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Sample records for c-jun nh2-terminal kinase

  1. cJun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1): roles in metabolic regulation of insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sabio, Guadalupe; Davis, Roger J

    2010-01-01

    The cJun NH2-terminal kinase isoform JNK1 is implicated in the mechanism of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Feeding a high fat diet causes activation of the JNK1 signaling pathway, insulin resistance, and obesity in mice. Germ-line ablation of Jnk1 prevents both diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Genetic analysis indicates that the effects of JNK1 on insulin resistance can be separated from effects of JNK1 on obesity. Emerging research indicates that JNK1 plays multiple roles in...

  2. Protein kinase B/Akt activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase by increasing NO production in response to shear stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Y. M.; Boo, Y. C.; Park, H.; Maland, M. C.; Patel, R.; Pritchard, K. A. Jr; Fujio, Y.; Walsh, K.; Darley-Usmar, V.; Jo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Laminar shear stress activates c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) by the mechanisms involving both nitric oxide (NO) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Because protein kinase B (Akt), a downstream effector of PI3K, has been shown to phosphorylate and activate endothelial NO synthase, we hypothesized that Akt regulates shear-dependent activation of JNK by stimulating NO production. Here, we examined the role of Akt in shear-dependent NO production and JNK activation by expressing a dominant negative Akt mutant (Akt(AA)) and a constitutively active mutant (Akt(Myr)) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). As expected, pretreatment of BAEC with the PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) prevented shear-dependent stimulation of Akt and NO production. Transient expression of Akt(AA) in BAEC by using a recombinant adenoviral construct inhibited the shear-dependent stimulation of NO production and JNK activation. However, transient expression of Akt(Myr) by using a recombinant adenoviral construct did not induce JNK activation. This is consistent with our previous finding that NO is required, but not sufficient on its own, to activate JNK in response to shear stress. These results and our previous findings strongly suggest that shear stress triggers activation of PI3K, Akt, and endothelial NO synthase, leading to production of NO, which (along with O(2-), which is also produced by shear) activates Ras-JNK pathway. The regulation of Akt, NO, and JNK by shear stress is likely to play a critical role in its antiatherogenic effects.

  3. Activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase is required for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-induced apoptosis but not for virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shutao; Huo, Yazhen; Dong, Yinhui; Fan, Lihong; Yang, Hanchun; Wang, Leyuan; Ning, Yibao; Hu, Hongbo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis of host cells plays a critical role in pathogenesis of virus infection. MAPK kinases especially stress-activated protein kinases c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) and p38 are often involved in virus-mediated apoptosis. It has been shown that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection resulted in apoptosis of the host cells both in vitro and in vivo. The current investigation was initiated to determine whether stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38 play a role in apoptosis induction by PRRSV infection. We examined phosphorylation of JNK and p38, and found that JNK but not p38 was activated in response to PRRSV infection. We then examined effects of this kinase on apoptosis induction and virus replication by using specific inhibitor. We found that JNK inhibition by its inhibitor SP600125 led to the abolishment of PRRSV-mediated apoptosis, but did not suppress virus replication. Further studies demonstrated that ROS generation was involved in JNK activation, and Bcl-2 family anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-xl were downstream targets of JNK to mediate apoptosis. We conclude that activation of JNK signaling pathway is essential for PRRSV-mediated apoptosis but not for virus replication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-dependent upregulation of DR5 mediates cooperative induction of apoptosis by perifosine and TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Georgia Z

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perifosine, an alkylphospholipid tested in phase II clinical trials, modulates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway and cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL to augment apoptosis. The current study focuses on revealing the mechanisms by which perifosine enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Results The combination of perifosine and TRAIL was more active than each single agent alone in inducing apoptosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and inhibiting the growth of xenografts. Interestingly, perifosine primarily increased cell surface levels of DR5 although it elevated the expression of both DR4 and DR5. Blockade of DR5, but not DR4 upregulation, via small interfering RNA (siRNA inhibited perifosine/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Perifosine increased phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK and c-Jun levels, which were paralleled with DR4 and DR5 induction. However, only DR5 upregulaiton induced by perifosine could be abrogated by both the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and JNK siRNA. The antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine and glutathione, but not vitamin C or tiron, inhibited perifosine-induced elevation of p-c-Jun, DR4 and DR5. Moreover, no increased production of reactive oxygen species was detected in perifosine-treated cells although reduced levels of intracellular GSH were measured. Conclusions DR5 induction plays a critical role in mediating perifosine/TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Perifosine induces DR5 expression through a JNK-dependent mechanism independent of reactive oxygen species.

