Latour, D A; Davis, R J

    1991-10-05

    It has been reported that the sequence Tyr20-X-Arg-Phe23 present within the cytoplasmic tail of the transferrin receptor may represent a tyrosine internalization signal (Collawn, J.F., Stangel, M., Kuhn, L.A., Esekogwu, V., Jing, S., Trowbridge, I.S., and Tainer, J. A. (1990) Cell 63, 1061-1072). However, as Tyr20 is not conserved between species (Alvarez, E., Gironès, N., and Davis, R. J. (1990) Biochem. J. 267, 31-35), the functional role of the putative tyrosine internalization signal is not clear. To address this question, we constructed a series of 32 deletions and point mutations within the cytoplasmic tail of the human transferrin receptor. The effect of these mutations on the apparent first order rate constant for receptor endocytosis was examined. It was found that the region of the cytoplasmic tail that is proximal to the transmembrane domain (residues 28-58) is dispensable for rapid endocytosis. In contrast, the distal region of the cytoplasmic tail (residues 1-27) was found to be both necessary and sufficient for the rapid internalization of the transferrin receptor. The region identified includes Tyr20-X-Arg-Phe23, but is significantly larger than this tetrapeptide. It is therefore likely that structural information in addition to the proposed tyrosine internalization signal is required for endocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether a heterologous tyrosine internalization signal (from the low density lipoprotein receptor) could function to cause the rapid endocytosis of the transferrin receptor. It was observed that this heterologous tyrosine internalization signal did not allow rapid endocytosis. We conclude that the putative tyrosine internalization signal (Tyr20-Thr-Arg-Phe23) is not sufficient to determine rapid endocytosis of the transferrin receptor. The data reported here indicate that the transferrin receptor internalization signal is formed by a larger cytoplasmic tail structure located at the amino terminus of the receptor.

  12. The D Domain of LRRC4 anchors ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm and competitively inhibits MEK/ERK activation in glioma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyou Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a well-characterized key player in various signal transduction networks, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 has been widely implicated in the development of many malignancies. We previously found that Leucine-rich repeat containing 4 (LRRC4 was a tumor suppressor and a negative regulator of the ERK/MAPK pathway in glioma tumorigenesis. However, the precise molecular role of LRRC4 in ERK signal transmission is unclear. Methods The interaction between LRRC4 and ERK1/2 was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays in vivo and in vitro. We also investigated the interaction of LRRC4 and ERK1/2 and the role of the D domain in ERK activation in glioma cells. Results Here, we showed that LRRC4 and ERK1/2 interact via the D domain and CD domain, respectively. Following EGF stimuli, the D domain of LRRC4 anchors ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm and abrogates ERK1/2 activation and nuclear translocation. In glioblastoma cells, ectopic LRRC4 expression competitively inhibited the interaction of endogenous mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK and ERK1/2. Mutation of the D domain decreased the LRRC4-mediated inhibition of MAPK signaling and its anti-proliferation and anti-invasion roles. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the D domain of LRRC4 anchors ERK1/2 in the cytoplasm and competitively inhibits MEK/ERK activation in glioma cells. These findings identify a new mechanism underlying glioblastoma progression and suggest a novel therapeutic strategy by restoring the activity of LRRC4 to decrease MAPK cascade activation.

  13. Conformational alterations resulting from mutations in cytoplasmic domains of the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blostein, R; Daly, S E; MacAulay, Nanna;

    1998-01-01

    , and decreased sensitivity to inhibition by vanadate. The striking changes observed with alpha 1M32E233K suggests interactions between the N-terminus, the beta-strand in the M2-M3 loop and the catalytic phosphorylation site. The behavior of these mutants contrasts with that of least one mutant involving......This paper summarizes experiments concerned with the functional consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic regions of the alpha 1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, in particular the amino terminus, the first cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane segments M2 and M3, and the major cytoplasmic loop between M......4 and M5. In the first mutation (alpha 1M32), 32 residues were removed from the N-terminus. The second mutation (E233K) was in the putative beta strand of M2-M3 loop and the third, comprised the replacement of the amino terminal half of loop M4-M5 of the Na,K-ATPase with the homologous segment...

  14. Domain structure of Lassa virus L protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunotte, Linda; Lelke, Michaela; Hass, Meike; Kleinsteuber, Katja; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The 200-kDa L protein of arenaviruses plays a central role in viral genome replication and transcription. This study aimed at providing evidence for the domain structure of L protein by combining bioinformatics with a stepwise mutagenesis approach using the Lassa virus minireplicon system. Potential interdomain linkers were predicted using various algorithms. The prediction was challenged by insertion of flexible sequences into the predicted linkers. Insertion of 5 or 10 amino acid residues was tolerated at seven sites (S407, G446, G467, G774, G939, S1952, and V2074 in Lassa virus AV). At two of these sites, G467 and G939, L protein could be split into an N-terminal and a C-terminal part, which were able to trans-complement each other and reconstitute a functional complex upon coexpression. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed physical interaction between the N- and C-terminal domains, irrespective of whether L protein was split at G467 or G939. In confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, the N-terminal domains showed a dot-like, sometimes perinuclear, cytoplasmic distribution similar to that of full-length L protein, while the C-terminal domains were homogenously distributed in cytoplasm. The latter were redistributed into the dot-like structures upon coexpression with the corresponding N-terminal domain. In conclusion, this study demonstrates two interdomain linkers in Lassa virus L protein, at G467 and G939, suggesting that L protein is composed of at least three structural domains spanning residues 1 to 467, 467 to 939, and 939 to 2220. The first domain seems to mediate accumulation of L protein into cytoplasmic dot-like structures.

  15. Secretion of a bacterial virulence factor is driven by the folding of a C-terminal segment

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Janine H.; Tian, Pu; Ieva, Raffaele; Dautin, Nathalie; Bernstein, Harris D.

    2010-01-01

    Autotransporters are bacterial virulence factors consisting of an N-terminal “passenger domain” that is secreted in a C- to-N-terminal direction and a C-terminal “β domain” that resides in the outer membrane (OM). Although passenger domain secretion does not appear to use ATP, the energy source for this reaction is unknown. Here, we show that efficient secretion of the passenger domain of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 autotransporter EspP requires the stable folding of a C-terminal ≈17-kDa pas...

  16. The Topology of the l-Arginine Exporter ArgO Conforms to an Nin-Cout Configuration in Escherichia coli: Requirement for the Cytoplasmic N-Terminal Domain, Functional Helical Interactions, and an Aspartate Pair for ArgO Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathania, Amit; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Dubey, Swati; Gopal, Balasubramanian; Sardesai, Abhijit A

    2016-12-01

    ArgO and LysE are members of the LysE family of exporter proteins and ordinarily mediate the export of l-arginine (Arg) in Escherichia coli and l-lysine (Lys) and Arg in Corynebacterium glutamicum, respectively. Under certain conditions, ArgO also mediates Lys export. To delineate the arrangement of ArgO in the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli, we have employed a combination of cysteine accessibility in situ, alkaline phosphatase fusion reporters, and protein modeling to arrive at a topological model of ArgO. Our studies indicate that ArgO assumes an Nin-Cout configuration, potentially forming a five-transmembrane helix bundle flanked by a cytoplasmic N-terminal domain (NTD) comprising roughly its first 38 to 43 amino acyl residues and a short periplasmic C-terminal region (CTR). Mutagenesis studies indicate that the CTR, but not the NTD, is dispensable for ArgO function in vivo and that a pair of conserved aspartate residues, located near the opposing edges of the cytoplasmic membrane, may play a pivotal role in facilitating transmembrane Arg flux. Additional studies on amino acid substitutions that impair ArgO function in vivo and their derivatives bearing compensatory amino acid alterations indicate a role for intramolecular interactions in the Arg export mechanism, and some interactions are corroborated by normal-mode analyses. Lastly, our studies suggest that ArgO may exist as a monomer in vivo, thus highlighting the requirement for intramolecular interactions in ArgO, as opposed to interactions across multiple ArgO monomers, in the formation of an Arg-translocating conduit.

  17. The Low pH Unfolded State of the C-terminal Domain of the Ribosomal Protein L9 Contains Significant Secondary Structure in the Absence of Denaturant but is No More Compact than the Low pH Urea Unfolded State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the properties of the unfolded states of proteins, particularly unfolded states which can be populated in the absence of high concentrations of denaturants. Interest in the unfolded state ensemble reflects the fact that it is the starting point for protein folding as well as the reference state for protein stability studies, and can be the starting state for pathological aggregation. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain (residues 58 to 149) of the ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) can be populated in the absence of denaturant at low pH. CTL9 is a 92 residue globular α, β protein. The low pH unfolded state contains more secondary structure than low pH urea unfolded state but it is not a molten globule. Backbone (1H, 13C and 15N) NMR assignments as well as side chain 13Cβ and 1Hβ assignments and 15N R2 values were obtained for the pH 2.0 unfolded form of CTL9 and for the urea unfolded state at pH 2.5. Analysis of the deviations of the chemical shifts from random coil values indicates that residues that comprise the two helices in the native state show a clear preference to adopt helical φ, ψ angles in the pH 2.0 unfolded state. There is a less pronounced but nevertheless clear tendency for residues 107 to 124 to preferentially populate helical φ, ψ values in the unfolded state. The urea unfolded state has no detectable tendency to populate any type of secondary structure even though it is as compact as the pH 2.0 unfolded state. Comparison of the two unfolded forms of CTL9 provides direct experimental evidence that states which differ significantly in their secondary structure can have identical hydrodynamic properties. This in turn demonstrates that global parameters such as Rh or Rg are very poor indicators of “random coil” behavior. PMID:18707127

  18. The low-pH unfolded state of the C-terminal domain of the ribosomal protein L9 contains significant secondary structure in the absence of denaturant but is no more compact than the low-pH urea unfolded state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bing; Bhattacharya, Shibani; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2008-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the properties of the unfolded states of proteins, particularly unfolded states which can be populated in the absence of high concentrations of denaturants. Interest in the unfolded state ensemble reflects the fact that it is the starting point for protein folding as well as the reference state for protein stability studies and can be the starting state for pathological aggregation. The unfolded state of the C-terminal domain (residues 58-149) of the ribosomal protein L9 (CTL9) can be populated in the absence of denaturant at low pH. CTL9 is a 92-residue globular alpha, beta protein. The low-pH unfolded state contains more secondary structure than the low-pH urea unfolded state, but it is not a molten globule. Backbone ( (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N) NMR assignments as well as side chain (13)C beta and (1)H beta assignments and (15)N R 2 values were obtained for the pH 2.0 unfolded form of CTL9 and for the urea unfolded state at pH 2.5. Analysis of the deviations of the chemical shifts from random coil values indicates that residues that comprise the two helices in the native state show a clear preference for adopting helical phi and psi angles in the pH 2.0 unfolded state. There is a less pronounced but nevertheless clear tendency for residues 107-124 to preferentially populate helical phi and psi values in the unfolded state. The urea unfolded state has no detectable tendency to populate any type of secondary structure even though it is as compact as the pH 2.0 unfolded state. Comparison of the two unfolded forms of CTL9 provides direct experimental evidence that states which differ significantly in their secondary structure can have identical hydrodynamic properties. This in turn demonstrates that global parameters such as R h or R g are very poor indicators of "random coil" behavior.

  19. TE-domestication and horizontal transfer in a putative Nef-AP1mu mimic of HLA-A cytoplasmic domain re-trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph S; Murray, Elaina H

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; also called HLA in human) are polymorphic elements in the genomes of sharks to humans. Class-I and class-II MHC loci appear responsible for much of the genetic linkage to myriad disease states via the capacity to bind short (~8-15 a.a.) peptides of a given pathogen's proteome, or in some cases, the altered proteomes of cancerous cells, and even (in autoimmunity) certain nominal 'self' peptides (Janeway, 2004).(1) Unfortunately, little is known about how the canonical structure of the MHC-I/-II peptide-presenting gene evolved, particularly since beyond ~500 Mya (sharks) no paralogs exist.(2,3) We previously reported that HLA-A isotype alleles with the α1-helix, R65 motif, are wide-spread in phylogeny, but that the α 2-helix, H151R motif, has apparently segregated out of most species. Surprisingly, an uncharacterized orf in T. syrichta (Loc-103275158) encoded R151, but within a truncated A-23 like gene containing 5'- and 3'- footprints of the transposon (TE), tigger-1; the extant tarsier A-23 allele is totally missing exon-3 and part-of exon-4; together, suggesting TE-mediated inactivation of an intact/ancestral A-23 allele (Murray, 2015a).(4) The unique Loc-103275158 orf encodes a putative 15-exon transcript with no apparent paralogs throughout phylogeny. However, an HLA-A11 like gene in M. leucophaeus with a shortened C-terminal domain, and an HLA-A like orf in C. atys with two linked α1/α2/α3 domains, both contain a second transmembrane segment, which is conserved in Loc-103275158. Thus, we could model the putative protein with its Nef-like tail domain docked to its MHC-I like α3 domain (i.e., on the same side of a membrane). This modeled tertiary structure is strikingly similar to the solved structure of the Nef:MHC-I CD:AP1mu transporter (Jia, 2012).(5) Nef:AP1mu binds the CD of MHC-I in trafficking MHC-I away from the trans-golgi and into the endocytic pathway in HIV-1 infected cells. The CD loop of the

  20. Organization of the Escherichia coli aerobic enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation in dynamic domains within the cytoplasmic membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Heiko; Dempwolff, Felix; Pfreundschuh, Moritz; Riehle, Marc; Schäfer, Caspar; Pohl, Thomas; Graumann, Peter; Friedrich, Thorsten

    2014-06-01

    The Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membrane contains the enzyme complexes of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Not much is known about their supramolecular organization and their dynamics within the membrane in this model organism. In mitochondria and other bacteria, it was demonstrated by nondenaturing electrophoretic methods and electron microscopy that the OXPHOS complexes are organized in so-called supercomplexes, stable assemblies with a defined number of the individual enzyme complexes. To investigate the organization of the E. coli enzyme complexes of aerobic OXPHOS in vivo, we established fluorescent protein fusions of the NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, the cytochrome bd-I, and the cytochrome bo3 terminal oxidases, and the FoF1 ATP-synthase. The fusions were integrated in the chromosome to prevent artifacts caused by protein overproduction. Biochemical analysis revealed that all modified complexes were fully assembled, active, and stable. The distribution of the OXPHOS complexes in living cells was determined using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The dynamics within the membrane were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. All aerobic OXPHOS complexes showed an uneven distribution in large mobile patches within the E. coli cytoplasmic membrane. It is discussed whether the individual OXPHOS complexes are organized as clustered individual complexes, here called "segrazones."

  1. Identification of SH3 domain proteins interacting with the cytoplasmic tail of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriette Ebsen

    Full Text Available The a disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs play a pivotal role in the control of development, adhesion, migration, inflammation and cancer. Although numerous substrates of ADAM10 have been identified, the regulation of its surface expression and proteolytic activity is still poorly defined. One current hypothesis is that both processes are in part modulated by protein-protein interactions mediated by the intracellular portion of the protease. For related proteases, especially proline-rich regions serving as docking sites for Src homology domain 3 (SH3 domain-containing proteins proved to be important for mediating regulatory interactions. In order to identify ADAM10-binding SH3 domain proteins, we screened the All SH3 Domain Phager library comprising 305 human SH3 domains using a GST fusion protein with the intracellular region of human ADAM10 as a bait for selection. Of a total of 291 analyzed phage clones, we found 38 SH3 domains that were precipitated with the ADAM10-derived fusion protein but not with GST. We verified the binding to the cytosolic portion of ADAM10 for several candidates by co-immunoprecipitation and/or pull down analyses. Intriguingly, several of the identified proteins have been implicated in regulating surface appearance and/or proteolytic activity of related ADAMs. Thus, it seems likely that they also play a role in ADAM10 biology.

  2. TubZ filament assembly dynamics requires the flexible C-terminal tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pérez, Maria E.; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Martín-González, Alejandro; Juan-Rodríguez, David; Llorca, Oscar; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Cytomotive filaments are essential for the spatial organization in cells, showing a dynamic behavior based on nucleotide hydrolysis. TubZ is a tubulin-like protein that functions in extrachromosomal DNA movement within bacteria. TubZ filaments grow in a helical fashion following treadmilling or dynamic instability, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. We have unraveled the molecular basis for filament assembly and dynamics combining electron and atomic force microscopy and biochemical analyses. Our findings suggest that GTP caps retain the filament helical structure and hydrolysis triggers filament stiffening upon disassembly. We show that the TubZ C-terminal tail is an unstructured domain that fulfills multiple functions contributing to the filament helical arrangement, the polymer remodeling into tubulin-like rings and the full disassembly process. This C-terminal tail displays the binding site for partner proteins and we report how it modulates the interaction of the regulator protein TubY. PMID:28230082

  3. Convergent Signaling Pathways Controlled by LRP1 (Receptor-related Protein 1) Cytoplasmic and Extracellular Domains Limit Cellular Cholesterol Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asmar, Zeina; Terrand, Jérome; Jenty, Marion; Host, Lionel; Mlih, Mohamed; Zerr, Aurélie; Justiniano, Hélène; Matz, Rachel L; Boudier, Christian; Scholler, Estelle; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Bertaccini, Diego; Thiersé, Danièle; Schaeffer, Christine; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Herz, Joachim; Bruban, Véronique; Boucher, Philippe

    2016-03-04

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface receptor that protects from intracellular cholesterol accumulation. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that the extracellular (α) chain of LRP1 mediates TGFβ-induced enhancement of Wnt5a, which limits intracellular cholesterol accumulation by inhibiting cholesterol biosynthesis and by promoting cholesterol export. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cytoplasmic (β) chain of LRP1 suffices to limit cholesterol accumulation in LRP1(-/-) cells. Through binding of Erk2 to the second of its carboxyl-terminal NPXY motifs, LRP1 β-chain positively regulates the expression of ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and of neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH1). These results highlight the unexpected functions of LRP1 and the canonical Wnt5a pathway and new therapeutic potential in cholesterol-associated disorders including cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Structure of the cytoplasmic domain of TcpE, the inner membrane core protein required for assembly of the Vibrio cholerae toxin-coregulated pilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolappan, Subramaniapillai; Craig, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Type IV pili are long thin surface-displayed polymers of the pilin subunit that are present in a diverse group of bacteria. These multifunctional filaments are critical to virulence for pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae, which use them to form microcolonies and to secrete the colonization factor TcpF. The type IV pili are assembled from pilin subunits by a complex inner membrane machinery. The core component of the type IV pilus-assembly platform is an integral inner membrane protein belonging to the GspF superfamily of secretion proteins. These proteins somehow convert chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis by an assembly ATPase on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane to mechanical energy for extrusion of the growing pilus filament out of the inner membrane. Most GspF-family inner membrane core proteins are predicted to have N-terminal and central cytoplasmic domains, cyto1 and cyto2, and three transmembrane segments, TM1, TM2 and TM3. Cyto2 and TM3 represent an internal repeat of cyto1 and TM1. Here, the 1.88 Å resolution crystal structure of the cyto1 domain of V. cholerae TcpE, which is required for assembly of the toxin-coregulated pilus, is reported. This domain folds as a monomeric six-helix bundle with a positively charged membrane-interaction face at one end and a hydrophobic groove at the other end that may serve as a binding site for partner proteins in the pilus-assembly complex.

  5. Activatory and inhibitory Fcγ receptors augment rituximab-mediated internalization of CD20 independent of signaling via the cytoplasmic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Andrew T; Chan, Claude H T; Klein, Christian; Glennie, Martin J; Beers, Stephen A; Cragg, Mark S

    2015-02-27

    Type I anti-CD20 mAb such as rituximab and ofatumumab engage with the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb on the surface of B cells, resulting in immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) phosphorylation. Internalization of the CD20·mAb·FcγRIIb complex follows, the rate of which correlates with FcγRIIb expression. In contrast, although type II anti-CD20 mAb such as tositumomab and obinutuzumab also interact with and activate FcγRIIb, this interaction fails to augment the rate of CD20·mAb internalization, raising the question of whether ITIM phosphorylation plays any role in this process. We have assessed the molecular requirements for the internalization process and demonstrate that in contrast to internalization of IgG immune complexes, FcγRIIb-augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 occurs independently of the FcγRIIb ITIM, indicating that signaling downstream of FcγRIIb is not required. In transfected cells, activatory FcγRI, FcγRIIa, and FcγRIIIa augmented internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20 in a similar manner. However, FcγRIIa mediated a slower rate of internalization than cells expressing equivalent levels of the highly homologous FcγRIIb. The difference was maintained in cells expressing FcγRIIa and FcγRIIb lacking cytoplasmic domains and in which the transmembrane domains had been exchanged. This difference may be due to increased degradation of FcγRIIa, which traffics to lysosomes independently of rituximab. We conclude that the cytoplasmic domain of FcγR is not required for promoting internalization of rituximab-ligated CD20. Instead, we propose that FcγR provides a structural role in augmenting endocytosis that differs from that employed during the endocytosis of immune complexes.

  6. Modules for C-terminal epitope tagging of Tetrahymena genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Kensuke; Schoeberl, Ursula E.; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2010-01-01

    Although epitope tagging has been widely used for analyzing protein function in many organisms, there are few genetic tools for epitope tagging in Tetrahymena. In this study, we describe several C-terminal epitope tagging modules that can be used to express tagged proteins in Tetrahymena cells by both plasmid- and PCR-based strategies. PMID:20624430

  7. Direct interaction of the human I-mfa domain-containing protein, HIC, with HIV-1 Tat results in cytoplasmic sequestration and control of Tat activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Virginie W; Sheehy, Noreen; Duffy, Margaret; Hashimoto, Kenichi; Hall, William W

    2005-11-08

    The primary function of the HIV-1 regulatory protein Tat, activation of transcription from the viral LTR, is highly regulated by complex interactions between Tat and a number of host cell proteins. Tat nuclear import, a process mediated by importin beta, is a prerequisite for its activity. Here, we report and characterize the interaction of the human inhibitor of MyoD family domain-containing protein (I-mfa), HIC, with Tat at a biochemical and a functional level. This interaction was shown to occur in vivo and in vitro and to involve the nuclear localization signal and the transactivation responsive element-binding domains of Tat and the I-mfa domain of HIC. Coexpression of HIC and Tat resulted in the down-regulation of transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR, and colocalization studies revealed the cytoplasmic sequestration of Tat by HIC. Functionally this sequestration appears to be the underlying mechanism of LTR transcriptional repression by HIC and represents a unique mechanism for the control of Tat activity and regulation of HIV-1 replication.

  8. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Williams

    Full Text Available Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X, a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80 and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2.

  9. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alison A; Mehler, Vera J; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2.

  10. Neurological disease mutations compromise a C-terminal ion pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Khandelia, Himanshu; Morth, Jens Preben

    2010-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule that is split, thereby generating the chemical and electrical gradients across the plasma membrane that are essential in, for example, signalling, secondary transport and volume...... potassium is released the proton will also return to the cytoplasm, thus allowing an overall asymmetric stoichiometry of the transported ions. The C terminus controls the gate to the pathway. Its structure is crucial for pump function, as demonstrated by at least eight mutations in the region that cause...... severe neurological diseases. This novel model for ion transport by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is established by electrophysiological studies of C-terminal mutations in familial hemiplegic migraine 2 (FHM2) and is further substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. A similar ion regulation is likely...

  11. Neurological disease mutations compromise a C-terminal ion pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Khandelia, Himanshu; Morth, J Preben

    2010-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule that is split, thereby generating the chemical and electrical gradients across the plasma membrane that are essential in, for example, signalling, secondary transport and volume...... potassium is released the proton will also return to the cytoplasm, thus allowing an overall asymmetric stoichiometry of the transported ions. The C terminus controls the gate to the pathway. Its structure is crucial for pump function, as demonstrated by at least eight mutations in the region that cause...... severe neurological diseases. This novel model for ion transport by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is established by electrophysiological studies of C-terminal mutations in familial hemiplegic migraine 2 (FHM2) and is further substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. A similar ion regulation is likely...

  12. Chemotaxis cluster 1 proteins form cytoplasmic arrays in Vibrio cholerae and are stabilized by a double signaling domain receptor DosM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briegel, Ariane; Ortega, Davi R; Mann, Petra

    2016-01-01

    motile bacteria contain one or more additional, sometimes purely cytoplasmic, chemoreceptor systems. Vibrio cholerae contains three chemotaxis clusters (I, II, and III). Here, using electron cryotomography, we explore V. cholerae's cytoplasmic chemoreceptor array and establish that it is formed...

  13. Reverse genetics generation of chimeric infectious Junin/Lassa virus is dependent on interaction of homologous glycoprotein stable signal peptide and G2 cytoplasmic domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albariño, César G; Bird, Brian H; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Dodd, Kimberly A; White, David M; Bergeron, Eric; Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Nichol, Stuart T

    2011-01-01

    The Arenaviridae are a diverse and globally distributed collection of viruses that are maintained primarily by rodent reservoirs. Junin virus (JUNV) and Lassa virus (LASV) can both cause significant outbreaks of severe and often fatal human disease throughout their respective areas of endemicity. In an effort to improve upon the existing live attenuated JUNV Candid1 vaccine, we generated a genetically homogenous stock of this virus from cDNA copies of the virus S and L segments by using a reverse genetics system. Further, these cDNAs were used in combination with LASV cDNAs to successfully generate two recombinant Candid1 JUNV/LASV chimeric viruses (via envelope glycoprotein [GPC] exchange). It was found that while the GPC extravirion domains were readily exchangeable, homologous stable signal peptide (SSP) and G2 transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail domains were essential for correct GPC maturation and production of infectious chimeric viruses. The switching of the JUNV and LASV G1/G2 ectodomains within the Candid1 vaccine background did not alter the attenuated phenotype of the vaccine strain in a lethal mouse model. These recombinant chimeric viruses shed light on the fundamental requirements of arenavirus GPC maturation and may serve as a strategy for the development of bivalent JUNV and LASV vaccine candidates.

  14. SENESCENCE-SUPPRESSED PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE Directly Interacts with the Cytoplasmic Domain of SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE and Negatively Regulates Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Cui, Yanjiao; Xu, Fan; Xu, Xinxin; Gao, Guanxiao; Wang, Yaxin; Guo, Zhaoxia; Wang, Dan; Wang, Ning Ning

    2015-10-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation mediated by protein kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in the regulation of leaf senescence. We previously reported that the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE (AtSARK) positively regulates leaf senescence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report the involvement of a protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2C-type protein phosphatase, SENESCENCE-SUPPRESSED PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE (SSPP), in the negative regulation of Arabidopsis leaf senescence. SSPP transcript levels decreased greatly during both natural senescence and SARK-induced precocious senescence. Overexpression of SSPP significantly delayed leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Protein pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays demonstrated that the cytosol-localized SSPP could interact with the cytoplasmic domain of the plasma membrane-localized AtSARK. In vitro assays showed that SSPP has protein phosphatase function and can dephosphorylate the cytosolic domain of AtSARK. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of SSPP effectively rescued AtSARK-induced precocious leaf senescence and changes in hormonal responses. All our results suggested that SSPP functions in sustaining proper leaf longevity and preventing early senescence by suppressing or perturbing SARK-mediated senescence signal transduction.

  15. Implications of the differing roles of the β1 and β3 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains for integrin function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenwei; Mathew, Sijo; Chen, Jiang; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Palamuttam, Riya; Hudson, Billy G; Fässler, Reinhard; Pozzi, Ambra; Sanders, Charles R; Zent, Roy

    2016-12-08

    Integrins are transmembrane receptors composed of α and β subunits. Although most integrins contain β1, canonical activation mechanisms are based on studies of the platelet integrin, αIIbβ3. Its inactive conformation is characterized by the association of the αIIb transmembrane and cytosolic domain (TM/CT) with a tilted β3 TM/CT that leads to activation when disrupted. We show significant structural differences between β1 and β3 TM/CT in bicelles. Moreover, the 'snorkeling' lysine at the TM/CT interface of β subunits, previously proposed to regulate αIIbβ3 activation by ion pairing with nearby lipids, plays opposite roles in β1 and β3 integrin function and in neither case is responsible for TM tilt. A range of affinities from almost no interaction to the relatively high avidity that characterizes αIIbβ3 is seen between various α subunits and β1 TM/CTs. The αIIbβ3-based canonical model for the roles of the TM/CT in integrin activation and function clearly does not extend to all mammalian integrins.

