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Sample records for c-terminal cytoplasmic domain

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from Aquifex aeolicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domain of FlhB from A. aeolicus has been purified and crystallized. FlhB is a key protein in the regulation of protein export by the bacterial flagellar secretion system. It is composed of two domains: an N-terminal transmembrane domain and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (FlhBc). Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of FlhBc from Aquifex aeolicus are reported. Purified protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 114.49, b = 33.89, c = 122.13 Å, β = 107.53°

  2. TWEAK-independent Fn14 self-association and NF-κB activation is mediated by the C-terminal region of the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron A N Brown

    Full Text Available The tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily member TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK is a pro-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine implicated in physiological tissue regeneration and wound repair. TWEAK binds to a 102-amino acid type I transmembrane cell surface receptor named fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14. TWEAK:Fn14 engagement activates several intracellular signaling cascades, including the NF-κB pathway, and sustained Fn14 signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Although several groups are developing TWEAK- or Fn14-targeted agents for therapeutic use, much more basic science research is required before we fully understand the TWEAK/Fn14 signaling axis. For example, we and others have proposed that TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling may occur in cells when Fn14 levels are highly elevated, but this idea has never been tested directly. In this report, we first demonstrate TWEAK-independent Fn14 signaling by showing that an Fn14 deletion mutant that is unable to bind TWEAK can activate the NF-κB pathway in transfected cells. We then show that ectopically-expressed, cell surface-localized Fn14 can self-associate into Fn14 dimers, and we show that Fn14 self-association is mediated by an 18-aa region within the Fn14 cytoplasmic domain. Endogenously-expressed Fn14 as well as ectopically-overexpressed Fn14 could also be detected in dimeric form when cell lysates were subjected to SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions. Additional experiments revealed that Fn14 dimerization occurs during cell lysis via formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond at cysteine residue 122. These findings provide insight into the Fn14 signaling mechanism and may aid current studies to develop therapeutic agents targeting this small cell surface receptor.

  3. MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum: functional significance of the C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; Krämer, Reinhard

    2015-10-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is used in microbial biotechnology for the production of amino acids, e.g., glutamate and lysine. Excretion of glutamate into the surrounding medium under production conditions is mediated by MscCG, an MscS-type mechanosensitive channel. In difference to most other MscS-type channel proteins, MscCG carries, in addition to the N-terminal pore domain, a long C-terminal domain that amounts to about half of the size of the protein and harbors an additional transmembrane segment. Here we study the impact of the C-terminal domain on both functions of MscCG as mechanosensitive channel and as glutamate exporter. Sequential truncations of the C-terminal domain were applied, as well as deletion of particular subdomains, replacement of these segments by other amino acid sequences, and sequence randomization. Several parameters of cell physiology and bioenergetics of the obtained mutants related to both glutamate excretion and response to osmotic stress were quantified. All three subdomains of the C-terminal domain, i.e., the periplasmic loop, the fourth transmembrane segment, and the cytoplasmic loop, proved to be of core significance for MscCG function, in particular for glutamate excretion. PMID:26033538

  4. Modulation of voltage-gated potassium Kv2.1 via the cytoplasmic C terminal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man Jin; Peiyuan Lu

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels comprise 12 subtypes (Kv1-Kv12). Kv2.1, which is expressed in most mammalian central neurons, provides the majority of delayed-rectifier K current in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal neurons, and plays an especially prominent role in repolarizing membrane potential, as well as in facilitation of exocytosis. Kv2.1-encoded K efflux is essential for neuronal apoptosis programming. The human form of the Kv2.1 potassium channel contains large intracellular regions. The cytoplasmic C-terminal plays a key role in modulating Kv2.1 gating. The present manuscript summarized Kv2.1 structure and modulation in neurons and analyzed the roles of the cytoplasmic C-terminal.

  5. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

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    Singh, Pratibha; Savithri, H.S., E-mail: bchss@biochem.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-08-15

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  6. GBNV encoded movement protein (NSm) remodels ER network via C-terminal coiled coil domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant viruses exploit the host machinery for targeting the viral genome–movement protein complex to plasmodesmata (PD). The mechanism by which the non-structural protein m (NSm) of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) is targeted to PD was investigated using Agrobacterium mediated transient expression of NSm and its fusion proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana. GFP:NSm formed punctuate structures that colocalized with mCherry:plasmodesmata localized protein 1a (PDLP 1a) confirming that GBNV NSm localizes to PD. Unlike in other movement proteins, the C-terminal coiled coil domain of GBNV NSm was shown to be involved in the localization of NSm to PD, as deletion of this domain resulted in the cytoplasmic localization of NSm. Treatment with Brefeldin A demonstrated the role of ER in targeting GFP NSm to PD. Furthermore, mCherry:NSm co-localized with ER–GFP (endoplasmic reticulum targeting peptide (HDEL peptide fused with GFP). Co-expression of NSm with ER–GFP showed that the ER-network was transformed into vesicles indicating that NSm interacts with ER and remodels it. Mutations in the conserved hydrophobic region of NSm (residues 130–138) did not abolish the formation of vesicles. Additionally, the conserved prolines at positions 140 and 142 were found to be essential for targeting the vesicles to the cell membrane. Further, systematic deletion of amino acid residues from N- and C-terminus demonstrated that N-terminal 203 amino acids are dispensable for the vesicle formation. On the other hand, the C-terminal coiled coil domain when expressed alone could also form vesicles. These results suggest that GBNV NSm remodels the ER network by forming vesicles via its interaction through the C-terminal coiled coil domain. Interestingly, NSm interacts with NP in vitro and coexpression of these two proteins in planta resulted in the relocalization of NP to PD and this relocalization was abolished when the N-terminal unfolded region of NSm was deleted. Thus, the NSm

  7. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E. [Molecular Virology Laboratory, Department of Medical Microbiology, Center of Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär [Division of Biophysics, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Scheeles väg 2, Karolinska Institute, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Coutard, Bruno [Laboratoire Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, UMR 6098, AFMB-CNRS-ESIL, Case 925, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Tucker, Paul A., E-mail: tucker@embl-hamburg.de [EMBL Hamburg Outstation, c/o DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  8. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noonan James P

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of variable lengths. The BLM DNA helicase has been shown to localize to the ND10 (nuclear domain 10 or PML (promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies, where it associates with TOPIIIα, and to the nucleolus. Results This report demonstrates that the N-terminal domain of BLM is responsible for localization of the protein to the nuclear bodies, while the C-terminal domain directs the protein to the nucleolus. Deletions of the N-terminal domain of BLM have little effect on sister chromatid exchange frequency and chromosome stability as compared to helicase and C-terminal mutations which can increase SCE frequency and chromosome abnormalities. Conclusion The helicase activity and the C-terminal domain of BLM are critical for maintaining genomic stability as measured by the sister chromatid exchange assay. The localization of BLM into the nucleolus by the C-terminal domain appears to be more important to genomic stability than localization in the nuclear bodies.

  9. Structure discrimination for the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli trigger factor in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR measurements can give important information on solution structure, without the necessity for a full-scale solution structure determination. The C-terminal protein binding domain of the ribosome-associated chaperone protein trigger factor is composed of non-contiguous parts of the polypeptide chain, with an interpolated prolyl isomerase domain. A construct of the C-terminal domain of Escherichia coli trigger factor containing residues 113-149 and 247-432, joined by a Gly-Ser-Gly-Ser linker, is well folded and gives excellent NMR spectra in solution. We have used NMR measurements on this construct, and on a longer construct that includes the prolyl isomerase domain, to distinguish between two possible structures for the C-terminal domain of trigger factor, and to assess the behavior of the trigger factor C-terminal domain in solution. Two X-ray crystal structures, of intact trigger factor from E. coli (Ferbitz et al., Nature 431:590-596, 2004), and of a truncated trigger factor from Vibrio cholerae (Ludlam et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:13436-13441, 2004) showed significant differences in the structure of the C-terminal domain, such that the two structures could not be superimposed. We show using NMR chemical shifts and long range nuclear Overhauser effects that the secondary and tertiary structure of the E. coli C-terminal domain in solution is consistent with the crystal structure of the E. coli trigger factor and not with the V. cholerae protein. Given the similarity of the amino acid sequences of the E. coli and V. cholerae proteins, it appears likely that the structure of the V. cholerae protein has been distorted as a result of truncation of a 44-amino acid segment at the C-terminus. Analysis of residual dipolar coupling measurements shows that the overall topology of the solution structure is completely inconsistent with both structures. Dynamics analysis of the C-terminal domain using T1, T2 and heteronuclear NOE parameters show that the protein is

  10. Efficient, chemoselective synthesis of immunomicelles using single-domain antibodies with a C-terminal thioester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raats Jos MH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical bioconjugation strategies for generating antibody-functionalized nanoparticles are non-specific and typically result in heterogeneous compounds that can be compromised in activity. Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester, providing a unique handle for site-specific conjugation using native chemical ligation (NCL. However, current methods to generate antibody fragments with C-terminal thioesters require cumbersome refolding procedures, effectively preventing application of NCL for antibody-mediated targeting and molecular imaging. Results Targeting to the periplasm of E. coli allowed efficient production of correctly-folded single-domain antibody (sdAb-intein fusions proteins. On column purification and 2-mercapthoethanesulfonic acid (MESNA-induced cleavage yielded single-domain antibodies with a reactive C-terminal MESNA thioester in good yields. These thioester-functionalized single-domain antibodies allowed synthesis of immunomicelles via native chemical ligation in a single step. Conclusion A novel procedure was developed to obtain soluble, well-folded single-domain antibodies with reactive C-terminal thioesters in good yields. These proteins are promising building blocks for the chemoselective functionalization via NCL of a broad range of nanoparticle scaffolds, including micelles, liposomes and dendrimers.

  11. Mutant Mice Lacking the p53 C-Terminal Domain Model Telomere Syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simeonova, I.; Jaber, S.; Draskovic, I.; Bardot, B.; Fang, M.; Bouarich-Bourimi, R.; Lejour, V.; Charbonnier, L.; Soudais, C.; Bourdon, J.C.; Huerre, M.; Londono-Vallejo, A.; Toledo, F.

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in p53, although frequent in human cancers, have not been implicated in telomere-related syndromes. Here, we show that homozygous mutant mice expressing p53(Delta31), a p53 lacking the C-terminal domain, exhibit increased p53 activity and suffer from aplastic anemia and pulmonary fibrosis,

  12. Regulation of Escherichia coli RelA Requires Oligomerization of the C-Terminal Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Gropp, Michal; Strausz, Yael; Gross, Miriam; Glaser, Gad

    2001-01-01

    The E. coli RelA protein is a ribosome-dependent (p)ppGpp synthetase that is activated in response to amino acid starvation. RelA can be dissected both functionally and physically into two domains: The N-terminal domain (NTD) (amino acids [aa] 1 to 455) contains the catalytic domain of RelA, and the C-terminal domain (CTD) (aa 455 to 744) is involved in regulating RelA activity. We used mutational analysis to localize sites important for RelA activity and control in these two domains. We inse...

  13. Structural and Functional Comparisons of Retroviral Envelope Protein C-Terminal Domains: Still Much to Learn

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    Jonathan D. Steckbeck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses are a family of viruses that cause a broad range of pathologies in animals and humans, from the apparently harmless, long-term genomic insertion of endogenous retroviruses, to tumors induced by the oncogenic retroviruses and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS resulting from human immunodeficiency virus infection. Disease can be the result of diverse mechanisms, including tumorigenesis induced by viral oncogenes or immune destruction, leading to the gradual loss of CD4 T-cells. Of the virally encoded proteins common to all retroviruses, the envelope (Env displays perhaps the most diverse functionality. Env is primarily responsible for binding the cellular receptor and for effecting the fusion process, with these functions mediated by protein domains localized to the exterior of the virus. The remaining C-terminal domain may have the most variable functionality of all retroviral proteins. The C-terminal domains from three prototypical retroviruses are discussed, focusing on the different structures and functions, which include fusion activation, tumorigenesis and viral assembly and lifecycle influences. Despite these genetic and functional differences, however, the C-terminal domains of these viruses share a common feature in the modulation of Env ectodomain conformation. Despite their differences, perhaps each system still has information to share with the others.

  14. Determinants for Dephosphorylation of the RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain by Scp1

    OpenAIRE

    Yan ZHANG; Kim, Youngjun; Genoud, Nicolas; Gao, Jianmin; Kelly, Jeffery W.; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Gill, Gordon N.; Dixon, Jack E.; Noel, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) represent a critical regulatory checkpoint for transcription. Transcription initiation requires Fcp1/Scp1-mediated dephosphorylation of phospho-CTD. Fcp1 and Scp1 belong to a family of Mg2+-dependent phosphoserine (P.Ser)/phosphothreonine (P.Thr)-specific phosphatases. We recently showed that Scp1 is an evolutionarily conserved regulator of neuronal gene silencing. Here, we present the X-ray cry...

  15. Conserved C-Terminal Domain of Spider Tubuliform Spidroin 1 Contributes to Extensibility in Synthetic Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnesa, Eric; Hsia, Yang; Yarger, Jeffery L.; Weber, Warner; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff; Tang, Simon; Agari, Kimiko; Vierra, Craig (AZU); (Pacific)

    2012-05-24

    Spider silk is renowned for its extraordinary mechanical properties, having a balance of high tensile strength and extensibility. To date, the majority of studies have focused on the production of dragline silks from synthetic spider silk gene products. Here we report the first mechanical analysis of synthetic egg case silk fibers spun from the Latrodectus hesperus tubuliform silk proteins, TuSp1 and ECP-2. We provide evidence that recombinant ECP-2 proteins can be spun into fibers that display mechanical properties similar to other synthetic spider silks. We also demonstrate that silks spun from recombinant thioredoxin-TuSp1 fusion proteins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain exhibit increased extensibility and toughness when compared to the identical fibers spun from fusion proteins lacking the C-terminus. Mechanical analyses reveal that the properties of synthetic tubuliform silks can be modulated by altering the postspin draw ratios of the fibers. Fibers subject to increased draw ratios showed elevated tensile strength and decreased extensibility but maintained constant toughness. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction studies indicate that postdrawn fibers containing the C-terminal domain of TuSp1 have more amorphous content when compared to fibers lacking the C-terminus. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that recombinant tubuliform spidroins that contain the conserved C-terminal domain with embedded protein tags can be effectively spun into fibers, resulting in similar tensile strength but increased extensibility relative to nontagged recombinant dragline silk proteins spun from equivalently sized proteins.

  16. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal domain of the bacteriophage T7 fibre protein gp17, consisting of amino acids 371–553, has been crystallized. Diffraction data have been obtained to around 2.0 Å resolution from two different crystal forms. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress. Bacteriophage T7 attaches to its host using the C-terminal domains of its six fibres, which are trimers of the gp17 protein. A C-terminal fragment of gp17 consisting of amino acids 371–553 has been expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of two forms were obtained, belonging to space group P212121 (unit-cell parameters a = 61.2, b = 86.0, c = 118.4 Å) and space group C2221 (unit-cell parameters a = 68.3, b = 145.6, c = 172.1 Å). They diffracted to 1.9 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. Both crystals are expected to contain one trimer in the asymmetric unit. Multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing with a mercury derivative is in progress

  17. Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II consists of three subspecies, designated II0, II/sub A/, and II/sub B/, which differ in the apparent M/sub r/ of their largest subunit, IIo, IIa, and IIb, respectively. Subunits IIo, IIa, and IIb are the products of a single gene. Subunit IIa (IIo) has been shown to contain an unusual C-terminal domain composed of 52 repeats of a seven amino acid block with the consensus sequence tyr-ser-pro-thr-ser-pro-ser. In an effort to purify the C-terminal domain, purified calf thymus RNA polymerase II was cleaved with CNBr. Following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the CNBr digests were transferred and probed with IIa mono-specific antibody. A single immunoreactive peptide with an apparent M/sub r/ of 65,000 was detected. A peptide of similar M/sub r/ was found when purified subunit IIa was digested with CNBr while no immunoreactive peptide was detected in digests of subunit IIb. Purified RNA polymerase II was phosphorylated with γ[32P]-ATP in the presence of casein kinase I and 32P-labeled subunits IIa and IIo purified. CNBr clIIa revealed a major phosphopeptide with an apparent M/sub r/ of 65,000. Cleavage of 32P-labeled age of IIo revealed a broad phosphopeptide band of M/sub r/ 75,000-90,000. The C-terminal peptide from subunit IIa was purified by gel filtration on HPLC. Experiments are in progress to map in vivo phosphorylation sites within subunits IIo and IIa and to examine the effects of the purified C-terminal peptide on in vitro transcription

  18. Phosphorylation of the C-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadena, D.; Dahmus, M.E.

    1986-05-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase II consists of three subspecies, designated II/sub 0/, II/sub A/, and II/sub B/, which differ in the apparent M/sub r/ of their largest subunit, IIo, IIa, and IIb, respectively. Subunits IIo, IIa, and IIb are the products of a single gene. Subunit IIa (IIo) has been shown to contain an unusual C-terminal domain composed of 52 repeats of a seven amino acid block with the consensus sequence tyr-ser-pro-thr-ser-pro-ser. In an effort to purify the C-terminal domain, purified calf thymus RNA polymerase II was cleaved with CNBr. Following SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the CNBr digests were transferred and probed with IIa mono-specific antibody. A single immunoreactive peptide with an apparent M/sub r/ of 65,000 was detected. A peptide of similar M/sub r/ was found when purified subunit IIa was digested with CNBr while no immunoreactive peptide was detected in digests of subunit IIb. Purified RNA polymerase II was phosphorylated with ..gamma..(/sup 32/P)-ATP in the presence of casein kinase I and /sup 32/P-labeled subunits IIa and IIo purified. CNBr clIIa revealed a major phosphopeptide with an apparent M/sub r/ of 65,000. Cleavage of /sup 32/P-labeled age of IIo revealed a broad phosphopeptide band of M/sub r/ 75,000-90,000. The C-terminal peptide from subunit IIa was purified by gel filtration on HPLC. Experiments are in progress to map in vivo phosphorylation sites within subunits IIo and IIa and to examine the effects of the purified C-terminal peptide on in vitro transcription.

  19. Docking Studies of Binding of Ethambutol to the C-Terminal Domain of the Arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Guillermo Salgado-Moran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The binding of ethambutol to the C-terminal domain of the arabinosyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. The analysis was performed using an in silico approach in order to find out, by docking calculations and energy descriptors, the conformer of Ethambutol that forms the most stable complex with the C-terminal domain of arabinosyltransferase. The complex shows that location of the Ethambutol coincides with the cocrystallization ligand position and that amino acid residues ASH1051, ASN740, ASP1052, and ARG1055 should be critical in the binding of Ethambutol to C-terminal domain EmbC.

  20. The C-terminal domain of the Bloom syndrome DNA helicase is essential for genomic stability

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan James P; Yankiwski Victor; Neff Norma F

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background Bloom syndrome is a rare cancer-prone disorder in which the cells of affected persons have a high frequency of somatic mutation and genomic instability. Bloom syndrome cells have a distinctive high frequency of sister chromatid exchange and quadriradial formation. BLM, the protein altered in BS, is a member of the RecQ DNA helicase family, whose members share an average of 40% identity in the helicase domain and have divergent N-terminal and C-terminal flanking regions of ...

  1. Conserved C-terminal nascent peptide binding domain of HYPK facilitates its chaperone-like activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swasti Raychaudhuri; Rachana Banerjee; Subhasish Mukhopadhyay; Nitai P Bhattacharyya

    2014-09-01

    Human HYPK (Huntingtin Yeast-two-hybrid Protein K) is an intrinsically unstructured chaperone-like protein with no sequence homology to known chaperones. HYPK is also known to be a part of ribosome-associated protein complex and present in polysomes. The objective of the present study was to investigate the evolutionary influence on HYPK primary structure and its impact on the protein’s function. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed 105 orthologs of human HYPK from plants, lower invertebrates to mammals. C-terminal part of HYPK was found to be particularly conserved and to contain nascent polypeptide-associated alpha subunit (NPAA) domain. This region experiences highest selection pressure, signifying its importance in the structural and functional evolution. NPAA domain of human HYPK has unique amino acid composition preferring glutamic acid and happens to be more stable from a conformational point of view having higher content of -helices than the rest. Cell biology studies indicate that overexpressed C-terminal human HYPK can interact with nascent proteins, co-localizes with huntingtin, increases cell viability and decreases caspase activities in Huntington’s disease (HD) cell culture model. This domain is found to be required for the chaperone-like activity of HYPK in vivo. Our study suggested that by virtue of its flexibility and nascent peptide binding activity, HYPK may play an important role in assisting protein (re)folding.

  2. The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Akiyama, Benjamin M.; Loper, John; Najarro, Kevin; Stone, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The C-terminal domain of Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 induces multiple structural changes in telomerase RNA. Telomerase holoenzyme proteins are required to fold telomerase RNA into its active conformation. In this study, the Stone laboratory employed a combination of single-molecule FRET and RNase protection mapping to demonstrate that the C-terminal domain of the Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme protein p65 is essential for its RNA folding activity. RNase probin...

  3. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaij, Mark J. van, E-mail: vanraaij@usc.es [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hermo Parrado, X. Lois; Guardado Calvo, Pablo [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Fox, Gavin C. [Spanish CRG Beamline BM16, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Llamas-Saiz, Antonio L. [Unidad de Difracción de Rayos X, Laboratorio Integral de Dinámica y Estructura de Biomoléculas José R. Carracido, Edificio CACTUS, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Costas, Celina; Martínez-Costas, José; Benavente, Javier [Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Sur, E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6{sub 3}22 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the Zn{sup II}- and Cd{sup II}-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine.

  4. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial proteolysis of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein σC yields a major homotrimeric C-terminal fragment that presumably contains the receptor-binding domain. This fragment has been crystallized in the presence and absence of zinc sulfate and cadmium sulfate. One of the crystal forms diffracts synchrotron X-rays to 2.2–2.3 Å. Avian reovirus fibre, a homotrimer of the σC protein, is responsible for primary host-cell attachment. Using the protease trypsin, a C-terminal σC fragment containing amino acids 156–326 has been generated which was subsequently purified and crystallized. Two different crystal forms were obtained, one grown in the absence of divalent cations and belonging to space group P6322 (unit-cell parameters a = 75.6, c = 243.1 Å) and one grown in the presence of either zinc or cadmium sulfate and belonging to space group P321 (unit-cell parameters a = 74.7, c = 74.5 Å and a = 73.1, c = 69.9 Å for the ZnII- and CdII-grown crystals, respectively). The first crystal form diffracted synchrotron radiation to 3.0 Å resolution and the second form to 2.2–2.3 Å. Its closest related structure, the C-terminal fragment of mammalian reovirus fibre, has only 18% sequence identity and molecular-replacement attempts were unsuccessful. Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine

  5. Interaction of the Tim44 C-terminal domain with negatively charged phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Milit; Safonov, Roman; Amram, Shay; Avneon, Yoav; Nachliel, Esther; Gutman, Menachem; Zohary, Keren; Azem, Abdussalam; Tsfadia, Yossi

    2009-12-01

    The translocation of proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondrial matrix is mediated by the coordinated action of the TOM complex in the outer membrane, as well as the TIM23 complex and its associated protein import motor in the inner membrane. The focus of this work is the peripheral inner membrane protein Tim44. Tim44 is a vital component of the mitochondrial protein translocation motor that anchors components of the motor to the TIM23 complex. For this purpose, Tim44 associates with the import channel by direct interaction with the Tim23 protein. Additionally, it was shown in vitro that Tim44 associates with acidic model membranes, in particular those containing cardiolipin. The latter interaction was shown to be mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain of Tim44 [Weiss, C., et al. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96, 8890-8894]. The aim of this study was to determine the precise recognition site for negative lipids in the C-terminal domain of Tim44. In particular, we wanted to examine the recently suggested hypothesis that acidic phospholipids associate with Tim44 via a hydrophobic cavity that is observed in the high-resolution structure of the C-terminal domain of the protein [Josyula, R., et al. (2006) J. Mol. Biol. 359, 798-804]. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that (i) the hydrophobic tail of lipids may interact with Tim44 via the latter's hydrophobic cavity and (ii) a region, located in the N-terminal alpha-helix of the C-terminal domain (helices A1 and A2), may serve as a membrane attachment site. To validate this assumption, N-terminal truncations of yeast Tim44 were examined for their ability to bind cardiolipin-containing phospholipid vesicles. The results indicate that removal of the N-terminal alpha-helix (helix A1) abolishes the capacity of Tim44 to associate with cardiolipin-containing liposomes. We suggest that helices A1 and A2, in Tim44, jointly promote the association of the protein with acidic phospholipids. PMID:19863062

  6. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Heeyoun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Eun [Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Sup, E-mail: jsplee@mail.chosun.ac.kr [Department of Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Weontae, E-mail: wlee@spin.yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 has a compact {beta}-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residues in the {beta}3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel {beta}-strands with a unique fold that has a compact {beta}-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe{sup 3+}). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates

  7. Solution structure and dynamics of C-terminal regulatory domain of Vibrio vulnificus extracellular metalloprotease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We have determined solution structures of vEP C-terminal regulatory domain. ► vEP C-ter100 has a compact β-barrel structure with eight anti-parallel β-strands. ► Solution structure of vEP C-ter100 shares its molecular topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase. ► Residues in the β3 region of vEP C-ter100 might be important in putative ligand/receptor binding. ► vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron ion. -- Abstract: An extracellular metalloprotease (vEP) secreted by Vibrio vulnificus ATCC29307 is a 45-kDa proteolytic enzyme that has prothrombin activation and fibrinolytic activities during bacterial infection. The action of vEP could result in clotting that could serve to protect the bacteria from the host defense machinery. Very recently, we showed that the C-terminal propeptide (C-ter100), which is unique to vEP, is involved in regulation of vEP activity. To understand the structural basis of this function of vEP C-ter100, we have determined the solution structure and backbone dynamics using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The solution structure shows that vEP C-ter100 is composed of eight anti-parallel β-strands with a unique fold that has a compact β-barrel formation which stabilized by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding networks. Protein dynamics shows that the overall structure, including loops, is very rigid and stabilized. By structural database analysis, we found that vEP C-ter100 shares its topology with that of the collagen-binding domain of collagenase, despite low sequence homology between the two domains. Fluorescence assay reveals that vEP C-ter100 interacts strongly with iron (Fe3+). These findings suggest that vEP protease might recruit substrate molecules, such as collagen, by binding at C-ter100 and that vEP participates in iron uptake from iron-withholding proteins of the host cell during infection.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of CCM3 in complex with the C-terminal domain of MST4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complex of CCM3 and the C-terminal domain of MST4 has been successfully constructed, purified and crystallized. The crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.4 Å. MST4 is a member of the GCKIII kinases. The interaction between cerebral cavernous malformation 3 (CCM3) and GCKIII kinases plays a critical role in cardiovascular development and in cerebral cavernous malformations. The complex of CCM3 and the C-terminal domain of MST4 has been constructed, purified and crystallized, and a diffraction data set has been collected to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal of the CCM3–MST4 C-terminal domain complex belonged to space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.10, b = 69.10, c = 117.57 Å

  9. Peptide library approach to uncover phosphomimetic inhibitors of the BRCA1 C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E Railey; Sun, Luxin; Ma, Zhong; Beckta, Jason M; Danzig, Brittany A; Hacker, David E; Huie, Melissa; Williams, David C; Edwards, Ross A; Valerie, Kristoffer; Glover, J N Mark; Hartman, Matthew C T

    2015-05-15

    Many intracellular protein-protein interactions are mediated by the phosphorylation of serine, and phosphoserine-containing peptides can inhibit these interactions. However, hydrolysis of the phosphate by phosphatases, and the poor cell permeability associated with phosphorylated peptides has limited their utility in cellular and in vivo contexts. Compounding the problem, strategies to replace phosphoserine in peptide inhibitors with easily accessible mimetics (such as Glu or Asp) routinely fail. Here, we present an in vitro selection strategy for replacement of phosphoserine. Using mRNA display, we created a 10 trillion member structurally diverse unnatural peptide library. From this library, we found a peptide that specifically binds to the C-terminal domain (BRCT)2 of breast cancer associated protein 1 (BRCA1) with an affinity comparable to phosphorylated peptides. A crystal structure of the peptide bound reveals that the pSer-x-x-Phe motif normally found in BRCA1 (BRCT)2 binding partners is replaced by a Glu-x-x-4-fluoroPhe and that the peptide picks up additional contacts on the protein surface not observed in cognate phosphopeptide binding. Expression of the peptide in human cells led to defects in DNA repair by homologous recombination, a process BRCA1 is known to coordinate. Overall, this work validates a new in vitro selection approach for the development of inhibitors of protein-protein interactions mediated by serine phosphorylation. PMID:25654734

  10. A C-terminal PDZ domain-binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar;

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling dopamine transporter levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. The dopamine transporters contain a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain-binding sequenc...

  11. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF) aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Obayashi, Masato; Ishiguro, Taro; Sato, Nozomu; Niimi, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kokoro; Mogushi, Kaoru; Mahmut, Yasen; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tsuruta, Fuminori; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; Yamada, Mitsunori; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takeo; Mori, Osamu; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Ishikawa, Kinya

    2013-01-01

    The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1) is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C)-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q) tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF) containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (r)CTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range) than with Q13 (normal-length). Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB) in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei. PMID:23505410

  12. Cytoplasmic location of α1A voltage-gated calcium channel C-terminal fragment (Cav2.1-CTF aggregate is sufficient to cause cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Takahashi

    Full Text Available The human α1A voltage-dependent calcium channel (Cav2.1 is a pore-forming essential subunit embedded in the plasma membrane. Its cytoplasmic carboxyl(C-tail contains a small poly-glutamine (Q tract, whose length is normally 4∼19 Q, but when expanded up to 20∼33Q, the tract causes an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6. A recent study has shown that a 75-kDa C-terminal fragment (CTF containing the polyQ tract remains soluble in normal brains, but becomes insoluble mainly in the cytoplasm with additional localization to the nuclei of human SCA6 Purkinje cells. However, the mechanism by which the CTF aggregation leads to neurodegeneration is completely elusive, particularly whether the CTF exerts more toxicity in the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. We tagged recombinant (rCTF with either nuclear-localization or nuclear-export signal, created doxycyclin-inducible rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell lines, and found that the CTF is more toxic in the cytoplasm than in the nucleus, the observations being more obvious with Q28 (disease range than with Q13 (normal-length. Surprisingly, the CTF aggregates co-localized both with cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and phosphorylated-CREB (p-CREB in the cytoplasm, and Western blot analysis showed that the quantity of CREB and p-CREB were both decreased in the nucleus when the rCTF formed aggregates in the cytoplasm. In human brains, polyQ aggregates also co-localized with CREB in the cytoplasm of SCA6 Purkinje cells, but not in other conditions. Collectively, the cytoplasmic Cav2.1-CTF aggregates are sufficient to cause cell death, and one of the pathogenic mechanisms may be abnormal CREB trafficking in the cytoplasm and reduced CREB and p-CREB levels in the nuclei.

  13. Crystal Structure and Mode of Helicase Binding of the C-Terminal Domain of Primase from Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rehman, Syed Arif; Verma, Vijay; Mazumder, Mohit; Dhar, Suman K.; Gourinath, S.

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the poor conservation of the helicase binding domain of primases (DnaGs) among the eubacteria, we determined the crystal structure of the Helicobacter pylori DnaG C-terminal domain (HpDnaG-CTD) at 1.78 Å. The structure has a globular subdomain connected to a helical hairpin. Structural comparison has revealed that globular subdomains, despite the variation in number of helices, have broadly similar arrangements across the species, whereas helical hairpins show different o...

  14. Properties and catalytic activities of MICAL1, the flavoenzyme involved in cytoskeleton dynamics, and modulation by its CH, LIM and C-terminal domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Teresa; Maffioli, Elisa; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Vanoni, Maria A

    2016-03-01

    MICAL1 is a cytoplasmic 119 kDa protein participating in cytoskeleton dynamics through the NADPH-dependent oxidase and F-actin depolymerizing activities of its N-terminal flavoprotein domain, which is followed by calponin homology (CH), LIM domains and a C-terminal region with Pro-, Glu-rich and coiled-coil motifs. MICAL1 and truncated forms lacking the C-terminal, LIM and/or CH regions have been produced and characterized. The CH, LIM and C-terminal regions cause an increase of Km,NADPH exhibited by the NADPH oxidase activity of the flavoprotein domain, paralleling changes in the overall protein charge. The C-terminus also determines a ∼ 10-fold decrease of kcat, revealing its role in establishing an inactive/active conformational equilibrium, which is at the heart of the regulation of MICAL1 in cells. F-actin lowers Km,NADPH (10-50 μM) and increases kcat (10-25 s(-1)) to similar values for all MICAL forms. The apparent Km,actin of MICAL1 is ∼ 10-fold higher than that of the other forms (3-5 μM), reflecting the fact that F-actin binds to the flavoprotein domain in the MICAL's active conformation and stabilizes it. Analyses of the reaction in the presence of F-actin indicate that actin depolymerization is mediated by H2O2 produced by the NADPH oxidase reaction, rather than due to direct hydroxylation of actin methionine residues. PMID:26845023

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal RNase III domain of human Dicer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal RNase III domain (RNase IIIb) of human Dicer has been expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Human Dicer protein contains two RNase III domains (RNase IIIa and RNase IIIb) which are involved in the production of short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The C-terminal RNase III domain (RNase IIIb) of human Dicer was expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.6, b = 199.7, c = 119.6 Å, and diffracted X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained three molecules of the RNase IIIb and the solvent content was 67%

  16. Solution structure, hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the UvrB C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrovich, A; Czisch, M; Frenkiel, T A; Kelly, G P; Goosen, N; Moolenaar, G F; Chowdhry, B Z; Sanderson, M R; Lane, A N

    2001-10-01

    The solution structure, thermodynamic stability and hydrodynamic properties of the 55-residue C-terminal domain of UvrB that interacts with UvrC during excision repair in E. coli have been determined using a combination of high resolution NMR, ultracentrifugation, 15N NMR relaxation, gel permeation, NMR diffusion, circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. The subunit molecular weight is 7,438 kDa., compared with 14.5+/-1.0 kDa. determined by equilibrium sedimentation, indicating a dimeric structure. The structure determined from NMR showed a stable dimer of anti-parallel helical hairpins that associate in an unusual manner, with a small and hydrophobic interface. The Stokes radius of the protein decreases from a high plateau value (ca. 22 A) at protein concentrations greater than 4 microM to about 18 A at concentrations less than 0.1 microM. The concentration and temperature-dependence of the far UV circular dichroism show that the protein is thermally stable (Tm ca. 71.5 degrees C at 36 microM). The simplest model consistent with these data was a dimer dissociating into folded monomers that then unfolds co-operatively. The van't Hoff enthalpy and dissociation constant for both transition was derived by fitting, with deltaH1=23 kJ mol(-1). K1(298)=0.4 microM and deltaH2= 184 kJ mol(-1). This is in good agreement with direct calorimetric analysis of the thermal unfolding of the protein, which gave a calorimetric enthalpy change of 181 kJ mol(-1) and a van't Hoff enthalpy change of 354 kJ mol(-1), confirming the dimer to monomer unfolding. The thermodynamic data can be reconciled with the observed mode of dimerisation. 15N NMR relaxation measurements at 14.1 T and 11.75 T confirmed that the protein behaves as an asymmetric dimer at mM concentrations, with a flexible N-terminal linker for attachment to the remainder of the UvrB protein. The role of dimerisation of this domain in the excision repair mechanism is discussed. PMID:11697728

  17. Both the RGS Domain and the Six C-Terminal Amino Acids of Mouse Axin Are Required for Normal Embryogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chia, Ian V.; Kim, Min Jung; Itoh, Keiji; Sokol, Sergei Y.; Costantini, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Axin is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, which promotes the degradation of β-catenin, the major effector in this signaling cascade. While many protein-binding domains of Axin have been identified, their significance has not been evaluated in vivo. Here, we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying modified Axin alleles in which either the RGS domain or the six C-terminal amino acids (C6 motif) were deleted. The RGS domain is required for APC-binding, while the C6 mot...

  18. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R.; Kolluru D Srikanth; Praveen Anand; Javed Naikoo; Srilatha, N. S.; Rao, Desirazu N.

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been ...

  19. A C-terminal PDZ domain binding sequence is required for striatal distribution of the dopamine transporter

    OpenAIRE

    Rickhag, Mattias; Hansen, Freja Herborg; Sørensen, Gunnar; Strandfelt, Kristine Nørgaard; Andresen, Bjørn; Gotfryd, Kamil; Madsen, Kenneth L; Vestergaard-Klewe, Ib; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Eriksen, Jacob; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Gomeza, Jesus; Woldbye, David P.D.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates reuptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft. The cellular mechanisms controlling DAT levels in striatal nerve terminals remain poorly understood. DAT contains a C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO-1) domain binding sequence believed to bind synaptic scaffolding proteins, but its functional significance is uncertain. Here we demonstrate that two different DAT knock-in mice with disrupted PDZ-binding motifs (DAT-AAA and DAT+Ala) are characterized by dr...

  20. Conformational effects of a common codon 751 polymorphism on the C-terminal domain of the xeroderma pigmentosum D protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaco Regina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The xeroderma pigmentosum D (XPD protein is a DNA helicase involved in the repair of DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair (NER and transcription-coupled repair (TCR. The C-terminal domain of XPD has been implicated in interactions with other components of the TFIIH complex, and it is also the site of a common genetic polymorphism in XPD at amino acid residue 751 (Lys->Gln. Some evidence suggests that this polymorphism may alter DNA repair capacity and increase cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects could be attributable to conformational changes in XPD induced by the polymorphism. Materials and Methods: Molecular dynamics techniques were used to predict the structure of the wild-type and polymorphic forms of the C-terminal domain of XPD and differences in structure produced by the polymorphic substitution were determined. Results: The results indicate that, although the general configuration of both proteins is similar, the substitution produces a significant conformational change immediately N-terminal to the site of the polymorphism. Conclusion: These results provide support for the hypothesis that this polymorphism in XPD could affect DNA repair capability, and hence cancer risk, by altering the structure of the C-terminal domain.

  1. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendradhar R Dwivedi

    Full Text Available DNA processing protein A (DprA plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA and double stranded DNA (dsDNA. Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed.

  2. Insights into the Functional Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains of Helicobacter pylori DprA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Gajendradhar R; Srikanth, Kolluru D; Anand, Praveen; Naikoo, Javed; Srilatha, N S; Rao, Desirazu N

    2015-01-01

    DNA processing protein A (DprA) plays a crucial role in the process of natural transformation. This is accomplished through binding and subsequent protection of incoming foreign DNA during the process of internalization. DprA along with Single stranded DNA binding protein A (SsbA) acts as an accessory factor for RecA mediated DNA strand exchange. H. pylori DprA (HpDprA) is divided into an N-terminal domain and a C- terminal domain. In the present study, individual domains of HpDprA have been characterized for their ability to bind single stranded (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Oligomeric studies revealed that HpDprA possesses two sites for dimerization which enables HpDprA to form large and tightly packed complexes with ss and dsDNA. While the N-terminal domain was found to be sufficient for binding with ss or ds DNA, C-terminal domain has an important role in the assembly of poly-nucleoprotein complex. Using site directed mutagenesis approach, we show that a pocket comprising positively charged amino acids in the N-terminal domain has an important role in the binding of ss and dsDNA. Together, a functional cross talk between the two domains of HpDprA facilitating the binding and formation of higher order complex with DNA is discussed. PMID:26135134

  3. Mode of inhibition of HIV-1 Integrase by a C-terminal domain-specific monoclonal antibody*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkel George

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To further our understanding of the structure and function of HIV-1 integrase (IN we developed and characterized a library of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs directed against this protein. One of these antibodies, mAb33, which is specific for the C-terminal domain, was found to inhibit HIV-1 IN processing activity in vitro; a corresponding Fv fragment was able to inhibit HIV-1 integration in vivo. Our subsequent studies, using heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, identified six solvent accessible residues on the surface of the C-terminal domain that were immobilized upon binding of the antibody, which were proposed to comprise the epitope. Here we test this hypothesis by measuring the affinity of mAb33 to HIV-1 proteins that contain Ala substitutions in each of these positions. To gain additional insight into the mode of inhibition we also measured the DNA binding capacity and enzymatic activities of the Ala substituted proteins. Results We found that Ala substitution of any one of five of the putative epitope residues, F223, R224, Y226, I267, and I268, caused a decrease in the affinity of the mAb33 for HIV-1 IN, confirming the prediction from NMR data. Although IN derivatives with Ala substitutions in or near the mAb33 epitope exhibited decreased enzymatic activity, none of the epitope substitutions compromised DNA binding to full length HIV-1 IN, as measured by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Two of these derivatives, IN (I276A and IN (I267A/I268A, exhibited both increased DNA binding affinity and uncharacteristic dissociation kinetics; these proteins also exhibited non-specific nuclease activity. Results from these investigations are discussed in the context of current models for how the C-terminal domain interacts with substrate DNA. Conclusion It is unlikely that inhibition of HIV-1 IN activity by mAb33 is caused by direct interaction with residues that are essential for substrate binding. Rather

  4. Probing the Impact of the EchinT C-Terminal Domain on Structure and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S Bardaweel; J Pace; T Chou; V Cody; C Wagner

    2011-12-31

    Histidine triad nucleotide binding protein (Hint) is considered as the ancestor of the histidine triad protein superfamily and is highly conserved from bacteria to humans. Prokaryote genomes, including a wide array of both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, typically encode one Hint gene. The cellular function of Hint and the rationale for its evolutionary conservation in bacteria have remained a mystery. Despite its ubiquity and high sequence similarity to eukaryote Hint1 [Escherichia coli Hint (echinT) is 48% identical with human Hint1], prokaryote Hint has been reported in only a few studies. Here we report the first conformational information on the full-length N-terminal and C-terminal residues of Hint from the E. coli complex with GMP. Structural analysis of the echinT-GMP complex reveals that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} with four homodimers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of electron density for both the N-terminal residues and the C-terminal residues of the echinT-GMP complex indicates that the loops in some monomers can adopt more than one conformation. The observation of conformational flexibility in terminal loop regions could explain the presence of multiple homodimers in the asymmetric unit of this structure. To explore the impact of the echinT C-terminus on protein structure and catalysis, we conducted a series of catalytic radiolabeling and kinetic experiments on the C-terminal deletion mutants of echinT. In this study, we show that sequential deletion of the C-terminus likely has no effect on homodimerization and a modest effect on the secondary structure of echinT. However, we observed a significant impact on the folding structure, as reflected by a significant lowering of the T{sub m} value. Kinetic analysis reveals that the C-terminal deletion mutants are within an order of magnitude less efficient in catalysis compared to wild type, while the overall kinetic mechanism that proceeds through a fast step

  5. Structure of the C-terminal heme-binding domain of THAP domain containing protein 4 from Homo sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, Christopher M.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N. (UW)

    2012-03-15

    The thanatos (the Greek god of death)-associated protein (THAP) domain is a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that contains a C2-CH (Cys-Xaa{sub 2-4}-Cys-Xaa{sub 35-50}-Cys-Xaa{sub 2}-His) zinc finger that is similar to the DNA domain of the P element transposase from Drosophila. THAP-containing proteins have been observed in the proteome of humans, pigs, cows, chickens, zebrafish, Drosophila, C. elegans, and Xenopus. To date, there are no known THAP domain proteins in plants, yeast, or bacteria. There are 12 identified human THAP domain-containing proteins (THAP0-11). In all human THAP protein, the THAP domain is located at the N-terminus and is {approx}90 residues in length. Although all of the human THAP-containing proteins have a homologous N-terminus, there is extensive variation in both the predicted structure and length of the remaining protein. Even though the exact function of these THAP proteins is not well defined, there is evidence that they play a role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, chromatin modification, and transcriptional regulation. THAP-containing proteins have also been implicated in a number of human disease states including heart disease, neurological defects, and several types of cancers. Human THAP4 is a 577-residue protein of unknown function that is proposed to bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner similar to THAP1 and has been found to be upregulated in response to heat shock. THAP4 is expressed in a relatively uniform manner in a broad range of tissues and appears to be upregulated in lymphoma cells and highly expressed in heart cells. The C-terminal domain of THAP4 (residues 415-577), designated here as cTHAP4, is evolutionarily conserved and is observed in all known THAP4 orthologs. Several single-domain proteins lacking a THAP domain are found in plants and bacteria and show significant levels of homology to cTHAP4. It appears that cTHAP4 belongs to a large class of proteins that have yet to be fully

  6. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the C-terminal domain of outer membrane protein A from enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, recombinant OmpAC from EHEC was purified and crystallized and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.7 Å resolution. Outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) plays multiple roles in bacterial physiology and pathogenesis, such as mediation of bacterial conjunction, maintenance of cell shape, induction of adhesion of EHEC to host cells etc. Better understanding of the functions of OmpA will help in the control of EHEC infections. OmpA is composed of two domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal domain is a β-barrel structure and embeds in the outer membrane of the bacterium. The structure and function of the C-terminal domain of OmpA (OmpAC) remain elusive. In this study, recombinant OmpAC from EHEC was purified and crystallized and a diffraction data set was collected to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group I4132, with unit-cell parameter a = 158.99 Å. The Matthews coefficient and solvent content were calculated to be 2.55 Å3 Da−1 and 51.77%, respectively, for two molecules in the asymmetric unit

  7. The C-terminal domain of Cernunnos/XLF is dispensable for DNA repair in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malivert, Laurent; Callebaut, Isabelle; Rivera-Munoz, Paola; Fischer, Alain; Mornon, Jean-Paul; Revy, Patrick; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre

    2009-03-01

    The core nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair pathway is composed of seven factors: Ku70, Ku80, DNA-PKcs, Artemis, XRCC4 (X4), DNA ligase IV (L4), and Cernunnos/XLF (Cernunnos). Although Cernunnos and X4 are structurally related and participate in the same complex together with L4, they have distinct functions during DNA repair. L4 relies on X4 but not on Cernunnos for its stability, and L4 is required for optimal interaction of Cernunnos with X4. We demonstrate here, using in vitro-generated Cernunnos mutants and a series of functional assays in vivo, that the C-terminal region of Cernunnos is dispensable for its activity during DNA repair. PMID:19103754

  8. Evidence against extracellular exposure of a highly immunogenic region in the C-terminal domain of the simian immunodeficiency virus gp41 transmembrane protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postler, Thomas S; Martinez-Navio, José M; Yuste, Eloísa; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    The generally accepted model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein topology includes a single membrane-spanning domain. An alternate model has been proposed which features multiple membrane-spanning domains. Consistent with the alternate model, a high percentage of HIV-1-infected individuals produce unusually robust antibody responses to a region of envelope, the so-called "Kennedy epitope," that in the conventional model should be in the cytoplasm. Here we show analogous, robust antibody responses in simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques to a region of SIVmac239 envelope located in the C-terminal domain, which in the conventional model should be inside the cell. Sera from SIV-infected rhesus macaques consistently reacted with overlapping oligopeptides corresponding to a region located within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 by the generally accepted model, at intensities comparable to those observed for immunodominant areas of the surface component gp120. Rabbit serum raised against this highly immunogenic region (HIR) reacted with SIV envelope in cell surface-staining experiments, as did monoclonal anti-HIR antibodies isolated from an SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaque. However, control experiments demonstrated that this surface staining could be explained in whole or in part by the release of envelope protein from expressing cells into the supernatant and the subsequent attachment to the surfaces of cells in the culture. Serum and monoclonal antibodies directed against the HIR failed to neutralize even the highly neutralization-sensitive strain SIVmac316. Furthermore, a potential N-linked glycosylation site located close to the HIR and postulated to be outside the cell in the alternate model was not glycosylated. An artificially introduced glycosylation site within the HIR was also not utilized for glycosylation. Together, these data support the conventional model of SIV envelope as a type Ia transmembrane

  9. Interplay of positive and negative effectors in function of the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II.

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Kornberg, R D

    1994-01-01

    RNA polymerase II lacking a C-terminal domain (CTD) was active in transcription with purified proteins from yeast but failed to support transcription in a yeast extract. CTD dependence could be reconstituted in the purified system by addition of two fractions from the extract. An inhibitory fraction abolished transcription by both wild-type and CTD-less RNA polymerases; a stimulatory fraction restored activity of the wild-type polymerase but had a much lesser effect on the CTD-less enzyme. Pa...

  10. The solution structure of the C-terminal domain of the Mu B transposition protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Ling-Hong; Chaconas, George; Shaw, Gary S.

    2000-01-01

    Mu B is one of four proteins required for the strand transfer step of bacteriophage Mu DNA transposition and the only one where no high resolution structural data is available. Structural work on Mu B has been hampered primarily by solubility problems and its tendency to aggregate. We have overcome this problem by determination of the three-dimensional structure of the C-terminal domain of Mu B (B223–312) in 1.5 M NaCl using NMR spectroscopic methods. The structure of Mu B223–312 comprises fo...

  11. Biochemical analysis of the interactions of IQGAP1 C-terminal domain with CDC42

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; F; Elliott; George; Allen; David; J; Timson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To understand the interaction of human IQGAP1 and CDC42,especially the effects of phosphorylation and a cancer-associated mutation. METHODS:Recombinant CDC42 and a novel C-termi- nal fragment of IQGAP1 were expressed in,and puri- fied from,Escherichia coli.Site directed mutagenesis was used to create coding sequences for three phos- phomimicking variants(S1441E,S1443D and S1441E/ S1443D)and to recapitulate a cancer-associated mu- tation(M1231I).These variant proteins were also ex- pressed and purified.Protein-protein crosslinking using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide was used to investigate interactions between the C-terminal fragment and CDC42.These interactions were quanti- fied using surface plasmon resonance measurements.Molecular modelling was employed to make predictions about changes to the structure and flexibility of the protein which occur in the cancer-associated variant. RESULTS:The novel,C-terminal region of human IQGAP1 (residues 877-1558)is soluble following expression and purification.It is also capable of binding to CDC42,as judged by crosslinking experiments.Interaction appears to be strongest in the presence of added GTP.The three phosphomimicking mutants had different affini- ties for CDC42.S1441E had an approximately 200-fold reduction in affinity compared to wild type.This was caused largely by a dramatic reduction in the associa- tion rate constant.In contrast,both S1443D and the double variant S1441E/S1443D had similar affinities to the wild type.The cancer-associated variant,M1231I, also had a similar affinity to wild type.However,in the case of this variant,both the association and dis- sociation rate constants were reduced approximately 10-fold.Molecular modelling of the M1231I variant, based on the published crystal structure of part of the C-terminal region,revealed no gross structural changes compared to wild type(root mean square deviation of 0.564over 5556 equivalent atoms).However,pre- dictions of the

  12. Solution structure of the dimeric cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, J; Lee, W; Lee, D;

    2001-01-01

    cytoplasmic domain is dependent on its oligomeric status, the conformation of the syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain itself is important in the understanding of its biological roles. Gel filtration results show that the syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain (4L) itself forms a dimer stabilized by ionic interactions...... is affected by the presence of C1 and C2 regions. Therefore, we propose that although the 4V region in the full cytoplasmic domain has a tendency for strong peptide--peptide interaction, it may not be enough to overcome the repulsion of the C1 regions of syndecan-4L....

  13. Expression, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid protein C-terminal domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal domain of mouse hepatitis virus nucleocapsid protein has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystal belonged to space group P422, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.6, c = 50.8 Å, and diffracted to 2.20 Å resolution. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) belongs to the group II coronaviruses. The virus produces nine genes encoding 11 proteins that could be recognized as structural proteins and nonstructural proteins and are crucial for viral RNA synthesis. The nucleocapsid (N) protein, one of the structural proteins, interacts with the 30.4 kb virus genomic RNA to form the helical nucleocapsid and associates with the membrane glycoprotein via its C-terminus to stabilize virion assembly. Here, the expression and crystallization of the MHV nucleocapsid protein C-terminal domain are reported. The crystals diffracted to 2.20 Å resolution and belonged to space group P422, with unit-cell parameters a = 66.6, c = 50.8 Å. Assuming the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 43.0% (VM = 2.16 Å3 Da−1)

  14. Crystallization of the C-terminal domain of the mouse brain cytosolic long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized by vapour diffusion. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution. The mammalian long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase, the enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to free fatty acids, contains two fused 4HBT (4-hydroxybenzoyl-CoA thioesterase) motifs. The C-terminal domain of the mouse long-chain acyl-CoA thioesterase (Acot7) has been expressed in bacteria and crystallized. The crystals were obtained by vapour diffusion using PEG 2000 MME as precipitant at pH 7.0 and 290 K. The crystals have the symmetry of space group R32 (unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.83, c = 99.82 Å, γ = 120°). Two molecules are expected in the asymmetric unit. The crystals diffract to 2.4 Å resolution using the laboratory X-ray source and are suitable for crystal structure determination

  15. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca2+-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Anja; Eckrich, Stephanie; Vandael, David H.; Schönig, Kai; Koschak, Alexandra; Hecker, Dietmar; Kaur, Gurjot; Lee, Amy; Sah, Anupam; Bartsch, Dusan; Benedetti, Bruno; Lieb, Andreas; Schick, Bernhard; Singewald, Nicolas; Sinnegger-Brauns, Martina J.; Carbone, Emilio; Engel, Jutta; Striessnig, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+-channel function is regulated by a C-terminal automodulatory domain (CTM). It affects channel binding of calmodulin and thereby tunes channel activity by interfering with Ca2+- and voltage-dependent gating. Alternative splicing generates short C-terminal channel variants lacking the CTM resulting in enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation and stronger voltage-sensitivity upon heterologous expression. However, the role of this modulatory domain for channel function in its native environment is unkown. To determine its functional significance in vivo, we interrupted the CTM with a hemagglutinin tag in mutant mice (Cav1.3DCRDHA/HA). Using these mice we provide biochemical evidence for the existence of long (CTM-containing) and short (CTM-deficient) Cav1.3 α1-subunits in brain. The long (HA-labeled) Cav1.3 isoform was present in all ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells. CTM-elimination impaired Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+-currents in hair cells but increased it in chromaffin cells, resulting in hyperpolarized resting potentials and reduced pacemaking. CTM disruption did not affect hearing thresholds. We show that the modulatory function of the CTM is affected by its native environment in different cells and thus occurs in a cell-type specific manner in vivo. It stabilizes gating properties of Cav1.3 channels required for normal electrical excitability. PMID:26379493

  16. Cell-type-specific tuning of Cav1.3 Ca2+-channels by a C-terminal automodulatory domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja eScharinger

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cav1.3 L-type Ca2+-channel function is regulated by a C-terminal automodulatory domain (CTM. It affects channel binding of calmodulin and thereby tunes channel activity by interfering with Ca2+- and voltage-dependent gating. Alternative splicing generates short C-terminal channel variants lacking the CTM resulting in enhanced Ca2+-dependent inactivation and stronger voltage-sensitivity upon heterologous expression. However, the role of this modulatory domain for channel function in its native environment is unkown. To determine its functional significance in vivo, we interrupted the CTM with a hemagglutinin tag in mutant mice (Cav1.3DCRDHA/HA. Using these mice we provide biochemical evidence for the existence of long (CTM-containing and short (CTM-deficient Cav1.3 α1-subunits in brain. The long (HA-labeled Cav1.3 isoform was present in all ribbon synapses of cochlear inner hair cells. CTM-elimination impaired Ca2+-dependent inactivation of Ca2+-currents in hair cells but increased it in chromaffin cells, resulting in hyperpolarized resting potentials and reduced pacemaking. CTM disruption did not affect hearing thresholds. We show that the modulatory function of the CTM is affected by its native environment in different cells and thus occurs in a cell-type specific manner in vivo. It is required to stabilize gating properties of Cav1.3 channels required for normal electrical excitability.

  17. Solution structure of the THAP domain from Caenorhabditis elegans C-terminal binding protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chu Kong; Crossley, Merlin; Mackay, Joel P; Nicholas, Hannah R

    2007-02-16

    The THAP (Thanatos-associated protein) domain is a recently discovered zinc-binding domain found in proteins involved in transcriptional regulation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis and chromatin modification. It contains a single zinc atom ligated by cysteine and histidine residues within a Cys-X(2-4)-Cys-X(35-53)-Cys-X(2)-His consensus. We have determined the NMR solution structure of the THAP domain from Caenorhabditis elegans C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) and show that it adopts a fold containing a treble clef motif, bearing similarity to the zinc finger-associated domain (ZAD) from Drosophila Grauzone. The CtBP THAP domain contains a large, positively charged surface patch and we demonstrate that this domain can bind to double-stranded DNA in an electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. These data, together with existing reports, indicate that THAP domains might exhibit a functional diversity similar to that observed for classical and GATA-type zinc fingers. PMID:17174978

  18. C-terminal domain of SMYD3 serves as a unique HSP90-regulated motif in oncogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, June; Das, Chhaya; Zhu, Li; Edwards, Melissa; Shaaban, Salam; Tucker, Haley

    2015-01-01

    The SMYD3 histone methyl transferase (HMTase) and the nuclear chaperone, HSP90, have been independently implicated as proto-oncogenes in several human malignancies. We show that a degenerate tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-like domain encoded in the SMYD3 C-terminal domain (CTD) mediates physical interaction with HSP90. We further demonstrate that the CTD of SMYD3 is essential for its basal HMTase activity and that the TPR-like structure is required for HSP90-enhanced enzyme activity. Loss of SMYD3-HSP90 interaction leads to SMYD3 mislocalization within the nucleus, thereby losing its chromatin association. This results in reduction of SMYD3-mediated cell proliferation and, potentially, impairment of SMYD3′s oncogenic activity. These results suggest a novel approach for blocking HSP90-driven malignancy in SMYD3-overexpressing cells with a reduced toxicity profile over current HSP90 inhibitors. PMID:25738358

  19. The BARD1 C-Terminal Domain Structure and Interactions with Polyadenylation Factor CstF-50

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ross A.; Lee, Megan S.; Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Williams, R. Scott; Tainer, John A.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-07-13

    The BARD1 N-terminal RING domain binds BRCA1 while the BARD1 C-terminal ankyrin and tandem BRCT repeat domains bind CstF-50 to modulate mRNA processing and RNAP II stability in response to DNA damage. Here we characterize the BARD1 structural biochemistry responsible for CstF- 50 binding. The crystal structure of the BARD1 BRCT domain uncovers a degenerate phosphopeptide binding pocket lacking the key arginine required for phosphopeptide interactions in other BRCT proteins.Small angle X-ray scattering together with limited proteolysis results indicates that ankyrin and BRCT domains are linked by a flexible tether and do not adopt a fixed orientation relative to one another. Protein pull-down experiments utilizing a series of purified BARD1 deletion mutants indicate that interactions between the CstF-50 WD-40 domain and BARD1 involve the ankyrin-BRCT linker but do not require ankyrin or BRCT domains. The structural plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker helps to explain the regulated assembly of different protein BARD1 complexes with distinct functions in DNA damage signaling including BARD1-dependent induction of apoptosis plus p53 stabilization and interactions. BARD1 architecture and plasticity imparted by the ANK-BRCT linker are suitable to allow the BARD1 C-terminus to act as a hub with multiple binding sites to integrate diverse DNA damage signals directly to RNA polymerase.

  20. Solution structure of N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav and the recognition site for Grb2 C-terminal SH3 domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal SH3 domain (residues 583-660) of murine Vav, which contains a tetra-proline sequence (Pro 607-Pro 610), was determined by NMR. The solution structure of the SH3 domain shows a typical SH3 fold, but it exists in two conformations due to cis-trans isomerization at the Gly614-Pro615 bond. The NMR structure of the P615G mutant, where Pro615 is replaced by glycine, reveals that the tetra-proline region is inserted into the RT-loop and binds to its own SH3 structure. The C-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2 specifically binds to the trans form of the N-terminal SH3 domain of Vav. The surface of Vav N-terminal SH3 which binds to Grb2 C-terminal SH3 was elucidated by chemical shift mapping experiments using NMR. The surface does not involve the tetra-proline region but involves the region comprising the n-src loop, the N-terminal and the C-terminal regions. This surface is located opposite to the tetra-proline containing region, consistent with that of our previous mutagenesis studies

  1. Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, E S; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, and the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 contains two serines (residues 197 and 198) which lie in a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by PKC. Other serine and threonine residues are present but not in a consensus...... sequence. We investigated phosphorylation of syndecan-2 cytoplasmic domain by PKC, using purified GST-syndecan-2 fusion proteins and synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the cytoplasmic domain. A synthetic peptide encompassing the entire cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 was phosphorylated by PKC...... cytoplasmic domain peptides were monomeric, with 2 mol/mol serine phosphorylation. At higher concentrations, however, the peptides formed dimers, with only 0.5 mol/mol phosphorylation. Concentration-dependent dimerization was not altered by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is, therefore, dependent on the...

  2. Solution structure of the calmodulin-like C-terminal domain of Entamoeba α-actinin2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Göran; Persson, Cecilia; Mayzel, Maxim; Hedenström, Mattias; Backman, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Cell motility is dependent on a dynamic meshwork of actin filaments that is remodelled continuously. A large number of associated proteins that are severs, cross-links, or caps the filament ends have been identified and the actin cross-linker α-actinin has been implied in several important cellular processes. In Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of human amoebiasis, α-actinin is believed to be required for infection. To better understand the role of α-actinin in the infectious process we have determined the solution structure of the C-terminal calmodulin-like domain using NMR. The final structure ensemble of the apo form shows two lobes, that both resemble other pairs of calcium-binding EF-hand motifs, connected with a mobile linker. PMID:26800385

  3. The C-terminal domain controls the mobility of Crumbs 3 isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuric, Ivona; Siebrasse, Jan Peter; Schulze, Ulf; Granado, Daniel; Schlüter, Marc A; Kubitscheck, Ulrich; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The physiological function of epithelia depends on an asymmetric distribution of their membrane domains. Polarity proteins play a crucial role for distribution processes, however, little is known about their mobility in epithelial cells. In this study, we analyzed the intracellular and plasma-membrane-associated mobility of fluorescence-labeled Crb3A and Crb3B. Both variants belong to the Crumbs protein family, which control size and identity of apical membranes in epithelial cells. Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching measurements revealed different mobilities for the two Crb3 variants. They also differentially affected mobility and localization of the Pals1/Mpp5 protein, which binds to Crb3A but not to Crb3B. In addition, tracking of intracellular vesicles indicated that Crb3A containing vesicles are slightly more immobile than Crb3B ones. Taken together, our data revealed different intracellular mobility patterns for Crb3A and Crb3B. PMID:26975581

  4. NMR-based homology model for the solution structure of the C-terminal globular domain of EMILIN1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EMILIN1 is a glycoprotein of elastic tissues that has been recently linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The protein is formed by different independently folded structural domains whose role has been partially elucidated. In this paper the solution structure, inferred from NMR-based homology modelling of the C-terminal trimeric globular C1q domain (gC1q) of EMILIN1, is reported. The high molecular weight and the homotrimeric structure of the protein required the combined use of highly deuterated 15N, 13C-labelled samples and TROSY experiments. Starting from a homology model, the protein structure was refined using heteronuclear residual dipolar couplings, chemical shift patterns, NOEs and H-exchange data. Analysis of the gC1q domain structure of EMILIN1 shows that each protomer of the trimer adopts a nine-stranded β sandwich folding topology which is related to the conformation observed for other proteins of the family. Distinguishing features, however, include a missing edge-strand and an unstructured 19-residue loop. Although the current data do not allow this loop to be precisely defined, the available evidence is consistent with a flexible segment that protrudes from each subunit of the globular trimeric assembly and plays a key role in inter-molecular interactions between the EMILIN1 gC1q homotrimer and its integrin receptor α4β1

  5. NMR-based homology model for the solution structure of the C-terminal globular domain of EMILIN1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdone, Giuliana [Istituto Biochimico Italiano ' G. Lorenzini' (Italy); Corazza, Alessandra [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche - MATI Centre of Excellence (Italy); Colebrooke, Simon A. [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Cicero, Daniel; Eliseo, Tommaso [Universita di Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Chimica (Italy); Boyd, Jonathan [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Doliana, Roberto [Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano, Divisione di Oncologia Sperimentale 2 (Italy); Fogolari, Federico; Viglino, Paolo; Colombatti, Alfonso [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche - MATI Centre of Excellence (Italy); Campbell, Iain D. [University of Oxford, Department of Biochemistry (United Kingdom); Esposito, Gennaro [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche - MATI Centre of Excellence (Italy)], E-mail: gesposito@mail.dstb.uniud.it

    2009-02-15

    EMILIN1 is a glycoprotein of elastic tissues that has been recently linked to the pathogenesis of hypertension. The protein is formed by different independently folded structural domains whose role has been partially elucidated. In this paper the solution structure, inferred from NMR-based homology modelling of the C-terminal trimeric globular C1q domain (gC1q) of EMILIN1, is reported. The high molecular weight and the homotrimeric structure of the protein required the combined use of highly deuterated {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C-labelled samples and TROSY experiments. Starting from a homology model, the protein structure was refined using heteronuclear residual dipolar couplings, chemical shift patterns, NOEs and H-exchange data. Analysis of the gC1q domain structure of EMILIN1 shows that each protomer of the trimer adopts a nine-stranded {beta} sandwich folding topology which is related to the conformation observed for other proteins of the family. Distinguishing features, however, include a missing edge-strand and an unstructured 19-residue loop. Although the current data do not allow this loop to be precisely defined, the available evidence is consistent with a flexible segment that protrudes from each subunit of the globular trimeric assembly and plays a key role in inter-molecular interactions between the EMILIN1 gC1q homotrimer and its integrin receptor {alpha}4{beta}1.