  5. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue but not nuclear factor-kappaB activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is an independent determinant of insulin resistance in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sourris, Karly C; Lyons, Jasmine G; de Courten, Maximilian

    2009-01-01

    Chronic low-grade activation of the immune system (CLAIS) predicts type 2 diabetes via a decrease in insulin sensitivity. Our study investigated potential relationships between nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways-two pathways proposed as the link between...

  6. Antinociceptive Effect of Najanalgesin from Naja Naja Atra in a Neuropathic Pain Model via Inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying-Xia; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Zhang, Rui

    2015-09-05

    Najanalgesin, a toxin isolated from the venom of Naja naja atra, has been shown to exert significant analgesic effects in a neuropathic pain model in rats. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this protective effect of najanalgesin is poorly understood. The present study sought to evaluate the intracellular signaling pathways that are involved in the antinociceptive effect of najanalgesin on neuropathic pain. The antinociceptive properties of najanalgesin were tested in hind paw withdrawal thresholds in response to mechanical stimulation. We analyzed the participation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38, extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by western blot analysis. This inhibition of JNK was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The phosphorylation levels of JNK (as well as its downstream molecule c-Jun), p38, and ERK were significantly increased after injury. Najanalgesin only inhibited JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation but had no effect on either ERK or p38. This inhibition of JNK was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which suggested that the antinociceptive effect of najanalgesin on spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain in rats is associated with JNK activation in the spinal cord. The antinociceptive effect of najanalgesin functions by inhibiting the JNK in a neuropathic pain model.

  7. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 and endoplasmic reticulum stress as interdependent and reciprocal causation in diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezheng; Xu, Cheng; Yang, Peixin

    2013-02-01

    Embryos exposed to high glucose exhibit aberrant maturational and cytoarchitectural cellular changes, implicating cellular organelle stress in diabetic embryopathy. c-Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) activation is a causal event in maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTD). However, the relationship between JNK1/2 activation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in diabetic embryopathy has never been explored. We found that maternal diabetes significantly increased ER stress markers and induced swollen/enlarged ER lumens in embryonic neuroepithelial cells during neurulation. Deletion of either jnk1 or jnk2 gene diminished hyperglycemia-increased ER stress markers and ER chaperone gene expression. In embryos cultured under high-glucose conditions (20 mmol/L), the use of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA), an ER chemical chaperone, diminished ER stress markers and abolished the activation of JNK1/2 and its downstream transcription factors, caspase 3 and caspase 8, and Sox1 neural progenitor apoptosis. Consequently, both 1 and 2 mmol/L 4-PBA significantly ameliorated high glucose-induced NTD. We conclude that hyperglycemia induces ER stress, which is responsible for the proapoptotic JNK1/2 pathway activation, apoptosis, and NTD induction. Suppressing JNK1/2 activation by either jnk1 or jnk2 gene deletion prevents ER stress. Thus, our study reveals a reciprocal causation of ER stress and JNK1/2 in mediating the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes.

  8. Docosahexaenoic acid downregulates phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P450 2B1 gene expression in rat primary hepatocytes via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chia-Yang; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Kai-Li; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play central roles in the transduction of extracellular stimuli into cells and the regulation of expression of numerous genes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was shown to be involved in the regulation of expression of drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) in rat primary hepatocytes in response to xenobiotics. Cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP 2B1) is a DME that is dramatically induced by phenobarbital-type inducers. The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a critical role in regulating the expression of DMEs, and the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of CAR is an important event in CYP 2B1 expression. In the present study, we determined the effect of DHA on MAPK transactivation and its role in CYP 2B1 expression induced by phenobarbital. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 were activated by phenobarbital in a dose-dependent manner. DHA (100 muM) inhibited JNK1/2 and ERK2 activation induced by phenobarbital in a time-dependent manner. Both SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) inhibited CYP 2B1 protein and mRNA expression induced by phenobarbital. SB203580 significantly increased the intracellular 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentration compared with a control group (p expression induced by phenobarbital.