  16. Affinity between TBC1D4 (AS160 phosphotyrosine-binding domain and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase cytoplasmic domain measured by isothermal titration calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangYoun Park*, Keon Young Kim, Sunmin Kim & Young Seok Yu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating glucose into the cells happens via the insulin-mediated signalling pathway, which translocates the glucosetransporter 4 (GLUT4 vesicles from the intracellular compartmentto the plasma membrane. RabㆍGTPases are involvedin this vesicle trafficking, where RabㆍGTPase-activatingproteins (RabGAP enhance the GTP to GDP hydrolysis.TBC1D4 (AS160 and TBC1D1 are functional RabGAPs in theadipocytes and the skeletonal myocytes, respectively. Theseproteins contain two phosphotyrosine-binding domains (PTBsat the amino-terminus of the catalytic RabGAP domain. Thesecond PTB has been shown to interact with the cytoplasmicregion of the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP of theGLUT4 vesicle. In this study, we quantitatively measured the∼μM affinity (KD between TBC1D4 PTB and IRAP using isothermaltitration calorimetry, and further showed that IRAP residues1-49 are the major region mediating this interaction. Wealso demonstrated that the IRAP residues 1-15 are necessarybut not sufficient for the PTB interaction.

  17. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity.

  18. C-terminal moiety of Tudor contains its in vivo activity in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joël Anne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In early Drosophila embryos, the germ plasm is localized to the posterior pole region and is partitioned into the germline progenitors, known as pole cells. Germ plasm, or pole plasm, contains the polar granules which form during oogenesis and are required for germline development. Components of these granules are also present in the perinuclear region of the nurse cells, the nuage. One such component is Tudor (Tud which is a large protein containing multiple Tudor domains. It was previously reported that specific Tudor domains are required for germ cell formation and Tud localization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the function of Tud the distribution and functional activity of fragments of Tud were analyzed. These fragments were fused to GFP and the fusion proteins were synthesized during oogenesis. Non-overlapping fragments of Tud were found to be able to localize to both the nuage and pole plasm. By introducing these fragments into a tud mutant background and testing their ability to rescue the tud phenotype, I determined that the C-terminal moiety contains the functional activity of Tud. Dividing this fragment into two parts reduces its localization in pole plasm and abolishes its activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: I conclude that the C-terminal moiety of Tud contains all the information necessary for its localization in the nuage and pole plasm and its pole cell-forming activity. The present results challenge published data and may help refining the functional features of Tud.

  19. A dimer of the Toll-like receptor 4 cytoplasmic domain provides a specific scaffold for the recruitment of signalling adaptor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Núñez Miguel

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is a class I transmembrane receptor expressed on the surface of immune system cells. TLR4 is activated by exposure to lipopolysaccharides derived from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria and forms part of the innate immune response in mammals. Like other class 1 receptors, TLR4 is activated by ligand induced dimerization, and recent studies suggest that this causes concerted conformational changes in the receptor leading to self association of the cytoplasmic Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor (TIR signalling domain. This homodimerization event is proposed to provide a new scaffold that is able to bind downstream signalling adaptor proteins. TLR4 uses two different sets of adaptors; TRAM and TRIF, and Mal and MyD88. These adaptor pairs couple two distinct signalling pathways leading to the activation of interferon response factor 3 (IRF-3 and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB respectively. In this paper we have generated a structural model of the TLR4 TIR dimer and used molecular docking to probe for potential sites of interaction between the receptor homodimer and the adaptor molecules. Remarkably, both the Mal and TRAM adaptors are strongly predicted to bind at two symmetry-related sites at the homodimer interface. This model of TLR4 activation is supported by extensive functional studies involving site directed mutagenesis, inhibition by cell permeable peptides and stable protein phosphorylation of receptor and adaptor TIR domains. Our results also suggest a molecular mechanism for two recent findings, the caspase 1 dependence of Mal signalling and the protective effects conferred by the Mal polymorphism Ser180Leu.

  20. Development of Noviomimetics as C-Terminal Hsp90 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyika, Mercy; McMullen, Mason; Forsberg, Leah K; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Blagg, Brian S J

    2016-01-14

    KU-32 and KU-596 are novobiocin-derived, C-terminal heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) modulators that induce Hsp70 levels and manifest neuroprotective activity. However, the synthetically complex noviose sugar requires 10 steps to prepare, which makes translational development difficult. In this study, we developed a series of "noviomimetic" analogues of KU-596, which contain noviose surrogates that can be easily prepared, while maintaining the ability to induce Hsp70 levels. Both sugar and sugar analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in a luciferase reporter assay, which identified compound 37, a benzyl containing noviomimetic, as the most potent inducer of Hsp70.

  1. The C-terminal region of laminin beta chains modulates the integrin binding affinities of laminins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-03-20

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.

  2. One-step refolding and purification of disulfide-containing proteins with a C-terminal MESNA thioester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkx Maarten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester. This uniquely reactive C-terminus can be used in native chemical ligation reactions to introduce synthetic groups or to immobilize proteins on surfaces and nanoparticles. Unfortunately, common refolding procedures for recombinant proteins that contain disulfide bonds do not preserve the thioester functionality and therefore novel refolding procedures need to be developed. Results A novel redox buffer consisting of MESNA and diMESNA showed a refolding efficiency comparable to that of GSH/GSSG and prevented loss of the protein's thioester functionality. Moreover, introduction of the MESNA/diMESNA redox couple in the cleavage buffer allowed simultaneous on-column refolding of Ribonuclease A and intein-mediated cleavage to yield Ribonuclease A with a C-terminal MESNA-thioester. The C-terminal thioester was shown to be active in native chemical ligation. Conclusion An efficient method was developed for the production of disulfide bond containing proteins with C-terminal thioesters. Introduction of a MESNA/diMESNA redox couple resulted in simultaneous on-column refolding, purification and thioester generation of the model protein Ribonuclease A.

  3. Epimerization-free C-terminal peptide activation, elongation and cyclization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popović, S.

    2015-01-01

    C-terminal peptide activation and cyclization reactions are generally accompanied with epimerization (partial loss of C‐terminal stereointegrity). Therefore, the focus of this thesis was to develop epimerization-free methods for C-terminal peptide activation to enable C-terminal peptide elongation a

  4. C-terminal interactions of apolipoprotein E4 respond to the postprandial state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetali, Sarada D; Budamagunta, Madhu S; Voss, John C; Rutledge, John C

    2006-07-01

    Increased triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs) in the postprandial state are associated with atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the postprandial state induced structural changes at the apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) C terminus, its principal lipid binding domain, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of a site-directed spin label attached to the cysteine of apoE4-W264C. Spin coupling between labels located in the C termini was followed after mixing with preprandial and postprandial human plasma samples. Our results indicate that postprandial plasma triggers a reorganization of the protein such that the dipolar broadening is diminished, indicating a reduction in C-terminal interaction. The loss of spectral broadening was directly correlated with an increase in postprandial plasma triglycerides and was reduced with delipidated plasma. The spin-labeled apoE4 displayed a lipid preference of VLDL > LDL > HDL in the preprandial and postprandial states. The apoE4 shift to VLDL during the postprandial state was accompanied by a loss in spectral broadening of the protein. These findings suggest that apoE4 associated with LDL maintains self-association via its C terminus and that this association is diminished in VLDL-associated protein. Lipolyzed TGRL reflected a depletion of the C-terminal interaction of apoE4. Addition of palmitate to VLDL gave a similar response as lipolyzed TGRL, suggesting that lipolysis products play a major role in reorganizing apoE4 during the postprandial state.

  5. The Glycoprotein B Cytoplasmic Domain Lysine Cluster Is Critical for Varicella-Zoster Virus Cell-Cell Fusion Regulation and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward; Arvin, Ann M; Oliver, Stefan L

    2017-01-01

    The conserved glycoproteins gB and gH-gL are essential for herpesvirus entry and cell-cell fusion induced syncytium formation, a characteristic of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) pathology in skin and sensory ganglia. VZV syncytium formation, which has been implicated in the painful condition of postherpetic neuralgia, is regulated by the cytoplasmic domains of gB (gBcyt) via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) and gH (gHcyt). A lysine cluster (K894, K897, K898, and K900) in the VZV gBcyt was identified by sequence alignment to be conserved among alphaherpesviruses, suggesting a functional role. Alanine and arginine substitutions were used to determine if the positive charge and susceptibility to posttranslational modifications of these lysines contributed to gB/gH-gL cell-cell fusion. Critically, the positive charge of the lysine residues was necessary for fusion regulation, as alanine substitutions induced a 440% increase in fusion compared to that of the wild-type gBcyt while arginine substitutions had wild-type-like fusion levels in an in vitro gB/gH-gL cell fusion assay. Consistent with these results, the alanine substitutions in the viral genome caused exaggerated syncytium formation, reduced VZV titers (-1.5 log10), and smaller plaques than with the parental Oka (pOka) strain. In contrast, arginine substitutions resulted in syncytia with only 2-fold more nuclei, a -0.5-log10 reduction in titers, and pOka-like plaques. VZV mutants with both an ITIM mutation and either alanine or arginine substitutions had reduced titers and small plaques but differed in syncytium morphology. Thus, effective VZV propagation is dependent on cell-cell fusion regulation by the conserved gBcyt lysine cluster, in addition to the gBcyt ITIM and the gHcyt.

  6. The C-terminal dimerization motif of cyclase-associated protein is essential for actin monomer regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Shohei; Ono, Shoichiro

    2016-12-01

    Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) is a conserved actin-regulatory protein that functions together with actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin to enhance actin filament dynamics. CAP has multiple functional domains, and the function to regulate actin monomers is carried out by its C-terminal half containing a Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein homology 2 (WH2) domain, a CAP and X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 2 (CARP) domain, and a dimerization motif. WH2 and CARP are implicated in binding to actin monomers and important for enhancing filament turnover. However, the role of the dimerization motif is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of the dimerization motif of CAS-2, a CAP isoform in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, in actin monomer regulation. CAS-2 promotes ATP-dependent recycling of ADF/cofilin-bound actin monomers for polymerization by enhancing exchange of actin-bound nucleotides. The C-terminal half of CAS-2 (CAS-2C) has nearly as strong activity as full-length CAS-2. Maltose-binding protein (MBP)-tagged CAS-2C is a dimer. However, MBP-CAS-2C with a truncation of either one or two C-terminal β-strands is monomeric. Truncations of the dimerization motif in MBP-CAS-2C nearly completely abolish its activity to sequester actin monomers from polymerization and enhance nucleotide exchange on actin monomers. As a result, these CAS-2C variants, also in the context of full-length CAS-2, fail to compete with ADF/cofilin to release actin monomers for polymerization. CAS-2C variants lacking the dimerization motif exhibit enhanced binding to actin filaments, which is mediated by WH2. Taken together, these results suggest that the evolutionarily conserved dimerization motif of CAP is essential for its C-terminal region to exert the actin monomer-specific regulatory function.

  7. C-terminal functionalization of nylon-3 polymers: effects of C-terminal groups on antibacterial and hemolytic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jihua; Markiewicz, Matthew J; Mowery, Brendan P; Weisblum, Bernard; Stahl, Shannon S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2012-02-13

    Nylon-3 polymers contain β-amino-acid-derived subunits and can be viewed as higher homologues of poly(α-amino acids). This structural relationship raises the possibility that nylon-3 polymers offer a platform for development of new materials with a variety of biological activities, a prospect that has recently begun to receive experimental support. Nylon-3 homo- and copolymers can be prepared via anionic ring-opening polymerization of β-lactams, and use of an N-acyl-β-lactam as coinitiator in the polymerization reaction allows placement of a specific functional group, borne by the N-acyl-β-lactam, at the N-terminus of each polymer chain. Controlling the unit at the C-termini of nylon-3 polymer chains, however, has been problematic. Here we describe a strategy for specifying C-terminal functionality that is based on the polymerization mechanism. After the anionic ring-opening polymerization is complete, we introduce a new β-lactam, approximately 1 equiv relative to the expected number of polymer chains. Because the polymer chains bear a reactive imide group at their C-termini, this new β-lactam should become attached at this position. If the terminating β-lactam bears a distinctive functional group, that functionality should be affixed to most or all C-termini in the reaction mixture. We use the new technique to compare the impact of N- and C-terminal placement of a critical hydrophobic fragment on the biological activity profile of nylon-3 copolymers. The synthetic advance described here should prove to be generally useful for tailoring the properties of nylon-3 materials.

  8. The desensitization gating of the MthK K+ channel is governed by its cytoplasmic amino terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Meng-Chiang Kuo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The RCK-containing MthK channel undergoes two inactivation processes: activation-coupled desensitization and acid-induced inactivation. The acid inactivation is mediated by the C-terminal RCK domain assembly. Here, we report that the desensitization gating is governed by a desensitization domain (DD of the cytoplasmic N-terminal 17 residues. Deletion of DD completely removes the desensitization, and the process can be fully restored by a synthetic DD peptide added in trans. Mutagenesis analyses reveal a sequence-specific determinant for desensitization within the initial hydrophobic segment of DD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectroscopy analyses with synthetic peptides and isolated RCK show interactions between the two terminal domains. Additionally, we show that deletion of DD does not affect the acid-induced inactivation, indicating that the two inactivation processes are mutually independent. Our results demonstrate that the short N-terminal DD of MthK functions as a complete moveable module responsible for the desensitization. Its interaction with the C-terminal RCK domain may play a role in the gating process.

  9. Membrane localization is critical for activation of the PICK1 BAR domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kenneth L; Eriksen, Jacob; Milan-Lobo, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1 homology (PDZ) domain protein, protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) contains a C-terminal Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain mediating recognition of curved membranes; however, the molecular mechanisms controlling the activity of this domain are poorly understood....... In agreement with negative regulation of the BAR domain by the N-terminal PDZ domain, PICK1 distributed evenly in the cytoplasm, whereas truncation of the PDZ domain caused BAR domain-dependent redistribution to clusters colocalizing with markers of recycling endosomal compartments. A similar clustering...... was observed both upon truncation of a short putative alpha-helical segment in the linker between the PDZ and the BAR domains and upon coexpression of PICK1 with a transmembrane PDZ ligand, including the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor GluR2 subunit, the GluR2 C...

  10. The two C-terminal tyrosines stabilize occluded Na/K pump conformations containing Na or K ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, Natascia; Gadsby, David C

    2010-07-01

    Interactions of the three transported Na ions with the Na/K pump remain incompletely understood. Na/K pump crystal structures show that the extended C terminus of the Na,K-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) alpha subunit directly contacts transmembrane helices. Deletion of the last five residues (KETYY in almost all Na/K pumps) markedly lowered the apparent affinity for Na activation of pump phosphorylation from ATP, a reflection of cytoplasmic Na affinity for forming the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation. ATPase assays further suggested that C-terminal truncations also interfere with low affinity Na interactions, which are attributable to extracellular effects. Because extracellular Na ions traverse part of the membrane's electric field to reach their binding sites in the Na/K pump, their movements generate currents that can be monitored with high resolution. We report here electrical measurements to examine how Na/K pump interactions with extracellular Na ions are influenced by C-terminal truncations. We deleted the last two (YY) or five (KESYY) residues in Xenopus laevis alpha1 Na/K pumps made ouabain resistant by either of two kinds of point mutations and measured their currents as 10-mM ouabain-sensitive currents in Xenopus oocytes after silencing endogenous Xenopus Na/K pumps with 1 microM ouabain. We found the low affinity inhibitory influence of extracellular Na on outward Na/K pump current at negative voltages to be impaired in all of the C-terminally truncated pumps. Correspondingly, voltage jump-induced transient charge movements that reflect pump interactions with extracellular Na ions were strongly shifted to more negative potentials; this signals a several-fold reduction of the apparent affinity for extracellular Na in the truncated pumps. Parallel lowering of Na affinity on both sides of the membrane argues that the C-terminal contacts provide important stabilization of the occluded E1P(Na3) conformation, regardless of the route of Na ion entry into the

  11. The essential tyrosine-containing loop conformation and the role of the C-terminal multi-helix region in eukaryotic phenylalanine ammonia-lyases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilbák, Sarolta; Tomin, Anna; Rétey, János; Poppe, László

    2006-03-01

    Besides the post-translationally cyclizing catalytic Ala-Ser-Gly triad, Tyr110 and its equivalents are of the most conserved residues in the active site of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5), histidine ammonia-lyase (HAL, EC 4.3.1.3) and other related enzymes. The Tyr110Phe mutation results in the most pronounced inactivation of PAL indicating the importance of this residue. The recently published X-ray structures of PAL revealed that the Tyr110-loop was either missing (for Rhodospridium toruloides) or far from the active site (for Petroselinum crispum). In bacterial HAL ( approximately 500 amino acids) and plant and fungal PALs ( approximately 710 amino acids), a core PAL/HAL domain ( approximately 480 amino acids) with >or= 30% sequence identity along the different species is common. In plant and fungal PAL a approximately 100-residue long C-terminal multi-helix domain is present. The ancestor bacterial HAL is thermostable and, in all of its known X-ray structures, a Tyr83-loop-in arrangement has been found. Based on the HAL structures, a Tyr110-loop-in conformation of the P. crispum PAL structure was constructed by partial homology modeling, and the static and dynamic behavior of the loop-in/loop-out structures were compared. To study the role of the C-terminal multi-helix domain, Tyr-loop-in/loop-out model structures of two bacterial PALs (Streptomyces maritimus, 523 amino acids and Photorhabdus luminescens, 532 amino acids) lacking this C-terminal domain were also built. Molecular dynamics studies indicated that the Tyr-loop-in conformation was more rigid without the C-terminal multi-helix domain. On this basis it is hypothesized that a role of this C-terminal extension is to decrease the lifetime of eukaryotic PAL by destabilization, which might be important for the rapid responses in the regulation of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.

  12. T Cell Receptor Activation of NF-κB in Effector T Cells: Visualizing Signaling Events Within and Beyond the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Immunological Synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, Maria K; Paul, Suman; Schaefer, Brian C

    2017-01-01

    The T cell receptor (TCR) to NF-κB signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulation of proliferation and effector T cell differentiation and function. In naïve T cells, data suggest that most or all key cytoplasmic NF-κB signaling occurs in a TCR-proximal manner at the immunological synapse (IS). However, the subcellular organization of cytoplasmic NF-κB-activating complexes in effector T cells is more complex, involving signaling molecules and regulatory mechanisms beyond those operative in naïve cells. Additionally, in effector T cells, much signaling occurs at cytoplasmic locations distant from the IS. Visualization of these cytoplasmic signaling complexes has provided key insights into the complex and dynamic regulation of NF-κB signal transduction in effector T cells. In this chapter, we provide in-depth protocols for activating and preparing effector T cells for fluorescence imaging, as well as a discussion of the effective application of distinct imaging methodologies, including confocal and super-resolution microscopy and imaging flow cytometry.

  13. Delivery of AAV2/9-microdystrophin genes incorporating helix 1 of the coiled-coil motif in the C-terminal domain of dystrophin improves muscle pathology and restores the level of α1-syntrophin and α-dystrobrevin in skeletal muscles of mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Taeyoung; Malerba, Alberto; Athanasopoulos, Takis; Trollet, Capucine; Boldrin, Luisa; Ferry, Arnaud; Popplewell, Linda; Foster, Helen; Foster, Keith; Dickson, George

    2011-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a severe X-linked inherited muscle wasting disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been extensively used to deliver genes efficiently for dystrophin expression in skeletal muscles. To overcome limited packaging capacity of AAV vectors (damage in the mdx mice compared with MD1. These results suggest that the incorporation of helix 1 of the coiled-coil motif in the CT domain of dystrophin to the microdystrophins will substantially improve their efficiency in restoring muscle function in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

  14. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  15. C-terminal sequences of hsp70 and hsp90 as non-specific anchors for tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Andrew J; Russell, Lance C; Chinkers, Michael

    2009-10-12

    Steroid-hormone-receptor maturation is a multi-step process that involves several TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat) proteins that bind to the maturation complex via the C-termini of hsp70 (heat-shock protein 70) and hsp90 (heat-shock protein 90). We produced a random T7 peptide library to investigate the roles played by the C-termini of the two heat-shock proteins in the TPR-hsp interactions. Surprisingly, phages with the MEEVD sequence, found at the C-terminus of hsp90, were not recovered from our biopanning experiments. However, two groups of phages were isolated that bound relatively tightly to HsPP5 (Homo sapiens protein phosphatase 5) TPR. Multiple copies of phages with a C-terminal sequence of LFG were isolated. These phages bound specifically to the TPR domain of HsPP5, although mutation studies produced no evidence that they bound to the domain's hsp90-binding groove. However, the most abundant family obtained in the initial screen had an aspartate residue at the C-terminus. Two members of this family with a C-terminal sequence of VD appeared to bind with approximately the same affinity as the hsp90 C-12 control. A second generation pseudo-random phage library produced a large number of phages with an LD C-terminus. These sequences acted as hsp70 analogues and had relatively low affinities for hsp90-specific TPR domains. Unfortunately, we failed to identify residues near hsp90's C-terminus that impart binding specificity to individual hsp90-TPR interactions. The results suggest that the C-terminal sequences of hsp70 and hsp90 act primarily as non-specific anchors for TPR proteins.

  16. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to mediating the integration process, HIV-1 integrase (IN has also been implicated in different steps during viral life cycle including reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Although the karyophilic property of HIV-1 IN has been well demonstrated using a variety of experimental approaches, the definition of domain(s and/or motif(s within the protein that mediate viral DNA nuclear import and its mechanism are still disputed and controversial. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses to investigate the contribution of different regions in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN to protein nuclear localization as well as their effects on virus infection. Results Our analysis showed that replacing lysine residues in two highly conserved tri-lysine regions, which are located within previously described Region C (235WKGPAKLLWKGEGAVV and sequence Q (211KELQKQITK in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN, impaired protein nuclear accumulation, while mutations for RK263,4 had no significant effect. Analysis of their effects on viral infection in a VSV-G pseudotyped RT/IN trans-complemented HIV-1 single cycle replication system revealed that all three C-terminal mutant viruses (KK215,9AA, KK240,4AE and RK263,4AA exhibited more severe defect of induction of β-Gal positive cells and luciferase activity than an IN class 1 mutant D64E in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-β-Gal cells, and in dividing as well as non-dividing C8166 T cells, suggesting that some viral defects are occurring prior to viral integration. Furthermore, by analyzing viral DNA synthesis and the nucleus-associated viral DNA level, the results clearly showed that, although all three C-terminal mutants inhibited viral reverse transcription to different extents, the KK240,4AE mutant exhibited most profound effect on this step, whereas KK215,9AA significantly impaired viral DNA nuclear import. In addition, our analysis could not detect viral DNA integration in each C-terminal

  17. Two Distinct Binding Modes Define the Interaction of Brox with the C-Terminal Tails of CHMP5 and CHMP4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Ruiling; Dussupt, Vincent; Jiang, Jiansheng; Sette, Paola; Rudd, Victoria; Chuenchor, Watchalee; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila; Xiao, Tsan Sam (NIH)

    2012-05-21

    Interactions of the CHMP protein carboxyl terminal tails with effector proteins play important roles in retroviral budding, cytokinesis, and multivesicular body biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that hydrophobic residues at the CHMP4B C-terminal amphipathic {alpha} helix bind a concave surface of Brox, a mammalian paralog of Alix. Unexpectedly, CHMP5 was also found to bind Brox and specifically recruit endogenous Brox to detergent-resistant membrane fractions through its C-terminal 20 residues. Instead of an {alpha} helix, the CHMP5 C-terminal tail adopts a tandem {beta}-hairpin structure that binds Brox at the same site as CHMP4B. Additional Brox:CHMP5 interface is furnished by a unique CHMP5 hydrophobic pocket engaging the Brox residue Y348 that is not conserved among the Bro1 domains. Our studies thus unveil a {beta}-hairpin conformation of the CHMP5 protein C-terminal tail, and provide insights into the overlapping but distinct binding profiles of ESCRT-III and the Bro1 domain proteins.

  18. Disease-associated mutations in the actin-binding domain of filamin B cause cytoplasmic focal accumulations correlating with disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Philip B; Morgan, Tim; Alanay, Yasemin;

    2012-01-01

    repeats surrounding the flexible hinge 1 region of the FLNB rod domain. Despite being positioned in domains that bind actin, it is unknown if these mutations perturb cytoskeletal structure. Expression of several full-length FLNB constructs containing ABD mutations resulted in the appearance of actin...

  19. The cytoplasmic domain of the gamete membrane fusion protein HAP2 targets the protein to the fusion site in Chlamydomonas and regulates the fusion reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Pei, Jimin; Grishin, Nick; Snell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cell fusion between gametes is a defining step during development of eukaryotes, yet we know little about the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the gamete membrane fusion reaction. HAP2 is the sole gamete-specific protein in any system that is broadly conserved and shown by gene disruption to be essential for gamete fusion. The wide evolutionary distribution of HAP2 (also known as GCS1) indicates it was present in the last eukaryotic common ancestor and, therefore, dissecting its molecular properties should provide new insights into fundamental features of fertilization. HAP2 acts at a step after membrane adhesion, presumably directly in the merger of the lipid bilayers. Here, we use the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas to characterize contributions of key regions of HAP2 to protein location and function. We report that mutation of three strongly conserved residues in the ectodomain has no effect on targeting or fusion, although short deletions that include those residues block surface expression and fusion. Furthermore, HAP2 lacking a 237-residue segment of the cytoplasmic region is expressed at the cell surface, but fails to localize at the apical membrane patch specialized for fusion and fails to rescue fusion. Finally, we provide evidence that the ancient HAP2 contained a juxta-membrane, multi-cysteine motif in its cytoplasmic region, and that mutation of a cysteine dyad in this motif preserves protein localization, but substantially impairs HAP2 fusion activity. Thus, the ectodomain of HAP2 is essential for its surface expression, and the cytoplasmic region targets HAP2 to the site of fusion and regulates the fusion reaction. PMID:25655701

  20. C-Terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Adachi, Noritaka; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-20

    DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  1. Disulfide assignment of the C-terminal cysteine knot of agouti-related protein (AGRP) by direct sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Y; Zeni, L; Rosenfeld, R D; Stark, K L; Rohde, M F; Haniu, M

    1999-12-01

    We have assigned the disulfide structure of Md-65 agouti-related protein (Md65-AGRP) using differential reduction and alkylation followed by direct sequencing analysis. The mature human AGRP is a single polypeptide chain of 112 amino acid residues, consisting of an N-terminal acidic region and a unique C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. The C-terminal domain, a 48 amino acid peptide named Md65-AGRP, was expressed in Escherichia coil cells and refolded under different conditions from the mature recombinant protein. The disulfide bonds in the cystine knot structure of Md65-AGRP were partially reduced using tris(2-carboxyethyl) phosphine (TCEP) under acidic conditions, followed by alkylation with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM). The procedure generated several isoforms with varying degrees of NEM alkylation. The multiple forms of Md65-AGRP generated by partial reduction and NEM modification were then completely reduced and carboxymethylated to identify unreactive disulfide bonds. Differentially labeled Md65-AGRP were directly sequenced and analyzed by MALDI mass spectrometry. The results confirmed that Md65-AGRP contained the same disulfide structure as that of Md5-AGRP reported previously [Bures, E. J., Hui, J. O., Young, Y. et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 12172-12177].