  6. The impact of the C-terminal domain on the gating properties of MscCG from Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Becker, Michael; Ebrahimian, Haleh; Konishi, Tomoyuki; Kawasaki, Hisashi; Krämer, Reinhard; Martinac, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The mechanosensitive (MS) channel MscCG from the soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum functions as a major glutamate exporter. MscCG belongs to a subfamily of the bacterial MscS-like channels, which play an important role in osmoregulation. To understand the structural and functional features of MscCG, we investigated the role of the carboxyl-terminal domain, whose relevance for the channel gating has been unknown. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG), which is a fusion protein between the carboxyl terminal domain of MscCG and the MscS channel, was examined by the patch clamp technique. We found that the chimeric channel exhibited MS channel activity in Escherichia coli spheroplasts characterized by a lower activation threshold and slow closing compared to MscS. The chimeric channel MscS-(C-MscCG) was successfully reconstituted into azolectin liposomes and exhibited gating hysteresis in a voltage-dependent manner, especially at high pipette voltages. Moreover, the channel remained open after releasing pipette pressure at membrane potentials physiologically relevant for C. glutamicum. This contribution to the gating hysteresis of the C-terminal domain of MscCG confers to the channel gating properties highly suitable for release of intracellular solutes. PMID:26494188

  7. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  8. Hepatitis B Virus Core Protein Phosphorylation Sites Affect Capsid Stability and Transient Exposure of the C-terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzer, Lisa; Kant, Ravi; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Bothner, Brian; Zlotnick, Adam

    2015-11-20

    Hepatitis B virus core protein has 183 amino acids divided into an assembly domain and an arginine-rich C-terminal domain (CTD) that regulates essential functions including genome packaging, reverse transcription, and intracellular trafficking. Here, we investigated the CTD in empty hepatitis B virus (HBV) T=4 capsids. We examined wild-type core protein (Cp183-WT) and a mutant core protein (Cp183-EEE), in which three CTD serines are replaced with glutamate to mimic phosphorylated protein. We found that Cp183-WT capsids were less stable than Cp183-EEE capsids. When we tested CTD sensitivity to trypsin, we detected two different populations of CTDs differentiated by their rate of trypsin cleavage. Interestingly, CTDs from Cp183-EEE capsids exhibited a much slower rate of proteolytic cleavage when compared with CTDs of Cp183-WT capsids. Cryo-electron microscopy studies of trypsin-digested capsids show that CTDs at five-fold symmetry vertices are most protected. We hypothesize that electrostatic interactions between glutamates and arginines in Cp183-EEE, particularly at five-fold, increase capsid stability and reduce CTD exposure. Our studies show that quasi-equivalent CTDs exhibit different rates of exposure and thus might perform distinct functions during the hepatitis B virus lifecycle. Our results demonstrate a structural role for CTD phosphorylation and indicate crosstalk between CTDs within a capsid particle. PMID:26405031

  9. Cloning, purification and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal domain of Helicobacter pylori MotB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roujeinikova, Anna, E-mail: anna.roujeinikova@manchester.ac.uk [Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom)

    2008-04-01

    The cloning, overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a putative peptidoglycan-binding domain of H. pylori MotB, a stator component of the bacterial flagellar motor, are reported. The C-terminal domain of MotB (MotB-C) contains a putative peptidoglycan-binding motif and is believed to anchor the MotA/MotB stator unit of the bacterial flagellar motor to the cell wall. Crystals of Helicobacter pylori MotB-C (138 amino-acid residues) were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. These crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.8, b = 89.5, c = 66.3 Å, β = 112.5°. The crystals diffract X-rays to at least 1.6 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. Self-rotation function and Matthews coefficient calculations suggest that the asymmetric unit contains one tetramer with 222 point-group symmetry. The anomalous difference Patterson maps calculated for an ytterbium-derivative crystal using diffraction data at a wavelength of 1.38 Å showed significant peaks on the v = 1/2 Harker section, suggesting that ab initio phase information could be derived from the MAD data.

  10. Structure of the MutL C-terminal domain: a model of intact MutL and its roles in mismatch repair

    OpenAIRE

    Guarné, Alba; Ramon-Maiques, Santiago; Wolff, Erika M.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Hu, Xiaojian; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Yang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    MutL assists the mismatch recognition protein MutS to initiate and coordinate mismatch repair in species ranging from bacteria to humans. The MutL N-terminal ATPase domain is highly conserved, but the C-terminal region shares little sequence similarity among MutL homologs. We report here the crystal structure of the Escherichia coli MutL C-terminal dimerization domain and the likelihood of its conservation among MutL homologs. A 100-residue proline-rich linker between the ATPase and dimerizat...

  11. The C-terminal domain of the MutL homolog from Neisseria gonorrhoeae forms an inverted homodimer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Namadurai

    Full Text Available The mismatch repair (MMR pathway serves to maintain the integrity of the genome by removing mispaired bases from the newly synthesized strand. In E. coli, MutS, MutL and MutH coordinate to discriminate the daughter strand through a mechanism involving lack of methylation on the new strand. This facilitates the creation of a nick by MutH in the daughter strand to initiate mismatch repair. Many bacteria and eukaryotes, including humans, do not possess a homolog of MutH. Although the exact strategy for strand discrimination in these organisms is yet to be ascertained, the required nicking endonuclease activity is resident in the C-terminal domain of MutL. This activity is dependent on the integrity of a conserved metal binding motif. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, MutL in bacteria like Neisseria exist in the form of a homodimer. Even though this homodimer would possess two active sites, it still acts a nicking endonuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (CTD of the MutL homolog of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NgoL determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure shows that the metal binding motif exists in a helical configuration and that four of the six conserved motifs in the MutL family, including the metal binding site, localize together to form a composite active site. NgoL-CTD exists in the form of an elongated inverted homodimer stabilized by a hydrophobic interface rich in leucines. The inverted arrangement places the two composite active sites in each subunit on opposite lateral sides of the homodimer. Such an arrangement raises the possibility that one of the active sites is occluded due to interaction of NgoL with other protein factors involved in MMR. The presentation of only one active site to substrate DNA will ensure that nicking of only one strand occurs to prevent inadvertent and deleterious double stranded cleavage.

  12. The C-terminal domain of the MutL homolog from Neisseria gonorrhoeae forms an inverted homodimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namadurai, Sivakumar; Jain, Deepti; Kulkarni, Dhananjay S; Tabib, Chaitanya R; Friedhoff, Peter; Rao, Desirazu N; Nair, Deepak T

    2010-01-01

    The mismatch repair (MMR) pathway serves to maintain the integrity of the genome by removing mispaired bases from the newly synthesized strand. In E. coli, MutS, MutL and MutH coordinate to discriminate the daughter strand through a mechanism involving lack of methylation on the new strand. This facilitates the creation of a nick by MutH in the daughter strand to initiate mismatch repair. Many bacteria and eukaryotes, including humans, do not possess a homolog of MutH. Although the exact strategy for strand discrimination in these organisms is yet to be ascertained, the required nicking endonuclease activity is resident in the C-terminal domain of MutL. This activity is dependent on the integrity of a conserved metal binding motif. Unlike their eukaryotic counterparts, MutL in bacteria like Neisseria exist in the form of a homodimer. Even though this homodimer would possess two active sites, it still acts a nicking endonuclease. Here, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the MutL homolog of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NgoL) determined to a resolution of 2.4 Å. The structure shows that the metal binding motif exists in a helical configuration and that four of the six conserved motifs in the MutL family, including the metal binding site, localize together to form a composite active site. NgoL-CTD exists in the form of an elongated inverted homodimer stabilized by a hydrophobic interface rich in leucines. The inverted arrangement places the two composite active sites in each subunit on opposite lateral sides of the homodimer. Such an arrangement raises the possibility that one of the active sites is occluded due to interaction of NgoL with other protein factors involved in MMR. The presentation of only one active site to substrate DNA will ensure that nicking of only one strand occurs to prevent inadvertent and deleterious double stranded cleavage. PMID:21060849

  13. MT1-MMP Inhibits the Activity of Bst-2 via Their Cytoplasmic Domains Dependent Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Long; Liu, Li; Zhu, Cuicui; Zhu, Qingyi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bst-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is a type II membrane protein, and it acts as a tetherin to inhibit virion releasing from infectious cells. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a protease. It plays a pivotal role in cellular growth and migration by activating proMMP-2 into active MMP2. Our results here elaborate that MT1-MMP inhibits the tetherin activity of Bst-2 by interacting with Bst-2, and the cytoplasmic domains of both Bst-2 and MT1-MMP play critical roles within this interaction. Based on our experimental data, the assays for virion release and co-immunoprecipitation have clearly demonstrated that the activity of Bst-2 is markedly inhibited by MT1-MMP via their interaction; and both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are important in the interaction. Immunostaining and Confocal Microscopy assay shows that MT1-MMP interacts with Bst-2 to form granular particles trafficking into cytoplasm from membrane and, finally, results in Bst-2 and MT1-MMP both being inhibited. In addition, mutant experiments elucidate that the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 is not only important in relating to the activity of Bst-2 itself, but is important for inhibiting the MT1-MMP/proMMP2/MMP2 pathway. These findings suggest that MT1-MMP is a novel inhibitor of Bst-2 in MT1-MMP expressed cell lines and also indicate that both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are crucial in down-regulation. PMID:27240342

  14. MT1-MMP Inhibits the Activity of Bst-2 via Their Cytoplasmic Domains Dependent Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bst-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 is a type II membrane protein, and it acts as a tetherin to inhibit virion releasing from infectious cells. Membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP is a protease. It plays a pivotal role in cellular growth and migration by activating proMMP-2 into active MMP2. Our results here elaborate that MT1-MMP inhibits the tetherin activity of Bst-2 by interacting with Bst-2, and the cytoplasmic domains of both Bst-2 and MT1-MMP play critical roles within this interaction. Based on our experimental data, the assays for virion release and co-immunoprecipitation have clearly demonstrated that the activity of Bst-2 is markedly inhibited by MT1-MMP via their interaction; and both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are important in the interaction. Immunostaining and Confocal Microscopy assay shows that MT1-MMP interacts with Bst-2 to form granular particles trafficking into cytoplasm from membrane and, finally, results in Bst-2 and MT1-MMP both being inhibited. In addition, mutant experiments elucidate that the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 is not only important in relating to the activity of Bst-2 itself, but is important for inhibiting the MT1-MMP/proMMP2/MMP2 pathway. These findings suggest that MT1-MMP is a novel inhibitor of Bst-2 in MT1-MMP expressed cell lines and also indicate that both the N-terminal domain of Bst-2 and the C-terminal domain of MT1-MMP are crucial in down-regulation.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a putative sensor histidine kinase domain: the C-terminal domain of HksP4 from Aquifex aeolicus VF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The putative sensor histidine kinase domain of the cytoplasmic protein HksP4 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium A. aeolicus VF5 was expressed, purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. Crystals were obtained in the presence of ATP and AMPPNP; they were found to belong to the same space group P212121 and diffracted X-rays to 3.1 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. The histidine kinase domain of the cytoplasmic protein HksP4 from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus VF5, located in the C-terminal half of the protein, was expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained in the presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or adenosine 5′-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (AMPPNP) by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant. The crystals obtained in the presence of ATP and AMPPNP diffracted X-rays to 3.1 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively, on BL-5A at Photon Factory (Ibaraki, Japan) and were found to belong to the same space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 80.2, b = 105.5, c = 122.0 Å and a = 81.5, b = 105.5, c = 130.9 Å, respectively. Their Matthews coefficients (VM = 2.74 and 2.51 Å3 Da−1, respectively) indicated that both crystals contained four protein molecules per asymmetric unit

  16. Resolving hot spots in the C-terminal dimerization domain that determine the stability of the molecular chaperone Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Ciglia

    Full Text Available Human heat shock protein of 90 kDa (hHsp90 is a homodimer that has an essential role in facilitating malignant transformation at the molecular level. Inhibiting hHsp90 function is a validated approach for treating different types of tumors. Inhibiting the dimerization of hHsp90 via its C-terminal domain (CTD should provide a novel way to therapeutically interfere with hHsp90 function. Here, we predicted hot spot residues that cluster in the CTD dimerization interface by a structural decomposition of the effective energy of binding computed by the MM-GBSA approach and confirmed these predictions using in silico alanine scanning with DrugScore(PPI. Mutation of these residues to alanine caused a significant decrease in the melting temperature according to differential scanning fluorimetry experiments, indicating a reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 complexes. Size exclusion chromatography and multi-angle light scattering studies demonstrate that the reduced stability of the mutant hHsp90 correlates with a lower complex stoichiometry due to the disruption of the dimerization interface. These results suggest that the identified hot spot residues can be used as a pharmacophoric template for identifying and designing small-molecule inhibitors of hHsp90 dimerization.

  17. A Superhelical Spiral in the Escherichia coli DNA Gyrase A C-terminal Domain Imparts Unidirectional Supercoiling Bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruthenburg,A.; Graybosch, D.; Huetsch, J.; Verdine, G.

    2005-01-01

    DNA gyrase is unique among type II topoisomerases in that its DNA supercoiling activity is unidirectional. The C-terminal domain of the gyrase A subunit (GyrA-CTD) is required for this supercoiling bias. We report here the x-ray structure of the Escherichia coli GyrA-CTD (Protein Data Bank code 1ZI0). The E. coli GyrA-CTD adopts a circular-shaped {beta}-pinwheel fold first seen in the Borrelia burgdorferi GyrA-CTD. However, whereas the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD is flat, the E. coli GyrA-CTD is spiral. DNA relaxation assays reveal that the E. coli GyrA-CTD wraps DNA inducing substantial (+) superhelicity, while the B. burgdorferi GyrA-CTD introduces a more modest (+) superhelicity. The observation of a superhelical spiral in the present structure and that of the Bacillus stearothermophilus ParC-CTD structure suggests unexpected similarities in substrate selectivity between gyrase and Topo IV enzymes. We propose a model wherein the right-handed ((+) solenoidal) wrapping of DNA around the E. coli GyrA-CTD enforces unidirectional (-) DNA supercoiling.

  18. Phosphorylation in the C-terminal domain of Aquaporin-4 is required for Golgi transition in primary cultured astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is expressed in the perivascular and subpial astrocytes end-feet in mammalian brain, and plays a critical component of an integrated water and potassium homeostasis. Here we examine whether AQP4 is phosphorylated in primary cultured mouse astrocytes. Astrocytes were metabolically labeled with [32P]phosphoric acid, then AQP4 was immunoprecipitated with anti-AQP4 antibody. We observed that AQP4 was constitutively phosphorylated, which is reduced by treatment with protein kinase CK2 inhibitors. To elucidate the phosphorylation of AQP4 by CK2, myc-tagged wild-type or mutant AQP4 was transiently transfected in primary cultured astrocytes. Substitution of Ala residues for four putative CK2 phosphorylation sites in the C terminus abolished the phosphorylation of AQP4. Immunofluorescent microscopy revealed that the quadruple mutant was localized in the Golgi apparatus. These observations indicate that the C-terminal domain of AQP4 is constitutively phosphorylated at least in part by protein kinase CK2 and it is required for Golgi transition.

  19. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain

  20. Three-dimensional structure of a Streptomyces sviceus GNAT acetyltransferase with similarity to the C-terminal domain of the human GH84 O-GlcNAcase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yuan [Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Roth, Christian; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Davies, Gideon J., E-mail: gideon.davies@york.ac.uk [The University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of a bacterial acetyltransferase with 27% sequence identity to the C-terminal domain of human O-GlcNAcase has been solved at 1.5 Å resolution. This S. sviceus protein is compared with known GCN5-related acetyltransferases, adding to the diversity observed in this superfamily. The mammalian O-GlcNAc hydrolysing enzyme O-GlcNAcase (OGA) is a multi-domain protein with glycoside hydrolase activity in the N-terminus and with a C-terminal domain that has low sequence similarity to known acetyltransferases, prompting speculation, albeit controversial, that the C-terminal domain may function as a histone acetyltransferase (HAT). There are currently scarce data available regarding the structure and function of this C-terminal region. Here, a bacterial homologue of the human OGA C-terminal domain, an acetyltransferase protein (accession No. ZP-05014886) from Streptomyces sviceus (SsAT), was cloned and its crystal structure was solved to high resolution. The structure reveals a conserved protein core that has considerable structural homology to the acetyl-CoA (AcCoA) binding site of GCN5-related acetyltransferases (GNATs). Calorimetric data further confirm that SsAT is indeed able to bind AcCoA in solution with micromolar affinity. Detailed structural analysis provided insight into the binding of AcCoA. An acceptor-binding cavity was identified, indicating that the physiological substrate of SsAT may be a small molecule. Consistent with recently published work, the SsAT structure further questions a HAT function for the human OGA domain.

  1. The C-terminal domain of human grp94 protects the catalytic subunit of protein kinase CK2 (CK2alpha) against thermal aggregation. Role of disulfide bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roher, N; Miró, F; Boldyreff, B; Llorens, F; Plana, M; Issinger, O G; Itarte, E

    2001-01-01

    The C-terminal domain (residues 518-803) of the 94 kDa glucose regulated protein (grp94) was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with a His6-N-terminal tag (grp94-CT). This truncated form of grp94 formed dimers and oligomers that could be dissociated into monomers by treatment with...

  2. Guiding strand passage: DNA-induced movement of the gyrase C-terminal domains defines an early step in the supercoiling cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Martin A.; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    DNA gyrase catalyzes ATP-dependent negative supercoiling of DNA in a strand passage mechanism. A double-stranded segment of DNA, the T-segment, is passed through the gap in a transiently cleaved G-segment by coordinated closing and opening of three protein interfaces in gyrase. T-segment capture is thought to be guided by the C-terminal domains of the GyrA subunit of gyrase that wrap DNA around their perimeter and cause a DNA-crossing with a positive handedness. We show here that the C-termin...

  3. Interactions of the C-terminal Domain of Human Ku70 with DNA Substrate: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    NASA is developing a systems biology approach to improve the assessment of health risks associated with space radiation. The primary toxic and mutagenic lesion following radiation exposure is the DNA double strand break (DSB), thus a model incorporating proteins and pathways important in response and repair of this lesion is critical. One key protein heterodimer for systems models of radiation effects is the Ku(sub 70/80) complex. The Ku70/80 complex is important in the initial binding of DSB ends following DNA damage, and is a component of nonhomologous end joining repair, the primary pathway for DSB repair in mammalian cells. The C-terminal domain of Ku70 (Ku70c, residues 559-609), contains an helix-extended strand-helix motif and similar motifs have been found in other nucleic acid-binding proteins critical for DNA repair. However, the exact mechanism of damage recognition and substrate specificity for the Ku heterodimer remains unclear in part due to the absence of a high-resolution structure of the Ku70c/DNA complex. We performed a series of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a system with the subunit Ku70c and a 14 base pairs DNA duplex, whose starting structures are designed to be variable so as to mimic their different binding modes. By analyzing conformational changes and energetic properties of the complex during MD simulations, we found that interactions are preferred at DNA ends, and within the major groove, which is consistent with previous experimental investigations. In addition, the results indicate that cooperation of Ku70c with other subunits of Ku(sub 70/80) is necessary to explain the high affinity of binding as observed in experiments.

  4. Transient viral DNA replication and repression of viral transcription are supported by the C-terminal domain of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, M C; McBride, A A

    1998-01-01

    The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E1 protein is important for viral DNA replication and transcriptional repression. It has been proposed that the full-length E1 protein consists of a small N-terminal and a larger C-terminal domain. In this study, it is shown that an E1 polypeptide containing residues 132 to 605 (which represents the C-terminal domain) is able to support transient viral DNA replication, although at a level lower than that supported by the wild-type protein. This domain can also repress E2-mediated transactivation from the P89 promoter as well as the wild-type E1 protein can. PMID:9420289

  5. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of the C-terminal domain of Rv3262 (FbiB) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal domain of FbiB, a bifunctional protein that is essential for the biosynthesis of cofactor F420 in M. tuberculosis, has been expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution and were suitable for structure determination. During cofactor F420 biosynthesis, the enzyme F420-γ-glutamyl ligase (FbiB) catalyzes the addition of γ-linked l-glutamate residues to form polyglutamylated F420 derivatives. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv3262 (FbiB) consists of two domains: an N-terminal domain from the F420 ligase superfamily and a C-terminal domain with sequence similarity to nitro-FMN reductase superfamily proteins. To characterize the role of the C-terminal domain of FbiB in polyglutamyl ligation, it has been purified and crystallized in an apo form. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 Å resolution using a synchrotron source and belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 (or P43212), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.6, c = 101.7 Å, α = β = γ = 90°

  6. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Region of Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Characterization of Salivary Agglutinin Adherence Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, Matthew R.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Crowley, Paula J.; Kelly, Charles; Mitchell, Tim J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Deivanayagam, Champion (King); (Cornell); (UAB); (Glasgow); (Florida)

    2012-05-29

    The Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) is a cell surface-localized protein that adheres to salivary components and extracellular matrix molecules. Here we report the 2.5 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the complete C-terminal region of AgI/II. The C-terminal region is comprised of three major domains: C{sub 1}, C{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}. Each domain adopts a DE-variant IgG fold, with two {beta}-sheets whose A and F strands are linked through an intramolecular isopeptide bond. The adherence of the C-terminal AgI/II fragments to the putative tooth surface receptor salivary agglutinin (SAG), as monitored by surface plasmon resonance, indicated that the minimal region of binding was contained within the first and second DE-variant-IgG domains (C{sub 1} and C{sub 2}) of the C terminus. The minimal C-terminal region that could inhibit S. mutans adherence to SAG was also confirmed to be within the C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains. Competition experiments demonstrated that the C- and N-terminal regions of AgI/II adhere to distinct sites on SAG. A cleft formed at the intersection between these C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} domains bound glucose molecules from the cryo-protectant solution, revealing a putative binding site for its highly glycosylated receptor SAG. Finally, electron microscopy images confirmed the elongated structure of AgI/II and enabled building a composite tertiary model that encompasses its two distinct binding regions.

  7. Promoter recognition by a complex of Spx and the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase alpha subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko M Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spx, an ArsC (arsenate reductase family member, is a global transcriptional regulator of the microbial stress response and is highly conserved amongst Gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus subtilis Spx protein exerts positive and negative control of transcription through its interaction with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase (RNAP alpha subunit (alphaCTD. Spx activates trxA (thioredoxin and trxB (thioredoxin reductase in response to thiol stress, and bears an N-terminal C10XXC13 redox disulfide center that is oxidized in active Spx. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The structure of mutant Spx(C10S showed a change in the conformation of helix alpha4. Amino acid substitutions R60E and K62E within and adjacent to helix alpha4 conferred defects in Spx-activated transcription but not Spx-dependent repression. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays showed alphaCTD interaction with trxB promoter DNA, but addition of Spx generated a supershifted complex that was disrupted in the presence of reductant (DTT. Interaction of alphaCTD/Spx complex with promoter DNA required the cis-acting elements -45AGCA-42 and -34AGCG-31 of the trxB promoter. The Spx(G52R mutant, defective in alphaCTD binding, did not interact with the alphaCTD-trxB complex. Spx(R60E not only failed to complex with alphaCTD-trxB, but also disrupted alphaCTD-trxB DNA interaction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results show that Spx and alphaCTD form a complex that recognizes the promoter DNA of an Spx-controlled gene. A conformational change during oxidation of Spx to the disulfide form likely alters the structure of Spx alpha helix alpha4, which contains residues that function in transcriptional activation and alphaCTD/Spx-promoter interaction. The results suggest that one of these residues, R60 of the alpha4 region of oxidized Spx, functions in alphaCTD/Spx-promoter contact but not in alphaCTD interaction.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA gyrase B C-terminal domain, part of the enzyme reaction core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization of DNA gyrase B C-terminal domain is described. DNA gyrase subunit B C-terminal domain (GyrB-CTD) is a functional module of DNA gyrase which participates in forming the core of DNA gyrase and plays critical roles in G-segment binding and T-segment loading and passage. Here, the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of GyrB-CTD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv are reported. Diffraction data were collected from crystals of native GyrB-CTD and its selenomethionine derivative to resolutions of 2.8 and 3.0 Å, respectively. These crystals belonged to space group P212121 with similar unit-cell parameters. The native protein crystals had unit-cell parameters a = 52.831, b = 52.763, c = 192.579 Å

  9. High-resolution crystal structure reveals a HEPN domain at the C-terminal region of S. cerevisiae RNA endonuclease Swt1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Shuxia, E-mail: pengsx@ihep.ac.cn; Zhou, Ke; Wang, Wenjia; Gao, Zengqiang; Dong, Yuhui; Liu, Quansheng

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 was determined at 2.3 Å. • Structure of the CT domain was identified as HEPN domain superfamily member. • Low-resolution envelope of Swt1 full-length in solution was analyzed by SAXS. • The middle and CT domains gave good fit to SAXS structural model. - Abstract: Swt1 is an RNA endonuclease that plays an important role in quality control of nuclear messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) in eukaryotes; however, its structural details remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C-terminal (CT) domain of Swt1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which shares common characteristics of higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide binding (HEPN) domain superfamily. To study in detail the full-length protein structure, we analyzed the low-resolution architecture of Swt1 in solution using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method. Both the CT domain and middle domain exhibited a good fit upon superimposing onto the molecular envelope of Swt1. Our study provides the necessary structural information for detailed analysis of the functional role of Swt1, and its importance in the process of nuclear mRNP surveillance.

  10. Expanding the Activity of Tissue Inhibitors of Metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 against Surface-Anchored Metalloproteinases by the Replacement of Its C-Terminal Domain: Implications for Anti-Cancer Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xian Duan; Magdalini Rapti; Anastasia Tsigkou; Meng Huee Lee

    2015-01-01

    Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are the endogenous inhibitors of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs). TIMP molecules are made up of two domains: an N-terminal domain that associates with the catalytic cleft of the metalloproteinases (MP) and a smaller C-terminal domain whose role in MP association is still poorly understood. This work is aimed at investigating the role of the C-terminal domain in MP selectivity. In this study, ...

  11. Thrombospondin-1-N-Terminal Domain Induces a Phagocytic State and Thrombospondin-1-C-Terminal Domain Induces a Tolerizing Phenotype in Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Adi; Krispin, Alon; Trahtemberg, Uriel; Verbovetski, Inna; Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi; Mevorach, Dror

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, we have found that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is synthesized de novo upon monocyte and neutrophil apoptosis, leading to a phagocytic and tolerizing phenotype of dendritic cells (DC), even prior to DC-apoptotic cell interaction. Interestingly, we were able to show that heparin binding domain (HBD), the N-terminal portion of TSP-1, was cleaved and secreted simultaneously in a caspase- and serine protease- dependent manner. In the current study we were interested to examine the role of HBD in the clearance of apoptotic cells, and whether the phagocytic and tolerizing state of DCs is mediated by the HBD itself, or whether the entire TSP-1 is needed. Therefore, we have cloned the human HBD, and compared its interactions with DC to those with TSP-1. Here we show that rHBD by itself is not directly responsible for immune paralysis and tolerizing phenotype of DCs, at least in the monomeric form, but has a significant role in rendering DCs phagocytic. Binding of TSP-1-C-terminal domain on the other hand induces a tolerizing phenotype in dendritic cells. PMID:19721725

  12. Prokaryotic expression and purification of fibronectin leucine rich transmembrane protein 3 C-terminal domain proteins in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cai; Jing Yang; He Huang; Fang Li; Ganqiu Wu; Jing Yang; Xuegang Luo

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that fibronectin leucine-rich transmembrane protein 3 (FLRT3) is related to injury and regeneration of the nervous system. However, the expression and biological characteristics of these proteins remain poorly understood.OBJECTIVE: To obtain FLRT3 C-terminal gene fragments, to effectively express and purify the target proteins.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study of cellular and molecular biology was performed at the laboratory of Histology and Embryology in Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University between October 2007 and June 2008.MATERIALS: Three Sprague Dawley adult rats were used to extract total RNA from rat brains. The pGEX4T3 and Escherichia coli (E. Coli) JM109 were purchased from Promega. E. Coil BL21 was provided by Novagen.METHODS: FLRT3 protein coding C-terminal DNA fragments, at a length of 786 bp, were amplified using RT-PCR technique from rat total RNA. The amplified products were cloned into the expression vector pGEX4T3. A recombinant expression vector was then constructed and introduced into E. Coli BL21. IsopropyI-D-thiogalactopyranoside was applied to induce expression of recombinant GST fusion proteins, followed by isolation, purification, and renaturation of inclusion bodies that comprised recombinant proteins. Finally, the purified recombinant protein was obtained.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Determination of FLRT3 C-terminal DNA sequence; expression of target proteins was assayed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis; purified recombinant protein was identified with Western blot methods.RESULTS: FLRT3 protein coding C-terminal DNA fragments, at a length of 786 bp, were successfully harvested through RT-PCR amplification, and were then cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX4T3. The results of the sequence were consistent with the known gene sequence. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that there was a specific protein band in the recombinant GST fusion proteins at a relative molecular mass

  13. Domain mapping of Escherichia coli RecQ defines the roles of conserved N- and C-terminal regions in the RecQ family

    OpenAIRE

    Bernstein, Douglas A.; Keck, James L.

    2003-01-01

    RecQ DNA helicases function in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Although the precise cellular roles played by this family of enzymes remain elusive, the importance of RecQ proteins is clear; mutations in any of three human RecQ genes lead to genomic instability and cancer. In this report, proteolysis is used to define a two-domain structure for Escherichia coli RecQ, revealing a large (∼59 kDa) N-terminal and a small (∼9 kDa) C-terminal domain. A short N-terminal segment (7 or 21 re...

  14. The Host-Pathogen interaction of human cyclophilin A and HIV-1 Vpr requires specific N-terminal and novel C-terminal domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclophilin A (CypA represents a potential key molecule in future antiretroviral therapy since inhibition of CypA suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 replication. CypA interacts with the virus proteins Capsid (CA and Vpr, however, the mechanism through which CypA influences HIV-1 infectivity still remains unclear. Results Here the interaction of full-length HIV-1 Vpr with the host cellular factor CypA has been characterized and quantified by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. A C-terminal region of Vpr, comprising the 16 residues 75GCRHSRIGVTRQRRAR90, with high binding affinity for CypA has been identified. This region of Vpr does not contain any proline residues but binds much more strongly to CypA than the previously characterized N-terminal binding domain of Vpr, and is thus the first protein binding domain to CypA described involving no proline residues. The fact that the mutant peptide Vpr75-90 R80A binds more weakly to CypA than the wild-type peptide confirms that Arg-80 is a key residue in the C-terminal binding domain. The N- and C-terminal binding regions of full-length Vpr bind cooperatively to CypA and have allowed a model of the complex to be created. The dissociation constant of full-length Vpr to CypA was determined to be approximately 320 nM, indicating that the binding may be stronger than that of the well characterized interaction of HIV-1 CA with CypA. Conclusions For the first time the interaction of full-length Vpr and CypA has been characterized and quantified. A non-proline-containing 16-residue region of C-terminal Vpr which binds specifically to CypA with similar high affinity as full-length Vpr has been identified. The fact that this is the first non-proline containing binding motif of any protein found to bind to CypA, changes the view on how CypA is able to interact with other proteins. It is interesting to note that several previously reported key functions of HIV-1 Vpr are

  15. CD248 facilitates tumor growth via its cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromal fibroblasts participate in the development of a permissive environment for tumor growth, yet molecular pathways to therapeutically target fibroblasts are poorly defined. CD248, also known as endosialin or tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1), is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on activated fibroblasts. We recently showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in facilitating an inflammatory response in a mouse model of arthritis. Others have reported that CD248 gene inactivation in mice results in dampened tumor growth. We hypothesized that the conserved cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in regulating tumor growth. Mice lacking the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 (CD248CyD/CyD) were generated and evaluated in tumor models, comparing the findings with wild-type mice (CD248WT/WT). As compared to the response in CD248WT/WT mice, growth of T241 fibrosarcomas and Lewis lung carcinomas was significantly reduced in CD248CyD/CyD mice. Tumor size was similar to that seen with CD248-deficient mice. Conditioned media from CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts were less effective at supporting T241 fibrosarcoma cell survival. In addition to our previous observation of reduced release of activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts also had impaired PDGF-BB-induced migration and expressed higher transcripts of tumor suppressor factors, transgelin (SM22α), Hes and Hey1. The multiple pathways regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 highlight its potential as a therapeutic target to treat cancer

  16. CD248 facilitates tumor growth via its cytoplasmic domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssens Tom

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stromal fibroblasts participate in the development of a permissive environment for tumor growth, yet molecular pathways to therapeutically target fibroblasts are poorly defined. CD248, also known as endosialin or tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1, is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on activated fibroblasts. We recently showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in facilitating an inflammatory response in a mouse model of arthritis. Others have reported that CD248 gene inactivation in mice results in dampened tumor growth. We hypothesized that the conserved cytoplasmic domain of CD248 is important in regulating tumor growth. Methods Mice lacking the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 (CD248CyD/CyD were generated and evaluated in tumor models, comparing the findings with wild-type mice (CD248WT/WT. Results As compared to the response in CD248WT/WT mice, growth of T241 fibrosarcomas and Lewis lung carcinomas was significantly reduced in CD248CyD/CyD mice. Tumor size was similar to that seen with CD248-deficient mice. Conditioned media from CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts were less effective at supporting T241 fibrosarcoma cell survival. In addition to our previous observation of reduced release of activated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, CD248CyD/CyD fibroblasts also had impaired PDGF-BB-induced migration and expressed higher transcripts of tumor suppressor factors, transgelin (SM22α, Hes and Hey1. Conclusions The multiple pathways regulated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD248 highlight its potential as a therapeutic target to treat cancer.

  17. C terminal retroviral-type zinc finger domain from the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein is structurally similar to the N-terminal zinc finger domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic and computational methods were employed for the structure determination of an 18-residue peptide with the amino acid sequence of the C-terminal retriviral-type (r.t.) zinc finger domain from the nucleocapsid protein (NCP) of HIV-1 [Zn(HIV1-F2)]. Unlike results obtained for the first retroviral-type zinc finger peptide, Zn (HIV1-F1) broad signals indicative of confomational lability were observed in the 1H NMR spectrum of An(HIV1-F2) at 25 C. The NMR signals narrowed upon cooling to -2 C, enabling complete 1H NMR signal assignment via standard two-dimensional (2D) NMR methods. Distance restraints obtained from qualitative analysis of 2D nuclear Overhauser effect (NOESY) data were sued to generate 30 distance geometry (DG) structures with penalties in the range 0.02-0.03 angstrom 2. All structures were qualitatively consistent with the experimental NOESY spectrum based on comparisons with 2D NOESY back-calculated spectra. These results indicate that the r.t. zinc finger sequences observed in retroviral NCPs, simple plant virus coat proteins, and in a human single-stranded nucleic acid binding protein share a common structural motif

  18. Demonstration of N- and C-terminal domain intramolecular interactions in rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 that determine its degree of malonyl-CoA sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Audrey; Borthwick, Karen; Esnous, Catherine; Price, Nigel T.; Gobin, Stéphanie; Jackson, Vicky N.; Zammit, Victor A.; Girard, Jean; Prip-Buus, Carina

    2004-01-01

    We have previously proposed that changes in malonyl-CoA sensitivity of rat L-CPT1 (liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) might occur through modulation of interactions between its cytosolic N- and C-terminal domains. By using a cross-linking strategy based on the trypsin-resistant folded state of L-CPT1, we have now shown the existence of such N–C (N- and C-terminal domain) intramolecular interactions both in wild-type L-CPT1 expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the native L-CPT1 in fed rat liver mitochondria. These N–C intramolecular interactions were found to be either totally (48-h starvation) or partially abolished (streptozotocin-induced diabetes) in mitochondria isolated from animals in which the enzyme displays decreased malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Moreover, increasing the outer membrane fluidity of fed rat liver mitochondria with benzyl alcohol in vitro, which induced malonyl-CoA desensitization, attenuated the N–C interactions. This indicates that the changes in malonyl-CoA sens-itivity of L-CPT1 observed in mitochondria from starved and diabetic rats, previously shown to be associated with altered membrane composition in vivo, are partly due to the disruption of N–C interactions. Finally, we show that mutations in the regulatory regions of the N-terminal domain affect the ability of the N terminus to interact physically with the C-terminal domain, irrespective of whether they increased [S24A (Ser24→Ala)/Q30A] or abrogated (E3A) malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Moreover, we have identified the region immediately N-terminal to transmembrane domain 1 (residues 40–47) as being involved in the chemical N–C cross-linking. These observations provide the first demonstration by a physico-chemical method that L-CPT1 adopts different conformational states that differ in their degree of proximity between the cytosolic N-terminal and the C-terminal domains, and that this determines its degree of malonyl-CoA sensitivity depending on the physiological state

  19. The solution structure of the C-terminal domain of NfeD reveals a novel membrane-anchored OB-fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Yohta; Ohno, Ayako; Morii, Taichi; Yokoyama, Hideshi; Matsui, Ikuo; Tochio, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2008-11-01

    Nodulation formation efficiency D (NfeD) is a member of a class of membrane-anchored ClpP-class proteases. There is a second class of NfeD homologs that lack the ClpP domain. The genes of both NfeD classes usually are part of an operon that also contains a gene for a prokaryotic homolog of stomatin. (Stomatin is a major integral-membrane protein of mammalian erythrocytes.) Such NfeD/stomatin homolog gene pairs are present in more than 290 bacterial and archaeal genomes, and their protein products may be part of the machinery used for quality control of membrane proteins. Herein, we report the structure of the isolated C-terminal domain of PH0471, a Pyrococcus horikoshii NfeD homolog, which lacks the ClpP domain. This C-terminal domain (termed NfeDC) contains a five-strand beta-barrel, which is structurally very similar to the OB-fold (oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide-binding fold) domain. However, there is little sequence similarity between it and previously characterized OB-fold domains. The NfeDC domain lacks the conserved surface residues that are necessary for the binding of an OB-fold domain to DNA/RNA, an ion. Instead, its surface is composed of residues that are uniquely conserved in NfeD homologs and that form the structurally conserved surface turns and beta-bulges. There is also a conserved tryptophan present on the surface. We propose that, in general, NfeDC domains may interact with other spatially proximal membrane proteins and thereby regulate their activities. PMID:18687870

  20. Purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nsP2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-terminal protease domain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 has been overexpressed in E. coli, purified and successfully crystallized. Native crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been identified. The C-terminal region of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) nsP2 is responsible for proteolytic processing of the VEEV polyprotein replication complex. This action regulates the activity of the replication complex and is essential for viral replication, thus making nsP2 a very attractive target for development of VEEV therapeutics. The 338-amino-acid C-terminal region of VEEV nsP2 has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution and belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121. Isomorphous heavy-atom derivatives suitable for phase analysis have been obtained and work on building a complete structural model is under way

  1. The outer-membrane export signal of Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a conserved C-terminal β-sandwich domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Miroslaw; Mizgalska, Danuta; Koneru, Lahari; Golik, Przemyslaw; Szmigielski, Borys; Nowak, Magdalena; Nowakowska, Zuzanna; Potempa, Barbara; Houston, John A; Enghild, Jan J; Thøgersen, Ida B; Gao, Jinlong; Kwan, Ann H; Trewhella, Jill; Dubin, Grzegorz; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In the recently characterized Type IX Secretion System (T9SS), the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) in secreted proteins functions as an outer membrane translocation signal for export of virulence factors to the cell surface in the Gram-negative Bacteroidetes phylum. In the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, the CTD is cleaved off by PorU sortase in a sequence-independent manner, and anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) is attached to many translocated proteins, thus anchoring them to the bacterial surface. Here, we solved the atomic structure of the CTD of gingipain B (RgpB) from P. gingivalis, alone and together with a preceding immunoglobulin-superfamily domain (IgSF). The CTD was found to possess a typical Ig-like fold encompassing seven antiparallel β-strands organized in two β-sheets, packed into a β-sandwich structure that can spontaneously dimerise through C-terminal strand swapping. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed no fixed orientation of the CTD with respect to the IgSF. By introducing insertion or substitution of residues within the inter-domain linker in the native protein, we were able to show that despite the region being unstructured, it nevertheless is resistant to general proteolysis. These data suggest structural motifs located in the two adjacent Ig-like domains dictate the processing of CTDs by the T9SS secretion pathway. PMID:27005013

  2. Activation of the plasma membrane Na/H antiporter salt-overly-sensitive 1 (SOS1) by phosphorylation of an auto-inhibitory C-terminal domain

    KAUST Repository

    Quintero, Francisco J.

    2011-01-24

    The plasma membrane sodium/proton exchanger Salt-Overly-Sensitive 1 (SOS1) is a critical salt tolerance determinant in plants. The SOS2-SOS3 calcium-dependent protein kinase complex upregulates SOS1 activity, but the mechanistic details of this crucial event remain unresolved. Here we show that SOS1 is maintained in a resting state by a C-terminal auto-inhibitory domain that is the target of SOS2-SOS3. The auto-inhibitory domain interacts intramolecularly with an adjacent domain of SOS1 that is essential for activity. SOS1 is relieved from auto-inhibition upon phosphorylation of the auto-inhibitory domain by SOS2-SOS3. Mutation of the SOS2 phosphorylation and recognition site impeded the activation of SOS1 in vivo and in vitro. Additional amino acid residues critically important for SOS1 activity and regulation were identified in a genetic screen for hypermorphic alleles.

  3. Functional implications of C-terminus of TBX5 with high homology to C-terminal domain of yeast DNA-directed RNA polymerase Ⅱ largest subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhu-ren; GONG Li-guo; GENG Wen-qing; QIU Guang-rong; SUN Kai-lai

    2008-01-01

    @@ TBX5, as a member of the T-box-containing transcription factor family, encodes a protein of 518 amino acids and is expressed in the embryonic heart and developing limb tissues.1 The coding region of TBX5 cDNA is 1.5 kb with eight exons including the N-terminal portion, the DNA binding domain and C-terminal region. We reported that the abnormality in transcription level of the TbX5 gene might be the mechanism underlying human simple congenital heart disease in the absence of TBX5 mutations.

  4. The Shapes of Z-α1-Antitrypsin Polymers in Solution Support the C-Terminal Domain-Swap Mechanism of Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Manja Annette; Sendall, Timothy J.; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Kjeldgaard, Morten; Huntington, James A.; Jensen, Jan Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Emphysema and liver cirrhosis can be caused by the Z mutation (Glu342Lys) in the serine protease inhibitor α1-antitrypsin (α1AT), which is found in more than 4% of the Northern European population. Homozygotes experience deficiency in the lung concomitantly with a massive accumulation of polymers...... within hepatocytes, causing their destruction. Recently, it was proposed that Z-α1AT polymerizes by a C-terminal domain swap. In this study, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to characterize Z-α1AT polymers in solution. The data show that the Z-α1AT trimer, tetramer, and pentamer all form ring...

  5. Dandelion PPO-1/PPO-2 domain-swaps: the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum and the linker affects SDS-mediated activation and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leufken, Christine M; Moerschbacher, Bruno M; Dirks-Hofmeister, Mareike E

    2015-02-01

    Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) have a conserved three-domain structure: (i) the N-terminal domain (containing the active site) is connected via (ii) a linker to (iii) the C-terminal domain. The latter covers the active site, thereby maintaining the enzyme in a latent state. Activation can be achieved with SDS but little is known about the mechanism. We prepared domain-swap variants of dandelion PPO-1 and PPO-2 to test the specific functions of individual domains and their impact on enzyme characteristics. Our experiments revealed that the C-terminal domain modulates the pH optimum curve and has a strong influence on the optimal pH value. The linker determines the SDS concentration required for full activation. It also influences the SDS concentration required for half maximal activation (kSDS) and the stability of the enzyme during prolonged incubation in buffers containing SDS, but the N-terminal domain has the strongest effect on these parameters. The N-terminal domain also determines the IC50 of SDS and the stability in buffers containing or lacking SDS. We propose that the linker and C-terminal domain fine-tune the activation of plant PPOs. The C-terminal domain adjusts the pH optimum and the linker probably contains an SDS-binding/interaction site that influences inactivation and determines the SDS concentration required for activation. For the first time, we have determined the influence of the three PPO domains on enzyme activation and stability providing insight into the regulation and activation mechanisms of type-3 copper proteins in general. PMID:25484281

  6. In Sup35p filaments (the [PSI+] prion), the globular C-terminal domains are widely offset from the amyloid fibril backbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxa, U.; Wall, J.; Keller, P. W.; Cheng, N.; Steven, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    In yeast cells infected with the [PSI+] prion, Sup35p forms aggregates and its activity in translation termination is downregulated. Transfection experiments have shown that Sup35p filaments assembled in vitro are infectious, suggesting that they reproduce or closely resemble the prion. We have used several EM techniques to study the molecular architecture of filaments, seeking clues as to the mechanism of downregulation. Sup35p has an N-terminal 'prion' domain; a highly charged middle (M-)domain; and a C-terminal domain with the translation termination activity. By negative staining, cryo-EM and scanning transmission EM (STEM), filaments of full-length Sup35p show a thin backbone fibril surrounded by a diffuse 65-nm-wide cloud of globular C-domains. In diameter ({approx}8 nm) and appearance, the backbones resemble amyloid fibrils of N-domains alone. STEM mass-per-unit-length data yield -1 subunit per 0.47 nm for N-fibrils, NM-filaments and Sup35p filaments, further supporting the fibril backbone model. The 30 nm radial span of decorating C-domains indicates that the M-domains assume highly extended conformations, offering an explanation for the residual Sup35p activity in infected cells, whereby the C-domains remain free enough to interact with ribosomes.

  7. Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha in the C-terminal PEST domain by casein kinase II affects intrinsic protein stability.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, R; Beauparlant, P; Makris, C; Meloche, S; Hiscott, J

    1996-01-01

    The NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors participate in the activation of immune system regulatory genes and viral early genes including the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat. NF-kappaB/Rel proteins are coupled to inhibitory molecules, collectively termed IkappaB, which are responsible for cytoplasmic retention of NF-kappaB. Cell activation leads to the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, permitting NG-kappaB/Rel translocation to the nucleus and target gene ...

  8. Different Roles of N-Terminal and C-Terminal Domains in Calmodulin for Activation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Lübker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis adenylyl cyclase toxin edema factor (EF is one component of the anthrax toxin and is essential for establishing anthrax disease. EF activation by the eukaryotic Ca2+-sensor calmodulin (CaM leads to massive cAMP production resulting in edema. cAMP also inhibits the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH-oxidase, thus reducing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS used for host defense in activated neutrophils and thereby facilitating bacterial growth. Methionine (Met residues in CaM, important for interactions between CaM and its binding partners, can be oxidized by ROS. We investigated the impact of site-specific oxidation of Met in CaM on EF activation using thirteen CaM-mutants (CaM-mut with Met to leucine (Leu substitutions. EF activation shows high resistance to oxidative modifications in CaM. An intact structure in the C-terminal region of oxidized CaM is sufficient for major EF activation despite altered secondary structure in the N-terminal region associated with Met oxidation. The secondary structures of CaM-mut were determined and described in previous studies from our group. Thus, excess cAMP production and the associated impairment of host defence may be afforded even under oxidative conditions in activated neutrophils.

  9. Extensive de novo solid-state NMR assignments of the 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the de novo resonance assignments for the crystalline 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion using an optimized set of five 3D solid-state NMR spectra. We obtained, using a single uniformly 13C, 15N labeled protein sample, sequential chemical-shift information for 74% of the N, Cα, Cβ triples, and for 80% of further side-chain resonances for these spin systems. We describe the procedures and protocols devised, and discuss possibilities and limitations of the assignment of this largest protein assigned today by solid-state NMR, and for which no solution-state NMR shifts were available. A comparison of the NMR chemical shifts with crystallographic data reveals that regions with high crystallographic B-factors are particularly difficult to assign. While the secondary structure elements derived from the chemical shift data correspond mainly to those present in the X-ray crystal structure, we detect an additional helical element and structural variability in the protein crystal, most probably originating from the different molecules in the asymmetric unit, with the observation of doubled resonances in several parts, including entire stretches, of the protein. Our results provide the point of departure towards an atomic-resolution structural analysis of the C-terminal Ure2p domain in the context of the full-length prion fibrils.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal domain of the human spliceosomal DExD/H-box protein hPrp22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of the C-terminal domain of human hPrp22 are reported. This communication also contains data for the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The Homo sapiens DExD/H-box protein hPrp22 is a crucial component of the eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Within the splicing cycle, it is involved in the ligation of exons and generation of the lariat and it additionally catalyzes the release of mature mRNA from the spliceosomal U5 snRNP. The yeast homologue of this protein, yPrp22, shows ATP-dependent RNA-helicase activity and is capable of unwinding RNA/RNA duplex molecules. A truncated construct coding for residues 950–1183 of human Prp22, comprising the structurally and functionally uncharacterized C-terminal domain, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein was subsequently overproduced, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution, belonged to the tetragonal space group P41212 or P43212, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.2, c = 88.4 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  11. Probing Structural Transitions in the Intrinsically Disordered C-Terminal Domain of the Measles Virus Nucleoprotein by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Cyanylated Cysteines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G.; Longhi, Sonia; Snead, David M.; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Terrer, Elodie; Londergan, Casey H.

    2010-01-01

    Four single-cysteine variants of the intrinsically disordered C-terminal domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein (NTAIL) were cyanylated at cysteine and their infrared spectra in the C≡N stretching region were recorded both in the absence and in the presence of one of the physiological partners of NTAIL, namely the C-terminal X domain (XD) of the viral phosphoprotein. Consistent with previous studies showing that XD triggers a disorder-to-order transition within NTAIL, the C≡N stretching bands of the infrared probe were found to be significantly affected by XD, with this effect being position-dependent. When the cyanylated cysteine side chain is solvent-exposed throughout the structural transition, its changing linewidth reflects a local gain of structure. When the probe becomes partially buried due to binding, its frequency reports on the mean hydrophobicity of the microenvironment surrounding the labeled side chain of the bound form. The probe moiety is small compared to other common covalently attached spectroscopic probes, thereby minimizing possible steric hindrance/perturbation at the binding interface. These results show for the first time to our knowledge the suitability of site-specific cysteine mutagenesis followed by cyanylation and infrared spectroscopy to document structural transitions occurring within intrinsically disordered regions, with regions involved in binding and folding being identifiable at the residue level. PMID:20816082

  12. Extensive de novo solid-state NMR assignments of the 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habenstein, Birgit [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France); Wasmer, Christian [Harvard Medical School (United States); Bousset, Luc; Sourigues, Yannick [UPR 3082 CNRS, Laboratoire d' Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales (France); Schuetz, Anne [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Loquet, Antoine [Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry (Germany); Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Melki, Ronald, E-mail: melki@lebs.cnrs-gif.fr [UPR 3082 CNRS, Laboratoire d' Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales (France); Boeckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Universite de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Proteines (France)

    2011-11-15

    We present the de novo resonance assignments for the crystalline 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion using an optimized set of five 3D solid-state NMR spectra. We obtained, using a single uniformly {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeled protein sample, sequential chemical-shift information for 74% of the N, C{alpha}, C{beta} triples, and for 80% of further side-chain resonances for these spin systems. We describe the procedures and protocols devised, and discuss possibilities and limitations of the assignment of this largest protein assigned today by solid-state NMR, and for which no solution-state NMR shifts were available. A comparison of the NMR chemical shifts with crystallographic data reveals that regions with high crystallographic B-factors are particularly difficult to assign. While the secondary structure elements derived from the chemical shift data correspond mainly to those present in the X-ray crystal structure, we detect an additional helical element and structural variability in the protein crystal, most probably originating from the different molecules in the asymmetric unit, with the observation of doubled resonances in several parts, including entire stretches, of the protein. Our results provide the point of departure towards an atomic-resolution structural analysis of the C-terminal Ure2p domain in the context of the full-length prion fibrils.

  13. Evidence against Extracellular Exposure of a Highly Immunogenic Region in the C-Terminal Domain of the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus gp41 Transmembrane Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Postler, Thomas S.; Martinez-Navio, José M.; Yuste, Eloísa; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2012-01-01

    The generally accepted model for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein topology includes a single membrane-spanning domain. An alternate model has been proposed which features multiple membrane-spanning domains. Consistent with the alternate model, a high percentage of HIV-1-infected individuals produce unusually robust antibody responses to a region of envelope, the so-called “Kennedy epitope,” that in the conventional model should be in the cytoplasm. Here we sho...

  14. A systematic study of nuclear interactome of C-terminal domain small phosphatase-like 2 using inducible expression system and shotgun proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Wang, Sen; Hur, Sun Jin; Bahk, Young Yil

    2016-06-01

    RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatases are newly emerging family of phosphatases that contain FCPH domain with Mg+2-binding DXDX(T/V) signature motif. Its subfamily includes small CTD phosphatases (SCPs). Recently, we identified several interacting partners of human SCP1 with appearance of dephosphorylation and O-GlcNAcylation. In this study, using an established cell line with inducible CTDSPL2 protein (a member of the new phosphatase family), proteomic screening was conducted to identify binding partners of CTDSPL2 in nuclear extract through immunoprecipitation of CTDSPL2 with its associated. This approach led to the identification of several interacting partners of CTDSPL2. This will provide a better understanding on CTDSPL2. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(6): 319-324]. PMID:26674342

  15. The C-terminal region of the transcriptional regulator THAP11 forms a parallel coiled-coil domain involved in protein dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, Cyprian D; Maveyraud, Laurent; Saurel, Olivier; Guillet, Valérie; Milon, Alain; Gervais, Virginie

    2016-06-01

    Thanatos associated protein 11 (THAP11) is a cell cycle and cell growth regulator differentially expressed in cancer cells. THAP11 belongs to a distinct family of transcription factors recognizing specific DNA sequences via an atypical zinc finger motif and regulating diverse cellular processes. Outside the extensively characterized DNA-binding domain, THAP proteins vary in size and predicted domains, for which structural data are still lacking. We report here the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of human THAP11 protein, providing the first 3D structure of a coiled-coil motif from a THAP family member. We further investigate the stability, dynamics and oligomeric properties of the determined structure combining molecular dynamics simulations and biophysical experiments. Our results show that the C-ter region of THAP11 forms a left-handed parallel homo-dimeric coiled-coil structure possessing several unusual features. PMID:26975212

  16. A Novel Bmal1 Mutant Mouse Reveals Essential Roles of the C-Terminal Domain on Circadian Rhythms.

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    Noheon Park

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian clock is an endogenous biological timer comprised of transcriptional/translational feedback loops of clock genes. Bmal1 encodes an indispensable transcription factor for the generation of circadian rhythms. Here, we report a new circadian mutant mouse from gene-trapped embryonic stem cells harboring a C-terminus truncated Bmal1 (Bmal1GTΔC allele. The homozygous mutant (Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice immediately lost circadian behavioral rhythms under constant darkness. The heterozygous (Bmal1+/GTΔC mice displayed a gradual loss of rhythms, in contrast to Bmal1+/- mice where rhythms were sustained. Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice also showed arrhythmic mRNA and protein expression in the SCN and liver. Lack of circadian reporter oscillation was also observed in cultured fibroblast cells, indicating that the arrhythmicity of Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice resulted from impaired molecular clock machinery. Expression of clock genes exhibited distinct responses to the mutant allele in Bmal1+/GTΔC and Bmal1GTΔC/GTΔC mice. Despite normal cellular localization and heterodimerization with CLOCK, overexpressed BMAL1GTΔC was unable to activate transcription of Per1 promoter and BMAL1-dependent CLOCK degradation. These results indicate that the C-terminal region of Bmal1 has pivotal roles in the regulation of circadian rhythms and the Bmal1GTΔC mice constitute a novel model system to evaluate circadian functional mechanism of BMAL1.

  17. Identification of Residues in the C-terminal Domain of HIV-1 Integrase That Mediate Binding to the Transportin-SR2 Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Houwer, Stephanie; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Thys, Wannes; Taltynov, Oliver; Zmajkovicova, Katarina; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger

    2012-01-01

    Transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2 and TNPO3) is a cellular cofactor of HIV replication that has been implicated in the nuclear import of HIV. TRN-SR2 was originally identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen as an interaction partner of HIV integrase (IN) and in two independent siRNA screens as a cofactor of viral replication. We have now studied the interaction of TRN-SR2 and HIV IN in molecular detail and identified the TRN-SR2 interacting regions of IN. A weak interaction with the catalytic core domain (CCD) and a strong interaction with the C-terminal domain (CTD) of IN were detected. By dissecting the catalytic core domain (CCD) of IN into short structural fragments, we identified a peptide (INIP1, amino acids 170EHLKTAVQMAVFIHNFKRKGGI191) retaining the ability to interact with TRN-SR2. By dissecting the C-terminal domain (CTD) of IN, we could identify two interacting peptides (amino acids 214QKQITKIQNFRVYYR228 and 262RRKVKIIRDYGK273) that come together in the CTD tertiary structure to form an exposed antiparallel β-sheet. Through site-specific mutagenesis, we defined the following sets of amino acids in IN as important for the interaction with TRN-SR2: Phe-185/Lys-186/Arg-187/Lys-188 in the CCD and Arg-262/Arg-263/Lys-264 and Lys-266/Arg-269 in the CTD. An HIV-1 strain carrying K266A/R269A in IN was replication-defective due to a block in reverse transcription, confounding the study of nuclear import. Insight into the IN/TRN-SR2 interaction interface is necessary to guide drug discovery efforts targeting the nuclear entry step of replication. PMID:22872638

  18. Crystallographic characterization of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of adhesion molecule CD44

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    Mori, Tomoyuki; Kitano, Ken; Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Maesaki, Ryoko; Hakoshima, Toshio, E-mail: hakosima@bs.naist.jp [Structural Biology Laboratory, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Keihanna Science City, Nara 630-0192 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    The radixin FERM domain complexed with the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide has been crystallized. A diffraction data set from the complex was collected to 2.1 Å. CD44 is an important adhesion molecule that specifically binds hyaluronic acid and regulates cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Increasing evidence has indicated that CD44 is assembled in a regulated manner into the membrane–cytoskeletal junction, a process that is mediated by ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins. Crystals of a complex between the radixin FERM domain and the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD44 have been obtained. The crystal of the radixin FERM domain bound to the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.70, b = 66.18, c = 86.22 Å, and contain one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å.

  19. Crystallographic characterization of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of adhesion molecule CD44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radixin FERM domain complexed with the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide has been crystallized. A diffraction data set from the complex was collected to 2.1 Å. CD44 is an important adhesion molecule that specifically binds hyaluronic acid and regulates cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. Increasing evidence has indicated that CD44 is assembled in a regulated manner into the membrane–cytoskeletal junction, a process that is mediated by ERM (ezrin/radixin/moesin) proteins. Crystals of a complex between the radixin FERM domain and the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of CD44 have been obtained. The crystal of the radixin FERM domain bound to the CD44 cytoplasmic tail peptide belongs to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 62.70, b = 66.18, c = 86.22 Å, and contain one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. An intensity data set was collected to a resolution of 2.1 Å

  20. Comparison of fast backbone dynamics at amide nitrogen and carbonyl sites in dematin headpiece C-terminal domain and its S74E mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform a detailed comparison of fast backbone dynamics probed at amide nitrogen versus carbonyl carbon sites for dematin headpiece C-terminal domain (DHP) and its S74E mutant (DHPS74E). Carbonyl dynamics is probed via auto-correlated longitudinal rates and transverse C'/C'-Cα CSA/dipolar and C'/C'-N CSA/dipolar cross-correlated rates, while 15N data are taken from a previous study. Resulting values of effective order parameters and internal correlation times support the conclusion that C' relaxation reports on a different subset of fast motions compared to those probed at N-H bond vectors in the same peptide planes. 13C' order parameters are on the average 0.08 lower than 15N order parameters with the exception of the flexible loop region in DHP. The reduction of mobility in the loop region upon the S74E mutation can be seen from the 15N order parameters but not from the 13C order parameters. Internal correlation times at 13C' sites are on the average an order of magnitude longer than those at 15N sites for the well-structured C-terminal subdomains, while the more flexible N-terminal subdomains have more comparable average internal correlation times.

  1. The C-terminal domain of the Arabinosyltransferase Mycobacterium tuberculosis EmbC is a lectin-like carbohydrate binding module.

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    Luke J Alderwick

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The D-arabinan-containing polymers arabinogalactan (AG and lipoarabinomannan (LAM are essential components of the unique cell envelope of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosynthesis of AG and LAM involves a series of membrane-embedded arabinofuranosyl (Araf transferases whose structures are largely uncharacterised, despite the fact that several of them are pharmacological targets of ethambutol, a frontline drug in tuberculosis therapy. Herein, we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal hydrophilic domain of the ethambutol-sensitive Araf transferase M. tuberculosis EmbC, which is essential for LAM synthesis. The structure of the C-terminal domain of EmbC (EmbC(CT encompasses two sub-domains of different folds, of which subdomain II shows distinct similarity to lectin-like carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM. Co-crystallisation with a cell wall-derived di-arabinoside acceptor analogue and structural comparison with ligand-bound CBMs suggest that EmbC(CT contains two separate carbohydrate binding sites, associated with subdomains I and II, respectively. Single-residue substitution of conserved tryptophan residues (Trp868, Trp985 at these respective sites inhibited EmbC-catalysed extension of LAM. The same substitutions differentially abrogated binding of di- and penta-arabinofuranoside acceptor analogues to EmbC(CT, linking the loss of activity to compromised acceptor substrate binding, indicating the presence of two separate carbohydrate binding sites, and demonstrating that subdomain II indeed functions as a carbohydrate-binding module. This work provides the first step towards unravelling the structure and function of a GT-C-type glycosyltransferase that is essential in M. tuberculosis.

  2. Role of C-Terminal Domains in Surface Attachment of the Fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Catherine; Jacques, Nicholas A.

    1998-01-01

    The cell-associated β-d-fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius, which is devoid of the cell wall anchoring motif, LPXTG, is released on exposure to its substrate, sucrose. Deletions within the C terminus of the enzyme implicated both the hydrophobic and the proline-glycine-serine-threonine-rich wall-associated domain in stabilizing the enzyme on the cell surface. PMID:9829954

  3. Human replication protein A: Global fold of the N-terminal RPA-70 domain reveals a basic cleft and flexible C-terminal linker+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human Replication Protein A (hsRPA) is required for multiple cellular processes in DNA metabolism including DNA repair, replication and recombination. It binds single-stranded DNA with high affinity and interacts specifically with multiple proteins. hsRPA forms a heterotrimeric complex composed of 70-, 32- and 14-kDa subunits (henceforth RPA70, RPA32, and RPA14). The N-terminal 168 residues of RPA70 form a structurally distinct domain that stimulates DNA polymerase α activity, interacts with several transcriptional activators including tumor suppressor p53, and during the cell cycle it signals escape from the DNA damage induced G2/M checkpoint. We have solved the global fold of the fragment corresponding to this domain (RPA70Δ169) and we find residues 8-108 of the N-terminal domain are structured. The remaining C-terminal residues are unstructured and may form a flexible linker to the DNA-binding domain of RPA70. The globular region forms a five-stranded anti-parallel β-barrel. The ends of the barrel are capped by short helices. Two loops on one side of the barrel form a large basic cleft which is a likely site for binding the acidic motifs of transcriptional activators. Many lethal or conditional lethal yeast point mutants map to this cleft, whereas no mutations with severe phenotype have been found in the linker region

  4. Possible paraneoplastic syndrome case of bullous pemphigoid with immunoglobulin G anti-BP180 C-terminal domain antibodies associated with psoriasis and primary macroglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobuki; Demitsu, Toshio; Umemoto, Naoka; Nagashima, Kazutaka; Nakamura, Toshinobu; Kakurai, Maki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Yamada, Tomoko; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    A 61-year-old Japanese man developed bullous skin lesions during topical therapy for psoriasis vulgaris. Physical examination demonstrated numerous tense bullae and scaly erythemas on the trunk and extremities. Histopathology of the skin biopsy demonstrated subepidermal bullae and lymphocytic infiltration with eosinophils in the dermis. Direct immunofluorescence revealed linear deposits of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA and C3 along the basement membrane zone. Indirect immunofluorescence of 1 mol/L NaCl-split skin showed IgG reactivity with both epidermal and the dermal sides. IgM reactivity with both the epidermal and dermal sides was also detected. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed negative results for both BP180 and BP230. Immunoelectrophoresis of serum and bone marrow aspiration revealed underlying primary macroglobulinemia with M-proteinemia of IgM-κ type. Immunoblot analysis revealed IgG, but not IgM, antibodies to recombinant protein of BP180 C-terminal domain. We diagnosed the present case as bullous pemphigoid with IgG anti-BP180 C-terminal domain autoantibodies associated with primary macroglobulinemia and psoriasis vulgaris. Systemic administration of prednisolone 30 mg/day resulted in dramatic improvement of both bullous and psoriatic skin lesions. When the bullous and psoriatic lesions relapsed, DRC chemotherapy (dexamethasone, rituximab and cyclophosphamide) for macroglobulinemia was performed. Then, the psoriatic lesions improved and the bullous lesions disappeared. We suggested that the present case may be paraneoplastic syndrome of bullous pemphigoid associated with primary macroglobulinemia and psoriasis vulgaris. PMID:26507447

  5. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Maria A; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called "nucleoid occlusion" (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator-CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ-regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA-DNA-FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA's NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  6. Interaction of the C-terminal acidic domain of the insulin receptor with histone modulates the receptor kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, V; Kaliman, P; Alengrin, F; Van Obberghen, E

    1995-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of the insulin receptor domain 1270-1280, an acid-rich sequence located in the receptor C-terminus. Antipeptide IgG raised against this sequence were obtained and used to analyze their effect on receptor function. Antipeptide IgG inhibited receptor autophosphorylation at Tyr1146, Tyr1150 and Tyr1151. These sites are known to be key modulators of the receptor activity. Autophosphorylation at other sites may also have been inhibited. The antipeptide antibody decreased the receptor kinase activity measured with poly(Glu80Tyr20) and a synthetic peptide corresponding to the proreceptor sequence 1142-1158. We provide evidence that the effect of the antibody on substrate phosphorylation may result from the control of the phosphorylation level of the receptor. Concerning the action of the antipeptide IgG on the receptor kinase activity, histone did not behave similarly to poly(Glu80Tyr20). The antibody recognizing sequence 1270-1280 competed with histone for an overlapping binding site. Histone also modulated insulin receptor autophosphorylation, supporting the idea that interference with domain 1270-1280 alters the receptor kinase. Our data suggest that the acidic region including residues 1270-1280 of the insulin receptor C-terminus is involved in the following events: (a) receptor binding with histone, an exogenous substrate of the receptor kinase, and (b) the regulation of receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity. Based on these observations, we would like to propose that this insulin receptor domain could interact with cellular proteins modulating the receptor kinase. PMID:7744039

  7. Acidic Residues C-Terminal to the A2 Domain Facilitate Thrombin-Catalyzed Activation of Factor VIII

    OpenAIRE

    Newell, Jennifer L.; Fay, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Factor VIII is activated by thrombin through proteolysis at Arg740, Arg372, and Arg1689. One region implicated in this exosite-dependent interaction is the factor VIII a2 segment (residues 711-740) separating the A2 and B domains. Residues 717-725 (DYYEDSYED) within this region consist of five acidic residues and three sulfo-Tyr residues, thus representing a high density of negative charge potential. The contributions of these residues to thrombin-catalyzed activation of factor VIII were asse...