  9. Modulation of c-Jun NH2-Terminal (JNK) by Cholinergic Autoantibodies from Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Borda, Enri Santiago; Passafaro, Daniela; Reina, Silvia; Sterin Borda, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Background: We wanted to determine (via an immunopharmacological approach) whether the c-Jun NH2 terminal kinase (JNK) cascade is phosphorylated in the submandibular gland by carbachol and cholinergic autoantibodies (IgG) present in the sera of patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) by interaction and activation of salivary gland muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Methods: The JNK, PGE2 and NOS assays were measured in rat sub- mandibular gland with pSS IgG and carbachol alon...

  10. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase regulate the accumulation of a tight junction protein, ZO-1, in cell-cell contacts in HaCaT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakami, Masahiko; Kitagawa, Norio; Iida, Hiroshi; Anan, Hisashi; Inai, Tetsuichiro

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the involvement of stress-activated protein kinases, JNK and p38 MAPK, in the assembly of tight junctions in keratinocytes, we treated HaCaT cells with various combinations of SP600125 (an inhibitor of JNK), SB202190 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK) and anisomycin (an activator of both JNK and p38 MAPK) and examined the localization of ZO-1, an undercoat constitutive protein of the tight junction. Short-term (8h) incubation with SP600125, SB202190 or anisomycin induced the accumulation of ZO-1 in the cell-cell contacts, with reduced ZO-1 staining in the cytoplasm, while only long-term (24h) incubation with SP600125 induced the accumulation of ZO-1. SP600125, SB202190 or SP600125 plus SB202190 treatment induced thin linear staining for ZO-1 in the cell-cell contacts. Anisomycin treatment induced thick and irregular linear staining for ZO-1, while anisomycin plus SP600125 treatment induced zipper-like staining for ZO-1. Anisomycin plus SB202190 treatment or anisomycin plus both SP600125 and SB202190 treatment for 8h failed to lead to the accumulation of ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts, but induced thin linear staining with several gaps 16 h after removal of these agents. These results suggest that the localization of ZO-1 in cell-cell contacts is differently regulated by activation and inhibition of JNK and/or p38 MAPK depending on the incubation period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TAK1 Participates in c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Signaling during Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Stapleton, Mark; Danos, Maria C.; Matsumoto, Kunihiro; O'Connor, Michael B.; Shibuya, Hiroshi; Ueno, Naoto

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is a member of the MAPKKK superfamily and has been characterized as a component of the TGF-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway. TAK1 function has been extensively studied in cultured cells, but its in vivo function is not fully understood. In this study, we isolated a Drosophila homolog of TAK1 (dTAK1) which contains an extensively conserved NH2-terminal kinase domain and a partially conserved COOH-terminal domain. To learn about possible endogenous roles of TAK1 during animal development, we generated transgenic flies which express dTAK1 or the mouse TAK1 (mTAK1) gene in the fly visual system. Ectopic activation of TAK1 signaling leads to a small eye phenotype, and genetic analysis reveals that this phenotype is a result of ectopically induced apoptosis. Genetic and biochemical analyses also indicate that the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is specifically activated by TAK1 signaling. Expression of a dominant negative form of dTAK during embryonic development resulted in various embryonic cuticle defects including dorsal open phenotypes. Our results strongly suggest that in Drosophila melanogaster, TAK1 functions as a MAPKKK in the JNK signaling pathway and participates in such diverse roles as control of cell shape and regulation of apoptosis. PMID:10757786

  12. Transforming growth factor-β1 downregulates vascular endothelial growth factor-D expression in human lung fibroblasts via the Jun NH2-terminal kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ye; Osorio, Juan C; Risquez, Cristobal; Wang, Hao; Shi, Ying; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Morse, Danielle; Rosas, Ivan O; El-Chemaly, Souheil