  2. Regulation of Cytoplasmic Dynein ATPase by Lis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesngon, Mariano T.; Tarricone, Cataldo; Hebbar, Sachin; Guillotte, Aimee M.; Schmitt, E. William; Lanier, Lorene; Musacchio, Andrea; King, Stephen J.; Smith, Deanna S.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Lis1 cause classical lissencephaly, a developmental brain abnormality characterized by defects in neuronal positioning. Over the last decade, a clear link has been forged between Lis1 and the microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein. Substantial evidence indicates that Lis1 functions in a highly conserved pathway with dynein to regulate neuronal migration and other motile events. Yeast two-hybrid studies predict that Lis1 binds directly to dynein heavy chains (Sasaki et al., 2000; Tai et al., 2002), but the mechanistic significance of this interaction is not well understood. We now report that recombinant Lis1 binds to native brain dynein and significantly increases the microtubule-stimulated enzymatic activity of dynein in vitro. Lis1 does this without increasing the proportion of dynein that binds to microtubules, indicating that Lis1 influences enzymatic activity rather than microtubule association. Dynein stimulation in vitro is not a generic feature of microtubule-associated proteins, because tau did not stimulate dynein. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that Lis1 or any other factor directly modulates the enzymatic activity of cytoplasmic dynein. Lis1 must be able to homodimerize to stimulate dynein, because a C-terminal fragment (containing the dynein interaction site but missing the self-association domain) was unable to stimulate dynein. Binding and colocalization studies indicate that Lis1 does not interact with all dynein complexes found in the brain. We propose a model in which Lis1 stimulates the activity of a subset of motors, which could be particularly important during neuronal migration and long-distance axonal transport. PMID:16481446

  3. Motifs in the C-terminal region of the Penicillium chrysogenum ACV synthetase are essential for valine epimerization and processivity of tripeptide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobin; García-Estrada, Carlos; Vaca, Inmaculada; Martín, Juan-Francisco

    2012-02-01

    The first step in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is the non-ribosomal condensation of L-α-aminoadipic acid, L-cysteine and L-valine into the tripeptide δ-(L-α-aminoadipyl)-L-cysteinyl-D-valine (ACV). This reaction is catalysed by the multienzyme ACV synthetase (ACVS), which is encoded in the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum by the pcbAB gene. This enzyme contains at least ten catalytic domains. The precise role of the C-terminal domain of this multidomain NRPS still remains obscure. The C-terminal region of ACVS bears the epimerase and the thioesterase domains and may be involved in the epimerization of LLL-ACV to LLD-ACV and in the hydrolysis of the thioester bond. In this work, the conserved motifs (3371)EGHGRE(3376) (located in the putative epimerase domain) and (3629)GWSFG(3633) (located in the thioesterase domain) were changed by site-directed-mutagenesis to LGFGLL and GWAFG, respectively. In addition, the whole thioesterase domain (230 amino acids) and the different parts of this domain were deleted. The activity of these mutant enzymes was assessed in vivo by two different procedures: i) through the quantification of bisACV produced by the fungus and ii) by quantifying the benzylpenicillin production using tailored strains of P. chrysogenum, which lack the pcbAB gene, as host strains. All indicated mutant enzymes showed lower or null activity than the control strain confirming that E3371, H3373, R3375 and E3376 belong to the epimerase active centre. Different fragments included in the C-terminal region of ACVS control thioester hydrolysis. Overexpression of the sequence encoding the ACVS integrated thioesterase domain as a separate (stand-alone) transcriptional unit complemented mutants lacking the integrated thioesterase domain, although with low ACV releasing activity, suggesting that the stand-alone thioesterease interacts with the other ACVS domains.

  4. C-terminal substitution of MDM2 interacting peptides modulates binding affinity by distinctive mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Brown

    Full Text Available The complex between the proteins MDM2 and p53 is a promising drug target for cancer therapy. The residues 19-26 of p53 have been biochemically and structurally demonstrated to be a most critical region to maintain the association of MDM2 and p53. Variation of the amino acid sequence in this range obviously alters the binding affinity. Surprisingly, suitable substitutions contiguous to this region of the p53 peptides can yield tightly binding peptides. The peptide variants may differ by a single residue that vary little in their structural conformations and yet are characterized by large differences in their binding affinities. In this study a systematic analysis into the role of single C-terminal mutations of a 12 residue fragment of the p53 transactivation domain (TD and an equivalent phage optimized peptide (12/1 were undertaken to elucidate their mechanistic and thermodynamic differences in interacting with the N-terminal of MDM2. The experimental results together with atomistically detailed dynamics simulations provide insight into the principles that govern peptide design protocols with regard to protein-protein interactions and peptidomimetic design.

  5. Characterization of two novel bacterial type A exo-chitobiose hydrolases having C-terminal 5/12-type carbohydrate-binding modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Jamek, Shariza; Nyffenegger, Christian; Muschiol, Jan

    2017-01-01

    /α barrel domain of each of the new enzymes showed individual differences, but ~69% identity of each to that of SmaChiA and highly conserved active site residues. Superposition of a model substrate on 3D structural models of the catalytic domain of the enzymes corroborated exo-chitobiose hydrolase type...... A activity for FbalChi18A and MvarChi18A, i.e., substrate attack from the reducing end. A main feature of both of the new enzymes was the presence of C-terminal 5/12 type carbohydrate-binding modules (SmaChiA has no C-terminal carbohydrate binding module). These new enzymes may be useful tools...

  6. Versatile Peptide C-Terminal Functionalization via a Computationally Engineered Peptide Amidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Bian; Wijma, Hein J.; Song, Lu; Rozeboom, Henriette J.; Poloni, Claudia; Tian, Yue; Arif, Muhammad I.; Nuijens, Timo; Quaedflieg, Peter J. L. M.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Feringa, Ben L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of synthetic peptides, including potency, stability, and bioavailability, are strongly influenced by modification of the peptide chain termini. Unfortunately, generally applicable methods for selective and mild C-terminal peptide functionalization are lacking. In this work, we explore

  7. Structure of metabotropic glutamate receptor C-terminal domains in contact with interacting proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Enz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) regulate intracellular signal pathways that control several physiological tasks, including neuronal excitability, learning, and memory. This is achieved by the formation of synaptic signal complexes, in which mGluRs assemble with functionally related proteins such as enzymes, scaffolds, and cytoskeletal anchor proteins. Thus, mGluR associated proteins actively participate in the regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Importantly, dysfunction o...

  8. cGMP-binding prepares PKG for substrate binding by disclosing the C-terminal domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alverdi, V.; Mazon, H.F.M.; Versluis, C.; Hemrika, W.; Esposito, G.; van den Heuvel, R.H.H.; Scholten, A.; Heck, A.J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Type I cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is involved in the nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway. PKG has been identified in many different species, ranging from unicelõlular organisms to mammals. The enzyme serves as one of the major receptor proteins for int

  9. A C-terminal acidic domain regulates degradation of the transcriptional coactivator Bob1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, John M; Wong, Christina S F; Möller, Andreas; Nielsen, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Bob1 (Obf-1 or OCA-B) is a 34-kDa transcriptional coactivator encoded by the Pou2af1 gene that is essential for normal B-cell development and immune responses in mice. During lymphocyte activation, Bob1 protein levels dramatically increase independently of mRNA levels, suggesting that the stability of Bob1 is regulated. We used a fluorescent protein-based reporter system to analyze protein stability in response to genetic and physiological perturbations and show that, while Bob1 degradation is proteasome mediated, it does not require ubiquitination of Bob1. Furthermore, degradation of Bob1 in B cells appears to be largely independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah. We propose a novel mechanism of Bob1 turnover in B cells, whereby an acidic region in the C terminus of Bob1 regulates the activity of degron signals elsewhere in the protein. Changes that make the C terminus more acidic, including tyrosine phosphorylation-mimetic mutations, stabilize the instable murine Bob1 protein, indicating that B cells may regulate Bob1 stability and activity via signaling pathways. Finally, we show that expressing a stable Bob1 mutant in B cells suppresses cell proliferation and induces changes in surface marker expression commonly seen during B-cell differentiation.

  10. Significant role of PB1 and UBA domains in multimerization of Joka2, a selective autophagy cargo receptor from tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eZientara-Rytter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco Joka2 protein is a hybrid homolog of two mammalian selective autophagy cargo receptors, p62 and NBR1. These proteins can directly interact with the members of ATG8 family and the polyubiquitinated cargoes designed for degradation. Function of the selective autophagy cargo receptors relies on their ability to form protein aggregates. It has been shown that the N-terminal PB1 domain of p62 is involved in formation of aggregates, while the UBA domains of p62 and NBR1 have been associated mainly with cargo binding. Here we focus on roles of PB1 and UBA domains in localization and aggregation of Joka2 in plant cells. We show that Joka2 can homodimerize not only through its N-terminal PB1-PB1 interactions but also via interaction between N-terminal PB1 and C-terminal UBA domains. We also demonstrate that Joka2 co-localizes with recombinant ubiquitin and sequestrates it into aggregates and that C-terminal part (containing UBA domains is sufficient for this effect. Our results indicate that Joka2 accumulates in cytoplasmic aggregates and suggest that in addition to these multimeric forms it also exists in the nucleus and cytoplasm in a monomeric form.

  11. Membrane tethering of APP c-terminal fragments is a prerequisite for T668 phosphorylation preventing nuclear sphere generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Hassan; Kolbe, Katharina; Leonhardt, Gregor; Loosse, Christina; Schröder, Elisabeth; Knauer, Shirley; Marcus, Katrin; Müller, Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    A central molecular hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which causes the generation of different c-terminal fragments like C99, AICD57, or AICD50 that fully or in part contain the APP transmembrane domain. In this study, we demonstrate that membrane-tethered C99 is phosphorylated by JNK3A at residue T668 (APP695 numbering) to a higher extent than AICD57, whereas AICD50 is not capable of being phosphorylated. The modification decreases the turnover of APP, while the blockade of APP cleavage increases APP phosphorylation. Generation of nuclear spheres, complexes consisting of the translocated AICD, FE65 and other proteins, is significantly reduced as soon as APP c-terminal fragments are accessible for phosphorylation. This APP modification, which we identified as significantly reduced in high plaque-load areas of the human brain, is linearly dependent on the level of APP expression. Accordingly, we show that APP abundance is likewise capable of modulating nuclear sphere generation. Thus, the precise and complex regulation of APP phosphorylation, abundance, and cleavage impacts the generation of nuclear spheres, which are under discussion of being of relevance in neurodegeneration and dementia. Future pharmacological manipulation of nuclear sphere generation may be a promising approach for AD treatment.

  12. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPPn 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hudson

    Full Text Available Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPPn in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPPn motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I, four in α2(I and three in α1(II, all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPPn domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human, up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPPn motif were found in α1(I and four in α2(I, with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPPn site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species.

  13. Cloning of a C-terminally truncated NK-1 receptor from guinea-pig nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sarah J; Morris, Judy L; Gibbins, Ian L

    2003-03-17

    In order to examine the possibility that some actions of substance P may be mediated by a variant of the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, we isolated and sequenced the cDNA encoding a truncated NK-1 receptor from guinea-pig celiac ganglion and brain mRNA by two-step RT-PCR based on the 3'RACE method. The truncated NK-1 receptor sequence corresponded to a splice variant missing the final exon 5, and encoded a 311-amino acid protein that was truncated just after transmembrane domain 7, in an identical position to a truncated variant of the human NK-1 receptor. Thus, the truncated NK-1 receptor lacked the intracellular C-terminus sequence required for the phosphorylation and internalisation of the full-length NK-1 receptor. Using a sensitive one-step semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay, we detected mRNA for both the full length and truncated NK-1 receptors throughout the brain, spinal cord, sensory and autonomic ganglia, and viscera. Truncated NK-1 receptor mRNA was present in lower quantities than mRNA for the full-length NK-1R in all tissues. Highest levels of mRNA for the truncated NK-1 receptor were detected in coeliac ganglion, spinal cord, basal ganglia and hypothalamus. An antiserum to the N-terminus of the NK-1 receptor labelled dendrites of coeliac ganglion neurons that were not labelled with antisera to the C-terminus of the full length NK-1 receptor. These results show that a C-terminally truncated variant of the NK-1 receptor is likely to be widespread in central and peripheral nervous tissue. We predict that this receptor will mediate actions of substance P on neurons where immunohistochemical evidence for a full-length NK-1 receptor is lacking.

  14. Protein and peptide alkoxyl radicals can give rise to C-terminal decarboxylation and backbone cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    when the free amino acid does not, and that hydroperoxides can be formed on both the backbone (at alpha-carbon positions) and the side chain. Decomposition of alpha-carbon hydroperoxides by Fe(II)-EDTA gives initially an alkoxyl radical via a pseudo-Fenton reaction; these radicals fragment rapidly...... with k estimated as > or = 10(7) s(-1). With N-acetyl amino acids and dipeptides beta-scission of an alkoxyl radical at the C-terminal alpha-carbon results in C-terminal decarboxylation, with release of CO2.-; the corresponding amides undergo deamidation with release of .C(O)NH2. Cyclic dipeptides...... undergo analogous reactions with cleavage of the alpha-carbon to carbonyl-carbon bond and formation of .C(O)NHR radicals. With substrates with large aliphatic side chains, radicals from side-chain hydroperoxides are also observed. C-terminal decarboxylation and backbone fragmentation are also observed...

  15. Automation of C-terminal sequence analysis of 2D-PAGE separated proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Moerman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental assignment of the protein termini remains essential to define the functional protein structure. Here, we report on the improvement of a proteomic C-terminal sequence analysis method. The approach aims to discriminate the C-terminal peptide in a CNBr-digest where Met-Xxx peptide bonds are cleaved in internal peptides ending at a homoserine lactone (hsl-derivative. pH-dependent partial opening of the lactone ring results in the formation of doublets for all internal peptides. C-terminal peptides are distinguished as singlet peaks by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS is then used for their identification. We present a fully automated protocol established on a robotic liquid-handling station.

  16. Distinct functional domains within the acidic cluster of tegument protein pp28 required for trafficking and cytoplasmic envelopment of human cytomegalovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jun-Young; Jeon, Hyejin; Hong, Sookyung; Britt, William J

    2016-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus UL99-encoded tegument protein pp28 contains a 16 aa acidic cluster that is required for pp28 trafficking to the assembly compartment (AC) and the virus assembly. However, functional signals within the acidic cluster of pp28 remain undefined. Here, we demonstrated that an acidic cluster rather than specific sorting signals was required for trafficking to the AC. Recombinant viruses with chimeric pp28 proteins expressing non-native acidic clusters exhibited delayed viral growth kinetics and decreased production of infectious virus, indicating that the native acidic cluster of pp28 was essential for wild-type virus assembly. These results suggested that the acidic cluster of pp28 has distinct functional domains required for trafficking and for efficient virus assembly. The first half (aa 44-50) of the acidic cluster was sufficient for pp28 trafficking, whereas the native acidic cluster consisting of aa 51-59 was required for the assembly of wild-type levels of infectious virus.

  17. C-terminal KDEL-modified cystatin C is retained in transfected CHO cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Teit Eliot; Vogel, Charlotte Katrine; Schwartz, Thue W.

    1990-01-01

    The significance of a C-terminal tetrapeptide, Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), as a retention signal for the endoplasmatic reticulum was studied using cystatin C, a general thiol protease inhibitor, as the reporter protein. Clones of CHO cells were analyzed after stable transfection with eukaryotic...... expression vectors encoding either cystatin C, KDEL extended cystatin C, or cystatin C extended with a control sequence. It is concluded that cystatin C with the KDEL tetrapeptide as a C-terminal extension is retained intracellularly without apparent accumulation of the molecule....

  18. Cytoplasmic dynein nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, K. Kevin; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Gibbons, Ian R.; Hays, Thomas S.; Holzbaur, Erika L.F.; McIntosh, J. Richard; Porter, Mary E.; Schroer, Trina A.; Vaughan, Kevin T.; Witman, George B.; King, Stephen M.; Vallee, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of names has been used in the literature for the subunits of cytoplasmic dynein complexes. Thus, there is a strong need for a more definitive consensus statement on nomenclature. This is especially important for mammalian cytoplasmic dyneins, many subunits of which are encoded by multiple genes. We propose names for the mammalian cytoplasmic dynein subunit genes and proteins that reflect the phylogenetic relationships of the genes and the published studies clarifying the functions of the polypeptides. This nomenclature recognizes the two distinct cytoplasmic dynein complexes and has the flexibility to accommodate the discovery of new subunits and isoforms. PMID:16260502

  19. An insoluble frontotemporal lobar degeneration-associated TDP-43 C-terminal fragment causes neurodegeneration and hippocampus pathology in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Adam K; Tripathy, Kalyan; Restrepo, Clark R; Ge, Guanghui; Xu, Yan; Kwong, Linda K; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

    2015-12-20

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) causes progressive personality, behavior and/or language disturbances and represents the second most common form of dementia under the age of 65. Over half of all FTD cases are classified pathologically as frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) pathology (FTLD-TDP). In FTLD-TDP brains, TDP-43 is phosphorylated, C-terminally cleaved, lost from the nucleus and accumulates in the cytoplasm and processes of neurons and glia. However, the contribution of TDP-43 C-terminal fragments (CTFs) to pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we developed transgenic (Tg) mice with forebrain Camk2a-controlled doxycycline-suppressible expression of a TDP-43 CTF (amino acids 208-414, designated 208 TDP-43 CTF), previously identified in FTLD-TDP brains. In these 208 TDP-43 Tg mice, detergent-insoluble 208 TDP-43 CTF was present in a diffuse punctate pattern in neuronal cytoplasm and dendrites without forming large cytoplasmic inclusions. Remarkably, the hippocampus showed progressive neuron loss and astrogliosis in the dentate gyrus (DG). This was accompanied by phosphorylated TDP-43 in the CA1 subfield, and ubiquitin and mitochondria accumulations in the stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM) layer, without loss of endogenous nuclear TDP-43. Importantly, 208 TDP-43 CTF and phosphorylated TDP-43 were rapidly cleared when CTF expression was suppressed in aged Tg mice, which ameliorated neuron loss in the DG despite persistence of ubiquitin accumulation in the SLM. Our results demonstrate that Camk2a-directed 208 TDP-43 CTF overexpression is sufficient to cause hippocampal pathology and neurodegeneration in vivo, suggesting an active role for TDP-43 CTFs in the pathogenesis of FTLD-TDP and related TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  20. The structure of the PERK kinase domain suggests the mechanism for its activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Wenjun; Li, Jingzhi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ron, David [University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Sha, Bingdong, E-mail: bdsha@uab.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-localized transmembrane kinase PERK is one of three major ER stress transducers. The crystal structure of PERK’s kinase domain has been determined to 2.8 Å resolution. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) is comprised of several intracellular signaling pathways that alleviate ER stress. The ER-localized transmembrane kinase PERK is one of three major ER stress transducers. Oligomerization of PERK’s N-terminal ER luminal domain by ER stress promotes PERK trans-autophosphorylation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic kinase domain at multiple residues including Thr980 on the kinase activation loop. Activated PERK phosphorylates Ser51 of the α-subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), which inhibits initiation of protein synthesis and reduces the load of unfolded proteins entering the ER. The crystal structure of PERK’s kinase domain has been determined to 2.8 Å resolution. The structure resembles the back-to-back dimer observed in the related eIF2α kinase PKR. Phosphorylation of Thr980 stabilizes both the activation loop and helix αG in the C-terminal lobe, preparing the latter for eIF2α binding. The structure suggests conservation in the mode of activation of eIF2α kinases and is consistent with a ‘line-up’ model for PERK activation triggered by oligomerization of its luminal domain.

  1. Synapse associated protein 102 (SAP102 binds the C-terminal part of the scaffolding protein neurobeachin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Lauks

    Full Text Available Neurobeachin (Nbea is a multidomain scaffold protein abundant in the brain, where it is highly expressed during development. Nbea-null mice have severe defects in neuromuscular synaptic transmission resulting in lethal paralysis of the newborns. Recently, it became clear that Nbea is important also for the functioning of central synapses, where it is suggested to play a role in trafficking membrane proteins to both, the pre- and post-synaptic sites. So far, only few binding partners of Nbea have been found and the precise mechanism of their trafficking remains unclear. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify SAP102, a MAGUK protein implicated in trafficking of the ionotropic glutamate AMPA- and NMDA-type receptors during synaptogenesis, as a novel Nbea interacting protein in mouse brain. Experiments in heterologous cells confirmed this interaction and revealed that SAP102 binds to the C-terminal part of Nbea that contains the DUF, PH, BEACH and WD40 domains. Furthermore, we discovered that introducing a mutation in Nbea's PH domain, which disrupts its interaction with the BEACH domain, abolishes this binding, thereby creating an excellent starting point to further investigate Nbea-SAP102 function in the central nervous system.

  2. Synapse associated protein 102 (SAP102) binds the C-terminal part of the scaffolding protein neurobeachin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauks, Juliane; Klemmer, Patricia; Farzana, Fatima; Karupothula, Ramesh; Zalm, Robbert; Cooke, Nancy E; Li, Ka Wan; Smit, August B; Toonen, Ruud; Verhage, Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) is a multidomain scaffold protein abundant in the brain, where it is highly expressed during development. Nbea-null mice have severe defects in neuromuscular synaptic transmission resulting in lethal paralysis of the newborns. Recently, it became clear that Nbea is important also for the functioning of central synapses, where it is suggested to play a role in trafficking membrane proteins to both, the pre- and post-synaptic sites. So far, only few binding partners of Nbea have been found and the precise mechanism of their trafficking remains unclear. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify SAP102, a MAGUK protein implicated in trafficking of the ionotropic glutamate AMPA- and NMDA-type receptors during synaptogenesis, as a novel Nbea interacting protein in mouse brain. Experiments in heterologous cells confirmed this interaction and revealed that SAP102 binds to the C-terminal part of Nbea that contains the DUF, PH, BEACH and WD40 domains. Furthermore, we discovered that introducing a mutation in Nbea's PH domain, which disrupts its interaction with the BEACH domain, abolishes this binding, thereby creating an excellent starting point to further investigate Nbea-SAP102 function in the central nervous system.

  3. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  4. Accessory factors of cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors required for antiviral innate immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eOshiumi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Type I interferon (IFN induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and thus cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway.

  5. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway. PMID:27252702

  6. Glutamine substitution at alanine1649 in the S4-S5 cytoplasmic loop of domain 4 removes the voltage sensitivity of fast inactivation in the human heart sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L; Chehab, N; Wieland, S J; Kallen, R G

    1998-05-01

    Normal activation-inactivation coupling in sodium channels insures that inactivation is slow at small but rapid at large depolarizations. M1651Q/M1652Q substitutions in the cytoplasmic loop connecting the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments of Domain 4 (S4-S5/D4) of the human heart sodium channel subtype 1 (hH1) affect the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation (Tang, L., R.G. Kallen, and R. Horn. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:89-104.). We now show that glutamine substitutions NH2-terminal to the methionines (L1646, L1647, F1648, A1649, L1650) also influence the kinetics and voltage dependence of inactivation compared with the wild-type channel. In contrast, mutations at the COOH-terminal end of the S4-S5/D4 segment (L1654, P1655, A1656) are without significant effect. Strikingly, the A1649Q mutation renders the current decay time constants virtually voltage independent and decreases the voltage dependences of steady state inactivation and the time constants for the recovery from inactivation. Single-channel measurements show that at negative voltages latency times to first opening are shorter and less voltage dependent in A1649Q than in wild-type channels; peak open probabilities are significantly smaller and the mean open times are shorter. This indicates that the rate constants for inactivation and, probably, activation are increased at negative voltages by the A1649Q mutation reminiscent of Y1494Q/ Y1495Q mutations in the cytoplasmic loop between the third and fourth domains (O'Leary, M.E., L.Q. Chen, R.G. Kallen, and R. Horn. 1995. J. Gen. Physiol. 106:641-658.). Other substitutions, A1649S and A1649V, decrease but fail to eliminate the voltage dependence of time constants for inactivation, suggesting that the decreased hydrophobicity of glutamine at either residues A1649 or Y1494Y1495 may disrupt a linkage between S4-S5/D4 and the interdomain 3-4 loop interfering with normal activation-inactivation coupling.

  7. Application of proteases in the C-terminal modification of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gini, F.; Eggen, I.F.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    The high selectivity and the mild reaction conditions of enzymatic processes prompted their application in the synthesis of peptides, where selectivity is a feature of pivotal importance. Here we report the use of the serine protease subtilisin for the selective deprotection of C-terminal tert-butyl

  8. Development of a cysteine-deprived and C-terminally truncated GLP-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Garibay, Patrick W.;

    2013-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to family B of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the development and characterization of a fully functional cysteine-deprived and C-terminally trun......The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to family B of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the development and characterization of a fully functional cysteine-deprived and C......-terminally truncated GLP-1R. Single cysteines were initially substituted with alanine, and functionally redundant cysteines were subsequently changed simultaneously. Our results indicate that Cys174, Cys226, Cys296 and Cys403 are important for the GLP-1-mediated response, whereas Cys236, Cys329, Cys341, Cys347, Cys438...... that the membrane proximal part of the C-terminal is involved in receptor expression at the cell surface. The results show that seven cysteines and more than half of the C-terminal tail can be removed from GLP-1R without compromising GLP-1 binding or function....

  9. Erythrocytosis-associated HIF-2α Mutations Demonstrate a Critical Role for Residues C-terminal to the Hydroxylacceptor Proline*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlow, Paul W.; Percy, Melanie J.; Sutherland, Scott; Bierl, Charlene; McMullin, Mary Frances; Master, Stephen R.; Lappin, Terence R. J.; Lee, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    A classic physiologic response to hypoxia in humans is the up-regulation of the ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO) gene, which is the central regulator of red blood cell mass. The EPO gene, in turn, is activated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a transcription factor consisting of an α subunit (HIF-α) and a β subunit (HIF-β). Under normoxic conditions, prolyl hydroxylase domain protein (PHD, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase and egg laying-defective nine protein) site specifically hydroxylates HIF-α in a conserved LXXLAP motif (where underlining indicates the hydroxylacceptor proline). This provides a recognition motif for the von Hippel Lindau protein, a component of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that targets hydroxylated HIF-α for degradation. Under hypoxic conditions, this inherently oxygen-dependent modification is arrested, thereby stabilizing HIF-α and allowing it to activate the EPO gene. We previously identified and characterized an erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutation, G537W. More recently, we reported two additional erythrocytosis-associated HIF2A mutations, G537R and M535V. Here, we describe the functional characterization of these two mutants as well as a third novel erythrocytosis-associated mutation, P534L. These mutations affect residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif. We find that all result in impaired degradation and thus aberrant stabilization of HIF-2α. However, each exhibits a distinct profile with respect to their effects on PHD2 binding and von Hippel Lindau interaction. These findings reinforce the importance of HIF-2α in human EPO regulation, demonstrate heterogeneity of functional defects arising from these mutations, and point to a critical role for residues C-terminal to the LXXLAP motif in HIF-α. PMID:19208626

  10. A Fmoc-compatible Method for the Solid-Phase Synthesis of Peptide C-Terminal (alpha)-Thioesters based on the Safety-Catch Hydrazine Linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, J A; Hackel, B J; de Yoreo, J J; Mitchell, A R

    2003-11-22

    C-terminal peptide thioesters are key intermediates for the synthesis/semisynthesis of proteins and for the production of cyclic peptides by native chemical ligation. They can be synthetically prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) methods or biosynthetically by protein splicing techniques. Until recently, the chemical synthesis of C-terminal a-thioester peptides by SPPS was largely restricted to the Boc/Benzyl methodology because of the poor stability of the thioester bond to the basic conditions employed for the deprotection of the N{sup {alpha}}-Fmoc group. In the present work, we describe a new method for the SPPS of C-terminal thioesters by Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazide linker, which is totally stable to the Fmoc-SPPS conditions. Once the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker can be achieved by mild oxidation. This step transforms the hydrazide group into a highly reactive diazene intermediate which can react with different H-AA-SEt to yield the corresponding {alpha}-thioester peptide in good yields. This method has been successfully used for the generation of different thioester peptides, circular peptides and a fully functional SH3 protein domain.