  8. The pH-sensitive structure of the C-terminal domain of voltage-gated proton channel and the thermodynamic characteristics of Zn2+ binding to this domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The α-helical content of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • The thermostability of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • Zn2+ binds to His244 and His266 residues within the C-terminal domain. • The binding of Zn2+ to His244 residue is an endothermic heat reaction. • The binding of Zn2+ to His266 residue is an exothermic heat reaction. - Abstract: The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is strongly sensitive to Zn2+. The H+ conduction is decreased at a high concentration of Zn2+ and Hv1 channel closing is slowed by the internal application of Zn2+. Although the recent studies demonstrated that Zn2+ interacts with the intracellular C-terminal domain, the binding sites and details of the interaction remain unknown. Here, we studied the pH-dependent structural stability of the intracellular C-terminal domain of human Hv1 and showed that Zn2+ binds to His244 and His266 residues. The thermodynamics signature of Zn2+ binding to the two sites was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of Zn2+ to His244 (mutant H266A) and His266 (mutant H244A) were an endothermic heat reaction and an exothermic heat reaction, respectively

  9. Bipartite Topology of Treponema pallidum Repeat Proteins C/D and I: OUTER MEMBRANE INSERTION, TRIMERIZATION, AND PORIN FUNCTION REQUIRE A C-TERMINAL β-BARREL DOMAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Arvind; LeDoyt, Morgan; Karanian, Carson; Luthra, Amit; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G; Puthenveetil, Robbins; Vinogradova, Olga; Radolf, Justin D

    2015-05-01

    We previously identified Treponema pallidum repeat proteins TprC/D, TprF, and TprI as candidate outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and subsequently demonstrated that TprC is not only a rare OMP but also forms trimers and has porin activity. We also reported that TprC contains N- and C-terminal domains (TprC(N) and TprC(C)) orthologous to regions in the major outer sheath protein (MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)) of Treponema denticola and that TprC(C) is solely responsible for β-barrel formation, trimerization, and porin function by the full-length protein. Herein, we show that TprI also possesses bipartite architecture, trimeric structure, and porin function and that the MOSP(C)-like domains of native TprC and TprI are surface-exposed in T. pallidum, whereas their MOSP(N)-like domains are tethered within the periplasm. TprF, which does not contain a MOSP(C)-like domain, lacks amphiphilicity and porin activity, adopts an extended inflexible structure, and, in T. pallidum, is tightly bound to the protoplasmic cylinder. By thermal denaturation, the MOSP(N) and MOSP(C)-like domains of TprC and TprI are highly thermostable, endowing the full-length proteins with impressive conformational stability. When expressed in Escherichia coli with PelB signal sequences, TprC and TprI localize to the outer membrane, adopting bipartite topologies, whereas TprF is periplasmic. We propose that the MOSP(N)-like domains enhance the structural integrity of the cell envelope by anchoring the β-barrels within the periplasm. In addition to being bona fide T. pallidum rare outer membrane proteins, TprC/D and TprI represent a new class of dual function, bipartite bacterial OMP. PMID:25805501

  10. The C-terminal domains of NF-H and NF-M subunits maintain axonal neurofilament content by blocking turnover of the stationary neurofilament network.

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    Mala V Rao

    Full Text Available Newly synthesized neurofilaments or protofilaments are incorporated into a highly stable stationary cytoskeleton network as they are transported along axons. Although the heavily phosphorylated carboxyl-terminal tail domains of the heavy and medium neurofilament (NF subunits have been proposed to contribute to this process and particularly to stability of this structure, their function is still obscure. Here we show in NF-H/M tail deletion [NF-(H/M(tailΔ] mice that the deletion of both of these domains selectively lowers NF levels 3-6 fold along optic axons without altering either rates of subunit synthesis or the rate of slow axonal transport of NF. Pulse labeling studies carried out over 90 days revealed a significantly faster rate of disappearance of NF from the stationary NF network of optic axons in NF-(H/M(tailΔ mice. Faster NF disappearance was accompanied by elevated levels of NF-L proteolytic fragments in NF-(H/M(tailΔ axons. We conclude that NF-H and NF-M C-terminal domains do not normally regulate NF transport rates as previously proposed, but instead increase the proteolytic resistance of NF, thereby stabilizing the stationary neurofilament cytoskeleton along axons.

  11. Heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling studies of the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of the human mitochondrial ABC transporter ABCB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B, member 6 (ABCB6) is a mitochondrial ABC transporter, and presumably contributes to iron homeostasis. Aimed at understanding the structural basis for the conformational changes accompanying the substrate-transportation cycle, we have studied the C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain of ABCB6 (ABCB6-C) in both the nucleotide-free and ADP-bound states by heteronuclear multidimensional NMR and homology modelling. A non-linear sampling scheme was utilised for indirectly acquired 13C and 15N dimensions of all 3D triple-resonance NMR experiments, in order to overcome the instability and the low solubility of ABCB6-C. The backbone resonances for approximately 25% of non-proline residues, which are mostly distributed around the functionally important loops and in the Helical domain, were not observed for nucleotide-free form of ABCB6-C. From the pH, temperature and magnetic field strength dependencies of the resonance intensities, we concluded that this incompleteness in the assignments is mainly due to the exchange between multiple conformations at an intermediate rate on the NMR timescale. These localised conformational dynamics remained in ADP-bound ABCB6-C except for the loops responsible for adenine base and α/β-phosphate binding. These results revealed that the localised dynamic cooperativity, which was recently proposed for a prokaryotic ABC MJ1267, also exists in a higher eukaryotic ABC, and is presumably shared by all members of the ABC family. Since the Helical domain is the putative interface to the transmembrane domain, this cooperativity may explain the coupled functions between domains in the substrate-transportation cycle

  12. DNA double strand break repair is enhanced by P53 following induction by DNA damage and is dependent on the C-terminal domain of P53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor gene p53 can mediate cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in response to DNA damage. Accumulating evidence suggests that it may also directly or indirectly influence the DNA repair machinery. In the present study, we investigated whether p53, induced by DNA damage, could enhance the rejoining of double-strand DNA breaks. Materials and Methods: DNA double-strand breaks (dsb) were made by restriction enzyme digestion of a plasmid, between a promoter and a 'reporter' gene: luciferase (LUC) or chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT). Linear or circular plasmid DNA (LUC or CAT) was co-transfected with circular β-Gal plasmid (to normalize for uptake) into mouse embryonic fibroblasts genetically matched to be (+/+) or (-/-) for p53. Their ability to rejoin linearized plasmid was measured by the luciferase or CAT activity detected in rescued plasmids. The activity detected in cells transfected with linear plasmid was scored relative to the activity detected in cells transfected with circular plasmid. Results: Ionizing radiation (IR, 2 Gy) enhanced the dsb repair activity in wild type p53 cells; however, p53 null cells lose this effect, indicating that the enhancement of dsb repair was p53-dependent. REF cells with dominant-negative mutant p53 showed a similar induction compared with the parental REF cells with wild-type p53. This ala-143 mutant p53 prevents cell cycle arrest and transactivation of p21WAF1/cip1) following IR, indicating that the p53-dependent enhancement of DNA repair is distinct from transactivation. Immortalized murine embryonic fibroblasts, 10(1)VasK1 cells, which express p53 cDNA encoding a temperature-sensitive mutant in the DNA sequence specific binding domain (ala135 to val135) with an alternatively spliced C-terminal domain (ASp53: amino-acids 360-381) and, 10(1)Val5 cells, which express the normal spliced p53 (NSp53) with the same temperature-sensitive mutant were compared. It was found that 10(1)VasK1 cells showed no DNA

  13. Pub1p C-terminal RRM domain interacts with Tif4631p through a conserved region neighbouring the Pab1p binding site.

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    Clara M Santiveri

    Full Text Available Pub1p, a highly abundant poly(A+ mRNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, influences the stability and translational control of many cellular transcripts, particularly under some types of environmental stresses. We have studied the structure, RNA and protein recognition modes of different Pub1p constructs by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of the C-terminal RRM domain (RRM3 shows a non-canonical N-terminal helix that packs against the canonical RRM fold in an original fashion. This structural trait is conserved in Pub1p metazoan homologues, the TIA-1 family, defining a new class of RRM-type domains that we propose to name TRRM (TIA-1 C-terminal domain-like RRM. Pub1p TRRM and the N-terminal RRM1-RRM2 tandem bind RNA with high selectivity for U-rich sequences, with TRRM showing additional preference for UA-rich ones. RNA-mediated chemical shift changes map to β-sheet and protein loops in the three RRMs. Additionally, NMR titration and biochemical in vitro cross-linking experiments determined that Pub1p TRRM interacts specifically with the N-terminal region (1-402 of yeast eIF4G1 (Tif4631p, very likely through the conserved Box1, a short sequence motif neighbouring the Pab1p binding site in Tif4631p. The interaction involves conserved residues of Pub1p TRRM, which define a protein interface that mirrors the Pab1p-Tif4631p binding mode. Neither protein nor RNA recognition involves the novel N-terminal helix, whose functional role remains unclear. By integrating these new results with the current knowledge about Pub1p, we proposed different mechanisms of Pub1p recruitment to the mRNPs and Pub1p-mediated mRNA stabilization in which the Pub1p/Tif4631p interaction would play an important role.

  14. Morbillivirus and henipavirus attachment protein cytoplasmic domains differently affect protein expression, fusion support and particle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Bevan; Bente, Dennis A; Czub, Markus; von Messling, Veronika

    2016-05-01

    The amino-terminal cytoplasmic domains of paramyxovirus attachment glycoproteins include trafficking signals that influence protein processing and cell surface expression. To characterize the role of the cytoplasmic domain in protein expression, fusion support and particle assembly in more detail, we constructed chimeric Nipah virus (NiV) glycoprotein (G) and canine distemper virus (CDV) haemagglutinin (H) proteins carrying the respective heterologous cytoplasmic domain, as well as a series of mutants with progressive deletions in this domain. CDV H retained fusion function and was normally expressed on the cell surface with a heterologous cytoplasmic domain, while the expression and fusion support of NiV G was dramatically decreased when its cytoplasmic domain was replaced with that of CDV H. The cell surface expression and fusion support functions of CDV H were relatively insensitive to cytoplasmic domain deletions, while short deletions in the corresponding region of NiV G dramatically decreased both. In addition, the first 10 residues of the CDV H cytoplasmic domain strongly influence its incorporation into virus-like particles formed by the CDV matrix (M) protein, while the co-expression of NiV M with NiV G had no significant effect on incorporation of G into particles. The cytoplasmic domains of both the CDV H and NiV G proteins thus contribute differently to the virus life cycle. PMID:26813519

  15. A structural constraint for functional interaction between N-terminal and C-terminal domains in simian immunodeficiency virus capsid proteins

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    Kawada Miki

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gag capsid (CA is one of the most conserved proteins in highly-diversified human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV. Understanding the limitations imposed on amino acid sequences in CA could provide valuable information for vaccine immunogen design or anti-HIV drug development. Here, by comparing two pathogenic SIV strains, SIVmac239 and SIVsmE543-3, we found critical amino acid residues for functional interaction between the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains in CA. Results We first examined the impact of Gag residue 205, aspartate (Gag205D in SIVmac239 and glutamate (Gag205E in SIVsmE543-3, on viral replication; due to this difference, Gag206-216 (IINEEAADWDL epitope-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs were previously shown to respond to SIVmac239 but not SIVsmE543-3 infection. A mutant SIVmac239, SIVmac239Gag205E, whose Gag205D is replaced with Gag205E showed lower replicative ability. Interestingly, however, SIVmac239Gag205E passaged in macaque T cell culture often resulted in selection of an additional mutation at Gag residue 340, a change from SIVmac239 valine (Gag340V to SIVsmE543-3 methionine (Gag340M, with recovery of viral fitness. Structural modeling analysis suggested possible intermolecular interaction between the Gag205 residue in the N-terminal domain and Gag340 in the C-terminal in CA hexamers. The Gag205D-to-Gag205E substitution in SIVmac239 resulted in loss of in vitro core stability, which was recovered by additional Gag340V-to-Gag340M substitution. Finally, selection of Gag205E plus Gag340M mutations, but not Gag205E alone was observed in a chronically SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaque eliciting Gag206-216-specific CTL responses. Conclusions These results present in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating the interaction between Gag residues 205 in CA NTD and 340 in CA CTD in SIV replication. Thus, this study indicates a structural constraint for functional interaction between SIV CA

  16. Mapping and mutation of the conserved DNA polymerase interaction motif (DPIM located in the C-terminal domain of fission yeast DNA polymerase δ subunit Cdc27

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    Warbrick Emma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA polymerases α and δ play essential roles in the replication of chromosomal DNA in eukaryotic cells. DNA polymerase α (Pol α-primase is required to prime synthesis of the leading strand and each Okazaki fragment on the lagging strand, whereas DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ is required for the elongation stages of replication, a function it appears capable of performing on both leading and lagging strands, at least in the absence of DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε. Results Here it is shown that the catalytic subunit of Pol α, Pol1, interacts with Cdc27, one of three non-catalytic subunits of fission yeast Pol δ, both in vivo and in vitro. Pol1 interacts with the C-terminal domain of Cdc27, at a site distinct from the previously identified binding sites for Cdc1 and PCNA. Comparative protein sequence analysis identifies a protein sequence motif, called the DNA polymerase interaction motif (DPIM, in Cdc27 orthologues from a wide variety of eukaryotic species, including mammals. Mutational analysis shows that the DPIM in fission yeast Cdc27 is not required for effective DNA replication, repair or checkpoint function. Conclusions The absence of any detectable phenotypic consequences arising from mutation of the DPIM suggests that despite its evolutionary conservation, the interaction between the two polymerases mediated by this motif is a non-essential one.

  17. Antibody-induced down-regulation of a mutated insulin receptor lacking an intact cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin receptor down-regulation was studied in various Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing transfected human insulin receptor cDNAs. In addition to a cell line expressing the normal receptor (CHO.T line), three lines expressing mutated receptors were studied: the CHO.T-t line, which expresses a receptor with a degraded cytoplasmic domain due to the removal of the C-terminal 112 amino acids, and the CHO.YF1 and CHO.YF3 lines, in which important autophosphorylation sites of the receptor kinase (tyrosines-1162 and -1163) have been replaced by phenylalanine. A monoclonal anti-receptor antibody, but not insulin itself, was found to down-regulate cell surface receptor levels in all four cell lines by 60-80% after 18-h treatment at 370C. Down-regulation of the CHO.T and CHO.T-t receptors occurred at similar antibody concentrations and with a similar time course, although the maximum level of CHO.T-t down-regulation (60%) was generally lower than the level of CHO.T down-regulation (80%). Pulse-chase labeling of these two cell types with [35S]methionine revealed that antibody treatment of both CHO.T and CHO.T-t cells resulted in a similar increase in the rate of degradation of mature receptor subunits. These results indicate that antibody-induced down-regulation of the insulin receptor in these cells can occur in the absence of various autophosphorylation sites of the receptor and that the mechanism of antibody-induced down-regulation is different from that for insulin

  18. Wolbachia transcription elongation factor "Wol GreA" interacts with α2ββ'σ subunits of RNA polymerase through its dimeric C-terminal domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeetendra Kumar Nag

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Wolbachia, an endosymbiont of filarial nematode, is considered a promising target for therapy against lymphatic filariasis. Transcription elongation factor GreA is an essential factor that mediates transcriptional transition from abortive initiation to productive elongation by stimulating the escape of RNA polymerase (RNAP from native prokaryotic promoters. Upon screening of 6257 essential bacterial genes, 57 were suggested as potential future drug targets, and GreA is among these. The current study emphasized the characterization of Wol GreA with its domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biophysical characterization of Wol GreA with its N-terminal domain (NTD and C-terminal domain (CTD was performed with fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography, and chemical cross-linking. Filter trap and far western blotting were used to determine the domain responsible for the interaction with α2ββ'σ subunits of RNAP. Protein-protein docking studies were done to explore residual interaction of RNAP with Wol GreA. The factor and its domains were found to be biochemically active. Size exclusion and chemical cross-linking studies revealed that Wol GreA and CTD exist in a dimeric conformation while NTD subsists in monomeric conformation. Asp120, Val121, Ser122, Lys123, and Ser134 are the residues of CTD through which monomers of Wol GreA interact and shape into a dimeric conformation. Filter trap, far western blotting, and protein-protein docking studies revealed that dimeric CTD of Wol GreA through Lys82, Ser98, Asp104, Ser105, Glu106, Tyr109, Glu116, Asp120, Val121, Ser122, Ser127, Ser129, Lys140, Glu143, Val147, Ser151, Glu153, and Phe163 residues exclusively participates in binding with α2ββ'σ subunits of polymerase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first documentation of the residual mode of action in wolbachial mutualist. Therefore, findings may be crucial to understanding the

  19. The pH-sensitive structure of the C-terminal domain of voltage-gated proton channel and the thermodynamic characteristics of Zn{sup 2+} binding to this domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qing; Li, Chuanyong; Li, Shu Jie, E-mail: shujieli@nankai.edu.cn

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • The α-helical content of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • The thermostability of the C-terminus is decreased with a pH increase. • Zn{sup 2+} binds to His{sup 244} and His{sup 266} residues within the C-terminal domain. • The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 244} residue is an endothermic heat reaction. • The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 266} residue is an exothermic heat reaction. - Abstract: The voltage-gated proton channel Hv1 is strongly sensitive to Zn{sup 2+}. The H{sup +} conduction is decreased at a high concentration of Zn{sup 2+} and Hv1 channel closing is slowed by the internal application of Zn{sup 2+}. Although the recent studies demonstrated that Zn{sup 2+} interacts with the intracellular C-terminal domain, the binding sites and details of the interaction remain unknown. Here, we studied the pH-dependent structural stability of the intracellular C-terminal domain of human Hv1 and showed that Zn{sup 2+} binds to His{sup 244} and His{sup 266} residues. The thermodynamics signature of Zn{sup 2+} binding to the two sites was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry. The binding of Zn{sup 2+} to His{sup 244} (mutant H266A) and His{sup 266} (mutant H244A) were an endothermic heat reaction and an exothermic heat reaction, respectively.

  20. N-terminal and C-terminal heparin-binding domain polypeptides derived from fibronectin reduce adhesion and invasion of liver cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibronectin (FN) is known to be a large multifunction glycoprotein with binding sites for many substances, including N-terminal and C-terminal heparin-binding domains. We investigated the effects of highly purified rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 polypeptides originally cloned from the two heparin-binding domains on the adhesion and invasion of highly metastatic human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (MHCC97H) and analyzed the underlying mechanism involved. The MHCC97H cells that adhered to FN in the presence of various concentrations of rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 polypeptides were stained with crystal violet and measured, and the effects of rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 on the invasion of the MHCC97H cells were then detected using the Matrigel invasion assay as well as a lung-metastasis mouse model. The expression level of integrins and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphotyrosyl protein was examined by Western blot, and the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) was analyzed by gelatin zymography and the electrophoretic mobility band-shift assay (EMSA), respectively. Both of the polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 inhibited adhesion and invasion of MHCC97H cells; however, rhFNHC36 exhibited inhibition at a lower dose than rhFNHN29. These inhibitory effects were mediated by integrin αvβ3 and reversed by a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor. Polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 abrogated the tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (p-FAK) and activation of activator protein 1 (AP-1), resulting in the decrease of integrin αv, β3 and β1 expression as well as the reduction of MMP-9 activity. Polypeptides rhFNHN29 and rhFNHC36 could potentially be applicable to human liver cancer as anti-adhesive and anti-invasive agents

  1. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 34-residue α/β peptide, [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures, and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the β-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the β-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is...

  2. Nuclear Trafficking of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist P-Protein Is Regulated by an Importin-Binding Nuclear Localization Sequence in the C-Terminal Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Caitlin L.; Wagstaff, Kylie M.; Oksayan, Sibil; Glover, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus P-protein is expressed as five isoforms (P1-P5) which undergo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking important to roles in immune evasion. Although nuclear import of P3 is known to be mediated by an importin (IMP)-recognised nuclear localization sequence in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), the mechanisms underlying nuclear import of other P isoforms in which the N-NLS is inactive or has been deleted have remained unresolved. Based on the previous observation that mutation of basic residues K214/R260 of the P-protein C-terminal domain (P-CTD) can result in nuclear exclusion of P3, we used live cell imaging, protein interaction analysis and in vitro nuclear transport assays to examine in detail the nuclear trafficking properties of this domain. We find that the effect of mutation of K214/R260 on P3 is largely dependent on nuclear export, suggesting that nuclear exclusion of mutated P3 involves the P-CTD-localized nuclear export sequence (C-NES). However, assays using cells in which nuclear export is pharmacologically inhibited indicate that these mutations significantly inhibit P3 nuclear accumulation and, importantly, prevent nuclear accumulation of P1, suggestive of effects on NLS-mediated import activity in these isoforms. Consistent with this, molecular binding and transport assays indicate that the P-CTD mediates IMPα2/IMPβ1-dependent nuclear import by conferring direct binding to the IMPα2/IMPβ1 heterodimer, as well as to a truncated form of IMPα2 lacking the IMPβ-binding autoinhibitory domain (ΔIBB-IMPα2), and IMPβ1 alone. These properties are all dependent on K214 and R260. This provides the first evidence that P-CTD contains a genuine IMP-binding NLS, and establishes the mechanism by which P-protein isoforms other than P3 can be imported to the nucleus. These data underpin a refined model for P-protein trafficking that involves the concerted action of multiple NESs and IMP-binding NLSs, and highlight the intricate regulation of P

  3. Nuclear Trafficking of the Rabies Virus Interferon Antagonist P-Protein Is Regulated by an Importin-Binding Nuclear Localization Sequence in the C-Terminal Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Caitlin L; Wagstaff, Kylie M; Oksayan, Sibil; Glover, Dominic J; Jans, David A; Moseley, Gregory W

    2016-01-01

    Rabies virus P-protein is expressed as five isoforms (P1-P5) which undergo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking important to roles in immune evasion. Although nuclear import of P3 is known to be mediated by an importin (IMP)-recognised nuclear localization sequence in the N-terminal region (N-NLS), the mechanisms underlying nuclear import of other P isoforms in which the N-NLS is inactive or has been deleted have remained unresolved. Based on the previous observation that mutation of basic residues K214/R260 of the P-protein C-terminal domain (P-CTD) can result in nuclear exclusion of P3, we used live cell imaging, protein interaction analysis and in vitro nuclear transport assays to examine in detail the nuclear trafficking properties of this domain. We find that the effect of mutation of K214/R260 on P3 is largely dependent on nuclear export, suggesting that nuclear exclusion of mutated P3 involves the P-CTD-localized nuclear export sequence (C-NES). However, assays using cells in which nuclear export is pharmacologically inhibited indicate that these mutations significantly inhibit P3 nuclear accumulation and, importantly, prevent nuclear accumulation of P1, suggestive of effects on NLS-mediated import activity in these isoforms. Consistent with this, molecular binding and transport assays indicate that the P-CTD mediates IMPα2/IMPβ1-dependent nuclear import by conferring direct binding to the IMPα2/IMPβ1 heterodimer, as well as to a truncated form of IMPα2 lacking the IMPβ-binding autoinhibitory domain (ΔIBB-IMPα2), and IMPβ1 alone. These properties are all dependent on K214 and R260. This provides the first evidence that P-CTD contains a genuine IMP-binding NLS, and establishes the mechanism by which P-protein isoforms other than P3 can be imported to the nucleus. These data underpin a refined model for P-protein trafficking that involves the concerted action of multiple NESs and IMP-binding NLSs, and highlight the intricate regulation of P

  4. Easy expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A as a vaccine candidate using a bi-cistronic baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaflores, Oliver B; Hsei, Chein-Ming; Teng, Chao-Yi; Chen, Ying-Ju; Wey, Jiunn-Jye; Tsui, Pei-Yi; Shyu, Rong-Hwa; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Yeh, Jui-Ming; Chiao, Der-Jiang; Wu, Tzong-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Clostridial botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic proteins causing the food borne disease, botulism. In previous studies, recombinant BoNT production by Escherichia coli and yeast Pichia pastoris has been hampered by high AT content and codon bias in the gene encoding BoNT and required a synthetic gene to resolve this intrinsic bottleneck. This paper reports the simultaneous expression of the C-terminal heavy chain domain of BoNT (rBoNT/A-HC-6h) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) using a bi-cistronic baculovirus-insect cell expression system. The expression of EGFP facilitated the monitoring of viral infection, virus titer determination, and isolation of the recombinant virus. Protein fusion with hexa-His-tag and one-step immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) purification produced a homogenous, stable, and immunologically active 55-kDa rBoNT/A-HC-6h (about 3mg/L) with >90% purity. Furthermore, measured levels of serum titers were 8-folds for mice vaccinated with the purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h (2μg) than for mice administered with botulinum toxoid after initial immunization. Challenge experiment with botulinum A toxin demonstrated the immunoprotective activity of purified rBoNT/A-HC-6h providing the mice full protection against 10(2) LD50 botulinum A toxin with a dose as low as 0.2μg. This study provided supportive evidence for the use of a bi-cistronic baculovirus-Sf21 insect cell expression system in the facile expression of an immunogenically active rBoNT/A-HC. PMID:23313783

  5. The activation function 2 domain of hepatic nuclear factor 4 is regulated by a short C-terminal proline-rich repressor domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Iyemere, V P; Davies, N H; Brownlee, G G

    1998-01-01

    Hepatic nuclear factor 4 (HNF4) is a transcription factor whose expression is crucial for mouse embryonic development, for liver-specific gene expression and for the prevention of one form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young. Its domain structure has been defined previously and is similar to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. A repressor domain has now been localised to a region of 14 amino acids (residues 428-441) near the C-terminus of HNF4 and is sufficient by itself to...

  6. Thrombospondin-1-N-Terminal Domain Induces a Phagocytic State and Thrombospondin-1-C-Terminal Domain Induces a Tolerizing Phenotype in Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tabib, Adi; Krispin, Alon; Trahtemberg, Uriel; Verbovetski, Inna; Lebendiker, Mario; Danieli, Tsafi; Mevorach, Dror

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study, we have found that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is synthesized de novo upon monocyte and neutrophil apoptosis, leading to a phagocytic and tolerizing phenotype of dendritic cells (DC), even prior to DC-apoptotic cell interaction. Interestingly, we were able to show that heparin binding domain (HBD), the N-terminal portion of TSP-1, was cleaved and secreted simultaneously in a caspase- and serine protease- dependent manner. In the current study we were interested to examine ...

  7. Trifluoroethanol Reveals Helical Propensity at Analogous Positions in Cytoplasmic Domains of Three Connexins

    OpenAIRE

    Fort, Alfredo G.; Spray, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Cytoplasmic domains of gap junction proteins (connexins) are involved in channel gating, voltage and pH sensitivity, and contain binding sites for partner proteins. However, their secondary structure is incompletely characterized and comparisons among the connexins is totally lacking. Circular dichroism (CD) was used to study the conformational properties of synthetic peptides corresponding to the highly divergent amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic domains of connexin (Cx)32, Cx36, and Cx43....

  8. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, Mirjana; Quezada, Cindy M.; Stebbins, C. Erec, E-mail: stebbins@rockefeller.edu [Laboratory of Structural Microbiology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  9. A conserved domain in type III secretion links the cytoplasmic domain of InvA to elements of the basal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domain of Salmonella InvA shares homology to a recurring scaffold in the membrane-spanning components of the type II and type III secretion systems. Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events

  10. Analysis of Tb{sup 3+}- and melittin-binding with the C-terminal domain of centrin in Euplotes octocarinatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yaqin; Diao Xiuling; Yan Jun; Feng Yanan [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Microcular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Wang Zhijun [Chemical Department, Changzhi University, Changzhi 046011 (China); Liang Aihua, E-mail: aliang@sxu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Microcular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Yang Binsheng, E-mail: yangbs@sxu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Microcular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Centrin is a low molecular mass (20 KDa) protein that belongs to the EF-hand superfamily. In this work, the interaction between the Tb{sup 3+}-saturated C-terminal domain of Euplotes octocarinatus centrin (Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen) and 2-p-toluidinylnaphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS) was investigated using difference UV-vis spectra and the fluorescence spectra methods. In 100 mM N-2-hydroxy-ethylpiperazine-N-2-ethanesulfonic acid (Hepes) at pH 7.4, with the addition of Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen, four new peaks were observed at 265 nm, 278 nm, 317 nm and 360 nm by absorptivity compared with blank solution of TNS. At the same time, the reaction could be measured by fluorescence spectra. The fluorescence emission of TNS was shifted from 480 nm to 445 nm in the presence of Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen. Meanwhile, its fluorescence intensity was increased markedly. The 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of C-EoCen to TNS was confirmed by fluorescence titration curves. The conditional binding constants of TNS with C-EoCen and Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen were calculated to be log K{sub (C-EoCen-TNS)}=5.32{+-}0.04 M{sup -1} and log K{sub (Tb2-C-EoCen-TNS)}=5.58{+-}0.12 M{sup -1}, respectively. In addition, the protein of Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen binding with melittin was also studied. Based on the fluorescence titration curves, the 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen to melittin was confirmed. And the conditional binding constant of C-EoCen with melittin was calculated to be log Ka Prime =6.79{+-}0.17 M{sup -1}. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tb{sup 3+} induced conformational changes of protein C-EoCen from closed state to open state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conformational changes resulted in the exposure of hydrophobic surfaces on C-EoCen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tb{sub 2}-C-EoCen may bind with target peptide melittin.

  11. A Conserved Interaction between a C-Terminal Motif in Norovirus VPg and the HEAT-1 Domain of eIF4G Is Essential for Translation Initiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin N Leen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Translation initiation is a critical early step in the replication cycle of the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome of noroviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Norovirus RNA, which has neither a 5´ m7G cap nor an internal ribosome entry site (IRES, adopts an unusual mechanism to initiate protein synthesis that relies on interactions between the VPg protein covalently attached to the 5´-end of the viral RNA and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs in the host cell. For murine norovirus (MNV we previously showed that VPg binds to the middle fragment of eIF4G (4GM; residues 652-1132. Here we have used pull-down assays, fluorescence anisotropy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC to demonstrate that a stretch of ~20 amino acids at the C terminus of MNV VPg mediates direct and specific binding to the HEAT-1 domain within the 4GM fragment of eIF4G. Our analysis further reveals that the MNV C terminus binds to eIF4G HEAT-1 via a motif that is conserved in all known noroviruses. Fine mutagenic mapping suggests that the MNV VPg C terminus may interact with eIF4G in a helical conformation. NMR spectroscopy was used to define the VPg binding site on eIF4G HEAT-1, which was confirmed by mutagenesis and binding assays. We have found that this site is non-overlapping with the binding site for eIF4A on eIF4G HEAT-1 by demonstrating that norovirus VPg can form ternary VPg-eIF4G-eIF4A complexes. The functional significance of the VPg-eIF4G interaction was shown by the ability of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal peptide of MNV VPg to inhibit in vitro translation of norovirus RNA but not cap- or IRES-dependent translation. These observations define important structural details of a functional interaction between norovirus VPg and eIF4G and reveal a binding interface that might be exploited as a target for antiviral therapy.

  12. The C-terminal heavy-chain domain of botulinum neurotoxin a is not the only site that binds neurons, as the N-terminal heavy-chain domain also plays a very active role in toxin-cell binding and interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyar, B Vijayalakshmi; Aoki, K Roger; Atassi, M Zouhair

    2015-04-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) possess unique specificity for nerve terminals. They bind to the presynaptic membrane and then translocate intracellularly, where the light-chain endopeptidase cleaves the SNARE complex proteins, subverting the synaptic exocytosis responsible for acetylcholine release to the synaptic cleft. This inhibits acetylcholine binding to its receptor, causing paralysis. Binding, an obligate event for cell intoxication, is believed to occur through the heavy-chain C-terminal (HC) domain. It is followed by toxin translocation and entry into the cell cytoplasm, which is thought to be mediated by the heavy-chain N-terminal (HN) domain. Submolecular mapping analysis by using synthetic peptides spanning BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) and mouse brain synaptosomes (SNPs) and protective antibodies against toxin from mice and cervical dystonia patients undergoing BoNT/A treatment revealed that not only regions of the HC domain but also regions of the HN domain are involved in the toxin binding process. Based on these findings, we expressed a peptide corresponding to the BoNT/A region comprising HN domain residues 729 to 845 (HN729-845). HN729-845 bound directly to mouse brain SNPs and substantially inhibited BoNT/A binding to SNPs. The binding involved gangliosides GT1b and GD1a and a few membrane lipids. The peptide bound to human or mouse neuroblastoma cells within 1 min. Peptide HN729-845 protected mice completely against a lethal BoNT/A dose (1.05 times the 100% lethal dose). This protective activity was obtained at a dose comparable to that of the peptide from positions 967 to 1296 in the HC domain. These findings strongly indicate that HN729-845 and, by extension, the HN domain are fully programmed and equipped to bind to neuronal cells and in the free state can even inhibit the binding of the toxin. PMID:25624352

  13. Identification of a novel pentatricopeptide repeat subfamily with a C-terminal domain of bacterial origin acquired via ancient horizontal gene transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Manna, Sam; Barth, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins involved in organelle RNA metabolism. Very little is known about the origin and evolution of these proteins, particularly outside of plants. Here, we report the identification of a novel subfamily of PPR proteins not found in plants and explore their evolution. Results We identified a novel subfamily of PPR proteins, which all contain a C-terminal tRNA guanine methyltransferase (TGM...

  14. Interaction of Cytosolic Glutamine Synthetase of Soybean Root Nodules with the C-terminal Domain of the Symbiosome Membrane Nodulin 26 Aquaglyceroporin*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Masalkar, Pintu; Wallace, Ian S.; Hwang, Jin Ha; Roberts, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Nodulin 26 (nod26) is a major intrinsic protein that constitutes the major protein component on the symbiosome membrane (SM) of N2-fixing soybean nodules. Functionally, nod26 forms a low energy transport pathway for water, osmolytes, and NH3 across the SM. Besides their transport functions, emerging evidence suggests that high concentrations of major intrinsic proteins on membranes provide interaction and docking targets for various cytosolic proteins. Here it is shown that the C-terminal dom...

  15. Solution structure of a syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain and its interaction with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, D; Oh, E S; Woods, A;

    1998-01-01

    ) region in their cytoplasmic domains, and that of syndecan-4 is critical to its interaction with protein kinase C and PIP2. Two oligopeptides corresponding to the variable region (4V) and whole domain (4L) of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain were synthesized for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. Data...... from NMR and circular dichroism indicate that the cytoplasmic domain undergoes a conformational transition and forms a symmetric dimer in the presence of phospholipid activator PIP2. The solution conformations of both free and PIP2-complexed 4V have been determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy...... cytoplasmic domain for transmembrane signaling and cell-matrix adhesion....

  16. Cytoplasmic Domain of MscS Interacts with Cell Division Protein FtsZ: A Possible Non-Channel Function of the Mechanosensitive Channel in Escherichia Coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Koprowski

    Full Text Available Bacterial mechano-sensitive (MS channels reside in the inner membrane and are considered to act as emergency valves whose role is to lower cell turgor when bacteria enter hypo-osmotic environments. However, there is emerging evidence that members of the Mechano-sensitive channel Small (MscS family play additional roles in bacterial and plant cell physiology. MscS has a large cytoplasmic C-terminal region that changes its shape upon activation and inactivation of the channel. Our pull-down and co-sedimentation assays show that this domain interacts with FtsZ, a bacterial tubulin-like protein. We identify point mutations in the MscS C-terminal domain that reduce binding to FtsZ and show that bacteria expressing these mutants are compromised in growth on sublethal concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics. Our results suggest that interaction between MscS and FtsZ could occur upon inactivation and/or opening of the channel and could be important for the bacterial cell response against sustained stress upon stationary phase and in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics.

  17. RAD51AP2, a novel vertebrate- and meiotic-specific protein, sharesa conserved RAD51-interacting C-terminal domain with RAD51AP1/PIR51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleg V.; Wiese, Claudia; Schild, David

    2006-07-25

    Many interacting proteins regulate and/or assist the activities of RAD51, a recombinase which plays a critical role in both DNA repair and meiotic recombination. Yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis cDNA library revealed a new protein, RAD51AP2 (RAD51 Associated Protein 2), that interacts strongly with RAD51. A full-length cDNA clone predicts a novel vertebrate specific protein of 1159 residues, and the RAD51AP2 transcript was observed only in meiotic tissue (i.e. adult testis and fetal ovary), suggesting a meiotic-specific function for RAD51AP2. In HEK293 cells the interaction of RAD51 with an ectopically-expressed recombinant large fragment of RAD51AP2 requires the C-terminal 57 residues of RAD51AP2. This RAD51-binding region shows 81% homology to the C-terminus of RAD51AP1/PIR51, an otherwise totally unrelated RAD51-binding partner that is ubiquitously expressed. Analyses using truncations and point mutations in both RAD51AP1 and RAD51AP2 demonstrate that these proteins use the same structural motif for RAD51 binding. RAD54 shares some homology with this RAD51-binding motif, but this homologous region plays only an accessory role to the adjacent main RAD51-interacting region, which has been narrowed here to 40 amino acids. A novel protein, RAD51AP2, has been discovered that interacts with RAD51 through a C-terminal motif also present in RAD51AP1.

  18. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of β-hairpin structure

    OpenAIRE

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal β-hairpin (residues 46–61), [IG(46–61)], of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG(46–61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from bo...

  19. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42–61), derived from the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD, NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07mM) which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The ...

  20. Monoclonal Antibody 16D10 to the C-Terminal Domain of the Feto-Acinar Pancreatic Protein Binds to Membrane of Human Pancreatic Tumoral SOJ-6 Cells and Inhibits the Growth of Tumor Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Panicot-Dubois

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Feto-acinar pancreatic protein (FAPP characterized by mAbJ28 reactivity is a specific component associated with ontogenesis and behaves as an oncodevelopment-associated antigen. We attempted to determine whether pancreatic tumoral SOJ-6 cells are expressed at their surface FAPP antigens and to examine if specific antibodies directed against these FAPP epitopes could decrease the growth of pancreatic tumors in a mice model. For this purpose, we used specific antibodies against either the whole FAPP, the O-glycosylated C-terminal domain, or the N-terminal domain of the protein. Our results indicate that SOJ-6 cells expressed at their surface a 32-kDa peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of the FAPP. Furthermore, we show, by using endoproteinase Lys-C or geldanamycin, a drug able to impair the FAPP secretion, that this 32-kDa peptide expressed on the SOJ-6 cell surface comes from the degradation of the FAPP. Finally, an in vivo prospective study using a preventative tumor model in nude mice indicates that targeting this peptide by the use of mAb16D10 inhibits the growth of SOJ-6 xenografts. The specificity of mAb16D10 for pancreatic tumors and the possibility to obtain recombinant structures of mucin-like peptides recognized by mAb16D10 and mAbJ28 are promising tools in immunologic approaches to cure pancreatic cancers.

  1. The MIK region rather than the C-terminal domain of AP3-like class B floral homeotic proteins determines functional specificity in the development and evolution of petals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kunmei; Zhao, Suzhen; Shan, Hongyan; Kong, Hongzhi; Lu, Wenliang; Theissen, Günter; Chen, Zhiduan; Meng, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    In core eudicots, euAP3-type MADS-box genes encode a PISTILLATA (PI)-derived motif, as well as a C-terminal euAP3 motif that originated from a paleoAP3 motif of an ancestral APETALA3 (AP3)-like protein through a translational frameshift mutation. To determine the functional and evolutionary relevance of these motifs, a series of point mutation and domain-swap constructs were generated, involving CsAP3, a paleoAP3-type gene from the basal angiosperm Chloranthus spicatus encoding a truncated paleoAP3 motif, and AtAP3, a euAP3-type gene from the core eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. The chimeric constructs were expressed in A. thaliana under the control of the AP3 promoter or the CaMV 35S promoter in an ap3 mutant or wild-type background, respectively. Significant recovery of AP3 function was obtained in both complementation and ectopic expression experiments whenever the region upstream of the C-terminal motifs (MIK region) from A. thaliana was taken, even when the PI-derived motif and the truncated paleoAP3 motif of CsAP3 substituted for the corresponding sequences from AtAP3. However, no or very weak complementation or gain-of-function was seen when the MIK region was from CsAP3. Our data suggest that changes in the MIK region rather than mutations in the C-terminal domain were of crucial importance for the evolution of the functional specificity of euAP3-type proteins in stamen and petal development. PMID:18298432

  2. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 34-residue α/β peptide, [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures, and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the β-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the β-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is stabilized by non-native long-range hydrophobic interactions (Val47 – Val59). On the other hand, the N-terminal part of IG(28-61), which corresponds to the middle α-helix in the native structure, is unstructured at low temperature (283 K), and forms an α-helix-like structure at 305 K and only one helical turn is observed at 313 K. At all temperatures at which NMR experiments were performed (283, 305 and 313 K), we do not observe any long-range connectivities which would have supported packing between the C-terminal (β-hairpin) and the N-terminal (α-helix) parts of the sequence. Such interactions are absent, in contrast to the folding pathway of the B domain of protein G, proposed recently by Kmiecik and Koliński [Kmiecik, S.; Kolinski, A. Biophys J 2008, 94, 726-736], based on Monte Carlo dynamics studies. Alternative folding mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:20049918

  3. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin-binding protein G from Streptococcus. IV. Implication for the mechanism of folding of the parent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanislaw; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-05-01

    A 34-residue alpha/beta peptide [IG(28-61)], derived from the C-terminal part of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, was studied using CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the C-terminal part (a 16-residue-long fragment) of this peptide, which corresponds to the sequence of the beta-hairpin in the native structure, forms structure similar to the beta-hairpin only at T = 313 K, and the structure is stabilized by non-native long-range hydrophobic interactions (Val47-Val59). On the other hand, the N-terminal part of IG(28-61), which corresponds to the middle alpha-helix in the native structure, is unstructured at low temperature (283 K) and forms an alpha-helix-like structure at 305 K, and only one helical turn is observed at 313 K. At all temperatures at which NMR experiments were performed (283, 305, and 313 K), we do not observe any long-range connectivities which would have supported packing between the C-terminal (beta-hairpin) and the N-terminal (alpha-helix) parts of the sequence. Such interactions are absent, in contrast to the folding pathway of the B domain of protein G, proposed recently by Kmiecik and Kolinski (Biophys J 2008, 94, 726-736), based on Monte-Carlo dynamics studies. Alternative folding mechanisms are proposed and discussed. PMID:20049918

  4. Recombinant expression of two bacteriophage proteins that lyse clostridium perfringens and share identical sequences in the C-terminal cell wall binding domain of the molecules but are dissimilar in their N-terminal active domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Mustafa; Donovan, David M; Siragusa, Gregory R; Seal, Bruce S

    2010-10-13

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacterium capable of producing four major toxins that are responsible for disease symptoms and pathogenesis in a variety of animals, humans, and poultry. The organism is the third leading cause of human foodborne bacterial disease, and C. perfringens is the presumptive etiologic agent of necrotic enteritis among chickens, which in the acute form can cause increased mortality among broiler flocks. Countries that have complied with the ban on antimicrobial growth promoters (AGP) in feeds have had increased incidences of C. perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in poultry. To address this issue, new antimicrobial agents, putative lysins from the genomes of bacteriophages, are identified. Two putative phage lysin genes (ply) from the clostridial phages phiCP39O and phiCP26F were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli , and the resultant proteins were purified to near homogeneity. Gene and protein sequencing revealed that the predicted and chemically determined amino acid sequences of the two recombinant proteins were homologous to N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidases. The proteins were identical in the C-terminal putative cell-wall binding domain, but only 55% identical to each other in the presumptive N-terminal catalytic domain. Both recombinant lysins were capable of lysing both parental phage host strains of C. perfringens as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and turbidity reduction assays. The observed reduction in turbidity was correlated with up to a 3 log cfu/mL reduction in viable C. perfringens on brain-heart infusion agar plates. However, other member species of the clostridia were resistant to the lytic activity by both assays. PMID:20825156

  5. Cytoplasmic tail domain of glycoprotein B is essential for HHV-6 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Nora F; Jasirwan, Chyntia; Kanemoto, Satoshi; Wakata, Aika; Wang, Bochao; Hata, Yuuki; Nagamata, Satoshi; Kawabata, Akiko; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko

    2016-03-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) glycoprotein B (gB) is an abundantly expressed viral glycoprotein required for viral entry and cell fusion, and is highly conserved among herpesviruses. The present study examined the function of HHV-6 gB cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD). A gB CTD deletion mutant was constructed which, in contrast to its revertant, could not be reconstituted. Moreover, deletion of gB cytoplasmic tail impaired the intracellular transport of gB protein to the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Taken together, these results suggest that gB CTD is critical for HHV-6 propagation and important for intracellular transportation. PMID:26802210

  6. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates residues in the C-terminal domain of the cardiac L-type calcium channel alpha1 subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, R N; Brickley, K; Norman, R I

    1996-06-11

    The molecular basis of the regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channel activity by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cA-PK) remains unclear. Direct cA-PK-dependent phosphorylation of the bovine ventricular alpha1 subunit in vitro has been demonstrated in microsomal membranes, detergent extracts and partially purified (+)-[3H]PN 200-110 receptor preparations. Two 32P-labeled phosphopeptides, derived from cyanogen bromide cleavage, of 4.7 and 9.5 kDa were immunoprecipitated specifically by site-directed antibodies against the rabbit cardiac alpha1 subunit amino acid sequences 1602-1616 and 1681-1694, respectively, consistent with phosphorylation at the cA-PK consensus sites at Ser(1627) and Ser(1700). No phosphopeptide products consistent with phosphorylation at three other C-terminal cA-PK consensus phosphorylation sites (Ser(1575), Ser(1848) and Ser(1928)) were identified using similar procedures suggesting that these sites are poor substrates for this kinase. Ser(1627) and Ser(1700) may represent sites of cA-PK phosphorylation involved in the physiological regulation of cardiac L-type calcium channel function. PMID:8664319

  7. The C-terminal domain of the nuclear factor I-B2 isoform is glycosylated and transactivates the WAP gene in the JEG-3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transcription factor nuclear factor I (NFI) has been shown previously both in vivo and in vitro to be involved in the cooperative regulation of whey acidic protein (WAP) gene transcription along with the glucocorticoid receptor and STAT5. In addition, one of the specific NFI isoforms, NFI-B2, was demonstrated in transient co-transfection experiments in JEG cells, which lack endogenous NFI, to be preferentially involved in the cooperative regulation of WAP gene expression. A comparison of the DNA-binding specificities of the different NFI isoforms only partially explained their differential ability to activate the WAP gene transcription. Here, we analyzed the transactivation regions of two NFI isoforms by making chimeric proteins between the NFI-A and B isoforms. Though, their DNA-binding specificities were not altered as compared to the corresponding wild-type transcription factors, the C-terminal region of the NFI-B isoform was shown to preferentially activate WAP gene transcription in cooperation with GR and STAT5 in transient co-transfection assays in JEG-3 cells. Furthermore, determination of serine and threonine-specific glycosylation (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) of the C-terminus of the NFI-B isoform suggested that the secondary modification by O-GlcNAc might play a role in the cooperative regulation of WAP gene transcription by NFI-B2 and STAT5

  8. Co-expression of the C-terminal domain of Yersinia enterocolitica invasin enhances the efficacy of classical swine-fever-vectored vaccine based on human adenovirus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Helin Li; Pengbo Ning; Zhi Lin; Wulong Liang; Kai Kang; Lei He; Yanming Zhang

    2015-03-01

    The use of adenovirus vector-based vaccines is a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immune responses. Improving vaccine potency is necessary in other approaches to address their inadequate protection for the majority of infectious diseases. This study is the first to reconstruct a recombinant replication-defective human adenovirus co-expressing E2 and invasin C-terminal (InvC) glycoproteins (rAd-E2-InvC). rAd-E2-InvC with 2×106 TCID50 was intramuscularly administered two times to CSFV-free pigs at 14 day intervals. No adverse clinical reactions were observed in any of the pigs after the vaccination. The CSFV E2-specific antibody titer was significantly higher in the rAd-E2-InvC group than that in the rAdV-E2 group as measured by NPLA and blocking ELISA. Pigs immunized with rAd-E2-InvC were completely protected against lethal challenge. Neither CSFV RNA nor pathological changes were detected in the tissues after CSFV challenge. These results demonstrate that rAd-E2-InvC could be an alternative to the existing CSF vaccine. Moreover, InvC that acts as an adjuvant could enhance the immunogenicity of rAdV-E2 and induce high CSFV E2-specific antibody titer and protection level.

  9. Regulation of Adherence and Virulence by the Entamoeba histolytica Lectin Cytoplasmic Domain, Which Contains a β2 Integrin Motif

    OpenAIRE

    Vines, Richard R.; Ramakrishnan, Girija; Rogers, Joshua B.; Lockhart, Lauren A.; Mann, Barbara J.; Petri, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Killing of human cells by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica requires adherence via an amebic cell surface lectin. Lectin activity in the parasite is regulated by inside-out signaling. The lectin cytoplasmic domain has sequence identity with a region of the β2 integrin cytoplasmic tail implicated in regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion. Intracellular expression of a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic domain of the lectin has a dominant negative effect on extracellular lectin-mediat...

  10. Comparison of adjuvant activity of N- and C-terminal domain of gp96 in a Her2-positive breast cancer model

    OpenAIRE

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    It has been frequently reported that gp96 acts as a strong biologic adjuvant. Some studies have even investigated adjuvant activity of the gp96 C- or N-terminal domain. The controversy surrounding adjuvant activity of gp96 terminal domains prompted us to compare adjuvant activity of gp96 C- or N-terminal domain toward Her2/neu, as DNA vaccine in a Her2/neu-positive breast cancer model. To do so, mice were immunized with DNA vaccine consisting of transmembrane and extracellular domain (TM + EC...

  11. Role of C-terminal domain and transmembrane helices 5 and 6 in function and quaternary structure of major intrinsic proteins: analysis of aquaporin/glycerol facilitator chimeric proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Laurence; Pellerin, Isabelle; Delamarche, Christian; Deschamps, Stephane; Lagree, Valerie; Froger, Alexandrine; Bonnec, Georgette; Thomas, Daniel; Hubert, Jean-Francois

    2002-06-01

    We previously observed that aquaporins and glycerol facilitators exhibit different oligomeric states when studied by sedimentation on density gradients following nondenaturing detergent solubilization. To determine the domains of major intrinsic protein (MIP) family proteins involved in oligomerization, we constructed protein chimeras corresponding to the aquaporin AQPcic substituted in the loop E (including the proximal part of transmembrane domain (TM) 5) and/or the C-terminal part (including the distal part of TM 6) by the equivalent domain of the glycerol channel aquaglyceroporin (GlpF) (chimeras called AGA, AAG, and AGG). The analogous chimeras of GlpF were also constructed (chimeras GAG, GGA, and GAA). cRNA corresponding to all constructs were injected into Xenopus oocytes. AQPcic, GlpF, AAG, AGG, and GAG were targeted to plasma membranes. Water or glycerol membrane permeability measurements demonstrated that only the AAG chimera exhibited a channel function corresponding to water transport. Analysis of all proteins expressed either in oocytes or in yeast by velocity sedimentation on sucrose gradients following solubilization by 2% n-octyl glucoside indicated that only AQPcic and AAG exist in tetrameric forms. GlpF, GAG, and GAA sediment in a monomeric form, whereas GGA and AGG were found mono/dimeric. These data bring new evidence that, within the MIP family, aquaporins and GlpFs behave differently toward nondenaturing detergents. We demonstrate that the C-terminal part of AQPcic, including the distal half of TM 6, can be substituted by the equivalent domain of GlpF (AAG chimera) without modifying the transport specificity. Our results also suggest that interactions of TM 5 of one monomer with TM 1 of the adjacent monomer are crucial for aquaporin tetramer stability. PMID:11927589

  12. The catalytic subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase -- role of the N-terminal domain and of the C-terminal residues in catalytic activity and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchebehere, L C; Van Bemmelen, M X; Anjard, C; Traincard, F; Assemat, K; Reymond, C; Véron, M

    1997-09-15

    The C subunit of Dictyostelium cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is unusually large (73 kDa) due to the presence of 330 amino acids N-terminal to the conserved catalytic core. The sequence following the core, including a C-terminal -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe-COOH motif, is highly conserved. We have characterized the catalytic activity and stability of C subunits mutated in sequences outside the catalytic core and we have analyzed their ability to interact with the R subunit and with the heat-stable protein-kinase inhibitor PKI. Mutants carrying deletions in the N-terminal domain displayed little difference in their kinetic properties and retained their capacity to be inhibited by R subunit and by PKI. In contrast, the mutation of one or both of the phenylalanine residues in the C-terminal motif resulted in a decrease of catalytic activity and stability of the proteins. Inhibition by the R subunit or by PKI were however unaffected. Sequence-comparison analysis of other protein kinases revealed that a -Phe-Xaa-Xaa-Phe- motif is present in many Ser/Thr protein kinases, although its location at the very end of the polypeptide is a particular feature of the PKA family. We propose that the presence of this motif may serve to identify isoforms of protein kinases. PMID:9342234

  13. Replacement of the cytoplasmic domain alters sorting of a viral glycoprotein in polarized cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Puddington, L; Woodgett, C; Rose, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    The envelope glycoprotein (G protein) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is transported to the basolateral plasma membrane of polarized epithelial cells, whereas the hemagglutinin glycoprotein (HA protein) of influenza virus is transported to the apical plasma membrane. To determine if the cytoplasmic domain of VSV G protein might be important in directing G protein to the basolateral membrane, we derived polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cell lines expressing G protein or G protein with i...

  14. Two Stage Cadherin Kinetics Require Multiple Extracellular Domains but Not the Cytoplasmic Region*

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Yuan-Hung; Jiang, Ning; Li, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Cheng; Leckband, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Micropipette manipulation measurements quantified the pre-steady state binding kinetics between cell pairs mediated by Xenopus cleavage stage cadherin. The time-dependence of the intercellular binding probability exhibits a fast forming, low probability binding state, which transitions to a slower forming, high probability state. The biphasic kinetics are independent of the cytoplasmic region, but the transition to the high probability state requires the third extracellular domain EC3. Deleti...

  15. Structures of three members of Pfam PF02663 (FmdE) implicated in microbial methanogenesis reveal a conserved α+β core domain and an auxiliary C-terminal treble-clef zinc finger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first structures from the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663) reveal that some members of this family form tightly intertwined dimers consisting of two domains (N-terminal α+β core and C-terminal zinc-finger domains), whereas others contain only the core domain. The presence of the zinc-finger domain suggests that some members of this family may perform functions associated with transcriptional regulation, protein–protein interaction, RNA binding or metal-ion sensing. Examination of the genomic context for members of the FmdE Pfam family (PF02663), such as the protein encoded by the fmdE gene from the methanogenic archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, indicates that 13 of them are co-transcribed with genes encoding subunits of molybdenum formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.99.5), an enzyme that is involved in microbial methane production. Here, the first crystal structures from PF02663 are described, representing two bacterial and one archaeal species: B8FYU2-DESHY from the anaerobic dehalogenating bacterium Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2, Q2LQ23-SYNAS from the syntrophic bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus SB and Q9HJ63-THEAC from the thermoacidophilic archaeon Thermoplasma acidophilum. Two of these proteins, Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS, contain two domains: an N-terminal thioredoxin-like α+β core domain (NTD) consisting of a five-stranded, mixed β-sheet flanked by several α-helices and a C-terminal zinc-finger domain (CTD). B8FYU2-DESHY, on the other hand, is composed solely of the NTD. The CTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS is best characterized as a treble-clef zinc finger. Two significant structural differences between Q9HJ63-THEAC and Q2LQ23-SYNAS involve their metal binding. First, zinc is bound to the putative active site on the NTD of Q9HJ63-THEAC, but is absent from the NTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS. Second, whereas the structure of the CTD of Q2LQ23-SYNAS shows four Cys side chains within coordination distance of the Zn atom, the structure

  16. Molecular dissection of the C-terminal regulatory domain of the plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA2: Mapping of residues that when altered give rise to an activated enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, K.B.; Venema, K.; Jah, T.;

    1999-01-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a proton pump belonging to the P-type ATPase superfamily and is important for nutrient acquisition in plants, The H+-ATPase is controlled by an autoinhibitory C-terminal regulatory domain and is activated by 14-3-3 proteins which bind to this part of the enzyme....... Alanine-scanning mutagenesis through 87 consecutive amino acid residues was used to evaluate the role of the C-terminus in autoinhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Mutant enzymes were expressed in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a defective endogenous H......+-ATPase. The enzymes were characterized by their ability to promote growth in acidic conditions and to promote H+ extrusion from intact cells, both of which are measures of plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity, and were also characterized with respect to kinetic properties such as affinity for H+ and ATP...

  17. The novel 2Fe–2S outer mitochondrial protein mitoNEET displays conformational flexibility in its N-terminal cytoplasmic tethering domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystal structure of the anti-diabetic drug target mitoNEET obtained from a GFP fusion construct (1.4 Å resolution, R factor = 20.2%) shows that the CDGSH 2Fe–2S binding domains are superimposable with previously determined non-fused constructs. However, there is considerable flexibility in the position of the outer mitochondrial tethering arms resulting in two different conformations in the crystal structure. A primary role for mitochondrial dysfunction is indicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. A widely used drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes is pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of molecules. MitoNEET, a 2Fe–2S outer mitochondrial membrane protein, binds pioglitazone [Colca et al. (2004 ▶), Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.286, E252–E260]. The soluble domain of the human mitoNEET protein has been expressed C-terminal to the superfolder green fluorescent protein and the mitoNEET protein has been isolated. Comparison of the crystal structure of mitoNEET isolated from cleavage of the fusion protein (1.4 Å resolution, R factor = 20.2%) with other solved structures shows that the CDGSH domains are superimposable, indicating proper assembly of mitoNEET. Furthermore, there is considerable flexibility in the position of the cytoplasmic tethering arms, resulting in two different conformations in the crystal structure. This flexibility affords multiple orientations on the outer mitochondrial membrane

  18. Coordinated movement of cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of RyR1 upon gating.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Samsó

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1 produces spatially and temporally defined Ca2+ signals in several cell types. How signals received in the cytoplasmic domain are transmitted to the ion gate and how the channel gates are unknown. We used EGTA or neuroactive PCB 95 to stabilize the full closed or open states of RyR1. Single-channel measurements in the presence of FKBP12 indicate that PCB 95 inverts the thermodynamic stability of RyR1 and locks it in a long-lived open state whose unitary current is indistinguishable from the native open state. We analyzed two datasets of 15,625 and 18,527 frozen-hydrated RyR1-FKBP12 particles in the closed and open conformations, respectively, by cryo-electron microscopy. Their corresponding three-dimensional structures at 10.2 A resolution refine the structure surrounding the ion pathway previously identified in the closed conformation: two right-handed bundles emerging from the putative ion gate (the cytoplasmic "inner branches" and the transmembrane "inner helices". Furthermore, six of the identifiable transmembrane segments of RyR1 have similar organization to those of the mammalian Kv1.2 potassium channel. Upon gating, the distal cytoplasmic domains move towards the transmembrane domain while the central cytoplasmic domains move away from it, and also away from the 4-fold axis. Along the ion pathway, precise relocation of the inner helices and inner branches results in an approximately 4 A diameter increase of the ion gate. Whereas the inner helices of the K+ channels and of the RyR1 channel cross-correlate best with their corresponding open/closed states, the cytoplasmic inner branches, which are not observed in the K+ channels, appear to have at least as important a role as the inner helices for RyR1 gating. We propose a theoretical model whereby the inner helices, the inner branches, and the h1 densities together create an efficient novel gating mechanism for channel opening by relaxing two right

  19. Structure-Function Analysis of the Human TFIIB-Related Factor II Protein Reveals an Essential Role for the C-Terminal Domain in RNA Polymerase III Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Ashish; Ma, Beicong; Schramm, Laura; Hernandez, Nouria

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and Brf2 share related N-terminal zinc ribbon and core domains. TFIIB bridges RNA polymerase II (Pol II) with the promoter-bound preinitiation complex, whereas Brf1 and Brf2 are involved, as part of activities also containing TBP and Bdp1 and referred to here as Brf1-TFIIIB and Brf2-TFIIIB, in the recruitment of Pol III. Brf1-TFIIIB recruits Pol III to type 1 and 2 promoters and Brf2-TFIIIB to type 3 promoters such as the human U6 promoter. Brf1 and Brf2...

  20. Mutagenesis of tyrosine and di-leucine motifs in the HIV-1 envelope cytoplasmic domain results in a loss of Env-mediated fusion and infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claiborne Daniel T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gp41 component of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env contains a long cytoplasmic domain (CD with multiple highly conserved tyrosine (Y and dileucine (LL motifs. Studies suggest that the motifs distal to major endocytosis motif (Y712HRL, located at residues 712-715 of Env, may contribute to Env functionality in the viral life cycle. In order to examine the biological contribution of these motifs in the biosynthesis, transport, and function of Env, we constructed two panels of mutants in which the conserved Y- and LL-motifs were sequentially substituted by alternative residues, either in the presence or absence of Y712. Additional mutants targeting individual motifs were then constructed. Results All mutant Envs, when expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, maintained at least WT levels of Env surface staining by multiple antibodies. The Y712 mutation (Y712C contributed to at least a 4-fold increase in surface expression for all mutants containing this change. Sequential mutagenesis of the Y- and LL-motifs resulted in a generally progressive decrease in Env fusogenicity. However, additive mutation of dileucine and tyrosine motifs beyond the tyrosine at residue 768 resulted in the most dramatic effects on Env incorporation into virions, viral infectivity, and virus fusion with target cells. Conclusions From the studies reported here, we show that mutations of the Y- and LL-motifs, which effectively eliminate the amphipathic nature of the lytic peptide 2 (LLP2 domain or disrupt YW and LL motifs in a region spanning residues 795-803 (YWWNLLQYW, just C-terminal of LLP2, can dramatically interfere with biological functions of HIV-1 Env and abrogate virus replication. Because these mutant proteins are expressed at the cell surface, we conclude that tyrosine and di-leucine residues within the cytoplasmic domain of gp41 play critical roles in HIV-1 replication that are distinct from that of

  1. Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Analysis of Dual CFP/YFP Labeled AMPA Receptors Reveals Structural Rearrangement within the C-Terminal Domain during Receptor Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Linda Grønborg; Katchan, Mila; Plested, Andrew;

    2014-01-01

    variants (CFP and YFP, respectively) of green fluorescent protein at various positions in the GluA2 AMPAR subunit to enable measurements of intra- receptor conformational changes using Fo¨ rster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) in live cells. We identify dual CFP/YFP-tagged GluA2 subunit con- structs that...... retain function and display intrareceptor FRET. This includes a construct (GluA2-6Y-10C) containing YFP in the intracellular loop between the M1 and M2 membrane-embedded segments and CFP inserted in the C-ter- minal domain (CTD). GluA2-6Y-10C displays FRET with an efficiency of 0.11 while retaining wild......-type receptor expression and kinetic properties. We have used GluA2-6Y-10C to study conformational changes in homomeric GluA2 receptors during receptor activation. Our results show that the FRET efficiency is dependent on functional state of GluA2-6Y-10C and hereby indi- cates that the intracellular CTD...

  2. Fc receptor endocytosis is controlled by a cytoplasmic domain determinant that actively prevents coated pit localization

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Macrophages and B-lymphocytes express two major isoforms of Fc receptor (FcRII-B2 and FcRII-B1) that exhibit distinct capacities for endocytosis. This difference in function reflects the presence of an in- frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the lymphocyte isoform (FcRII-B1) due to alternative mRNA splicing. By expressing wild type and mutant FcRII cDNAs in fibroblasts, we have now examined the mechanism by which the insertion acts to prevent coated pit localization...

  3. Structural criteria for regulation of membrane fusion and virion incorporation by the murine leukemia virus TM cytoplasmic domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domains of viral glycoproteins influence the trafficking and subcellular localization of the glycoproteins and their incorporation into virions. They also promote correct virus morphology and viral budding. The cytoplasmic domains of murine-leukemia-virus envelope-protein TM subunits regulate membrane fusion. During virion maturation the carboxy-terminal 16 amino acid residues of the TM protein are removed by the retroviral protease. Deletion of these residues activates envelope-protein-mediated membrane fusion. Our quantitative analysis of the effects of Moloney murine leukemia virus TM mutations on envelope-protein function support the proposition that a trimeric coiled coil in the TM cytoplasmic domain inhibits fusion. The data demonstrate that cleavage of the TM cytoplasmic domain is not required for viral entry and provide evidence for a model in which fusogenic and nonfusogenic conformations of the envelope protein exists in an equilibrium that is regulated by the cytoplasmic domain. In addition, a conserved tyrosine residue in the TM cytoplasmic domain was shown to play an important role in envelope-protein incorporation into retroviral particles

  4. Multimerization of the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 is required for its ability to activate protein kinase C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, E S; Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    1997-01-01

    corresponding to the central region of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain (4V) also oligomerizes. The degree of oligomerization correlates with the previously reported ability to bind protein kinase C (PKC) and regulate its activity. Only multimeric recombinant syndecan-4 core protein, but not the monomeric protein......, potentiated the activity of PKCalpha, and only oligomeric syndecan-4 cytoplasmic peptides were active. Changes in peptide sequence caused parallel loss of stable oligomeric status and ability to regulate a mixture of PKCalphabetagamma activity. A synthetic peptide encompassing the whole cytoplasmic domain of...