    2014-03-20

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a member of the VEGF family, induces both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis by activating VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and VEGFR-3 on the surface of endothelial cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been shown to stimulate VEGF-A expression in human lung fibroblast via the Smad3 signaling pathway and to induce VEGF-C in human proximal tubular epithelial cells. However, the effects of TGF-β1 on VEGF-D regulation are unknown. To investigate the regulation of VEGF-D, human lung fibroblasts were studied under pro-fibrotic conditions in vitro and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) lung tissue. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 downregulates VEGF-D expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human lung fibroblasts. This TGF-β1 effect can be abolished by inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor kinase and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), but not by Smad3 knockdown. In addition, VEGF-D knockdown in human lung fibroblasts induces G1/S transition and promotes cell proliferation. Importantly, VEGF-D protein expression is decreased in lung homogenates from IPF patients compared with control lung. In IPF lung sections, fibroblastic foci show very weak VEGF-D immunoreactivity, whereas VEGF-D is abundantly expressed within alveolar interstitial cells in control lung. Taken together, our data identify a novel mechanism for downstream signal transduction induced by TGF-β1 in lung fibroblasts, through which they may mediate tissue remodeling in IPF.

  13. Impaired jun-NH2-terminal kinase activation by ultraviolet irradiation in fibroblasts of patients with Cockayne syndrome complementation group B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, V; Adler, V; Lehmann, A; Ronai, Z

    1996-06-01

    c-jun-NH2 kinases (JNK) are among the UV-activated protein kinases that play an important role in cellular stress response via the phosphorylation of c-jun, ATF2, and p53. Activation of JNK by UV irradiation requires cooperation between membrane and nuclear components, including DNA lesions per se. The role of DNA lesions in JNK activation led us to explore the inducibility of these kinases in cells of repair-deficient patients. Analyses of primary fibroblast cell lines from patients with Cockayne Syndrome of complementation group B (CS-B) revealed poor JNK activation after UV irradiation in four of five cases when compared with three repair-proficient, normal human fibroblast cell lines. Impaired ability to activate JNK persisted at various time points and with different doses of UV irradiation and coincided with failure of in vitro damaged DNA to activate these kinases. In contrast to UV irradiation, other forms of stress, such as H2O2 or heat shock were capable of inducing JNK activation in CS-B cells. Interestingly, when UV irradiation was administered after osmotic shock, it led to JNK activation in CS-B cells, indicating that alternate signal transduction pathways that are activated in response to other forms of stress can potentiate JNK activation by UV irradiation. Unlike CS-B cells, those of other repair-deficient cells, including xeroderma pigmentosum of different complementation groups, revealed proper activation of JNK by UV irradiation. Together, our findings point to deficiency of JNK activation by UV irradiation in CS-B cells, a phenomenon which may be associated with impaired CS-B, the mutant repair gene in these patients.

  14. c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0431 TITLE: “c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ” PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE “c-jun-N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Scelerosis” 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER... Lateral   Sclerosis ”   Final  Report:  Project  Period  Sept  2012-­‐Dec  2014     Personnel  List:     Feng,  Yangbo

  15. Correlation between spina bifida manifesta in fetal rats and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinghuan; Bao, Yongxin; Li, Chenghao; Jiao, Fubin; Xin, Hongjie; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2012-01-01

    Fetal rat models with neural tube defects were established by injection with retinoic acid at 10 days after conception. The immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis showed that the number of caspase-3 positive cells in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta was increased. There was also increased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation level was positively correlated with caspase-3 expression in myeloid tissues for spina bifida manifesta. Experimental findings indicate that abnormal apoptosis is involved in retinoic acid-induced dominant spina bifida formation in fetal rats, and may be associated with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signal transduction pathway. PMID:25337099

  16. Evolutionary conserved role of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase in CO2-induced epithelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Vadász