  11. The role of the S4-S5 linker and C-terminal tail in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Zachary T; Joseph, Suresh K

    2006-08-25

    In previous studies we have suggested that spatial proximity of the C- and N-terminal domains of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) may be critical for the channel gating mechanism. In the present study we have examined the sites of C-N interaction in more detail. We report that deletion mutations within the S4-S5 linker (amino acids 2418-2437) prevent co-immunoprecipitation of the C- and N-terminal domains, inhibit channel activity and enhance IP(3) binding. We also show that a region of the C-terminal tail (amino acids 2694-2721), predicted to be a coiled-coil, is also required for channel activity. Circular dichroism spectroscopy and gel filtration studies confirm that this region has a helical structure with the ability to form tetramers. We propose a model in which IP(3)-induced conformational changes in the N-terminal domain are mechanically transmitted to the opening of the pore through an attachment to the S4-S5 linker. The coiled-coil domain in the C-terminal tail may play a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of the channel.

  12. C-terminal residues of plant glutamate decarboxylase are required for oligomerization of a high-molecular weight complex and for activation by calcium/calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, Moriyah; Fridmann-Sirkis, Yael; Fromm, Hillel

    2006-05-01

    Bacterial glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) is a homohexameric enzyme of about 330 kDa. Plant GAD differs from the bacterial enzyme in having a C-terminal extension of 33 amino acids within which resides a calmodulin (CaM)-binding domain. In order to assess the role of the C-terminal extension in the formation of GAD complexes and in activation by Ca2+/CaM, we examined complexes formed with the purified full-length recombinant petunia GAD expressed in E. coli, and with a 9 amino acid C-terminal deletion mutant (GADDeltaC9). Size exclusion chromatography revealed that the full-length GAD formed complexes of about 580 kDa and 300 kDa in the absence of Ca2+/CaM, whereas in the presence of Ca2+/CaM all complexes shifted to approximately 680 kDa. With deletion of 9 amino acids from the C-terminus (KKKKTNRVC(500)), the ability to bind CaM in the presence of Ca2+, and to purify it by CaM-affinity chromatography was retained, but the formation of GAD complexes larger than 340 kDa and enzyme activation by Ca2+/CaM were completely abolished. Hence, responsiveness to Ca2+/CaM is associated with the formation of protein complexes of 680 kDa, and requires some or all of the nine C-terminal amino acid residues. We suggest that evolution of plant GAD from a bacterial ancestral enzyme involved the formation of higher molecular weight complexes required for activation by Ca2+/CaM.

  13. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Jardetzky, Theodore S; Longnecker, Richard

    2016-11-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706) of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  14. The Cytoplasmic Tail Domain of Epstein-Barr Virus gH Regulates Membrane Fusion Activity through Altering gH Binding to gp42 and Epithelial Cell Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a variety of cancers as well as lymphoproliferative disorders in immunocompromised patients. EBV mediates viral entry into epithelial and B cells using fusion machinery composed of four glycoproteins: gB, the gH/gL complex, and gp42. gB and gH/gL are required for both epithelial and B cell fusion. The specific role of gH/gL in fusion has been the most elusive among the required herpesvirus entry glycoproteins. Previous mutational studies have focused on the ectodomain of EBV gH and not on the gH cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD. In this study, we chose to examine the function of the gH CTD by making serial gH truncation mutants as well as amino acid substitution mutants to determine the importance of the gH CTD in epithelial and B cell fusion. Truncation of 8 amino acids (aa 698 to 706 of the gH CTD resulted in diminished fusion activity using a virus-free syncytium formation assay and fusion assay. The importance of the amino acid composition of the gH CTD was also investigated by amino acid substitutions that altered the hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity of the CTD. These mutations also resulted in diminished fusion activity. Interestingly, some of the gH CTD truncation mutants and hydrophilic tail substitution mutants lost the ability to bind to gp42 and epithelial cells. In summary, our studies indicate that the gH CTD is an important functional domain.

  15. C-terminal fragment of amebin promotes actin filament bundling, inhibits acto-myosin ATPase activity and is essential for amoeba migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Jolanta; Rzhepetskyy, Yuriy; Sobczak, Magdalena; Kocik, Elżbieta; Skórzewski, Radosław; Kłopocka, Wanda; Rędowicz, Maria Jolanta

    2011-02-01

    Amebin [formerly termed as ApABP-FI; Sobczak et al. (2007) Biochem. Cell Biol. 85] is encoded in Amoeba proteus by two transcripts, 2672-nt and 1125-nt. A product of the shorter transcript (termed as C-amebin), comprising C-terminal 375 amino-acid-residue fragment of amebin, has been expressed and purified as the recombinant GST-fusion protein. GST-C-amebin bound both to monomeric and filamentous actin. The binding was Ca(2+)-independent and promoted filament bundling, as revealed with the transmission electron microscopy. GST-C-amebin significantly decreased MgATPase activity of rabbit skeletal muscle acto-S1. Removal with endoproteinase ArgC of a positively charged C-terminal region of GST-amebin containing KLASMWEQ sequence abolished actin-binding and bundling as well as the ATPase-inhibitory effect of C-amebin, indicating that this protein region was involved in the interaction with actin. Microinjection of amoebae with antibody against C-terminus of amebin significantly affected amoebae morphology, disturbed cell polarization and transport of cytoplasmic granules as well as blocked migration. These data indicate that amebin may be one of key regulators of the actin-cytoskeleton dynamics and actin-dependent motility in A. proteus.

  16. Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors exhibit antimigratory activity by disrupting the Hsp90α/Aha1 complex in PC3-MM2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suman; Shinogle, Heather E; Garg, Gaurav; Vielhauer, George A; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Blagg, Brian S J

    2015-02-20

    Human Hsp90 isoforms are molecular chaperones that are often up-regulated in malignances and represent a primary target for Hsp90 inhibitors undergoing clinical evaluation. Hsp90α is a stress-inducible isoform of Hsp90 that plays a significant role in apoptosis and metastasis. Though Hsp90α is secreted into the extracellular space under metastatic conditions, its role in cancer biology is poorly understood. We report that Hsp90α associates with the Aha1 co-chaperone and found this complex to localize in secretory vesicles and at the leading edge of migrating cells. Knockdown of Hsp90α resulted in a defect in cell migration. The functional role of Hsp90α/Aha1 was studied by treating the cells with various novobiocin-based Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors. These inhibitors disrupted the Hsp90α/Aha1 complex, caused a cytoplasmic redistribution of Hsp90α and Aha1, and decreased cell migration. Structure-function studies determined that disruption of Hsp90α/Aha1 association and inhibition of cell migration correlated with the presence of a benzamide side chain, since an acetamide substituted analog was less effective. Our results show that disruption of Hsp90α/Aha1 interactions with novobiocin-based Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors may limit the metastatic potential of tumors.

  17. Protein-protein interaction domains of Bacillus subtilis DivIVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baarle, Suey; Celik, Ilkay Nazli; Kaval, Karan Gautam; Bramkamp, Marc; Hamoen, Leendert W; Halbedel, Sven

    2013-03-01

    DivIVA proteins are curvature-sensitive membrane binding proteins that recruit other proteins to the poles and the division septum. They consist of a conserved N-terminal lipid binding domain fused to a less conserved C-terminal domain. DivIVA homologues interact with different proteins involved in cell division, chromosome segregation, genetic competence, or cell wall synthesis. It is unknown how DivIVA interacts with these proteins, and we used the interaction of Bacillus subtilis DivIVA with MinJ and RacA to investigate this. MinJ is a transmembrane protein controlling division site selection, and the DNA-binding protein RacA is crucial for chromosome segregation during sporulation. Initial bacterial two-hybrid experiments revealed that the C terminus of DivIVA appears to be important for recruiting both proteins. However, the interpretation of these results is limited since it appeared that C-terminal truncations also interfere with DivIVA oligomerization. Therefore, a chimera approach was followed, making use of the fact that Listeria monocytogenes DivIVA shows normal polar localization but is not biologically active when expressed in B. subtilis. Complementation experiments with different chimeras of B. subtilis and L. monocytogenes DivIVA suggest that MinJ and RacA bind to separate DivIVA domains. Fluorescence microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged RacA and MinJ corroborated this conclusion and suggests that MinJ recruitment operates via the N-terminal lipid binding domain, whereas RacA interacts with the C-terminal domain. We speculate that this difference is related to the cellular compartments in which MinJ and RacA are active: the cell membrane and the cytoplasm, respectively.

  18. Presence and expression of hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze the simplest of all chemical reactions: the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen or vice versa. Cyanobacteria can express an uptake, a bidirectional or both NiFe-hydrogenases. Maturation of those depends on accessory proteins encoded by hyp-genes. The last maturation step involves the cleavage of a ca. 30 amino acid long peptide from the large subunit by a C-terminal endopeptidase. Until know, nothing is known about the maturation of cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases. The availability of three complete cyanobacterial genome sequences from strains with either only the uptake (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133/PCC 73102, only the bidirectional (Synechocystis PCC 6803 or both NiFe-hydrogenases (Anabaena PCC 7120 prompted us to mine these genomes for hydrogenase maturation related genes. In this communication we focus on the presence and the expression of the NiFe-hydrogenases and the corresponding C-terminal endopeptidases, in the three strains mentioned above. Results We identified genes encoding putative cyanobacterial hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in all analyzed cyanobacterial genomes. The genes are not part of any known hydrogenase related gene cluster. The derived amino acid sequences show only low similarity (28–41% to the well-analyzed hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidase HybD from Escherichia coli, the crystal structure of which is known. However, computational secondary and tertiary structure modeling revealed the presence of conserved structural patterns around the highly conserved active site. Gene expression analysis shows that the endopeptidase encoding genes are expressed under both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. Conclusion Anabaena PCC 7120 possesses two NiFe-hydrogenases and two hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases but only one set of hyp-genes. Thus, in contrast to the Hyp-proteins, the C-terminal endopeptidases are the only known

  19. Disulphide bond restrains the C-terminal region of thermostable direct hemolysin during folding to promote oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Nidhi; Tichkule, Swapnil; Pandit, Shashi Bhushan; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2017-01-15

    Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) are typically produced as water-soluble monomers, which upon interacting with target cells assemble into transmembrane oligomeric pores. Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) is an atypical PFT that exists as a tetramer in solution, prior to membrane binding. The TDH structure highlights a core β-sandwich domain similar to those found in the eukaryotic actinoporin family of PFTs. However, the TDH structure harbors an extended C-terminal region (CTR) that is not documented in the actinoporins. This CTR remains tethered to the β-sandwich domain through an intra-molecular disulphide bond. Part of the CTR is positioned at the inter-protomer interface in the TDH tetramer. Here we show that the truncation, as well as mutation, of the CTR compromise tetrameric assembly, and the membrane-damaging activity of TDH. Our study also reveals that intra-protomer disulphide bond formation during the folding/assembly process of TDH restrains the CTR to mediate its participation in the formation of inter-protomer contact, thus facilitating TDH oligomerization. However, once tetramerization is achieved, disruption of the disulphide bond does not affect oligomeric assembly. Our study provides critical insights regarding the regulation of the oligomerization mechanism of TDH, which has not been previously documented in the PFT family.

  20. The structure of the PERK kinase domain suggests the mechanism for its activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Wenjun; Li, Jingzhi; Ron, David; Sha, Bingdong (UAB); (Cambridge)

    2012-08-31

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) is comprised of several intracellular signaling pathways that alleviate ER stress. The ER-localized transmembrane kinase PERK is one of three major ER stress transducers. Oligomerization of PERK's N-terminal ER luminal domain by ER stress promotes PERK trans-autophosphorylation of the C-terminal cytoplasmic kinase domain at multiple residues including Thr980 on the kinase activation loop. Activated PERK phosphorylates Ser51 of the {alpha}-subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2{alpha}), which inhibits initiation of protein synthesis and reduces the load of unfolded proteins entering the ER. The crystal structure of PERK's kinase domain has been determined to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution. The structure resembles the back-to-back dimer observed in the related eIF2{alpha} kinase PKR. Phosphorylation of Thr980 stabilizes both the activation loop and helix {alpha}G in the C-terminal lobe, preparing the latter for eIF2{alpha} binding. The structure suggests conservation in the mode of activation of eIF2{alpha} kinases and is consistent with a 'line-up' model for PERK activation triggered by oligomerization of its luminal domain.

  1. Membrane-embedded C-terminal segment of rat mitochondrial TOM40 constitutes protein-conducting pore with enriched beta-structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Maeda, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Nabekura, Junichi; Sakaguchi, Masao; Mihara, Katsuyoshi

    2004-11-26

    TOM40 is the central component of the preprotein translocase of the mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM complex). We purified recombinant rat TOM40 (rTOM40), which was refolded in Brij35 after solubilization from inclusion bodies by guanidine HCl. rTOM40 (i) consisted of a 63% beta-sheet structure and (ii) bound a matrix-targeted preprotein with high affinity and partially translocated it into the rTOM40 pore. This partial translocation was inhibited by stabilization of the mature domain of the precursor. (iii) rTOM40 bound preprotein initially through ionic interactions, followed by salt-resistant non-ionic interactions, and (iv) exhibited presequence-sensitive, cation-specific channel activity in reconstituted liposomes. Based on the domain structure of rTOM40 deduced by protease treatment, we purified the elastase-resistant and membrane-embedded C-terminal segment (rTOM40(DeltaN165)) as a recombinant protein with 62% beta-structure that exhibited properties comparable with those of full-size rTOM40. We concluded that the membrane-embedded C-terminal half of rTOM40 constitutes the preprotein recognition domain with an enriched beta-structure, which forms the preprotein conducting pore containing a salt-sensitive cis-binding site and a salt-resistant trans-binding site.

  2. X-ray structure of the T. aquaticus FtsY:GDP complex suggests functional roles for the C-terminal helix of the SRP GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronski-Salerno, Joseph; Coon, John S; Focia, Pamela J; Freymann, Douglas M

    2007-03-01

    FtsY and Ffh are structurally similar prokaryotic Signal Recognition Particle GTPases that play an essential role in the Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)-mediated cotranslational targeting of proteins to the membrane. The two GTPases assemble in a GTP-dependent manner to form a heterodimeric SRP targeting complex. We report here the 2.1 A X-ray structure of FtsY from T. aquaticus bound to GDP. The structure of the monomeric protein reveals, unexpectedly, canonical binding interactions for GDP. A comparison of the structures of the monomeric and complexed FtsY NG GTPase domain suggests that it undergoes a conformational change similar to that of Ffh NG during the assembly of the symmetric heterodimeric complex. However, in contrast to Ffh, in which the C-terminal helix shifts independently of the other subdomains, the C-terminal helix and N domain of T. aquaticus FtsY together behave as a rigid body during assembly, suggesting distinct mechanisms by which the interactions of the NG domain "module" are regulated in the context of the two SRP GTPases.

  3. Structure-activity studies on the C-terminal amide of substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, E; Couture, R; Poulos, C; Pinas, N; Mizrahi, J; Theodoropoulos, D; Regoli, D

    1982-11-01

    Twelve C-terminal heptapeptide analogues of substance P have been synthesized by solid phase and by the classical solution method. The modifications concerned all the C-terminal primary amide of SP and should therefore help to understand the biological significance of this carboxamide, as evaluated by in vivo and in vitro bioassays. From the results it can be seen that not the slightest change of the two amide protons is tolerated without an important loss of activity: replacement of one or two amide protons with alkyl groups, extension of the amide to the hydrazide and its alkyl analogues, and exchange of the amide with an ester or a carboxylic acid all reduce the relative activity/affinity at least by 2-fold. It is not clear for what reason all these modifications produce such a drastic activity reduction.

  4. Secretin and its C-terminal hexapeptide potentiates insulin release in mouse islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Hans; Hansen, B; Lernmark, A;

    1986-01-01

    /ml; the maximal effect was obtained with 1 microgram/ml secretin. This effect was mimicked by 50-500 micrograms/ml NH2-Leu-Leu-Gln-Gly-Leu-Val-NH2, [S-(22-27)], which represents an amidated C-terminal sequence of the secretin molecule. The consecutive smaller secretin C-terminal peptides had either no effects...... no stimulatory effect on islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity. In fact, S-(23-27), S-(24-27), and S-(25-27) inhibited the islet glutamate dehydrogenase activity, the activation by which amino acids and amino acid derivatives are known to elicit a potentiation of insulin release. Our results suggest that the C...

  5. C-Terminally modified peptides via cleavage of the HMBA linker by O-, i>N>- or S-nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large variety of C-terminally modified peptides was obtained by nucleophilic cleavage of the ester bond in solid phase linked peptide esters of 4-hydroxymethyl benzamide (HMBA). The developed methods provided peptides, C-terminally functionalized as esters, amides and thioesters, with high puri...

  6. Activation of human acid sphingomyelinase through modification or deletion of C-terminal cysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huawei; Edmunds, Tim; Baker-Malcolm, Jennifer; Karey, Kenneth P; Estes, Scott; Schwarz, Cordula; Hughes, Heather; Van Patten, Scott M

    2003-08-29

    One form of Niemann-Pick disease is caused by a deficiency in the enzymatic activity of acid sphingomyelinase. During efforts to develop an enzyme replacement therapy based on a recombinant form of human acid sphingomyelinase (rhASM), purified preparations of the recombinant enzyme were found to have substantially increased specific activity if cell harvest media were stored for several weeks at -20 degrees C prior to purification. This increase in activity was found to correlate with the loss of the single free thiol on rhASM, suggesting the involvement of a cysteine residue. It was demonstrated that a variety of chemical modifications of the free cysteine on rhASM all result in substantial activation of the enzyme, and the modified cysteine responsible for this activation was shown to be the C-terminal residue (Cys629). Activation was also achieved by copper-promoted dimerization of rhASM (via cysteine) and by C-terminal truncation using carboxypeptidase Y. The role of the C-terminal cysteine in activation was confirmed by creating mutant forms of rhASM in which this residue was either deleted or replaced by a serine, with both forms having substantially higher specific activity than wild-type rhASM. These results indicate that purified rhASM can be activated in vitro by loss of the free thiol on the C-terminal cysteine via chemical modification, dimerization, or deletion of this amino acid residue. This method of activation is similar to the cysteine switch mechanism described previously for matrix metalloproteinases and could represent a means of posttranslational regulation of ASM activity in vivo.

  7. C-terminal fluorescent labeling impairs functionality of DNA mismatch repair proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brieger

    Full Text Available The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2. Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency.

  8. Localization and topogenesis studies of cytoplasmic and vacuolar homologs of the Galanthus nivalis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquaert, Elke; Hanton, Sally L; Brandizzi, Federica; Peumans, Willy J; Van Damme, Els J M

    2007-07-01

    The Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) is synthesized as a preproprotein. To corroborate the role of the different targeting peptides in the topogenesis of GNA and related proteins, different constructs were made whereby both the complete original GNA gene and different truncated sequences were coupled to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). In addition, a GNA ortholog from rice that lacks the signal peptide and C-terminal propeptide sequence was fused to EGFP. These fusion constructs were expressed in tobacco BY-2 cells and their localization analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. We observed that the processed preproprotein of GNA was directed towards the vacuolar compartment, whereas both the truncated forms of GNA corresponding to the mature lectin polypeptide and the rice ortholog of GNA were located in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. It can be concluded, therefore, that removal of the C-terminal propeptide and the signal peptide is sufficient to change the subcellular targeting of a normally vacuolar protein to the nuclear/cytoplasmic compartment of the BY-2 cells. These findings support the proposed hypothesis that cytoplasmic/nuclear GNA-like proteins and their vacuolar homologs are evolutionarily related and that the classical GNA-related lectins might have evolved from cytoplasmic orthologs through an evolutionary event involving the insertion of a signal peptide and a C-terminal propeptide.

  9. The N-terminal cytoplasmic region of NCBE displays features of an intrinsic disordered structure and represents a novel target for specific drug screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare eBjerregaard-Andersen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The sodium dependent bicarbonate transporter NCBE/NBCn2 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS. The highest protein abundance is found in the choroid plexus. The primary function of this integral plasma membrane transport protein is to regulate intracellular neuronal pH and probably to maintain the pH homeostasis across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (CSFB. NCBE has a transmembrane region consisting of 10 predicted α-helices. The N- and C- termini are both cytoplasmic, with a large N-terminal domain (Nt-NCBE and a relatively small C-terminal domain (Ct-NCBE. The cytoplasmic N-terminal domain is likely involved in bicarbonate recognition and transport and contains key areas of regulation through pH sensing and protein - protein interactions (PPIs. Intrinsic disordered proteins (IDPs and regions (IDPRs are defined as not having any rigid three-dimensional structure under physiological conditions and are believed to be involved in signaling networks in which specific, though with low affinity, PPIs play an important role in the signaling event. We show that NCBE and other SLC4 family members have a high level of predicted intrinsic disorder prevalent in the cytoplasmic regions. To provide biophysical evidence for the IDPR predicted in Nt-NCBE, we isolated recombinant NCBE from E. coli and purified it to >99 % purity and used it to perform differential scanning fluorescence spectroscopy (DSF, in the search for small molecules that induce secondary or tertiary structure. This will promote the current need to develop selective drugs for individual SLC4 family members. We have also determined a low resolution X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal core domain at 4.0 Å resolution. The N-terminal cytoplasmic domain of AE1 (cdb3 shares a similar fold with the N-terminal core domain of NCBE. The crystal conditions for the full-length N-terminal domain have been explored, however, only the core domain forms diffracting

  10. Synthesis, processing and export of cytoplasmic endo-ß-1,4-xylanase from barley aleurone during germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caspers, M.P.M.; Lok, F.; Sinjorgo, K.M.C.; Zeijl, M. van; Nielsen, K.A.; Cameron-Mills, V.

    2001-01-01

    We have identified the major endo-β-l,4-xylanase (XYN-1) in the aleurone of germinating barley grain, and show that it is expressed as a precursor of Mr 61 500 with both N- and C-terminal propeptides. XYN-1 is synthesized as an inactive enzyme in the cytoplasm, and only becomes active at a late stag

  11. Solution structures of the cytoplasmic linkers between segments S4 and S5 (S4-S5) in domains III and IV of human brain sodium channels in SDS micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Nakagawa, T; Kuroda, Y

    2001-09-01

    The two cytoplasmic linkers connecting segment S4 and segment S5 (S4-S5 linker) of both domain III (III/S4-S5) and IV (IV/S4-S5) of the sodium channel alpha-subunit are considered to work as a hydrophobic receptor for the inactivation particle because of the three hydrophobic amino acids of Ile-Phe-Met (IFM motif) in the III-IV linker of the sodium channel alpha-subunit. To date, the solution structures of the peptides related to III/S4-S5 (MP-D3: A1325-M1338) and IV/S4-S5 (MP-D4: T1648-L1666) of human brain sodium channels have been investigated using CD and (1)H NMR spectroscopies. SDS micelles were employed as a solvent. The micelles mimic either biological membranes or the interior of a protein and can be a relevant environment at the inactivated state of the channels. It was found that the secondary structures of both MP-D3 and MP-D4 assume alpha-helical conformations around the N-terminal half-side of the sequences, i.e. the residues between V1326 and L1331 in MP-D3 and between L1650 and S1656 in MP-D4. Residue A1329 in MP-D3, which is considered to interact with F1489 of the IFM motif, was found to be located within the alpha-helix. Residues F1651, M1654, M1655, L1657 and A1669 in MP-D4, which also play an important role in inactivation, formed a hydrophobic cluster on one side of the helix. This cluster was concluded to interact with the hydrophobic cluster due to the III-IV linker before the inactivation gate closes.

  12. Structure-function analysis of mouse Sry reveals dual essential roles of the C-terminal polyglutamine tract in sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Ng, Ee Ting; Davidson, Tara-Lynne; Longmuss, Enya; Urschitz, Johann; Elston, Marlee; Moisyadi, Stefan; Bowles, Josephine; Koopman, Peter

    2014-08-12

    The mammalian sex-determining factor SRY comprises a conserved high-mobility group (HMG) box DNA-binding domain and poorly conserved regions outside the HMG box. Mouse Sry is unusual in that it includes a C-terminal polyglutamine (polyQ) tract that is absent in nonrodent SRY proteins, and yet, paradoxically, is essential for male sex determination. To dissect the molecular functions of this domain, we generated a series of Sry mutants, and studied their biochemical properties in cell lines and transgenic mouse embryos. Sry protein lacking the polyQ domain was unstable, due to proteasomal degradation. Replacing this domain with irrelevant sequences stabilized the protein but failed to restore Sry's ability to up-regulate its key target gene SRY-box 9 (Sox9) and its sex-determining function in vivo. These functions were restored only when a VP16 transactivation domain was substituted. We conclude that the polyQ domain has important roles in protein stabilization and transcriptional activation, both of which are essential for male sex determination in mice. Our data disprove the hypothesis that the conserved HMG box domain is the only functional domain of Sry, and highlight an evolutionary paradox whereby mouse Sry has evolved a novel bifunctional module to activate Sox9 directly, whereas SRY proteins in other taxa, including humans, seem to lack this ability, presumably making them dependent on partner proteins(s) to provide this function.

  13. Crystallization and X-ray data analysis of the 10 kDa C-terminal lid subdomain from Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrall, Liam; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D., E-mail: m.walkinshaw@ed.ac.uk [School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, The King’s Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JR,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-01

    Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa lid subdomain from the C. elegans chaperone Hsp70 have been obtained that diffract X-rays to ∼3.5 Å and belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Analysis of X-ray data and initial heavy-atom phasing reveals 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit related by 432 non-crystallographic symmetry. Hsp70 is an important molecular chaperone involved in the regulation of protein folding. Crystals of the C-terminal 10 kDa helical lid domain (residues 542–640) from a Caenorhabditis elegans Hsp70 homologue have been produced that diffract X-rays to ∼3.4 Å. Crystals belong to space group I2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 197, c = 200 Å. The Matthews coefficient, self-rotation function and Patterson map indicate 24 monomers in the asymmetric unit, showing non-crystallographic 432 symmetry. Molecular-replacement studies using the corresponding domain from rat, the only eukaryotic homologue with a known structure, failed and a mercury derivative was obtained. Preliminary MAD phasing using SHELXD and SHARP for location and refinement of the heavy-atom substructure and SOLOMON for density modification produced interpretable maps with a clear protein–solvent boundary. Further density-modification, model-building and refinement are currently under way.