  5. Divergent evolution in the cytoplasmic domains of PRLR and GHR genes in Artiodactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Meng-Hua

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin receptor (PRLR and growth hormone receptor (GHR belong to the large superfamily of class 1 cytokine receptors. Both of them have been identified as candidate genes affecting key quantitative traits, like growth and reproduction in livestock. We have previously studied the molecular anatomy of the cytoplasmic domain of GHR in different cattle breeds and artiodactyl species. In this study we have analysed the corresponding cytoplasmic signalling region of PRLR. Results We sequenced PRLR gene exon 10, coding for the major part of the cytoplasmic domain, from cattle, American bison, European bison, yak, sheep, pig and wild boar individuals. We found different patterns of variation in the two receptors within and between ruminants and pigs. Pigs and bison species have no variation within GHR exon 10, but show high haplotype diversity for the PRLR exon 10. In cattle, PRLR shows lower diversity than GHR. The Bovinae PRLR haplotype network fits better the known phylogenetic relationships between the species than that of the GHR, where differences within cattle breeds are larger than between the different species in the subfamily. By comparison with the wild boar haplotypes, a high number of subsequent nonsynonymous substitutions seem to have accumulated in the pig PRLR exon 10 after domestication. Conclusion Both genes affect a multitude of traits that have been targets of selection after domestication. The genes seem to have responded differently to different selection pressures imposed by human artificial selection. The results suggest possible effects of selective sweeps in GHR before domestication in the pig lineage or species divergence in the Bison lineage. The PRLR results may be explained by strong directional selection in pigs or functional switching.

  6. Partial structural characterization of the cytoplasmic domain of the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appell, K C; Low, P S

    1981-11-10

    The cytoplasmic domain of band 3 was released from spectrin-depleted, acetic acid-stripped erythrocyte membrane vesicles by mild chymotryptic digestion. After purification by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, the fragment preparation was found to be greater than 90% pure on polyacrylamide disc gels in the presence of 0.2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. The subunit Mr from the electrophoretic procedure was estimated at approximately 40,000. The isolated cytoplasmic fragment ws judged to be a dimer, since (i) the unmodified fragment and its disulfide-cross-linked (dimeric) counterpart eluted in the same peak fraction from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column, and (ii) the sedimentation velocity molecular weight of the native fragment was calculated to be approximately 95,000. No evidence of either larger or smaller aggregates was obtained. The frictional ratio of the fragment was measured at 1.6, suggesting a highly elongated morphology. The circular dichroism spectrum of the fragment corresponded to approximately 37% alpha helix. Titration of the cytoplasmic fragment over the physiological pH range gave rise to a reversible 2-fold increase in the intrinsic fluorescence quantum yield (lambda ex, 290 nm; lambda em, 335 nm) between pH 6 and 9. Computer analysis of the data yielded a temperature-dependent apparent pKa of 7.8 at 37 degrees C and 8.1 at 20 degrees C, both with Hill coefficients less than or equal to 1. Calorimetric experiments revealed a similar sensitivity to pH, where the denaturation temperature of the fragment titrated from 74 degrees C at pH 6 to 59 degrees C at pH 8.5, with an apparent pKa of 7.3 and a Hill coefficient less than 1. The enthalpies and widths at half-height of the transitions were also exquisitely sensitive to pH. The fluorescence and calorimetric data could all be described by the titration of a single ionizable group of apparent pKa of 7.8 at 37 degrees C and delta pKa/degrees C of -0.018. The ionization of this critical

  7. The C-terminal 20 Amino Acids of Drosophila Topoisomerase 2 Are Required for Binding to a BRCA1 C Terminus (BRCT) Domain-containing Protein, Mus101, and Fidelity of DNA Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Tsung Shane; Wu, Jianhong; Modrich, Paul; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2016-06-17

    Eukaryotic topoisomerase 2 (Top2) and one of its interacting partners, topoisomerase IIβ binding protein 1 (TopBP1) are two proteins performing essential cellular functions. We mapped the interacting domains of these two proteins using co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments with truncated or mutant Drosophila Top2 with various Ser-to-Ala substitutions. We discovered that the last 20 amino acids of Top2 represent the key region for binding with Mus101 (the Drosophila homolog of TopBP1) and that phosphorylation of Ser-1428 and Ser-1443 is important for Top2 to interact with the N terminus of Mus101, which contains the BRCT1/2 domains. The interaction between Mus101 and the Top2 C-terminal regulatory domain is phosphorylation-dependent because treatment with phosphatase abolishes their association in pulldown assays. The binding affinity of N-terminal Mus101 with a synthetic phosphorylated peptide spanning the last 25 amino acids of Top2 (with Ser(P)-1428 and Ser(P)-1443) was determined by surface plasmon resonance with a Kd of 0.57 μm In an in vitro decatenation assay, Mus101 can specifically reduce the decatenation activity of Top2, and dephosphorylation of Top2 attenuates this response. Next, we endeavored to establish a cellular system for testing the biological function of Top2-Mus101 interaction. Top2-silenced S2 cells rescued by Top2Δ20, Top2 with 20 amino acids truncated from the C terminus, developed abnormally high chromosome numbers, which implies that Top2-Mus101 interaction is important for maintaining the fidelity of chromosome segregation during mitosis. PMID:27129233

  8. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2010-01-01

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42–61), derived from the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using CD, NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07mM) which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a β-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283 – 313 K). Our results show that IG(42–61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ··· Phe57 and Trp48 ··· Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ··· Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of β-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  9. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. III. Dynamics of long-range hydrophobic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowska, Agnieszka; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2010-02-15

    A 20-residue peptide, IG(42-61), derived from the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus was studied using circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Unlike other related peptides studied so far, this peptide displays two heat capacity peaks in DSC measurements (at a scanning rate of 1.5 deg/min at a peptide concentration of 0.07 mM), which suggests a three-state folding/unfolding process. The results from DSC and NMR measurements suggest the formation of a dynamic network of hydrophobic interactions stabilizing the structure, which resembles a beta-hairpin shape over a wide range of temperatures (283-313 K). Our results show that IG (42-61) possesses a well-organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by long-range hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50 ... Phe57 and Trp48 ... Val59) at T = 283 K and (Trp48 ... Val59) at 305 and 313 K. The mechanism of beta-hairpin folding and unfolding, as well as the influence of peptide length on its conformational properties, are also discussed. PMID:19847914

  10. Identification of the C-Terminal GH5 Domain from CbCel9B/Man5A as the First Glycoside Hydrolase with Thermal Activation Property from a Multimodular Bifunctional Enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    Full Text Available Caldicellulosiruptor bescii encodes at least six unique multimodular glycoside hydrolases crucial for plant cell wall polysaccharides degradation, with each having two catalytic domains separated by two to three carbohydrate binding modules. Among the six enzymes, three have one N- or C-terminal GH5 domain with identical amino acid sequences. Despite a few reports on some of these multimodular enzymes, little is known about how the conserved GH5 domains behave, which are believed to be important due to the gene duplication. We thus cloned a representative GH5 domain from the C-terminus of a multimodular protein, i.e. the bifunctional cellulase/mannanase CbCel9B/Man5A which has been reported, and expressed it in Escherichia coli. Without any appending CBMs, the recombinant CbMan5A was still able to hydrolyze a variety of mannan substrates with different backbone linkages or side-chain decorations. While CbMan5A displayed the same pH optimum as CbCel9B/Man5A, it had an increased optimal temperature (90°C and moreover, was activated by heating at 70°C and 80°C, a property not ever reported for the full-length protein. The turnover numbers of CbMan5A on mannan substrates were, however, lower than those of CbCel9B/Man5A. These data suggested that evolution of CbMan5A and the other domains into a single polypeptide is not a simple assembly; rather, the behavior of one module may be affected by the other ones in the full-length enzyme. The differential scanning calorimetry analysis further indicated that heating CbMan5A was not a simple transition state process. To the best knowledge of the authors, CbMan5A is the first glycoside hydrolase with thermal activation property identified from a multimodular bifunctional enzyme.

  11. Characterization of phosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain of the 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosorius, O; Mieskes, G; Issinger, O G;

    1993-01-01

    The human 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR 300) is phosphorylated in vivo at serine residues of its cytoplasmic domain. Two-dimensional separation can resolve tryptic phosphopeptides into four major species. To identify the kinases involved in MPR 300 phosphorylation and the phosphorylat......The human 300 kDa mannose-6-phosphate receptor (MPR 300) is phosphorylated in vivo at serine residues of its cytoplasmic domain. Two-dimensional separation can resolve tryptic phosphopeptides into four major species. To identify the kinases involved in MPR 300 phosphorylation and the...... phosphorylation sites the entire coding sequence of the cytoplasmic tail was expressed in Escherichia coli. The isolated cytoplasmic domain was used as a substrate for four purified serine/threonine kinases [casein kinase II (CK II), protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin kinase]. All...... kinases phosphorylate the cytoplasmic tail exclusively on serine residues. Inhibition studies using synthetic peptides, partial sequencing of isolated tryptic phosphopeptides and co-migration with tryptic phosphopeptides from MPR 300 labelled in vivo showed that (i) PKA phosphorylates the cytoplasmic MPR...

  12. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. I. Importance of hydrophobic interactions in stabilization of beta-hairpin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Makowska, Joanna; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A

    2009-06-01

    We previously studied a 16-amino acid-residue fragment of the C-terminal beta-hairpin of the B3 domain (residues 46-61), [IG(46-61)] of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, and found that hydrophobic interactions and the turn region play an important role in stabilizing the structure. Based on these results, we carried out systematic structural studies of peptides derived from the sequence of IG (46-61) by systematically shortening the peptide by one residue at a time from both the C- and the N-terminus. To determine the structure and stability of two resulting 12- and 14-amino acid-residue peptides, IG(48-59) and IG(47-60), respectively, we carried out circular dichroism, NMR, and calorimetric studies of these peptides in pure water. Our results show that IG(48-59) possesses organized three-dimensional structure stabilized by hydrophobic interactions (Tyr50-Phe57 and Trp48-Val59) at T = 283 and 305 K. At T = 313 K, the structure breaks down because of increased chain entropy, but the turn region is preserved in the same position observed for the structure of the whole protein. The breakdown of structure occurs near the melting temperature of this peptide (T(m) = 310 K) measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The melting temperature of IG(47-60) determined by DSC is T(m) = 330 K and its structure is similar to that of the native beta-hairpin at all (lower) temperatures examined (283-313 K). Both of these truncated sequences are conserved in all known amino acid sequences of the B domains of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from bacteria. Thus, this study contributes to an understanding of the mechanism of folding of this whole family of proteins, and provides information about the mechanism of formation and stabilization of a beta-hairpin structural element. PMID:19089955

  13. Roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I isoforms in malonyl-CoA sensitivity of the enzymes: insights from expression of chimaeric proteins and mutation of conserved histidine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, S T; Foster, D W; McGarry, J D; Brown, N F

    1998-01-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) plays a major role in the regulation of fatty acid entry into the mitochondrial matrix for beta-oxidation by virtue of its inhibition by malonyl-CoA. Two isoforms of CPT I, the liver type (L) and muscle type (M), have been identified, the latter being 100 times more sensitive to malonyl-CoA and having a much higher Km for the substrate carnitine. Here we have examined the roles of different regions of the CPT I molecules in their response to malonyl-CoA, etomoxir (an irreversible inhibitor) and carnitine. To this end, we analysed the properties of engineered rat CPT I constructs in which (a) the N-terminal domain of L-CPT I was deleted, (b) the N-terminal domains of L- and M-CPT I were switched, or (c) each of three conserved histidine residues located towards the N-terminus in L-CPT I was mutated. Several novel points emerged: (1) whereas the N-terminal domain is critical for a normal malonyl-CoA response, it does not itself account for the widely disparate sensitivities of the liver and muscle enzymes to the inhibitor; (2) His-5 and/or His-140 probably play a direct role in the malonyl-CoA response, but His-133 does not; (3) the truncated, chimaeric and point- mutant variants of the enzyme all bound the covalent, active-site- directed ligand, etomoxir; and (4) only the most radical alteration of L-CPT I, i.e. deletion of the N-terminal 82 residues, affected the response to carnitine. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of CPT I plays an essential, but permissive, role in the inhibition of the enzyme by malonyl-CoA. By contrast, the larger C-terminal region dictates the degree of sensitivity to malonyl-CoA, as well as the response to carnitine; it is also sufficient for etomoxir binding. Additionally, further weight is added to the notion that one or more histidine residues may be involved in the CPT I-malonyl-CoA interaction. PMID:9794789

  14. Synaptic Vesicle Tethering and the CaV2.2 Distal C-terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona K Wong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available . Evidence that synaptic vesicles (SVs can be gated by a single voltage sensitive calcium channel (CaV2.2 predict a molecular linking mechanism or ‘tether’[Stanley 1993]. Recent studies have proposed that the SV binds to the distal C-terminal on the CaV2.2 calcium channel [Kaeser et al. 2011;Wong, Li, and Stanley 2013] while genetic analysis proposed a double tether mechanism via RIM: directly to the C terminus PDZ ligand domain or indirectly via a more proximal proline rich site [Kaeser et al. 2011]. Using a novel in vitro SV-PD binding assay, we reported that SVs bind to a fusion protein comprising the C-terminal distal third (C3, aa 2137-2357 [Wong, Li, and Stanley 2013]. Here we limit the binding site further to the last 58 aa, beyond the proline rich site, by the absence of SV capture by a truncated C3 fusion protein (aa 2137-2299. To test PDZ-dependent binding we generated two C terminus-mutant C3 fusion proteins and a mimetic blocking peptide (H-WC, aa 2349-2357 and validated these by elimination of MINT-1 or RIM binding. Persistence of SV capture with all three fusion proteins or with the full length C3 protein but in the presence of the blocking peptide, demonstrated that SVs can bind to the distal C-terminal via a PDZ-independent mechanism. These results were supported in situ by normal SV turnover in H-WC-loaded synaptosomes, as assayed by a novel peptide cryoloading method. Thus, SVs tether to the CaV2.2 C-terminal within a 49 aa region immediately prior to the terminus PDZ ligand domain. Long tethers that could reflect extended C termini were imaged by electron microscopy of synaptosome ghosts. To fully account for SV tethering we propose a model where SVs are initially captured, or ‘grabbed’, from the cytoplasm by a binding site on the distal region of the channel C-terminal and are then retracted to be ‘locked’ close to the channel by a second attachment mechanism in preparation for single channel domain gating.

  15. Syndecan-4 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate coordinately regulate protein kinase C activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, E S; Woods, A; Lim, S T;

    1998-01-01

    adhesions and actin stress fibers. The cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4 core protein directly interacts with and potentiates PKCalpha activity, and it can directly interact with the phos- phoinositide PIP2. We, therefore, investigated whether the interaction of inositol phosphates and inositol phospholipids...... III-S and an epidermal growth factor receptor peptide. This activity was dose-dependent, and its calcium dependence varied with PKC isotype/source. Addition of the cytoplasmic syndecan-4 peptide, but not equivalent syndecan-1 or syndecan-2 peptides, potentiated the partial activation of PKCalpha beta...... gamma by PIP2, resulting in activity greater than that observed with phosphatidylserine, diolein, and calcium. This study indicates that syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain may bind both PIP2 and PKCalpha, localize them to forming focal adhesions, and potentiate PKCalpha activity there....

  16. Lacking deoxygenation-linked interaction between cytoplasmic domain of band 3 and HbF from fetal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Several of the red blood cell's metabolic and membrane functions display dependence on haemoglobin oxygenation. In adult human red cells, the increased glycolytic rate at low O2 tension results from binding of deoxygenated HbA at negatively charged, N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the...

  17. Bacterial expression, purification, and model membrane reconstitution of the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the human APP binding protein LR11/SorLA for NMR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingsheng; Gill, Richard L; Zhu, Qin; Tian, Fang

    2011-06-01

    LR11 (SorLA) is a recently identified neuronal protein that interacts with amyloid precursor protein (APP), a central player in the pathology of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Current estimates suggest that as many as 5.3 million Americans are living with AD. Recent investigations have uncovered the pathophysiological relevance of APP intracellular trafficking in AD. LR11 is of particular importance due to its role in regulating APP transport and processing. LR11 is a type I transmembrane protein and belongs to a novel family of Vps10p receptors. Using a new expression vector, pMTTH (MBP-MCS1 (multiple cloning site)-Thrombin protease cleavage site-MCS2-TEV protease cleavage site-MCS3-His(6)), we successfully expressed, purified and reconstituted the LR11 transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic (CT) domains into bicelles and detergent micelles for NMR structural studies. This new construct allowed us to overcome several obstacles during sample preparation. MBP fused LR11TM and LR11TMCT proteins are preferably expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli membrane, making a refolding of the protein unnecessary. The C-terminal His-tag allows for easy separation of the target protein from the truncated products from the C-terminus, and provides a convenient route for screening detergents to produce high quality 2D (1)H-(15)N TROSY spectra. Thrombin protease cleavage is compatible with most of the commonly used detergents, including a direct cleavage at the E. coli membrane surface. This new MBP construct may provide an effective route for the preparation of small proteins with TM domains. PMID:21320603

  18. Susceptibility to virus-cell fusion at the plasma membrane is reduced through expression of HIV gp41 cytoplasmic domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic tail of the HIV transmembrane protein plays an important role in viral infection. In this study we analyzed the role of retroviral cytoplasmic tails in modulating the cytoskeleton and interfering with virus-cell fusion. HeLaP4 cells expressing different HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs showed reduced acetylated tubulin levels whereas the cytoplasmic tail of MLV did not alter microtubule stability indicating a unique function for the lentiviral cytoplasmic tail. The effect on tubulin is mediated through the membrane proximal region of the HIV cytoplasmic tail and was independent of membrane localization. Site-directed mutagenesis identified three motifs in the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail required to effect the reduction in acetylated tubulin. Both the YxxΦ domain and amino acids 21 to 45 of the HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail need to be present to change the level of acetylated tubulin in transfected cells. T-cells stably expressing one HIV-2 cytoplasmic tail derived construct showed also a reduction in acetylated tubulin thus confirming the importance of this effect not only for HeLaP4 and 293T cells. Challenge experiments using transiently transfected HeLaP4 cells and T cells stably expressing an HIV cytoplasmic tail construct revealed both reduced virus-cell fusion and replication of HIV-1NL4.3 compared to control cells. In the virus-cell fusion assay only virions pseudotyped with either HIV or MLV envelopes showed reduced fusion efficiency, whereas VSV-G pseudotyped virions where not affected by the expression of HIV derived cytoplasmic tail constructs, indicating that fusion at the plasma but not endosomal membrane is affected. Overexpression of human histone-deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and constitutively active RhoA resulted in a reduction of acetylated tubulin and reduced virus-cell fusion as significant as that observed following expression of HIV cytoplasmic tail constructs. Inhibition of HDAC6 showed a strong increase in acetylated tubulin and increase of

  19. Downregulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag expression by a gp41 cytoplasmic domain fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cytoplasmic domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) transmembrane protein gp41 interacts with the viral matrix MA protein, which facilitates incorporation of the trimeric Env complex into the virus. It is thus feasible to design an anti-HIV strategy targeting this interaction. We herein describe that Gag expression can be downregulated by a cytoplasmic domain fusion protein of the Env transmembrane protein, β-galactosidase (β-gal)/706-856, which contains the cytoplasmic tail of gp41 fused at the C terminus of Escherichia coli β-gal. This mediator depleted intracellular Gag molecules in a dose-dependent manner. Sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation and confocal microscopy revealed that Gag and β-gal/706-856 had stable interactions and formed aggregated complexes in perinuclear, intracellular sites. Pulse-chase and cycloheximide chase analyses demonstrated that this mediator enhanced unmyristylated Gag degradation. The results demonstrate a novel mode of HIV-1 Gag downregulation by directing Gag to an intracellular site via the interaction of Gag with a gp41 cytoplasmic domain fusion protein

  20. Amino Acid Sequence Requirements of the Transmembrane and Cytoplasmic Domains of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin for Viable Membrane Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Melikyan, Grigory B.; Lin, Sasa; Roth, Michael G.; Cohen, Fredric S.

    1999-01-01

    The amino acid sequence requirements of the transmembrane (TM) domain and cytoplasmic tail (CT) of the hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus in membrane fusion have been investigated. Fusion properties of wild-type HA were compared with those of chimeras consisting of the ectodomain of HA and the TM domain and/or CT of polyimmunoglobulin receptor, a nonviral integral membrane protein. The presence of a CT was not required for fusion. But when a TM domain and CT were present, fusion activity w...

  1. An MHC-I cytoplasmic domain/HIV-1 Nef fusion protein binds directly to the mu subunit of the AP-1 endosomal coat complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The down-regulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I from the surface of infected cells by the Nef proteins of primate immunodeficiency viruses likely contributes to pathogenesis by providing evasion of cell-mediated immunity. HIV-1 Nef-induced down-regulation involves endosomal trafficking and a cooperative interaction between the cytoplasmic domain (CD of MHC-I, Nef, and the clathrin adaptor protein complex-1 (AP-1. The CD of MHC-I contains a key tyrosine within the sequence YSQA that is required for down-regulation by Nef, but this sequence does not conform to the canonical AP-binding tyrosine-based motif Yxxphi, which mediates binding to the medium (micro subunits of AP complexes. We previously proposed that Nef allows the MHC-I CD to bind the mu subunit of AP-1 (micro1 as if it contained a Yxxphimotif. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here, we show that a direct interaction between the MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 plays a primary role in the down-regulation of MHC-I: GST pulldown assays using recombinant proteins indicated that most of the MHC-I CD and Nef residues that are required for the down-regulation in human cells contribute to direct interactions with a truncated version of micro1. Specifically, the tyrosine residue of the YSQA sequence in the MHC-I CD as well as Nef residues E62-65 and P78 each contributed to the interaction between MHC-I CD/Nef and micro1 in vitro, whereas Nef M20 had little to no role. Conversely, residues F172/D174 and V392/L395 of the binding pocket on micro1 for Yxxphi motifs were required for a robust interaction. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the MHC-I cytoplasmic domain, Nef, and the C-terminal two thirds of the mu subunit of AP-1 are sufficient to constitute a biologically relevant interaction. The data also reveal an unexpected role for a hydrophobic pocket in micro1 for interaction with MHC-I CD/Nef.

  2. Binding of the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 to the plasma membrane inhibits Lck recruitment and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, Jessica; Gagnon, Etienne; Godec, Jernej; Pyrdol, Jason; Vignali, Dario A A; Sharpe, Arlene H; Wucherpfennig, Kai W

    2016-01-01

    The T cell costimulatory receptor CD28 is required for the full activation of naïve T cells and for the development and maintenance of Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. We showed that the cytoplasmic domain of CD28 was bound to the plasma membrane in resting cells and that ligand binding to CD28 resulted in its release. Membrane binding by the CD28 cytoplasmic domain required two clusters of basic amino acid residues, which interacted with the negatively charged inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. These same clusters of basic residues also served as interaction sites for Lck, a Src family kinase critical for CD28 function. This signaling complex was further stabilized by the Lck-mediated phosphorylation of CD28 Tyr(207) and the subsequent binding of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Lck to this phosphorylated tyrosine. Mutation of the basic clusters in the CD28 cytoplasmic domain reduced the recruitment to the CD28-Lck complex of protein kinase Cθ (PKCθ), which serves as a key effector kinase in the CD28 signaling pathway. Consequently, mutation of either a basic cluster or Tyr(207) impaired CD28 function in mice as shown by the reduced thymic differentiation of FoxP3(+) Treg cells. On the basis of these results, we propose a previously undescribed model for the initiation of CD28 signaling. PMID:27460989

  3. Mechanism of formation of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptococcus. Part II. Interplay of local backbone conformational dynamics and long-range hydrophobic interactions in hairpin formation

    OpenAIRE

    Skwierawska, Agnieszka; Żmudzińska, Wioletta; Ołdziej, Stanisław; Liwo, Adam; Scheraga, Harold A.

    2009-01-01

    Two peptides, corresponding to the turn region of the C-terminal β-hairpin of the B3 domain of the immunoglobulin binding protein G from Streptoccocus, consisting of residues 51–56 [IG(51–56)] and 50–57 [IG(50–57)], respectively, were studied by CD and NMR spectroscopy at various temperatures and by differential scanning calorimetry. Our results show that the part of the sequence corresponding to the β-turn in the native structure (DDATKT) of the B3 domain forms bent conformations similar to ...

  4. Tyrosine kinase activity of a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptor containing the insulin receptor C-terminal domain. Comparison with the tyrosine kinase activities of the insulin and insulin-like-growth-factor-1 receptors using a cell-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, I; Tartare, S; Kowalski-Chauvel, A; Kaliman, P; Van Obberghen, E; Ballotti, R

    1995-03-15

    In a previous study, we showed that a chimeric insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, with the beta subunit C-terminal part of the insulin receptor was more efficient in stimulating glycogen synthesis and p44mapk activity compared to the wild-type IFG-1 receptor [Tartare, S., Mothe, I., Kowalski-Chauvel, A., Breittmayer, J.-P., Ballotti, R. & Van Obberghen, E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 11449-11455]. These data indicate that the receptor C-terminal domain plays an important role in the transmission of biological effects. To understand the molecular basis of the differences in receptor specificity, we studied the characteristics of insulin, IGF-1 and chimeric receptor tyrosine kinase activities in a cell-free system. We found that, compared to wild-type insulin and IGF-1 receptors, the chimeric receptor showed a decrease in (a) autophosphorylation, (b) tyrosine kinase activity towards insulin receptor substrate-1 and the insulin receptor-(1142-1158)-peptide, and (c) the ability to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. However, for all the effects measured in a cell-free system, the chimeric receptor displayed an increased response to IGF-1 compared to the native IGF-1 receptor. Concerning the cation dependence of the tyrosine kinase activity, we showed that, at 10 mM Mg2+, the ligand-stimulated phosphorylation of poly(Glu80Tyr20) by both insulin receptor and chimeric receptor was increased by Mn2+. Conversely at 50 mM Mg2+, the chimeric receptor behaved like the IGF-1 receptor, since the presence of Mn2+ decreased the stimulatory effect of IGF-1 on their kinase activity. Furthermore, the Km of the chimeric receptor for ATP was increased compared to the wild-type receptors. These data demonstrate that the replacement of the C-terminal tail of the IGF-1 receptor by that of the insulin receptor has changed the receptor characteristics studied in a cell-free system. Our findings indicate that the C-terminal domain of the insulin receptor beta subunit plays a

  5. Functional analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin {alpha}1 subunit in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abair, Tristin D; Bulus, Nada; Borza, Corina; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-10-15

    Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen type IV receptor, is expressed by endothelial cells and plays a role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Because the molecular mechanisms whereby this collagen IV receptor mediates endothelial cell functions are poorly understood, truncation and point mutants of the integrin alpha1 subunit cytoplasmic tail (amino acids 1137-1151) were generated and expressed into alpha1-null endothelial cells. We show that alpha1-null endothelial cells expressing the alpha1 subunit, which lacks the entire cytoplasmic tail (mutant alpha1-1136) or expresses all the amino acids up to the highly conserved GFFKR motif (mutant alpha1-1143), have a similar phenotype to parental alpha1-null cells. Pro(1144) and Leu(1145) were shown to be necessary for alpha1beta1-mediated endothelial cell proliferation; Lys(1146) for adhesion, migration, and tubulogenesis and Lys(1147) for tubulogenesis. Integrin alpha1beta1-dependent endothelial cell proliferation is primarily mediated by ERK activation, whereas migration and tubulogenesis require both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation. Thus, distinct amino acids distal to the GFFKR motif of the alpha1 integrin cytoplasmic tail mediate activation of selective downstream signaling pathways and specific endothelial cell functions. PMID:18647959

  6. Spermidine/spermine N-1-acetyltransferase specifically binds to the integrin alpha 9 subunit cytoplasmic domain and enhances cell migration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.; Young, B A; Coleman, C S; Pegg, A E; Sheppard, D

    2004-01-01

    T he integrin alpha9beta1 is expressed on migrating cells, such as leukocytes, and binds to multiple ligands that are present at sites of tissue injury and inflammation. alpha9beta1, like the structurally related integrin alpha4beta1, mediates accelerated cell migration, an effect that depends on the beta cytoplasmic domain. alpha4beta1 enhances migration through reversible binding to the adapter protein, paxillin, but alpha9beta1-dependent migration is paxillin independent. Using yeast two-h...

  7. A Conserved Domain in Type III Secretion Links the Cytoplasmic Domain of InvA to Elements of the Basal Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilic, M.; Quezada, C; Stebbins, C

    2010-01-01

    Protein type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are organic nanosyringes that achieve an energy-dependent translocation of bacterial proteins through the two membranes of Gram-negative organisms. Examples include the pathogenic systems of animals, plants and symbiotic bacteria that inject factors into eukaryotic cells, and the flagellar export system that secretes flagellin. T3SSs possess a core of several membrane-associated proteins that are conserved across all known bacterial species that use this system. The Salmonella protein InvA is one of the most highly conserved proteins of this core of critical T3SS components. The crystal structure of a C-terminal domain of InvA reveals an unexpected homology to domains that have been repeatedly found as building blocks of other elements of the T3SS apparatus. This suggests the surprising hypothesis that evolution has produced a significant component of the apparatus structure through a series of gene-duplication and gene-rearrangement events.

  8. A structural analysis of the AAA+ domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein

    OpenAIRE

    Gleave, Emma S.; Schmidt, Helgo; Carter, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that act as microtubule based molecular motors. The dynein heavy chain contains a motor domain which is a member of the AAA+ protein family (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities). Proteins of the AAA+ family show a diverse range of functionalities, but share a related core AAA+ domain, which often assembles into hexameric rings. Dynein is unusual because it has all six AAA+ domains linked together, in one long polypeptide. The dynein motor do...

  9. A structural analysis of the AAA+ domains in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cytoplasmic dynein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleave, Emma S; Schmidt, Helgo; Carter, Andrew P

    2014-06-01

    Dyneins are large protein complexes that act as microtubule based molecular motors. The dynein heavy chain contains a motor domain which is a member of the AAA+ protein family (ATPases Associated with diverse cellular Activities). Proteins of the AAA+ family show a diverse range of functionalities, but share a related core AAA+ domain, which often assembles into hexameric rings. Dynein is unusual because it has all six AAA+ domains linked together, in one long polypeptide. The dynein motor domain generates movement by coupling ATP driven conformational changes in the AAA+ ring to the swing of a motile element called the linker. Dynein binds to its microtubule track via a long antiparallel coiled-coil stalk that emanates from the AAA+ ring. Recently the first high resolution structures of the dynein motor domain were published. Here we provide a detailed structural analysis of the six AAA+ domains using our Saccharomycescerevisiae crystal structure. We describe how structural similarities in the dynein AAA+ domains suggest they share a common evolutionary origin. We analyse how the different AAA+ domains have diverged from each other. We discuss how this is related to the function of dynein as a motor protein and how the AAA+ domains of dynein compare to those of other AAA+ proteins. PMID:24680784

  10. The BARD1 BRCT domain contributes to p53 binding, cytoplasmic and mitochondrial localization, and apoptotic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembe, Varsha; Martino-Echarri, Estefania; Marzec, Kamila A; Mok, Myth T S; Brodie, Kirsty M; Mills, Kate; Lei, Ying; DeFazio, Anna; Rizos, Helen; Kettle, Emma; Boadle, Ross; Henderson, Beric R

    2015-09-01

    BARD1 is a breast cancer tumor suppressor with multiple domains and functions. BARD1 comprises a tandem BRCT domain at the C-terminus, and this sequence has been reported to target BARD1 to distinct subcellular locations such as nuclear DNA breakage sites and the centrosome through binding to regulatory proteins such as HP1 and OLA1, respectively. We now identify the BRCT domain as a binding site for p53. We first confirmed previous reports that endogenous BARD1 binds to p53 by immunoprecipitation assay, and further show that BARD1/p53 complexes locate at mitochondria suggesting a cellular location for p53 regulation of BARD1 apoptotic activity. We used a proximity ligation assay to map three distinct p53 binding sequences in human BARD1, ranging from weak (425-525) and modest (525-567) to strong (551-777 comprising BRCT domains). Deletion of the BRCT sequence caused major defects in the ability of BARD1 to (1) bind p53, (2) localize to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, and (3) induce Bax oligomerization and apoptosis. Our data suggest that BARD1 can move to mitochondria independent of p53, but subsequently associates with p53 to induce Bax clustering in part by decreasing mitochondrial Bcl-2 levels. We therefore identify a role for the BRCT domain in stimulating BARD1 nuclear export and mitochondrial localization, and in assembling mitochondrial BARD1/p53 complexes to regulate specific activities such as apoptotic function. PMID:26022179

  11. Direct binding of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain to the catalytic domain of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) increases focal adhesion localization of PKC alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ssang-Taek; Longley, Robert L; Couchman, John R; Woods, Anne

    2003-01-01

    Syndecan-4 is a transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycan that acts as a coreceptor with integrins in focal adhesion formation. The central region of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain (4V; LGKKPIYKK) binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and together they regulate protein kinase C alpha (PKC......, overexpression of syndecan-4 in rat embryo fibroblast cells, but not expression of the YF mutant, increased PKC alpha localization to focal adhesions. The data support a mechanism where syndecan-4 binds PKC alpha and localizes it to focal adhesions, whose assembly may be regulated by the kinase....

  12. pHluorin-assisted expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray diffraction data analysis of the C-terminal domain of the HsdR subunit of the Escherichia coli type I restriction-modification system EcoR124I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinkevich, Pavel; Iermak, Iuliia; Luedtke, Nicholas A; Mesters, Jeroen R; Ettrich, Rüdiger; Ludwig, Jost

    2016-09-01

    The HsdR subunit of the type I restriction-modification system EcoR124I is responsible for the translocation as well as the restriction activity of the whole complex consisting of the HsdR, HsdM and HsdS subunits, and while crystal structures are available for the wild type and several mutants, the C-terminal domain comprising approximately 150 residues was not resolved in any of these structures. Here, three fusion constructs with the GFP variant pHluorin developed to overexpress, purify and crystallize the C-terminal domain of HsdR are reported. The shortest of the three encompassed HsdR residues 887-1038 and yielded crystals that belonged to the orthorhombic space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.42, b = 176.58, c = 126.03 Å, α = β = γ = 90.00° and two molecules in the asymmetric unit (VM = 2.55 Å(3) Da(-1), solvent content 50.47%). X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.45 Å. PMID:27599856

  13. The Cytoplasmic Domain of proEGF Negatively Regulates Motility and Elastinolytic Activity in Thyroid Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Glogowska

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular domains of the membrane-anchoring regions of some precursors of epidermal growth factor (EGF family members have intrinsic biologic activities. We have determined the role of the human proEGF cytoplasmic domain (proEGFcyt as part of the proEGF transmembrane-anchored region (proEGFctF in the regulation of motility and elastinolytic invasion in human thyroid cancer cells. We found proEGFctF to act as a negative regulator of motility and elastin matrix penetration and the presence of proEGFcyt or proEGF22.23 resulted in a similar reduction in motility and elastinolytic migration. This activity was counteracted by EGF-induced activation of EGF receptor signaling. Decreased elastinolytic migratory activity in the presence of proEGFctF and proEGFcyt/proEGF22.23 coincided with decreased secretion of elastinolytic procathepsin L. The presence of proEGFctF and proEGFcyt/proEGF22.23 coincided with the specific transcriptional up-regulation of t-SNARE member SNAP25. Treatment with siRNA-SNAP25 resulted in motility and elastin migration being restored to normal levels. Epidermal growth factor treatment down-regulated SNAP25 protein by activating EGF receptor-mediated proteasomal degradation of SNAP25. These data provide first evidence for an important function of the cytoplasmic domain of the human proEGF transmembrane region as a novel suppressor of motility and cathepsin L-mediated elastinolytic invasion in human thyroid carcinoma cells and suggest important clinical implications for EGF-expressing tumors.

  14. The C-terminal domain of myosin-like protein 1 (Mlp1p) is a docking site for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are required for mRNA export

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Deanna M.; Johnson, Christie P.; Hagan, Henry; Corbett, Anita H.

    2003-01-01

    For mRNA to be transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, it must travel from the site of transcription through the nuclear interior to the nuclear pore. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have suggested a relationship between poly(A) RNA trafficking and myosin-like protein 1 (Mlp1p), a nuclear-pore associated protein that is homologous to the mammalian Tpr (translocated promoter region) protein [Kosova, B., Panté, N., Rollenhagen, C., Podtelejnikov, A., Mann, M., Aebi, U., and Hurt, E. ...

  15. The modular xylanase Xyn10A from Rhodothermus marinus is cell-attached, and its C-terminal domain has several putative homologues among cell-attached proteins within the phylum Bacteroidetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Eva Nordberg; Hachem, Maher Abou; Ramchuran, Santosh;

    2004-01-01

    the light of this, a revision of experimental data present on both Xyn10A and Man26A was performed, and the results all indicate a cell-anchoring role of the domain, suggesting that this domain represents a novel type of module that mediates cell attachment in proteins originating from members of the...

  16. Flexibility of the Cytoplasmic Domain of the Phototaxis Transducer II from Natronomonas pharaonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan L. Budyak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemo- and phototaxis systems in bacteria and archaea serve as models for more complex signal transduction mechanisms in higher eukaryotes. Previous studies of the cytoplasmic fragment of the phototaxis transducer (pHtrII-cyt from the halophilic archaeon Natronomonas pharaonis showed that it takes the shape of a monomeric or dimeric rod under low or high salt conditions, respectively. CD spectra revealed only approximately 24% helical structure, even in 4 M KCl, leaving it an open question how the rod-like shape is achieved. Here, we conducted CD, FTIR, and NMR spectroscopic studies under different conditions to address this question. We provide evidence that pHtrII-cyt is highly dynamic with strong helical propensity, which allows it to change from monomeric to dimeric helical coiled-coil states without undergoing dramatic shape changes. A statistical analysis of predicted disorder for homologous sequences suggests that structural flexibility is evolutionarily conserved within the methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein family.

  17. Hydroxychloroquine binding to cytoplasmic domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes: Novel mechanistic insights into drug structure, efficacy and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Mizuki; Sugawara, Kotomi; Goto, Tatsufumi; Wakui, Hideki; Nunomura, Wataru

    2016-05-13

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a widely used drug in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, such as arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. It has also been prescribed for the treatment of malaria owing to its lower toxicity compared to its closely related compound chloroquine (CQ). However, the mechanisms of action of HCQ in erythrocytes (which bind preferentially this drug) have not been documented and the reasons underlying the lower side effects of HCQ compared to CQ remain unclear. Here we show that, although the activity of erythrocyte lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), but not GAPDH, was inhibited by both HCQ and CQ in vitro, LDH activity in erythrocytes incubated with 20 mM HCQ was not significantly reduced within 5 h in contrast to CQ did. Using HCQ coupled Sepharose chromatography (HCQ-Sepharose), we identified Band 3, spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1R and protein 4.2 as HCQ binding proteins in human erythrocyte plasma membrane. Recombinant cytoplasmic N-terminal 43 kDa domain of Band 3 bound to HCQ-Sepharose and was eluted with 40 mM (but not 20 mM) HCQ. Band 3 transport activity was reduced by only 23% in the presence of 20 mM HCQ. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HCQ binds to the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of Band 3 in human erythrocytes but does not inhibit dramatically its transport activity. We hypothesize that the trapping of HCQ on Band 3 contributes to the lower side effects of the drug on energy production in erythrocytes. PMID:27049308

  18. System using tandem repeats of the cA peptidoglycan-binding domain from Lactococcus lactis for display of both N- and C-terminal fusions on cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Kimura, Sakurako; Narita, Junya; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-02-01

    Here, we established a system for displaying heterologous protein to the C terminus of the peptidoglycan-binding domain (cA domain) of AcmA (a major autolysin from Lactococcus lactis). Western blot and flow cytometric analyses revealed that the fusion proteins (cA-AmyA) of the cA domain and alpha-amylase from Streptococcus bovis 148 (AmyA) are efficiently expressed and successfully displayed on the surfaces of L. lactis cells. AmyA was also displayed on the cell surface while retaining its activity. Moreover, with an increase in the number of cA domains, the quantity of cA-AmyA fusion proteins displayed on the cell surface increased. When three repeats of the cA domain were used as an anchor protein, 82% of alpha-amylase activity was detected on the cells. The raw starch-degrading activity of AmyA was significantly higher when AmyA was fused to the C terminus of the cA domain than when it was fused to the N terminus. In addition, cA-AmyA fusion proteins were successfully displayed on the cell surfaces of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei. PMID:18156338

  19. Physical association of GPR54 C-terminal with protein phosphatase 2A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KiSS1 was discovered as a metastasis suppressor gene and subsequently found to encode kisspeptins (KP), ligands for a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR54. This ligand-receptor pair was later shown to play a critical role in the neuro-endocrine regulation of puberty. The C-terminal cytoplasmic (C-ter) domain of GPR54 contains a segment rich in proline and arginine residues that corresponds to the primary structure of four overlapping SH3 binding motifs. Yeast two hybrid experiments identified the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-C) as an interacting protein. Pull-down experiments with GST fusion proteins containing the GPR54 C-ter confirmed binding to PP2A-C in cell lysates and these complexes contained phosphatase activity. The proline arginine rich segment is necessary for these interactions. The GPR54 C-ter bound directly to purified recombinant PP2A-C, indicating the GPR54 C-ter may form complexes involving the catalytic subunit of PP2A that regulate phosphorylation of critical signaling intermediates.

  20. Disease-associated mutations in the actin-binding domain of filamin B cause cytoplasmic focal accumulations correlating with disease severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Philip B; Morgan, Tim; Alanay, Yasemin;

    2012-01-01

    -containing cytoplasmic focal accumulations of the substituted protein to a degree that was correlated with the severity of the associated phenotypes. In contrast, study of mutations leading to substitutions in the FLNB rod domain that result in the same phenotypes as ABD mutations, demonstrated that with only one...

  1. Crystallographic characterization of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radixin FERM domain was shown to bind the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic peptide and crystals of the complex were obtained. ERM proteins play a role in the cross-linking found between plasma membranes and actin filaments. The N-terminal FERM domains of ERM proteins are responsible for membrane association through direct interaction with the cytoplasmic tails of integral membrane proteins. During cell migration and movement, membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) on plasma membranes sheds adhesion molecule CD44 in addition to degrading the extracellular matrix. Here, the interaction between the radixin FERM domain and the MT1-MMP cytoplasmic tail is reported and preliminary crystallographic characterization of crystals of the radixin FERM domain bound to the cytoplasmic tail of MT1-MMP is presented. The crystals belong to space group P6122, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 122.7, c = 128.3 Å, and contain one complex in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. The diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.4 Å

  2. Membrane binding mode of intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of T cell receptor signaling subunits depends on lipid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsically disordered cytoplasmic domains of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling subunits including ζcyt and CD3εcyt all contain one or more copies of an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM), tyrosine residues of which are phosphorylated upon receptor triggering. Membrane binding-induced helical folding of ζcyt and CD3εcyt ITAMs is thought to control TCR activation. However, the question whether or not lipid binding of ζcyt and CD3εcyt is necessarily accompanied by a folding transition of ITAMs remains open. In this study, we investigate whether the membrane binding mechanisms of ζcyt and CD3εcyt depend on the membrane model used. Circular dichroic and fluorescence data indicate that binding of ζcyt and CD3εcyt to detergent micelles and unstable vesicles is accompanied by a disorder-to-order transition, whereas upon binding to stable vesicles these proteins remain unfolded. Using electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, we show that upon protein binding, unstable vesicles fuse and rupture. In contrast, stable vesicles remain intact under these conditions. This suggests different membrane binding modes for ζcyt and CD3εcyt depending on the bilayer stability: (1) coupled binding and folding, and (2) binding without folding. These findings explain the long-standing puzzle in the literature and highlight the importance of the choice of an appropriate membrane model for protein-lipid interactions studies.

  3. Domains of the growth hormone receptor required for association and activation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J A; Wang, X; Zhang, L;

    1994-01-01

    , and that tyrosines in the N-terminal half of the cytoplasmic domain of the GHR are phosphorylated by JAK2. The finding that a specific interaction with the C-terminal half of GHR appears to be necessary for p97 phosphorylation indicates that while JAK2 activation may be necessary for a full biological response to GH...

  4. The C-Terminal Domain of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 5 Promotes Start Codon Recognition by Its Dynamic Interplay with eIF1 and eIF2β

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael E. Luna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of the proper start codon on mRNAs is essential for protein synthesis, which requires scanning and involves eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2, and eIF5. The carboxyl terminal domain (CTD of eIF5 stimulates 43S preinitiation complex (PIC assembly; however, its precise role in scanning and start codon selection has remained unknown. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, we identified the binding sites of eIF1 and eIF2β on eIF5-CTD and found that they partially overlapped. Mutating select eIF5 residues in the common interface specifically disrupts interaction with both factors. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that these eIF5-CTD mutations impair start codon recognition and impede eIF1 release from the PIC by abrogating eIF5-CTD binding to eIF2β. This study provides mechanistic insight into the role of eIF5-CTD's dynamic interplay with eIF1 and eIF2β in switching PICs from an open to a closed state at start codons.

  5. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4N326L) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4N326L in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4N326L. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4N326L might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the nuclear localization of N

  6. Asparagine 326 in the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is essential for the cell survival after irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanotayan, Rujira; Fukuchi, Mikoto; Imamichi, Shoji; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp

    2015-02-20

    XRCC4 is one of the crucial proteins in the repair of DNA double-strand break (DSB) through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). As XRCC4 consists of 336 amino acids, N-terminal 200 amino acids include domains for dimerization and for association with DNA ligase IV and XLF and shown to be essential for XRCC4 function in DSB repair and V(D)J recombination. On the other hand, the role of the remaining C-terminal region of XRCC4 is not well understood. In the present study, we noticed that a stretch of ∼20 amino acids located at the extreme C-terminus of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. To explore its possible importance, series of mutants in this region were constructed and assessed for the functionality in terms of ability to rescue radiosensitivity of M10 cells lacking XRCC4. Among 13 mutants, M10 transfectant with N326L mutant (M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}) showed elevated radiosensitivity. N326L protein showed defective nuclear localization. N326L sequence matched the consensus sequence of nuclear export signal. Leptomycin B treatment accumulated XRCC4{sup N326L} in the nucleus but only partially rescued radiosensitivity of M10-XRCC4{sup N326L}. These results collectively indicated that the functional defects of XRCC4{sup N326L} might be partially, but not solely, due to its exclusion from nucleus by synthetic nuclear export signal. Further mutation of XRCC4 Asn326 to other amino acids, i.e., alanine, aspartic acid or glutamine did not affect the nuclear localization but still exhibited radiosensitivity. The present results indicated the importance of the extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 and, especially, Asn326 therein. - Highlights: • Extremely C-terminal region of XRCC4 is highly conserved among vertebrate species. • XRCC4 C-terminal point mutants, R325F and N326L, are functionally deficient in terms of survival after irradiation. • N326L localizes to the cytoplasm because of synthetic nuclear export signal. • Leptomycin B restores the

  7. Contribution of intracellular calcium and pH in ischemic uncoupling of cardiac gap junction channels formed of connexins 43, 40, and 45: a critical function of C-terminal domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giriraj Sahu

    Full Text Available Ischemia is known to inhibit gap junction (GJ mediated intercellular communication. However the detail mechanisms of this inhibition are largely unknown. In the present study, we determined the vulnerability of different cardiac GJ channels formed of connexins (Cxs 43, 40, and 45 to simulated ischemia, by creating oxygen glucose deprived (OGD condition. 5 minutes of OGD decreased the junctional conductance (Gj of Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45 by 53±3%, 64±1% and 85±2% respectively. Reduction of Gj was prevented completely by restricting the change of both intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+]i and pH (pHi with potassium phosphate buffer. Clamping of either [Ca(2+]i or pHi, through BAPTA (2 mM or HEPES (80 mM respectively, offered partial resistance to ischemic uncoupling. Anti-calmodulin antibody attenuated the uncoupling of Cx43 and Cx45 significantly but not of Cx40. Furthermore, OGD could reduce only 26±2% of Gj in C-terminus (CT truncated Cx43 (Cx43-Δ257. Tethering CT of Cx43 to the CT-truncated Cx40 (Cx40-Δ249, and Cx45 (Cx45-Δ272 helped to resist OGD mediated uncoupling. Moreover, CT domain played a significant role in determining the junction current density and plaque diameter. Our results suggest; OGD mediated uncoupling of GJ channels is primarily due to elevated [Ca(2+]i and acidic pHi, though the latter contributes more. Among Cx43, Cx40 and Cx45, Cx43 is the most resistant to OGD while Cx45 is the most sensitive one. CT of Cx43 has major necessary elements for OGD induced uncoupling and it can complement CT of Cx40 and Cx45.

  8. Single-molecule imaging of the H-ras membrane-anchor reveals domains in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Lommerse, Piet H M; Cognet, Laurent; Harms, Gregory S; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; Spaink, Herman P; Schmidt, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In the last decade evidence has accumulated that small domains of 50-700 nm in diameter are located in the exoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane. Most of these domains supposedly consist of specific sets of lipids and proteins, and are believed to coordinate signal transduction cascades. Whether similar domains are also present in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane is unclear so far. To investigate the presence of cytoplasmic leaflet domains, the H-Ras membrane-targeting sequence was fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. Using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy, trajectories of individual molecules diffusing in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane were recorded. From these trajectories, the diffusion of individual membrane-anchored enhanced yellow fluorescent protein molecules was studied in live cells on timescales from 5 to 200 ms. The results show that the diffusion of 30-40% of the molecules is constrained in domains with a typical size of 200 n...

  9. PECAM-1/CD31 Trans-homophilic Binding at the Intercellular Junctions Is Independent of Its Cytoplasmic Domain; Evidence for Heterophilic Interaction with Integrin αvβ3 in Cis*

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Cindy W.Y.; Wiedle, Guido; Ballestrem, Christoph; Wehrle-Haller, Bernhard; Etteldorf, Susanne; Bruckner, Monika; Engelhardt, Britta; Gisler, Roland H.; Imhof, Beat A.

    2000-01-01

    PECAM-1/CD31 is a cell adhesion and signaling molecule that is enriched at the endothelial cell junctions. Alternative splicing generates multiple PECAM-1 splice variants, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains. It has been suggested that the extracellular ligand-binding property, homophilic versus heterophilic, of these isoforms is controlled by their cytoplasmic tails. To determine whether the cytoplasmic domains also regulate the cell surface distribution of ...

  10. Conformational alterations resulting from mutations in cytoplasmic domains of the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blostein, R; Daly, S E; MacAulay, Nanna;

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes experiments concerned with the functional consequences of mutations in cytoplasmic regions of the alpha 1 subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, in particular the amino terminus, the first cytoplasmic loop between transmembrane segments M2 and M3, and the major cytoplasmic loop between M...... involving substitution of a residue in the putative cation binding pocket, namely S775A in the fifth transmembrane segment (Arguello, J.M., & Lingrel, J. B. J. Biol. Chem. 270: 22764-22771, 1995). Although its K+/ATP antagonism resembles that of the foregoing cytoplasmic mutants, its vanadate sensitivity is...... unaltered suggesting that changes in apparent affinity for ATP are secondary to changes in K+ ligation. The question of cation selectivity, in particular that of Na+ versus protons, has been addressed in structure/function analysis of a cytoplasmic chimera involving the M4-M5 loop. Transport studies...

  11. Single particle electron microscopy analysis of the bovine anion exchanger 1 reveals a flexible linker connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansen Jiang

    Full Text Available Anion exchanger 1 (AE1 is the major erythrocyte membrane protein that mediates chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the erythrocyte membrane facilitating CO₂ transport by the blood, and anchors the plasma membrane to the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. This multi-protein cytoskeletal complex plays an important role in erythrocyte elasticity and membrane stability. An in-frame AE1 deletion of nine amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain in a proximity to the membrane domain results in a marked increase in membrane rigidity and ovalocytic red cells in the disease Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO. We hypothesized that AE1 has a flexible region connecting the cytoplasmic and membrane domains, which is partially deleted in SAO, thus causing the loss of erythrocyte elasticity. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a new non-denaturing method of AE1 purification from bovine erythrocyte membranes. A three-dimensional (3D structure of bovine AE1 at 2.4 nm resolution was obtained by negative staining electron microscopy, orthogonal tilt reconstruction and single particle analysis. The cytoplasmic and membrane domains are connected by two parallel linkers. Image classification demonstrated substantial flexibility in the linker region. We propose a mechanism whereby flexibility of the linker region plays a critical role in regulating red cell elasticity.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of two domains of a bilobed extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor SigC from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of the two domains of the sigma factor SigC from M. tuberculosis are reported. Sigma factors are transcription-regulatory proteins that bind to RNA polymerase and facilitate promoter recognition. The so-called extracytoplasmic function sigma factors help a bacterium to respond to environmental conditions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis SigC (σC) is an extracytoplasmic sigma factor that is essential for lethality in a mouse model of infection and is conserved in all pathogenic mycobacterial species. This protein consists of two domains that are connected by an ∼25-amino-acid linker. The N-terminal domain contains the σ2 DNA-binding motif, whereas the σ4 motif is located in the C-terminal domain. Native σC did not yield diffraction-quality crystals. However, two of its domains have been cloned, expressed and crystallized: σ2C (12.3 kDa) and σcC (7.5 kDa). The σcC crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P61, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 85.28, c = 79.63 Å, and native X-ray diffraction data were collected from this domain to 2.7 Å on an in-house X-ray home source. The σ4C crystals belong to the cubic space group F23, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 161.21 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected from this domain to 3.1 Å, also on an in-house X-ray source

  13. Cytoplasmic cAMP-sensing domain of hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels uses two structurally distinct mechanisms to regulate voltage gating

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Nadine L.; Wong, Tammy; Sun, Jinyi; Madden, Zarina; Young, Edgar C.

    2010-01-01

    Voltage gating of hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channels is potentiated by direct binding of cAMP to a cytoplasmic cAMP-sensing domain (CSD). When unliganded, the CSD inhibits hyperpolarization-dependent opening of the HCN channel gate; cAMP binding relieves this autoinhibition so that opening becomes more favorable thermodynamically. This autoinhibition-relief mechanism is conserved with that of several other cyclic nucleotide receptors using the same ligand-binding fold. Besides ...

  14. Activated R-Ras, Rac1, Pi 3-Kinase and Pkcε Can Each Restore Cell Spreading Inhibited by Isolated Integrin β1 Cytoplasmic Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Berrier, Allison L.; Mastrangelo, Anthony M.; Downward, Julian; Ginsberg, Mark; LaFlamme, Susan E.

    2000-01-01

    Attachment of many cell types to extracellular matrix proteins triggers cell spreading, a process that strengthens cell adhesion and is a prerequisite for many adhesion-dependent processes including cell migration, survival, and proliferation. Cell spreading requires integrins with intact β cytoplasmic domains, presumably to connect integrins with the actin cytoskeleton and to activate signaling pathways that promote cell spreading. Several signaling proteins are known to regulate cell spread...

  15. Functional regions of the mouse thrombopoietin receptor cytoplasmic domain: evidence for a critical region which is involved in differentiation and can be complemented by erythropoietin.

    OpenAIRE

    Porteu, F; Rouyez, M C; Cocault, L; Bénit, L; Charon, M; Picard, F; Gisselbrecht, S; Souyri, M; Dusanter-Fourt, I

    1996-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the major regulator of growth and differentiation of megakaryocytes. To identify functionally important regions in the cytoplasmic domain of the TPO receptor, mpl, we introduced wild-type mpl and deletion mutants of murine mpl into the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)- or erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent human cell line UT7. TPO induced differentiation of UT7-Wtmpl cells, not parental UT7 cells, along the megakaryocytic lineage, as evidenced by d...

  16. Heparan sulfate regulates fibrillin-1 N- and C-terminal interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Stuart A; Baldwin, Andrew K; Mahalingam, Yashithra; Raynal, Bertrand; Jowitt, Thomas A; Shuttleworth, C Adrian; Couchman, John R; Kielty, Cay M

    2008-01-01

    Fibrillin-1 N- and C-terminal heparin binding sites have been characterized. An unprocessed monomeric N-terminal fragment (PF1) induced a very high heparin binding response, indicating heparin-mediated multimerization. Using PF1 deletion and short fragments, a heparin binding site was localized...... response to soluble PF1. Within domains encoded by exons 59-62 near the fibrillin-1 C terminus are novel conformation-dependent high affinity heparin and tropoelastin binding sites. Heparin disrupted tropoelastin binding but did not disrupt N- and C-terminal fibrillin-1 interactions. Thus, fibrillin-1 N-terminal...... interactions with heparin/heparan sulfate directly influence cell behavior, whereas C-terminal interactions with heparin/heparan sulfate regulate elastin deposition. These data highlight how heparin/heparan sulfate controls fibrillin-1 interactions....

  17. Regulation of sorting and post-Golgi trafficking of rhodopsin by its C-terminal sequence QVS(A)PA

    OpenAIRE

    Deretic, Dusanka; Schmerl, Sonia; Hargrave, Paul A.; Arendt, Anatol; McDowell, J. Hugh

    1998-01-01

    Several mutations that cause severe forms of the human disease autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa cluster in the C-terminal region of rhodopsin. Recent studies have implicated the C-terminal domain of rhodopsin in its trafficking on specialized post-Golgi membranes to the rod outer segment of the photoreceptor cell. Here we used synthetic peptides as competitive inhibitors of rhodopsin trafficking in the frog retinal cell-free system to delineate the potential regulatory sequence within ...

  18. The methylation of the C-terminal region of hnRNPQ (NSAP1) is important for its nuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein arginine methylation is an irreversible post-translational protein modification catalyzed by a family of at least nine different enzymes entitled PRMTs (protein arginine methyl transferases). Although PRMT1 is responsible for 85% of the protein methylation in human cells, its substrate spectrum has not yet been fully characterized nor are the functional consequences of methylation for the protein substrates well understood. Therefore, we set out to employ the yeast two-hybrid system in order to identify new substrate proteins for human PRMT1. We were able to identify nine different PRMT1 interacting proteins involved in different aspects of RNA metabolism, five of which had been previously described either as substrates for PRMT1 or as functionally associated with PRMT1. Among the four new identified possible protein substrates was hnRNPQ3 (NSAP1), a protein whose function has been implicated in diverse steps of mRNA maturation, including splicing, editing, and degradation. By in vitro methylation assays we were able to show that hnRNPQ3 is a substrate for PRMT1 and that its C-terminal RGG box domain is the sole target for methylation. By further studies with the inhibitor of methylation Adox we provide evidence that hnRNPQ1-3 are methylated in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate by immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells that the methylation of hnRNPQ is important for its nuclear localization, since Adox treatment causes its re-distribution from the nucleus to the cytoplasm

  19. TE-domestication and horizontal transfer in a putative Nef-AP1mu mimic of HLA-A cytoplasmic domain re-trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph S; Murray, Elaina H

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC; also called HLA in human) are polymorphic elements in the genomes of sharks to humans. Class-I and class-II MHC loci appear responsible for much of the genetic linkage to myriad disease states via the capacity to bind short (~8-15 a.a.) peptides of a given pathogen's proteome, or in some cases, the altered proteomes of cancerous cells, and even (in autoimmunity) certain nominal 'self' peptides (Janeway, 2004).(1) Unfortunately, little is known about how the canonical structure of the MHC-I/-II peptide-presenting gene evolved, particularly since beyond ~500 Mya (sharks) no paralogs exist.(2,3) We previously reported that HLA-A isotype alleles with the α1-helix, R65 motif, are wide-spread in phylogeny, but that the α 2-helix, H151R motif, has apparently segregated out of most species. Surprisingly, an uncharacterized orf in T. syrichta (Loc-103275158) encoded R151, but within a truncated A-23 like gene containing 5'- and 3'- footprints of the transposon (TE), tigger-1; the extant tarsier A-23 allele is totally missing exon-3 and part-of exon-4; together, suggesting TE-mediated inactivation of an intact/ancestral A-23 allele (Murray, 2015a).(4) The unique Loc-103275158 orf encodes a putative 15-exon transcript with no apparent paralogs throughout phylogeny. However, an HLA-A11 like gene in M. leucophaeus with a shortened C-terminal domain, and an HLA-A like orf in C. atys with two linked α1/α2/α3 domains, both contain a second transmembrane segment, which is conserved in Loc-103275158. Thus, we could model the putative protein with its Nef-like tail domain docked to its MHC-I like α3 domain (i.e., on the same side of a membrane). This modeled tertiary structure is strikingly similar to the solved structure of the Nef:MHC-I CD:AP1mu transporter (Jia, 2012).(5) Nef:AP1mu binds the CD of MHC-I in trafficking MHC-I away from the trans-golgi and into the endocytic pathway in HIV-1 infected cells. The CD loop of the

  20. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  1. Functional role of C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of rat vanilloid receptor 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlachová, Viktorie; Teisinger, Jan; Sušánková, Klára; Lyfenko, Alla; Ettrich, R.; Vyklický st., Ladislav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2003), s. 1340-1350. ISSN 0270-6474 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/00/1639; GA ČR GA305/03/0802; GA MŠk LN00B122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100001; CEZ:MSM 123100001; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : capsaicin receptor * TRPV1 * voltage-gated cation channel Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 8.306, year: 2003

  2. Role of the C-terminal Extension of Formin 2 in Its Activation by Spire Protein and Processive Assembly of Actin Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaville, Pierre; Kühn, Sonja; Compper, Christel; Carlier, Marie-France

    2016-02-12

    Formin 2 (Fmn2), a member of the FMN family of formins, plays an important role in early development. This formin cooperates with profilin and Spire, a WASP homology domain 2 (WH2) repeat protein, to stimulate assembly of a dynamic cytoplasmic actin meshwork that facilitates translocation of the meiotic spindle in asymmetric division of mouse oocytes. The kinase-like non-catalytic domain (KIND) of Spire directly interacts with the C-terminal extension of the formin homology domain 2 (FH2) domain of Fmn2, called FSI. This direct interaction is required for the synergy between the two proteins in actin assembly. We have recently demonstrated how Spire, which caps barbed ends via its WH2 domains, activates Fmn2. Fmn2 by itself associates very poorly to filament barbed ends but is rapidly recruited to Spire-capped barbed ends via the KIND domain, and it subsequently displaces Spire from the barbed end to elicit rapid processive assembly from profilin·actin. Here, we address the mechanism by which Spire and Fmn2 compete at barbed ends and the role of FSI in orchestrating this competition as well as in the processivity of Fmn2. We have combined microcalorimetric, fluorescence, and hydrodynamic binding assays, as well as bulk solution and single filament measurements of actin assembly, to show that removal of FSI converts Fmn2 into a Capping Protein. This activity is mimicked by association of KIND to Fmn2. In addition, FSI binds actin at filament barbed ends as a weak capper and plays a role in displacing the WH2 domains of Spire from actin, thus allowing the association of actin-binding regions of FH2 to the barbed end. PMID:26668326

  3. The fusion-related hydrophobic domain of Sendai F protein can be moved through the cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, N G; Hsu, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Recent work on a prokaryotic membrane protein, gene III protein (pIII) of coliphage f1, showed that polypeptide segments of sufficient hydrophobicity functioned to stop transfer of the polypeptide across the cell membrane: strings of 16 or more hydrophobic amino acids sufficed. A fusion-related hydrophobic domain (FRHD) of Sendai F protein, a sequence of 26 consecutive uncharged residues, has been implicated in the fusion of the viral membrane envelope and the target-cell membrane through a h...

  4. Drugs Modulate Interactions between the First Nucleotide-Binding Domain and the Fourth Cytoplasmic Loop of Human P-Glycoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-05-24

    Drug substrates stimulate ATPase activity of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ATP-binding cassette drug pump by an unknown mechanism. Cross-linking analysis was performed to test if drug substrates stimulate P-gp ATPase activity by altering cross-talk at the first transmission interface linking the drug-binding [intracellular loop 4 (S909C)] and first nucleotide-binding domains [NBD1 (V472C or L443C)]. In the absence of lipid (inactive P-gp), only V472C/S909C showed cross-linking. Drugs blocked V472C/S909C cross-linking. In the presence of lipids (active P-gp), drug substrates promoted only L443C/S909C cross-linking. This suggests that drug substrates stimulate ATPase activity through a conformational change that shifts Ser909 away from Val472 and toward Leu443. PMID:27159830

  5. A C-terminal segment of the V1R vasopressin receptor is unstructured in the crystal structure of its chimera with the maltose-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1.8 Å crystal structure of an MBP-fusion protein with the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment of the V1 vasopressin receptor reveals that the receptor segment is unstructured. The V1 vascular vasopressin receptor (V1R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of body-fluid osmolality, blood volume and blood pressure. Signal transduction is mediated by the third intracellular loop of this seven-transmembrane protein as well as by the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment. A chimera of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the C-terminal segment of V1R has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.10, b = 66.56, c = 115.72 Å, β = 95.99°. The 1.8 Å crystal structure reveals the conformation of MBP and part of the linker region of this chimera, with the C-terminal segment being unstructured. This may reflect a conformational plasticity in the C-terminal segment that may be necessary for proper function of V1R

  6. CryoEM structure of yeast cytoplasmic exosome complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Jie; Niu, Chu-Ya; Wu, Yao; Tan, Dan; Wang, Yang; Ye, Ming-Da; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Wenwei; Zhou, Ke; Liu, Quan-Sheng; Dai, Junbiao; Yang, Xuerui; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Huang, Niu; Wang, Hong-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The eukaryotic multi-subunit RNA exosome complex plays crucial roles in 3'-to-5' RNA processing and decay. Rrp6 and Ski7 are the major cofactors for the nuclear and cytoplasmic exosomes, respectively. In the cytoplasm, Ski7 helps the exosome to target mRNAs for degradation and turnover via a through-core pathway. However, the interaction between Ski7 and the exosome complex has remained unclear. The transaction of RNA substrates within the exosome is also elusive. In this work, we used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy to solve the structures of the Ski7-exosome complex in RNA-free and RNA-bound forms at resolutions of 4.2 Å and 5.8 Å, respectively. These structures reveal that the N-terminal domain of Ski7 adopts a structural arrangement and interacts with the exosome in a similar fashion to the C-terminal domain of nuclear Rrp6. Further structural analysis of exosomes with RNA substrates harboring 3' overhangs of different length suggests a switch mechanism of RNA-induced exosome activation in the through-core pathway of RNA processing. PMID:27174052

  7. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alison A; Mehler, Vera J; Mueller, Christina; Vonhoff, Fernando; White, Robin; Duch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X), a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80) and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2. PMID:27442528

  8. Apoptotic Activity of MeCP2 Is Enhanced by C-Terminal Truncating Mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison A Williams

    Full Text Available Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 is a widely abundant, multifunctional protein most highly expressed in post-mitotic neurons. Mutations causing Rett syndrome and related neurodevelopmental disorders have been identified along the entire MECP2 locus, but symptoms vary depending on mutation type and location. C-terminal mutations are prevalent, but little is known about the function of the MeCP2 C-terminus. We employ the genetic efficiency of Drosophila to provide evidence that expression of p.Arg294* (more commonly identified as R294X, a human MECP2 E2 mutant allele causing truncation of the C-terminal domains, promotes apoptosis of identified neurons in vivo. We confirm this novel finding in HEK293T cells and then use Drosophila to map the region critical for neuronal apoptosis to a small sequence at the end of the C-terminal domain. In vitro studies in mammalian systems previously indicated a role of the MeCP2 E2 isoform in apoptosis, which is facilitated by phosphorylation at serine 80 (S80 and decreased by interactions with the forkhead protein FoxG1. We confirm the roles of S80 phosphorylation and forkhead domain transcription factors in affecting MeCP2-induced apoptosis in Drosophila in vivo, thus indicating mechanistic conservation between flies and mammalian cells. Our findings are consistent with a model in which C- and N-terminal interactions are required for healthy function of MeCP2.