    Full Text Available Elevated CO(2 levels (hypercapnia occur in patients with respiratory diseases and impair alveolar epithelial integrity, in part, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function. Here, we examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in CO(2 signaling in mammalian alveolar epithelial cells as well as in diptera, nematodes and rodent lungs. In alveolar epithelial cells, elevated CO(2 levels rapidly induced activation of JNK leading to downregulation of Na,K-ATPase and alveolar epithelial dysfunction. Hypercapnia-induced activation of JNK required AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and protein kinase C-ζ leading to subsequent phosphorylation of JNK at Ser-129. Importantly, elevated CO(2 levels also caused a rapid and prominent activation of JNK in Drosophila S2 cells and in C. elegans. Paralleling the results with mammalian epithelial cells, RNAi against Drosophila JNK fully prevented CO(2-induced downregulation of Na,K-ATPase in Drosophila S2 cells. The importance and specificity of JNK CO(2 signaling was additionally demonstrated by the ability of mutations in the C. elegans JNK homologs, jnk-1 and kgb-2 to partially rescue the hypercapnia-induced fertility defects but not the pharyngeal pumping defects. Together, these data provide evidence that deleterious effects of hypercapnia are mediated by JNK which plays an evolutionary conserved, specific role in CO(2 signaling in mammals, diptera and nematodes.

  17. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNKs) Are Critical Mediators of Osteoblast Activity In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ren; Zhang, Chao; Shin, Dong Yeon; Kim, Jung-Min; Lalani, Sarfaraz; Li, Na; Yang, Yeon-Suk; Liu, Yifang; Eiseman, Mark; Davis, Roger J; Shim, Jae-Hyuck; Greenblatt, Matthew B

    2017-09-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are ancient and evolutionarily conserved regulators of proliferation, differentiation, and cell death responses. Currently, in vitro studies offer conflicting data about whether the JNK pathway augments or represses osteoblast differentiation, and the contribution of the JNK pathway to regulation of bone mass in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that Jnk1-/- mice display severe osteopenia due to impaired bone formation, whereas Jnk2-/- mice display a mild osteopenia only evident in long bones. In order to both confirm that these effects were osteoblast intrinsic and assess whether redundancy with JNK1 masks a potential contribution of JNK2, mice with a conditional deletion of both JNK1 and JNK2 floxed conditional alleles in osteoblasts (Jnk1-2osx ) were bred. These mice displayed a similar degree of osteopenia to Jnk1-/- mice due to decreased bone formation. In vitro, Jnk1-/- osteoblasts display a selective defect in the late stages of osteoblast differentiation with impaired mineralization activity. Downstream of JNK1, phosphorylation of JUN is impaired in Jnk1-/- osteoblasts. Transcriptome analysis showed that JNK1 is required for upregulation of several osteoblast-derived proangiogenic factors such as IGF2 and VEGFa. Accordingly, JNK1 deletion results in a significant reduction skeletal vasculature in mice. Taken together, this study establishes that JNK1 is a key mediator of osteoblast function in vivo and in vitro. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Involvement of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in TNF-α-Driven Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eurlings, Irene M J; Reynaert, Niki L; van de Wetering, Cheryl; Aesif, Scott W; Mercken, Evi M; de Cabo, Rafael; van der Velden, Jos L; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dentener, Mieke A

    2017-03-01

    Lung tissue remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airway wall thickening and/or emphysema. Although the bronchial and alveolar compartments are functionally independent entities, we recently showed comparable alterations in matrix composition comprised of decreased elastin content and increased collagen and hyaluronan contents of alveolar and small airway walls. Out of several animal models tested, surfactant protein C (SPC)-TNF-α mice showed remodeling in alveolar and airway walls similar to what we observed in patients with COPD. Epithelial cells are able to undergo a phenotypic shift, gaining mesenchymal properties, a process in which c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is involved. Therefore, we hypothesized that TNF-α induces JNK-dependent epithelial plasticity, which contributes to lung matrix remodeling. To this end, the ability of TNF-α to induce a phenotypic shift was assessed in A549, BEAS2B, and primary bronchial epithelial cells, and phenotypic markers were studied in SPC-TNF-α mice. Phenotypic markers of mesenchymal cells were elevated both in vitro and in vivo, as shown by the expression of vimentin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, collagen, and matrix metalloproteinases. Concurrently, the expression of the epithelial markers, E-cadherin and keratin 7 and 18, was attenuated. A pharmacological inhibitor of JNK attenuated this phenotypic shift in vitro, demonstrating involvement of JNK signaling in this process. Interestingly, activation of JNK signaling was also clearly present in lungs of SPC-TNF-α mice and patients with COPD. Together, these data show a role for TNF-α in the induction of a phenotypic shift in vitro, resulting in increased collagen production and the expression of elastin-degrading matrix metalloproteinases, and provide evidence for involvement of the TNF-α-JNK axis in extracellular matrix remodeling.