  14. Carboxypeptidase D is the only enzyme responsible for antibody C-terminal lysine cleavage in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhilan; Zhang, Henry; Haley, Benjamin; Macchi, Frank; Yang, Feng; Misaghi, Shahram; Elich, Joseph; Yang, Renee; Tang, Yun; Joly, John C; Snedecor, Bradley R; Shen, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneity of C-terminal lysine levels often observed in therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is believed to result from the proteolysis by endogenous carboxypeptidase(s) during cell culture production. Identifying the responsible carboxypeptidase(s) for C-terminal lysine cleavage in CHO cells would provide valuable insights for antibody production cell culture processes development and optimization. In this study, five carboxypeptidases, CpD, CpM, CpN, CpB, and CpE, were studied for message RNA (mRNA) expression by qRT-PCR analysis in two most commonly used blank hosts (DUXB-11 derived DHFR-deficient DP12 host and DHFR-positive CHOK1 host), used for therapeutic antibody production, as well an antibody-expressing cell line derived from each host. Our results showed that CpD had the highest mRNA expression. When CpD mRNA levels were reduced by RNAi (RNA interference) technology, C-terminal lysine levels increased, whereas there was no obvious change in C-terminal lysine levels when a different carboxypeptidase mRNA level was knocked down suggesting that carboxypeptidase D is the main contributor for C-terminal lysine processing. Most importantly, when CpD expression was knocked out by CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) technology, C-terminal lysine cleavage was completely abolished in CpD knockout cells based on mass spectrometry analysis, demonstrating that CpD is the only endogenous carboxypeptidase that cleaves antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine in CHO cells. Hence, our work showed for the first time that the cleavage of antibody heavy chain C-terminal lysine is solely mediated by the carboxypeptidase D in CHO cells and our finding provides one solution to eliminating C-terminal lysine heterogeneity for therapeutic antibody production by knocking out CpD gene expression. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2100-2106. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Low Resolution Structure of a Bacterial SLC26 Transporter Reveals Dimeric Stoichiometry and Mobile Intracellular Domains*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Emma L. R.; Karinou, Eleni; Naismith, James H.; Gabel, Frank; Javelle, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    The SLC26/SulP (solute carrier/sulfate transporter) proteins are a superfamily of anion transporters conserved from bacteria to man, of which four have been identified in human diseases. Proteins within the SLC26/SulP family exhibit a wide variety of functions, transporting anions from halides to carboxylic acids. The proteins comprise a transmembrane domain containing between 10–12 transmembrane helices followed a by C-terminal cytoplasmic sulfate transporter and anti-sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain. These proteins are expected to undergo conformational changes during the transport cycle; however, structural information for this family remains sparse, particularly for the full-length proteins. To address this issue, we conducted an expression and detergent screen on bacterial Slc26 proteins. The screen identified a Yersinia enterocolitica Slc26A protein as the ideal candidate for further structural studies as it can be purified to homogeneity. Partial proteolysis, co-purification, and analytical size exclusion chromatography demonstrate that the protein purifies as stable oligomers. Using small angle neutron scattering combined with contrast variation, we have determined the first low resolution structure of a bacterial Slc26 protein without spectral contribution from the detergent. The structure confirms that the protein forms a dimer stabilized via its transmembrane core; the cytoplasmic STAS domain projects away from the transmembrane domain and is not involved in dimerization. Supported by additional biochemical data, the structure suggests that large movements of the STAS domain underlie the conformational changes that occur during transport. PMID:21659513

  16. C-terminal tail of FGF19 determines its specificity toward Klotho co-receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xinle; Lemon, Bryan; Li, XiaoFan; Gupte, Jamila; Weiszmann, Jennifer; Stevens, Jennitte; Hawkins, Nessa; Shen, Wenyan; Lindberg, Richard; Chen, Jin-Long; Tian, Hui; Li, Yang

    2008-11-28

    FGF19 subfamily proteins (FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23) are unique members of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) that regulate energy, bile acid, glucose, lipid, phosphate, and vitamin D homeostasis in an endocrine fashion. Their activities require the presence of alpha or betaKlotho, two related single-pass transmembrane proteins, as co-receptors in relevant target tissues. We previously showed that FGF19 can bind to both alpha and betaKlotho, whereas FGF21 and FGF23 can bind only to either betaKlotho or alphaKlotho, respectively in vitro. To determine the mechanism regulating the binding and specificity among FGF19 subfamily members to Klotho family proteins, chimeric proteins between FGF19 subfamily members or chimeric proteins between Klotho family members were constructed to probe the interaction between those two families. Our results showed that a chimera of FGF19 with the FGF21 C-terminal tail interacts only with betaKlotho and a chimera with the FGF23 C-terminal tail interacts only with alphaKlotho. FGF signaling assays also reflected the change of specificity we observed for the chimeras. These results identified the C-terminal tail of FGF19 as a region necessary for its recognition of Klotho family proteins. In addition, chimeras between alpha and betaKlotho were also generated to probe the regions in Klotho proteins that are important for signaling by this FGF subfamily. Both FGF23 and FGF21 require intact alpha or betaKlotho for signaling, respectively, whereas FGF19 can signal through a Klotho chimera consisting of the N terminus of alphaKlotho and the C terminus of betaKlotho. Our results provide the first glimpse of the regions that regulate the binding specificity between this unique family of FGFs and their co-receptors.

  17. C-terminal methylation of truncated neuropeptides: an enzyme-assisted extraction artifact involving methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemmler, Elizabeth A; Barton, Elizabeth E; Esonu, Onyinyechi K; Polasky, Daniel A; Onderko, Laura L; Bergeron, Audrey B; Christie, Andrew E; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2013-08-01

    Neuropeptides are the largest class of signaling molecules used by nervous systems. Today, neuropeptide discovery commonly involves chemical extraction from a tissue source followed by mass spectrometric characterization. Ideally, the extraction procedure accurately preserves the sequence and any inherent modifications of the native peptides. Here, we present data showing that this is not always true. Specifically, we present evidence showing that, in the lobster Homarus americanus, the orcokinin family members, NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe and SSEDMDRLGFG-OMe, are non-native peptides generated from full-length orcokinin precursors as the result of a highly selective peptide modification (peptide truncation with C-terminal methylation) that occurs during extraction. These peptides were observed by MALDI-FTMS and LC-Q-TOFMS analyses when eyestalk ganglia were extracted in a methanolic solvent, but not when tissues were dissected, co-crystallized with matrix, and analyzed directly with methanol excluded from the sample preparation. The identity of NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe was established using MALDI-FTMS/SORI-CID, LC-Q-TOFMS/MS, and comparison with a peptide standard. Extraction substituting deuterated methanol for methanol confirmed that the latter is the source of the C-terminal methyl group, and MS/MS confirmed the C-terminal localization of the added CD3. Surprisingly, NFDEIDRSGFG-OMe is not produced via a chemical acid-catalyzed esterification. Instead, the methylated peptide appears to result from proteolytic truncation in the presence of methanol, as evidenced by a reduction in conversion with the addition of a protease-inhibitor cocktail; heat effectively eliminated the conversion. This unusual and highly specific extraction-derived peptide conversion exemplifies the need to consider both chemical and biochemical processes that may modify the structure of endogenous neuropeptides.

  18. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC), a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443) of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C4...

  19. The crystal structures of the synthetic C-terminal octa- and dodecapeptides of trichovirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, R; Benos, P; Brückner, H; Kokkinidis, M

    1999-02-01

    The structures of two synthetic peptides with sequences corresponding to the C-terminal region of the naturally occurring 14-residue peptaibol trichovirin have been determined. The crystal structures of 8- and 12-residue segments are presented and are compared with the structures of the tetrapeptide and of the 9-residue segment, which have been reported earlier. A comparison between these segments leads to the hypothesis that the three-dimensional structure of trichovirin is to a large extent determined by the properties of a periodically repeating -Aib-Pro- pattern in the sequence of the peptide.

  20. A C-terminal Aldehyde Analog of the Insect Kinins Inhibits Diuresis in the Housefly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-21

    p e p t i d e s 2 8 ( 2 0 0 7 ) 1 4 6 – 1 5 2A C-terminal aldehyde analog of the insect kinins inhibits diuresis in the housefly Ronald J. Nachman a...secretion in crickets, but shows inhibition of both in vitro and in vivo diuresis in the housefly. R-LK-CHO reduced the total amount of urine voided over 3 h...to stimulate Malpighian tubule fluid secretion [2,25]. In the housefly, muscakinin has been implicated in the control of diuresis in response to

  1. C-Terminal acetylene derivatized peptides via silyl-based alkyne immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Martin; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Albada, H Bauke

    2013-06-21

    A new Silyl-based Alkyne Modifying (SAM)-linker for the synthesis of C-terminal acetylene-derivatized peptides is reported. The broad scope of this SAM2-linker is illustrated by manual synthesis of peptides that are side-chain protected, fully deprotected, and disulfide-bridged. Synthesis of a 14-meric (KLAKLAK)2 derivative by microwave-assisted automated SPPS and a one-pot cleavage click procedure yielding protected 1,2,3-triazole peptide conjugates are also described.

  2. Disease-Homologous Mutation in the Cation Diffusion Facilitator Protein MamM Causes Single-Domain Structural Loss and Signifies Its Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Zucker, Shiran; Uebe, René; Davidov, Geula; Navon, Yotam; Sherf, Dror; Chill, Jordan H; Kass, Itamar; Bitton, Ronit; Schüler, Dirk; Zarivach, Raz

    2016-08-23

    Cation diffusion facilitators (CDF) are highly conserved, metal ion efflux transporters that maintain divalent transition metal cation homeostasis. Most CDF proteins contain two domains, the cation transporting transmembrane domain and the regulatory cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (CTD). MamM is a magnetosome-associated CDF protein essential for the biomineralization of magnetic iron-oxide particles in magnetotactic bacteria. To investigate the structure-function relationship of CDF cytoplasmic domains, we characterized a MamM M250P mutation that is synonymous with the disease-related mutation L349P of the human CDF protein ZnT-10. Our results show that the M250P exchange in MamM causes severe structural changes in its CTD resulting in abnormal reduced function. Our in vivo, in vitro and in silico studies indicate that the CTD fold is critical for CDF proteins' proper function and support the previously suggested role of the CDF cytoplasmic domain as a CDF regulatory element. Based on our results, we also suggest a mechanism for the effects of the ZnT-10 L349P mutation in human.

  3. Chemical and thermal unfolding of a global staphylococcal virulence regulator with a flexible C-terminal end.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisek Mahapa

    Full Text Available SarA, a Staphylococcus aureus-specific dimeric protein, modulates the expression of numerous proteins including various virulence factors. Interestingly, S. aureus synthesizes multiple SarA paralogs seemingly for optimizing the expression of its virulence factors. To understand the domain structure/flexibility and the folding/unfolding mechanism of the SarA protein family, we have studied a recombinant SarA (designated rSarA using various in vitro probes. Limited proteolysis of rSarA and the subsequent analysis of the resulting protein fragments suggested it to be a single-domain protein with a long, flexible C-terminal end. rSarA was unfolded by different mechanisms in the presence of different chemical and physical denaturants. While urea-induced unfolding of rSarA occurred successively via the formation of a dimeric and a monomeric intermediate, GdnCl-induced unfolding of this protein proceeded through the production of two dimeric intermediates. The surface hydrophobicity and the structures of the intermediates were not identical and also differed significantly from those of native rSarA. Of the intermediates, the GdnCl-generated intermediates not only possessed a molten globule-like structure but also exhibited resistance to dissociation during their unfolding. Compared to the native rSarA, the intermediate that was originated at lower GdnCl concentration carried a compact shape, whereas, other intermediates owned a swelled shape. The chemical-induced unfolding, unlike thermal unfolding of rSarA, was completely reversible in nature.

  4. Domain Modeling: NP_055672.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055672.3 chr1 Solution structure of the chimera of the C-terminal PID domain of ...Fe65L and the C-terminal tail peptide of APP p2ysza_ chr1/NP_055672.3/NP_055672.3_apo_116-314.pdb swppa 0 ...

  5. C-terminal of human histamine H1 receptors regulates their agonist-induced clathrin-mediated internalization and G-protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Nozawa, Hiroki; Akatsu, Chizuru; Shoji, Masaru

    2016-11-01

    It has been suggested that the agonist-induced internalization of G-protein-coupled receptors from the cell surface into intracellular compartments regulates cellular responsiveness. We previously reported that Gq/11 -protein-coupled human histamine H1 receptors internalized via clathrin-dependent mechanisms upon stimulation with histamine. However, the molecular determinants of H1 receptors responsible for agonist-induced internalization remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the roles of the intracellular C-terminal of human histamine H1 receptors tagged with hemagglutinin (HA) at the N-terminal in histamine-induced internalization in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The histamine-induced internalization was evaluated by the receptor binding assay with [(3) H]mepyramine and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with an anti-HA antibody. We found that histamine-induced internalization was inhibited under hypertonic conditions or by pitstop, a clathrin terminal domain inhibitor, but not by filipin or nystatin, disruptors of the caveolar structure and function. The histamine-induced internalization was also inhibited by truncation of a single amino acid, Ser487, located at the end of the intracellular C-terminal of H1 receptors, but not by its mutation to alanine. In contrast, the receptor-G-protein coupling, which was evaluated by histamine-induced accumulation of [(3) H]inositol phosphates, was potentiated by truncation of Ser487, but was lost by its mutation to alanine. These results suggest that the intracellular C-terminal of human H1 receptors, which only comprises 17 amino acids (Cys471-Ser487), plays crucial roles in both clathrin-dependent internalization of H1 receptors and G-protein signaling, in which truncation of Ser487 and its mutation to alanine are revealed to result in biased signaling toward activation of G-proteins and clathrin-mediated internalization, respectively.

  6. Combining protein identification and quantification: C-terminal isotope-coded tagging using sulfanilic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchaud, Alexandre; Guillaume, Elisabeth; Affolter, Michael; Robert, Fabien; Moreillon, Philippe; Kussmann, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Two methods of differential isotopic coding of carboxylic groups have been developed to date. The first approach uses d0- or d3-methanol to convert carboxyl groups into the corresponding methyl esters. The second relies on the incorporation of two 18O atoms into the C-terminal carboxylic group during tryptic digestion of proteins in H(2)18O. However, both methods have limitations such as chromatographic separation of 1H and 2H derivatives or overlap of isotopic distributions of light and heavy forms due to small mass shifts. Here we present a new tagging approach based on the specific incorporation of sulfanilic acid into carboxylic groups. The reagent was synthesized in a heavy form (13C phenyl ring), showing no chromatographic shift and an optimal isotopic separation with a 6 Da mass shift. Moreover, sulfanilic acid allows for simplified fragmentation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) due the charge fixation of the sulfonate group at the C-terminus of the peptide. The derivatization is simple, specific and minimizes the number of sample treatment steps that can strongly alter the sample composition. The quantification is reproducible within an order of magnitude and can be analyzed either by electrospray ionization (ESI) or MALDI. Finally, the method is able to specifically identify the C-terminal peptide of a protein by using GluC as the proteolytic enzyme.

  7. Identification of Novel Short C-Terminal Transcripts of Human SERPINA1 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamala, Nerea; Aggarwal, Nupur; Iadarola, Paolo; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomez-Mariano, Gema; Lara, Beatriz; Martinez, Maria Teresa; Cuesta, Isabel; Stolk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human SERPINA1 gene is located on chromosome 14q31-32.3 and is organized into three (IA, IB, and IC) non-coding and four (II, III, IV, V) coding exons. This gene produces α1-antitrypsin (A1AT), a prototypical member of the serpin superfamily of proteins. We demonstrate that human peripheral blood leukocytes express not only a product corresponding to the transcript coding for the full-length A1AT protein but also two short transcripts (ST1C4 and ST1C5) of A1AT. In silico sequence analysis revealed that the last exon of the short transcripts contains an Open Reading Frame (ORF) and thus putatively can produce peptides. We found ST1C4 expression across different human tissues whereas ST1C5 was mainly restricted to leukocytes, specifically neutrophils. A high up-regulation (10-fold) of short transcripts was observed in isolated human blood neutrophils after activation with lipopolysaccharide. Parallel analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified peptides corresponding to C-terminal region of A1AT in supernatants of activated but not naïve neutrophils. Herein we report for the first time a tissue specific expression and regulation of short transcripts of SERPINA1 gene, and the presence of C-terminal peptides in supernatants from activated neutrophils, in vitro. This gives a novel insight into the studies on the transcription of SERPINA1 gene. PMID:28107454

  8. Baculovirus FP25K Localization: Role of the Coiled-Coil Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretson, Tyler A; McCoy, Jason C; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2016-11-01

    Two types of viruses are produced during the baculovirus life cycle: budded virus (BV) and occlusion-derived virus (ODV). A particular baculovirus protein, FP25K, is involved in the switch from BV to ODV production. Previously, FP25K from the model alphabaculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) was shown to traffic ODV envelope proteins. However, FP25K localization and the domains involved are inconclusive. Here we used a quantitative approach to study FP25K subcellular localization during infection using an AcMNPV bacmid virus that produces a functional AcMNPV FP25K-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein. During cell infection, FP25K-GFP localized primarily to the cytoplasm, particularly amorphous structures, with a small fraction being localized in the nucleus. To investigate the sequences involved in FP25K localization, an alignment of baculovirus FP25K sequences revealed that the N-terminal putative coiled-coil domain is present in all alphabaculoviruses but absent in betabaculoviruses. Structural prediction indicated a strong relatedness of AcMNPV FP25K to long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1) open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p), which contains an N-terminal coiled-coil domain responsible for cytoplasmic retention. Point mutations and deletions of this domain lead to a change in AcMNPV FP25K localization from cytoplasmic to nuclear. The coiled-coil and C-terminal deletion viruses increased BV production. Furthermore, a betabaculovirus FP25K protein lacking this N-terminal coiled-coil domain localized predominantly to the nucleus and exhibited increased BV production. These data suggest that the acquisition of this N-terminal coiled-coil domain in FP25K is important for the evolution of alphabaculoviruses. Moreover, with the divergence of preocclusion nuclear membrane breakdown in betabaculoviruses and membrane integrity in alphabaculoviruses, this domain represents an alphabaculovirus adaptation for nuclear trafficking

  9. Cytoplasm Affects Embryonic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.

  10. Cytoplasmic Z-RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarling, D.A.; Calhoun, C.J.; Hardin, C.C.; Zarling, A.H.

    1987-09-01

    Specific immunochemical probes for Z-RNA were generated and characterized to search for possible Z-RNA-like double helices in cells. Z-RNA was detected in the cytoplasm of fixed protozoan cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using these anti-Z-RNA IgCs. In contrast, autoimmune or experimentally elicited anti-DNA antibodies, specifically reactive with B-DNA or Z-DNA, stained the nuclei. Pre-or nonimmune IgGs did not bind to the cells. RNase A or T1 digestion eliminated anti-Z-RNA IgG binding to cytoplasmic determinants; however, DNase I or mung bean nuclease had no effect. Doxorubicin and ethidium bromide prevented anti-Z-RNA antibody binding; however, actinomycin D, which does not bind double-stranded RNA, did not. Anti-Z-RNA immunofluorescence was specifically blocked in competition assays by synthetic Z-RNA but not Z-DNA, A-RNA, or single-stranded RNAs. Thus, some cytoplasmic sequences in fixed cells exist in the left-handed Z-RNA conformation.

  11. Direct influence of C-terminally substituted amino acids in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore on delta-opioid receptor selectivity and antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboni, Gianfranco; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo; Negri, Lucia; Giannini, Elisa; Bryant, Sharon D; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Lazarus, Lawrence H

    2004-07-29

    A series of 17 analogues were developed on the basis of the general formula H-Dmt-Tic-NH-CH(R)-R' (denotes chirality; R = charged, neutral, or aromatic functional group; R' = -OH or -NH(2)). These compounds were designed to test the following hypothesis: the physicochemical properties of third-residue substitutions C-terminal to Tic in the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore modify delta-opioid receptor selectivity and delta-opioid receptor antagonism through enhanced interactions with the mu-opioid receptor. The data substantiate the following conclusions: (i) all compounds had high receptor affinity [K(i)(delta) = 0.034-1.1 nM], while that for the mu-opioid receptor fluctuated by orders of magnitude [K(i)(mu) = 15.1-3966 nM]; (ii) delta-opioid receptor selectivity [K(i)(mu)/K(i)(delta)] declined 1000-fold from 22,600 to 21; (iii) a C-terminal carboxyl group enhanced selectivity but only as a consequence of the specific residue; (iv) amidated, positive charged residues [Lys-NH(2) (6), Arg-NH(2) (7)], and a negatively charged aromatic residue [Trp-OH (11)] enhanced mu-opioid affinity [K(i)(mu) = 17.0, 15.1, and 15.7 nM, respectively], while Gly-NH(2) (8), Ser-NH(2) (10), and His-OH (12) were nearly one-tenth as active; and (v) D-isomers exhibited mixed effects on mu-opioid receptor affinity (2' 1 microM) except H-Dmt-Tic-Glu-NH(2) (3), which was a partial delta-opioid receptor agonist (IC(50) = 2.5 nM). Thus, these C-terminally extended analogues indicated that an amino acid residue containing a single charge, amino or guanidino functionality, or aromatic group substantially altered the delta-opioid receptor activity profile (selectivity and antagonism) of the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, which suggests that the C-terminal constituent plays a major role in determining opioid receptor activity as an "address domain".

  12. The C-terminal MIR-containing region in the Pmt1 O-mannosyltransferase restrains sporulation and is dispensable for virulence in Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Luo, Linli; Keyhani, Nemat O; Yu, Xiaodong; Ying, Shenghua; Zhang, Yongjun

    2017-02-01

    Protein O-mannosyltransferases (Pmts) belong to a highly conserved protein family responsible for the initiation of O-glycosylation of many proteins. Pmts contain one dolichyl-phosphate-mannose-protein mannosyltransferases (PMT) domain and three MIR motifs (mannosyltransferase, inositol triphosphate, and ryanodine receptor) that are essential for activity in yeast. We report that in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana, deletion of the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region (Pmt1∆ (311-902)) does not alter O-mannosyltransferase activity, but does increase total cell wall protein O-mannosylation levels and results in phenotypic changes in fungal development and cell wall stability. B. bassiana mutants harboring the Pmt1 ∆ (311-902) mutation displayed a significant increase in conidiation with up-regulation of conidiation-associated genes and an increase in biomass accumulation as compared to the wild-type parent. However, decreased vegetative growth and blastospore production was noted, and Pmt1 ∆ (311-902) mutants were altered in cell wall composition and cell surface features. Insect bioassays revealed little effect on virulence for the Pmt1 ∆ (311-902) strain via cuticle infection or intrahemocoel injection assays, although differences in hyphal body differentiation in the host hemolymph and up-regulation of virulence-associated genes were noted. These data suggest novel roles for Pmt1 in negatively regulating conidiation and demonstrate that the C-terminal Pmt1 MIR-containing region is dispensable for enzymatic activity and organismal virulence.

  13. C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion changes the cardiovascular effects of endomorphins in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ye; Wang, Chang-lin; Cui, Yun; Fan, Ying-zhe; Liu, Jing; Shao, Xuan; Liu, Hong-mei; Wang, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Endomorphin1-ol (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-ol, EM1-ol) and endomorphin2-ol (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-ol, EM2-ol), with C-terminal alcohol (-ol) containing, have been shown to exhibit higher affinity and lower intrinsic efficacy in vitro than endomorphins. In the present study, in order to investigate the alterations of systemic hemodynamic effects induced by C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion, responses to intravenous (i.v.) or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of EM1-ol, EM2-ol and their parents were compared in the system arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats. Both EM1-ol and EM2-ol induced dose-related decrease in SAP and HR when injected in doses of 3-100 nmol/kg, i.v. In terms of relative vasodepressor activity, it is interesting to note that EM2-ol was more potent than endomorphin2 [the dose of 25% decrease in SAP (DD25) = 6.01+/-3.19 and 13.99+/-1.56 nmol/kg, i.v., respectively] at a time when responses to EM1-ol were less potent than endomorphin1. Moreover, decreases in SAP in response to EM1-ol and EM2-ol were reduced by naloxone, atropine sulfate, L-NAME and bilateral vagotomy. It indicated that the vasodepressor responses were possibly mediated by a naloxone-sensitive, nitric oxide release, vagus-activated mechanism. It is noteworthy that i.c.v. injections of -ol derivatives produced dose-related decreases in SAP and HR, which were significantly less potent than endomorphins and were attenuated by naloxone and atropine sulfate. In summary, the results of the present study indicated that the C-terminal amide to alcohol conversion produced different effects on the vasodepressor activity of endomorphin1 and endomorphin2 and endowed EM2-ol distinctive hypotension characters in peripheral (i.v.) and central (i.c.v.) tissues. Moreover, these results provided indirect evidence that amidated C-terminus might play an important role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system.

  14. The C-Terminal Portion of the Nucleocapsid Protein Demonstrates SARS-CoV Antigenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozhen Liu; Bo You; Ye Yin; Shuting Li; Hao Wang; Yan Ren; Jia Ji; Xiaoqian Zhao; Yongqiao Sun; Xiaowei Zhang; Jianqiu Fang; Shaohui Hu; Jian Wang; Siqi Liu; Jun Yu; Heng Zhu; Huanming Yang; Yongwu Hu; Peng Chen; Jianning Yin; Jie Wen; Jingqiang Wang; Liang Lin; Jinxiu Liu

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop clinical diagnostic tools for rapid detection of SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus) and to identify candidate proteins for vaccine development, the C-terminal portion of the nucleocapsid (NC)gene was amplified using RT-PCR from the SARS-CoV genome, cloned into a yeast expression vector (pEGH), and expressed as a glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Hisx6 double-tagged fusion protein under the control of an inducible promoter.Western analysis on the purified protein confirmed the expression and purification of the NC fusion proteins from yeast. To determine its antigenicity, the fusion protein was challenged with serum samples from SARS patients and normal controls.The NC fusion protein demonstrated high antigenicity with high specificity, and therefore, it should have great potential in designing clinical diagnostic tools and provide useful information for vaccine development.

  15. Nucleation Process of a Fibril Precursor in the C-Terminal Segment of Amyloid-β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Pietrucci, Fabio; Biarnés, Xevi; Laio, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    By extended atomistic simulations in explicit solvent and bias-exchange metadynamics, we study the aggregation process of 18 chains of the C-terminal segment of amyloid-β, an intrinsically disordered protein involved in Alzheimer’s disease and prone to form fibrils. Starting from a disordered aggregate, we are able to observe the formation of an ordered nucleus rich in beta sheets. The rate limiting step in the nucleation pathway involves crossing a barrier of approximately 40kcal/mol and is associated with the formation of a very specific interdigitation of the side chains belonging to different sheets. This structural pattern is different from the one observed experimentally in a microcrystal of the same system, indicating that the structure of a “nascent” fibril may differ from the one of an “extended” fibril.

  16. Recombinant production of peptide C-terminal α-amides using an engineered intein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Louise; Shaw, Allan C; Norrild, Jens Chr.;

    2013-01-01

    is that they contain a C-terminal that is α-amidated, and this amidation is crucial for biological function. A challenge is to generate such peptides by recombinant means and particularly in a production scale. Here, we have examined an intein-mediated approach to generate a PYY derivative in a larger scale. Initially...... of the 198 amino acid intein with an eight amino acid linker. The optimized intein construct was used to produce the PYY derivative under high cell density cultivation conditions, generating the peptide thioester precursor in good yields and subsequent amidation provided the target peptide......., we experienced challenges with hydrolysis of the intein fusion protein, which was reduced by a T3C mutation in the intein. Subsequently, we further engineered the intein to decrease the absolute size and improve the relative yield of the PYY derivative, which was achieved by substituting 54 residues...

  17. Structure of the nisin leader peptidase NisP revealing a C-terminal autocleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yueyang; Li, Xin; Li, Ruiqing; Li, Shanshan; Ni, Hongqian; Wang, Hui; Xu, Haijin; Zhou, Weihong; Saris, Per E J; Yang, Wen; Qiao, Mingqiang; Rao, Zihe

    2014-06-01

    Nisin is a widely used antibacterial lantibiotic polypeptide produced by Lactococcus lactis. NisP belongs to the subtilase family and functions in the last step of nisin maturation as the leader-peptide peptidase. Deletion of the nisP gene in LAC71 results in the production of a non-active precursor peptide with the leader peptide unremoved. Here, the 1.1 Å resolution crystal structure of NisP is reported. The structure shows similarity to other subtilases, which can bind varying numbers of Ca atoms. However, no calcium was found in this NisP structure, and the predicted calcium-chelating residues were placed so as to not allow NisP to bind a calcium ion in this conformation. Interestingly, a short peptide corresponding to its own 635-647 sequence was found to bind to the active site of NisP. Biochemical assays and native mass-spectrometric analysis confirmed that NisP possesses an auto-cleavage site between residues Arg647 and Ser648. Further, it was shown that NisP mutated at the auto-cleavage site (R647P/S648P) had full catalytic activity for nisin leader-peptide cleavage, although the C-terminal region of NisP was no longer cleaved. Expressing this mutant in L. lactis LAC71 did not affect the production of nisin but did decrease the proliferation rate of the bacteria, suggesting the biological significance of the C-terminal auto-cleavage of NisP.