  9. Backbone and side-chain ¹H, ¹⁵N, and ¹³C resonance assignments of the microtubule-binding domain of yeast cytoplasmic dynein in the high and low-affinity states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Osamu; Nishida, Noritaka; Kikkawa, Masahide; Shimada, Ichio

    2014-10-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a motor protein that walks toward the minus end of microtubules (MTs) by utilizing the energy of ATP hydrolysis. The heavy chain of cytoplasmic dynein contains the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD). Switching of MTBD between high and low affinity states for MTs is crucial for processive movement of cytoplasmic dynein. Previous biochemical studies demonstrated that the affinity of MTBD is regulated by the AAA+ family ATPase domain, which is separated by 15 nm long coiled-coil helix. In order to elucidate the structural basis of the affinity switching mechanism of MTBD, we designed two MTBD constructs, termed MTBD-High and MTBD-Low, which are locked in high and low affinity state for MTs, respectively, by introducing a disulfide bond between the coiled-coil helix. Here, we established the backbone and side-chain assignments of MTBD-High and MTBD-Low for further structural analyses. PMID:23975349

  10. Characterization of RNA binding and chaperoning activities of HIV-1 Vif protein. Importance of the C-terminal unstructured tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Dona; Bernacchi, Serena; Xavier Guerrero, Santiago; Brachet, Franck; Larue, Valéry; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Tisne, Carine

    2014-01-01

    The viral infectivity factor (Vif) is essential for the productive infection and dissemination of HIV-1 in non-permissive cells, containing the cellular anti-HIV defense cytosine deaminases APOBEC3 (A3G and A3F). Vif neutralizes the antiviral activities of the APOBEC3G/F by diverse mechanisms including their degradation through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and their translational inhibition. In addition, Vif appears to be an active partner of the late steps of viral replication by interacting with Pr55(Gag), reverse transcriptase and genomic RNA. Here, we expressed and purified full-length and truncated Vif proteins, and analyzed their RNA binding and chaperone properties. First, we showed by CD and NMR spectroscopies that the N-terminal domain of Vif is highly structured in solution, whereas the C-terminal domain remains mainly unfolded. Both domains exhibited substantial RNA binding capacities with dissociation constants in the nanomolar range, whereas the basic unfolded C-terminal domain of Vif was responsible in part for its RNA chaperone activity. Second, we showed by NMR chemical shift mapping that Vif and NCp7 share the same binding sites on tRNA(Lys) 3, the primer of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Finally, our results indicate that Vif has potent RNA chaperone activity and provide direct evidence for an important role of the unstructured C-terminal domain of Vif in this capacity. PMID:25144404

  11. A dimer of the Toll-like receptor 4 cytoplasmic domain provides a specific scaffold for the recruitment of signalling adaptor proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Núñez Miguel

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is a class I transmembrane receptor expressed on the surface of immune system cells. TLR4 is activated by exposure to lipopolysaccharides derived from the outer membrane of Gram negative bacteria and forms part of the innate immune response in mammals. Like other class 1 receptors, TLR4 is activated by ligand induced dimerization, and recent studies suggest that this causes concerted conformational changes in the receptor leading to self association of the cytoplasmic Toll/Interleukin 1 receptor (TIR signalling domain. This homodimerization event is proposed to provide a new scaffold that is able to bind downstream signalling adaptor proteins. TLR4 uses two different sets of adaptors; TRAM and TRIF, and Mal and MyD88. These adaptor pairs couple two distinct signalling pathways leading to the activation of interferon response factor 3 (IRF-3 and nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB respectively. In this paper we have generated a structural model of the TLR4 TIR dimer and used molecular docking to probe for potential sites of interaction between the receptor homodimer and the adaptor molecules. Remarkably, both the Mal and TRAM adaptors are strongly predicted to bind at two symmetry-related sites at the homodimer interface. This model of TLR4 activation is supported by extensive functional studies involving site directed mutagenesis, inhibition by cell permeable peptides and stable protein phosphorylation of receptor and adaptor TIR domains. Our results also suggest a molecular mechanism for two recent findings, the caspase 1 dependence of Mal signalling and the protective effects conferred by the Mal polymorphism Ser180Leu.

  12. Structure and function of C-terminal catalytic region of pasteurella multocida toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is one of virulence factors responsible for the pathogenesis in some Pasteurellosis. We determined the crystal structure of the C-terminal region of PMT (C-PMT), which carries an intracellularly active moiety. The overall structure of C-PMT displays three different domains designated C1, C2 and C3. We found in the C3 domain the Cys-His-Asp catalytic triad that is organized only when the Cys is released from a disulfide bond. The steric alignment of the triad corresponded well to that of papain or other enzymes carrying the Cys-His-Asp triad. Our results demonstrate that PMT is an enzymatic toxin carrying the cysteine-protease like catalytic triad, which is organized only under reducing conditions. (author)

  13. One-step refolding and purification of disulfide-containing proteins with a C-terminal MESNA thioester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkx Maarten

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression systems based on self-cleavable intein domains allow the generation of recombinant proteins with a C-terminal thioester. This uniquely reactive C-terminus can be used in native chemical ligation reactions to introduce synthetic groups or to immobilize proteins on surfaces and nanoparticles. Unfortunately, common refolding procedures for recombinant proteins that contain disulfide bonds do not preserve the thioester functionality and therefore novel refolding procedures need to be developed. Results A novel redox buffer consisting of MESNA and diMESNA showed a refolding efficiency comparable to that of GSH/GSSG and prevented loss of the protein's thioester functionality. Moreover, introduction of the MESNA/diMESNA redox couple in the cleavage buffer allowed simultaneous on-column refolding of Ribonuclease A and intein-mediated cleavage to yield Ribonuclease A with a C-terminal MESNA-thioester. The C-terminal thioester was shown to be active in native chemical ligation. Conclusion An efficient method was developed for the production of disulfide bond containing proteins with C-terminal thioesters. Introduction of a MESNA/diMESNA redox couple resulted in simultaneous on-column refolding, purification and thioester generation of the model protein Ribonuclease A.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of C-terminal tails in cellular microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Dalibor L; Sataric, Bogdan M; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Bugay, Aleksandr N; Sataric, Miljko V

    2016-07-01

    The mechanical and electrical properties, and information processing capabilities of microtubules are the permanent subject of interest for carrying out experiments in vitro and in silico, as well as for theoretical attempts to elucidate the underlying processes. In this paper, we developed a new model of the mechano-electrical waves elicited in the rows of very flexible C-terminal tails which decorate the outer surface of each microtubule. The fact that C-terminal tails play very diverse roles in many cellular functions, such as recruitment of motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins, motivated us to consider their collective dynamics as the source of localized waves aimed for communication between microtubule and associated proteins. Our approach is based on the ferroelectric liquid crystal model and it leads to the effective asymmetric double-well potential which brings about the conditions for the appearance of kink-waves conducted by intrinsic electric fields embedded in microtubules. These kinks can serve as the signals for control and regulation of intracellular traffic along microtubules performed by processive motions of motor proteins, primarly from kinesin and dynein families. On the other hand, they can be precursors for initiation of dynamical instability of microtubules by recruiting the proper proteins responsible for the depolymerization process. PMID:27475079

  15. The desensitization gating of the MthK K+ channel is governed by its cytoplasmic amino terminus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Meng-Chiang Kuo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The RCK-containing MthK channel undergoes two inactivation processes: activation-coupled desensitization and acid-induced inactivation. The acid inactivation is mediated by the C-terminal RCK domain assembly. Here, we report that the desensitization gating is governed by a desensitization domain (DD of the cytoplasmic N-terminal 17 residues. Deletion of DD completely removes the desensitization, and the process can be fully restored by a synthetic DD peptide added in trans. Mutagenesis analyses reveal a sequence-specific determinant for desensitization within the initial hydrophobic segment of DD. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR spectroscopy analyses with synthetic peptides and isolated RCK show interactions between the two terminal domains. Additionally, we show that deletion of DD does not affect the acid-induced inactivation, indicating that the two inactivation processes are mutually independent. Our results demonstrate that the short N-terminal DD of MthK functions as a complete moveable module responsible for the desensitization. Its interaction with the C-terminal RCK domain may play a role in the gating process.

  16. The Lectin Domain of the Polypeptide GalNAc Transferase Family of Glycosyltransferases (ppGalNAc Ts) Acts as a Switch Directing Glycopeptide Substrate Glycosylation in an N- or C-terminal Direction, Further Controlling Mucin Type O-Glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerken, Thomas A; Revoredo, Leslie; Thome, Joseph J C; Tabak, Lawrence A; Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Clausen, Henrik; Gahlay, Gagandeep K; Jarvis, Donald L; Johnson, Roy W; Moniz, Heather A; Moremen, Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Mucin type O-glycosylation is initiated by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc transferases (ppGalNAc Ts) that add α-GalNAc to the Ser and Thr residues of peptides. Of the 20 human isoforms, all but one are composed of two globular domains linked by a short flexible linker: a catalytic domain an...

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the ZO-binding domain of human occludin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of the ZO-binding domain of human occludin. Occludin is a tight-junction protein controlling the integrity of endothelial and epithelial cell layers. It forms complexes with the cytoplasmic proteins ZO-1, ZO-2 and ZO-3. The ZO-binding domain in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region of human occludin has previously been isolated and identified. This domain, as expressed in a bacterial system or isolated from native cellular occludin, maintains its ability to bind ZO-1 and ZO-2. The crystallization conditions of the human ZO-binding domain are reported here. The crystals diffract to 2.3 Å resolution and were shown to belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 33.3, b = 35.4, c = 107.3 Å

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic characterization of a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization conditions and preliminary crystal characterization of the cytoplasmic cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain from the mouse EAG potassium channel are reported. The members of the family of voltage-gated KCNH potassium channels play important roles in cardiac and neuronal repolarization, tumour proliferation and hormone secretion. These channels have a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain which is homologous to cyclic nucleotide-binding domains (CNB-homology domains), but it has been demonstrated that channel function is not affected by cyclic nucleotides and that the domain does not bind nucleotides in vitro. Here, the crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a CNB-homology domain from a member of the KCNH family, the mouse EAG channel, is reported. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.2 Å resolution and the crystal belonged to the hexagonal space group P3121

  19. In vitro and in vivo Analysis of the Binding of the C Terminus of the HDL Receptor Scavenger Receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) to the PDZ1 Domain of its Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein PDZK1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O Kocher; G Birrane; K Tsukamoto; S Fenske; A Yesilaltay; R Pal; K Daniels; J Ladias; M Krieger

    2011-12-31

    The PDZ1 domain of the four PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 has been reported to bind the C terminus of the HDL receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), and to control hepatic SR-BI expression and function. We generated wild-type (WT) and mutant murine PDZ1 domains, the mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions in their carboxylate binding loop (Lys(14)-Xaa(4)-Asn(19)-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Phe-Leu(24)), and measured their binding affinity for a 7-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of SR-BI ((503)VLQEAKL(509)). The Y20A and G21Y substitutions abrogated all binding activity. Surprisingly, binding affinities (K(d)) of the K14A and F22A mutants were 3.2 and 4.0 ?M, respectively, similar to 2.6 ?M measured for the WT PDZ1. To understand these findings, we determined the high resolution structure of WT PDZ1 bound to a 5-residue sequence from the C-terminal SR-BI ((505)QEAKL(509)) using x-ray crystallography. In addition, we incorporated the K14A and Y20A substitutions into full-length PDZK1 liver-specific transgenes and expressed them in WT and PDZK1 knock-out mice. In WT mice, the transgenes did not alter endogenous hepatic SR-BI protein expression (intracellular distribution or amount) or lipoprotein metabolism (total plasma cholesterol, lipoprotein size distribution). In PDZK1 knock-out mice, as expected, the K14A mutant behaved like wild-type PDZK1 and completely corrected their hepatic SR-BI and plasma lipoprotein abnormalities. Unexpectedly, the 10-20-fold overexpressed Y20A mutant also substantially, but not completely, corrected these abnormalities. The results suggest that there may be an additional site(s) within PDZK1 that bind(s) SR-BI and mediate(s) productive SR-BI-PDZK1 interaction previously attributed exclusively to the canonical binding of the C-terminal SR-BI to PDZ1.

  20. C-terminal Src kinase-mediated EPIYA phosphorylation of Pragmin creates a feed-forward C-terminal Src kinase activation loop that promotes cell motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Yoshie; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-07-01

    Pragmin is one of the few mammalian proteins containing the Glu-Pro-Ile-Tyr-Ala (EPIYA) tyrosine-phosphorylation motif that was originally discovered in the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein. Following delivery into gastric epithelial cells by type IV secretion and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation at the EPIYA motifs, CagA serves as an oncogenic scaffold/adaptor that promiscuously interacts with SH2 domain-containing mammalian proteins such as the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) and the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), a negative regulator of Src family kinases. Like CagA, Pragmin also forms a physical complex with Csk. In the present study, we found that Pragmin directly binds to Csk by the tyrosine-phosphorylated EPIYA motif. The complex formation potentiates kinase activity of Csk, which in turn phosphorylates Pragmin on tyrosine-238 (Y238), Y343, and Y391. As Y391 of Pragmin comprises the EPIYA motif, Pragmin-Csk interaction creates a feed-forward regulatory loop of Csk activation. Together with the finding that Pragmin and Csk are colocalized to focal adhesions, these observations indicate that the Pragmin-Csk interaction, triggered by Pragmin EPIYA phosphorylation, robustly stimulates the kinase activity of Csk at focal adhesions, which direct cell-matrix adhesion that regulates cell morphology and cell motility. As a consequence, expression of Pragmin and/or Csk in epithelial cells induces an elongated cell shape with elevated cell scattering in a manner that is mutually dependent on Pragmin and Csk. Deregulation of the Pragmin-Csk axis may therefore induce aberrant cell migration that contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:27116701

  1. A C-terminal segment of the V{sub 1}R vasopressin receptor is unstructured in the crystal structure of its chimera with the maltose-binding protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikesavan, Nallini Vijayarangan; Mahmood, Syed Saad; Stanley, Nithianantham; Xu, Zhen; Wu, Nan [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Thibonnier, Marc [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States); Shoham, Menachem, E-mail: mxs10@case.edu [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106-4935 (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The 1.8 Å crystal structure of an MBP-fusion protein with the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment of the V1 vasopressin receptor reveals that the receptor segment is unstructured. The V{sub 1} vascular vasopressin receptor (V{sub 1}R) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) involved in the regulation of body-fluid osmolality, blood volume and blood pressure. Signal transduction is mediated by the third intracellular loop of this seven-transmembrane protein as well as by the C-terminal cytoplasmic segment. A chimera of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) and the C-terminal segment of V{sub 1}R has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 51.10, b = 66.56, c = 115.72 Å, β = 95.99°. The 1.8 Å crystal structure reveals the conformation of MBP and part of the linker region of this chimera, with the C-terminal segment being unstructured. This may reflect a conformational plasticity in the C-terminal segment that may be necessary for proper function of V{sub 1}R.

  2. Function of C-terminal hydrophobic region in fructose dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fructose dehydrogenase (FDH) catalyzes oxidation of D-fructose into 2-keto-D-fructose and is one of the enzymes allowing a direct electron transfer (DET)-type bioelectrocatalysis. FDH is a heterotrimeric membrane-bound enzyme (subunit I, II, and III) and subunit II has a C terminal hydrophobic region (CHR), which was expected to play a role in anchoring to membranes from the amino acid sequence. We have constructed a mutated FDH lacking of CHR (ΔchrFDH). Contrary to the expected function of CHR, ΔchrFDH is expressed in the membrane fraction, and subunit I/III subcomplex (ΔcFDH) is also expressed in a similar activity level but in the soluble fraction. In addition, the enzyme activity of the purified ΔchrFDH is about one twentieth of the native FDH. These results indicate that CHR is concerned with the binding between subunit I(/III) and subunit II and then with the enzyme activity. ΔchrFDH has clear DET activity that is larger than that expected from the solution activity, and the characteristics of the catalytic wave of ΔchrFDH are very similar to those of FDH. The deletion of CHR seems to increase the amounts of the enzyme with the proper orientation for the DET reaction at electrode surfaces. Gel filtration chromatography coupled with urea treatment shows that the binding in ΔchrFDH is stronger than that in FDH. It can be considered that the rigid binding between subunit I(/III) and II without CHR results in a conformation different from the native one, which leads to the decrease in the enzyme activity in solution

  3. Unfolding of a Temperature-Sensitive Domain Controls Voltage-Gated Channel Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Cristina; Rohaim, Ahmed; Shaya, David; Findeisen, Felix; Stein, Richard A; Nurva, Shailika Reddy; Mishra, Smriti; Mchaourab, Hassane S; Minor, Daniel L

    2016-02-25

    Voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) are outfitted with diverse cytoplasmic domains that impact function. To examine how such elements may affect VGIC behavior, we addressed how the bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel (BacNa(V)) C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (CTD) affects function. Our studies show that the BacNa(V) CTD exerts a profound influence on gating through a temperature-dependent unfolding transition in a discrete cytoplasmic domain, the neck domain, proximal to the pore. Structural and functional studies establish that the BacNa(V) CTD comprises a bi-partite four-helix bundle that bears an unusual hydrophilic core whose integrity is central to the unfolding mechanism and that couples directly to the channel activation gate. Together, our findings define a general principle for how the widespread four-helix bundle cytoplasmic domain architecture can control VGIC responses, uncover a mechanism underlying the diverse BacNa(V) voltage dependencies, and demonstrate that a discrete domain can encode the temperature-dependent response of a channel. PMID:26919429

  4. C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV drives XRCC4/DNA ligase IV complex to chromatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Sicheng; Liu, Xunyue; Kamdar, Radhika Pankaj; Wanotayan, Rujira; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Adachi, Noritaka [Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihisa, E-mail: yoshim@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •Chromatin binding of XRCC4 is dependent on the presence of DNA ligase IV. •C-terminal region of DNA ligase IV alone can recruit itself and XRCC4 to chromatin. •Two BRCT domains of DNA ligase IV are essential for the chromatin binding of XRCC4. -- Abstract: DNA ligase IV (LIG4) and XRCC4 form a complex to ligate two DNA ends at the final step of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair through non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ). It is not fully understood how these proteins are recruited to DSBs. We recently demonstrated radiation-induced chromatin binding of XRCC4 by biochemical fractionation using detergent Nonidet P-40. In the present study, we examined the role of LIG4 in the recruitment of XRCC4/LIG4 complex to chromatin. The chromatin binding of XRCC4 was dependent on the presence of LIG4. The mutations in two BRCT domains (W725R and W893R, respectively) of LIG4 reduced the chromatin binding of LIG4 and XRCC4. The C-terminal fragment of LIG4 (LIG4-CT) without N-terminal catalytic domains could bind to chromatin with XRCC4. LIG4-CT with W725R or W893R mutation could bind to chromatin but could not support the chromatin binding of XRCC4. The ability of C-terminal region of LIG4 to interact with chromatin might provide us with an insight into the mechanisms of DSB repair through NHEJ.

  5. Mutations in the C-Terminal Loop of the Nucleocapsid Protein Affect Vesicular Stomatitis Virus RNA Replication and Transcription Differentially▿

    OpenAIRE

    Harouaka, Djamila; Wertz, Gail W.

    2009-01-01

    The 2.9-Å structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid (N) protein bound to RNA shows the RNA to be tightly sequestered between the two lobes of the N protein. Domain movement of the lobes of the N protein has been postulated to facilitate polymerase access to the RNA template. We investigated the roles of individual amino acid residues in the C-terminal loop, involved in long-range interactions between N protein monomers, in forming functional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) templates. T...

  6. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unprotected peptides.

  7. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unpro

  8. Contribution of the C-terminal tri-lysine regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase for efficient reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Keith R

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to mediating the integration process, HIV-1 integrase (IN has also been implicated in different steps during viral life cycle including reverse transcription and viral DNA nuclear import. Although the karyophilic property of HIV-1 IN has been well demonstrated using a variety of experimental approaches, the definition of domain(s and/or motif(s within the protein that mediate viral DNA nuclear import and its mechanism are still disputed and controversial. In this study, we performed mutagenic analyses to investigate the contribution of different regions in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN to protein nuclear localization as well as their effects on virus infection. Results Our analysis showed that replacing lysine residues in two highly conserved tri-lysine regions, which are located within previously described Region C (235WKGPAKLLWKGEGAVV and sequence Q (211KELQKQITK in the C-terminal domain of HIV-1 IN, impaired protein nuclear accumulation, while mutations for RK263,4 had no significant effect. Analysis of their effects on viral infection in a VSV-G pseudotyped RT/IN trans-complemented HIV-1 single cycle replication system revealed that all three C-terminal mutant viruses (KK215,9AA, KK240,4AE and RK263,4AA exhibited more severe defect of induction of β-Gal positive cells and luciferase activity than an IN class 1 mutant D64E in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-β-Gal cells, and in dividing as well as non-dividing C8166 T cells, suggesting that some viral defects are occurring prior to viral integration. Furthermore, by analyzing viral DNA synthesis and the nucleus-associated viral DNA level, the results clearly showed that, although all three C-terminal mutants inhibited viral reverse transcription to different extents, the KK240,4AE mutant exhibited most profound effect on this step, whereas KK215,9AA significantly impaired viral DNA nuclear import. In addition, our analysis could not detect viral DNA integration in each C-terminal

  9. Two Distinct Binding Modes Define the Interaction of Brox with the C-Terminal Tails of CHMP5 and CHMP4B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Ruiling; Dussupt, Vincent; Jiang, Jiansheng; Sette, Paola; Rudd, Victoria; Chuenchor, Watchalee; Bello, Nana F.; Bouamr, Fadila; Xiao, Tsan Sam (NIH)

    2012-05-21

    Interactions of the CHMP protein carboxyl terminal tails with effector proteins play important roles in retroviral budding, cytokinesis, and multivesicular body biogenesis. Here we demonstrate that hydrophobic residues at the CHMP4B C-terminal amphipathic {alpha} helix bind a concave surface of Brox, a mammalian paralog of Alix. Unexpectedly, CHMP5 was also found to bind Brox and specifically recruit endogenous Brox to detergent-resistant membrane fractions through its C-terminal 20 residues. Instead of an {alpha} helix, the CHMP5 C-terminal tail adopts a tandem {beta}-hairpin structure that binds Brox at the same site as CHMP4B. Additional Brox:CHMP5 interface is furnished by a unique CHMP5 hydrophobic pocket engaging the Brox residue Y348 that is not conserved among the Bro1 domains. Our studies thus unveil a {beta}-hairpin conformation of the CHMP5 protein C-terminal tail, and provide insights into the overlapping but distinct binding profiles of ESCRT-III and the Bro1 domain proteins.

  10. Amino acid residue Y196E substitution and C-terminal peptide synergistically alleviate the toxicity of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenwu; Kang, Lin; Gao, Shan; Zhuang, Xiangjin; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Hao; Ji, Bin; Xin, Wenwen; Wang, Jinglin

    2015-06-15

    Epsilon toxin (ETX) is produced by Clostridium perfringens type B and D strains, and is the causative agent of a lethal enterotoxemia in livestock animals and possibly in humans. However, many details of ETX structure and activity are not known. Therefore, it is important to clarify the relationship between ETX structure and activity. To explore the effect and mechanism of ETX amino acid residue Y196E substitution and C-terminal peptide on toxicity, four recombinant proteins, rETX (without 13 N-terminal peptides and 23 C-terminal peptides), rETX-C (rETX with 23 C-terminal peptides), rETX(Y196E) (rETX with an amino acid residue substitution at Y196) and rETX(Y196E)-C (rETX-C with a Y196E mutation), were constructed in this study. Both the amino acid residue Y196E substitution and the C-terminal peptide reduce ETX toxicity to a similar extent, and the two factors synergistically alleviate ETX toxicity. In addition, we demonstrated that the C-terminal peptides and Y196E amino acid mutation reduce the toxin toxicity in two different pathways: the C-terminal peptides inhibit the binding activity of toxins to target cells, and the Y196E amino acid mutation slightly inhibits the pore-forming or heptamer-forming process. Interaction between the two factors was not observed in pore-forming or binding assays but toxicity assays, which demonstrated that the relationship between domains of the toxin is more complicated than previously appreciated. However, the exact mechanism of synergistic action is not yet clarified. PMID:25912943

  11. The clustered protocadherin endolysosomal trafficking motif mediates cytoplasmic association

    OpenAIRE

    Shonubi, Adam; Roman, Chantelle; Phillips, Greg R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Clustered protocadherins (Pcdhs) are a large family of neural cadherin-like proteins encoded by individual exons located within three gene clusters. Each exon codes an extracellular, transmembrane, and proximal cytoplasmic domain. These “variable” regions may be spliced to a constant cytoplasmic moiety encoded at the end of a cluster. Pcdh extracellular domains mediate homophilic cell-cell binding but their cytoplasmic domains cause intracellular retention and may negatively regula...

  12. The Third P-loop Domain in Cytoplasmic Dynein Heavy Chain Is Essential for Dynein Motor Function and ATP-sensitive Microtubule Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Silvanovich, Andre; Li, Min-gang; Serr, Madeline; Mische, Sarah; Hays, Thomas S.

    2003-01-01

    Sequence comparisons and structural analyses show that the dynein heavy chain motor subunit is related to the AAA family of chaperone-like ATPases. The core structure of the dynein motor unit derives from the assembly of six AAA domains into a hexameric ring. In dynein, the first four AAA domains contain consensus nucleotide triphosphate-binding motifs, or P-loops. The recent structural models of dynein heavy chain have fostered the hypothesis that the energy derived from hydrolysis at P-loop...

  13. Identification and characterization of the role of c-terminal Src kinase in dengue virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rinki; Agrawal, Tanvi; Khan, Naseem Ahmed; Nakayama, Yuji; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R

    2016-01-01

    We screened a siRNA library targeting human tyrosine kinases in Huh-7 cells and identified c-terminal Src kinase (Csk) as one of the kinases involved in dengue virus replication. Knock-down of Csk expression by siRNAs or inhibition of Csk by an inhibitor reduced dengue virus RNA levels but did not affect viral entry. Csk partially colocalized with viral replication compartments. Dengue infection was drastically reduced in cells lacking the three ubiquitous src family kinases, Src, Fyn and Yes. Csk knock-down in these cells failed to block dengue virus replication suggesting that the effect of Csk is via regulation of Src family kinases. Csk was found to be hyper-phosphorylated during dengue infection and inhibition of protein kinase A led to a block in Csk phosphorylation and dengue virus replication. Overexpression studies suggest an important role for the kinase and SH3 domains in this process. Our results identified a novel role for Csk as a host tyrosine kinase involved in dengue virus replication and provide further insights into the role of host factors in dengue replication. PMID:27457684

  14. Functional and structural analysis of C-terminal BRCA1 missense variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Quiles

    Full Text Available Germline inactivating mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are responsible for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS. Genetic testing of these genes is available, although approximately 15% of tests identify variants of uncertain significance (VUS. Classification of these variants into pathogenic or non-pathogenic type is an important challenge in genetic diagnosis and counseling. The aim of the present study is to functionally assess a set of 7 missense VUS (Q1409L, S1473P, E1586G, R1589H, Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V located in the C-terminal region of BRCA1 by combining in silico prediction tools and structural analysis with a transcription activation (TA assay. The in silico prediction programs gave discrepant results making its interpretation difficult. Structural analysis of the three variants located in the BRCT domains (Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V reveals significant alterations of BRCT structure. The TA assay shows that variants Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V dramatically compromise the transcriptional activity of BRCA1, while variants Q1409L, S1473P, E1586G and R1589H behave like wild-type BRCA1. In conclusion, our results suggest that variants Y1703S, W1718L and G1770V can be classified as likely pathogenic BRCA1 mutations.

  15. Evolutionary diversification of an ancient gene family (rhs through C-terminal displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkhill Julian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhs genes are prominent features of bacterial genomes that have previously been implicated in genomic rearrangements in E. coli. By comparing rhs repertoires across the Enterobacteriaceae, this study provides a robust explanation of rhs diversification and evolution, and a mechanistic model of how rhs diversity is gained and lost. Results Rhs genes are ubiquitous and comprise six structurally distinct lineages within the Enterobacteriaceae. There is considerable intergenomic variation in rhs repertoire; for instance, in Salmonella enterica, rhs are restricted to mobile elements, while in Escherichia coli one rhs lineage has diversified through transposition as older lineages have been deleted. Overall, comparative genomics reveals frequent, independent gene gains and losses, as well as occasional lateral gene transfer, in different genera. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rhs 'core' domains and variable C-termini are evolutionarily decoupled, and propose that rhs diversity is driven by homologous recombination with circular intermediates. Existing C-termini are displaced by laterally acquired alternatives, creating long arrays of dissociated 'tips' that characterize the appearance of rhs loci. Conclusion Rhs repertoires are highly dynamic among Enterobacterial genomes, due to repeated gene gains and losses. In contrast, the primary structures of Rhs genes are evolutionarily conserved, indicating that rhs sequence diversity is driven, not by rapid mutation, but by the relatively slow evolution of novel core/tip combinations. Hence, we predict that a large pool of dissociated rhs C-terminal tips exists episomally and these are potentially transmitted across taxonomic boundaries.

  16. Relevance of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 C-terminal fragments in pancreatic cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    PETERS, HALEY L.; Tuli, Amit; Wang, Xiaojian; Liu, Cuiling; Pan, Zenggang; Ouellette, Michel M.; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; MacDonald, Richard G.; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2012-01-01

    In some cellular systems, particularly neurons, amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), and its highly homologous family member amyloid precursor protein (APP), have been linked to cellular growth. APLP2 and APP undergo regulated intramembrane proteolysis to produce C-terminal fragments. In this study, we found comprehensive expression of APLP2 C-terminal fragments in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines; however, APP C-terminal fragments were notably limited to the BxPC3 cell line. Exte...

  17. Conservation and divergence between cytoplasmic and muscle-specific actin capping proteins: insights from the crystal structure of cytoplasmic Cap32/34 from Dictyostelium discoideum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckert Christian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, also known as CapZ in muscle cells and Cap32/34 in Dictyostelium discoideum, plays a major role in regulating actin filament dynamics. CP is a ubiquitously expressed heterodimer comprising an α- and β-subunit. It tightly binds to the fast growing end of actin filaments, thereby functioning as a “cap” by blocking the addition and loss of actin subunits. Vertebrates contain two somatic variants of CP, one being primarily found at the cell periphery of non-muscle tissues while the other is mainly localized at the Z-discs of skeletal muscles. Results To elucidate structural and functional differences between cytoplasmic and sarcomercic CP variants, we have solved the atomic structure of Cap32/34 (32 = β- and 34 = α-subunit from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium at 2.2 Å resolution and compared it to that of chicken muscle CapZ. The two homologs display a similar overall arrangement including the attached α-subunit C-terminus (α-tentacle and the flexible β-tentacle. Nevertheless, the structures exhibit marked differences suggesting considerable structural flexibility within the α-subunit. In the α-subunit we observed a bending motion of the β-sheet region located opposite to the position of the C-terminal β-tentacle towards the antiparallel helices that interconnect the heterodimer. Recently, a two domain twisting attributed mainly to the β-subunit has been reported. At the hinge of these two domains Cap32/34 contains an elongated and highly flexible loop, which has been reported to be important for the interaction of cytoplasmic CP with actin and might contribute to the more dynamic actin-binding of cytoplasmic compared to sarcomeric CP (CapZ. Conclusions The structure of Cap32/34 from Dictyostelium discoideum allowed a detailed analysis and comparison between the cytoplasmic and sarcomeric variants of CP. Significant structural flexibility could particularly be found within the

  18. Differential contributions of porcine bocavirus NP1 protein N- and C-terminal regions to its nuclear localization and immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoxi; Fang, Liurong; Cai, Kaimei; Zeng, Songlin; Wu, Wei; An, Kang; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2016-05-01

    Porcine bocavirus (PBoV), a newly identified parvovirus in the family Parvoviridae, has been reported worldwide in swine with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, respiratory disease or diarrhoea and in asymptomatic swine. NP1 is a protein unique to the genus Bocavirus and its function is not fully understood. In this study, we show that the N-terminal region of PBoV NP1 contains two classical nuclear localization signals (cNLSs) and a non-classical NLS. The N-terminal region also inhibits the promoter activity of IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element activity the same as full-length NP1 protein, but the PBoV NP1 C-terminal region does not. PBoV NP1 also induces NFκB activation by increasing the phosphorylation of p65, and we demonstrate that the C-terminal region (aa 168-218) is responsible for the induction of NFκB, although the cNLS region of NP1 enhances this activation. The data suggest that PBoV NP1 contains two functionally independent domains in its N- and C-terminal regions. Thus, the N-terminal region of PBoV NP1 is critical for its nuclear localization and IFN-related promoter inhibition, and the C-terminal region is critical for its induction of NFκB. PMID:26813332

  19. The C-terminal polyproline-containing region of ELMO contributes to an increase in the life-time of the ELMO-DOCK complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sévajol, Marion; Reiser, Jean-Baptiste; Chouquet, Anne; Pérard, Julien; Ayala, Isabel; Gans, Pierre; Kleman, Jean-Philippe; Housset, Dominique

    2012-03-01

    The eukaryotic Engulfment and CellMotility (ELMO) proteins form an evolutionary conserved family of key regulators which play a central role in Rho-dependent biological processes such as engulfment and cell motility/migration. ELMO proteins interact with a subset of Downstream of Crk (DOCK) family members, a new type of guanine exchange factors (GEF) for Rac and cdc42 GTPases. The physiological function of DOCK is to facilitate actin remodeling, a process which occurs only in presence of ELMO. Several studies have determined that the last 200 C-terminal residues of ELMO1 and the first 180 N-terminal residues of DOCK180 are responsible for the ELMO-DOCK interaction. However, the precise role of the different domains and motifs identified in these regions has remained elusive. Divergent functional, biochemical and structural data have been reported regarding the contribution of the C-terminal end of ELMO, comprising its polyproline motif, and of the DOCK SH3 domain. In the present study, we have investigated the contribution of the C-terminal end of ELMO1 to the interaction between ELMO1 and the SH3 domain of DOCK180 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Our data presented here demonstrate the ability of the SH3 domain of DOCK180 to interact with ELMO1, regardless of the presence of the polyproline-containing C-terminal end. However, the presence of the polyproline region leads to a significant increase in the half-life of the ELMO1-DOCK180 complex, along with a moderate increase on the affinity. PMID:22177965

  20. Identification of a Chemical Probe for Bromo and Extra C-Terminal Bromodomain Inhibition through Optimization of a Fragment-Derived Hit

    OpenAIRE

    Fish, Paul V.; Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Bish, Gerwyn; Brennan, Paul E.; Bunnage, Mark E.; Cook, Andrew S.; Federov, Oleg; Gerstenberger, Brian S.; Jones, Hannah; Knapp, Stefan; Marsden, Brian; Nocka, Karl; Owen, Dafydd R.; Philpott, Martin; Picaud, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of chromatin through acetylation at selected histone lysine residues is governed by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). The significance of this subset of the epigenetic code is interrogated and interpreted by an acetyllysine-specific protein–protein interaction with bromodomain reader modules. Selective inhibition of the bromo and extra C-terminal domain (BET) family of bromodomains with a small molecule is feasible, and this...

  1. The Cytoplasmic Adaptor Protein Dok7 Activates the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase MuSK via Dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamin, E.; Hallock, P; Burden, S; Hubbard, S

    2010-01-01

    Formation of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction requires, among others proteins, Agrin, a neuronally derived ligand, and the following muscle proteins: LRP4, the receptor for Agrin; MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK); and Dok7 (or Dok-7), a cytoplasmic adaptor protein. Dok7 comprises a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain, and C-terminal sites of tyrosine phosphorylation. Unique among adaptor proteins recruited to RTKs, Dok7 is not only a substrate of MuSK, but also an activator of MuSK's kinase activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the Dok7 PH-PTB domains in complex with a phosphopeptide representing the Dok7-binding site on MuSK. The structure and biochemical data reveal a dimeric arrangement of Dok7 PH-PTB that facilitates trans-autophosphorylation of the kinase activation loop. The structure provides the molecular basis for MuSK activation by Dok7 and for rationalizing several Dok7 loss-of-function mutations found in patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

  2. Synthesis of proposed macrocyclic binder of C-terminal domain of HIV-1 capsid protein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulíšek, Lubomír; Kožíšek, M.; Szmolková, B.; Machara, A.

    Praha: Czech Chemical Society, 2015. s. 111. [Liblice 2015. Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry /50./. 06.11.2015-08.11.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV * drug design * molecular modelling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  3. Biophysical Studies of the C-terminal domains of the melibiose transporter from Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Fürst, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    En este trabajo, el objetivo principal ha sido el estudio del mecanismo del co-transporte de la permeasa de melibiosa (MelB) de Escherichia coli. Este proteina de membrana realiza co-transporte activo de varios oligosacáridos utilizando la fuerza electroquímica de cationes. Una característica remarcable de este transportador es el hecho que permite utilizar tres diferentes cationes, el protón, el sodio y el litio. Los sustratos con mayor afinidad a la proteína son el sodio y la melibiosa. ...

  4. Crystallization of the C-terminal head domain of the avian adenovirus CELO long fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avian adenovirus long-fibre head trimers were expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group C2 (unit-cell parameters a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°). A complete highly redundant data set was collected to 2.2 Å resolution at 100 K using a rotating-anode X-ray source. Avian adenovirus CELO contains two different fibres: fibre 1, the long fibre, and fibre 2, the short fibre. The short fibre is responsible for binding to an unknown avian receptor and is essential for infection of birds. The long fibre is not essential, but is known to bind the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor protein. Both trimeric fibres are attached to the same penton base, of which each icosahedral virus contains 12 copies. The short fibre extends straight outwards, while the long fibre emerges at an angle. The carboxy-terminal amino acids 579–793 of the avian adenovirus long fibre have been expressed with an amino-terminal hexahistidine tag and the expressed trimeric protein has been purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and crystallized. Crystals were grown at low pH using PEG 10 000 as precipitant and belonged to space group C2. The crystals diffracted rotating-anode Cu Kα radiation to at least 1.9 Å resolution and a complete data set was collected from a single crystal to 2.2 Å resolution. Unit-cell parameters were a = 216.5, b = 59.2, c = 57.5 Å, β = 101.3°, suggesting one trimer per asymmetric unit and a solvent content of 46%. The long fibre head does not have significant sequence homology to any other protein of known structure and molecular-replacement attempts with known fibre-head structures were unsuccessful. However, a map calculated using SIRAS phasing shows a clear trimer with a shape similar to known adenovirus fibre-head structures. Structure solution is in progress

  5. Structure of the C-terminal head domain of the fowl adenovirus type 1 short fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are more than 100 known adenovirus serotypes, including 50 human serotypes. They can infect all 5 major vertebrate classes but only Aviadenovirus infecting birds and Mastadenovirus infecting mammals have been well studied. CELO (chicken embryo lethal orphan) adenovirus is responsible for mild respiratory pathologies in birds. Most studies on CELO virus have focussed on its genome sequence and organisation whereas the structural work on CELO proteins has only recently started. Contrary to most adenoviruses, the vertices of CELO virus reveal pentons with two fibres of different lengths. The distal parts (or head) of those fibres are involved in cellular receptor binding. Here we have determined the atomic structure of the short-fibre head of CELO (amino acids 201-410) at 2.0 A resolution. Despite low sequence identity, this structure is conserved compared to the other adenovirus fibre heads. We have used the existing CELO long-fibre head structure and the one we show here for a structure-based alignment of 11 known adenovirus fibre heads which was subsequently used for the construction of an evolutionary tree. Both the fibre head sequence and structural alignments suggest that enteric human group F adenovirus 41 (short fibre) is closer to the CELO fibre heads than the canine CAdV-2 fibre head, that lies closer to the human virus fibre heads

  6. Cooperative regulation of Cav1.2 channels by intracellular Mg2+, the proximal C-terminal EF-hand, and the distal C-terminal domain

    OpenAIRE

    Brunet, Sylvain; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2009-01-01

    L-type Ca2+ currents conducted by Cav1.2 channels initiate excitation–contraction coupling in cardiac myocytes. Intracellular Mg2+ (Mgi) inhibits the ionic current of Cav1.2 channels. Because Mgi is altered in ischemia and heart failure, its regulation of Cav1.2 channels is important in understanding cardiac pathophysiology. Here, we studied the effects of Mgi on voltage-dependent inactivation (VDI) of Cav1.2 channels using Na+ as permeant ion to eliminate the effects of permeant divalent cat...

  7. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPPn 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Hudson

    Full Text Available Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPPn in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPPn motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I, four in α2(I and three in α1(II, all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPPn domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human, up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPPn motif were found in α1(I and four in α2(I, with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPPn site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species.

  8. Evolutionary origins of C-terminal (GPP)n 3-hydroxyproline formation in vertebrate tendon collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, David M; Werther, Rachel; Weis, MaryAnn; Wu, Jiann-Jiu; Eyre, David R

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half the proline residues in fibrillar collagen are hydroxylated. The predominant form is 4-hydroxyproline, which helps fold and stabilize the triple helix. A minor form, 3-hydroxyproline, still has no clear function. Using peptide mass spectrometry, we recently revealed several previously unknown molecular sites of 3-hydroxyproline in fibrillar collagen chains. In fibril-forming A-clade collagen chains, four new partially occupied 3-hydroxyproline sites were found (A2, A3, A4 and (GPP)n) in addition to the fully occupied A1 site at Pro986. The C-terminal (GPP)n motif has five consecutive GPP triplets in α1(I), four in α2(I) and three in α1(II), all subject to 3-hydroxylation. The evolutionary origins of this substrate sequence were investigated by surveying the pattern of its 3-hydroxyproline occupancy from early chordates through amphibians, birds and mammals. Different tissue sources of type I collagen (tendon, bone and skin) and type II collagen (cartilage and notochord) were examined by mass spectrometry. The (GPP)n domain was found to be a major substrate for 3-hydroxylation only in vertebrate fibrillar collagens. In higher vertebrates (mouse, bovine and human), up to five 3-hydroxyproline residues per (GPP)n motif were found in α1(I) and four in α2(I), with an average of two residues per chain. In vertebrate type I collagen the modification exhibited clear tissue specificity, with 3-hydroxyproline prominent only in tendon. The occupancy also showed developmental changes in Achilles tendon, with increasing 3-hydroxyproline levels with age. The biological significance is unclear but the level of 3-hydroxylation at the (GPP)n site appears to have increased as tendons evolved and shows both tendon type and developmental variations within a species. PMID:24695516

  9. Neurological disease mutations compromise a C-terminal ion pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Khandelia, Himanshu; Morth, Jens Preben; Bublitz, Maike; Mouritsen, Ole G; Jensen, Jan Egebjerg; Nissen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pumps three sodium ions out of and two potassium ions into the cell for each ATP molecule that is split, thereby generating the chemical and electrical gradients across the plasma membrane that are essential in, for example, signalling, secondary transport and volume...... potassium is released the proton will also return to the cytoplasm, thus allowing an overall asymmetric stoichiometry of the transported ions. The C terminus controls the gate to the pathway. Its structure is crucial for pump function, as demonstrated by at least eight mutations in the region that cause...... regulation in animal cells. Crystal structures of the potassium-bound form of the pump revealed an intimate docking of the alpha-subunit carboxy terminus at the transmembrane domain. Here we show that this element is a key regulator of a previously unrecognized ion pathway. Current models of P-type ATPases...

  10. Multiple domains of human CLASP contribute to microtubule dynamics and organization in vitro and in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kieren; Nogales, Eva; Heald, Rebecca

    2012-03-01

    Cytoplasmic linker associated proteins (CLASPs) comprise a class of microtubule (MT) plus end-binding proteins (+TIPs) that contribute to the dynamics and organization of MTs during many cellular processes, among them mitosis. Human CLASP proteins contain multiple MT-binding domains, including tumor over-expressed gene (TOG) domains, and a Ser-x-Ile-Pro (SxIP) motif known to target some +TIPs though interaction with end-binding protein 1 (EB1). However, how individual domains contribute to CLASP function is poorly understood. We generated full-length recombinant human CLASP1 and a series of truncation mutants and found that two N-terminal TOG domains make the strongest contribution to MT polymerization and bundling, but also identified a third TOG domain that further contributes to CLASP activity. Plus end tracking by CLASP requires the SxIP motif and interaction with EB1. The C-terminal coiled-coil domain mediates dimerization and association with many other factors, including the kinetochore motor centromere protein E (CENP-E), and the chromokinesin Xkid. Only the full-length protein was able to rescue spindle assembly in Xenopus egg extracts depleted of endogenous CLASP. Deletion of the C-terminal domain caused aberrant MT polymerization and dramatic spindle phenotypes, even with small amounts of added protein, indicating that proper localization of CLASP activity is essential to control MT polymerization during mitosis. PMID:22278908

  11. Structure of the DNA-bound BRCA1 C-terminal Region from Human Replication Factor C p140 and Model of the Protein-DNA Complex

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    BRCA1 C-terminal domain (BRCT)-containing proteins are found widely throughout the animal and bacteria kingdoms where they are exclusively involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA metabolism. Whereas most BRCT domains are involved in protein-protein interactions, a small subset has bona fide DNA binding activity. Here, we present the solution structure of the BRCT region of the large subunit of replication factor C bound to DNA and a model of the structure-specific complex with 5′-phosphoryl...

  12. Accessory Factors of Cytoplasmic Viral RNA Sensors Required for Antiviral Innate Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiumi, Hiroyuki; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) induces many antiviral factors in host cells. RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) are cytoplasmic viral RNA sensors that trigger the signal to induce the innate immune response that includes type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 are RLRs that form nucleoprotein filaments along viral double-stranded RNA, resulting in the activation of MAVS adaptor molecule. The MAVS protein forms a prion-like aggregation structure, leading to type I IFN production. RIG-I and MDA5 undergo post-translational modification. TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin ligases deliver a K63-linked polyubiquitin moiety to the RIG-I N-terminal caspase activation and recruitment domains (CARDs) and C-terminal region; the polyubiquitin chain then stabilizes the two-CARD tetramer structure required for MAVS assembly. MDA5 activation is regulated by phosphorylation. RIOK3 is a protein kinase that phosphorylates the MDA5 protein in a steady state, and PP1α/γ dephosphorylate this protein, resulting in its activation. RIG-I and MDA5 require cytoplasmic RNA helicases for their efficient activation. LGP2, another RLR, is an RNA helicase involved in RLR signaling. This protein does not possess N-terminal CARDs and, thus, cannot trigger downstream signaling by itself. Recent studies have revealed that this protein modulates MDA5 filament formation, resulting in enhanced type I IFN production. Several other cytoplasmic RNA helicases are involved in RLR signaling. DDX3, DHX29, DHX36, and DDX60 RNA helicases have been reported to be involved in RLR-mediated type I IFN production after viral infection. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Future studies are required to reveal the role of RNA helicases in the RLR signaling pathway. PMID:27252702

  13. Role of N-terminal extension of Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 and C-terminal extension of Thermotoga maritima RNase H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanasari, Etin-Diah; Angkawidjaja, Clement; Koga, Yuichi; Kanaya, Shigenori

    2013-10-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus RNase H2 (BstRNH2) and Thermotoga maritima RNase H2 (TmaRNH2) have N-terminal and C-terminal extensions, respectively, as compared with Aquifex aeolicus RNase H2 (AaeRNH2). To analyze the role of these extensions, BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 without these extensions were constructed, and their biochemical properties were compared with those of their intact partners and AaeRNH2. The far-UV CD spectra of all proteins were similar, suggesting that the protein structure is not significantly altered by removal of these extensions. However, both the junction ribonuclease and RNase H activities of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, as well as their substrate-binding affinities, were considerably decreased by removal of these extensions. The stability of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2 was also decreased by removal of these extensions. The activity, substrate binding affinity and stability of TmaRNH2 without the C-terminal 46 residues were partly restored by the attachment of the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2. These results suggest that the N-terminal extension of BstRNH2 functions as a substrate-binding domain and stabilizes the RNase H domain. Because the C-terminal extension of TmaRNH2 assumes a helix hairpin structure and does not make direct contact with the substrate, this extension is probably required to make the conformation of the substrate-binding site functional. AaeRNH2 showed comparable junction ribonuclease activity to those of BstRNH2 and TmaRNH2, and was more stable than these proteins, indicating that bacterial RNases H2 do not always require an N-terminal or C-terminal extension to increase activity, substrate-binding affinity, and/or stability. PMID:23937561

  14. Automation of C-terminal sequence analysis of 2D-PAGE separated proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Moerman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental assignment of the protein termini remains essential to define the functional protein structure. Here, we report on the improvement of a proteomic C-terminal sequence analysis method. The approach aims to discriminate the C-terminal peptide in a CNBr-digest where Met-Xxx peptide bonds are cleaved in internal peptides ending at a homoserine lactone (hsl-derivative. pH-dependent partial opening of the lactone ring results in the formation of doublets for all internal peptides. C-terminal peptides are distinguished as singlet peaks by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS is then used for their identification. We present a fully automated protocol established on a robotic liquid-handling station.

  15. C-Terminally Truncated Derivatives of Escherichia coli Hfq Are Proficient in Riboregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Steno; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Brennan, Richard G; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Hfq derivatives, consisting of the conserved core and short C-terminal extensions, to support the regulation of rpoS expression and riboregulation by various well-characterized small regulatory RNAs. Our data show that, in all cases tested, the truncated proteins are fully capable of promoting...... interaction promotes annealing. So far, mutational and structural studies have established that Escherichia coli Hfq contains two separate RNA binding sites that are part of the conserved N-terminal portion of the protein. Moreover, it has been suggested that the nonconserved C-terminal extension of E. coli...... posttranscriptional control, indicating that the C-terminal tail of E. coli Hfq plays a small role or no role in riboregulation....

  16. A C-terminal tyrosine-based motif in the bile salt export pump directs clathrin-dependent endocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Ping; Xu, Shuhua; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The liver specific bile salt export pump (BSEP) is crucial for bile-acid dependent bile flow at the apical membrane. BSEP, a member of the family of structurally related ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) proteins, is composed of 12 transmembrane segments (TMS) and 2 large cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains (NBD). The regulation of trafficking of BSEP to and from the cell surface is not well understood, but is believed to play an important role in cholestatic liver diseases such as primary famili...

  17. [Construction and expression of six deletion mutants of human astrovirus C-terminal nsP1a/4 protein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Niu, Ke; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Yi-ming; Sui, Ting-ting; Wang, Wen

    2013-09-01

    Human astrovirus (HAstV) is one of the leading causes of actue virual diarrhea in infants. HAstV-induced epithdlial cell apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HAstV infection. Our previous study indicated that HAstV non-structural protein nsPla C-terminal protein nsPla/4 was the major apoptosis functional protein and probably contained the main apoptosis domains. In order to screen for astrovirus encoded apoptotic protien, nsPla/4 and six turncated proteins, which possessed nsPla/4 protein different function domain ,were cloned into green fluorescent protein (GFP) vector pEG-FP-N3. After 24-72 h transfection, the fusion protein expression in BHK21 cells, was analysis by fluorescence microscope and Western blot. The results indicated seven fusion proteins were observed successfully in BHK21 cell after transfected for 24 h. Western blot analysis showed that the level of fusion protein expressed in BHK21 cells was increased significantly at 72h compared to 48h in transfected cells. The successful expression of deletion mutants of nsPla/4 protein was an important foundation to gain further insights into the function of apoptosis domains of nsPla/4 protein and it would also provide research platform to further confirm the molecule pathogenic mechanism of human astrovirus. PMID:24386845

  18. Synapse associated protein 102 (SAP102 binds the C-terminal part of the scaffolding protein neurobeachin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Lauks

    Full Text Available Neurobeachin (Nbea is a multidomain scaffold protein abundant in the brain, where it is highly expressed during development. Nbea-null mice have severe defects in neuromuscular synaptic transmission resulting in lethal paralysis of the newborns. Recently, it became clear that Nbea is important also for the functioning of central synapses, where it is suggested to play a role in trafficking membrane proteins to both, the pre- and post-synaptic sites. So far, only few binding partners of Nbea have been found and the precise mechanism of their trafficking remains unclear. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify SAP102, a MAGUK protein implicated in trafficking of the ionotropic glutamate AMPA- and NMDA-type receptors during synaptogenesis, as a novel Nbea interacting protein in mouse brain. Experiments in heterologous cells confirmed this interaction and revealed that SAP102 binds to the C-terminal part of Nbea that contains the DUF, PH, BEACH and WD40 domains. Furthermore, we discovered that introducing a mutation in Nbea's PH domain, which disrupts its interaction with the BEACH domain, abolishes this binding, thereby creating an excellent starting point to further investigate Nbea-SAP102 function in the central nervous system.

  19. Neurological disease mutations compromise a C-terminal ion pathway in the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne; Khandelia, Himanshu; Morth, J Preben;

    2010-01-01

    severe neurological diseases. This novel model for ion transport by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase is established by electrophysiological studies of C-terminal mutations in familial hemiplegic migraine 2 (FHM2) and is further substantiated by molecular dynamics simulations. A similar ion regulation is likely to...

  20. Development of a cysteine-deprived and C-terminally truncated GLP-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Garibay, Patrick W.;

    2013-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to family B of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the development and characterization of a fully functional cysteine-deprived and C-terminally trun......The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) belongs to family B of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and has become a promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here we describe the development and characterization of a fully functional cysteine-deprived and C......-terminally truncated GLP-1R. Single cysteines were initially substituted with alanine, and functionally redundant cysteines were subsequently changed simultaneously. Our results indicate that Cys174, Cys226, Cys296 and Cys403 are important for the GLP-1-mediated response, whereas Cys236, Cys329, Cys341, Cys347, Cys438...... membrane proximal part of the C-terminal is involved in receptor expression at the cell surface. The results show that seven cysteines and more than half of the C-terminal tail can be removed from GLP-1R without compromising GLP-1 binding or function....

  1. Role of the C-terminal YG repeats of the primer-dependent streptococcal glucosyltransferase, GtfJ, in binding to dextran and mutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Kim B; Allen, Donna M; Jacques, Nicholas A

    2002-02-01

    The recombinant primer-dependent glucosyltransferase GtfJ of Streptococcus salivarius possesses a C-terminal glucan-binding domain composed of eighteen 21 aa YG repeats. By engineering a series of C-terminal truncated proteins, the position at which truncation prevented further mutan synthesis was defined to a region of 43 aa, confirming that not all of the YG motifs were required for the formation of mutan by GtfJ. The role of the YG repeats in glucan binding was investigated in detail. Three proteins consisting of 3.8, 7.2 or 11.0 C-terminal YG repeats were expressed in Escherichia coli. Each of the three purified proteins bound to both the 1,6-alpha-linked glucose residues of dextran and the 1,3-alpha-linked glucose residues of mutan, indicating that a protein consisting of nothing but 3.8 YG repeats could attach to either substrate. Secondary structure predictions of the primary amino acid sequence suggested that 37% of the amino acids were capable of forming a structure such that five regions of beta-sheet were separated by regions capable of forming beta-turns and random coils. CD spectral analysis showed that the purified 3.8 YG protein possessed an unordered secondary structure with some evidence of possible beta-sheet formation and that the protein maintained this relatively unordered structure on binding to dextran. PMID:11832518

  2. Signal transduction by the Fat cytoplasmic domain

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Guohui; Feng, Yongqiang; Ambegaonkar, Abhijit A.; Sun, Gongping; Huff, Matthew; Rauskolb, Cordelia; Irvine, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can trans...

  3. Antibodies against the C-terminal peptide of rabbit oviductin inhibit mouse early embryo development to pass 2-cell stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A full-length rabbit oviductin cDNA(1909bp) was cloned. It consists of a 5'-UTR of 52bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of 1374bp and a 3'-UTR of 483bp and has more than 80% homology with that of other mammal oviductins. N-terminal peptide (NTP) (384 residues) and C-terminal peptide (CTP)(73 residues) of deduced protein precursor has about 80% and 50% identity with that of other mammals respectively. Fusion proteins GST-NTP 368(1R-368N)and GST-CTP73 (369F-441A) were expressed and purified. NH2-terminal of CTP sequencing reveals that the purified protein is consistent with the deduced one. In order to study the function of NTP and CTP the mouse anti-NTP and rabbit anti-CTP antisera were prepared. Tissue-specific (skeleton muscle, oviduct, uterus, ovary, liver, heart and brain) analysis indicated that rabbit oviductin was only found in oviduct. The conditioned medium derived from the rabbit oviduct mucosa epithelial cells has a function of overcoming the early embryonic development block of Kunming mouse cultured in vitro. Anti-CTP antiserum could totally inhibit the early embryo development at 2-cell stage cultured in the conditioned culture medium, but anti-NTP antiserum couldn't. There was a positive relationship between the ratio of early embryos at development block and the dosage of anti-CTP antiserum added in the conditioned culture medium. These results suggest that oviductin has a function not only on fertilization, but also on the release of early embryonic development block, and the later function domain of rabbit oviductin may be situate in its C-terminal.

  4. Structure of human cytoplasmic dynein-2 primed for its powerstroke

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helgo; Zalyte, Ruta; Urnavicius, Linas; Carter, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the dynein family, consisting of cytoplasmic and axonemal isoforms, are motors that move towards the minus ends of microtubules. Cytoplasmic dynein-1 (dynein-1) plays roles in mitosis and cellular cargo transport 1 , and is implicated in viral infections 2 and neurodegenerative diseases 3 . Cytoplasmic dynein-2 (dynein-2) carries out intraflagellar transport 4 and is associated with human skeletal ciliopathies 5 . Dyneins share a conserved motor domain that couples cycles of ATP hy...

  5. Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through its C-terminal ribbon–helix–helix DNA-binding fold

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jun; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 stimulates processing of single-stranded T-DNA that is translocated into plants to induce tumor formation, but how VirC2 functions is unclear. Here, we report the 1.7-Å X-ray crystal structure of its trypsin-resistant C-terminal domain, VirC282–202, which reveals a form of the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA-binding fold contained within a single polypeptide chain. DNA-binding assays and mutagenesis indicate that VirC2 uses this RHH fold to bind double-stranded DN...

  6. Presence and expression of hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze the simplest of all chemical reactions: the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen or vice versa. Cyanobacteria can express an uptake, a bidirectional or both NiFe-hydrogenases. Maturation of those depends on accessory proteins encoded by hyp-genes. The last maturation step involves the cleavage of a ca. 30 amino acid long peptide from the large subunit by a C-terminal endopeptidase. Until know, nothing is known about the maturation of cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases. The availability of three complete cyanobacterial genome sequences from strains with either only the uptake (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133/PCC 73102, only the bidirectional (Synechocystis PCC 6803 or both NiFe-hydrogenases (Anabaena PCC 7120 prompted us to mine these genomes for hydrogenase maturation related genes. In this communication we focus on the presence and the expression of the NiFe-hydrogenases and the corresponding C-terminal endopeptidases, in the three strains mentioned above. Results We identified genes encoding putative cyanobacterial hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in all analyzed cyanobacterial genomes. The genes are not part of any known hydrogenase related gene cluster. The derived amino acid sequences show only low similarity (28–41% to the well-analyzed hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidase HybD from Escherichia coli, the crystal structure of which is known. However, computational secondary and tertiary structure modeling revealed the presence of conserved structural patterns around the highly conserved active site. Gene expression analysis shows that the endopeptidase encoding genes are expressed under both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. Conclusion Anabaena PCC 7120 possesses two NiFe-hydrogenases and two hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases but only one set of hyp-genes. Thus, in contrast to the Hyp-proteins, the C-terminal endopeptidases are the only known

  7. Stability of plasma concentrations of N and C terminal atrial natriuretic peptides at room temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Cleland, J G; Ward, S; Dutka, D.; Habib, F; Impallomeni, M; Morton, I J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are increased in patients with ventricular dysfunction and could have a diagnostic role in heart failure. ANP may be unstable after collection, however, limiting any practical diagnostic role. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 18 patients with various conditions. Aliquots were either processed optimally or kept as blood or plasma at room temperature for 6-72 h before processing. RESULTS: Concentrations of C-terminal...

  8. C-terminal fluorescent labeling impairs functionality of DNA mismatch repair proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Brieger

    Full Text Available The human DNA mismatch repair (MMR process is crucial to maintain the integrity of the genome and requires many different proteins which interact perfectly and coordinated. Germline mutations in MMR genes are responsible for the development of the hereditary form of colorectal cancer called Lynch syndrome. Various mutations mainly in two MMR proteins, MLH1 and MSH2, have been identified so far, whereas 55% are detected within MLH1, the essential component of the heterodimer MutLα (MLH1 and PMS2. Most of those MLH1 variants are pathogenic but the relevance of missense mutations often remains unclear. Many different recombinant systems are applied to filter out disease-associated proteins whereby fluorescent tagged proteins are frequently used. However, dye labeling might have deleterious effects on MutLα's functionality. Therefore, we analyzed the consequences of N- and C-terminal fluorescent labeling on expression level, cellular localization and MMR activity of MutLα. Besides significant influence of GFP- or Red-fusion on protein expression we detected incorrect shuttling of single expressed C-terminal GFP-tagged PMS2 into the nucleus and found that C-terminal dye labeling impaired MMR function of MutLα. In contrast, N-terminal tagged MutLαs retained correct functionality and can be recommended both for the analysis of cellular localization and MMR efficiency.

  9. The X-ray structures of two mutant crystallin domains shed light on the evolution of multi-domain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norledge, B V; Mayr, E M; Glockshuber, R; Bateman, O A; Slingsby, C; Jaenicke, R; Driessen, H P

    1996-03-01

    We use protein engineering and crystallography to simulate aspects of the early evolution of beta gamma-crystallins by observing how a single domain oligomerizes in response to changes in a sequence extension. The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of gamma beta-crystallin with its four-residue C-terminal extension shows that the domain does not form a symmetric homodimer analogous to the two-domain pairing in beta gamma-crystallins. Instead the C-terminal extension now forms heterologous interactions with other domains leading to the solvent exposure of the natural hydrophobic interface with a consequent loss in protein solubility. However, this domain truncated by just the C-terminal tyrosine forms a symmetric homodimer of domains in the crystal lattice. PMID:8605629

  10. Display of cell surface sites for fibronectin assembly is modulated by cell adherence to (1F3 and C-terminal modules of fibronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jielin Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibronectin-null cells assemble soluble fibronectin shortly after adherence to a substrate coated with intact fibronectin but not when adherent to the cell-binding domain of fibronectin (modules (7F3-(10F3. Interactions of adherent cells with regions of adsorbed fibronectin other than modules (7F3-(10F3, therefore, are required for early display of the cell surface sites that initiate and direct fibronectin assembly. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify these regions, coatings of proteolytically derived or recombinant pieces of fibronectin containing modules in addition to (7F3-(10F3 were tested for effects on fibronectin assembly by adherent fibronectin-null fibroblasts. Pieces as large as one comprising modules (2F3-(14F3, which include the heparin-binding and cell adhesion domains, were not effective in supporting fibronectin assembly. Addition of module (1F3 or the C-terminal modules to modules (2F3-(14F3 resulted in some activity, and addition of both (1F3 and the C-terminal modules resulted in a construct, (1F3-C, that best mimicked the activity of a coating of intact fibronectin. Constructs (1F3-C V0, (1F3-C V64, and (1F3-C Delta(V(15F3(10F1 were all able to support fibronectin assembly, suggesting that (1F3 through (11F1 and/or (12F1 were important for activity. Coatings in which the active parts of (1F3-C were present in different proteins were much less active than intact (1F3-C. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that (1F3 acts together with C-terminal modules to induce display of fibronectin assembly sites on adherent cells.

  11. SARS Coronavirus-unique Domain (SUD): Three-domain Molecular Architecture in Solution and RNA Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The nonstructural protein 3 (nsp3) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) includes a “SARS-unique region” (SUD) consisting of three globular domains separated by short linker peptide segments. This paper reports NMR structure determinations of the C-terminal domain (SUD-C) and of a two-domain construct (SUD-MC) containing the middle domain (SUD-M) and the C-terminal domain, and NMR data on the conformational states of the N-terminal domain (SUD-N) and the SUD-NM two-d...