  19. Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway aggravates proteotoxicity of hepatic mutant Z alpha1-antitrypsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Nunzia; Attanasio, Sergio; Granese, Barbara; Castello, Raffaele; Teckman, Jeffrey; Wilson, Andrew A; Ballabio, Andrea; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic disease that can affect both the lung and the liver. The vast majority of patients harbor a mutation in the serine protease inhibitor 1A (SERPINA1) gene leading to a single amino acid substitution that results in an unfolded protein that is prone to polymerization. Alpha1-antitrypsin defciency-related liver disease is therefore caused by a gain-of-function mechanism due to accumulation of the mutant Z alpha1-antitrypsin (ATZ) and is a key example of an disease mechanism induced by protein toxicity. Intracellular retention of ATZ triggers a complex injury cascade including apoptosis and other mechanisms, although several aspects of the disease pathogenesis are still unclear. We show that ATZ induces activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun and that genetic ablation of JNK1 or JNK2 decreased ATZ levels in vivo by reducing c-Jun-mediated SERPINA1 gene expression. JNK activation was confirmed in livers of patients homozygous for the Z allele, with severe liver disease requiring hepatic transplantation. Treatment of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-hepatic cells with a JNK inhibitor reduced accumulation of ATZ. These data reveal that JNK is a key pathway in the disease pathogenesis and add new therapeutic entry points for liver disease caused by ATZ. (Hepatology 2017;65:1865-1874). © 2017 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Spinal release of tumour necrosis factor activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and mediates inflammation-induced hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, D B; Abdelmoaty, S; Sandor, K; Codeluppi, S; Fitzsimmons, B; Steinauer, J; Hua, X Y; Yaksh, T L; Svensson, C I

    2015-02-01

    Mounting evidence points to individual contributions of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway to the induction and maintenance of various pain states. Here we explore the role of spinal TNF and JNK in carrageenan-induced hypersensitivity. As links between TNF and JNK have been demonstrated in vitro, we investigated if TNF regulates spinal JNK activity in vivo. TNF levels in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, spinal TNF gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and TNF protein expression, JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation by western blotting. The role of spinal TNF and JNK in inflammation-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity was assessed by injecting the TNF inhibitor etanercept and the JNK inhibitors SP600125 and JIP-1 intrathecally (i.t.). TNF-mediated regulation of JNK activity was examined by assessing the effect of i.t. etanercept on inflammation-induced spinal JNK activity. TNF levels were increased in CSF and spinal cord following carrageenan-induced inflammation. While JNK phosphorylation followed the same temporal pattern as TNF, c-jun was only activated at later time points. Intrathecal injection of TNF and JNK inhibitors attenuated carrageenan-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. TNF stimulation induced JNK phosphorylation in cultured spinal astrocytes and blocking the spinal actions of TNF in vivo by i.t. injection of etanercept reduced inflammation-induced spinal JNK activity. Here we show that spinal JNK activity is dependent on TNF and that both TNF and the JNK signalling pathways modulate pain-like behaviour induced by peripheral inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Pain published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  1. Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Apoptosis by Gugulipid Extract of Ayurvedic Medicine Plant Commiphora mukul in Human Prostate Cancer Cells Is Regulated by c-Jun N-Terminal KinaseS⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V.