  18. Modeling the human intestinal mucin (MUC2) C-terminal cystine knot dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Vatsala D; Narpala, Sandeep R; Budil, David E; Sacco, Albert; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2011-11-01

    Intestinal mucus, a viscous secretion that lines the mucosa, is believed to be a barrier to absorption of many therapeutic compounds and carriers, and is known to play an important physiological role in controlling pathogen invasion. Nevertheless, there is as yet no clear understanding of the barrier properties of mucus, such as the nature of the molecular interactions between drug molecules and mucus components as well as those that govern gel formation. Secretory mucins, large and complex glycoprotein molecules, are the principal determinants of the viscoelastic properties of intestinal mucus. Despite the important role that mucins play in controlling transport and in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, their structures remain poorly characterized. The major intestinal secretory mucin gene, MUC2, has been identified and fully sequenced. The present study was undertaken to determine a detailed structure of the cysteine-rich region within the C-terminal end of human intestinal mucin (MUC2) via homology modeling, and explore possible configurations of a dimer of this cysteine-rich region, which may play an important role in governing mucus gel formation. Based on sequence-structure alignments and three-dimensional modeling, a cystine knot tertiary structure homologous to that of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is predicted at the C-terminus of MUC2. Dimers of this C-terminal cystine knot (CTCK) were modeled using sequence alignment based on HCG and TGF-beta, followed by molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. Results support the formation of a cystine knot dimer with a structure analogous to that of HCG.

  19. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksay, Karen S.; Sheffler, Douglas J.; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds – identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP – in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  20. Insulin resistance uncoupled from dyslipidemia due to C-terminal PIK3R1 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Doran, Isabel; Tomlinson, Patsy; Payne, Felicity; Gast, Alexandra; Sleigh, Alison; Bottomley, William; Harris, Julie; Daly, Allan; Rocha, Nuno; Rudge, Simon; Clark, Jonathan; Kwok, Albert; Romeo, Stefano; McCann, Emma; Müksch, Barbara; Dattani, Mehul; Zucchini, Stefano; Wakelam, Michael; Foukas, Lazaros C.; Savage, David B.; Murphy, Rinki; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis. In 3 of these 4, plasma adiponectin was preserved, as in insulin receptor dysfunction. The fourth patient and her healthy mother had low plasma adiponectin associated with a potentially novel mutation, p.Asp231Ala, in adiponectin itself. Cells studied from one patient with the p.Tyr657X PIK3R1 mutation expressed abundant truncated PIK3R1 products and showed severely reduced insulin-stimulated association of mutant but not WT p85α with IRS1, but normal downstream signaling. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, mutant p85α overexpression attenuated insulin-induced AKT phosphorylation and adipocyte differentiation. Thus, PIK3R1 C-terminal mutations impair insulin signaling only in some cellular contexts and produce a subphenotype of insulin resistance resembling INSR dysfunction but unlike AKT2 dysfunction, implicating PI3K in the pathogenesis of key components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:27766312

  1. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I' region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I' band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D₂O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  2. Temperature dependence of C-terminal carboxylic group IR absorptions in the amide I‧ region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A.; Literati, Alex; Ball, Borden; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Studies of structural changes in peptides and proteins using IR spectroscopy often rely on subtle changes in the amide I‧ band as a function of temperature. However, these changes can be obscured by the overlap with other absorptions, namely the side-chain and terminal carboxylic groups. The former were the subject of our previous report (Anderson et al., 2014). In this paper we investigate the IR spectra of the asymmetric stretch of α-carboxylic groups for amino acids representing all major types (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ser, Thr, Asp, Glu, Lys, Asn, His, Trp, Pro) as well as the C-terminal groups of three dipeptides (Gly-Gly, Gly-Ala, Ala-Gly) in D2O at neutral pH. Experimental temperature dependent IR spectra were analyzed by fitting of both symmetric and asymmetric pseudo-Voigt functions. Qualitatively the spectra exhibit shifts to higher frequency, loss in intensity and narrowing with increased temperature, similar to that observed previously for the side-chain carboxylic groups of Asp. The observed dependence of the band parameters (frequency, intensity, width and shape) on temperature is in all cases linear: simple linear regression is therefore used to describe the spectral changes. The spectral parameters vary between individual amino acids and show systematic differences between the free amino acids and dipeptides, particularly in the absolute peak frequencies, but the temperature variations are comparable. The relative variations between the dipeptide spectral parameters are most sensitive to the C-terminal amino acid, and follow the trends observed in the free amino acid spectra. General rules for modeling the α-carboxylic IR absorption bands in peptides and proteins as the function of temperature are proposed.

  3. Screening for Small Molecule Inhibitors of Statin-Induced APP C-terminal Toxic Fragment Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksay, Karen S; Sheffler, Douglas J; Spilman, Patricia; Campagna, Jesus; Jagodzinska, Barbara; Descamps, Olivier; Gorostiza, Olivia; Matalis, Alex; Mullenix, Michael; Bredesen, Dale E; Cosford, Nicholas D P; John, Varghese

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neuronal and synaptic loss. One process that could contribute to this loss is the intracellular caspase cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) resulting in release of the toxic C-terminal 31-amino acid peptide APP-C31 along with the production of APPΔC31, full-length APP minus the C-terminal 31 amino acids. We previously found that a mutation in APP that prevents this caspase cleavage ameliorated synaptic loss and cognitive impairment in a murine AD model. Thus, inhibition of this cleavage is a reasonable target for new therapeutic development. In order to identify small molecules that inhibit the generation of APP-C31, we first used an APPΔC31 cleavage site-specific antibody to develop an AlphaLISA to screen several chemical compound libraries for the level of N-terminal fragment production. This antibody was also used to develop an ELISA for validation studies. In both high throughput screening (HTS) and validation testing, the ability of compounds to inhibit simvastatin- (HTS) or cerivastatin- (validation studies) induced caspase cleavage at the APP-D720 cleavage site was determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with wildtype (wt) human APP (CHO-7W). Several compounds, as well as control pan-caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh, inhibited APPΔC31 production (measured fragment) and rescued cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The effective compounds fell into several classes including SERCA inhibitors, inhibitors of Wnt signaling, and calcium channel antagonists. Further studies are underway to evaluate the efficacy of lead compounds - identified here using cells and tissues expressing wt human APP - in mouse models of AD expressing mutated human APP, as well as to identify additional compounds and determine the mechanisms by which they exert their effects.

  4. The Stable Interaction Between Signal Peptidase LepB of Escherichia coli and Nuclease Bacteriocins Promotes Toxin Entry into the Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Liliana; Moncoq, Karine; England, Patrick; Oberto, Jacques; de Zamaroczy, Miklos

    2015-12-25

    LepB is a key membrane component of the cellular secretion machinery, which releases secreted proteins into the periplasm by cleaving the inner membrane-bound leader. We showed that LepB is also an essential component of the machinery hijacked by the tRNase colicin D for its import. Here we demonstrate that this non-catalytic activity of LepB is to promote the association of the central domain of colicin D with the inner membrane before the FtsH-dependent proteolytic processing and translocation of the toxic tRNase domain into the cytoplasm. The novel structural role of LepB results in a stable interaction with colicin D, with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a nanomolar Kd determined in vitro. LepB provides a chaperone-like function for the penetration of several nuclease-type bacteriocins into target cells. The colicin-LepB interaction is shown to require only a short peptide sequence within the central domain of these bacteriocins and to involve residues present in the short C-terminal Box E of LepB. Genomic screening identified the conserved LepB binding motif in colicin-like ORFs from 13 additional bacterial species. These findings establish a new paradigm for the functional adaptability of an essential inner-membrane enzyme.

  5. The C-terminal subunit of artificially truncated human cathepsin B mediates its nuclear targeting and contributes to cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallner Claudia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing variants of human cathepsinB primary transcripts (CB(-2,3 result in an expression product product which lacks the signal peptide and parts of the propeptide. This naturally truncated Δ51CB is thus unable to follow the regular CB processing and sorting pathway. It is addressed to the mitochondria through an activated N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal instead. Although Δ51CB is supposed to be devoid of the typical CB enzymatic activity, it might play a role in malignancies and trigger cell death/apoptosis independent from the function of the regular enzyme. Cytoplasmic presence of the mature CB might occur as a result of lysosomal damage. Results We investigated such "aberrant" proteins by artificial CB-GFP chimeras covering various sequence parts in respect to their enzymatic activity, their localization in different cell types, and the effects on the cell viability. Unlike the entire full length CB form, the artificial single chain form was not processed and did not reveal typical enzymatic CB activity during transient overexpression in large cell lung carcinoma cells. Δ51CB was found predominantly in mitochondria. In contrast, the shorter artificial CB constructs localized in the cytoplasm, inside the cell nucleus, and in the midbodies of dividing cells. Bleaching experiments revealed both mobile and immobile fractions of these constructs in the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of artificially truncated CB variants led to disintegration of nuclei, followed by cell death. Conclusion We propose that cell death associated with CB is not necessarily triggered by its regular enzymatic activity but alternatively by a yet unknown activity profile of truncated CB. Cytoplasmic CB might be able to enter the cell nucleus. According to a mutational analysis, the part of CB that mediates its nuclear import is a signal patch within its heavy chain domain. The results suggest that besides the N-terminal signal peptide also

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Type 1 (CRHR1 Clustering with MAGUKs Is Mediated via Its C-Terminal PDZ Binding Motif.

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    Julia Bender

    Full Text Available The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1 plays an important role in orchestrating neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomic responses to stress. To identify molecules capable of directly modulating CRHR1 signaling, we performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using the C-terminal intracellular tail of the receptor as bait. We identified several members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK family: postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95, synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97, SAP102 and membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 (MAGI2. CRHR1 is co-expressed with the identified MAGUKs and with the additionally investigated PSD93 in neurons of the adult mouse brain and in primary hippocampal neurons, supporting the probability of a physiological interaction in vivo. The C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95, discs large, zona occludens 1 binding motif of CRHR1 is essential for its physical interaction with MAGUKs, as revealed by the CRHR1-STAVA mutant, which harbors a functionally impaired PDZ binding motif. The imitation of a phosphorylation at Thr413 within the PDZ binding motif also disrupted the interaction with MAGUKs. In contrast, distinct PDZ domains within the identified MAGUKs are involved in the interactions. Expression of CRHR1 in primary neurons demonstrated its localization throughout the neuronal plasma membrane, including the excitatory post synapse, where the receptor co-localized with PSD95 and SAP97. The co-expression of CRHR1 and respective interacting MAGUKs in HEK293 cells resulted in a clustered subcellular co-localization which required an intact PDZ binding motif. In conclusion, our study characterized the PDZ binding motif-mediated interaction of CRHR1 with multiple MAGUKs, which directly affects receptor function.

  7. Androgen deprivation causes truncation of the C-terminal region of androgen receptor in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Naoki; Inoue, Kaoru; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, whereas mutant AR lacking the C-terminal ligand-binding domain functions in a ligand-independent manner. In the present study we report that the C-terminal truncated AR, which we named AR-NH1 (the N-terminal fragment of AR cleaved in the neighborhood of helix 1 of the ligand-binding domain), is produced in LNCaP prostatic carcinoma cells. The AR-NH1 of ~90 kDa was observed in an androgen-independent LNCaP subline and was further accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. MG132 treatment caused the accumulation of AR-NH1 even in parent LNCaP cells. AR-NH1 was produced in the absence of ligand or in the presence of the AR antagonist bicalutamide, whereas AR agonists suppressed its production. AR-NH1 was detected with different AR antibodies recognizing amino acid residues 1-20 and 300-316 and was also generated from exogenous AR. Both siRNA-mediated AR knockdown and treatment with a serine protease inhibitor (4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride) reduced AR-NH1 levels. According to the predicted cleavage site (between amino acid residues 660-685) and its nuclear localization, it is assumed that AR-NH1 functions as a constitutively active transcription factor. These data suggest that AR-NH1 is produced under hormone therapy and contributes to the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer due to its ligand-independent transcriptional activity.

  8. Subunit organization in cytoplasmic dynein subcomplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephen J.; Bonilla, Myriam; Rodgers, Michael E.; Schroer, Trina A.

    2002-01-01

    Because cytoplasmic dynein plays numerous critical roles in eukaryotic cells, determining the subunit composition and the organization and functions of the subunits within dynein are important goals. This has been difficult partly because of accessory polypeptide heterogeneity of dynein populations. The motor domain containing heavy chains of cytoplasmic dynein are associated with multiple intermediate, light intermediate, and light chain accessory polypeptides. We examined the organization of these subunits within cytoplasmic dynein by separating the molecule into two distinct subcomplexes. These subcomplexes were competent to reassemble into a molecule with dynein-like properties. One subcomplex was composed of the dynein heavy and light intermediate chains whereas the other subcomplex was composed of the intermediate and light chains. The intermediate and light chain subcomplex could be further separated into two pools, only one of which contained dynein light chains. The two pools had distinct intermediate chain compositions, suggesting that intermediate chain isoforms have different light chain–binding properties. When the two intermediate chain pools were characterized by analytical velocity sedimentation, at least four molecular components were seen: intermediate chain monomers, intermediate chain dimers, intermediate chain monomers with bound light chains, and a mixture of intermediate chain dimers with assorted bound light chains. These data provide new insights into the compositional heterogeneity and assembly of the cytoplasmic dynein complex and suggest that individual dynein molecules have distinct molecular compositions in vivo. PMID:11967380

  9. Yeast two-hybrid screening of proteins interacting with plasmin receptor subunit: C-terminal fragment of annexin A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun LI; Yves LAUMONNIER; Tatiana SYROVETS; Thomas SIMMET

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To identify proteins that interact with the C-terminal fragment of annexin A2 (A21C),generated by plasmin cleavage of the plasmin receptor,a heterotetramer (AA2t) containing annexin A2.Methods:The gene that encodes the A21C fragment was obtained from PCR-amplifled cDNA isolated from human monocytes,and was ligated into the pBTM116 vector using a DNA ligation kit.The resultant plasmid (pBTM116-A21C) was sequenced with an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer.The expression of an A21C bait protein fused with a LexA-DNA binding domain (BD) was determined using Western blot analysis.The identification of proteins that interact with A21C and are encoded in a human monocyte cDNA library was performed using yeast two-hybrid screening.The DNA sequences of the relevant cDNAs were determined using an ABI PRISM BigDye terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit.Nucleotide sequence databases were searched for homologous sequences using BLAST search analysis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).Confirmation of the interaction between the protein LexA-A21C and each of cathepsin S and SNX17 was conducted using a small-scale yeast transformation and X-gal assay.Results:The yeast transformed with plasmids encoding the bait proteins were screened with a human monocyte cDNA library by reconstituting full-length transcription factors containing the GAL4-active domain (GAL4-AD) as the prey in a yeast two-hybrid approach.After screening 1×107 clones,23 independent β-Gal-positive clones were identified.Sequence analysis and a database search revealed that 15 of these positive clones matched eight different proteins (SNX17,ProCathepsin S,RPS2,ZBTB4,OGDH,CCDC32,PAPD4,and actin which was already known to interact with annexin A2).Conclusion:A21C A21C interacts with various proteins to form protein complexes,which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of monocyte activation induced by plasmin.The yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient approach for investigating protein interactions.

  10. Mre11 nuclease and C-terminal tail-mediated DDR functions are required for initiating yeast telomere healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, M K; Matthews, K M; Lustig, A J

    2008-08-01

    Mre11 is a central factor in creating an optimal substrate for telomerase loading and elongation. We have used a G2/M synchronized telomere-healing assay as a tool to separate different functions of Mre11 that are not apparent in null alleles. An analysis of healing efficiencies of several mre11 alleles revealed that both nuclease and C-terminal mutations led to a loss of healing. Interestingly, trans-complementation of the 49 amino acid C-terminal deletion (DeltaC49) and the D16A mutant, deficient in nuclease activity and partially defective in MRX complex formation, restores healing. DeltaC49 provokes Rad53 phosphorylation after treatment with the radiomimetic agent MMS exclusively through the Tel1 pathway, suggesting that a Tel1-mediated function is initiated through the C-terminal tail.

  11. Effect of C-terminal of human cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) on in vitro stability and enzymatic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Munch-Petersen, Sune; Berenstein, Dvora;

    2006-01-01

    and its activity fluctuates during cell cycle coinciding with the DNA synthesis rate and disappears during mitosis. This fluctuation is important for providing a balanced supply of dTTP for DNA replication. The cell cycle specific activity of TK1 is regulated at the transcriptional level......, but posttranslational mechanisms seem to play an important role for the level of functional TK1 protein as well. Thus, the C-terminal of TK1 is known to be essential for the specific degradation of the enzyme at the G2/M phase. In this work, we have studied the effect of deletion of the C-terminal 20, 40, and 44 amino...... acids of TK1 on in vitro stability, oligomerization, and enzyme kinetics. We found that deletion of the C-terminal fold markedly increased the stability as well as the catalytic activity....

  12. Cytoplasmic streaming velocity as a plant size determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Motoki; Kimura, Atsushi; Yokota, Etsuo; Haraguchi, Takeshi; Shimmen, Teruo; Yamamoto, Keiichi; Nakano, Akihiko; Ito, Kohji

    2013-11-11

    Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-associated myosin XI moving along actin bundles, the fundamental function in plants remains unclear. We generated high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI by replacing the motor domains of Arabidopsis thaliana myosin XI-2 with those of Chara corallina myosin XI and Homo sapiens myosin Vb, respectively. Surprisingly, the plant sizes of the transgenic Arabidopsis expressing high- and low-speed chimeric myosin XI-2 were larger and smaller, respectively, than that of the wild-type plant. This size change correlated with acceleration and deceleration, respectively, of cytoplasmic streaming. Our results strongly suggest that cytoplasmic streaming is a key determinant of plant size. Furthermore, because cytoplasmic streaming is a common system for intracellular transport in plants, our system could have applications in artificial size control in plants.

  13. Structural and regulatory elements of HCV NS5B polymerase--β-loop and C-terminal tail--are required for activity of allosteric thumb site II inhibitors.

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    Sarah E Boyce

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the mechanism of action of the HCV NS5B polymerase thumb site II inhibitors has presented a challenge. Current opinion holds that these allosteric inhibitors stabilize the closed, inactive enzyme conformation, but how this inhibition is accomplished mechanistically is not well understood. Here, using a panel of NS5B proteins with mutations in key regulatory motifs of NS5B--the C-terminal tail and β-loop--in conjunction with a diverse set of NS5B allosteric inhibitors, we show that thumb site II inhibitors possess a distinct mechanism of action. A combination of enzyme activity studies and direct binding assays reveals that these inhibitors require both regulatory elements to maintain the polymerase inhibitory activity. Removal of either element has little impact on the binding affinity of thumb site II inhibitors, but significantly reduces their potency. NS5B in complex with a thumb site II inhibitor displays a characteristic melting profile that suggests stabilization not only of the thumb domain but also the whole polymerase. Successive truncations of the C-terminal tail and/or removal of the β-loop lead to progressive destabilization of the protein. Furthermore, the thermal unfolding transitions characteristic for thumb site II inhibitor-NS5B complex are absent in the inhibitor-bound constructs in which interactions between C-terminal tail and β-loop are abolished, pointing to the pivotal role of both regulatory elements in communication between domains. Taken together, a comprehensive picture of inhibition by compounds binding to thumb site II emerges: inhibitor binding provides stabilization of the entire polymerase in an inactive, closed conformation, propagated via coupled interactions between the C-terminal tail and β-loop.

  14. Paracellular permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 C-terminal amidation in nasal delivery

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    Song KH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keon-Hyoung Song,1 Sang-Bum Kim,2 Chang-Koo Shim,2 Suk-Jae Chung,2 Dae-Duk Kim,2 Sang-Ki Rhee,1 Guang J Choi,1 Chul-Hyun Kim,3 Kiyoung Kim4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Sports Medicine, 4Department of Medical Biotechnology, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea Background: The identification of permeation enhancers has gained interest in the development of drug delivery systems. A six-mer peptide, H-FCIGRL-OH (AT1002, is a tight junction modulator with promising permeation-enhancing activity. AT1002 enhances the transport of molecular weight markers or agents with low bioavailability with no cytotoxicity. However, AT1002 is not stable in neutral pH or after incubation under physiological conditions, which is necessary to fully uncover its permeation-enhancing effect. Thus, we increased the stability or mitigated the instability of AT1002 by modifying its terminal amino acids and evaluated its subsequent biological activity.Methods: C-terminal-amidated (FCIGRL-NH2, Pep1 and N-terminal-acetylated (Ac-FCIGRL, Pep2 peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We further assessed cytotoxicity on cell monolayers, as well as the permeation-enhancing activity following nasal administration of the paracellular marker mannitol.Results: Pep1 was nontoxic to cell monolayers and showed a relatively low decrease in peak area compared to AT1002. In addition, administration of mannitol with Pep1 resulted in significant increases in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and peak plasma concentration at 3.63-fold and 2.68-fold, respectively, compared to mannitol alone. In contrast, no increase in mannitol concentration was shown with mannitol/AT1002 or mannitol/Pep2 compared to the control. Thus, Pep1 increased

  15. Design and synthesis of peptide YY analogues with c-terminal backbone amide-to-ester modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Louise; Andersen, J.J.; Paulsson, J.F.;

    2013-01-01

    Peptide YY (PYY) is a gut hormone that activates the G protein-coupled neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors, and because of its appetite reducing actions, it is evaluated as an antiobesity drug candidate. The C-terminal tail of PYY is crucial for activation of the NPY receptors. Here, we describe...... the design and preparation of a series of PYY(3-36) depsipeptide analogues, in which backbone amide-to-ester modifications were systematically introduced in the C-terminal. Functional NPY receptor assays and circular dichroism revealed that the ψ(CONH) bonds at positions 30-31 and 33-34 are particularly...

  16. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  17. C-terminal engineering of CXCL12 and CCL5 chemokines: functional characterization by electrophysiological recordings.

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    Antoine Picciocchi

    Full Text Available Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines comprised of 70-100 amino acids. The chemokines CXCL12 and CCL5 are the endogenous ligands of the CXCR4 and CCR5 G protein-coupled receptors that are also HIV co-receptors. Biochemical, structural and functional studies of receptors are ligand-consuming and the cost of commercial chemokines hinders their use in such studies. Here, we describe methods for the expression, refolding, purification, and functional characterization of CXCL12 and CCL5 constructs incorporating C-terminal epitope tags. The model tags used were hexahistidines and Strep-Tag for affinity purification, and the double lanthanoid binding tag for fluorescence imaging and crystal structure resolution. The ability of modified and purified chemokines to bind and activate CXCR4 and CCR5 receptors was tested in Xenopus oocytes expressing the receptors, together with a Kir3 G-protein activated K(+ channel that served as a reporter of receptor activation. Results demonstrate that tags greatly influence the biochemical properties of the recombinant chemokines. Besides, despite the absence of any evidence for CXCL12 or CCL5 C-terminus involvement in receptor binding and activation, we demonstrated unpredictable effects of tag insertion on the ligand apparent affinity and efficacy or on the ligand dissociation. These tagged chemokines should constitute useful tools for the selective purification of properly-folded chemokines receptors and the study of their native quaternary structures.

  18. Effect of C-Terminal S-Palmitoylation on D2 Dopamine Receptor Trafficking and Stability.

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    Brittany Ebersole

    Full Text Available We have used bioorthogonal click chemistry (BCC, a sensitive non-isotopic labeling method, to analyze the palmitoylation status of the D2 dopamine receptor (D2R, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR crucial for regulation of processes such as mood, reward, and motor control. By analyzing a series of D2R constructs containing mutations in cysteine residues, we found that palmitoylation of the D2R most likely occurs on the C-terminal cysteine residue (C443 of the polypeptide. D2Rs in which C443 was deleted showed significantly reduced palmitoylation levels, plasma membrane expression, and protein stability compared to wild-type D2Rs. Rather, the C443 deletion mutant appeared to accumulate in the Golgi, indicating that palmitoylation of the D2R is important for cell surface expression of the receptor. Using the full-length D2R as bait in a membrane yeast two-hybrid (MYTH screen, we identified the palmitoyl acyltransferase (PAT zDHHC4 as a D2R interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that several other PATs, including zDHHC3 and zDHHC8, also interacted with the D2R and that each of the three PATs was capable of affecting the palmitoylation status of the D2R. Finally, biochemical analyses using D2R mutants and the palmitoylation blocker, 2-bromopalmitate indicate that palmitoylation of the receptor plays a role in stability of the D2R.

  19. Clinical utility of C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kay R; Brady, Jennifer J; Hameed, Abdul; Le, Giao; Meiller, Justine; Verburgh, Estelle; Bayers, Christopher; Benjamin, Dalia; Anderson, Kenneth C; Richardson, Paul G; Dowling, Paul; Clynes, Martin; Fitzgibbon, Maria C; O'Gorman, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Myeloma bone disease (MBD) is a major cause of morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). We investigated bone turnover markers (BTM) as relapse predictors and biomarkers for monitoring MBD. We measured C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1), and Procollagen type 1 N Propeptide (P1NP) in 86 MM patients and 26 controls. CTX-1 was higher in newly diagnosed patients compared to control, remission and relapse (P < 0·05), and decreased following treatment. In the setting of relapse, a CTX-1 rise greater than the calculated least significant change (LSC) was observed in 26% of patients 3-6 months prior to relapse (P = 0·007), and in 60·8% up to 3 months before relapse (P = 0·015). Statistically significant changes in CTX-1 levels were also observed in patients who were with and without bisphosphonate therapy at the time of relapse. In patients with normal renal function, mean CTX-1 level was highest in the newly diagnosed group (0·771 ± 0·400 μg/l), and lowest in the remission group (0·099 ± 0·070 μg/l) (P < 0·0001). P1NP levels were not statistically different across the patient groups. We conclude that CTX-1, measured on an automated hospital laboratory platform, has a role in routine treatment monitoring and predicting relapse of MBD, even in patients on bisphosphonates.

  20. Cathepsin X Cleaves Profilin 1 C-Terminal Tyr139 and Influences Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis.

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    Urša Pečar Fonović

    Full Text Available Cathepsin X, a cysteine carboxypeptidase, is upregulated in several types of cancer. Its molecular target in tumor cells is profilin 1, a known tumor suppressor and regulator of actin cytoskeleton dynamics. Cathepsin X cleaves off the C-terminal Tyr139 of profilin 1, affecting binding of poly-L-proline ligands and, consequently, tumor cell migration and invasion. Profilin 1 with mutations at the C-terminus, transiently expressed in prostate cancer cells PC-3, showed that Tyr139 is important for proper function of profilin 1 as a tumor suppressor. Cleaving off Tyr139 prevents the binding of clathrin, a poly-L-proline ligand involved in endocytosis. More profilin 1-clathrin complexes were present in PC-3 cells when cathepsin X was inhibited by its specific inhibitor AMS36 or silenced by siRNA. As a consequence, the endocytosis of FITC-labeled dextran and transferrin conjugate was significantly increased. These results constitute the first report of the regulation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in tumor cells through proteolytic processing of profilin 1.

  1. Self-assemble nanoparticles based on polypeptides containing C-terminal luminescent Pt-cysteine complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakh, E. G.; Grachova, E. V.; Zhukovsky, D. D.; Hubina, A. V.; Mikhailova, A. S.; Shakirova, J. R.; Sharoyko, V. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Tennikova, T. B.

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention to the luminescent nanocarriers is strongly stimulated by their potential application as drug delivery systems and by the necessity to monitor their distribution in cells and tissues. In this communication we report on the synthesis of amphiphilic polypeptides bearing C-terminal phosphorescent label together with preparation of nanoparticles using the polypeptides obtained. The approach suggested is based on a unique and highly technological process where the new phosphorescent Pt-cysteine complex serves as initiator of the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides to obtain the polypeptides bearing intact the platinum chromophore covalently bound to the polymer chain. It was established that the luminescent label retains unchanged its emission characteristics not only in the polypeptides but also in more complicated nanoaggregates such as the polymer derived amphiphilic block-copolymers and self-assembled nanoparticles. The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring.