  12. Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies with Cytoplasmic Fluorescence Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Chhabra, Seema; Minz, Ranjana Walker; Goyal, Lekha; Sharma, Nidhi

    2010-01-01

    We report here two rare cases of myeloperoxidase–antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive Wegener's granulomatosis (limited variant) which deceptively produced a cytoplasmic (C-ANCA) pattern on indirect immunofluorescence.

  13. Domain Modeling: NP_055672.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055672.3 chr1 Solution structure of the chimera of the C-terminal PID domain of ...Fe65L and the C-terminal tail peptide of APP p2ysza_ chr1/NP_055672.3/NP_055672.3_apo_116-314.pdb swppa 0 ...

  14. Cytoplasm Affects Embryonic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Recent studies by CAS researchers furnish strong evidence that a fertilized egg's nucleus isn't the sole site of control for an embryo's development. A research team headed by Prof. Zhu Zuoyan from the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology in Wuhan discovered that cytoplasm affects the number of vertebrae in cloned offspring created when nuclei from one fish genus were transplanted to enucleated eggs of another.

  15. Role of the Cationic C-Terminal Segment of Melittin on Membrane Fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Alexandre; Fournier, Alain; Lafleur, Michel

    2016-05-01

    The widespread distribution of cationic antimicrobial peptides capable of membrane fragmentation in nature underlines their importance to living organisms. In the present work, we determined the impact of the electrostatic interactions associated with the cationic C-terminal segment of melittin, a 26-amino acid peptide from bee venom (net charge +6), on its binding to model membranes and on the resulting fragmentation. In order to detail the role played by the C-terminal charges, we prepared a melittin analogue for which the four cationic amino acids in positions 21-24 were substituted with the polar residue citrulline, providing a peptide with the same length and amphiphilicity but with a lower net charge (+2). We compared the peptide bilayer affinity and the membrane fragmentation for bilayers prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC)/1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) mixtures. It is shown that neutralization of the C-terminal considerably increased melittin affinity for zwitterionic membranes. The unfavorable contribution associated with transferring the cationic C-terminal in a less polar environment was reduced, leaving the hydrophobic interactions, which drive the peptide insertion in bilayers, with limited counterbalancing interactions. The presence of negatively charged lipids (DPPS) in bilayers increased melittin binding by introducing attractive electrostatic interactions, the augmentation being, as expected, greater for native melittin than for its citrullinated analogue. The membrane fragmentation power of the peptide was shown to be controlled by electrostatic interactions and could be modulated by the charge carried by both the membrane and the lytic peptide. The analysis of the lipid composition of the extracted fragments from DPPC/DPPS bilayers revealed no lipid specificity. It is proposed that extended phase separations are more susceptible to lead to the extraction of a lipid species in a specific manner

  16. Influenza A H3N2 subtype virus NS1 protein targets into the nucleus and binds primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS to nucleolin and fibrillarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melén Krister

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1 is a virulence factor, which is targeted into the cell cytoplasm, nucleus and nucleolus. NS1 is a multi-functional protein that inhibits host cell pre-mRNA processing and counteracts host cell antiviral responses. Previously, we have shown that the NS1 protein of the H3N2 subtype influenza viruses possesses a C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS that also functions as a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS and targets the protein into the nucleolus. Results Here, we show that the NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus subtype interacts in vitro primarily via its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via its N-terminal NLS1 with the nucleolar proteins, nucleolin and fibrillarin. Using chimeric green fluorescence protein (GFP-NS1 fusion constructs, we show that the nucleolar retention of the NS1 protein is determined by its C-terminal NLS2/NoLS in vivo. Confocal laser microscopy analysis shows that the NS1 protein colocalizes with nucleolin in nucleoplasm and nucleolus and with B23 and fibrillarin in the nucleolus of influenza A/Udorn/72 virus-infected A549 cells. Since some viral proteins contain NoLSs, it is likely that viruses have evolved specific nucleolar functions. Conclusion NS1 protein of the human H3N2 virus interacts primarily via the C-terminal NLS2/NoLS and to a minor extent via the N-terminal NLS1 with the main nucleolar proteins, nucleolin, B23 and fibrillarin.

  17. The Stable Interaction Between Signal Peptidase LepB of Escherichia coli and Nuclease Bacteriocins Promotes Toxin Entry into the Cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Liliana; Moncoq, Karine; England, Patrick; Oberto, Jacques; de Zamaroczy, Miklos

    2015-12-25

    LepB is a key membrane component of the cellular secretion machinery, which releases secreted proteins into the periplasm by cleaving the inner membrane-bound leader. We showed that LepB is also an essential component of the machinery hijacked by the tRNase colicin D for its import. Here we demonstrate that this non-catalytic activity of LepB is to promote the association of the central domain of colicin D with the inner membrane before the FtsH-dependent proteolytic processing and translocation of the toxic tRNase domain into the cytoplasm. The novel structural role of LepB results in a stable interaction with colicin D, with a stoichiometry of 1:1 and a nanomolar Kd determined in vitro. LepB provides a chaperone-like function for the penetration of several nuclease-type bacteriocins into target cells. The colicin-LepB interaction is shown to require only a short peptide sequence within the central domain of these bacteriocins and to involve residues present in the short C-terminal Box E of LepB. Genomic screening identified the conserved LepB binding motif in colicin-like ORFs from 13 additional bacterial species. These findings establish a new paradigm for the functional adaptability of an essential inner-membrane enzyme. PMID:26499796

  18. Missense mutation in DISC1 C-terminal coiled-coil has GSK3β signaling and sex-dependent behavioral effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachtler, James; Elliott, Christina; Rodgers, R John; Baillie, George S; Clapcote, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk factor for schizophrenia and affective disorders. The full-length DISC1 protein consists of an N-terminal 'head' domain and a C-terminal tail domain that contains several predicted coiled-coils, structural motifs involved in protein-protein interactions. To probe the in vivo effects of missense mutation of DISC1's C-terminal tail, we tested mice carrying mutation D453G within a predicted α-helical coiled-coil region. We report that, relative to wild-type littermates, female DISC1(D453G) mice exhibited novelty-induced hyperlocomotion, an anxiogenic profile in the elevated plus-maze and open field tests, and reduced social exploration of unfamiliar mice. Male DISC1(D453G) mice displayed a deficit in passive avoidance, while neither males nor females exhibited any impairment in startle reactivity or prepulse inhibition. Whole brain homogenates showed normal levels of DISC1 protein, but decreased binding of DISC1 to GSK3β, decreased phospho-inhibition of GSK3β at serine 9, and decreased levels of β-catenin in DISC1(D453G) mice of either sex. Interrupted GSK3β signaling may thus be part of the mechanism underlying the behavioral phenotype associated with D453G, in common with the previously described N-terminal domain mutations Q31L and L100P in mice, and the schizophrenia risk-conferring variant R264Q in humans. PMID:26728762

  19. C-terminal phosphorylation is essential for regulation of ethylene synthesizing ACC synthase enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2013-02-01

    The genetic and molecular biological studies mainly in Arabidopsis and in some other plants have begun to uncover the various components of ripening signaling pathway in plants. Although transcriptional regulation of major ripening genes have been studied in detail, information on role of phosphorylation in regulating the activity and stability of core ripening pathway associated proteins in relation to ethylene biosynthesis during fruit ripening is still limited. Recently we have demonstrated the evidence for post-translational regulation of MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase 1), the rate limiting step enzyme regulating ripening ethylene production in banana, through phosphorylation at the C-terminal Ser 476 and 479 residues by a 41-kDa Ser/Thr protein kinase. (1) Here we have further discussed role of protein phosphorylation in regulation of stability and activity of ACS enzymes and the mechanistic and evolutionary perspective of phosphorylation pattern of Type I ACC synthase enzymes. PMID:23221778

  20. Potential Clinical Utility of Copeptin (C-terminal provasopressin) measurements in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, K C; Brabant, G

    2016-03-01

    Copeptin is a 39-amino-acids containing glycosylated peptide derived from the C-terminal part of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) precursor. In the process of proteolysis the AVP precursor is processed to AVP, neurophysin II, and copeptin in equimolar amounts. In contrast to AVP, copeptin remains stable for several days at room temperature in serum or plasma. Hence, copeptin serves as a bona fide biomarker of AVP release. We briefly summarise clinical utility of copeptin in the diagnosis of diabetes insipidus. We also discuss potential applications of copeptin measurements in hyponatraemic states, assessment of an anterior pituitary function, as well as a wide range of several acute and chronic medical conditions, such as myocardial infarction, stroke or diabetes mellitus. PMID:27008633

  1. Bidirectional cell-surface anchoring function of C-terminal repeat region of peptidoglycan hydrolase of Lactococcus lactis IL1403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarahomjoo, Shirin; Katakura, Yoshio; Satoh, Eiichi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-02-01

    With the aim of constructing an efficient protein display system for lactic acid bacteria (LABs), the effect of fusion direction on the cell-surface binding activity of the C-terminal region of the peptidoglycan hydrolase (CPH) of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 was studied. CPH fused to the alpha-amylase (AMY) of Streptococcus bovis 148 either at its C-terminus (CPH-AMY) or at its N-terminus (AMY-CPH) was expressed intracellularly in Escherichia coli. This domain was able to direct binding of AMY to the surface of L. lactis ATCC 19435 in both constructs. However, the number of bound molecules per cell and the specific activity for starch digestion in the case of CPH-AMY were 3 and 14 times greater than those in the case of AMY-CPH, respectively. Of the LABs tested, L. lactis ATCC 19435 showed the highest binding capability for CPH-AMY, up to 6 x 10(4) molecules per cell, with a dissociation rate constant of 5.00 x 10(-5) s(-1). The binding of CPH-AMY to the surface of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ATCC 9649 cells was very stable with a dissociation rate constant of 6.96 x 10(-6) s(-1). The production of CPH-AMY in the soluble form increased 3-fold as a result of coexpression with a molecular chaperone, trigger factor. The results of this study suggest the usefulness of CPH as a bidirectional anchor protein for the production of cell-surface adhesive enzymes in E. coli. Furthermore, the importance of the fusion direction of CPH in determining cell-surface binding and enzymatic activities was shown. PMID:18343337

  2. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Ting-zhao; LI Wan-chen; CAO Mo-ju; HU Chang-yuan

    2002-01-01

    14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were used as female parents, 8 tester lines as male parents, 101 F1 progenies were obtained. Fertility restoration response of 101 F1 progenies were investigated through field observation and pollen stainability examination under microscope. 14 isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasmic male sterile lines were developed by repeated backcross with recurrent male parent lines for more than 8 generations. The result shows: tester line Zifeng1 not only restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear sterile lines of group C backcrossed with Mo17, Yu30 and Heer, but also completely restored the isoplasmic and allonuclear cytoplasm male sterile lines of group T backcrossed with Mo17, HZS , 1792 ,292 and Yu30. Therefore, nuclear background limits the use of Zifeng1 as a tester for identification of cytoplasmic male sterility. Furthermore RFLPs of mitochondrial DNA of 6 isonuclear and alloplasmic cytoplasmic male sterile lines were analyzed with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ restriction endonuclease and mitochondrial DNA probes pBcmH3 and Cox Ⅱ. The same RFLPs were found within sterile cytoplasm of group C, including C,Chuan G, Lei 2 and Lei 3, but a different RFLP pattern was observed among sterile cytoplasm of group S, C,T and the normal cytoplasm. This result suggested that the RFLP markers tightly linked to sterile mitochondrial genes of different groups could be applied in the identifcation of cytoplasmic male sterility.

  3. The 14-3-3 protein interacts directly with the C-terminal region of the plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, T.; Fuglsang, A.T.; Olsson, A.;

    1997-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that 14-3-3 proteins are involved in the regulation of plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. However, it is not known whether the 14-3-3 protein interacts directly or indirectly with the H(+)-ATPase. In this study, detergent-solubilized plasma membrane H...... plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. We propose that the 14-3-3 protein is a natural ligand of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, regulating proton pumping by displacing the C-terminal autoinhibitory domain of the H(+)-ATPase.......(+)-ATPase isolated from fusicoccin-treated maize shoots was copurified with the 14-3-3 protein (as determined by protein gel blotting), and the H(+)-ATPase was recovered in an activated state. In the absence of fusicoccin treatment, H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein were well separated, and the H(+)-ATPase was...

  4. The C-terminal subunit of artificially truncated human cathepsin B mediates its nuclear targeting and contributes to cell viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallner Claudia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Splicing variants of human cathepsinB primary transcripts (CB(-2,3 result in an expression product product which lacks the signal peptide and parts of the propeptide. This naturally truncated Δ51CB is thus unable to follow the regular CB processing and sorting pathway. It is addressed to the mitochondria through an activated N-terminal mitochondrial targeting signal instead. Although Δ51CB is supposed to be devoid of the typical CB enzymatic activity, it might play a role in malignancies and trigger cell death/apoptosis independent from the function of the regular enzyme. Cytoplasmic presence of the mature CB might occur as a result of lysosomal damage. Results We investigated such "aberrant" proteins by artificial CB-GFP chimeras covering various sequence parts in respect to their enzymatic activity, their localization in different cell types, and the effects on the cell viability. Unlike the entire full length CB form, the artificial single chain form was not processed and did not reveal typical enzymatic CB activity during transient overexpression in large cell lung carcinoma cells. Δ51CB was found predominantly in mitochondria. In contrast, the shorter artificial CB constructs localized in the cytoplasm, inside the cell nucleus, and in the midbodies of dividing cells. Bleaching experiments revealed both mobile and immobile fractions of these constructs in the nucleus. Nuclear accumulation of artificially truncated CB variants led to disintegration of nuclei, followed by cell death. Conclusion We propose that cell death associated with CB is not necessarily triggered by its regular enzymatic activity but alternatively by a yet unknown activity profile of truncated CB. Cytoplasmic CB might be able to enter the cell nucleus. According to a mutational analysis, the part of CB that mediates its nuclear import is a signal patch within its heavy chain domain. The results suggest that besides the N-terminal signal peptide also

  5. A non-Golgi alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferase that modifies Skp1 in the cytoplasm of Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Der Wel, H; Morris, H R; Panico, M; Paxton, T; North, S J; Dell, A; Thomson, J M; West, C M

    2001-09-01

    Skp1 is a subunit of the SCF-E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell cycle and other regulatory factors for degradation. In Dictyostelium, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide containing the type 1 blood group H trisaccharide at its core. To address how the third sugar, fucose alpha1,2-linked to galactose, is attached, a proteomics strategy was applied to determine the primary structure of FT85, previously shown to copurify with the GDP-Fuc:Skp1 alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferase. Tryptic-generated peptides of FT85 were sequenced de novo using Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry. Degenerate primers were used to amplify FT85 genomic DNA, which was further extended by a novel linker polymerase chain reaction method to yield an intronless open reading frame of 768 amino acids. Disruption of the FT85 gene by homologous recombination resulted in viable cells, which had altered light scattering properties as revealed by flow cytometry. FT85 was necessary and sufficient for Skp1 fucosylation, based on biochemical analysis of FT85 mutant cells and Escherichia coli that express FT85 recombinantly. FT85 lacks sequence motifs that characterize all other known alpha 1,2-fucosyltransferases and lacks the signal-anchor sequence that targets them to the secretory pathway. The C-terminal region of FT85 harbors motifs found in inverting Family 2 glycosyltransferase domains, and its expression in FT85 mutant cells restores fucosyltransferase activity toward a simple disaccharide substrate. Whereas most prokaryote and eukaryote Family 2 glycosyltransferases are membrane-bound and oriented toward the cytoplasm where they glycosylate lipid-linked or polysaccharide precursors prior to membrane translocation, the soluble, eukaryotic Skp1-fucosyltransferase modifies a protein that resides in the cytoplasm and nucleus. PMID:11423539

  6. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Type 1 (CRHR1) Clustering with MAGUKs Is Mediated via Its C-Terminal PDZ Binding Motif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Julia; Engeholm, Maik; Ederer, Marion S.; Breu, Johannes; Møller, Thor C.; Michalakis, Stylianos; Rasko, Tamas; Wanker, Erich E.; Biel, Martin; Martinez, Karen L.; Wurst, Wolfgang; Deussing, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) plays an important role in orchestrating neuroendocrine, behavioral, and autonomic responses to stress. To identify molecules capable of directly modulating CRHR1 signaling, we performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using the C-terminal intracellular tail of the receptor as bait. We identified several members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family: postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97), SAP102 and membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 2 (MAGI2). CRHR1 is co-expressed with the identified MAGUKs and with the additionally investigated PSD93 in neurons of the adult mouse brain and in primary hippocampal neurons, supporting the probability of a physiological interaction in vivo. The C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95, discs large, zona occludens 1) binding motif of CRHR1 is essential for its physical interaction with MAGUKs, as revealed by the CRHR1-STAVA mutant, which harbors a functionally impaired PDZ binding motif. The imitation of a phosphorylation at Thr413 within the PDZ binding motif also disrupted the interaction with MAGUKs. In contrast, distinct PDZ domains within the identified MAGUKs are involved in the interactions. Expression of CRHR1 in primary neurons demonstrated its localization throughout the neuronal plasma membrane, including the excitatory post synapse, where the receptor co-localized with PSD95 and SAP97. The co-expression of CRHR1 and respective interacting MAGUKs in HEK293 cells resulted in a clustered subcellular co-localization which required an intact PDZ binding motif. In conclusion, our study characterized the PDZ binding motif-mediated interaction of CRHR1 with multiple MAGUKs, which directly affects receptor function. PMID:26352593

  7. The Hepatitis B Virus Core Variants that Expose Foreign C-Terminal Insertions on the Outer Surface of Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishlers, Andris; Skrastina, Dace; Renhofa, Regina; Petrovskis, Ivars; Ose, Velta; Lieknina, Ilva; Jansons, Juris; Pumpens, Paul; Sominskaya, Irina

    2015-12-01

    The major immunodominant region (MIR) and N-terminus of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) protein were used to expose foreign insertions on the outer surface of HBc virus-like particles (VLPs). The additions to the HBc positively charged arginine-rich C-terminal (CT) domain are usually not exposed on the VLP surface. Here, we constructed a set of recombinant HBcG vectors in which CT arginine stretches were substituted by glycine residues. In contrast to natural HBc VLPs and recombinant HBc VLP variants carrying native CT domain, the HBcG VLPs demonstrated a lowered capability to pack bacterial RNA during expression in Escherichia coli cells. The C-terminal addition of a model foreign epitope from the HBV preS1 sequence to the HBcG vectors resulted in the exposure of the inserted epitope on the VLP surface, whereas the same preS1 sequences added to the native CT of the natural HBc protein remained buried within the HBc VLPs. Based on the immunisation of mice, the preS1 epitope added to the HBcG vectors as a part of preS1(20-47) and preS1phil sequences demonstrated remarkable immunogenicity. The same epitope added to the original C-terminus of the HBc protein did not induce a notable level of anti-preS1 antibodies. HBcG vectors may contribute to the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications. PMID:26446016

  8. Structural biology of cytoplasmic and axonemal dyneins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Dyneins are microtubule-based, ATP-driven motor proteins with six tandemly linked AAA+ domains, a long N-terminal tail and a coiled-coil stalk. Cytoplasmic dyneins function as individual homodimers and are responsible for minus-end-oriented transport along microtubules. Axonemal dyneins of flagella/cilia are anchored in arrays to peripheral microtubule doublets by their N-terminal tails, and generate sliding motions of adjacent microtubule doublets toward the plus end. The coiled-coil stalk is responsible for communication between the AAA+ domains and the microtubule binding domain. A number of isoforms of axonemal dyneins are integrated to generate bending motion. In this article I will review recent structural studies and address the question as to how dyneins generate force and cause bending in flagella/cilia. PMID:22664481

  9. Yeast two-hybrid screening of proteins interacting with plasmin receptor subunit: C-terminal fragment of annexin A2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun LI; Yves LAUMONNIER; Tatiana SYROVETS; Thomas SIMMET

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To identify proteins that interact with the C-terminal fragment of annexin A2 (A21C),generated by plasmin cleavage of the plasmin receptor,a heterotetramer (AA2t) containing annexin A2.Methods:The gene that encodes the A21C fragment was obtained from PCR-amplifled cDNA isolated from human monocytes,and was ligated into the pBTM116 vector using a DNA ligation kit.The resultant plasmid (pBTM116-A21C) was sequenced with an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer.The expression of an A21C bait protein fused with a LexA-DNA binding domain (BD) was determined using Western blot analysis.The identification of proteins that interact with A21C and are encoded in a human monocyte cDNA library was performed using yeast two-hybrid screening.The DNA sequences of the relevant cDNAs were determined using an ABI PRISM BigDye terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit.Nucleotide sequence databases were searched for homologous sequences using BLAST search analysis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).Confirmation of the interaction between the protein LexA-A21C and each of cathepsin S and SNX17 was conducted using a small-scale yeast transformation and X-gal assay.Results:The yeast transformed with plasmids encoding the bait proteins were screened with a human monocyte cDNA library by reconstituting full-length transcription factors containing the GAL4-active domain (GAL4-AD) as the prey in a yeast two-hybrid approach.After screening 1×107 clones,23 independent β-Gal-positive clones were identified.Sequence analysis and a database search revealed that 15 of these positive clones matched eight different proteins (SNX17,ProCathepsin S,RPS2,ZBTB4,OGDH,CCDC32,PAPD4,and actin which was already known to interact with annexin A2).Conclusion:A21C A21C interacts with various proteins to form protein complexes,which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of monocyte activation induced by plasmin.The yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient approach for investigating protein interactions.

  10. Casein kinase II phosphorylates the eukaryote-specific C-terminal domain of topoisomerase II in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas, M E; Dang, Q; Glover, C V; Gasser, S M

    1992-01-01

    The decatenation activity of DNA topoisomerase II is essential for viability as eukaryotic cells traverse mitosis. Phosphorylation has been shown to stimulate topoisomerase II activity in vitro. Here we show that topoisomerase II is a phosphoprotein in yeast and that the level of incorporated phosphate is significantly higher at mitosis than in G1. Comparison of tryptic phosphopeptide maps reveals that the major phosphorylation sites in vivo are targets for casein kinase II. Incorporation of ...

  11. Determination of glutathione-S-transferase traces in preparations of p53 C-terminal domain (aa320-393)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdová, Marie; Kizek, René; Havran, Luděk; Paleček, Emil

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 55, 1/2 (2002), s. 115-118. ISSN 1567-5394 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4004110; GA ČR GV204/97/K084; GA ČR GA204/00/D049; GA MZd NC5343 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : p53 * glutathione-S-transferase determination * constant current chronopotentiometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.463, year: 2002

  12. The C-terminal domain of Brd2 is important for chromatin interaction and regulation of transcription and alternative splicing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnilicová, Jarmila; Hozeifi, S.; Stejskalová, E.; Dušková, E.; Poser, I.; Humpolíčková, J.; Hof, M.; Staněk, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 22 (2013), s. 3557-3568. ISSN 1059-1524 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : DOUBLE-BROMODOMAIN PROTEIN * JUVENILE MYOCLONIC EPILEPSY * LIVING CELLS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.548, year: 2013

  13. Dopamine D2 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase through the specific region in the third cytoplasmic loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yusuke; Fukunaga, Kohji

    2004-06-01

    To investigate whether the third cytoplasmic loop and the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of dopamine D(2) receptor (D2R) are involved in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation and subsequent regulation of transcription factors, we established NG108-15 cells stably expressing D2LR and D2SR deleted 40 amino acid residues in the third cytoplasmic loop (NGD2LR-3rd-dele and NGD2SR-3rd-dele) or the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail (NGD2LR-C-dele and NGD2SR-C-dele) and evaluated these receptors' functions using luciferase reporter gene assay. Immunocytochemical studies showed similar intracellular distributions of D2LR-3rd-dele and D2SR-3rd-dele to D2LR and D2SR, respectively. Quinpirole-induced inhibition of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP responsive element (CRE) activation was not affected by the deletion of 40 amino acid residues. However, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation by D2R-3rd-dele was largely attenuated compared to that by D2R. Similarly, ERK or serum-responsive element (SRE) activation by quinpirole treatment was totally abolished in NGD2R-3rd-dele cells. Moreover, D2R-C-dele was diffusely distributed or clustered in the cell bodies and lost the receptor functions. Taken together, the 40 amino acid residues in the third cytoplasmic loop are essential for the ERK activation but not for inhibition of adenylyl cyclase through Gi/o proteins. In addition, the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail is essential for membrane association of D2Rs to elicit the receptor functions. PMID:15189353

  14. Paracellular permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 C-terminal amidation in nasal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song KH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Keon-Hyoung Song,1 Sang-Bum Kim,2 Chang-Koo Shim,2 Suk-Jae Chung,2 Dae-Duk Kim,2 Sang-Ki Rhee,1 Guang J Choi,1 Chul-Hyun Kim,3 Kiyoung Kim4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Department of Sports Medicine, 4Department of Medical Biotechnology, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea Background: The identification of permeation enhancers has gained interest in the development of drug delivery systems. A six-mer peptide, H-FCIGRL-OH (AT1002, is a tight junction modulator with promising permeation-enhancing activity. AT1002 enhances the transport of molecular weight markers or agents with low bioavailability with no cytotoxicity. However, AT1002 is not stable in neutral pH or after incubation under physiological conditions, which is necessary to fully uncover its permeation-enhancing effect. Thus, we increased the stability or mitigated the instability of AT1002 by modifying its terminal amino acids and evaluated its subsequent biological activity.Methods: C-terminal-amidated (FCIGRL-NH2, Pep1 and N-terminal-acetylated (Ac-FCIGRL, Pep2 peptides were analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We further assessed cytotoxicity on cell monolayers, as well as the permeation-enhancing activity following nasal administration of the paracellular marker mannitol.Results: Pep1 was nontoxic to cell monolayers and showed a relatively low decrease in peak area compared to AT1002. In addition, administration of mannitol with Pep1 resulted in significant increases in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve and peak plasma concentration at 3.63-fold and 2.68-fold, respectively, compared to mannitol alone. In contrast, no increase in mannitol concentration was shown with mannitol/AT1002 or mannitol/Pep2 compared to the control. Thus, Pep1 increased

  15. Multifunctional roles for the N-terminal basic motif of Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein: nucleolar/cytoplasmic shuttling, modulation of RNA-binding activity, and virion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Mari Carmen; Pallas, Vicente; Aparicio, Frederic

    2012-08-01

    In addition to virion formation, the coat protein (CP) of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) is involved in the regulation of replication and translation of viral RNAs, and in cell-to-cell and systemic movement of the virus. An intriguing feature of the AMV CP is its nuclear and nucleolar accumulation. Here, we identify an N-terminal lysine-rich nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the AMV CP required to both enter the nucleus and accumulate in the nucleolus of infected cells, and a C-terminal leucine-rich domain which might function as a nuclear export signal. Moreover, we demonstrate that AMV CP interacts with importin-α, a component of the classical nuclear import pathway. A mutant AMV RNA 3 unable to target the nucleolus exhibited reduced plus-strand RNA synthesis and cell-to-cell spread. Moreover, virion formation and systemic movement were completely abolished in plants infected with this mutant. In vitro analysis demonstrated that specific lysine residues within the NoLS are also involved in modulating CP-RNA binding and CP dimerization, suggesting that the NoLS represents a multifunctional domain within the AMV CP. The observation that nuclear and nucleolar import signals mask RNA-binding properties of AMV CP, essential for viral replication and translation, supports a model in which viral expression is carefully modulated by a cytoplasmic/nuclear balance of CP accumulation. PMID:22746826

  16. An efficient protocol towards site-specifically clickable nanobodies in high yield: cytoplasmic expression in Escherichia coli combined with intein-mediated protein ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Duy Tien; Redeker, Erik Steen; Billen, Brecht; Reekmans, Gunter; Sikulu, Josephine; Noben, Jean-Paul; Guedens, Wanda; Adriaensens, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In this study, several expression strategies were investigated in order to develop a generic, highly productive and efficient protocol to produce nanobodies modified with a clickable alkyne function at their C-terminus via the intein-mediated protein ligation (IPL) technique. Hereto, the nanobody targeting the vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (NbVCAM1) was used as a workhorse. The highlights of the protocol can be ascribed to a cytoplasmic expression of the nanobody-intein-chitin-binding domain fusion protein in the Escherichia coli SHuffle(®) T7 cells with a C-terminal extension, i.e. LEY, EFLEY or His6 spacer peptide, in the commonly used Luria-Bertani medium. The combination of these factors led to a high yield (up to 22 mg/l of culture) and nearly complete alkynation efficiency of the C-terminally modified nanobody via IPL. This yield can even be improved to ∼45 mg/l in the EnPresso(®) growth system but this method is more expensive and time-consuming. The resulting alkynated nanobodies retained excellent binding capacity towards the recombinant human VCAM1. The presented protocol benefits from time- and cost-effectiveness, which allows a feasible production up-scaling of generic alkynated nanobodies. The production of high quantities of site-specifically modified nanobodies paves the way to new biosurface applications that demand for a homogeneously oriented nanobody coupling. Prospectively, the alkynated nanobodies can be covalently coupled to a multitude of azide-containing counterparts, e.g. contrast labeling agents, particles or surfaces for numerous innovative applications. PMID:26243885

  17. C-terminal engineering of CXCL12 and CCL5 chemokines: functional characterization by electrophysiological recordings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Picciocchi

    Full Text Available Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines comprised of 70-100 amino acids. The chemokines CXCL12 and CCL5 are the endogenous ligands of the CXCR4 and CCR5 G protein-coupled receptors that are also HIV co-receptors. Biochemical, structural and functional studies of receptors are ligand-consuming and the cost of commercial chemokines hinders their use in such studies. Here, we describe methods for the expression, refolding, purification, and functional characterization of CXCL12 and CCL5 constructs incorporating C-terminal epitope tags. The model tags used were hexahistidines and Strep-Tag for affinity purification, and the double lanthanoid binding tag for fluorescence imaging and crystal structure resolution. The ability of modified and purified chemokines to bind and activate CXCR4 and CCR5 receptors was tested in Xenopus oocytes expressing the receptors, together with a Kir3 G-protein activated K(+ channel that served as a reporter of receptor activation. Results demonstrate that tags greatly influence the biochemical properties of the recombinant chemokines. Besides, despite the absence of any evidence for CXCL12 or CCL5 C-terminus involvement in receptor binding and activation, we demonstrated unpredictable effects of tag insertion on the ligand apparent affinity and efficacy or on the ligand dissociation. These tagged chemokines should constitute useful tools for the selective purification of properly-folded chemokines receptors and the study of their native quaternary structures.

  18. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite's genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  19. Development of a C-terminal-region-specific radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone-related protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few data are published regarding the molecular forms or concentrations of circulating and urinary parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) in normal subjects and patients with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). We have developed a C-terminal-region-specific radioimmunoassay for human PTHrP 109-141 (C-PTHrP radioimmunoassay) using a sheep antiserum immunized with a novel synthetic human PTHrP 109-141 for immunogen and a novel synthetic [Tyr108]PTHrP 108-141 for radiolabel. The detection limit of this assay is 2 pM for human PTHrP 109-141 and is sensitive enough to detect circulating and urinary C-PTHrP in normal subjects. The average immunoreactive concentration of serum (n=76) and urinary (n=12) C-PTHrP in normal subjects are 31.4±7.4 pM and 322.9±67.2 pM, respectively. Levels in patients with HHM are significantly elevated when compared to controls. This assay may be useful in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia. (author)

  20. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27382189

  1. Impedance Analysis of Ovarian Cancer Cells upon Challenge with C-terminal Clostridium Perfringens Enterotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Geoffrey; Lo, Chun-Min

    2007-03-01

    Both in vitro and animal studies in breast, prostate, and ovarian cancers have shown that clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), which binds to CLDN4, may have an important therapeutic benefit, as it is rapidly cytotoxic in tissues overexpressing CLDN4. This study sought to evaluate the ability of C-terminal clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE), a CLDN4-targetting molecule, to disrupt tight junction barrier function. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) was used to measure both junctional resistance and average cell-substrate separation of ovarian cancer cell lines after exposure to C-CPE. A total of 14 ovarian cancer cell lines were used, and included cell lines derived from serous, mucinous, and clear cells. Our results showed that junctional resistance increases as CLDN4 expression increases. In addition, C-CPE is non-cytotoxic in ovarian cancer cells expressing CLDN4. However, exposure to C-CPE results in a significant (pcancer cell lines with C-CPE disrupts tight junction barrier function.

  2. The C-Terminal Region of G72 Increases D-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Li-Yun Chang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The schizophrenia-related protein G72 plays a unique role in the regulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO in great apes. Several psychiatric diseases, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are linked to overexpression of DAO and G72. Whether G72 plays a positive or negative regulatory role in DAO activity, however, has been controversial. Exploring the molecular basis of the relationship between G72 and DAO is thus important to understand how G72 regulates DAO activity. We performed yeast two-hybrid experiments and determined enzymatic activity to identify potential sites in G72 involved in binding DAO. Our results demonstrate that residues 123–153 and 138–153 in the long isoform of G72 bind to DAO and enhance its activity by 22% and 32%, respectively. A docking exercise indicated that these G72 peptides can interact with loops in DAO that abut the entrance of the tunnel that substrate and cofactor must traverse to reach the active site. We propose that a unique gating mechanism underlies the ability of G72 to increase the activity of DAO. Because upregulation of DAO activity decreases d-serine levels, which may lead to psychiatric abnormalities, our results suggest a molecular mechanism involving interaction between DAO and the C-terminal region of G72 that can regulate N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  3. TMAO promotes fibrillization and microtubule assembly activity in the C-terminal repeat region of tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramozzino, Francesca; Peterson, Dylan W; Farmer, Patrick; Gerig, J T; Graves, Donald J; Lew, John

    2006-03-21

    Alzheimer's disease most closely correlates with the appearance of the neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), intracellular fibrous aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein, tau. Under native conditions, tau is an unstructured protein, and its physical characterization has revealed no clues about the three-dimensional structural determinants essential for aggregation or microtubule binding. We have found that the natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) induces secondary structure in a C-terminal fragment of tau (tau(187)) and greatly promotes both self-aggregation and microtubule (MT) assembly activity. These processes could be distinguished, however, by a single-amino acid substitution (Tyr(310) --> Ala), which severely inhibited aggregation but had no effect on MT assembly activity. The inability of this mutant to aggregate could be completely reversed by TMAO. We propose a model in which TMAO induces partial order in tau(187), resulting in conformers that may correspond to on-pathway intermediates of either aggregation or tau-dependent MT assembly or both. These studies set the stage for future high-resolution structural characterization of these intermediates and the basis by which Tyr(310) may direct pathologic versus normal tau function. PMID:16533051

  4. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Blaurock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis.

  5. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite’s genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  6. Microtubule C-Terminal Tails Can Change Characteristics of Motor Force Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Janakaloti Narayanareddy, Babu Reddy; Vadpey, Omid; Jun, Yonggun; Chapman, Dail; Rosenfeld, Steven; Gross, Steven P

    2015-10-01

    Control of intracellular transport is poorly understood, and functional ramifications of tubulin isoform differences between cell types are mostly unexplored. Motors' force production and detachment kinetics are critical for their group function, but how microtubule (MT) details affect these properties--if at all--is unknown. We investigated these questions using both a vesicular transport human kinesin, kinesin-1, and also a mitotic kinesin likely optimized for group function, kinesin-5, moving along either bovine brain or MCF7(breast cancer) MTs. We found that kinesin-1 functioned similarly on the two sets of MTs--in particular, its mean force production was approximately the same, though due to its previously reported decreased processivity, the mean duration of kinesin-1 force production was slightly decreased on MCF7 MTs. In contrast, kinesin-5's function changed dramatically on MCF7 MTs: its average detachment force was reduced and its force-velocity curve was different. In spite of the reduced detachment force, the force-velocity alteration surprisingly improved high-load group function for kinesin-5 on the cancer-cell MTs, potentially contributing to functions such as spindle-mediated chromosome separation. Significant differences were previously reported for C-terminal tubulin tails in MCF7 versus bovine brain tubulin. Consistent with this difference being functionally important, elimination of the tails made transport along the two sets of MTs similar. PMID:26094820

  7. The solution structure of the C-terminal modular pair from Clostridium perfringens mu-toxin reveals a noncellulosomal dockerin module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitayat, Seth; Adams, Jarrett J; Furness, Heather S T; Bayer, Edward A; Smith, Steven P

    2008-09-19

    The genome of the opportunistic pathogen Clostridium perfringens encodes a large number of secreted glycoside hydrolases. Their predicted activities indicate that they are involved in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and other glycans found in the mucosal layer of the human gastrointestinal tract, within the extracellular matrix, and on the surface of host cells. One such group of these enzymes is the family 84 glycoside hydrolases, which has predicted hyaluronidase activity and comprises five members [C. perfringens glycoside hydrolase family 84 (CpGH84) A-E]. The first identified member, CpGH84A, corresponds to the mu-toxin whose modular architecture includes an N-terminal catalytic domain, four family 32 carbohydrate-binding modules, three FIVAR modules of unknown function, and a C-terminal putative calcium-binding module. Here, we report the solution NMR structure of the C-terminal modular pair from the mu-toxin. The three-helix bundle FIVAR module displays structural homology to a heparin-binding module within the N-terminal of the a C protein from group B Streptoccocus. The C-terminal module has a typical calcium-binding dockerin fold comprising two anti-parallel helices that form a planar face with EF-hand calcium-binding loops at opposite ends of the module. The size of the helical face of the mu-toxin dockerin module is approximately equal to the planar region recently identified on the surface of a cohesin-like X82 module of CpGH84C. Size-exclusion chromatography and heteronuclear NMR-based chemical shift mapping studies indicate that the helical face of the dockerin module recognizes the CpGH84C X82 module. These studies represent the structural characterization of a noncellulolytic dockerin module and its interaction with a cohesin-like X82 module. Dockerin/X82-mediated enzyme complexes may have important implications in the pathogenic properties of C. perfringens. PMID:18602403

  8. Sol–gel immobilization of Alcalase from Bacillus licheniformis for application in the synthesis of C-terminal peptide amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corici, L.N.; Frissen, A.E.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Eggen, I.F.; Peter, F.; Davidescu, C.M.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Alcalase 2.4L FG, a commercial preparation of Subtilisin A, was physically entrapped in glass sol–gel matrices using alkoxysilanes of different types mixed with tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). The materials were used for catalyzing C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe in a mixture of tert-butanol/DMF. F

  9. Specific recognition of the C-terminal end of A beta 42 by a high affinity monoclonal antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, T.V.; Holm, A.; Birkelund, S.;

    2009-01-01

    The neurotoxic peptide A beta(42) is derived from the amyloid precursor protein by proteolytic cleavage and is deposited in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study we generate a high affinity monoclonal antibody that targets the C-terminal end of A beta(42) with...

  10. Occurrence of C-Terminal Residue Exclusion in Peptide Fragmentation by ESI and MALDI Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Mathieu; Cantel, Sonia; Martinez, Jean; Enjalbal, Christine

    2012-02-01

    By screening a data set of 392 synthetic peptides MS/MS spectra, we found that a known C-terminal rearrangement was unexpectedly frequently occurring from monoprotonated molecular ions in both ESI and MALDI tandem mass spectrometry upon low and high energy collision activated dissociations with QqTOF and TOF/TOF mass analyzer configuration, respectively. Any residue localized at the C-terminal carboxylic acid end, even a basic one, was lost, provided that a basic amino acid such arginine and to a lesser extent histidine and lysine was present in the sequence leading to a fragment ion, usually depicted as (bn-1 + H2O) ion, corresponding to a shortened non-scrambled peptide chain. Far from being an epiphenomenon, such a residue exclusion from the peptide chain C-terminal extremity gave a fragment ion that was the base peak of the MS/MS spectrum in certain cases. Within the frame of the mobile proton model, the ionizing proton being sequestered onto the basic amino acid side chain, it is known that the charge directed fragmentation mechanism involved the C-terminal carboxylic acid function forming an anhydride intermediate structure. The same mechanism was also demonstrated from cationized peptides. To confirm such assessment, we have prepared some of the peptides that displayed such C-terminal residue exclusion as a C-terminal backbone amide. As expected in this peptide amide series, the production of truncated chains was completely suppressed. Besides, multiply charged molecular ions of all peptides recorded in ESI mass spectrometry did not undergo such fragmentation validating that any mobile ionizing proton will prevent such a competitive C-terminal backbone rearrangement. Among all well-known nondirect sequence fragment ions issued from non specific loss of neutral molecules (mainly H2O and NH3) and multiple backbone amide ruptures (b-type internal ions), the described C-terminal residue exclusion is highly identifiable giving raise to a single fragment ion in

  11. The N-terminal and C-terminal portions of NifV are encoded by two different genes in Clostridium pasteurianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S Z; Dean, D R; Chen, J S; Johnson, J L

    1991-05-01

    The nifV gene products from Azotobacter vinelandii and Klebsiella pneumoniae share a high level of primary sequence identity and are proposed to catalyze the synthesis of homocitrate. While searching for potential nif (nitrogen fixation) genes within the genomic region located downstream from the nifN-B gene of Clostridium pasteurianum, we observed two open reading frames (ORFs) whose deduced amino acid sequences exhibit nonoverlapping sequence identity to different portions of the nifV gene products from A. vinelandii and K. pneumoniae. Conserved regions were located between the C-terminal 195 amino acid residues of the first ORF and the C-terminal portion of the nifV gene product and between the entire sequence of the second ORF (269 amino acid residues) and the N-terminal portion of the nifV gene product. We therefore designated the first ORF nifV omega and the second ORF nifV alpha. The deduced amino acid sequences of nifV omega and nifV alpha were also found to have sequence similarity when compared with the primary sequence of the leuA gene product from Salmonella typhimurium, which encodes alpha-isopropylmalate synthase. Marker rescue experiments were performed by recombining nifV omega and nifV alpha from C. pasteurianum, singly and in combination, into the genome of an A. vinelandii mutant strain which has an insertion and a deletion mutation located within its nifV gene. A NifV+ phenotype was obtained only when both the C. pasteurianum nifV omega and nifV alpha genes were introduced into the chromosome of this mutant strain. These results suggest that the nifV omega and nifV alpha genes encode separate domains, both of which are required for homocitrate synthesis in C. pasteurianum. PMID:2022611

  12. The unstructured C-terminal extension of UvrD interacts with UvrB, but is dispensable for nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelyte, Laura; Guy, Colin P; Smith, Rachel M; Dillingham, Mark S; McGlynn, Peter; Savery, Nigel J

    2009-11-01

    During nucleotide excision repair (NER) in bacteria the UvrC nuclease and the short oligonucleotide that contains the DNA lesion are removed from the post-incision complex by UvrD, a superfamily 1A helicase. Helicases are frequently regulated by interactions with partner proteins, and immunoprecipitation experiments have previously indicated that UvrD interacts with UvrB, a component of the post-incision complex. We examined this interaction using 2-hybrid analysis and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, and found that the N-terminal domain and the unstructured region at the C-terminus of UvrD interact with UvrB. We analysed the properties of a truncated UvrD protein that lacked the unstructured C-terminal region and found that it showed a diminished affinity for single-stranded DNA, but retained the ability to displace both UvrC and the lesion-containing oligonucleotide from a post-incision nucleotide excision repair complex. The interaction of the C-terminal region of UvrD with UvrB is therefore not an essential feature of the mechanism by which UvrD disassembles the post-incision complex during NER. In further experiments we showed that PcrA helicase from Bacillus stearothermophilus can also displace UvrC and the excised oligonucleotide from a post-incision NER complex, which supports the idea that PcrA performs a UvrD-like function during NER in gram-positive organisms. PMID:19762288

  13. Cellular Subcompartments through Cytoplasmic Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieuchot, Laurent; Lai, Julian; Loh, Rachel Ann; Leong, Fong Yew; Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Stajich, Jason; Jedd, Gregory

    2015-08-24

    Cytoplasmic streaming occurs in diverse cell types, where it generally serves a transport function. Here, we examine streaming in multicellular fungal hyphae and identify an additional function wherein regimented streaming forms distinct cytoplasmic subcompartments. In the hypha, cytoplasm flows directionally from cell to cell through septal pores. Using live-cell imaging and computer simulations, we identify a flow pattern that produces vortices (eddies) on the upstream side of the septum. Nuclei can be immobilized in these microfluidic eddies, where they form multinucleate aggregates and accumulate foci of the HDA-2 histone deacetylase-associated factor, SPA-19. Pores experiencing flow degenerate in the absence of SPA-19, suggesting that eddy-trapped nuclei function to reinforce the septum. Together, our data show that eddies comprise a subcellular niche favoring nuclear differentiation and that subcompartments can be self-organized as a consequence of regimented cytoplasmic streaming. PMID:26305593

  14. Decay accelerating factor of complement is anchored to cells by a C-terminal glycolipid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrane-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF) of human erythrocytes (E/sup hu/) was analyzed for a C-terminal glycolipid anchoring structure. Automated amino acid analysis of DAF following reductive radiomethylation revealed ethanolamine and glucosamine residues in proportions identical with those present in the E/sup hu/ acetylcholinesterase (AChE) anchor. Cleavage of radiomethylated 70-kilodalton (kDa) DAF with papain released the labeled ethanolamine and glucosamine and generated 61- and 55-kDa DAF products that retained all labeled Lys and labeled N-terminal Asp. Incubation of intact E/sup hu/ with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), which cleaves the anchors in trypanosome membrane form variant surface glycoproteins (mfVSGs) and murine thymocyte Thy-1 antigen, released 15% of the cell-associated DAF antigen. The released 67-kDa PI-PLC DAF derivative retained its ability to decay the classical C3 convertase C4b2a but was unable to membrane-incorporate and displayed physicochemical properties similar to urine DAF, a hydrophilic DAF form that can be isolated for urine. Nitrous acid deamination cleavage of E/sup hu/ DAF at glucosamine following labeling with the lipophilic photoreagent 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine ([125I]TID) released the [125I]TID label in a parallel fashion as from [125I]TID-labeled AChE. Biosynthetic labeling of HeLa cells with [3H] ethanolamine resulted in rapid 3H incorporation into both 48-kDa pro-DAF and 72-kDa mature epithelial cell DAF. The findings indicate that DAF and AChE are anchored in E/sup hu/ by the same or a similar glycolipid structure and that, like VSGs, this structure is incorporated into DAF early in DAF biosynthesis prior to processing of pro-DAF in the Golgi

  15. C-terminal region of herpes simplex virus ICP8 protein needed for intranuclear localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The herpes simplex virus single-stranded DNA-binding protein, ICP8, localizes initially to structures in the nucleus called prereplicative sites. As replication proceeds, these sites mature into large globular structures called replication compartments. The details of what signals or proteins are involved in the redistribution of viral and cellular proteins within the nucleus between prereplicative sites and replication compartments are poorly understood; however, we showed previously that the dominant-negative d105 ICP8 does not localize to prereplicative sites and prevents the localization of other viral proteins to prereplicative sites (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 10122). Within the residues deleted in d105 (1083 to 1168), we identified a region between amino acid residues 1080 and 1135 that was predicted by computer models to contain two α-helices, one with considerable amphipathic nature. We used site-specific and random mutagenesis techniques to identify residues or structures within this region that are required for proper ICP8 localization within the nucleus. Proline substitutions in the predicted helix generated ICP8 molecules that did not localize to prereplicative sites and acted as dominant-negative inhibitors. Other substitutions that altered the charged residues in the predicted α-helix to alanine or leucine residues had little or no effect on ICP8 intranuclear localization. The predicted α-helix was dispensable for the interaction of ICP8 with the UL9 origin-binding protein. We propose that this C-terminal α-helix is required for localization of ICP8 to prereplicative sites by binding viral or cellular factors that target or retain ICP8 at specific intranuclear sites

  16. The C-terminal sequence of IFITM1 regulates its anti-HIV-1 activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Jia

    Full Text Available The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM proteins inhibit a wide range of viruses. We previously reported the inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 strain BH10 by human IFITM1, 2 and 3. It is unknown whether other HIV-1 strains are similarly inhibited by IFITMs and whether there exists viral countermeasure to overcome IFITM inhibition. We report here that the HIV-1 NL4-3 strain (HIV-1NL4-3 is not restricted by IFITM1 and its viral envelope glycoprotein is partly responsible for this insensitivity. However, HIV-1NL4-3 is profoundly inhibited by an IFITM1 mutant, known as Δ(117-125, which is deleted of 9 amino acids at the C-terminus. In contrast to the wild type IFITM1, which does not affect HIV-1 entry, the Δ(117-125 mutant diminishes HIV-1NL4-3 entry by 3-fold. This inhibition correlates with the predominant localization of Δ(117-125 to the plasma membrane where HIV-1 entry occurs. In spite of strong conservation of IFITM1 among most species, mouse IFITM1 is 19 amino acids shorter at its C-terminus as compared to human IFITM1 and, like the human IFITM1 mutant Δ(117-125, mouse IFITM1 also inhibits HIV-1 entry. This is the first report illustrating the role of viral envelope protein in overcoming IFITM1 restriction. The results also demonstrate the importance of the C-terminal region of IFITM1 in modulating the antiviral function through controlling protein subcellular localization.

  17. Birbeck granule-like "organized smooth endoplasmic reticulum" resulting from the expression of a cytoplasmic YFP-tagged langerin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Lenormand

    Full Text Available Langerin is required for the biogenesis of Birbeck granules (BGs, the characteristic organelles of Langerhans cells. We previously used a Langerin-YFP fusion protein having a C-terminal luminal YFP tag to dynamically decipher the molecular and cellular processes which accompany the traffic of Langerin. In order to elucidate the interactions of Langerin with its trafficking effectors and their structural impact on the biogenesis of BGs, we generated a YFP-Langerin chimera with an N-terminal, cytosolic YFP tag. This latter fusion protein induced the formation of YFP-positive large puncta. Live cell imaging coupled to a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching approach showed that this coalescence of proteins in newly formed compartments was static. In contrast, the YFP-positive structures present in the pericentriolar region of cells expressing Langerin-YFP chimera, displayed fluorescent recovery characteristics compatible with active membrane exchanges. Using correlative light-electron microscopy we showed that the coalescent structures represented highly organized stacks of membranes with a pentalaminar architecture typical of BGs. Continuities between these organelles and the rough endoplasmic reticulum allowed us to identify the stacks of membranes as a form of "Organized Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum" (OSER, with distinct molecular and physiological properties. The involvement of homotypic interactions between cytoplasmic YFP molecules was demonstrated using an A206K variant of YFP, which restored most of the Langerin traffic and BG characteristics observed in Langerhans cells. Mutation of the carbohydrate recognition domain also blocked the formation of OSER. Hence, a "double-lock" mechanism governs the behavior of YFP-Langerin, where asymmetric homodimerization of the YFP tag and homotypic interactions between the lectin domains of Langerin molecules participate in its retention and the subsequent formation of BG-like OSER. These

  18. N- and C-terminal isoforms of Arg quantified by real-time PCR are specifically expressed in human normal and neoplastic cells, in neoplastic cell lines, and in HL-60 cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberto A; Corizzato, Matteo; Bianchi, Cristina; Eroini, Barbara; Bosari, Silvano

    2005-04-01

    The human ABL2 (or ARG) gene codes for a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase is involved in translocation with the ETV6 gene in human leukemia and has an altered expression in several human carcinomas. Two isoforms of Arg with different N-termini (1A and 1B) have been described. The C-terminal domain of Arg contains two F-actin-binding sequences that perform a number of actions related to cell morphology and motility by interacting with actin filaments. We have identified different-sized specific cDNAs in hematopoietic, epithelial, nervous, and fibroblastic cells by means of the reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of human Arg mRNA. Some of these cDNAs showed an adjunctive alternative splice event involving the 63 bp sequence of exon II, thus leading to four cDNA types with different N-termini: 1A long and short, and 1B long and short. Other cDNAs lacked a 309 bp sequence in the last exon involving one of the C-terminal F-actin binding domains, thus giving rise to two cDNA types: C-termini long and short. Quantified by real-time PCR-quantitative RT-PCR-these Arg transcript isoforms have specific expression patterns not only in different normal and tumor cell types, but also during cell differentiation and growth arrest. These isoforms maintained the open reading frames, and eight putative proteins were predicted. The different C-termini isoforms seem to retain the same quantitative reciprocal ratio of their respective transcripts. The Arg protein isoforms with different C-terminal actin-binding domains and different N-termini might have specific cellular localizations/concentrations, and differently regulated catalytic activity with different implications in normal and neoplastic cells. PMID:15765532

  19. Mutational analysis of Mdm2 C-terminal tail suggests an evolutionarily conserved role of its length in Mdm2 activity toward p53 and indicates structural differences between Mdm2 homodimers and Mdm2/MdmX heterodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Dolezelova, Pavlina; Cetkovska, Katerina; Vousden, Karen H.; Uldrijan, Stjepan

    2012-01-01

    Mdm2 can mediate p53 ubiquitylation and degradation either in the form of the Mdm2 homodimer or Mdm2/MdmX heterodimer. The ubiquitin ligase activity of these complexes resides mainly in their respective RING finger domains and also requires adjacent C-terminal tails. So far, structural studies have failed to show significant differences between Mdm2 RING homodimers and Mdm2/MdmX RING heterodimers. Here, we report that not only the primary amino acid sequence, but also the length of the C-term...

  20. C-terminal binding protein (CtBP activates the expression of E-box clock genes with CLOCK/CYCLE in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Q Itoh

    Full Text Available In Drosophila, CLOCK/CYCLE heterodimer (CLK/CYC is the primary activator of circadian clock genes that contain the E-box sequence in their promoter regions (hereafter referred to as "E-box clock genes". Although extensive studies have investigated the feedback regulation of clock genes, little is known regarding other factors acting with CLK/CYC. Here we show that Drosophila C-terminal binding protein (dCtBP, a transcriptional co-factor, is involved in the regulation of the E-box clock genes. In vivo overexpression of dCtBP in clock cells lengthened or abolished circadian locomotor rhythm with up-regulation of a subset of the E-box clock genes, period (per, vrille (vri, and PAR domain protein 1ε (Pdp1ε. Co-expression of dCtBP with CLK in vitro also increased the promoter activity of per, vri, Pdp1ε and cwo depending on the amount of dCtBP expression, whereas no effect was observed without CLK. The activation of these clock genes in vitro was not observed when we used mutated dCtBP which carries amino acid substitutions in NAD+ domain. These results suggest that dCtBP generally acts as a putative co-activator of CLK/CYC through the E-box sequence.

  1. 14-3-3 Protein C-terminal stretch occupies ligand binding groove and is displaced by phosphopeptide binding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhan, J.; Obšilová, V.; Večeř, J.; Herman, P.; Šulc, Miroslav; Teisinger, J.; Obšil, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 279, č. 47 (2004), s. 49113-49119. ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0714; GA ČR GA309/02/1479; GA AV ČR KJB5011308; GA MŠk LZ1K03020 Keywords : 14-3-3 protein * c-terminal * phosphopeptide Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.355, year: 2004

  2. C-terminal Binding Proteins are Essential Pro-survival Factors that Undergo Caspase-dependent Downregulation during Neuronal Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stankiewicz, Trisha R.; Schroeder, Emily K.; Kelsey, Natalie A.; Bouchard, Ron J.; Linseman, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    C-terminal binding proteins (CtBPs) are transcriptional co-repressors that are subject to proteasome-dependent downregulation during apoptosis. Alternative mechanisms that regulate CtBP expression are currently under investigation and the role of CtBPs in neuronal survival is largely unexplored. Here, we show that CtBPs are downregulated in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced to undergo apoptosis by a variety of stressors. Moreover, antisense-mediated downregulation of CtBP1 is sufficie...

  3. C-Peptide and Its C-Terminal Fragments Improve Erythrocyte Deformability in Type 1 Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hach

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims/hypothesis. Data now indicate that proinsulin C-peptide exerts important physiological effects and shows the characteristics of an endogenous peptide hormone. This study aimed to investigate the influence of C-peptide and fragments thereof on erythrocyte deformability and to elucidate the relevant signal transduction pathway. Methods. Blood samples from 23 patients with type 1 diabetes and 15 matched healthy controls were incubated with 6.6 nM of either human C-peptide, C-terminal hexapeptide, C-terminal pentapeptide, a middle fragment comprising residues 11–19 of C-peptide, or randomly scrambled C-peptide. Furthermore, red blood cells from 7 patients were incubated with C-peptide, penta- and hexapeptides with/without addition of ouabain, EDTA, or pertussis toxin. Erythrocyte deformability was measured using a laser diffractoscope in the shear stress range 0.3–60 Pa. Results. Erythrocyte deformability was impaired by 18–25% in type 1 diabetic patients compared to matched controls in the physiological shear stress range 0.6–12 Pa (P<.01–.001. C-peptide, penta- and hexapeptide all significantly improved the impaired erythrocyte deformability of type 1 diabetic patients, while the middle fragment and scrambled C-peptide had no detectable effect. Treatment of erythrocytes with ouabain or EDTA completely abolished the C-peptide, penta- and hexapeptide effects. Pertussis toxin in itself significantly increased erythrocyte deformability. Conclusion/interpretation. C-peptide and its C-terminal fragments are equally effective in improving erythrocyte deformability in type 1 diabetes. The C-terminal residues of C-peptide are causally involved in this effect. The signal transduction pathway is Ca2+-dependent and involves activation of red blood cell Na+,K+-ATPase.

  4. The role of C-terminal amidation in the membrane interactions of the anionic antimicrobial peptide, maximin H5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Sarah R; Mura, Manuela; Harris, Frederick; Morton, Leslie H G; Zvelindovsky, Andrei; Phoenix, David A

    2015-05-01

    Maximin H5 is an anionic antimicrobial peptide from amphibians, which carries a C-terminal amide moiety, and was found to be moderately haemolytic (20%). The α-helicity of the peptide was 42% in the presence of lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes and was found able to penetrate (10.8 mN m(-1)) and lyse these model membranes (64 %). In contrast, the deaminated peptide exhibited lower levels of haemolysis (12%) and α-helicity (16%) along with a reduced ability to penetrate (7.8 m Nm(-1)) and lyse (55%) lipid mimics of erythrocyte membranes. Taken with molecular dynamic simulations and theoretical analysis, these data suggest that native maximin H5 primarily exerts its haemolytic action via the formation of an oblique orientated α-helical structure and tilted membrane insertion. However, the C-terminal deamination of maximin H5 induces a loss of tilted α-helical structure, which abolishes the ability of the peptide's N-terminal and C-terminal regions to H-bond and leads to a loss in haemolytic ability. Taken in combination, these observations strongly suggest that the C-terminal amide moiety carried by maximin H5 is required to stabilise the adoption of membrane interactive tilted structure by the peptide. Consistent with previous reports, these data show that the efficacy of interaction and specificity of maximin H5 for membranes can be attenuated by sequence modification and may assist in the development of variants of the peptide with the potential to serve as anti-infectives. PMID:25640709

  5. A Conserved C-terminal Element in the Yeast Doa10 and Human MARCH6 Ubiquitin Ligases Required for Selective Substrate Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zattas, Dimitrios; Berk, Jason M; Kreft, Stefan G; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Specific proteins are modified by ubiquitin at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and are degraded by the proteasome, a process referred to as ER-associated protein degradation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two principal ER-associated protein degradation ubiquitin ligases (E3s) reside in the ER membrane, Doa10 and Hrd1. The membrane-embedded Doa10 functions in the degradation of substrates in the ER membrane, nuclear envelope, cytoplasm, and nucleoplasm. How most E3 ligases, including Doa10, recognize their protein substrates remains poorly understood. Here we describe a previously unappreciated but highly conserved C-terminal element (CTE) in Doa10; this cytosolically disposed 16-residue motif follows the final transmembrane helix. A conserved CTE asparagine residue is required for ubiquitylation and degradation of a subset of Doa10 substrates. Such selectivity suggests that the Doa10 CTE is involved in substrate discrimination and not general ligase function. Functional conservation of the CTE was investigated in the human ortholog of Doa10, MARCH6 (TEB4), by analyzing MARCH6 autoregulation of its own degradation. Mutation of the conserved Asn residue (N890A) in the MARCH6 CTE stabilized the normally short lived enzyme to the same degree as a catalytically inactivating mutation (C9A). We also report the localization of endogenous MARCH6 to the ER using epitope tagging of the genomic MARCH6 locus by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated genome editing. These localization and CTE analyses support the inference that MARCH6 and Doa10 are functionally similar. Moreover, our results with the yeast enzyme suggest that the CTE is involved in the recognition and/or ubiquitylation of specific protein substrates. PMID:27068744

  6. Comparative evaluation of recombinant HSP70 (N & C-terminal) fragments in the detection of equine trypanosomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jaideep; Chaudhury, A; Yadav, S C

    2016-06-15

    Trypanosomosis (Surra) is an economically important disease caused by Trypanosoma evansi which is an extracellular parasite present in the plasma, tissues and other body fluids of a wide range of hosts including domesticated animals. Currently, serological reports are based on detection of antibodies by ELISA using whole cell lysate (WCL) antigen, which has a limitation of persistence of anti-trypanosomal antibodies after successful treatment of the disease. Moreover, it has some ethical issues also like requirement of mice for in vivo maintenance of parasite for preparing the antigen. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the in vitro production of recombinant heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) for detection of antibodies in experimentally infected ponies. The amino acid sequence analysis of HSP70 revealed that N-terminal region of the protein was highly conserved while the C-terminal region was most divergent. The four different regions of HSP70 protein viz. HSP-1, HSP-2, HSP-3 and HSP-4 were cloned and expressed, among which HSP-1 (N-terminal region) & HSP-2 (C-terminal region) were truncated while HSP-3 & HSP-4 were complete C-terminal proteins. The recombinant fragments were probed with sequentially pooled experimental serum samples where antibodies were detected in these fragments from 10(th) day post infection till the termination of the experiment. Further, these recombinant fragments were also comparatively evaluated with WCL antigen in ELISA using experimental as well as field serum samples. It was observed that after successful treatment of infected ponies, there was a sharp fall in antibodies (within 90 days) when tested with recombinant HSP's fragments, while antibodies persisted even after 469 days when tested against WCL antigen. The sensitivity and specificity of all HSP70 fragments were also estimated from field serum samples with reference to WCL antigen ELISA. The HSP-1 showed minimum sensitivity (41.03%) among all the

  7. Cytoplasmic translocation, aggregation, and cleavage of TDP-43 by enteroviral proteases modulate viral pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, G; Shi, J; Deng, H; Hou, J; Wang, C; Hong, A; Zhang, J; Jia, W; Luo, H

    2015-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that infection by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a positive-stranded RNA enterovirus, results in the accumulation of insoluble ubiquitin-protein aggregates, which resembles the common feature of neurodegenerative diseases. The importance of protein aggregation in viral pathogenesis has been recognized; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain ill-defined. Transactive response DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is an RNA-binding protein that has an essential role in regulating RNA metabolism at multiple levels. Cleavage and cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 serves as a major molecular marker for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration and contributes significantly to disease progression. In this study, we reported that TDP-43 is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during CVB3 infection through the activity of viral protease 2A, followed by the cleavage mediated by viral protease 3C. Cytoplasmic translocation of TDP-43 is accompanied by reduced solubility and increased formation of protein aggregates. The cleavage takes place at amino-acid 327 between glutamine and alanine, resulting in the generation of an N- and C-terminal cleavage fragment of ~35 and ~8 kDa, respectively. The C-terminal product of TDP-43 is unstable and quickly degraded through the proteasome degradation pathway, whereas the N-terminal truncation of TDP-43 acts as a dominant-negative mutant that inhibits the function of native TDP-43 in alternative RNA splicing. Lastly, we demonstrated that knockdown of TDP-43 results in an increase in viral titers, suggesting a protective role for TDP-43 in CVB3 infection. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel model by which cytoplasmic redistribution and cleavage of TDP-43 as a consequence of CVB3 infection disrupts the solubility and transcriptional activity of TDP-43. Our results also reveal a mechanism evolved by enteroviruses to support efficient viral infection. PMID

  8. Topology of the C-terminal tail of HIV-1 gp41: differential exposure of the Kennedy epitope on cell and viral membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Steckbeck

    Full Text Available The C-terminal tail (CTT of the HIV-1 gp41 envelope (Env protein is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of Env structure and functional properties, including fusogenicity and antigenicity. While the CTT has been commonly referred to as the "intracytoplasmic domain" based on the assumption of an exclusive localization inside the membrane lipid bilayer, early antigenicity studies and recent biochemical analyses have produced a credible case for surface exposure of specific CTT sequences, including the classical "Kennedy epitope" (KE of gp41, leading to an alternative model of gp41 topology with multiple membrane-spanning domains. The current study was designed to test these conflicting models of CTT topology by characterizing the exposure of native CTT sequences and substituted VSV-G epitope tags in cell- and virion-associated Env to reference monoclonal antibodies (MAbs. Surface staining and FACS analysis of intact, Env-expressing cells demonstrated that the KE is accessible to binding by MAbs directed to both an inserted VSV-G epitope tag and the native KE sequence. Importantly, the VSV-G tag was only reactive when inserted into the KE; no reactivity was observed in cells expressing Env with the VSV-G tag inserted into the LLP2 domain. In contrast to cell-surface expressed Env, no binding of KE-directed MAbs was observed to Env on the surface of intact virions using either immune precipitation or surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. These data indicate apparently distinct CTT topologies for virion- and cell-associated Env species and add to the case for a reconsideration of CTT topology that is more complex than currently envisioned.

  9. The different roles of aggrecan interaction domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    vital in that it binds the proteoglycan to hyaluronan in ternary complex with link protein, retaining the proteoglycan in the tissue. The importance of the C-terminal G3 domain interactions has recently been emphasized by two different human hereditary disorders: autosomal recessive aggrecan...