  2. Role of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 in antipolyspermy defense of mammalian oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susor, Andrej; Liskova, Lucie; Toralova, Tereza; Pavlok, Antonin; Pivonkova, Katerina; Karabinova, Pavla; Lopatarova, Miloslava; Sutovsky, Peter; Kubelka, Michal

    2010-06-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system regulates many cellular processes through rapid proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-tagged proteins. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is one of the most abundant proteins in mammalian oocytes. It has weak hydrolytic activity as a monomer and acts as a ubiquitin ligase in its dimeric or oligomeric form. Recently published data show that insufficiency in UCHL1 activity coincides with polyspermic fertilization; however, the mechanism by which UCHL1 contributes to this process remains unclear. Using UCHL1-specific inhibitors, we induced a high rate of polyspermy in bovine zygotes after in vitro fertilization. We also detected decreased levels in the monomeric ubiquitin and polyubiquitin pool. The presence of UCHL1 inhibitors in maturation medium enhanced formation of presumptive UCHL1 oligomers and subsequently increased abundance of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains in oocytes. We analyzed the dynamics of cortical granules (CGs) in UCHL1-inhibited oocytes; both migration of CGs toward the cortex during oocyte maturation and fertilization-induced extrusion of CGs were impaired. These alterations in CG dynamics coincided with high polyspermy incidence in in vitro-produced UCHL1-inhibited zygotes. These data indicate that antipolyspermy defense in bovine oocytes may rely on UCHL1-controlled functioning of CGs.

  3. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Blaurock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis.

  4. Self-assemble nanoparticles based on polypeptides containing C-terminal luminescent Pt-cysteine complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakh, E. G.; Grachova, E. V.; Zhukovsky, D. D.; Hubina, A. V.; Mikhailova, A. S.; Shakirova, J. R.; Sharoyko, V. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Tennikova, T. B.

    2017-01-01

    The growing attention to the luminescent nanocarriers is strongly stimulated by their potential application as drug delivery systems and by the necessity to monitor their distribution in cells and tissues. In this communication we report on the synthesis of amphiphilic polypeptides bearing C-terminal phosphorescent label together with preparation of nanoparticles using the polypeptides obtained. The approach suggested is based on a unique and highly technological process where the new phosphorescent Pt-cysteine complex serves as initiator of the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides to obtain the polypeptides bearing intact the platinum chromophore covalently bound to the polymer chain. It was established that the luminescent label retains unchanged its emission characteristics not only in the polypeptides but also in more complicated nanoaggregates such as the polymer derived amphiphilic block-copolymers and self-assembled nanoparticles. The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring. PMID:28155880

  5. The C-Terminal Region of G72 Increases D-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity

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    Sunny Li-Yun Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The schizophrenia-related protein G72 plays a unique role in the regulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO in great apes. Several psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are linked to overexpression of DAO and G72. Whether G72 plays a positive or negative regulatory role in DAO activity, however, has been controversial. Exploring the molecular basis of the relationship between G72 and DAO is thus important to understand how G72 regulates DAO activity. We performed yeast two-hybrid experiments and determined enzymatic activity to identify potential sites in G72 involved in binding DAO. Our results demonstrate that residues 123–153 and 138–153 in the long isoform of G72 bind to DAO and enhance its activity by 22% and 32%, respectively. A docking exercise indicated that these G72 peptides can interact with loops in DAO that abut the entrance of the tunnel that substrate and cofactor must traverse to reach the active site. We propose that a unique gating mechanism underlies the ability of G72 to increase the activity of DAO. Because upregulation of DAO activity decreases d-serine levels, which may lead to psychiatric abnormalities, our results suggest a molecular mechanism involving interaction between DAO and the C-terminal region of G72 that can regulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  6. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (p<0.05) dose- and CLDN4-dependent decrease in junctional resistance and an increase in cell-substrate separation. Treatment of ovarian cancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  7. Domain swapping reveals that the N-terminal domain of the sensor kinase KdpD in Escherichia coli is important for signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert Marie-Luise

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The KdpD/KdpE two-component system of Escherichia coli regulates expression of the kdpFABC operon encoding the high affinity K+ transport system KdpFABC. The input domain of KdpD comprises a domain that belongs to the family of universal stress proteins (Usp. It has been previously demonstrated that UspC binds to this domain, resulting in KdpD/KdpE scaffolding under salt stress. However the mechanistic significance of this domain for signaling remains unclear. Here, we employed a "domain swapping" approach to replace the KdpD-Usp domain with four homologous domains or with the six soluble Usp proteins of E. coli. Results Full response to salt stress was only achieved with a chimera that contains UspC, probably due to unaffected scaffolding of the KdpD/KdpE signaling cascade by soluble UspC. Unexpectedly, chimeras containing either UspF or UspG not only prevented kdpFABC expression under salt stress but also under K+ limiting conditions, although these hybrid proteins exhibited kinase and phosphotransferase activities in vitro. These are the first KdpD derivatives that do not respond to K+ limitation due to alterations in the N-terminal domain. Analysis of the KdpD-Usp tertiary structure revealed that this domain has a net positively charged surface, while UspF and UspG are characterized by net negative surface charges. Conclusion The Usp domain within KdpD not only functions as a binding surface for the scaffold UspC, but it is also important for KdpD signaling. We propose that KdpD sensing/signaling involves alterations of electrostatic interactions between the large N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains.

  8. Influence of charge differences in the C-terminal part of nisin on antimicrobial activity and signaling capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, Cindy van; Breukink, Eefjan; Rollema, Harry S.; Siezen, Roland J.; Demel, Rudy A.; Kruijff, Ben de; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    1997-01-01

    Three mutants of the lantibiotic nisin Z, in which the Val32 residue was replaced by a Glu, Lys or Trp residue, were produced and characterized for the purpose of establishing the role of charge differences in the C-terminal part of nisin on antimicrobial activity and signaling properties. 1H-NMR an

  9. C-terminal truncations in human 3 '-5 ' DNA exonuclease TREX1 cause autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, Anna; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Jen, Joanna C.; Kavanagh, David; Bertram, Paula; Spitzer, Dirk; Liszewski, M. Kathryn; Barilla-LaBarca, Maria-Louise; Terwindt, Gisela M.; Kasai, Yumi; McLellan, Mike; Grand, Mark Gilbert; Vanmolkot, Kaate R. J.; de Vries, Boukje; Wan, Jijun; Kane, Michael J.; Mamsa, Hafsa; Schaefer, Ruth; Stam, Anine H.; Haan, Joost; Paulus, T. V. M. de Jong; Storimans, Caroline W.; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Oosterhuis, Jendo A.; Gschwendter, Andreas; Dichgans, Martin; Kotschet, Katya E.; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Hardy, Todd A.; Delatycki, Martin B.; Hajj-Ali, Rula A.; Kothari, Parul H.; Nelson, Stanley F.; Frants, Rune R.; Baloh, Robert W.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Atkinson, John P.

    2007-01-01

    Autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy is a microvascular endotheliopathy with middle- age onset. In nine families, we identified heterozygous C- terminal frameshift mutations in TREX1, which encodes a 3'-5' exonuclease. These truncated proteins retain exonuclease activ

  10. Sol–gel immobilization of Alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis for application in the synthesis of C-terminal peptide amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corici, L.N.; Frissen, A.E.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Eggen, I.F.; Peter, F.; Davidescu, C.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Alcalase 2.4L FG, a commercial preparation of Subtilisin A, was physically entrapped in glass sol–gel matrices using alkoxysilanes of different types mixed with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The materials were used for catalyzing C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe in a mixture of tert-butanol/DMF. F

  11. Occurrence of C-terminal residue exclusion in peptide fragmentation by ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (b(n-1) + H(2)O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H(2)O and NH(3)) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment

  12. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo M S G; Conceição, Fabricio R; McBride, Alan J A; Pinto, Luciano da S

    2013-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II) are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1) the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2) the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3) the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  13. Structure predictions of two Bauhinia variegata lectins reveal patterns of C-terminal properties in single chain legume lectins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo M S G Moreira

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata lectins (BVL-I and BVL-II are single chain lectins isolated from the plant Bauhinia variegata. Single chain lectins undergo post-translational processing on its N-terminal and C-terminal regions, which determines their physiological targeting, carbohydrate binding activity and pattern of quaternary association. These two lectins are isoforms, BVL-I being highly glycosylated, and thus far, it has not been possible to determine their structures. The present study used prediction and validation algorithms to elucidate the likely structures of BVL-I and -II. The program Bhageerath-H was chosen from among three different structure prediction programs due to its better overall reliability. In order to predict the C-terminal region cleavage sites, other lectins known to have this modification were analysed and three rules were created: (1 the first amino acid of the excised peptide is small or hydrophobic; (2 the cleavage occurs after an acid, polar, or hydrophobic residue, but not after a basic one; and (3 the cleavage spot is located 5-8 residues after a conserved Leu amino acid. These rules predicted that BVL-I and -II would have fifteen C-terminal residues cleaved, and this was confirmed experimentally by Edman degradation sequencing of BVL-I. Furthermore, the C-terminal analyses predicted that only BVL-II underwent α-helical folding in this region, similar to that seen in SBA and DBL. Conversely, BVL-I and -II contained four conserved regions of a GS-I association, providing evidence of a previously undescribed X4+unusual oligomerisation between the truncated BVL-I and the intact BVL-II. This is the first report on the structural analysis of lectins from Bauhinia spp. and therefore is important for the characterisation C-terminal cleavage and patterns of quaternary association of single chain lectins.

  14. The C-terminal 18 Amino Acid Region of Dengue Virus NS5 Regulates its Subcellular Localization and Contains a Conserved Arginine Residue Essential for Infectious Virus Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ivan H. W.; Chan, Kitti W. K.; Zhao, Yongqian; Ooi, Eng Eong; Lescar, Julien; Jans, David A.; Forwood, Jade K.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue virus NS5 is the most highly conserved amongst the viral non-structural proteins and is responsible for capping, methylation and replication of the flavivirus RNA genome. Interactions of NS5 with host proteins also modulate host immune responses. Although replication occurs in the cytoplasm, an unusual characteristic of DENV2 NS5 is that it localizes to the nucleus during infection with no clear role in replication or pathogenesis. We examined NS5 of DENV1 and 2, which exhibit the most prominent difference in nuclear localization, employing a combination of functional and structural analyses. Extensive gene swapping between DENV1 and 2 NS5 identified that the C-terminal 18 residues (Cter18) alone was sufficient to direct the protein to the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. The low micromolar binding affinity between NS5 Cter18 and the nuclear import receptor importin-alpha (Impα), allowed their molecular complex to be purified, crystallised and visualized at 2.2 Å resolution using x-ray crystallography. Structure-guided mutational analysis of this region in GFP-NS5 clones of DENV1 or 2 and in a DENV2 infectious clone reveal residues important for NS5 subcellular localization. Notably, the trans conformation adopted by Pro-884 allows proper presentation for binding Impα and mutating this proline to Thr, as present in DENV1 NS5, results in mislocalizaion of NS5 to the cytoplasm without compromising virus fitness. In contrast, a single mutation to alanine at NS5 position R888, a residue conserved in all flaviviruses, resulted in a completely non-viable virus, and the R888K mutation led to a severely attenuated phentoype, even though NS5 was located in the nucleus. R888 forms a hydrogen bond with Y838 that is also conserved in all flaviviruses. Our data suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for NS5 Cter18, possibly in RNA interactions that are critical for replication, that is independent of its role in subcellular localization. PMID:27622521

  15. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ-RhoGEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Heath G; Gutowski, Stephen; Chen, Hua; Brautigam, Chad A; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-12-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ-RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ-RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ-RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions.

  16. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ–RhoGEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Heath G.; Gutowski, Stephen; Chen, Hua; Brautigam, Chad A.; Chen, Zhe; Sternweis, Paul C.; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules and typically recognize a short motif at the C terminus of their ligands, with a few residues in the motif endowing the binding specificity. The sequence-based rules, however, cannot fully account for the specificity between the vast number of PDZ domains and ligands in the cell. Plexins are transmembrane receptors that regulate processes such as axon guidance and angiogenesis. Two related guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), PDZ–RhoGEF and leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG), use their PDZ domains to bind class B plexins and play critical roles in signaling. Here, we present the crystal structure of the full-length cytoplasmic region of PlexinB2 in complex with the PDZ domain of PDZ–RhoGEF. The structure reveals that, in addition to the canonical C-terminal motif/PDZ interaction, the 3D domain of PlexinB2 forms a secondary interface with the PDZ domain. Our biophysical and cell-based assays show that the secondary interface contributes to the specific interaction between plexin and PDZ–RhoGEF and to signaling by plexin in the cell. Formation of secondary interfaces may be a general mechanism for increasing affinity and specificity of modular domain-mediated interactions. PMID:26627240

  17. The C-terminal sequence of IFITM1 regulates its anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    Full Text Available The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3 is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117-125, which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117-125 mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117-125 to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117-125, mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization.

  18. The C-terminal binding protein (CTBP-1) regulates dorsal SMD axonal morphology in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A; Sherry, T J; Yücel, D; Llamosas, E; Nicholas, H R

    2015-12-17

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors which cooperate with a variety of transcription factors to repress gene expression. Caenorhabditis elegans CTBP-1 expression has been observed in the nervous system and hypodermis. In C. elegans, CTBP-1 regulates several processes including Acute Functional Tolerance to ethanol and functions in the nervous system to modulate both lifespan and expression of a lipase gene called lips-7. Incorrect structure and/or function of the nervous system can lead to behavioral changes. Here, we demonstrate reduced exploration behavior in ctbp-1 mutants. Our examination of a subset of neurons involved in regulating locomotion revealed that the axonal morphology of dorsal SMD (SMDD) neurons is altered in ctbp-1 mutants at the fourth larval (L4) stage. Expressing CTBP-1 under the control of the endogenous ctbp-1 promoter rescued both the exploration behavior phenotype and defective SMDD axon structure in ctbp-1 mutants at the L4 stage. Interestingly, the pre-synaptic marker RAB-3 was found to localize to the mispositioned portion of SMDD axons in a ctbp-1 mutant. Further analysis of SMDD axonal morphology at days 1, 3 and 5 of adulthood revealed that the number of ctbp-1 mutants showing an SMDD axonal morphology defect increases in early adulthood and the observed defect appears to be qualitatively more severe. CTBP-1 is prominently expressed in the nervous system with weak expression detected in the hypodermis. Surprisingly, solely expressing CTBP-1a in the nervous system or hypodermis did not restore correct SMDD axonal structure in a ctbp-1 mutant. Our results demonstrate a role for CTBP-1 in exploration behavior and the regulation of SMDD axonal morphology in C. elegans.

  19. A C-terminal truncated mutation of spr-3 gene extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yang; Ruilin Sun; Minghui Yao; Weidong Chen; Zhugang Wang; Jian Fei

    2013-01-01

    The lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans is determined by various genetic and environmental factors.In this paper,spr-3,a C.elegans homologous gene of the mammalian neural restrictive silencing factor (NRSF/REST),is reported to be an important gene regulating lifespan of C.elegans.A deletion mutation ofspr-3,spr-3(ok2525),or RNAi inhibition of spr-3 expression led to the short lifespan phenotype in C.elegans.However,a nonsense mutation of spr-3,spr3(by108),increased the lifespan by 26% when compared with that of wild-type nematode.The spr-3(by108) also showed increased resistance to environmental stress.The spr-3(by108) mutated gene encodes a C-terminal truncated protein with a structure comparable with the REST4,a splice variant of the NRSF/REST in mammalian.The long lifespan phenotype of spr-3(by108) mutant is confirmed as a gain of function and dependent on normal functions of daf16 and glp-1.The lifespan of the spr-3(by108) can be synergistically enhanced by inducing a mutation in daf-2.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed that the expression of daf-16 as well as its target gene sod-3,mtl1,and sip-1 was up-regulated in the spr-3(by108) mutant.These results would be helpful to further understand the complex function of NRSF/REST gene in mammalian,especially in the aging process and longevity determination.

  20. Protein C-terminal labeling and biotinylation using synthetic peptide and split-intein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Volkmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Site-specific protein labeling or modification can facilitate the characterization of proteins with respect to their structure, folding, and interaction with other proteins. However, current methods of site-specific protein labeling are few and with limitations, therefore new methods are needed to satisfy the increasing need and sophistications of protein labeling. METHODOLOGY: A method of protein C-terminal labeling was developed using a non-canonical split-intein, through an intein-catalyzed trans-splicing reaction between a protein and a small synthetic peptide carrying the desired labeling groups. As demonstrations of this method, three different proteins were efficiently labeled at their C-termini with two different labels (fluorescein and biotin either in solution or on a solid surface, and a transferrin receptor protein was labeled on the membrane surface of live mammalian cells. Protein biotinylation and immobilization on a streptavidin-coated surface were also achieved in a cell lysate without prior purification of the target protein. CONCLUSIONS: We have produced a method of site-specific labeling or modification at the C-termini of recombinant proteins. This method compares favorably with previous protein labeling methods and has several unique advantages. It is expected to have many potential applications in protein engineering and research, which include fluorescent labeling for monitoring protein folding, location, and trafficking in cells, and biotinylation for protein immobilization on streptavidin-coated surfaces including protein microchips. The types of chemical labeling may be limited only by the ability of chemical synthesis to produce the small C-intein peptide containing the desired chemical groups.

  1. Immunodetection of P-selectin using an antibody to its C-terminal tag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta-D'souza, Padmaja

    2015-01-01

    P-selectin is a multi-domain glycoprotein expressed on activated endothelial cells and activated platelets. We previously expressed a recombinant form of P-selectin containing only its N-terminal lectin and EGF domains in CHO-K1 cells and showed that these two domains are sufficient to mediate ligand binding. We have now expressed the same construct in CHO-Lec1 cells that make truncated glycans. The uniform glycosylation in these cells should make it easier to crystallize this protein.

  2. C-terminal binding protein (CtBP activates the expression of E-box clock genes with CLOCK/CYCLE in Drosophila.

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    Taichi Q Itoh

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, CLOCK/CYCLE heterodimer (CLK/CYC is the primary activator of circadian clock genes that contain the E-box sequence in their promoter regions (hereafter referred to as "E-box clock genes". Although extensive studies have investigated the feedback regulation of clock genes, little is known regarding other factors acting with CLK/CYC. Here we show that Drosophila C-terminal binding protein (dCtBP, a transcriptional co-factor, is involved in the regulation of the E-box clock genes. In vivo overexpression of dCtBP in clock cells lengthened or abolished circadian locomotor rhythm with up-regulation of a subset of the E-box clock genes, period (per, vrille (vri, and PAR domain protein 1ε (Pdp1ε. Co-expression of dCtBP with CLK in vitro also increased the promoter activity of per, vri, Pdp1ε and cwo depending on the amount of dCtBP expression, whereas no effect was observed without CLK. The activation of these clock genes in vitro was not observed when we used mutated dCtBP which carries amino acid substitutions in NAD+ domain. These results suggest that dCtBP generally acts as a putative co-activator of CLK/CYC through the E-box sequence.

  3. An Evaluation of the Crystal Structure of C-terminal Truncated Apolipoprotein A-I in Solution Reveals Structural Dynamics Related to Lipid Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, John T; Walker, Ryan G; Morris, Jamie; Jones, Martin K; Segrest, Jere P; Lima, Diogo B; Carvalho, Paulo C; Gozzo, Fábio C; Castleberry, Mark; Thompson, Thomas B; Davidson, W Sean

    2016-03-04

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mediates many of the anti-atherogenic functions attributed to high density lipoprotein. Unfortunately, efforts toward a high resolution structure of full-length apoA-I have not been fruitful, although there have been successes with deletion mutants. Recently, a C-terminal truncation (apoA-I(Δ185-243)) was crystallized as a dimer. The structure showed two helical bundles connected by a long, curved pair of swapped helical domains. To compare this structure to that existing under solution conditions, we applied small angle x-ray scattering and isotope-assisted chemical cross-linking to apoA-I(Δ185-243) in its dimeric and monomeric forms. For the dimer, we found evidence for the shared domains and aspects of the N-terminal bundles, but not the molecular curvature seen in the crystal. We also found that the N-terminal bundles equilibrate between open and closed states. Interestingly, this movement is one of the transitions proposed during lipid binding. The monomer was consistent with a model in which the long shared helix doubles back onto the helical bundle. Combined with the crystal structure, these data offer an important starting point to understand the molecular details of high density lipoprotein biogenesis.

  4. Germinal-center kinase-like kinase co-crystal structure reveals a swapped activation loop and C-terminal extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, Douglas; Rushe, Mia; M Arduini, Robert; Lukacs, Christine; Atkins, Kateri; Sun, Xin; Little, Kevin; Cullivan, Michael; Paramasivam, Murugan; Patterson, Thomas A; Hesson, Thomas; D McKee, Timothy; May-Dracka, Tricia L; Xin, Zhili; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea; Bhisetti, Govinda R; Lyssikatos, Joseph P; Silvian, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Germinal-center kinase-like kinase (GLK, Map4k3), a GCK-I family kinase, plays multiple roles in regulating apoptosis, amino acid sensing, and immune signaling. We describe here the crystal structure of an activation loop mutant of GLK kinase domain bound to an inhibitor. The structure reveals a weakly associated, activation-loop swapped dimer with more than 20 amino acids of ordered density at the carboxy-terminus. This C-terminal PEST region binds intermolecularly to the hydrophobic groove of the N-terminal domain of a neighboring molecule. Although the GLK activation loop mutant crystallized demonstrates reduced kinase activity, its structure demonstrates all the hallmarks of an "active" kinase, including the salt bridge between the C-helix glutamate and the catalytic lysine. Our compound displacement data suggests that the effect of the Ser170Ala mutation in reducing kinase activity is likely due to its effect in reducing substrate peptide binding affinity rather than reducing ATP binding or ATP turnover. This report details the first structure of GLK; comparison of its activation loop sequence and P-loop structure to that of Map4k4 suggests ideas for designing inhibitors that can distinguish between these family members to achieve selective pharmacological inhibitors.

  5. PTEN-PDZ domain interactions: Binding of PTEN to PDZ domains of PTPN13.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotelo, N.S.; Schepens, J.T.G.; Valiente, M.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Pulido, R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein modular interactions mediated by PDZ domains are essential for the establishment of functional protein networks controlling diverse cellular functions. The tumor suppressor PTEN possesses a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif (PDZ-BM) that is recognized by a specific set of PDZ domains from scaffol

  6. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming.

  7. The C-terminal tail of tetraspanin proteins regulates their intracellular distribution in the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceres, V M; Alonso, A M; Nievas, Y R; Midlej, V; Frontera, L; Benchimol, M; Johnson, P J; de Miguel, N

    2015-08-01

    The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T.vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells. We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full-length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface-localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite : parasite interaction.

  8. Photoreactivation of a Cytoplasmic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E. R.; Boyle, Mary K.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-inactivated frog virus 3 is efficiently photoreactivated by chick embryo cells. A cellular enzyme is presumably responsible for this repair of viral deoxyribonucleic acid, for the phenomenon is insensitive to an inhibitor of protein synthesis and is not seen in mammalian cells that are known to lack photoreactivating enzyme. Since frog virus 3 is a cytoplasmic virus, functionally significant amounts of photoreactivating enzyme are probably present in the cytoplasm of chick embryo cells. PMID:5062749

  9. Birbeck granule-like "organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum" resulting from the expression of a cytoplasmic YFP-tagged langerin.

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    Cédric Lenormand

    Full Text Available Langerin is required for the biogenesis of Birbeck granules (BGs, the characteristic organelles of Langerhans cells. We previously used a Langerin-YFP fusion protein having a C-terminal luminal YFP tag to dynamically decipher the molecular and cellular processes which accompany the traffic of Langerin. In order to elucidate the interactions of Langerin with its trafficking effectors and their structural impact on the biogenesis of BGs, we generated a YFP-Langerin chimera with an N-terminal, cytosolic YFP tag. This latter fusion protein induced the formation of YFP-positive large puncta. Live cell imaging coupled to a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching approach showed that this coalescence of proteins in newly formed compartments was static. In contrast, the YFP-positive structures present in the pericentriolar region of cells expressing Langerin-YFP chimera, displayed fluorescent recovery characteristics compatible with active membrane exchanges. Using correlative light-electron microscopy we showed that the coalescent structures represented highly organized stacks of membranes with a pentalaminar architecture typical of BGs. Continuities between these organelles and the rough endoplasmic reticulum allowed us to identify the stacks of membranes as a form of "Organized Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum" (OSER, with distinct molecular and physiological properties. The involvement of homotypic interactions between cytoplasmic YFP molecules was demonstrated using an A206K variant of YFP, which restored most of the Langerin traffic and BG characteristics observed in Langerhans cells. Mutation of the carbohydrate recognition domain also blocked the formation of OSER. Hence, a "double-lock" mechanism governs the behavior of YFP-Langerin, where asymmetric homodimerization of the YFP tag and homotypic interactions between the lectin domains of Langerin molecules participate in its retention and the subsequent formation of BG-like OSER. These

  10. The fnr Gene of Bacillus licheniformis and the Cysteine Ligands of the C-Terminal FeS Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Anette; Schirawski, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Unden, Gottfried

    1998-01-01

    In the facultatively anaerobic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis a gene encoding a protein of the fumarate nitrate reductase family of transcriptional regulators (Fnr) was isolated. Unlike Fnr proteins from gram-negative bacteria, but like Fnr from Bacillus subtilis, the protein contained a C-terminal cluster of cysteine residues. Unlike in Fnr from B. subtilis, this cluster (Cys226-X2-Cys229-X4-Cys234) is composed of only three Cys residues, which are supposed to serve together with an intern...

  11. Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, and membrane permeabilizing properties of C-terminally modified nisin conjugates accessed by CuAAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, Jack C; van der Wal, Steffen; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Breukink, Eefjan; Liskamp, Rob M J; Rijkers, Dirk T S

    2013-12-18

    Functionalization of the lantibiotic nisin with fluorescent reporter molecules is highly important for the understanding of its mode of action as a potent antimicrobial peptide. In addition to this, multimerization of nisin to obtain multivalent peptide constructs and conjugation of nisin to bioactive molecules or grafting it on surfaces can be attractive methods for interference with bacterial growth. Here, we report a convenient method for the synthesis of such nisin conjugates and show that these nisin derivatives retain both their antimicrobial activity and their membrane permeabilizing properties. The synthesis is based on the Cu(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC) as a bioorthogonal ligation method for large and unprotected peptides in which nisin was C-terminally modified with propargylamine and subsequently efficiently conjugated to a series of functionalized azides. Two fluorescently labeled nisin conjugates together with a dimeric nisin construct were prepared while membrane insertion as well as antimicrobial activity were unaffected by these modifications. This study shows that C-terminal modification of nisin does not deteriorate biological activity in sharp contrast to N-terminal modification and therefore C-terminally modified nisin analogues are valuable tools to study the antibacterial mode of action of nisin. Furthermore, the ability to use stoichiometric amounts of the azide containing molecule opens up possibilities for surface tethering and more complex multivalent structures.

  12. Stepwise assembly of functional C-terminal REST/NRSF transcriptional repressor complexes as a drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Ken; Zhao, Zongpei; Yuan, Juan; Jayaprakash, Sakthidasan; Le, Le T M; Drakulic, Srdja; Sander, Bjoern; Golas, Monika M

    2017-02-20

    In human cells, thousands of predominantly neuronal genes are regulated by the repressor element 1 (RE1)-silencing transcription factor/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF). REST/NRSF represses transcription of these genes in stem cells and non-neuronal cells by tethering corepressor complexes. Aberrant REST/NRSF expression and intracellular localization are associated with cancer and neurodegeneration in humans. To date, detailed molecular analyses of REST/NRSF and its C-terminal repressor complex have been hampered largely by the lack of sufficient amounts of purified REST/NRSF and its complexes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to express and purify human REST/NRSF and its C-terminal interactors in a baculovirus multiprotein expression system as individual proteins and coexpressed complexes. All proteins were enriched in the nucleus, and REST/NRSF was isolated as a slower migrating form, characteristic of nuclear REST/NRSF in mammalian cells. Both REST/NRSF alone and its C-terminal repressor complex were functionally active in histone deacetylation and histone demethylation and bound to RE1/neuron-restrictive silencer element (NRSE) sites. Additionally, the mechanisms of inhibition of the small-molecule drugs 4SC-202 and SP2509 were analyzed. These drugs interfered with the viability of medulloblastoma cells, where REST/NRSF has been implicated in cancer pathogenesis. Thus, a resource for molecular REST/NRSF studies and drug development has been established.