  10. Antibacterial activity of peptides derived from the C-terminal region of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Suenaga, Tomoko; Eto, Seiichiro; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Several synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal domain sequence of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, were examined as to their action on bacteria and artificial lipid membranes. Peptide P332 (KGVIFAKASVSVKVTASLSK-NH(2)), corresponding to the sequence from residue 332, exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Replacement of each Lys in P332 by Ala markedly decreased the activity. However, when all Lys were replaced by Arg, the antibacterial activity increased, indicating the importance of positively charged residues at these positions. Replacement of Val by Leu also led to higher antibacterial activity, especially toward Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of these peptides was correlated with their membrane-permeabilizing activity toward the bacterial inner membrane and artificial lipid vesicles, indicating that the antibacterial action is due to perturbation of bacterial cell membranes, leading to enhancement of their permeability. These results also suggest that the hydrophobic region of CEL-III, from which P332 and its analogs were derived, may play some role in the interaction with target cell membranes to trigger hemolysis. PMID:14999010

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through its C-terminal ribbon–helix–helix DNA-binding fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J. J.; Glover, J. N. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 stimulates processing of single-stranded T-DNA that is translocated into plants to induce tumor formation, but how VirC2 functions is unclear. Here, we report the 1.7-Å X-ray crystal structure of its trypsin-resistant C-terminal domain, VirC282–202, which reveals a form of the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA-binding fold contained within a single polypeptide chain. DNA-binding assays and mutagenesis indicate that VirC2 uses this RHH fold to bind double-stranded DNA but not single-stranded DNA. Mutations that severely affect VirC2 DNA binding are highly deleterious for both T-DNA transfer into yeast and the virulence of A. tumefaciens in different plants including Nicotiana glauca and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. These data suggest that VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through DNA binding with its RHH fold. The RHH fold of VirC2 is the first crystal structure representing a group of predicted RHH proteins that facilitate endonucleolytic processing of DNA for horizontal gene transfer. PMID:19482939

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through its C-terminal ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; den Dulk-Ras, Amke; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Glover, J N Mark

    2009-06-16

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirC2 stimulates processing of single-stranded T-DNA that is translocated into plants to induce tumor formation, but how VirC2 functions is unclear. Here, we report the 1.7-A X-ray crystal structure of its trypsin-resistant C-terminal domain, VirC2(82-202), which reveals a form of the ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) DNA-binding fold contained within a single polypeptide chain. DNA-binding assays and mutagenesis indicate that VirC2 uses this RHH fold to bind double-stranded DNA but not single-stranded DNA. Mutations that severely affect VirC2 DNA binding are highly deleterious for both T-DNA transfer into yeast and the virulence of A. tumefaciens in different plants including Nicotiana glauca and Kalanchoe daigremontiana. These data suggest that VirC2 enhances T-DNA transfer and virulence through DNA binding with its RHH fold. The RHH fold of VirC2 is the first crystal structure representing a group of predicted RHH proteins that facilitate endonucleolytic processing of DNA for horizontal gene transfer. PMID:19482939

  13. Assembly of Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 is regulated by latch-like properties of N and C terminal tails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie P Silva

    Full Text Available The matrix protein VP40 coordinates numerous functions in the viral life cycle of the Ebola virus. These range from the regulation of viral transcription to morphogenesis, packaging and budding of mature virions. Similar to the matrix proteins of other nonsegmented, negative-strand RNA viruses, VP40 proceeds through intermediate states of assembly (e.g. octamers but it remains unclear how these intermediates are coordinated with the various stages of the life cycle. In this study, we investigate the molecular basis of synchronization as governed by VP40. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry was used to follow induced structural and conformational changes in VP40. Together with computational modeling, we demonstrate that both extreme N and C terminal tail regions stabilize the monomeric state through a direct association. The tails appear to function as a latch, released upon a specific molecular trigger such as RNA ligation. We propose that triggered release of the tails permits the coordination of late-stage events in the viral life cycle, at the inner membrane of the host cell. Specifically, N-tail release exposes the L-domain motifs PTAP/PPEY to the transport and budding complexes, whereas triggered C-tail release could improve association with the site of budding.

  14. Constitutive activation of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR by mutating Ile691 in the cytoplasmic tail segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant non-autoimmune hyperthyroidism (ADNAH is a rare genetic disorder of the endocrine system. Molecular genetic studies in ADNAH have revealed heterozygous germline mutations in the TSHR. To data, mutations leading to an increase in the constitutive activation of the TSHR have been described in the transmembrane segments, exoloops and cytoplasmic loop of TSHR. These mutations result in constitutive activation of the G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/inositol phosphate (IP pathways, which stimulate thyroid hormone production and thyroid proliferation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a previous study, we reported a new TSHR mutation located in the C-terminal domain of TSHR, which results in a substitution of the conserved Ile(691 for Phe. In this study, to address the question of whether the I691F mutated receptor could be responsible for G(αs/cAMP or G(αq/11/IP constitutive activity, wild-type and TSHR mutants were expressed in COS-7 cells to determine cAMP constitutive activity and IP formation. Compared to the cell surface with expression of the A623V mutated receptor as positive control, the I691F mutated receptor showed a slight increase of cAMP accumulation. Furthermore, I691F resulted in constitutive activation of the G(αq/11/IP signaling pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that Ile(691 not only contributes to keeping TSHR inactive in the G(αs/cAMP pathways but also in the G(αq/11/IP cascade.

  15. Structural Analyses of the Ankyrin Repeat Domain of TRPV6 and Related TRPV Ion Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, C.B.; Huang, R.J.; Lishko, P.V.; Wang, R.R.; Gaudet, R. (Harvard)

    2008-06-03

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are cation channels composed of a transmembrane domain flanked by large N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains. All members of the vanilloid family of TRP channels (TRPV) possess an N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD). The ARD of mammalian TRPV6, an important regulator of calcium uptake and homeostasis, is essential for channel assembly and regulation. The 1.7 A crystal structure of the TRPV6-ARD reveals conserved structural elements unique to the ARDs of TRPV proteins. First, a large twist between the fourth and fifth repeats is induced by residues conserved in all TRPV ARDs. Second, the third finger loop is the most variable region in sequence, length and conformation. In TRPV6, a number of putative regulatory phosphorylation sites map to the base of this third finger. Size exclusion chromatography and crystal packing indicate that the TRPV6-ARD does not assemble as a tetramer and is monomeric in solution. Adenosine triphosphate-agarose and calmodulin-agarose pull-down assays show that the TRPV6-ARD does not interact with either ligand, indicating a different functional role for the TRPV6-ARD than in the paralogous thermosensitive TRPV1 channel. Similar biochemical findings are also presented for the highly homologous mammalian TRPV5-ARD. The implications of the structural and biochemical data on the role of the ankyrin repeats in different TRPV channels are discussed.

  16. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Fueyo, Elena [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Acebes, Sandra [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J.; Martínez, María Jesús; Romero, Antonio; Medrano, Francisco Javier, E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Guallar, Victor, E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Jordi Girona 29, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Passeig Lluís Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Martínez, Angel T., E-mail: fjmedrano@cib.csic.es [CSIC, Ramiro de Maeztu 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-01

    The variable C-terminal tail of manganese peroxidases, a group of enzymes involved in lignin degradation, is implicated in their catalytic and stability properties, as shown by new crystal structures, molecular-simulation and directed-mutagenesis data. Based on this structural–functional evaluation, short and long/extralong manganese peroxidase subfamilies have been accepted; the latter are characterized by exceptional stability, while it is shown for the first time that the former are able to oxidize other substrates at the same site where manganese(II) is oxidized. The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn{sup 2+} oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd{sup 2+} binds at the Mn{sup 2+}-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn{sup 2+} and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their

  17. Structural implications of the C-terminal tail in the catalytic and stability properties of manganese peroxidases from ligninolytic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variable C-terminal tail of manganese peroxidases, a group of enzymes involved in lignin degradation, is implicated in their catalytic and stability properties, as shown by new crystal structures, molecular-simulation and directed-mutagenesis data. Based on this structural–functional evaluation, short and long/extralong manganese peroxidase subfamilies have been accepted; the latter are characterized by exceptional stability, while it is shown for the first time that the former are able to oxidize other substrates at the same site where manganese(II) is oxidized. The genome of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora includes 13 manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes representative of the three subfamilies described in ligninolytic fungi, which share an Mn2+-oxidation site and have varying lengths of the C-terminal tail. Short, long and extralong MnPs were heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized, and the first structure of an extralong MnP was solved. Its C-terminal tail surrounds the haem-propionate access channel, contributing to Mn2+ oxidation by the internal propionate, but prevents the oxidation of 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS), which is only oxidized by short MnPs and by shortened-tail variants from site-directed mutagenesis. The tail, which is anchored by numerous contacts, not only affects the catalytic properties of long/extralong MnPs but is also associated with their high acidic stability. Cd2+ binds at the Mn2+-oxidation site and competitively inhibits oxidation of both Mn2+ and ABTS. Moreover, mutations blocking the haem-propionate channel prevent substrate oxidation. This agrees with molecular simulations that position ABTS at an electron-transfer distance from the haem propionates of an in silico shortened-tail form, while it cannot reach this position in the extralong MnP crystal structure. Only small differences exist between the long and the extralong MnPs, which do not justify their classification as two

  18. Domain Modeling: NP_003104.2 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_003104.2 chr2 FUSION OF N-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF THE MINOR COAT PROTEIN FROM GENE II...I IN PHAGE M13, AND C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF E. COLI PROTEIN-TOLA c1tola_ chr2/NP_003104.2/NP_003104.2_apo_389-583.pdb swppa 0 ...

  19. ALS mutant FUS disrupts nuclear localization and sequesters wild-type FUS within cytoplasmic stress granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Caroline; Scotter, Emma L; Nishimura, Agnes L; Troakes, Claire; Mitchell, Jacqueline C; Kathe, Claudia; Urwin, Hazel; Manser, Catherine; Miller, Christopher C; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Dragunow, Mike; Rogelj, Boris; Shaw, Christopher E

    2013-07-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. FUS is a predominantly nuclear DNA- and RNA-binding protein that is involved in RNA processing. Large FUS-immunoreactive inclusions fill the perikaryon of surviving motor neurons of ALS patients carrying mutations at post-mortem. This sequestration of FUS is predicted to disrupt RNA processing and initiate neurodegeneration. Here, we demonstrate that C-terminal ALS mutations disrupt the nuclear localizing signal (NLS) of FUS resulting in cytoplasmic accumulation in transfected cells and patient fibroblasts. FUS mislocalization is rescued by the addition of the wild-type FUS NLS to mutant proteins. We also show that oxidative stress recruits mutant FUS to cytoplasmic stress granules where it is able to bind and sequester wild-type FUS. While FUS interacts with itself directly by protein-protein interaction, the recruitment of FUS to stress granules and interaction with PABP are RNA dependent. These findings support a two-hit hypothesis, whereby cytoplasmic mislocalization of FUS protein, followed by cellular stress, contributes to the formation of cytoplasmic aggregates that may sequester FUS, disrupt RNA processing and initiate motor neuron degeneration. PMID:23474818

  20. Functional analyses of the plant-specific C-terminal region of VPS9a: the activating factor for RAB5 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunada, Mariko; Goh, Tatsuaki; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that endosomal transport played important roles in various plant functions. The RAB GTPase regulates the tethering and fusion steps of vesicle trafficking to target membranes in each trafficking pathway by acting as a molecular switch. RAB GTPase activation is catalyzed by specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that promote the exchange of GDP on the RAB GTPase with GTP. RAB5 is a key regulator of endosomal trafficking and is uniquely diversified in plants; the plant-unique RAB5 group ARA6 was acquired in addition to conventional RAB5 during evolution. In Arabidopsis thaliana, conventional RAB5, ARA7 and RHA1 regulate the endosomal/vacuolar trafficking pathways, whereas ARA6 acts in the pathway from the endosome to the plasma membrane. Despite their distinct functions, all RAB5 members are activated by the common GEF VACUOLAR PROTEIN SORTING 9a (VPS9a). VPS9a consists of an N-terminal conserved domain and C-terminal region (CTR) with no similarity to known functional domains. In this study, we investigated the function of the CTR by generating truncated versions of VPS9a and found that it was specifically responsible for ARA6 regulation; moreover, the CTR was required for the oligomerization and correct localization of VPS9a. The oligomerization of VPS9a was mediated by a distinctive region consisting of 36 amino acids in the CTR that was conserved in plant RAB5 GEFs. Thus the VPS9a CTR plays an important role in the regulation of the two RAB5 groups in plants. PMID:26493488

  1. Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus C-terminal LANA concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) tethers KSHV terminal repeat (TR) DNA to mitotic chromosomes to efficiently segregate episomes to progeny nuclei. LANA contains N- and C-terminal chromosome binding regions. We now show that C-terminal LANA preferentially concentrates to paired dots at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of a subset of mitotic chromosomes through residues 996-1139. Deletions within C-terminal LANA abolished both self-association and chromosome binding, consistent with a requirement for self-association to bind chromosomes. A deletion abolishing TR DNA binding did not affect chromosome targeting, indicating LANA's localization is not due to binding its recognition sequence in chromosomal DNA. LANA distributed similarly on human and non-human mitotic chromosomes. These results are consistent with C-terminal LANA interacting with a cell factor that concentrates at pericentromeric and peri-telomeric regions of mitotic chromosomes

  2. Cloning of C-Terminal of Opioid μ-Receptor and Construction of Its Expression Plasmid for Yeast Two Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANHui; GONGZe-hui

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To obtain the C-terminal DNA and construct the expression plasmid in yeast two-hybrid. Methods: About 177bp DNA fragment was amplified from the complete sequence of ( receptor by PCR. After being sequenced, the C-terminal fragment was ligased into EcoR I-BamH I site of pGBKT7 vector to form recombinants. The recombinant plasmid

  3. Evaluation of Heavy-Chain C-Terminal Deletion on Product Quality and Pharmacokinetics of Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guoying; Yu, Christopher; Yadav, Daniela B; Hu, Zhilan; Amurao, Annamarie; Duenas, Eileen; Wong, Marc; Iverson, Mark; Zheng, Kai; Lam, Xanthe; Chen, Jia; Vega, Roxanne; Ulufatu, Sheila; Leddy, Cecilia; Davis, Helen; Shen, Amy; Wong, Pin Y; Harris, Reed; Wang, Y John; Li, Dongwei

    2016-07-01

    Due to their potential influence on stability, pharmacokinetics, and product consistency, antibody charge variants have attracted considerable attention in the biotechnology industry. Subtle to significant differences in the level of charge variants and new charge variants under various cell culture conditions are often observed during routine manufacturing or process changes and pose a challenge when demonstrating product comparability. To explore potential solutions to control charge heterogeneity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with native, wild-type C-termini, and mutants with C-terminal deletions of either lysine or lysine and glycine were constructed, expressed, purified, and characterized in vitro and in vivo. Analytical and physiological characterization demonstrated that the mAb mutants had greatly reduced levels of basic variants without decreasing antibody biologic activity, structural stability, pharmacokinetics, or subcutaneous bioavailability in rats. This study provides a possible solution to mitigate mAb heterogeneity in C-terminal processing, improve batch-to-batch consistency, and facilitate the comparability study during process changes. PMID:27262204

  4. NMR and computational evidence that high-affinity bradykinin receptor antagonists adopt C-terminal beta-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, D J; Blake, P R; Smithwick, D; Green, L M; Martin, J A; Sinsko, J A; Summers, M F

    1993-05-14

    Three tetrapeptides were prepared, each corresponding to the four C-terminal amino acid residues of highly potent, second-generation bradykinin receptor antagonists. The tetrapeptides are (IA) Ser-D-Phe-Oic-Arg, (IIA) Ser-D-Tic-Oic-Arg, and (IIIA) Ser-D-Hype(trans-propyl)-Oic-Arg. Solution conformations for each were determined by incorporating interproton distance restraints, determined by 2D NMR experiments performed in water at neutral pH, into a series of distance geometry/simulated annealing model building calculations. Similarly, systematic conformational analyses were performed for each using molecular mechanics calculations. Both the NMR-derived structures, as well as the calculated structures, are shown to adopt a beta-turn as the primary conformation. Excellent agreement between the predicted structures and the NMR-derived structures is demonstrated. Aside from being the first examples of linear tetrapeptides reported to be ordered in aqueous solvent, the results presented support the hypothesis that high-affinity bradykinin receptor antagonists must adopt C-terminal beta-turn conformations. PMID:8388469

  5. Contribution of Chitinase A’s C-Terminal Vacuolar Sorting Determinant to the Study of Soluble Protein Compartmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidio Stigliano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinases have been studied for their importance in the defense of crop plants from pathogen attacks and for their peculiar vacuolar sorting determinants. A peculiarity of the sequence of many family 19 chitinases is the presence of a C-terminal extension that seems to be important for their correct recognition by the vacuole sorting machinery. The 7 amino acids long C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant (CtVSD of tobacco chitinase A is necessary and sufficient for the transport to the vacuole. This VSD shares no homology with other CtVSDs such as the phaseolin’s tetrapeptide AFVY (AlaPheValTyr and it is also sorted by different mechanisms. While a receptor for this signal has not yet been convincingly identified, the research using the chitinase CtVSD has been very informative, leading to the observation of phenomena otherwise difficult to observe such as the presence of separate vacuoles in differentiating cells and the existence of a Golgi-independent route to the vacuole. Thanks to these new insights in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-vacuole transport, GFPChi (Green Fluorescent Protein carrying the chitinase A CtVSD and other markers based on chitinase signals will continue to help the investigation of vacuolar biogenesis in plants.

  6. Purification and application of C-terminally truncated hepatitis C virus E1 proteins expressed in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu; Li-Xin Zhu; Yu-Ying Kong; Guang-Di Li; Yuan Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the possibility of expressing hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein 1 (E1) in Escherichia coli(E.coli)and to test the purified recombinant E1 proteins for clinical and research applications. METHODS: C-terminally trunczated E1 fragments were expressed in E. coli as hexa-histidine-tagged fusion proteins. The expression products were purified under denaturing conditions using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography. Purified E1 proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Rabbit anti-sera thus obtained were reacted with both E. coli- and mammalian cell-expressed E1 glycoproteins as detected by Western blot.RESULTS: Full-length E1 protein proved difficult to express in E. coli. C-terminally truncated E1 was successfully expressed in E. coli as hexa-histidine-tagged recombinant fusion protein and was purified under denaturing conditions on Ni2+-NTA agarose. Rabbit anti-sera raised against purified recombinant E1 specifically reacted with mammalian cell-expressed E1 giycoproteins in Western blot. Furthermore, E. coli-derived E1 protein was able to detect animal antibodies elicited by E1-based DNA immunization.CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the prokaryotically expressed E1 proteins share identical epitopes with eukaryotically expressed E1 glycoprotein. The E. coli-derived E1 proteins and corresponding antisera can become useful tools in anti-HCV vaccine research.

  7. VIPP1 Has a Disordered C-Terminal Tail Necessary for Protecting Photosynthetic Membranes against Stress1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingang; Kondo, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Integrity of biomembranes is vital to living organisms. In bacteria, PspA is considered to act as repairing damaged membrane by forming large supercomplexes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Vulnerable to oxidative stress, photosynthetic organisms also contain a PspA ortholog called VIPP1, which has an additional C-terminal tail (Vc). In this study, Vc was shown to coincide with an intrinsically disordered region, and the role of VIPP1 in membrane protection against stress was investigated. We visualized VIPP1 by fusing it to GFP (VIPP1-GFP that fully complemented lethal vipp1 mutations), and investigated its behavior in vivo with live imaging. The intrinsically disordered nature of Vc enabled VIPP1 to form what appeared to be functional particles along envelopes, whereas the deletion of Vc caused excessive association of the VIPP1 particles, preventing their active movement for membrane protection. Expression of VIPP1 lacking Vc complemented vipp1 mutation, but exhibited sensitivity to heat shock stress. Conversely, transgenic plants over-expressing VIPP1 showed enhanced tolerance against heat shock, suggesting that Vc negatively regulates VIPP1 particle association and acts in maintaining membrane integrity. Our data thus indicate that VIPP1 is involved in the maintenance of photosynthetic membranes. During evolution, chloroplasts have acquired enhanced tolerance against membrane stress by incorporating a disordered C-terminal tail into VIPP1. PMID:27208228

  8. Membrane permeable C-terminal dopamine transporter peptides attenuate amphetamine-evoked dopamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Owens, WA; Winkler, Marie-Therese;

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for sequestration of extracellular dopamine (DA). The psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) is a DAT substrate, which is actively transported into the nerve terminal, eliciting vesicular depletion and reversal of DA transport via DAT. Here, we investigate....../Discs-large/ZO-1 (PDZ)-binding sequence of DAT, was made membrane-permeable by fusing it to the cell membrane transduction domain of the HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT-C24WT). The ability of TAT-C24WT but not a scrambled peptide (TAT-C24Scr) to block the CaMKIIα-DAT interaction was supported by co......-binding sequence, but preserved CaMKIIα binding (TAT-C24AAA), to diminish AMPH-evoked DA efflux in vivo to the same extent as TAT-C24WT. Finally, AMPH-induced locomotor hyperactivity was attenuated following systemic administration of TAT-C24WT but not TAT-C24Scr. Summarized, our findings substantiate that DAT C...

  9. Conformational Changes and Association of Membrane-Interacting Peptides in Myelin Membrane Models: A Case of the C-Terminal Peptide of Proteolipid Protein and the Antimicrobial Peptide Melittin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appadu, Ashtina; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud; DeBruin, Lillian

    2015-11-25

    Model membranes composed of various lipid mixtures can segregate into liquid-ordered (Lo) and liquid-disordered (Ld) phases. In this study, lipid vesicles composed of mainly Lo or Ld phases as well as complex lipid systems representing the cytosolic leaflet of the myelin membrane were characterized by fluorescence resonance energy transfer with a donor/acceptor pair that preferentially partitioned into Lo or Ld phases, respectively. The fluidity of the lipid systems containing >30% cholesterol was modulated in the presence of the amphipathic peptide melittin. With all the studied lipid systems, melittin attained an α-helical conformation as determined by CD spectroscopy and attained varying degrees of membrane association and penetration as determined by intrinsic Trp fluorescence. The other protein domain utilized was a putative amphipathic helical peptide derived from the cytosolic C-terminal sequence of proteolipid protein (PLP) which is the most abundant protein in the myelin membrane. The C-terminal PLP peptide transitioned from a random coil to an α-helix in the presence of trifluoroethanol. Upon interacting with each of lipid vesicle system, the PLP peptide also folded into a helix; however, at high concentrations of the peptide with fluid lipid systems, associated helices transmuted into a β-sheet conformer. The membrane-associated aggregation of the cytosolic C-termini could be a mechanism by which the transmembrane PLP multimerizes in the myelin membrane. PMID:26561987

  10. An Essential Role for the Proximal but Not the Distal Cytoplasmic Tail of Glycoprotein M in Murid Herpesvirus 4 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    May, Janet S.; Smith, Christopher M.; Michael B Gill; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2008-01-01

    Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) provides a tractable model with which to define common, conserved features of gamma-herpesvirus biology. The multi-membrane spanning glycoprotein M (gM) is one of only 4 glycoproteins that are essential for MuHV-4 lytic replication. gM binds to gN and is thought to function mainly secondary envelopment and virion egress, for which several predicted trafficking motifs in its C-terminal cytoplasmic tail could be important. We tested the contribution of the gM cytopl...

  11. Identification of intracellular domains in the growth hormone receptor involved in signal transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billestrup, N.; Allevato, G.; Moldrup, A. [Hagedorn Research Lab., Gentofte (Denmark)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The growth hormone (GH) receptor belongs to the GH/prolactin/cytokine super-family of receptors. The signal transduction mechanism utilized by this class of receptors remains largely unknown. In order to identify functional domains in the intracellular region of the GH receptor we generated a number of GH receptor mutants and analyzed their function after transfection into various cell lines. A truncated GH receptor missing 184 amino acids at the C-terminus was unable to medite GH effects on transcription of the Spi 2.1 and insulin genes. However, this mutant was fully active in mediating GH-stimulated metabolic effects such as protein synthesis and lipolysis. Furthermore, this mutant GH receptor internalized rapidly following GH binding. Another truncated GH receptor lacking all but five amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain could not mediate any effects of GH nor did it internalize. Deletion of the proline-rich region or changing the four prolines to alanines also resulted in a GH receptor deficient in signaling. Mutation of phenylalanine 346 to alanine resulted in a GH receptor which did not internalize rapidly; however, this mutant GH receptor was capable of mediating GH-stimulated transcription as well as metabolic effects. These results indicate that the intracellular part of the GH receptor can be divided into at least three functional domains: (1) for transcriptional activity, two domains are involved, one located in the C-terminal 184 amino acids and the other in the proline-rich domain; (2) for metabolic effects, a domain located in or near the proline-rich region is of importance; and (3) for internalization, phenylalanine 346 is necessary. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Structure of a C-terminal AHNAK peptide in a 1:2:2 complex with S100A10 and an acetylated N-terminal peptide of annexin A2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozorowski, Gabriel [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); Milton, Saskia [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); Luecke, Hartmut, E-mail: hudel@uci.edu [University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-3900 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Structure of a 20-amino-acid peptide of AHNAK bound asymmetrically to the AnxA2–S100A10A heterotetramer (1:2:2 symmetry) provides insights into the atomic level interactions that govern this membrane-repair scaffolding complex. AHNAK, a large 629 kDa protein, has been implicated in membrane repair, and the annexin A2–S100A10 heterotetramer [(p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2})] has high affinity for several regions of its 1002-amino-acid C-terminal domain. (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} is often localized near the plasma membrane, and this C2-symmetric platform is proposed to be involved in the bridging of membrane vesicles and trafficking of proteins to the plasma membrane. All three proteins co-localize at the intracellular face of the plasma membrane in a Ca{sup 2+}-dependent manner. The binding of AHNAK to (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} has been studied previously, and a minimal binding motif has been mapped to a 20-amino-acid peptide corresponding to residues 5654–5673 of the AHNAK C-terminal domain. Here, the 2.5 Å resolution crystal structure of this 20-amino-acid peptide of AHNAK bound to the AnxA2–S100A10 heterotetramer (1:2:2 symmetry) is presented, which confirms the asymmetric arrangement first described by Rezvanpour and coworkers and explains why the binding motif has high affinity for (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2}. Binding of AHNAK to the surface of (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} is governed by several hydrophobic interactions between side chains of AHNAK and pockets on S100A10. The pockets are large enough to accommodate a variety of hydrophobic side chains, allowing the consensus sequence to be more general. Additionally, the various hydrogen bonds formed between the AHNAK peptide and (p11){sub 2}(AnxA2){sub 2} most often involve backbone atoms of AHNAK; as a result, the side chains, particularly those that point away from S100A10/AnxA2 towards the solvent, are largely interchangeable. While the structure-based consensus sequence allows interactions with various

  13. Graphene on C-terminated face of 4H-SiC observed by noncontact scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Kohei; Fukidome, Hirokazu; Tashima, Keiichiro; Suemitsu, Maki; Cho, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    We studied graphene synthesized on the C-terminated face (C-face) of a 4H-SiC substrate by noncontact scanning nonlinear dielectric potentiometry. As already reported by other researchers, multilayer graphene sheets with moiré patterns were observed in our sample, which indicates the existence of rotational disorder between adjacent layers. We found that the potentials of graphene on the C-face are almost neutral and significantly smaller than those observed on the Si-terminated face (Si-face). In addition, the neutrality of potentials is not affected by various topographic features underlying the multilayer graphene sheets. These results indicate that graphene on the C-face of SiC is decoupled or screened from the underlying structures and substrate, unlike graphene on the Si-face.

  14. Spin transport in epitaxial graphene on the C-terminated ( 000 1 ¯ )-face of silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, J. J.; Yakimova, R.; van Wees, B. J.

    2016-07-01

    We performed a temperature dependent study of the charge and spin transport properties of epitaxial graphene on the C-terminated ( 000 1 ¯ ) face of silicon carbide (SiC), a system without a carbon buffer layer between the graphene and the SiC. Using spin Hanle precession in the nonlocal geometry, we measured a spin relaxation length of λS = 0.7 μm at room temperature, lower than in exfoliated graphene. We show that the charge and spin diffusion coefficient, DC and DS, respectively, increasingly deviate from each other during electrical measurements up to a difference of a factor 4. Thus, we show that a model of localized states that was previously used to explain DC ≠ DS, can also be applied to epitaxial graphene systems without a carbon buffer layer. We attribute the effect to charge trap states in the interface between the graphene and the SiC.

  15. Temperature-sensitive gating of TRPV1 channel as probed by atomistic simulations of its trans- and juxtamembrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunov, Anton O; Volynsky, Pavel E; Krylov, Nikolay A; Nolde, Dmitry E; Efremov, Roman G

    2016-01-01

    Heat-activated transient receptor potential channel TRPV1 is one of the most studied eukaryotic proteins involved in temperature sensation. Upon heating, it exhibits rapid reversible pore gating, which depolarizes neurons and generates action potentials. Underlying molecular details of such effects in the pore region of TRPV1 is of a crucial importance to control temperature responses of the organism. Despite the spatial structure of the channel in both open (O) and closed (C) states is known, microscopic nature of channel gating and mechanism of thermal sensitivity are still poorly understood. In this work, we used unrestrained atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of TRPV1 (without N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic domains) embedded into explicit lipid bilayer in its O- and C-states. We found that the pore domain with its neighboring loops undergoes large temperature-dependent conformational transitions in an asymmetric way, when fragments of only one monomer move with large amplitude, freeing the pore upon heating. Such an asymmetrical gating looks rather biologically relevant because it is faster and more reliable than traditionally proposed "iris-like" symmetric scheme of channel opening. Analysis of structural, dynamic, and hydrophobic organization of the pore domain revealed entropy growth upon TRPV1 gating, which is in line with current concepts of thermal sensitivity. PMID:27612191

  16. In vitro pharmacological evaluation of the radiolabeled C-terminal substance P analogue Lys-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2: Does a specific binding site exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyszyn, Aleksandra; Csibrany, Balazs; Keresztes, Attila; Mallareddy, Jayapal Reddy; Dyniewicz, Jolanta; Misicka, Aleksandra; Toth, Geza; Lipkowski, Andrzej W

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the synthesis, radiolabeling and comprehensive pharmacological evaluation of a C-terminally truncated tachykinin derivative, 3H-KFFGLM-NH2. The C-terminal fragments of endogenous tachykinins are pharmacophores responsible for interaction with the tachykinin receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3. The N-terminal fragments are responsible for modulation of receptor selectivity and interactions with other receptor systems. To evaluate and separate the function of an NK-pharmacophore from the activity of its parent neurokinin, KFFGLM-NH2 was synthesized in both tritiated and unlabeled forms. It has been proposed that the obtained NK-binding profiles of specific reference ligands and KFFGLM-NH2 differentiate monomeric and dimeric forms of NK receptors. We hypothesize that dimers of NK receptors could be specific receptor(s) for C-terminal fragments of all neurokinins as well as their C-terminal fragments, including H-KFFGLM-NH2. Dissociation of dimers into monomers opens access to additional allosteric binding sites. Fully elongated undecapeptide substance P interacts with both the "tachykinin pocket" and the "allosteric pocket" on the monomeric NK1 receptor, resulting in high and selective activation. However, C-terminal hexapeptide fragment analogues, recognizing only the "tachykinin pocket", may have less specific interactions with all tachykinin receptors in both monomeric and dimeric forms. PMID:25574743

  17. All-Atom Structural Models of the Transmembrane Domains of Insulin and Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadiarani, Hossein; Vashisth, Harish

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily comprises many cell-surface receptors including the insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) that are constitutively homodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins. Therefore, these receptors require ligand-triggered domain rearrangements rather than receptor dimerization for activation. Specifically, binding of peptide ligands to receptor ectodomains transduces signals across the transmembrane domains for trans-autophosphorylation in cytoplasmic kinase domains. The molecular details of these processes are poorly understood in part due to the absence of structures of full-length receptors. Using MD simulations and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms, we present all-atom structural models of peptides containing 51 residues from the transmembrane and juxtamembrane regions of IR and IGF1R. In our models, the transmembrane regions of both receptors adopt helical conformations with kinks at Pro961 (IR) and Pro941 (IGF1R), but the C-terminal residues corresponding to the juxtamembrane region of each receptor adopt unfolded and flexible conformations in IR as opposed to a helix in IGF1R. We also observe that the N-terminal residues in IR form a kinked-helix sitting at the membrane–solvent interface, while homologous residues in IGF1R are unfolded and flexible. These conformational differences result in a larger tilt-angle of the membrane-embedded helix in IGF1R in comparison to IR to compensate for interactions with water molecules at the membrane–solvent interfaces. Our metastable/stable states for the transmembrane domain of IR, observed in a lipid bilayer, are consistent with a known NMR structure of this domain determined in detergent micelles, and similar states in IGF1R are consistent with a previously reported model of the dimerized transmembrane domains of IGF1R. Our all-atom structural models suggest potentially unique structural organization of kinase domains in each receptor. PMID

  18. Transcytosis of Aminopeptidase N in caco-2 cells is mediated by a Non-cytoplasmic Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, L K; Norén, Ove; Sjöström, H

    1995-01-01

    transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain of aminopeptidase N for transport of aminopeptidase N by the indirect pathway by analysis of mutated forms of aminopeptidase N recombinantly expressed in Caco-2 cells. A tail-less and two secretory forms of aminopeptidase N, all deprived of the cytoplasmic tail, were...... transported to the basolateral plasma membrane in proportions equivalent to the wild type enzyme. This shows that no cytoplasmic basolateral sorting signal is involved in directing aminopeptidase N to the basolateral plasma membrane. Both the wild type and the tail-less aminopeptidase N were transcytosed from...

  19. The Herpes Simplex Virus Protein pUL31 Escorts Nucleocapsids to Sites of Nuclear Egress, a Process Coordinated by Its N-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Funk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Progeny capsids of herpesviruses leave the nucleus by budding through the nuclear envelope. Two viral proteins, the membrane protein pUL34 and the nucleo-phosphoprotein pUL31 form the nuclear egress complex that is required for capsid egress out of the nucleus. All pUL31 orthologs are composed of a diverse N-terminal domain with 1 to 3 basic patches and a conserved C-terminal domain. To decipher the functions of the N-terminal domain, we have generated several Herpes simplex virus mutants and show here that the N-terminal domain of pUL31 is essential with basic patches being critical for viral propagation. pUL31 and pUL34 entered the nucleus independently of each other via separate routes and the N-terminal domain of pUL31 was required to prevent their premature interaction in the cytoplasm. Unexpectedly, a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal embedded in this domain was not required for nuclear import of pUL31. In the nucleus, pUL31 associated with the nuclear envelope and newly formed capsids. Viral mutants lacking the N-terminal domain or with its basic patches neutralized still associated with nucleocapsids but were unable to translocate them to the nuclear envelope. Replacing the authentic basic patches with a novel artificial one resulted in HSV1(17+Lox-UL31-hbpmp1mp2, that was viable but delayed in nuclear egress and compromised in viral production. Thus, while the C-terminal domain of pUL31 is sufficient for the interaction with nucleocapsids, the N-terminal domain was essential for capsid translocation to sites of nuclear egress and a coordinated interaction with pUL34. Our data indicate an orchestrated sequence of events with pUL31 binding to nucleocapsids and escorting them to the inner nuclear envelope. We propose a common mechanism for herpesviral nuclear egress: pUL31 is required for intranuclear translocation of nucleocapsids and subsequent interaction with pUL34 thereby coupling capsid maturation with primary

  20. The capping domain in RalF regulates effector functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alix

    Full Text Available The Legionella pneumophila effector protein RalF functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF that activates the host small GTPase protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf, and recruits this host protein to the vacuoles in which this pathogen resides. GEF activity is conferred by the Sec7 domain located in the N-terminal region of RalF. Structural studies indicate that the C-terminal region of RalF makes contacts with residues in the Sec7 domain important for Arf interactions. Theoretically, the C-terminal region of RalF could prevent nucleotide exchange activity by blocking the ability of Arf to interact with the Sec7 domain. For this reason, the C-terminal region of RalF has been termed a capping domain. Here, the role of the RalF capping domain was investigated by comparing biochemical and effector activities mediated by this domain in both the Legionella RalF protein (LpRalF and in a RalF ortholog isolated from the unrelated intracellular pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii (RpRalF. These data indicate that both RalF proteins contain a functional Sec7 domain and that the capping domain regulates RalF GEF activity. The capping domain has intrinsic determinants that mediate localization of the RalF protein inside of host cells and confer distinct effector activities. Localization mediated by the capping domain of LpRalF enables the GEF to modulate membrane transport in the secretory pathway, whereas, the capping domain of RpRalF enables this bacterial GEF to modulate actin dynamics occurring near the plasma membrane. Thus, these data reveal that divergence in the function of the C-terminal capping domain alters the in vivo functions of the RalF proteins.

  1. An AFM Observation on Fossil Cytoplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin; YU Junping; FANG Xiaohong

    2008-01-01

    Fossil cytoplasm is a new research topic of interest in paleobotany. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a new technology applied widely in physics and biology; however, it is rarely used in paleontology. Here we applied AFM for the first time to study fossil cytoplasm. The results indicate that the fossil cytoplasm is heterogeneous and full of ultrastructures, just like extant cytoplasm, and that the application of AFM, especially in combination with other techniques, can reveal the subcellular details of fossil plants with more confidence.

  2. The Trypanosome Pumilio Domain Protein PUF5

    OpenAIRE

    Jha, Bhaskar Anand; Archer, Stuart K.; Clayton, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    PUF proteins are a conserved family of RNA binding proteins found in all eukaryotes examined so far. This study focussed on PUF5, one of 11 PUF family members encoded in the Trypanosoma brucei genome. Native PUF5 is present at less than 50000 molecules per cell in both bloodstream and procyclic form trypanosomes. C-terminally myc-tagged PUF5 was mainly found in the cytoplasm and could be cross-linked to RNA. PUF5 knockdown by RNA interference had no effect on the growth of bloodstream forms. ...

  3. Molecular basis of the fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase reaction of PFKFB3: Transition state and the C-terminal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalier, Michael C.; Kim, Song-Gun; Neau, David; Lee, Yong-Hwan (Cornell); (LSU); (KAIST-D)

    2012-03-22

    The molecular basis of fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (F-2,6-P{sub 2}ase) of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (PFKFB) was investigated using the crystal structures of the human inducible form (PFKFB3) in a phospho-enzyme intermediate state (PFKFB3-P {center_dot} F-6-P), in a transition state-analogous complex (PFKFB3 {center_dot} AlF{sub 4}), and in a complex with pyrophosphate (PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i}) at resolutions of 2.45, 2.2, and 2.3 {angstrom}, respectively. Trapping the PFKFB3-P {center_dot} F-6-P intermediate was achieved by flash cooling the crystal during the reaction, and the PFKFB3 {center_dot} AlF{sub 4} and PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i} complexes were obtained by soaking. The PFKFB3 {center_dot} AlF{sub 4} and PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i} complexes resulted in removing F-6-P from the catalytic pocket. With these structures, the structures of the Michaelis complex and the transition state were extrapolated. For both the PFKFB3-P formation and break down, the phosphoryl donor and the acceptor are located within {approx}5.1 {angstrom}, and the pivotal point 2-P is on the same line, suggesting an 'in-line' transfer with a direct inversion of phosphate configuration. The geometry suggests that NE2 of His253 undergoes a nucleophilic attack to form a covalent N-P bond, breaking the 2O-P bond in the substrate. The resulting high reactivity of the leaving group, 2O of F-6-P, is neutralized by a proton donated by Glu322. Negative charges on the equatorial oxygen of the transient bipyramidal phosphorane formed during the transfer are stabilized by Arg252, His387, and Asn259. The C-terminal domain (residues 440-446) was rearranged in PFKFB3 {center_dot} PP{sub i}, implying that this domain plays a critical role in binding of substrate to and release of product from the F-2,6-P{sub 2}ase catalytic pocket. These findings provide a new insight into the understanding of the phosphoryl transfer reaction.

  4. Sequence and modified group analysis on C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a series of C-terminal modified analogs of endomorphin-2 is investigated using ESI-FT-ICR-MS. Some b, y″, a, and internal ions are found in the CID spectra and slight mass differ- ences between the calculated and observed results are obtained. Moreover, if the C-terminal modified group is t-butyloxy, it can lose butene through McLafferty rearrangement. FT-ICR MS shows its power in peptide sequencing successfully helping us obtain the structure of peptide analogs.

  5. Native Chemical Ligation Strategy to Overcome Side Reactions during Fmoc-Based Synthesis of C-Terminal Cysteine-Containing Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, Dominique; Terrier, Victor P; Delmas, Agnès F; Aucagne, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    The Fmoc-based solid phase synthesis of C-terminal cysteine-containing peptides is problematic, due to side reactions provoked by the pronounced acidity of the Cα proton of cysteine esters. We herein describe a general strategy consisting of the postsynthetic introduction of the C-terminal Cys through a key chemoselective native chemical ligation reaction with N-Hnb-Cys peptide crypto-thioesters. This method was successfully applied to the demanding peptide sequences of two natural products of biological interest, giving remarkably high overall yields compared to that of a state of the art strategy. PMID:26878883

  6. Cross-sectional association between urinary type II collagen. C-terminal telopeptide concentration and radiographic spinal disc degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When degraded, type II collagen, which is contained in large quantities in the cartilage and intervertebral discs, produces a C-terminal peptide (type II collagen C terminal telopeptide, CTX-II), which is excreted in the urine. It has been reported that CTX-II is useful for evaluating the severity of cartilage degeneration and abrasion in the hip and knee joints, but shows no correlation with the severity of degeneration of intervertebral discs, which are mostly composed of type II collagen. The present study was performed to clarify whether urinary CTX-II was correlated with intervertebral X-ray findings. A cross-sectional study was performed to clarify correlations between urinary CTX-II and the progression of degeneration of each intervertebral disc on lumbar X-P films. The subjects of this study were 100 patients (400 intervertebral discs) aged≥40 years. They visited this hospital for the first time because of low backache. Intervertebral disc height, osteophyte length and Kellgren-Lawrence classification were measured to evaluate the degree of lumbar disc degeneration on X-ray films. The second freshly voided urine was used for measuring urinary CTX-II. The measurement results were investigated for correlations with disc height, osteophyte length, age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and lumbar MRI findings by cross-sectional analysis. The t-test and Kruskal-Wallis-test were used for statistical analysis of data. Urinary CTX-II was not correlated with age or BMI but was significantly higher in females than in males. It was only correlated with the degeneration of L2/3 and 3/4 discs and showed a significant difference between lower, medium, and higher disc groups. It was not correlated with osteophyte length or lumbar MRI findings. Urinary CTX-II was only correlated with L2/3 and 3/4 disc degeneration. This was presumably ascribable to the focus and distance during radiography. Osteophyte formation is a phenomenon secondary to intervertebral disc degeneration

  7. Functional analysis of the C-terminal region of human adenovirus E1A reveals a misidentified nuclear localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Michael J.; King, Cason R.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Mymryk, Joe S., E-mail: jmymryk@uwo.ca [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Western Ontario, A4-833 London Regional Cancer Centre, 800 Commissioners Road E., London, Ontario, N6A 4L6 Canada (Canada); Department of Oncology, The University of Western Ontario, London Regional Cancer Centre, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-15

    The immortalizing function of the human adenovirus 5 E1A oncoprotein requires efficient localization to the nucleus. In 1987, a consensus monopartite nuclear localization sequence (NLS) was identified at the C-terminus of E1A. Since that time, various experiments have suggested that other regions of E1A influence nuclear import. In addition, a novel bipartite NLS was recently predicted at the C-terminal region of E1A in silico. In this study, we used immunofluorescence microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation analysis with importin-α to verify that full nuclear localization of E1A requires the well characterized NLS spanning residues 285–289, as well as a second basic patch situated between residues 258 and 263 ({sup 258}RVGGRRQAVECIEDLLNEPGQPLDLSCKRPRP{sup 289}). Thus, the originally described NLS located at the C-terminus of E1A is actually a bipartite signal, which had been misidentified in the existing literature as a monopartite signal, altering our understanding of one of the oldest documented NLSs. - Highlights: • Human adenovirus E1A is localized to the nucleus. • The C-terminus of E1A contains a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS). • This signal was previously misidentified to be a monopartite NLS. • Key basic amino acid residues within this sequence are highly conserved.

  8. Crystallographic characterization of the C-terminal coiled-coil region of mouse Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terawaki, Shin-ichi; Ootsuka, Hiroki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2014-08-01

    Bicaudal-D1 (BICD1) is an α-helical coiled-coil protein which is evolutionarily conserved from Drosophila to mammals and facilitates the attachment of specific cargo factors to the dynein motor complex. The C-terminal coiled-coil region (CC3) of BICD1 plays an important role in sorting cargo, linking proteins such as the small GTPase Rab6 and the nuclear pore complex component Ran-binding protein 2 (RanBP2) to the dynein motor complex. This report describes the crystallization and X-ray data collection of the BICD1 CC3 region, as well as the preparation of the complex of BICD1 CC3 with a constitutively active mutant of Rab6. The crystals of the BICD1 CC3 region belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 59.0, b = 36.8, c = 104.3 Å, α = γ = 90, β = 99.8°. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 1.50 Å resolution. PMID:25084392

  9. Over-expression, Rapid Preparation and Some Properties of C-terminal BARc Region in PICK1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Wang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A DNA fragment encoding C-terminal BARc region (amino acids 128-416 of rat PICK1 (NP_445912 was inserted into a modified vector pMAL-s involving human rhinovirus 3C protease cleavage site to produce a recombinant plasmid, pMAL-s-barc. The construct can express the fusion protein, MBP-BARc in the soluble form in E.coli. To remove the MBP tag, MBP-BARc purified from amylose beads was digested with human rhinovirus 3C protease and the cleavage efficiency is about 95% when the ratio of protein / enzyme (w/w reaches 50:1, as analyzed on SDS-PAGE. The enzymatic reaction mixture was rapidly separated into two parts, MBP in the supernatant and BARc in the precipitate at the concentration of 1 M ammonium sulfate. In such case, the target protein BARc could be economically produced in a soluble state to be as the sample for measuring its biochemical function, for example, protein-protein interaction and protein-lipid combination.

  10. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of substrate-competitive inhibitors of C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korwar, Sudha; Morris, Benjamin L; Parikh, Hardik I; Coover, Robert A; Doughty, Tyler W; Love, Ian M; Hilbert, Brendan J; Royer, William E; Kellogg, Glen E; Grossman, Steven R; Ellis, Keith C

    2016-06-15

    C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-regulator that downregulates the expression of many tumor-suppressor genes. Utilizing a crystal structure of CtBP with its substrate 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (MTOB) and NAD(+) as a guide, we have designed, synthesized, and tested a series of small molecule inhibitors of CtBP. From our first round of compounds, we identified 2-(hydroxyimino)-3-phenylpropanoic acid as a potent CtBP inhibitor (IC50=0.24μM). A structure-activity relationship study of this compound further identified the 4-chloro- (IC50=0.18μM) and 3-chloro- (IC50=0.17μM) analogues as additional potent CtBP inhibitors. Evaluation of the hydroxyimine analogues in a short-term cell growth/viability assay showed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-analogues are 2-fold and 4-fold more potent, respectively, than the MTOB control. A functional cellular assay using a CtBP-specific transcriptional readout revealed that the 4-chloro- and 3-chloro-hydroxyimine analogues were able to block CtBP transcriptional repression activity. This data suggests that substrate-competitive inhibition of CtBP dehydrogenase activity is a potential mechanism to reactivate tumor-suppressor gene expression as a therapeutic strategy for cancer. PMID:27156192

  11. C-Terminal Region of Sulfite Reductase Is Important to Localize to Chloroplast Nucleoids in Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Otani, Takuto; Ishibashi, Kota; Shikanai, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast (cp) DNA is compacted into cpDNA-protein complexes, called cp nucleoids. An abundant and extensively studied component of cp nucleoids is the bifunctional protein sulfite reductase (SiR). The preconceived role of SiR as the core cp nucleoid protein, however, is becoming less likely because of the recent findings that SiRs do not associate with cp nucleoids in some plant species, such as Zea mays and Arabidopsis thaliana To address this discrepancy, we have performed a detailed phylogenetic analysis of SiRs, which shows that cp nucleoid-type SiRs share conserved C-terminally encoded peptides (CEPs). The CEPs are likely to form a bacterial ribbon-helix-helix DNA-binding motif, implying a potential role in attaching SiRs onto cp nucleoids. A proof-of-concept experiment was conducted by fusing the nonnucleoid-type SiR from A. thaliana (AtSiR) with the CEP from the cp nucleoid-type SiR of Phaseolus vulgaris The addition of the CEP drastically altered the intra-cp localization of AtSiR to cp nucleoids. Our analysis supports the possible functions of CEPs in determining the localization of SiRs to cp nucleoids and illuminates a possible evolutionary scenario for SiR as a cp nucleoid protein. PMID:27189994

  12. C-terminal truncation of a bovine B12 trafficking chaperone enhances the sensitivity of the glutathione-regulated thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The human B12 trafficking chaperone hCblC is well conserved inmammals and non-mammalian eukaryotes. However, the C-terminal∼40 amino acids of hCblC vary significantly and arepredicted to be deleted by alternative splicing of the encodinggene. In this study, we examined the thermostability of the bovineCblC truncated at the C-terminal variable region (t-bCblC and itsregulation by glutathione. t-bCblC is highly thermolabile (Tm =∼42oC similar to the full-length protein (f-bCblC. However,t-bCblC is stabilized to a greater extent than f-bCblC by binding ofreduced glutathione (GSH with increased sensitivity to GSH. Inaddition, binding of oxidized glutathione (GSSG destabilizest-bCblC to a greater extent and with increased sensitivity ascompared to f-bCblC. These results indicate that t-bCblC is a moresensitive form to be regulated by glutathione than the full-lengthform of the protein. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(3: 169-174

  13. A conserved BURP domain defines a novel group of plant proteins with unusual primary structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, J; Boutilier, K A; van Lookeren Campagne, M M; Miki, B L

    1998-09-01

    We have identified a new class of plant proteins containing a common C-terminal region, which we have termed the BURP domain. These proteins are defined not only by the BURP domain, but also by the overall similarity in their modular construction. The BURP domain proteins consist of either three or four modules: (i) an N-terminal hydrophobic domain -- a presumptive transit peptide, joined to (ii) a short conserved segment or other short segment, (iii) an optional segment consisting of repeated units which is unique to each member, and (iv) the C-terminal BURP domain. These individual modules appear to be combined to form two main classes of BURP domain proteins. The BURP domain proteins, despite the similarities in their primary structural features, show no obvious similarities in the tissues or conditions under which they are expressed. The presence of the conserved BURP domain in diverse plant proteins suggests an important and fundamental functional role for this domain. PMID:9790599

  14. Identification and characterization of the fibrinogen-like domain of fibrinogen-related proteins in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xinguo; Zhao, Qin; Christensen, Bruce M.

    2005-01-01

    Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain, which consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), which contain FBG domains in their C-terminal region, are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this family in insects, we analyzed FREPs ...

  15. Domain Modeling: NP_061971.3 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_061971.3 chr8 CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE C-TERMINAL DOMAIN OF BCLA, THE MAJOR ANTI...GEN OF THE EXOSPORIUM OF THE BACILLUS ANTHRACIS SPORE. p1wcka_ chr8/NP_061971.3/NP_061971.3_holo_674-808.pdb swppa 677K,729E,731E,805E CAC 0 ...

  16. Human IgG is produced in a pro-form that requires clipping of C-terminal lysines for maximal complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Bremer, E. T. J.; Beurskens, F. J.; Voorhorst, M.;

    2015-01-01

    Human IgG is produced with C-terminal lysines that are cleaved off in circulation. The function of this modification was unknown and generally thought not to affect antibody function. We recently reported that efficient C1q binding and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) requires IgG hexameri...

  17. Presence and in vivo biosynthesis of fragments of CPP (the C-terminal glycopeptide of the rat vasopressin precursor) in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence and rate of formation of fragments of the 39-residue C-terminal glycopeptide of propressophysin (CPP1-39) was investigated in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system. Newly-prepared antisera to CPP were used to confirm the existence of smaller C-terminal fragments derived from CPP1-39. Radiolabelled fucose was injected into rats in vivo into the area of the supraoptic nucleus, and the labelled peptides formed in the neurohypophysis were examined at various time intervals up to five weeks after the injection. The products derived from the neurohypophyseal hormone precursors were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The level of the major immunoreactive C-terminal fragment (CPP22-39) was constant and represented about 5% of the intact CPP1-39 in the neurohypophysis. The appearance of newly-synthesized N-terminal fragment of CPP1-39 occurred only after 3 or 4 days. This fucose labelled fragment increased slowly thereafter until it reached the same level as the CPP C-terminal fragment immunoreactivity between 21 and 28 days after injection. The results suggest that CPP1-39 is extremely stable in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal neurons, and that the cleavage at Arg21-Leu22 is a delayed proteolytic event in the magnocellular neurons of the SON

  18. Differential cellulolytic activity of native-form and C-terminal tagged-form cellulase derived from coptotermes formosanus and expressed in E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endogenous cellulase gene (CfEG3a) of Coptotermes formosanus, an economically important pest termite, was cloned and overexpressed in both native form (nCfEG) and C-terminal His-tagged form (tCfEG) in E.coli. Both forms of recombinant cellulases showed hydrolytic activity on cellulosic substrate...

  19. Crystal structure of the tetrameric fibrinogen-like recognition domain of Fibrinogen C domain containing 1 (FIBCD1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrive, Annette K; Moeller, Jesper B; Burns, Ian;

    2014-01-01

    The high-resolution crystal structures of a recombinant fragment of the C-terminal fibrinogen-like recognition domain of FIBCD1, a vertebrate receptor that binds chitin, have been determined. The overall tetrameric structure shows similarity in structure and aggregation to the horseshoe crab innate...

  20. DIFFERENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE KINASE AND UHM DOMAINS OF KIS FOR ITS NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION AND BINDING TO SPLICING FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Manceau, Valérie; Kielkopf, Clara L.; Sobel, André; Maucuer, Alexandre

    2008-01-01

    The protein kinase KIS is made by the juxtaposition of a unique kinase domain and a C-terminal domain with a U2AF Homology Motif (UHM), a sequence motif for protein interaction initially identified in the heterodimeric pre-mRNA splicing factor U2AF. This domain of KIS is closely related to the C-terminal UHM domain of the U2AF large subunit, U2AF65. KIS phosphorylates the splicing factor SF1, which in turn enhances SF1 binding to U2AF65 and the 3′ splice site, an event known to take place at ...

  1. The Role of the N-Domain in the ATPase Activity of the Mammalian AAA ATPase p97/VCP*

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Hajime; Ewens, Caroline A.; Tsang, Chun; Yeung, Heidi O.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Freemont, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a type II ATPase associated with various cellular activities that forms a homohexamer with each protomer containing an N-terminal domain (N-domain); two ATPase domains, D1 and D2; and a disordered C-terminal region. Little is known about the role of the N-domain or the C-terminal region in the p97 ATPase cycle. In the p97-associated human disease inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia, the majority of m...

  2. Distinct properties of Ca2+-calmodulin binding to N- and C-terminal regulatory regions of the TRPV1 channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Sze-Yi; Procko, Erik; Gaudet, Rachelle [Harvard

    2012-11-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a molecular pain receptor belonging to the TRP superfamily of nonselective cation channels. As a polymodal receptor, TRPV1 responds to heat and a wide range of chemical stimuli. The influx of calcium after channel activation serves as a negative feedback mechanism leading to TRPV1 desensitization. The cellular calcium sensor calmodulin (CaM) likely participates in the desensitization of TRPV1. Two CaM-binding sites are identified in TRPV1: the N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (ARD) and a short distal C-terminal (CT) segment. Here, we present the crystal structure of calcium-bound CaM (Ca2+–CaM) in complex with the TRPV1-CT segment, determined to 1.95-Å resolution. The two lobes of Ca2+–CaM wrap around a helical TRPV1-CT segment in an antiparallel orientation, and two hydrophobic anchors, W787 and L796, contact the C-lobe and N-lobe of Ca2+–CaM, respectively. This structure is similar to canonical Ca2+–CaM-peptide complexes, although TRPV1 contains no classical CaM recognition sequence motif. Using structural and mutational studies, we established the TRPV1 C terminus as a high affinity Ca2+–CaM-binding site in both the isolated TRPV1 C terminus and in full-length TRPV1. Although a ternary complex of CaM, TRPV1-ARD, and TRPV1-CT had previously been postulated, we found no biochemical evidence of such a complex. In electrophysiology studies, mutation of the Ca2+–CaM-binding site on TRPV1-ARD abolished desensitization in response to repeated application of capsaicin, whereas mutation of the Ca2+–CaM-binding site in TRPV1-CT led to a more subtle phenotype of slowed and reduced TRPV1 desensitization. In summary, our results show that the TRPV1-ARD is an important mediator of TRPV1 desensitization, whereas TRPV1-CT has higher affinity for CaM and is likely involved in separate regulatory mechanisms.

  3. The Caenorhabditis elegans iodotyrosine deiodinase ortholog SUP-18 functions through a conserved channel SC-box to regulate the muscle two-pore domain potassium channel SUP-9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Perez de la Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans gene sup-18 suppress the defects in muscle contraction conferred by a gain-of-function mutation in SUP-10, a presumptive regulatory subunit of the SUP-9 two-pore domain K(+ channel associated with muscle membranes. We cloned sup-18 and found that it encodes the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD, an NADH oxidase/flavin reductase that functions in iodine recycling and is important for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones that regulate metabolism. The FMN-binding site of mammalian IYD is conserved in SUP-18, which appears to require catalytic activity to function. Genetic analyses suggest that SUP-10 can function with SUP-18 to activate SUP-9 through a pathway that is independent of the presumptive SUP-9 regulatory subunit UNC-93. We identified a novel evolutionarily conserved serine-cysteine-rich region in the C-terminal cytoplasmic domain of SUP-9 required for its specific activation by SUP-10 and SUP-18 but not by UNC-93. Since two-pore domain K(+ channels regulate the resting membrane potentials of numerous cell types, we suggest that the SUP-18 IYD regulates the activity of the SUP-9 channel using NADH as a coenzyme and thus couples the metabolic state of muscle cells to muscle membrane excitability.

  4. Channel properties of the translocator domain of the autotransporter Hbp of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roussel-Jazédé, V.M.C.; van Gelder, P.; Sijbrandi, R.; Rutten, L.; Otto, B.R.; Luirink, J.; Gros, P.; Tommassen, J.P.M.; van Ulsen, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Autotransporters produced by Gram-negative bacteria consist of an N-terminal signal sequence, a C-terminal translocator domain (TD), and a passenger domain in between. The TD facilitates the secretion of the passenger across the outer membrane. It generally consists of a channel-forming β-barrel tha

  5. Localization of glycosaminoglycan substitution sites on domain V of mouse perlecan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapanadechopone, P; Hassell, J R; Rigatti, B;

    1999-01-01

    Perlecan, the predominant basement membrane proteoglycan, has previously been shown to contain glycosaminoglycans attached at serine residues, numbers 65, 71, and 76, in domain I. However, the C-terminal domains IV and V of this molecule may also be substituted with glycosaminoglycan chains, but ...

  6. Deposition of C-terminally truncated Aβ species Aβ37 and Aβ39 in Alzheimer's disease and transgenic mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinert, Jochim; Richard, Bernhard C; Klafki, Hans W; Friedrich, Beate; Bayer, Thomas A; Wiltfang, Jens; Kovacs, Gabor G; Ingelsson, Martin; Lannfelt, Lars; Paetau, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Wirths, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) a variety of amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) are deposited in the form of extracellular diffuse and neuritic plaques (NP), as well as within the vasculature. The generation of Aβ from its precursor, the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a highly complex procedure that involves subsequent proteolysis of APP by β- and γ-secretases. Brain accumulation of Aβ due to impaired Aβ degradation and/or altered ratios between the different Aβ species produced is believed to play a pivotal role in AD pathogenesis. While the presence of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in vascular and parenchymal amyloid have been subject of extensive studies, the deposition of carboxyterminal truncated Aβ peptides in AD has not received comparable attention. In the current study, we for the first time demonstrate the immunohistochemical localization of Aβ37 and Aβ39 in human sporadic AD (SAD). Our study further included the analysis of familial AD (FAD) cases carrying the APP mutations KM670/671NL, E693G and I716F, as well as a case of the PSEN1 ΔExon9 mutation. Aβ37 and Aβ39 were found to be widely distributed within the vasculature in the brains of the majority of studied SAD and FAD cases, the latter also presenting considerable amounts of Aβ37 containing NPs. In addition, both peptides were found to be present in extracellular plaques but only scarce within the vasculature in brains of a variety of transgenic AD mouse models. Taken together, our study indicates the importance of C-terminally truncated Aβ in sporadic and familial AD and raises questions about how these species are generated and regulated. PMID:26955942

  7. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. ► Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. ► By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes (“peptiplexes”) enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the “chelate effect” and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide dimer resulting from its stronger binding to DNA.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of C-terminal fragment of type I procollagen in detection of hidden heart failure in hypertensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnyk M.Yu.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to estimate diagnostic accuracy of C-terminal fragment of type I procollagen (PICP in hypertensive males with hidden chronic heart failure (CHF. The study included 220 men with uncomplicated arterial hypertension (mean age 52 (46-58 years. The control group consisted of 40 healthy men of similar age. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, transthoracic echocardiography and speckle tracking echocardiography was performed to all participants. All patients underwent treadmill test with post-exercise evaluation of left ventricular (LV filling pressure by tissue Doppler Е/е' ratio to reveal hidden CHF. The post-exercise Е/е'≥13 was considered to be pathological. PICP levels in plasma were determined by ELISA. The PICP concentration was significantly higher in men with hypertension (132,3 (81,3-216,8 ng/ml as compared with healthy subjects (93.2 (64,7-133 ng/ml (p=0,0068. The presence of LV hypertrophy did not affect the level of PICP (p=0,58. 16 patients presented pathological result of diastolic stress test revealing signs of hidden heart failure. PICP concentration was 2-fold higher in these individuals as compared with other patients (p=0.01. The ROC-analysis revealed, that optimal cut-off point is 170.2 ng/ml for PICP to detect hidden CHF (area under curve – 0,68±0,08; 95% confidence interval – 0,61-0,74; sensitivity – 68,7%, specificity – 69,6%. The PICP level exceeding 170,2 ng/mL testifies to hidden CHF in hypertensive males.

  9. Functionalization with C-terminal cysteine enhances transfection efficiency of cell-penetrating peptides through dimer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amand, Helene L., E-mail: helene.amand@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Physical Chemistry, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Norden, Bengt, E-mail: norden@chalmers.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Physical Chemistry, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fant, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.fant@sp.se [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering/Physical Chemistry, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversible CPP dimerisation is a simple yet efficient strategy to improve delivery. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dimer formation enhances peptiplex stability, resulting in increased transfection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By dimerisation, the CPP EB1 even gain endosomal escape properties while lowering cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Cell-penetrating peptides have the ability to stimulate uptake of macromolecular cargo in mammalian cells in a non-toxic manner and therefore hold promise as efficient and well tolerated gene delivery vectors. Non-covalent peptide-DNA complexes ('peptiplexes') enter cells via endocytosis, but poor peptiplex stability and endosomal entrapment are considered as main barriers to peptide-mediated delivery. We explore a simple, yet highly efficient, strategy to improve the function of peptide-based vectors, by adding one terminal cysteine residue. This allows the peptide to dimerize by disulfide bond formation, increasing its affinity for nucleic acids by the 'chelate effect' and, when the bond is reduced intracellularly, letting the complex dissociate to deliver the nucleic acid. By introducing a single C-terminal cysteine in the classical CPP penetratin and the penetratin analogs PenArg and EB1, we show that this minor modification greatly enhances the transfection capacity for plasmid DNA in HEK293T cells. We conclude that this effect is mainly due to enhanced thermodynamic stability of the peptiplexes as endosome-disruptive chloroquine is still required for transfection and the effect is more pronounced for peptides with lower inherent DNA condensation capacity. Interestingly, for EB1, addition of one cysteine makes the peptide able to mediate transfection in absence of chloroquine, indicating that dimerisation can also improve endosomal escape properties. Further, the cytotoxicity of EB1 peptiplexes is considerably reduced, possibly due to lower concentration of free peptide

  10. Secretion of Cpn0796 from Chlamydia pneumoniae into the host cell cytoplasm by an autotransporter mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandahl, Brian B S; Stensballe, Allan; Roepstorff, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    infected cells, whereas only the 65 kDa full-length Cpn0796 could be detected in purified Chlamydia. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that Cpn0796 was localized in the Chlamydia membrane in young inclusions. However, at 36 h post infection and later Cpn0796 was detected in the cytoplasm...... of C. pneumoniae infected HEp-2 and BHK cells. Furthermore, Cpn0796 was detected in the cytoplasm of infected cells in the lungs of C. pneumoniae infected C57Bl mice. When cleavage was inhibited, Cpn0796 was retained in the chlamydiae. We propose that Cpn0796 is an autotransporter the N-terminal of...... which is translocated to the host cell cytoplasm. This is the first example of secretion of a Chlamydia autotransporter passenger domain into the host cell cytoplasm. Cpn0796 is specific for C. pneumoniae, where five homologous proteins are encoded by clustered genes. None of these five proteins were...