  13. Influence of C-terminal tail deletion on structure and stability of hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Ji-Long; Zheng, Qing-Chuan; Chu, Wen-Ting; Xue, Qiao; Zhang, Hong-Xing; Sun, Chia-Chung

    2013-06-01

    The C-terminus tail (G144-T149) of the hyperthermophile Sulfolobus tokodaii (Sto-RNase HI) plays an important role in this protein's hyperstabilization and may therefore be a good protein stability tag. Detailed understanding of the structural and dynamic effects of C-terminus tail deletion is required for gaining insights into the thermal stability mechanism of Sto-RNase HI. Focused on Sulfolobus tokodaii RNase HI (Sto-RNase HI) and its derivative lacking the C-terminal tail (ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI) (PDB codes: 2EHG and 3ALY), we applied molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (300, 375, 475, and 500 K) to examine the effect of the C-terminal tail on the hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and to investigate the unfolding process of Sto-RNase HI and ΔC6 Sto-RNase HI. The simulations suggest that the C-terminal tail has significant impact in hyperstabilization of Sto-RNase HI and the unfolding of these two proteins evolves along dissimilar pathways. Essential dynamics analysis indicates that the essential subspaces of the two proteins at different temperatures are non-overlapping within the trajectories and they exhibit different directions of motion. Our work can give important information to understand the three-state folding mechanism of Sto-RNase HI and to offer alternative strategies to improve the protein stability.

  14. Capture of micrococcin biosynthetic intermediates reveals C-terminal processing as an obligatory step for in vivo maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Kathryn D.; Bennallack, Philip R.; Burlingame, Mark A.; Robison, Richard A.; Griffitts, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Thiopeptides, including micrococcins, are a growing family of bioactive natural products that are ribosomally synthesized and heavily modified. Here we use a refactored, modular in vivo system containing the micrococcin P1 (MP1) biosynthetic genes (TclIJKLMNPS) from Macrococcus caseolyticus str 115 in a genetically tractable Bacillus subtilis strain to parse the processing steps of this pathway. By fusing the micrococcin precursor peptide to an affinity tag and coupling it with catalytically defective enzymes, biosynthetic intermediates were easily captured for analysis. We found that two major phases of molecular maturation are separated by a key C-terminal processing step. Phase-I conversion of six Cys residues to thiazoles (TclIJN) is followed by C-terminal oxidative decarboxylation (TclP). This TclP-mediated oxidative decarboxylation is a required step for the peptide to progress to phase II. In phase II, Ser/Thr dehydration (TclKL) and peptide macrocycle formation (TclM) occurs. A C-terminal reductase, TclS, can optionally act on the substrate peptide, yielding MP1, and is shown to act late in the pathway. This comprehensive characterization of the MP1 pathway prepares the way for future engineering efforts. PMID:27791142

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of novologues as C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors with cytoprotective activity against sensory neuron glucotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Bhaskar Reddy; Zhang, Liang; Sundstrom, Teather; Peterson, Laura B; Dobrowsky, Rick T; Blagg, Brian S J

    2012-06-28

    Compound 2 (KU-32) is a first-generation novologue (a novobiocin-based, C-terminal, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor) that decreases glucose-induced death of primary sensory neurons and reverses numerous clinical indices of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in mice. The current study sought to exploit the C-terminal binding site of Hsp90 to determine whether the optimization of hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions of second-generation novologues could enhance neuroprotective activity. Using a series of substituted phenylboronic acids to replace the coumarin lactone of 2, we identified that electronegative atoms placed at the meta-position of the B-ring exhibit improved cytoprotective activity, which is believed to result from favorable interactions with Lys539 in the Hsp90 C-terminal binding pocket. Consistent with these results, a meta-3-fluorophenyl substituted novologue (13b) exhibited a 14-fold lower ED(50) for protection against glucose-induced toxicity of primary sensory neurons compared to 2.

  16. Synthesis of histone proteins by CPE ligation using a recombinant peptide as the C-terminal building block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Toru; Yoshikawa, Ryo; Fujiyoshi, Yuki; Mishima, Yuichi; Hojo, Hironobu; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-11-01

    The post-translational modification of histones plays an important role in gene expression. We report herein on a method for synthesizing such modified histones by ligating chemically prepared N-terminal peptides and C-terminal recombinant peptide building blocks. Based on their chemical synthesis, core histones can be categorized as two types; histones H2A, H2B and H4 which contain no Cys residues, and histone H3 which contains a Cys residue(s) in the C-terminal region. A combination of native chemical ligation and desulphurization can be simply used to prepare histones without Cys residues. For the synthesis of histone H3, the endogenous Cys residue(s) must be selectively protected, while keeping the N-terminal Cys residue of the C-terminal building block that is introduced for purposes of chemical ligation unprotected. To this end, a phenacyl group was successfully utilized to protect endogenous Cys residue(s), and the recombinant peptide was ligated with a peptide containing a Cys-Pro ester (CPE) sequence as a thioester precursor. Using this approach it was possible to prepare all of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 with any modifications. The resulting proteins could then be used to prepare a core histone library of proteins that have been post-translationally modified.

  17. Localization of sites for ionic interaction with lipid in the C-terminal third of the bovine myelin basic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A J; Rumsby, M G

    1977-12-01

    The myelin basic protein from bovine brain tissue was purified and the two peptides obtained by cleavage of the polypeptide chain at the single tryptophan residue were isolated. The interaction of these peptides and the intact basic protein with complex lipids was investigated by following the solubilization of lipid-protein complexes into chloroform in a biphasic solvent system. The C-terminal peptide fragment (residues 117-170) and the intact basic protein both formed chloroform-soluble complexes with acidic lipids, but not with neutral complex lipids. The N-terminal fragment (residues 1-115) did not form chloroform-soluble complexes with either acidic or neutral complex lipids. The molar ratio of lipid to protein that caused a 50% loss of protein from the upper phase to the lower chloroform phase was the same for the intact basic protein as for the smaller C-terminal peptide fragment. Phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol were approximately twice as efficient as sulphatide at causing protein redistribution to the chloroform phase. The results are interpreted as indicating that the sites for ionic interactions between lipid and charged groups on the basic protein of myelin are located in the C-terminal region of the protein molecule.

  18. The novel C-terminal KCNQ1 mutation M520R alters protein trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine; Nielsen, Nathalie Hélix

    2007-01-01

    The long QT-syndrome is characterized by a prolongation of the QT-interval and tachyarrhythmias causing syncopes and sudden death. We identified the missense mutation M520R in the calmodulin binding domain of the Kv7.1 channel from a German family with long QT-syndrome. Heterologous expression of...

  19. Homo- and hetero-oligomerization of PDZ-RhoGEF, LARG and p115RhoGEF by their C-terminal region regulates their in vivo Rho GEF activity and transforming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikumi, Hiroki; Barac, Ana; Behbahani, Babak; Gao, Yuan; Teramoto, Hidemi; Zheng, Yi; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2004-01-08

    PDZ-RhoGEF, LARG, and p115RhoGEF are members of a newly identified family of Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) exhibiting a unique structural feature consisting of the presence of an area of similarity to regulators of G protein signaling (RGS). This RGS-like (RGL) domain provides a functional motif by which Galpha(12) and Galpha(13) can bind and regulate the activity of these RhoGEFs, thus providing a direct link from these heterotrimeric G proteins to Rho. PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG can also be phosphorylated by tyrosine kinases, including FAK, and associate with Plexin B, a semaphorin receptor, which controls axon guidance during development, through their PDZ domain, thereby stimulating Rho. Interestingly, while characterizing a PDZ-RhoGEF antiserum, we found that a transfected PDZ-RhoGEF construct associated with the endogenous PDZ-RhoGEF. Indeed, we observed that PDZ-RhoGEF and LARG can form homo- and hetero-oligomers, whereas p115RhoGEF can only homo-oligomerize, and that this intermolecular interaction was mediated by their unique C-terminal regions. Deletion of the C-terminal tail of PDZ-RhoGEF had no significant effect on the GEF catalytic activity towards Rho in vitro, but resulted in a drastic increase in the ability to stimulate a serum response element reporter and the accumulation of the GTP-bound Rho in vivo. Furthermore, removal of the C-termini of each of the three RGL-containing GEFs unleashed their full transforming potential. Together, these findings suggest the existence of a novel mechanism controlling the activity of PDZ-RhoGEF, LARG, and p115RhoGEF, which involves homo- and hetero-oligomerization through their inhibitory C-terminal region.

  20. Nephrocystin-1 forms a complex with polycystin-1 via a polyproline motif/SH3 domain interaction and regulates the apoptotic response in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Wodarczyk

    Full Text Available Mutations in PKD1, the gene encoding for the receptor Polycystin-1 (PC-1, cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. The cytoplasmic C-terminus of PC-1 contains a coiled-coil domain that mediates an interaction with the PKD2 gene product, Polycystin-2 (PC-2. Here we identify a novel domain in the PC-1 C-terminal tail, a polyproline motif mediating an interaction with Src homology domain 3 (SH3. A screen for interactions using the PC-1 C-terminal tail identified the SH3 domain of nephrocystin-1 (NPHP1 as a potential binding partner of PC-1. NPHP1 is the product of a gene that is mutated in a different form of renal cystic disease, nephronophthisis (NPHP. We show that in vitro pull-down assays and NMR structural studies confirmed the interaction between the PC-1 polyproline motif and the NPHP1 SH3 domain. Furthermore, the two full-length proteins interact through these domains; using a recently generated model system allowing us to track endogenous PC-1, we confirm the interaction between the endogenous proteins. Finally, we show that NPHP1 trafficking to cilia does not require PC-1 and that PC-1 may require NPHP1 to regulate resistance to apoptosis, but not to regulate cell cycle progression. In line with this, we find high levels of apoptosis in renal specimens of NPHP patients. Our data uncover a link between two different ciliopathies, ADPKD and NPHP, supporting the notion that common pathogenetic defects, possibly involving de-regulated apoptosis, underlie renal cyst formation.

  1. Nephrocystin-1 forms a complex with polycystin-1 via a polyproline motif/SH3 domain interaction and regulates the apoptotic response in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarczyk, Claas; Distefano, Gianfranco; Rowe, Isaline; Gaetani, Massimiliano; Bricoli, Barbara; Muorah, Mordi; Spitaleri, Andrea; Mannella, Valeria; Ricchiuto, Piero; Pema, Monika; Castelli, Maddalena; Casanova, Ariel E; Mollica, Luca; Banzi, Manuela; Boca, Manila; Antignac, Corinne; Saunier, Sophie; Musco, Giovanna; Boletta, Alessandra

    2010-09-14

    Mutations in PKD1, the gene encoding for the receptor Polycystin-1 (PC-1), cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The cytoplasmic C-terminus of PC-1 contains a coiled-coil domain that mediates an interaction with the PKD2 gene product, Polycystin-2 (PC-2). Here we identify a novel domain in the PC-1 C-terminal tail, a polyproline motif mediating an interaction with Src homology domain 3 (SH3). A screen for interactions using the PC-1 C-terminal tail identified the SH3 domain of nephrocystin-1 (NPHP1) as a potential binding partner of PC-1. NPHP1 is the product of a gene that is mutated in a different form of renal cystic disease, nephronophthisis (NPHP). We show that in vitro pull-down assays and NMR structural studies confirmed the interaction between the PC-1 polyproline motif and the NPHP1 SH3 domain. Furthermore, the two full-length proteins interact through these domains; using a recently generated model system allowing us to track endogenous PC-1, we confirm the interaction between the endogenous proteins. Finally, we show that NPHP1 trafficking to cilia does not require PC-1 and that PC-1 may require NPHP1 to regulate resistance to apoptosis, but not to regulate cell cycle progression. In line with this, we find high levels of apoptosis in renal specimens of NPHP patients. Our data uncover a link between two different ciliopathies, ADPKD and NPHP, supporting the notion that common pathogenetic defects, possibly involving de-regulated apoptosis, underlie renal cyst formation.

  2. C-terminal motif prediction in eukaryotic proteomes using comparative genomics and statistical over-representation across protein families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutler Sean R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The carboxy termini of proteins are a frequent site of activity for a variety of biologically important functions, ranging from post-translational modification to protein targeting. Several short peptide motifs involved in protein sorting roles and dependent upon their proximity to the C-terminus for proper function have already been characterized. As a limited number of such motifs have been identified, the potential exists for genome-wide statistical analysis and comparative genomics to reveal novel peptide signatures functioning in a C-terminal dependent manner. We have applied a novel methodology to the prediction of C-terminal-anchored peptide motifs involving a simple z-statistic and several techniques for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Results We examined the statistical over-representation of position-specific C-terminal tripeptides in 7 eukaryotic proteomes. Sequence randomization models and simple-sequence masking were applied to the successful reduction of background noise. Similarly, as C-terminal homology among members of large protein families may artificially inflate tripeptide counts in an irrelevant and obfuscating manner, gene-family clustering was performed prior to the analysis in order to assess tripeptide over-representation across protein families as opposed to across all proteins. Finally, comparative genomics was used to identify tripeptides significantly occurring in multiple species. This approach has been able to predict, to our knowledge, all C-terminally anchored targeting motifs present in the literature. These include the PTS1 peroxisomal targeting signal (SKL*, the ER-retention signal (K/HDEL*, the ER-retrieval signal for membrane bound proteins (KKxx*, the prenylation signal (CC* and the CaaX box prenylation motif. In addition to a high statistical over-representation of these known motifs, a collection of significant tripeptides with a high propensity for biological function exists

  3. C-terminal motif prediction in eukaryotic proteomes using comparative genomics and statistical over-representation across protein families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ryan S; Provart, Nicholas J; Cutler, Sean R

    2007-01-01

    Background The carboxy termini of proteins are a frequent site of activity for a variety of biologically important functions, ranging from post-translational modification to protein targeting. Several short peptide motifs involved in protein sorting roles and dependent upon their proximity to the C-terminus for proper function have already been characterized. As a limited number of such motifs have been identified, the potential exists for genome-wide statistical analysis and comparative genomics to reveal novel peptide signatures functioning in a C-terminal dependent manner. We have applied a novel methodology to the prediction of C-terminal-anchored peptide motifs involving a simple z-statistic and several techniques for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Results We examined the statistical over-representation of position-specific C-terminal tripeptides in 7 eukaryotic proteomes. Sequence randomization models and simple-sequence masking were applied to the successful reduction of background noise. Similarly, as C-terminal homology among members of large protein families may artificially inflate tripeptide counts in an irrelevant and obfuscating manner, gene-family clustering was performed prior to the analysis in order to assess tripeptide over-representation across protein families as opposed to across all proteins. Finally, comparative genomics was used to identify tripeptides significantly occurring in multiple species. This approach has been able to predict, to our knowledge, all C-terminally anchored targeting motifs present in the literature. These include the PTS1 peroxisomal targeting signal (SKL*), the ER-retention signal (K/HDEL*), the ER-retrieval signal for membrane bound proteins (KKxx*), the prenylation signal (CC*) and the CaaX box prenylation motif. In addition to a high statistical over-representation of these known motifs, a collection of significant tripeptides with a high propensity for biological function exists between species, among

  4. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckbeck, Jonathan D; Sun, Chengqun; Sturgeon, Timothy J; Montelaro, Ronald C

    2010-01-01

    The C-terminal tail (CTT) of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env) protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE) of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  5. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available The C-terminal tail (CTT of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  6. The PASTA domain of penicillin-binding protein SpoVD is dispensable for endospore cortex peptidoglycan assembly in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska-Faniband, Ewa; Hederstedt, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Peptidoglycan is the major structural component of the bacterial cell wall. Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), located at the exterior of the cytoplasmic membrane, play a major role in peptidoglycan synthesis and remodelling. A PASTA domain (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase associated domain) of about 65 residues is found at the C-terminal end of some PBPs and eukaryotic-like protein serine/threonine kinases in a variety of bacteria. The function of PASTA domains is not understood, but some of them are thought to bind uncross linked peptidoglycan. Bacillus subtilis has 16 different PBPs, but only 2 of them, Pbp2b and SpoVD, contain a PASTA domain. SpoVD is specific for sporulation and essential for endospore cortex peptidoglycan synthesis. We have studied the role of the PASTA domain in SpoVD by deleting this domain and analysing the effects on endospore formation and subcellular localization of SpoVD. Our results demonstrate that the PASTA domain in SpoVD is not essential for cortex synthesis and not important for targeting SpoVD to the forespore outer membrane during sporulation.

  7. Amino acid composition of alpha1/alpha2 domains and cytoplasmic tail of MHC class I molecules determine their susceptibility to human cytomegalovirus US11-mediated down-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barel, Martine T; Pizzato, Nathalie; van Leeuwen, Daphne; Bouteiller, Philippe Le; Wiertz, Emmanuel J H J; Lenfant, Francoise

    2003-06-01

    During co-evolution with its host, human cytomegalovirus has acquired multiple defense mechanisms to escape from immune recognition. In this study, we focused on US11, which binds to MHC class I heavy chains and mediates their dislocation to the cytosol and subsequent degradation by proteasomes. To examine which domains of class I heavy chains are involved in this process, we constructed chimeric HLA molecules of US11-sensitive and -insensitive class I molecules (HLA-A2 and HLA-G, respectively). Pulse-chase experiments were performed to evaluate protein stability and interactions between class I heavy chains and US11. Flow cytometry was employed to assess the effect of US11 on surface expression of the different chimeras. Our results indicate that the alpha1 and alpha2 domains of HLA molecules are important for the affinity of US11 association. However, the degradation efficiency seems to rely mostly on cytosolic tail residues. We found that the nonclassical HLA-G molecule is insensitive to US11-mediated degradation solely because it lacks essential tail residues. A deletion of the last two tail residues in full-length MHC class I molecules already caused a severe reduction in degradation efficiency. Altogether, our data provide new insights into the mechanism by which US11 down-regulates MHC class I molecules.

  8. Functional Domain Analysis of the Remorin Protein LjSYMREM1 in Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, Katalin; Stratil, Thomas F; Madsen, Esben B;

    2012-01-01

    ) that are essential for RNS. Remorins are comprised of a conserved C-terminal domain and a variable N-terminal region that defines the six different Remorin groups. While both N- and C-terminal regions of Remorins belonging to the same phylogenetic group are similar to each other throughout the plant kingdom, the N...

  9. Differential Regulation of Two Palmitoylation Sites in the Cytoplasmic Tail of the β1-Adrenergic Receptor*

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    S-Palmitoylation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a prevalent modification, contributing to the regulation of receptor function. Despite its importance, the palmitoylation status of the β1-adrenergic receptor, a GPCR critical for heart function, has never been determined. We report here that the β1-adrenergic receptor is palmitoylated on three cysteine residues at two sites in the C-terminal tail. One site (proximal) is adjacent to the seventh transmembrane domain and is a consensus ...

  10. The C-terminal Cytosolic Region of Rim21 Senses Alterations in Plasma Membrane Lipid Composition: INSIGHTS INTO SENSING MECHANISMS FOR PLASMA MEMBRANE LIPID ASYMMETRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Kanako; Obara, Keisuke; Kihara, Akio

    2015-12-25

    Yeast responds to alterations in plasma membrane lipid asymmetry and external alkalization via the sensor protein Rim21 in the Rim101 pathway. However, the sensing mechanism used by Rim21 remains unclear. Here, we found that the C-terminal cytosolic domain of Rim21 (Rim21C) fused with GFP was associated with the plasma membrane under normal conditions but dissociated upon alterations in lipid asymmetry or external alkalization. This indicates that Rim21C contains a sensor motif. Rim21C contains multiple clusters of charged residues. Among them, three consecutive Glu residues (EEE motif) were essential for Rim21 function and dissociation of Rim21C from the plasma membrane in response to changes in lipid asymmetry. In contrast, positively charged residues adjacent to the EEE motif were required for Rim21C to associate with the membrane. We therefore propose an "antenna hypothesis," in which Rim21C moves to or from the plasma membrane and functions as the sensing mechanism of Rim21.

  11. The C-terminal region controls correct folding of genus Trametes pyranose 2-oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresová, Helena; Palyzová, Andrea; Kyslík, Pavel

    2007-06-30

    The pyranose 2-oxidases from Trametes ochracea and Trametes pubescens share markedly similar amino acid sequences with identity of 93.4%. When expressed from the recombinant plasmids based on the same vector in the Escherichia coli host strain BL21(DE3) at higher growth temperatures, they differ strikingly in the formation of the inclusion bodies. Upon overexpression in the cultures performed at 28 degrees C, the specific activity of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens was eight times higher than that from T. ochracea: 93% of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. ochracea and only 15% of that from T. pubescens was present in the form of inclusion bodies. To ascertain the cause of this difference, both cloned genes were shuffled. Site-directed recombination of p2o cDNAs revealed that DNA constructs ending with 3' end of p2o cDNA from T. pubescens code for proteins that are folded into an active form to the greater extent, regardless of the gene expression level. "In silicio" analysis of physico-chemical properties of the protein sequences of pyranose 2-oxidases revealed that the sequence of amino acid residues 368-430, constituting the small, head domain of pyranose 2-oxidase from T. pubescens, affects positively the enzyme folding at higher cultivation temperatures. The domain differs in six amino acid residues from that of T. ochracea.

  12. Skin-Derived C-Terminal Filaggrin-2 Fragments Are Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Directed Antimicrobials Targeting Bacterial Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Hansmann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa are constantly challenging body surfaces. Since infections of healthy skin are unexpectedly rare, we hypothesized that the outermost epidermis, the stratum corneum, and sweat glands directly control the growth of P. aeruginosa by surface-provided antimicrobials. Due to its high abundance in the upper epidermis and eccrine sweat glands, filaggrin-2 (FLG2, a water-insoluble 248 kDa S100 fused-type protein, might possess these innate effector functions. Indeed, recombinant FLG2 C-terminal protein fragments display potent antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa and other Pseudomonads. Moreover, upon cultivation on stratum corneum, P. aeruginosa release FLG2 C-terminus-containing FLG2 fragments from insoluble material, indicating liberation of antimicrobially active FLG2 fragments by the bacteria themselves. Analyses of the underlying antimicrobial mechanism reveal that FLG2 C-terminal fragments do not induce pore formation, as known for many other antimicrobial peptides, but membrane blebbing, suggesting an alternative mode of action. The association of the FLG2 fragment with the inner membrane of treated bacteria and its DNA-binding implicated an interference with the bacterial replication that was confirmed by in vitro and in vivo replication assays. Probably through in situ-activation by soil- and waterborne bacteria such as Pseudomonads, FLG2 interferes with the bacterial replication, terminates their growth on skin surface and thus may contributes to the skin's antimicrobial defense shield. The apparent absence of FLG2 at certain body surfaces, as in the lung or of burned skin, would explain their higher susceptibility towards Pseudomonas infections and make FLG2 C-terminal fragments and their derivatives candidates for new Pseudomonas-targeting antimicrobials.

  13. The C-terminal Region of Laminin β Chains Modulates the Integrin Binding Affinities of Laminins*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Ido, Hiroyuki; Sanzen, Noriko; Hayashi, Maria; Sato-Nishiuchi, Ryoko; Futaki, Sugiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    2009-01-01

    Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (α, β, and γ), in which three laminin globular modules in the α chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the γ chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the β chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of ...

  14. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Acebes, Sandra [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, María Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier, E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Guallar, Victor, E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, Angel T., E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The variable C-terminal tail of manganese peroxidases, a group of enzymes involved in lignin degradation, is implicated in their catalytic and stability properties, as shown by new crystal structures, molecular-simulation and directed-mutagenesis data. Based on this structural–functional evaluation, short and long/extralong manganese peroxidase subfamilies have been accepted; the latter are characterized by exceptional stability, while it is shown for the first time that the former are able to oxidize other substrates at the same site where manganese(II) is oxidized. The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn{sup 2+} oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd{sup 2+} binds at the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn{sup 2+} and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their

  15. Silyl-based alkyne-modifying linker for the preparation of C-terminal acetylene-derivatized protected peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Martin; Langklotz, Sina; Bandow, Julia E; Metzler-Nolte, Nils; Albada, H Bauke

    2012-11-16

    A novel linker for the synthesis of C-terminal acetylene-functionalized protected peptides is described. This SAM1 linker is applied in the manual Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis of Leu-enkephalin and in microwave-assisted automated synthesis of Maculatin 2.1, an antibacterial peptide that contains 18 amino acid residues. For the cleavage, treatment with tetramethylammonium fluoride results in protected acetylene-derivatized peptides. Alternatively, a one-pot cleavage-click procedure affords the protected 1,2,3-triazole conjugate in high yields after purification.

  16. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus EssB, an integral membrane component of the Type VII secretion system: atomic resolution crystal structure of the cytoplasmic segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltner, Martin; Fyfe, Paul K; Palmer, Tracy; Hunter, William N

    2013-01-15

    The Type VII protein translocation/secretion system, unique to Gram-positive bacteria, is a key virulence determinant in Staphylococcus aureus. We aim to characterize the architecture of this secretion machinery and now describe the present study of S. aureus EssB, a 52 kDa bitopic membrane protein essential for secretion of the ESAT-6 (early secretory antigenic target of 6 kDa) family of proteins, the prototypic substrate of Type VII secretion. Full-length EssB was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, solubilized from the bacterial membrane, purified to homogeneity and shown to be dimeric. A C-terminal truncation, EssB∆C, and two soluble fragments termed EssB-N and EssB-C, predicted to occur on either side of the cytoplasmic membrane, have been successfully purified in a recombinant form, characterized and, together with the full-length protein, used in crystallization trials. EssB-N, the 25 kDa N-terminal cytoplasmic fragment, gave well-ordered crystals and we report the structure, determined by SAD (single-wavelength anomalous diffraction) targeting an SeMet (selenomethionine) derivative, refined to atomic (1.05 Å; 1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. EssB-N is dimeric in solution, but crystallizes as a monomer and displays a fold comprised of two globular domains separated by a cleft. The structure is related to that of serine/threonine protein kinases and the present study identifies that the Type VII secretion system exploits and re-uses a stable modular entity and fold that has evolved to participate in protein-protein interactions in a similar fashion to the catalytically inert pseudokinases.

  17. THE HYDROGENOSOMAL ENZYME HYDROGENASE FROM THE ANAEROBIC FUNGUS NEOCALLIMASTIX SP L2 IS RECOGNIZED BY ANTIBODIES, DIRECTED AGAINST THE C-TERMINAL MICROBODY PROTEIN TARGETING SIGNAL SKL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARVINSIKKEMA, FD; KRAAK, MN; VEENHUIS, M; GOTTSCHAL, JC; PRINS, RA

    1993-01-01

    The question was addressed whether antibodies directed against the general microbody C-terminal protein targeting signal SKL recognized hydrogenosomal proteins from Neocallimastix sp. L2. Immunofluorescence, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting experiments using these antibodies indicated the pr

  18. Evaluation of Heavy-Chain C-Terminal Deletion on Product Quality and Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoying; Yu, Christopher; Yadav, Daniela B; Hu, Zhilan; Amurao, Annamarie; Duenas, Eileen; Wong, Marc; Iverson, Mark; Zheng, Kai; Lam, Xanthe; Chen, Jia; Vega, Roxanne; Ulufatu, Sheila; Leddy, Cecilia; Davis, Helen; Shen, Amy; Wong, Pin Y; Harris, Reed; Wang, Y John; Li, Dongwei

    2016-07-01

    Due to their potential influence on stability, pharmacokinetics, and product consistency, antibody charge variants have attracted considerable atte