  11. An Amphiphysin-Like Domain in Fus2p Is Required for Rvs161p Interaction and Cortical Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Richard A; Smith, Jean A; Rose, Mark D

    2016-02-01

    Cell-cell fusion fulfils essential roles in fertilization, development and tissue repair. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion between two haploid cells of opposite mating type generates the diploid zygote. Fus2p is a pheromone-induced protein that regulates cell wall removal during mating. Fus2p shuttles from the nucleus to localize at the shmoo tip, bound to Rvs161p, an amphiphysin. However, Rvs161p independently binds a second amphiphysin, Rvs167p, playing an essential role in endocytosis. To understand the basis of the Fus2p-Rvs161p interaction, we analyzed Fus2p structural domains. A previously described N-terminal domain (NTD) is necessary and sufficient to regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking of Fus2p. The Dbl homology domain (DBH) binds GTP-bound Cdc42p; binding is required for cell fusion, but not localization. We identified an approximately 200 amino acid region of Fus2p that is both necessary and sufficient for Rvs161p binding. The Rvs161p binding domain (RBD) contains three predicted alpha-helices; structural modeling suggests that the RBD adopts an amphiphysin-like structure. The RBD contains a 13-amino-acid region, conserved with Rvs161p and other amphiphysins, which is essential for binding. Mutations in the RBD, predicted to affect membrane binding, abolish cell fusion without affecting Rvs161p binding. We propose that Fus2p/Rvs161p form a novel heterodimeric amphiphysin required for cell fusion. Rvs161p binding is required but not sufficient for Fus2p localization. Mutations in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Fus2p block localization, but not Rvs161p binding, causing a significant defect in cell fusion. We conclude that the Fus2p CTD mediates an additional, Rvs161p-independent interaction at the shmoo tip. PMID:26681517

  12. Identification of TSG101 functional domains and p21 loci required for TSG101-mediated p21 gene regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shiuan Lin

    Full Text Available TSG101 (tumor susceptibility gene 101 is a multi-domain protein known to act in the cell nucleus, cytoplasm, and periplasmic membrane. Remarkably, TSG101, whose location within cells varies with the stage of the cell cycle, affects biological events as diverse as cell growth and proliferation, gene expression, cytokinesis, and endosomal trafficking. The functions of TSG101 additionally are recruited for viral and microvesicle budding and for intracellular survival of invading bacteria. Here we report that the TSG101 protein also interacts with and down-regulates the promoter of the p21 (CIP1/WAF1 tumor suppressor gene, and identify a p21 locus and TSG101 domains that mediate this interaction. TSG101 deficiency in Saos-2 human osteosarcoma cells was accompanied by an increased abundance of p21 mRNA and protein and the retardation of cell proliferation. A cis-acting element in the p21 promoter that interacts with TSG101 and is required for promoter repression was located using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP analysis and p21-driven luciferase reporter gene expression, respectively. Additional analysis of TSG101 deletion mutants lacking specific domains established the role of the central TSG101 domains in binding to the p21 promoter and demonstrated the additional essentiality of the TSG101 C-terminal steadiness box (SB in the repression of p21 promoter activity. Neither binding of TSG101 to the p21 promoter nor repression of this promoter required the TSG101 N-terminal UEV domain, which mediates the ubiquitin-recognition functions of TSG101 and its actions as a member of ESCRT endocytic trafficking complexes, indicating that regulation of the p21 promoter by TSG101 is independent of its role in such trafficking.

  13. An Amphiphysin-Like Domain in Fus2p Is Required for Rvs161p Interaction and Cortical Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Stein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell–cell fusion fulfils essential roles in fertilization, development and tissue repair. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fusion between two haploid cells of opposite mating type generates the diploid zygote. Fus2p is a pheromone-induced protein that regulates cell wall removal during mating. Fus2p shuttles from the nucleus to localize at the shmoo tip, bound to Rvs161p, an amphiphysin. However, Rvs161p independently binds a second amphiphysin, Rvs167p, playing an essential role in endocytosis. To understand the basis of the Fus2p–Rvs161p interaction, we analyzed Fus2p structural domains. A previously described N-terminal domain (NTD is necessary and sufficient to regulate nuclear/cytoplasmic trafficking of Fus2p. The Dbl homology domain (DBH binds GTP-bound Cdc42p; binding is required for cell fusion, but not localization. We identified an approximately 200 amino acid region of Fus2p that is both necessary and sufficient for Rvs161p binding. The Rvs161p binding domain (RBD contains three predicted alpha-helices; structural modeling suggests that the RBD adopts an amphiphysin-like structure. The RBD contains a 13-amino-acid region, conserved with Rvs161p and other amphiphysins, which is essential for binding. Mutations in the RBD, predicted to affect membrane binding, abolish cell fusion without affecting Rvs161p binding. We propose that Fus2p/Rvs161p form a novel heterodimeric amphiphysin required for cell fusion. Rvs161p binding is required but not sufficient for Fus2p localization. Mutations in the C-terminal domain (CTD of Fus2p block localization, but not Rvs161p binding, causing a significant defect in cell fusion. We conclude that the Fus2p CTD mediates an additional, Rvs161p-independent interaction at the shmoo tip.

  14. FF Domains of CA150 Bind Transcription and Splicing Factors through Multiple Weak Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Matthew J.; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The human transcription factor CA150 modulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription and contains numerous signaling elements, including six FF domains. Repeated FF domains are present in several transcription and splicing factors and can recognize phosphoserine motifs in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Using mass spectrometry, we identify a number of nuclear binding partners for the CA150 FF domains and demonstrate a direct interaction between CA15...

  15. Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteases cleave the MUC2 mucin in its C-terminal domain and dissolve the protective colonic mucus gel

    OpenAIRE

    Lidell, Martin E.; Moncada, Darcy M.; Chadee, Kris; Hansson, Gunnar C.

    2006-01-01

    In order for the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica (E.h.) to cause invasive intestinal and extraintestinal infection, which leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it must disrupt the protective mucus layer by a previously unknown mechanism. We hypothesized that cysteine proteases secreted from the amoeba disrupt the mucin polymeric network, thereby overcoming the protective mucus barrier. The MUC2 mucin is the major structural component of the colonic mucus gel. Heavily O-glycos...

  16. Electrochemical Analysis of p53 Protein. Determination of GST Traces in Preparations of C-terminal Domain (aa320-393)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kizek, René; Brázdová, Marie; Havran, Luděk; Fojta, Miroslav; Paleček, Emil

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2000), s. 1144-1145. ISSN 0739-1102. [Mendel - Brno 2000. DNA Structure and Interactions. Their Biological Roles and Implications in Biomedicine and Biotechnologies. 19.07.2000-23.07.2000, Brno] R&D Projects: GA ČR GV204/97/K084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A17/98:Z5-004-9-ii Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  17. RECQ5 helicase associates with the C-terminal repeat domain of RNA polymerase II during productive elongation phase of transcription

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kanagaraj, R.; Huehn, D.; Mackellar, A.; Menigatti, M.; Zheng, L.; Urban, Václav; Shevelev, Igor; Greenleaf, A.L.; Janščák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 22 (2010), s. 8131-8140. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/09/0565 Grant ostatní: SNSF(CH) 3100A0-116008; NIH(US) GM040505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : RECQ5 DNA helicase * transcription * genome stability Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.836, year: 2010

  18. The synthetic peptide P111-136 derived from the C-terminal domain of heparin affin regulatory peptide inhibits tumour growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP), also called pleiotrophin, is a heparin-binding, secreted factor that is overexpressed in several tumours and associated to tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The C-terminus part of HARP composed of amino acids 111 to 136 is particularly involved in its biological activities and we previously established that a synthetic peptide composed of the same amino acids (P111-136) was capable of inhibiting the biological activities of HARP. Here we evaluate the ability of P111-136 to inhibit in vitro and in vivo the growth of a human tumour cell line PC-3 which possess an HARP autocrine loop. A total lysate of PC-3 cells was incubated with biotinylated P111-136 and pulled down for the presence of the HARP receptors in Western blot. In vitro, the P111-136 effect on HARP autocrine loop in PC-3 cells was determined by colony formation in soft agar. In vivo, PC-3 cells were inoculated in the flank of athymic nude mice. Animals were treated with P111-136 (5 mg/kg/day) for 25 days. Tumour volume was evaluated during the treatment. After the animal sacrifice, the tumour apoptosis and associated angiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In vivo anti-angiogenic effect was confirmed using a mouse Matrigel™ plug assay. Using pull down experiments, we identified the HARP receptors RPTPβ/ζ, ALK and nucleolin as P111-136 binding proteins. In vitro, P111-136 inhibits dose-dependently PC-3 cell colony formation. Treatment with P111-136 inhibits significantly the PC-3 tumour growth in the xenograft model as well as tumour angiogenesis. The angiostatic effect of P111-136 on HARP was also confirmed using an in vivo Matrigel™ plug assay in mice Our results demonstrate that P111-136 strongly inhibits the mitogenic effect of HARP on in vitro and in vivo growth of PC-3 cells. This inhibition could be linked to a direct or indirect binding of this peptide to the HARP receptors (ALK, RPTPβ/ζ, nucleolin). In vivo, the P111-136 treatment significantly inhibits both the PC-3 tumour growth and the associated angiogenesis. Thus, P111-136 may be considered as an interesting pharmacological tool to interfere with tumour growth that has now to be evaluated in other cancer types

  19. The effect of pH on recombinant C-terminal domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin type E (rBoNT/E-HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Mousavy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant proteins are tending to be the most favorable vaccine-candidates against botulism. Recombinant Carboxy-terminal of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (rBoNT/E-HCC has been introduced as an efficient vaccine against botulism type E. In this report, we made an effort to investigate the effect of different pH on protein structure to assess if rBoNT/E-HCC could be used as a vaccine for oral administration. Initially, rBoNT/E-HCC was expressed and purified. Structural changes of rBoNT/E-HCC at several pH conditions were studied by various techniques including circular dichroism (CD, fluorescence, aggregation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results showed the more compact and more stable structure for rBoNT/E-HCC at acidic pH, and loosely folded structure at alkaline pH. Our finding as the first step of rBoNT/E-HCC evaluation, hopefully introduce it as a suitable vaccine candidate for oral administration.

  20. Proteolytic action of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 produces unique active matrix metalloproteinase-9 lacking the C-terminal hemopexin domains

    OpenAIRE

    Ramani, Vishnu C.; Kaushal, Gur P.; Haun, Randy S.

    2011-01-01

    The gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and -2, are produced as latent, inactive enzymes that can be proteolytically activated by a number of proteases. In many normal and pathological conditions, where the expression of MMPs is deregulated, changes in the expression of other proteases have also been reported. Human kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7), a chymotryptic-like serine protease, is overexpressed in many different types of neoplastic conditions, which have also been shown...

  1. The synthetic peptide P111-136 derived from the C-terminal domain of heparin affin regulatory peptide inhibits tumour growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delbé Jean

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP, also called pleiotrophin, is a heparin-binding, secreted factor that is overexpressed in several tumours and associated to tumour growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. The C-terminus part of HARP composed of amino acids 111 to 136 is particularly involved in its biological activities and we previously established that a synthetic peptide composed of the same amino acids (P111-136 was capable of inhibiting the biological activities of HARP. Here we evaluate the ability of P111-136 to inhibit in vitro and in vivo the growth of a human tumour cell line PC-3 which possess an HARP autocrine loop. Methods A total lysate of PC-3 cells was incubated with biotinylated P111-136 and pulled down for the presence of the HARP receptors in Western blot. In vitro, the P111-136 effect on HARP autocrine loop in PC-3 cells was determined by colony formation in soft agar. In vivo, PC-3 cells were inoculated in the flank of athymic nude mice. Animals were treated with P111-136 (5 mg/kg/day for 25 days. Tumour volume was evaluated during the treatment. After the animal sacrifice, the tumour apoptosis and associated angiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In vivo anti-angiogenic effect was confirmed using a mouse Matrigel™ plug assay. Results Using pull down experiments, we identified the HARP receptors RPTPβ/ζ, ALK and nucleolin as P111-136 binding proteins. In vitro, P111-136 inhibits dose-dependently PC-3 cell colony formation. Treatment with P111-136 inhibits significantly the PC-3 tumour growth in the xenograft model as well as tumour angiogenesis. The angiostatic effect of P111-136 on HARP was also confirmed using an in vivo Matrigel™ plug assay in mice Conclusions Our results demonstrate that P111-136 strongly inhibits the mitogenic effect of HARP on in vitro and in vivo growth of PC-3 cells. This inhibition could be linked to a direct or indirect binding of this peptide to the HARP receptors (ALK, RPTPβ/ζ, nucleolin. In vivo, the P111-136 treatment significantly inhibits both the PC-3 tumour growth and the associated angiogenesis. Thus, P111-136 may be considered as an interesting pharmacological tool to interfere with tumour growth that has now to be evaluated in other cancer types.

  2. Suppression of the Arboviruses Dengue and Chikungunya Using a Dual-Acting Group-I Intron Coupled with Conditional Expression of the Bax C-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Carter

    Full Text Available In portions of South Asia, vectors and patients co-infected with dengue (DENV and chikungunya (CHIKV are on the rise, with the potential for this occurrence in other regions of the world, for example the United States. Therefore, we engineered an antiviral approach that suppresses the replication of both arboviruses in mosquito cells using a single antiviral group I intron. We devised unique configurations of internal, external, and guide sequences that permit homologous recognition and splicing with conserved target sequences in the genomes of both viruses using a single trans-splicing Group I intron, and examined their effectiveness to suppress infections of DENV and CHIKV in mosquito cells when coupled with a proapoptotic 3' exon, ΔN Bax. RT-PCR demonstrated the utility of these introns in trans-splicing the ΔN Bax sequence downstream of either the DENV or CHIKV target site in transformed Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells, independent of the order in which the virus specific targeting sequences were inserted into the construct. This trans-splicing reaction forms DENV or CHIKV ΔN Bax RNA fusions that led to apoptotic cell death as evidenced by annexin V staining, caspase, and DNA fragmentation assays. TCID50-IFA analyses demonstrate effective suppression of DENV and CHIKV infections by our anti-arbovirus group I intron approach. This represents the first report of a dual-acting Group I intron, and demonstrates that we can target DENV and CHIKV RNAs in a sequence specific manner with a single, uniquely configured CHIKV/DENV dual targeting group I intron, leading to replication suppression of both arboviruses, and thus providing a promising single antiviral for the transgenic suppression of multiple arboviruses.

  3. Specific Inhibitors of HIV Capsid Assembly Binding to the C-Terminal Domain of the Capsid Protein: Evaluation of 2-Arylquinazolines as Potential Antiviral Compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machara, A.; Lux, V.; Kožíšek, Milan; Grantz Šašková, Klára; Štěpánek, O.; Kotora, M.; Parkan, Kamil; Pávová, Marcela; Glass, B.; Sehr, P.; Lewis, J.; Müller, B.; Kräusslich, H. G.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2016), s. 545-558. ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19561S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 201095 - HIV ACE Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : HIV-1 assembly * capsid * high-throughput screening * AlphaScreen assay Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.447, year: 2014

  4. The Cold Denatured State of the C-terminal Domain of Protein L9 Is Compact and Contains Both Native and Non-native Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Bing; McClendon, Sebastian; Rospigliosi, Carla; Eliezer, David; Raleigh, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    Cold denaturation is a general property of globular proteins, and the process provides insight into the origins of the cooperativity of protein folding and the nature of partially folded states. Unfortunately, studies of protein cold denaturation have been hindered by the fact that the cold denatured state is normally difficult to access experimentally. Special conditions such as addition of high concentrations of denaturant, encapsulation into reverse micelles, the formation of emulsified so...

  5. Opposing functions of two sub-domains of the SNARE-complex in neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Jens P; Reim, Kerstin; Sørensen, Jakob B

    2010-01-01

    The SNARE-complex consisting of synaptobrevin-2/VAMP-2, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1 is essential for evoked neurotransmission and also involved in spontaneous release. Here, we used cultured autaptic hippocampal neurons from Snap-25 null mice rescued with mutants challenging the C-terminal, N......-terminal and middle domains of the SNARE-bundle to dissect out the involvement of these domains in neurotransmission. We report that the stabilities of two different sub-domains of the SNARE-bundle have opposing functions in setting the probability for both spontaneous and evoked neurotransmission....... Destabilizing the C-terminal end of the SNARE-bundle abolishes spontaneous neurotransmitter release and reduces evoked release probability, indicating that the C-terminal end promotes both modes of release. In contrast, destabilizing the middle or deleting the N-terminal end of the SNARE-bundle increases both...

  6. Cytoplasmic-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies targeting myeloperoxidase in Wegener′s granulomatosis: A rare phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana M Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wegener′s granulomatosis (WG patients can rarely have antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO, producing a cytoplasmic pattern on indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. This has important implications in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of the disease. We present to you a report of three cases of WG, demonstrating a cytoplasmic-ANCA pattern on indirect IIF, but directed against MPO. It is necessary to diagnose a patient taking into account both the autoimmune test results and the clinical features.

  7. Structure of human cytoplasmic dynein-2 primed for its power stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Helgo; Zalyte, Ruta; Urnavicius, Linas; Carter, Andrew P

    2015-02-19

    Members of the dynein family, consisting of cytoplasmic and axonemal isoforms, are motors that move towards the minus ends of microtubules. Cytoplasmic dynein-1 (dynein-1) plays roles in mitosis and cellular cargo transport, and is implicated in viral infections and neurodegenerative diseases. Cytoplasmic dynein-2 (dynein-2) performs intraflagellar transport and is associated with human skeletal ciliopathies. Dyneins share a conserved motor domain that couples cycles of ATP hydrolysis with conformational changes to produce movement. Here we present the crystal structure of the human cytoplasmic dynein-2 motor bound to the ATP-hydrolysis transition state analogue ADP.vanadate. The structure reveals a closure of the motor's ring of six AAA+ domains (ATPases associated with various cellular activites: AAA1-AAA6). This induces a steric clash with the linker, the key element for the generation of movement, driving it into a conformation that is primed to produce force. Ring closure also changes the interface between the stalk and buttress coiled-coil extensions of the motor domain. This drives helix sliding in the stalk which causes the microtubule binding domain at its tip to release from the microtubule. Our structure answers the key questions of how ATP hydrolysis leads to linker remodelling and microtubule affinity regulation. PMID:25470043

  8. C-Terminally modified peptides via cleavage of the HMBA linker by O-, N- or S-nucleophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter

    2016-01-01

    A large variety of C-terminally modified peptides was obtained by nucleophilic cleavage of the ester bond in solid phase linked peptide esters of 4-hydroxymethyl benzamide (HMBA). The developed methods provided peptides, C-terminally functionalized as esters, amides and thioesters, with high puri...

  9. Wnts grasp the WIF domain of Wnt Inhibitory Factor 1 at two distinct binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Krisztina; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2015-10-01

    Wnts have a structure resembling a hand with "thumb" and "index" fingers that grasp the cysteine rich domains of Frizzled receptors at two distinct binding sites. In the present work we show that the WIF domain of Wnt Inhibitory Factor 1 is also bound by Wnts at two sites. Using C-terminal domains of Wnt5a and Wnt7a and arginine-scanning mutagenesis of the WIF domain we demonstrate that, whereas the N-terminal, lipid-modified "thumb" of Wnts interacts with the alkyl-binding site of the WIF domain, the C-terminal domain of Wnts (Wnt-CTD) binds to a surface on the opposite side of the WIF domain. PMID:26342861

  10. The ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 promotes bacterial invasion by altering the dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basseres, Eugene; Coppotelli, Giuseppe; Pfirrmann, Thorsten;

    2010-01-01

    Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria monocyto...... findings highlight a previously unrecognized involvement of the ubiquitin cycle in bacterial entry. UCH-L1 is highly expressed in malignant cells that may therefore be particularly susceptible to invasion by bacteria-based drug delivery systems.......Invasion of eukaryotic target cells by pathogenic bacteria requires extensive remodelling of the membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Here we show that the remodelling process is regulated by the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCH-L1 that promotes the invasion of epithelial cells by Listeria...

  11. Endorepellin, the C-terminal angiostatic module of perlecan, enhances collagen-platelet responses via the α2β1-integrin receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Bix, Gregory; Iozzo, Rex A.; Woodall, Ben; Burrows, Michelle; McQuillan, Angela; Campbell, Shelly; Fields, Gregg B.; Iozzo, Renato V.

    2007-01-01

    Endorepellin, a C-terminal fragment of the vascular basement membrane proteoglycan perlecan, inhibits angiogenesis via the α2β1-integrin receptor. Because this integrin is also implicated in platelet-collagen responses and because endorepellin or its fragments are generated in response to injury and inflammation, we hypothesized that endorepellin could also affect platelet biology. We discovered that endorepellin supported α2β1-dependent platelet adhesion, without appreciably activating or ag...

  12. Systematic Optimization of C-Terminal Amine-Based Isotope Labeling of Substrates Approach for Deep Screening of C-Terminome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; He, Quanze; Ye, Juanying; Li, Yanhong; Huang, Lin; Li, Qingqing; Huang, Jingnan; Lu, Jianan; Zhang, Xumin

    2015-10-20

    It is well-known that protein C-termini play important roles in various biological processes, and thus the precise characterization of C-termini is essential for fully elucidating protein structures and understanding protein functions. Although many efforts have been made in the field during the latest 2 decades, the progress is still far behind its counterpart, N-termini, and it necessitates more novel or optimized methods. Herein, we report an optimized C-termini identification approach based on the C-terminal amine-based isotope labeling of substrates (C-TAILS) method. We optimized the amidation reaction conditions to achieve higher yield of fully amidated product. We evaluated different carboxyl and amine blocking reagents and found the superior performance of Ac-NHS and ethanolamine. Replacement of dimethylation with acetylation for Lys blocking resulted in the identification of 232 C-terminal peptides in an Escherichia coli sample, about 42% higher than the conventional C-TAILS. A systematic data analysis revealed that the optimized method is unbiased to the number of lysine in peptides, more reproducible and with higher MASCOT scores. Moreover, the introduction of the Single-Charge Ion Inclusion (SCII) method to alleviate the charge deficiency of small peptides allowed an additional 26% increase in identification number. With the optimized method, we identified 481 C-terminal peptides corresponding to 369 C-termini in E. coli in a triplicate experiments using 80 μg each. Our optimized method would benefit the deep screening of C-terminome and possibly help discover some novel C-terminal modifications. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002409. PMID:26361894

  13. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Michael Morin; Coady, Michael J.; Rikard Blunck; Jean-Yves Lapointe

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on ...

  14. C-TERMINAL FRAGMENT OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA-INDUCED PROTEIN (TGFBIp) IS REQUIRED FOR APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN OSTEOSARCOMA CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Zamilpa, Rogelio; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Phelix, Clyde F.; Somaraki-Cormier, Maria; Haskins, William; Asmis, Reto; LeBaron, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp), is secreted into the extracellular space. When fragmentation of C-terminal portions is blocked, apoptosis is low, even when the protein is overexpressed. If fragmentation occurs, apoptosis is observed. Whether full-length TGFBIp or integrin-binding fragments released from its C-terminus is necessary for apoptosis remains equivocal. More importantly, the exact portion of the C-terminus that conveys the pro-apoptotic property of TGFBIp i...

  15. Identification and characterization of the fibrinogen-like domain of fibrinogen-related proteins in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qin; Wang Xinguo; Christensen Bruce M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain, which consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen β and γ chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), which contain FBG domains in their C-terminal region, are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this family in insects, we analyz...

  16. Site-directed mutations in the C-terminal extension of human alphaB-crystallin affect chaperone function and block amyloid fibril formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Treweek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease are associated with inappropriate protein deposition and ordered amyloid fibril assembly. Molecular chaperones, including alphaB-crystallin, play a role in the prevention of protein deposition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A series of site-directed mutants of the human molecular chaperone, alphaB-crystallin, were constructed which focused on the flexible C-terminal extension of the protein. We investigated the structural role of this region as well as its role in the chaperone function of alphaB-crystallin under different types of protein aggregation, i.e. disordered amorphous aggregation and ordered amyloid fibril assembly. It was found that mutation of lysine and glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal extension of alphaB-crystallin resulted in proteins that had improved chaperone activity against amyloid fibril forming target proteins compared to the wild-type protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, our results highlight the important role of the C-terminal region of alphaB-crystallin in regulating its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure and conferring thermostability to the protein. The capacity to genetically modify alphaB-crystallin for improved ability to block amyloid fibril formation provides a platform for the future use of such engineered molecules in treatment of diseases caused by amyloid fibril formation.

  17. Development of the sigma-1 receptor in C-terminals of motoneurons and colocalization with the N,N'-dimethyltryptamine forming enzyme, indole-N-methyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, T A; Epstein, M L; Liu, P; Verbny, Y I; Ziskind-Conhaim, L; Ruoho, A E

    2012-03-29

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS, the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and S1Rs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; Liu, Patricia; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs appear to concentrate at C-terminals of mouse MN only on the second week of postnatal development. We found that Indole-N-methyl transferase (INMT), an enzyme that converts tryptamine into the sigma-1 ligand dimethyltryptamine (DMT), is also localized to postsynaptic sites of C-terminals in close proximity to the S1R. This close association of INMT and SIRs suggest that DMT is synthesized locally to effectively activate S1R in MN. PMID:22265729

  19. Sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides based on carboxypeptidase Y digestion and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miaomiao; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiaoxia; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2016-08-12

    We report a novel method for sequential on-line C-terminal sequencing of peptides, which combines carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) digestion with on-line derivatization and optically gated capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (OGCE-LIF). Various factors that may affect the C-terminal sequencing were investigated and optimized. High repeatability of on-line derivatization and the sequential OGCE-LIF assay of amino acids (AAs) was achieved with relative standard deviation (RSD) (n=20) less than 1.5% and 3.2% for migration time and peak height, respectively. A total of 13 AAs was efficiently separated in the present study, indicating that the method can be used for sequencing of peptides consisting of the 13 AAs studied. Using two synthesized N-terminally blocked peptides as test examples, we show that the present method can on-line monitor the released AAs with a temporal resolution of 50s during the entire CPY digestion process. The rates of AA release as a function of digestion time were easily measured; thus, the AA sequence of the peptide was determined with just one OGCE assay. Our study indicates the present approach is an effective, reliable, and convenient method for rapid analysis of the C-terminal sequence of peptides, with potential application in peptide analysis and proteome research. PMID:27425760

  20. Structure and potential C-terminal dimerization of a recombinant mutant of surfactant-associated protein C in chloroform/methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luy, Burkhard; Diener, Alexander; Hummel, Rolf-Peter; Sturm, Ernst; Ulrich, Wolf-Rüdiger; Griesinger, Christian

    2004-06-01

    The solution structure of a recombinant mutant [rSP-C (FFI)] of the human surfactant-associated protein C (hSP-C) in a mixture of chloroform and methanol was determined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. rSP-C (FFI) contains a helix from Phe5 to the C-terminal Leu34 and is thus longer by two residues than the helix of porcine SP-C (pSP-C), which is reported to start at Val7 in the same solvent. Two sets of resonances at the C-terminus of the peptide were observed, which are explained by low-order oligomerization, probably dimerization of rSP-C (FFI) in its alpha-helical form. The dimerization may be induced by hydrogen bonding of the C-terminal carboxylic groups or by the strictly conserved C-terminal heptapeptide segment with a motif similar to the GxxxG dimerization motif of glycophorin A. Dimerization at the heptapeptide segment would be consistent with findings based on electrospray ionization MS data, chemical cross-linking studies, and CNBr cleavage data. PMID:15153097

  1. C-Terminal proline-rich sequence broadens the optimal temperature and pH ranges of recombinant xylanase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Guler, Halil Ibrahim; Ozer, Aysegul; Sapmaz, Merve Tuncel; Belduz, Ali Osman; Hasan, Fariha; Shah, Aamer Ali

    2016-09-01

    Efficient utilization of hemicellulose entails high catalytic capacity containing xylanases. In this study, proline rich sequence was fused together with a C-terminal of xylanase gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5 and designated as GthC5ProXyl. Both GthC5Xyl and GthC5ProXyl were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 host in order to determine effect of this modification. The C-terminal oligopeptide had noteworthy effects and instantaneously extended the optimal temperature and pH ranges and progressed the specific activity of GthC5Xyl. Compared with GthC5Xyl, GthC5ProXyl revealed improved specific activity, a higher temperature (70°C versus 60°C) and pH (8 versus 6) optimum, with broad ranges of temperature and pH (60-80°C and 6.0-9.0 versus 40-60°C and 5.0-8.0, respectively). The modified enzyme retained more than 80% activity after incubating in xylan for 3h at 80°C as compared to wild -type with only 45% residual activity. Our study demonstrated that proper introduction of proline residues on C-terminal surface of xylanase family might be very effective in improvement of enzyme thermostability. Moreover, this study reveals an engineering strategy to improve the catalytic performance of enzymes. PMID:27444327

  2. The role of the C-terminal region on the oligomeric state and enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Wanda M; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Defelipe, Lucas A; Mitschler, André; Podjarny, Alberto; Santos, Javier; Delfino, José M

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcHPRT) is a critical enzyme for the survival of the parasite. This work demonstrates that the full-length form in solution adopts a stable and enzymatically active tetrameric form, exhibiting large inter-subunit surfaces. Although this protein irreversibly aggregates during unfolding, oligomerization is reversible and can be modulated by low concentrations of urea. When the C-terminal region, which is predicted as a disordered stretch, is excised by proteolysis, TcHPRT adopts a dimeric state, suggesting that the C-terminal region acts as a main guide for the quaternary arrangement. These results are in agreement with X-ray crystallographic data presented in this work. On the other hand, the C-terminal region exhibits a modulatory role on the enzyme, as attested by the enhanced activity observed for the dimeric form. Bisphosphonates act as substrate-mimetics, uncovering long-range communications among the active sites. All in all, this work contributes to establish new ways applicable to the design of novel inhibitors that could eventually result in new drugs against parasitic diseases. PMID:26969784

  3. Characterization of BTBD1 and BTBD2, two similar BTB-domain-containing Kelch-like proteins that interact with Topoisomerase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohlhagen Glenda

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two-hybrid screening for proteins that interact with the core domain of human topoisomerase I identified two novel proteins, BTBD1 and BTBD2, which share 80% amino acid identities. Results The interactions were confirmed by co-precipitation assays demonstrating the physical interaction of BTBD1 and BTBD2 with 100 kDa topoisomerase I from HeLa cells. Deletion mapping using two-hybrid and GST-pulldown assays demonstrated that less than the C-terminal half of BTBD1 is sufficient for binding topoisomerase I. The topoisomerase I sequences sufficient to bind BTBD2 were mapped to residues 215 to 329. BTBD2 with an epitope tag localized to cytoplasmic bodies. Using truncated versions that direct BTBD2 and TOP1 to the same cellular compartment, either the nucleus or the cytoplasm, co-localization was demonstrated in co-transfected Hela cells. The supercoil relaxation and DNA cleavage activities of topoisomerase I in vitro were affected little or none by co-incubation with BTBD2. Northern analysis revealed only a single sized mRNA for each BTBD1 and BTBD2 in all human tissues tested. Characterization of BTBD2 mRNA revealed a 255 nucleotide 90% GC-rich region predicted to encode the N-terminus. BTBD1 and BTBD2 are widely if not ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, and have two paralogs as well as putative orthologs in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. Conclusions BTBD1 and BTBD2 belong to a small family of uncharacterized proteins that appear to be specific to animals. Epitope-tagged BTBD2 localized to cytoplasmic bodies. The characterization of BTBD1 and BTBD2 and their interaction with TOP1 is underway.

  4. Conservation patterns of HIV-1 RT connection and RNase H domains: identification of new mutations in NRTI-treated patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F A Santos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although extensive HIV drug resistance information is available for the first 400 amino acids of its reverse transcriptase, the impact of antiretroviral treatment in C-terminal domains of Pol (thumb, connection and RNase H is poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We wanted to characterize conserved regions in RT C-terminal domains among HIV-1 group M subtypes and CRF. Additionally, we wished to identify NRTI-related mutations in HIV-1 RT C-terminal domains. We sequenced 118 RNase H domains from clinical viral isolates in Brazil, and analyzed 510 thumb and connection domain and 450 RNase H domain sequences collected from public HIV sequence databases, together with their treatment status and histories. Drug-naïve and NRTI-treated datasets were compared for intra- and inter-group conservation, and differences were determined using Fisher's exact tests. One third of RT C-terminal residues were found to be conserved among group M variants. Three mutations were found exclusively in NRTI-treated isolates. Nine mutations in the connection and 6 mutations in the RNase H were associated with NRTI treatment in subtype B. Some of them lay in or close to amino acid residues which contact nucleic acid or near the RNase H active site. Several of the residues pointed out herein have been recently associated to NRTI exposure or increase drug resistance to NRTI. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive genotypic analysis of a large sequence dataset that describes NRTI-related mutations in HIV-1 RT C-terminal domains in vivo. The findings into the conservation of RT C-terminal domains may pave the way to more rational drug design initiatives targeting those regions.

  5. Duck RIG-I CARD Domain Induces the Chicken IFN-β by Activating NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid-inducible gene I- (RIG-I- like receptors (RLRs have recently been identified as cytoplasmic sensors for viral RNA. RIG-I, a member of RLRs family, plays an important role in innate immunity. Although previous investigations have proved that RIG-I is absent in chickens, it remains largely unknown whether the chicken can respond to RIG-I ligand. In this study, the eukaryotic expression vectors encoding duRIG-I full length (duck RIG-I, containing all domains, duRIG-I N-terminal (containing the two caspase activation and recruitment domain, CARDs, and duRIG-I C-terminal (containing helicase and regulatory domains labeled with 6*His tags were constructed successfully and detected by western blotting. Luciferase reporter assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA detected the duRIG-I significantly activated NF-κB and induced the expression of IFN-β when polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly[I:C], synthetic double-stranded RNA challenges chicken embryonic fibroblasts cells (DF1 cells, while the duRIG-I was inactive in the absence of poly[I:C]. Further analysis revealed that the CARDs (duRIG-I-N induced IFN-β production regardless of the presence of poly[I:C], while the CARD-lacking duRIG-I (duRIG-I-C was not capable of activating downstream signals. These results indicate that duRIG-I CARD domain plays an important role in the induction of IFN-β and provide a basis for further studying the function of RIG-I in avian innate immunity.

  6. Consequences of Cytoplasmic Irradiation: Studies from Microbeam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongning; Hong, Mei; Chai, Yunfei; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing dogma for radiation biology is that genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation such as mutations and carcinogenesis are attributed mainly to direct damage to the nucleus. However, with the development of microbeam that can target precise positions inside the cells, accumulating evidences have shown that energy deposit by radiation in nuclear DNA is not required to trigger the damage, extra-nuclear or extra-cellular radiation could induce the similar biological effects as well. This review will summarize the biological responses after cytoplasm irradiated by microbeam, and the possible mechanisms involved in cytoplasmic irradiation. PMID:19346686

  7. Crystal structure of the sensory domain of Escherichia coli CadC, a member of the ToxR-like protein family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Andreas; Haneburger, Ina; Koller, Christiane; Jung, Kirsten; Skerra, Arne

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-integral transcriptional activator CadC comprises sensory and transcriptional regulatory functions within one polypeptide chain. Its C-terminal periplasmic domain, CadCpd, is responsible for sensing of environmental pH as well as for binding of the feedback inhibitor cadaverine. Here we describe the crystal structure of CadCpd (residues 188–512) solved at a resolution of 1.8 Å via multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) using a ReCl62− derivative. CadCpd reveals a novel fold comprising two subdomains: an N-terminal subdomain dominated by a β-sheet in contact with three α-helices and a C-terminal subdomain formed by an eleven-membered α-helical bundle, which is oriented almost perpendicular to the helices in the first subdomain. Further to the native protein, crystal structures were also solved for its variants D471N and D471E, which show functionally different behavior in pH sensing. Interestingly, in the heavy metal derivative of CadCpd used for MAD phasing a ReCl62− ion was found in a cavity located between the two subdomains. Amino acid side chains that coordinate this complex ion are conserved in CadC homologues from various bacterial species, suggesting a function of the cavity in the binding of cadaverine, which was supported by docking studies. Notably, CadCpd forms a homo-dimer in solution, which can be explained by an extended, albeit rather polar interface between two symmetry-related monomers in the crystal structure. The occurrence of several acidic residues in this region suggests protonation-dependent changes in the mode of dimerization, which could eventually trigger transcriptional activation by CadC in the bacterial cytoplasm. PMID:21308846

  8. Cytoplasmic TRADD Confers a Worse Prognosis in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD is an important adaptor in TNFR1 signaling and has an essential role in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB activation and survival signaling. Increased expression of TRADD is sufficient to activate NF-κB. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of NF-κB activation as a key pathogenic mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults.We examined the expression of TRADD by immunohistochemistry (IHC and find that TRADD is commonly expressed at high levels in GBM and is detected in both cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Cytoplasmic IHC TRADD scoring is significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS both in univariate and multivariate analysis but is not associated with overall survival (n = 43 GBMs. PFS is a marker for responsiveness to treatment. We propose that TRADD-mediated NF-κB activation confers chemoresistance and thus a worse PFS in GBM. Consistent with the effect on PFS, silencing TRADD in glioma cells results in decreased NF-κB activity, decreased proliferation of cells, and increased sensitivity to temozolomide. TRADD expression is common in glioma-initiating cells. Importantly, silencing TRADD in GBM-initiating stem cell cultures results in decreased viability of stem cells, suggesting that TRADD may be required for maintenance of GBM stem cell populations. Thus, our study suggests that increased expression of cytoplasmic TRADD is both an important biomarker and a key driver of NF-κB activation in GBM and supports an oncogenic role for TRADD in GBM.

  9. Rat embryo fibroblasts require both the cell-binding and the heparin-binding domains of fibronectin for survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, J; Han, I; Lim, Y;

    2001-01-01

    of the cell-binding domain of FN with integrin is sufficient to rescue rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) from detachment-induced apoptosis. REFs attached and spread normally after plating on substrates coated with either intact FN or a FN fragment, FN120, that contains the cell-binding domain but lacks the C-terminal...

  10. Structure and biochemical function of a prototypical Arabidopsis U-box domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pernille; Kragelund, Birthe B; Olsen, Addie N;

    2004-01-01

    corresponding to zinc ion-coordinating residues in RING domains. Residues from a C-terminal alpha-helix interact with the core domain and contribute to stabilization. The Prp19p U-box lacks a corresponding C-terminal alpha-helix. Chemical shift analysis suggested that aromatic residues exposed at the N terminus...... and the C-terminal alpha-helix of the AtPUB14 U-box participate in dimerization. Thus, AtPUB14 may form a biologically relevant dimer. This is the first plant U-box structure to be determined, and it provides a model for studies of the many plant U-box proteins and their interactions. Structural insight...... into these interactions is important, because ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a prevalent regulatory mechanism in plants....

  11. A 19-kDa C-terminal tryptic fragment of the α chain of Na/K-ATPase is essential for occlusion and transport of cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryptic digestion of pig renal Na/K-ATPase in the presence of Rb and absence of Ca ions removes about half of the protein but leaves a stable 19-kDa membrane-embedded fragment derived from the α chain, a largely intact β chain, and essentially normal Rb- and Na-occlusion capacity. Subsequent digestion with trypsin in the presence of Ca or absence of Rb ions leads to rapid loss of the 19-kDa fragment and a parallel loss of Rb occlusion, demonstrating that the fragment is essential for occlusion. The N-terminal sequence of the 19-kDa fragment is Asn-Pro-Lys-Thr-Asp-Lys-Leu-Val-Asn-Glu-Arg-Leu-Ile-Ser-Met-Ala, beginning at residue 830 and extending toward the C terminus. Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment have the following functional properties. (i) ATP-dependent functions are absent. (ii) The apparent affinity for occluding Rb is unchanged, the affinity for Na is lower than in the control enzyme, and activation is now strongly sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic. (iii) Membranes containing the 19-kDa fragment can be reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles and sustain slow Rb-Rb exchange. Thus the transport pathway is retained. The authors conclude that cation occlusion sites and the transport pathway within transmembrane segments are quite separate from the ATP binding sites, located on the cytoplasmic domain of the α chain. Interactions between cation and ATP sites, the heart of active transport, must be indirect - mediated, presumably, by conformational changes of the protein

  12. Detection of cytoplasmic glycosylation associated with hydroxyproline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Christopher M; van der Wel, Hanke; Blader, Ira J

    2006-01-01

    A special class of glycosylation occurs on a proline residue of the cytoplasmic/nuclear protein Skp1 in the social amoeba Dictyostelium. For this glycosylation to occur, the proline must first be hydroxylated by the action of a soluble prolyl 4-hydroxylase acting on the protein. Cytoplasmic prolyl 4-hydroxylases are dioxygen-dependent enzymes that have low affinity for their O2 substrate and, therefore, have been implicated in O2-sensing in Dictyostelium, as well as in vertebrates and invertebrates. The sugar-hydroxyproline linkage has low abundance, is resistant to alkali cleavage and known glycosidases, and does not bind known lectins. However, initial screens for this modification can be made by assessing changes in electrophoretic mobility of candidate proteins after treatment of cells with prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors, and/or by metabolic labeling with [3H]sugar precursors. In addition, cytoplasmic hydroxylation/glycosylation can be assessed by assaying for cytoplasmic glycosyltransferases. Here we describe these methods and examples of their use in analyzing Skp1 glycosylation in Dictyostelium and the apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in humans. PMID:17132515

  13. How crowded is the prokaryotic cytoplasm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitzer, Jan; Poolman, Bert; Ferguson, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    We consider biomacromolecular crowding within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells as a two-phase system of 'supercrowded' cytogel and 'dilute' cytosol; we simplify and quantify this model for a coccoid cell over a wide range of biomacromolecular crowding. The key result shows that the supercrowded cy

  14. The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Y. H. Goh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1–35 and 140–210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA and have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure and function of the CHIKV CP.

  15. Role of Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) in infectivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Paul; Rai, Devendra; Conderino, Joseph S; Uddowla, Sabena; Rieder, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) utilizes four integrins (αvβ1, αvβ3, αvβ6, and αvβ8) as its primary cell receptor. During cell culture propagation, FMDV frequently adapts to use heparan sulfate (HS), and rarely utilizes an unidentified third receptor. Capsid mutations acquired by a soluble integrin resistant FMDV cause (i) adaptation to CHO-677 cells (ii) increased affinity to membrane-bound Jumonji C-domain containing protein 6 (JMJD6) (iii) induced JMJD6 re-localization from the cell surface and cytoplasm to the nucleus. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with N- and C-terminal JMJD6 antibodies or by simultaneous incubation of mutant virus with soluble JMJD6 (but not by treatment with HS or αvβ6) impaired virus infectivity in cultured cells. JMJD6 and mutant virus co-purified by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation. Molecular docking predictions suggested JMJD6 C-terminus interacts with mutated VP1 capsid protein. We conclude when specific VP1 mutations are displayed, JMJD6 contributes to FMDV infectivity and may be a previously unidentified FMDV receptor. PMID:26896934

  16. The primary structure of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein heavy chain, a cytoplasmic motor enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Z.; Tanaka, Y.; Nonaka, S; Aizawa, H.; Kawasaki, H; Nakata, T; Hirokawa, N

    1993-01-01

    Overlapping cDNA clones encoding the heavy chain of rat brain cytoplasmic dynein have been isolated. The isolated cDNA clones contain an open reading frame of 13,932 bp encoding 4644 aa (M(r), 532,213). The deduced protein sequence of the heavy chain of rat brain dynein shows significant similarity to sea urchin flagellar beta-dynein (27.0% identical) and to Dictyostelium cytoplasmic dynein (53.5% identical) throughout the entire sequence. The heavy chain of rat brain (cytoplasmic) dynein con...

  17. An integrated model for the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Hannah M; Gray, Nicola K

    2012-05-01

    Cytoplasmic poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) regulate mRNA stability and translation. Although predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, PABP proteins also cycle through the nucleus. Recent work has established that their steady-state localization can be altered by cellular stresses such as ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and infection by several viruses, resulting in nuclear accumulation of PABPs. Here, we present further evidence that their interaction with and release from mRNA and translation complexes are important in determining their sub-cellular distribution and propose an integrated model for regulated nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of PABPs. PMID:22896784

  18. The crystal structure of the human polo-like kinase-1 polo box domain and its phospho-peptide complex

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Kin-Yip; Lowe, Edward D; Sinclair, John; Nigg, Erich A.; Johnson, Louise N

    2003-01-01

    Human polo-like kinase Plk1 localizes to the centrosomes, kinetochores and central spindle structures during mitosis. It plays an essential role in promoting mitosis and cytokinesis through phosphorylation of a number of different substrates. Kinase activity is regulated by a conserved C-terminal domain, termed the polo box domain (PBD), which acts both as an autoinhibitory domain and as a subcellular localization domain. We have determined the crystal structure of Plk1 PBD (residues 367–603)...

  19. Structural basis of phosphodiesterase 6 inhibition by the C-terminal region of the γ-subunit

    OpenAIRE

    Barren, Brandy; Gakhar, Lokesh; Muradov, Hakim; Boyd, Kimberly K.; Ramaswamy, S; Artemyev, Nikolai O.

    2009-01-01

    The inhibitory interaction of phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6) with its γ-subunit (Pγ) is pivotal in vertebrate phototransduction. Here, crystal structures of a chimaeric PDE5/PDE6 catalytic domain (PDE5/6cd) complexed with sildenafil or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and the Pγ-inhibitory peptide Pγ70−87 have been determined at 2.9 and 3.0 Å, respectively. These structures show the determinants and the mechanism of the PDE6 inhibition by Pγ and suggest the conformational change of Pγ on transducin ac...

  20. Interaction between the C-terminal region of human myelin basic protein and calmodulin: analysis of complex formation and solution structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Nobuhiro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The myelin sheath is a multilamellar membrane structure wrapped around the axon, enabling the saltatory conduction of nerve impulses in vertebrates. Myelin basic protein, one of the most abundant myelin-specific proteins, is an intrinsically disordered protein that has been shown to bind calmodulin. In this study, we focus on a 19-mer synthetic peptide from the predicted calmodulin-binding segment near the C-terminus of human myelin basic protein. Results The interaction of native human myelin basic protein with calmodulin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. The binding of the myelin basic protein peptide to calmodulin was tested with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC in different temperatures, and Kd was observed to be in the low μM range, as previously observed for full-length myelin basic protein. Surface plasmon resonance showed that the peptide bound to calmodulin, and binding was accompanied by a conformational change; furthermore, gel filtration chromatography indicated a decrease in the hydrodynamic radius of calmodulin in the presence of the peptide. NMR spectroscopy was used to map the binding area to reside mainly within the hydrophobic pocket of the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin. The solution structure obtained by small-angle X-ray scattering indicates binding of the myelin basic protein peptide into the interlobal groove of calmodulin, while calmodulin remains in an extended conformation. Conclusion Taken together, our results give a detailed structural insight into the interaction of calmodulin with a C-terminal segment of a major myelin protein, the myelin basic protein. The used 19-mer peptide interacts mainly with the C-terminal lobe of calmodulin, and a conformational change accompanies binding, suggesting a novel mode of calmodulin-target protein interaction. Calmodulin does not collapse and wrap around the peptide tightly; instead, it remains in an extended conformation in the solution structure

  1. Replacement of the C-terminal tetrapeptide (314PAPV317 to 314SSSM317) in interferon regulatory factor-2 alters its N-terminal DNA-binding activity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna Prakash; Pramod C Rath

    2010-12-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-2 (IRF-2) is an important transcription factor involved in cell growth regulation, immune response and cancer. IRF-2 can function as a transcriptional repressor and activator depending on its DNA-binding activity and protein–protein interactions. We compared the amino acid sequences of IRF-2 and found a C-terminal tetrapeptide (314PAPV317) of mouse IRF-2 to be different (314SSSM317) from human IRF-2. Recombinant GST-IRF-2 with 314PAPV317 (wild type) and 314SSSM317 (mutant) expressed in Escherichia coli were assessed for DNA-binding activity with 32P-(GAAAGT)4 by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Wild type- and mutant GST-IRF-2 showed similar expression patterns and immunoreactivities but different DNA-binding activities. Mutant (mt) IRF-2 formed higher-molecular-mass, more and stronger DNA–protein complexes in comparison to wild type (wt) IRF-2. Anti-IRF-2 antibody stabilized the DNA–protein complexes formed by both wt IRF-2 and mt IRF-2, resolving the differences. This suggests that PAPV and SSSM sequences at 314-317 in the C-terminal region of mouse and human IRF-2 contribute to conformation of IRF-2 and influence DNA-binding activity of the N-terminal region, indicating intramolecular interactions. Thus, evolution of IRF-2 from murine to human genome has resulted in subtle differences in C-terminal amino acid motifs, which may contribute to qualitative changes in IRF-2-dependent DNA-binding activity and gene expression.

  2. A functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site in MAVS participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne Paz; Rongtuan Lin; John Hiscott; Myriam Vilasco; Steven J Werden; Meztli Arguello; Deshanthe Joseph-Pillai; Tiejun Zhao; Thi Lien-Anh Nguyen; Qiang Sun; Eliane F Meurs

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-Ⅰ (RIG-Ⅰ) results in the activation of signaling cascades that culminate with the generation of the type Ⅰ interferon (IFN) antiviral response. Onset of antiviral and inflammatory responses to viral pathogens necessitates the regulated spatiotemporal recruitment of signaling adapters,kinases and transcriptional proteins to the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). We previously demonstrated that the serine/threonine kinase IKKε is recruited to the C-terminal region of MAVS following Sendal or vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection,mediated by Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of MAVS at Lys500,resulting in inhibition of downstream IFN signaling (Paz et al,Mol Cell Biol,2009). In this study,we demonstrate that C-terminus of MAVS harbors a novel TRAF3-binding site in the aa450-468 region of MAVS. A consensus TRAF-interacting motif (TIM),455-PEENEY-460,within this site is required for TRAF3 binding and activation of IFN antiviral response genes,whereas mutation of the TIM eliminates TRAF3 binding and the downstream IFN response. Reconstitution of MAVS-/- mouse embryo fibroblasts with a construct expressing a TIM-mutated version of MAVS failed to restore the antiviral response or block VSV replication,whereas wild-type MAVS reconstituted antiviral inhibition of VSV replication. Furthermore,recruitment of IKKε to an adjacent C-terminal site (aa 468-540) in MAVS via Lys500 ubiquitination decreased TRAF3 binding and protein stability,thus contributing to IKKε-mediated shutdown of the IFN response. This study demonstrates that MAVS harbors a functional C-terminal TRAF3-binding site that participates in positive and negative regulation of the IFN antiviral response.

  3. Structural modeling of the N-terminal signal–receiving domain of IκBα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira eYazdi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB exerts essential roles in many biological processes including cell growth, apoptosis and innate and adaptive immunity. The NF-kB inhibitor (IκBα retains NF-κB in the cytoplasm and thus inhibits nuclear localization of NF-κB and its association with DNA. Recent protein crystal structures of the C-terminal part of IκBα in complex with NF-κB provided insights into the protein-protein interactions but could not reveal structural details about the N-terminal signal receiving domain (SRD. The SRD of IκBα contains a degron, formed following phosphorylation by IκB kinases (IKK. In current protein X-ray structures, however, the SRD is not resolved and assumed to be disordered. Here, we combined secondary structure annotation and domain threading followed by long molecular dynamics (MD simulations and showed that the SRD possesses well-defined secondary structure elements. We show that the SRD contains 3 additional stable α-helices supplementing the six ARDs present in crystallized IκBα. The IκBα/NF-κB protein-protein complex remained intact and stable during the entire simulations. Also in solution, free IκBα retains its structural integrity. Differences in structural topology and dynamics were observed by comparing the structures of NF-κB free and NF-κB bound IκBα-complex. This study paves the way for investigating the signaling properties of the SRD in the IκBα degron. A detailed atomic scale understanding of molecular mechanism of NF-κB activation, regulation and the protein-protein interactions may assist to design and develop novel chronic inflammation modulators.

  4. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kummerfeld Sarah K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  5. Location and Flexibility of the Unique C-Terminal Tail of Aquifex aeolicus Co-Chaperonin Protein 10 as Derived by Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Biophysical Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Dong-Hua; Luke, Kathryn; Zhang, Junjie; Chiu, Wah; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2008-01-01

    Co-chaperonin protein 10 (cpn10, GroES in Escherichia coli) is a ring-shaped heptameric protein that facilitates substrate folding when in complex with cpn60 (GroEL in E. coli). The cpn10 from the hyperthermophilic, ancient bacterium Aquifex aeolicus (Aacpn10) has a 25-residue C-terminal extension in each monomer not found in any other cpn10 protein. Earlier in vitro work has shown that this tail is not needed for heptamer assembly or protein function. Without the tail, however, the heptamers...

  6. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 increases cancer cell invasion by modulating hydrogen peroxide generated via NADPH oxidase 4

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Magesh, Venkataraman; Lee, Jae-Jin; Kim, Sun; Knaus, Ulla G.; Lee, Kong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the role of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in the production of ROS and tumor invasion. UCH-L1 was found to increase cellular ROS levels and promote cell invasion. Silencing UCH-L1, as well as inhibition of H2O2 generation by catalase or by DPI, a NOX inhibitor, suppressed the migration potential of B16F10 cells, indicating that UCH-L1 promotes cell migration by up-regulating H2O2 generation. Silencing NOX4, which generates H2O2, with siRNA eliminated the effec...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE SIGMA-1 RECEPTOR IN C-TERMINALS OF MOTONEURONS AND COLOCALIZATION WITH THE N,N’-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE FORMING ENZYME, INDOLE-N-METHYL TRANSFERASE

    OpenAIRE

    Mavlyutov, Timur A.; Epstein, Miles L.; LIU, PATRICIA; Verbny, Yakov I.; Ziskind-Conhaim, Lea; Ruoho, Arnold E.

    2012-01-01

    The function of the sigma-1 receptor (S1R) has been linked to modulating the activities of ion channels and G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). In the CNS the S1R is expressed ubiquitously but is enriched in mouse motoneurons (MN), where it is localized to subsurface cisternae of cholinergic postsynaptic densities, also known as C-terminals. We found that S1R is enriched in mouse spinal MN at late stages of embryonic development when it is first visualized in the endoplasmic reticulum. S1Rs a...

  8. Characterization of anti-glucagon sera elicited against a C-terminal fragment of pancreatic glucagon and their use in glucagon radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results indicate that antiserum OAL-123 raised in the rabbit against a C-terminal fragment of pancreatic glucagon possesses immunological properties similar to those of antiserum 30 K and that it is useful for specific measurement of pancreatic glucagon. A radioassay was developed using OAL-123 which showed the highest sensitivity in the assay system used. It utilised human pancreatic monocomponent glucagon as standard and monoradioionated glucagon as tracer. Cross reactivities of extracts from dog jejuunm and stomach mucosa and of glucagen-related peptides and immunoreactivities in dog tissues and human blood were examined. (Auth./C.F.)

  9. A Region Near the C-Terminal End of Escherichia coli DNA Helicase II Is Required for Single-Stranded DNA Binding

    OpenAIRE

    MECHANIC, LEAH E.; Latta, Marcy E.; Matson, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the C terminus of Escherichia coli DNA helicase II (UvrD), a region outside the conserved helicase motifs, was investigated by using three mutants: UvrDΔ107C (deletion of the last 107 C-terminal amino acids), UvrDΔ102C, and UvrDΔ40C. This region, which lacks sequence similarity with other helicases, may function to tailor UvrD for its specific in vivo roles. Genetic complementation assays demonstrated that mutant proteins UvrDΔ107C and UvrDΔ102C failed to substitute for the wild-t...

  10. A C-terminally truncated mouse Best3 splice variant targets and alters the ion balance in lysosome-endosome hybrids and the endoplasmic reticulum

    OpenAIRE

    Lichang Wu; Yu Sun; Liqiao Ma; Jun Zhu; Baoxia Zhang; Qingjie Pan; Yuyin Li; Huanqi Liu; Aipo Diao; Yinchuan Li

    2016-01-01

    The Bestrophin family has been characterized as Cl− channels in mammals and Na+ channels in bacteria, but their exact physiological roles remian unknown. In this study, a natural C-terminally truncated variant of mouse Bestrophin 3 (Best3V2) expression in myoblasts and muscles is demonstrated. Unlike full-length Best3, Best3V2 targets the two important intracellular Ca stores: the lysosome and the ER. Heterologous overexpression leads to lysosome swelling and renders it less acidic. Best3V2 o...

  11. A novel membrane-dependent on/off switch mechanism of talin FERM domain at sites of cell adhesion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianqiang Song; Jun Qin; Jun Yang; Jamila Hirbawi; Sheng Ye; H Dhanuja Perera; Esen Goksoy; Pallavi Dwivedi; Edward F Plow; Rongguang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The activation of heterodimeric (α/β) integrin transmembrane receptors by cytosolic protein talin is crucial for regulating diverse cell-adhesion-dependent processes,including blood coagulation,tissue remodeling,and cancer metastasis.This process is triggered by the coincident binding of N-terminal FERM (four-point-one-protein/ezrin/radixin/moesin) domain of talin (talin-FERM) to the inner membrane surface and integrin β cytoplasmic tail,but how these binding events are spatiotemporally regulated remains obscure.Here we report the crystal structure of a dormant talin,revealing how a C-terminal talin rod segment (talin-RS) self-masks a key integrin-binding site on talin-FERM via a large interface.Unexpectedly,the structure also reveals a distinct negatively charged surface on talin-RS that electrostatically hinders the talin-FERM binding to the membrane.Such a dual inhibitory topology for talin is consistent with the biochemical and functional data,but differs significantly from a previous model.We show that upon enrichment with phosphotidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) - a known talin activator,membrane strongly attracts a positively charged surface on talin-FERM and simultaneously repels the negatively charged surface on talin-RS.Such an electrostatic "pull-push" process promotes the relief of the dual inhibition of talin-FERM,which differs from the classic "steric clash" model for conventional PIP2-induced FERM domain activation.These data therefore unravel a new type of membrane-dependent FERM domain regulation and illustrate how it mediates the talin on/off switches to regulate integrin transmembrane signaling and cell adhesion.

  12. Cytoplasmic inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum L. autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobacco pollen grains were labelled with leucine 14C, part then being used for artificial pollination of specific Nicotiana lines, while the rest were processed directly, as controls, for light and electron microscopy and autoradiography. The apparent differences in silver grain density observed in the controls may be related to the different physiological states of pollen grains during labelling. A radioactive precursor does not impair the viability and fertility of pollen grains. Samples taken and observed at successive intervals after pollination allowed the monitoring of cytoplasmic transmission to the embryo sac. The cytoplasmic materials remain confined within the micropylar canal and the embryo sac for several days after pollination. The tagged mitochondria found in the embryo sac are not necessarily of male origin, since the radioactive materials they contain might be products of metabolism. (author)

  13. Cytoplasmic Dynein Promotes HIV-1 Uncoating

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Pawlica; Lionel Berthoux

    2014-01-01

    Retroviral capsid (CA) cores undergo uncoating during their retrograde transport (toward the nucleus), and/or after reaching the nuclear membrane. However, whether HIV-1 CA core uncoating is dependent upon its transport is not understood. There is some evidence that HIV-1 cores retrograde transport involves cytoplasmic dynein complexes translocating on microtubules. Here we investigate the role of dynein-dependent transport in HIV-1 uncoating. To interfere with dynein function, we depleted d...

  14. The nuclear protein Sam68 is recruited to the cytoplasmic stress granules during enterovirus 71 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Chen, Ning; Li, Pengfei; Pan, Ziye; Ding, Yun; Zou, Dehua; Li, Liyang; Xiao, Lijie; Shen, Binglei; Liu, Shuxia; Cao, Hongwei; Cui, Yudong

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study found that the nuclear protein, 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis protein (Sam68), is translocated to the cytoplasm and forms punctate pattern during enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection [Virus Research, 180 (2014), 1-11]. However, the exact function of this punctate pattern in cytoplasm during EV71 infection remains unknown. In this study, we firstly have examined this punctate pattern of Sam68 re-localization in the cytoplasm, and observed the obvious recruitments of Sam68 to the EV71-induced stress granules (SGs). Sam68, belongs to the KH domain family of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), was then confirmed that its KH domain was essential for this recruitment. Nevertheless, Knockdown of Sam68 expression using ShRNA had no effects on SGs assembly, indicating that Sam68 is not a constitutive component of the SGs during EV71 infection. Lastly, we investigated the importance of microtubulin transport to SGs aggregation, and revealed that microtubule depolymerization inhibited SGs formation, suggesting that EV71-induced SGs move throughout the cytoplasm in a microtubule-dependent manner. Taken together, these results illuminated that EV71 infections can induce SGs formation, and Sam68, as a SGs component, migrates alone with SGs dependent on intact microtubule upon the viral infections. These findings may provide novel underlying mechanism for delineating the role of SGs during EV71 infection. PMID:27057671

  15. Enhancement of photophysical and photosensitizing properties of flavin adenine dinucleotide by mutagenesis of the C-terminal extension of a bacterial flavodoxin reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Lorena; Abatedaga, Inés; Vieyra, Faustino E Morán; Bortolotti, Ana; Cortez, Néstor; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2015-03-16

    The role of the mobile C-terminal extension present in Rhodobacter capsulatus ferredoxin-NADP(H) reductase (RcFPR) was evaluated using steady-state and dynamic spectroscopies for both intrinsic Trp and FAD in a series of mutants in the absence of NADP(H). Deletion of the six C-terminal amino acids beyond Ala266 was combined with the replacement A266Y to emulate the structure of plastidic reductases. Our results show that these modifications of the wild-type RcFPR produce subtle global conformational changes, but strongly reduce the local rigidity of the FAD-binding pocket, exposing the isoalloxazine ring to the solvent. Thus, the ultrafast charge-transfer quenching of (1) FAD* by the conserved Tyr66 residue was absent in the mutant series, producing enhancement of the excited singlet- and triplet-state properties of FAD. This work highlights the delicate balance of the specific interactions between FAD and the surrounding amino acids, and how the functionality and/or photostability of redox flavoproteins can be modified. PMID:25641205

  16. Order through disorder: hyper-mobile C-terminal residues stabilize the folded state of a helical peptide. a molecular dynamics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi K Patapati

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom has it that the presence of disordered regions in the three-dimensional structures of polypeptides not only does not contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of their folded state, but, on the contrary, that the presence of disorder leads to a decrease of the corresponding proteins' stability. We have performed extensive 3.4 µs long folding simulations (in explicit solvent and with full electrostatics of an undecamer peptide of experimentally known helical structure, both with and without its disordered (four residue long C-terminal tail. Our simulations clearly indicate that the presence of the apparently disordered (in structural terms C-terminal tail, increases the thermodynamic stability of the peptide's folded (helical state. These results show that at least for the case of relatively short peptides, the interplay between thermodynamic stability and the apparent structural stability can be rather subtle, with even disordered regions contributing significantly to the stability of the folded state. Our results have clear implications for the understanding of peptide energetics and the design of foldable peptides.

  17. C-Terminal Charge-Reversal Derivatization and Parallel Use of Multiple Proteases Facilitates Identification of Protein C-Termini by C-Terminomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Prasath; Koudelka, Tomas; Linke, Dennis; Tholey, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The identification of protein C-termini in complex proteomes is challenging due to the poor ionization efficiency of the carboxyl group. Amidating the negatively charged C-termini with ethanolamine (EA) has been suggested to improve the detection of C-terminal peptides and allows for a directed depletion of internal peptides after proteolysis using carboxyl reactive polymers. In the present study, the derivatization with N,N-dimethylethylenediamine (DMEDA) and (4-aminobutyl)guanidine (AG) leading to a positively charged C-terminus was investigated. C-terminal charge-reversed peptides showed improved coverage of b- and y-ion series in the MS/MS spectra compared to their noncharged counterparts. DMEDA-derivatized peptides resulted in many peptides with charge states of 3+, which benefited from ETD fragmentation. This makes the charge-reversal strategy particularly useful for the analysis of protein C-termini, which may also be post-translationally modified. The labeling strategy and the indirect enrichment of C-termini worked with similar efficiency for both DMEDA and EA, and their applicability was demonstrated on an E. coli proteome. Utilizing two proteases and different MS/MS activation mechanisms allowed for the identification of >400 C-termini, encompassing both canonical and truncated C-termini. PMID:26939532

  18. Ultrahigh and High Resolution Structures and Mutational Analysis of Monomeric Streptococcus pyogenes SpeB Reveal a Functional Role for the Glycine-rich C-terminal Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Páez, Gonzalo E.; Wolan, Dennis W. (Scripps)

    2012-09-05

    Cysteine protease SpeB is secreted from Streptococcus pyogenes and has been studied as a potential virulence factor since its identification almost 70 years ago. Here, we report the crystal structures of apo mature SpeB to 1.06 {angstrom} resolution as well as complexes with the general cysteine protease inhibitor trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and a novel substrate mimetic peptide inhibitor. These structures uncover conformational changes associated with maturation of SpeB from the inactive zymogen to its active form and identify the residues required for substrate binding. With the use of a newly developed fluorogenic tripeptide substrate to measure SpeB activity, we determined IC{sub 50} values for trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido(4-guanidino)butane and our new peptide inhibitor and the effects of mutations within the C-terminal active site loop. The structures and mutational analysis suggest that the conformational movements of the glycine-rich C-terminal loop are important for the recognition and recruitment of biological substrates and release of hydrolyzed products.

  19. α1-antitrypsin and its C-terminal fragment attenuate effects of degranulated neutrophil-conditioned medium on lung cancer HCC cells, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westin Ulla

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor microenvironment, which is largely affected by inflammatory cells, is a crucial participant in the neoplastic process through promotion of cell proliferation, survival and migration. We measured the effects of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN conditioned medium alone, and supplemented with serine proteinase inhibitor α-1 antitrypsin (AAT or its C-terminal fragment (C-36 peptide, on cultured lung cancer cells. Methods Lung cancer HCC cells were grown in a regular medium or in a PMN-conditioned medium in the presence or absence of AAT (0.5 mg/ml or its C-36 peptide (0.06 mg/ml for 24 h. Cell proliferation, invasiveness and release of IL-8 and VEGF were analyzed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation, Matrigel invasion and ELISA methods, respectively. Results Cells exposed to PMN-conditioned medium show decreased proliferation and IL-8 release by 3.9-fold, p Conclusions Our data provide evidence that neutrophil derived factors decrease lung cancer HCC cell proliferation and IL-8 release, but increase cell invasiveness. These effects were found to be modulated by exogenously present serine proteinase inhibitor, AAT, and its C-terminal fragment, which points to a complexity of the relationships between tumor cell biological activities and local microenvironment.

  20. Crystal structure of the fibrinogen-like recognition domain of FIBCD1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper Bonnet; Schlosser, Anders; Sørensen, Grith Lykke;

    The high resolution crystal structures of a recombinant fragment of the C-terminal fibrinogen-related domain of FIBCD1, a vertebrate chitin receptor, have been determined. The overall structure shows similarity in structure and aggregation to the homologous innate immune protein tachylectin 5A...