    2011-01-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC50 of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G0/G1-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis. PMID:21115635

  2. Reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis by gugulipid extract of Ayurvedic medicine plant Commiphora mukul in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dong; Zeng, Yan; Prakash, Lakshmi; Badmaev, Vladmir; Majeed, Muhammed; Singh, Shivendra V

    2011-03-01

    Gugulipid (GL), extract of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, has been used to treat a variety of ailments. We report an anticancer effect and mechanism of GL against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with GL significantly inhibited the viability of human prostate cancer cell line LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and its androgen-independent variant (C81) with an IC(50) of ∼1 μM (24-h treatment), at pharmacologically relevant concentrations standardized to its major active constituent z-guggulsterone. The GL-induced growth inhibition correlated with apoptosis induction as evidenced by an increase in cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA fragmentation and sub-G(0)/G(1)-DNA fraction, and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The GL-induced apoptosis was associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. The induction of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins Bax and Bak and a decrease of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein Bcl-2 were observed in GL-treated cells. SV40 immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from Bax-Bak double-knockout mice were significantly more resistant to GL-induced cell killing compared with wild-type cells. It is interesting to note that a representative normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC) was relatively more resistant to GL-mediated cellular responses compared with prostate cancer cells. The GL treatment caused the activation of JNK that functioned upstream of Bax activation in apoptosis response. The GL-induced conformational change of Bax and apoptosis were significantly suppressed by genetic suppression of JNK activation. In conclusion, the present study indicates that ROS-dependent apoptosis by GL is regulated by JNK signaling axis.

  3. Silymarin suppresses TNF-induced activation of NF-kappa B, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, S K; Mukhopadhyay, A; Van, N T; Aggarwal, B B

    1999-12-15

    Silymarin is a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that has anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anticarcinogenic effects. How silymarin produces these effects is not understood, but it may involve suppression of NF-kappa B, a nuclear transcription factor, which regulates the expression of various genes involved in inflammation, cytoprotection, and carcinogenesis. In this report, we investigated the effect of silymarin on NF-kappa B activation induced by various inflammatory agents. Silymarin blocked TNF-induced activation of NF-kappa B in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This effect was mediated through inhibition of phosphorylation and degradation of Iota kappa B alpha, an inhibitor of NF-kappa B. Silymarin blocked the translocation of p65 to the nucleus without affecting its ability to bind to the DNA. NF-kappa B-dependent reporter gene transcription was also suppressed by silymarin. Silymarin also blocked NF-kappa B activation induced by phorbol ester, LPS, okadaic acid, and ceramide, whereas H2O2-induced NF-kappa B activation was not significantly affected. The effects of silymarin on NF-kappa B activation were specific, as AP-1 activation was unaffected. Silymarin also inhibited the TNF-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and abrogated TNF-induced cytotoxicity and caspase activation. Silymarin suppressed the TNF-induced production of reactive oxygen intermediates and lipid peroxidation. Overall, the inhibition of activation of NF-kappa B and the kinases may provide in part the molecular basis for the anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of silymarin, and its effects on caspases may explain its role in cytoprotection.

  4. c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent apoptotic photocytotoxicity of solvent exchange-prepared curcumin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunovic, Verica; Ristic, Biljana; Markovic, Zoran; Todorovic-Markovic, Biljana; Kosic, Milica; Prekodravac, Jovana; Kravic-Stevovic, Tamara; Martinovic, Tamara; Micusik, Matej; Spitalsky, Zdeno; Trajkovic, Vladimir; Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica

    2016-04-01

    Indian spice curcumin is known for its anticancer properties, but the anticancer mechanisms of nanoparticulate curcumin have not been completely elucidated. We here investigated the in vitro anticancer effect of blue light (470 nm, 1 W)-irradiated curcumin nanoparticles prepared by tetrahydrofuran/water solvent exchange, using U251 glioma, B16 melanoma, and H460 lung cancer cells as targets. The size of curcumin nanocrystals was approximately 250 nm, while photoexcitation induced their oxidation and partial agglomeration. Although cell membrane in the absence of light was almost impermeable to curcumin nanoparticles, photoexcitation stimulated their internalization. While irradiation with blue light (1-8 min) or nanocurcumin (1.25-10 μg/ml) alone was only marginally toxic to tumor cells, photoexcited nanocurcumin displayed a significant cytotoxicity depending both on the irradiation time and nanocurcumin concentration. Photoexcited nanocurcumin induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation, and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, indicating apoptotic cell death. Accordingly, pharmacologial inhibition of JNK and caspase activity rescued cancer cells from photoexcited nanocurcumin. On the other hand, antioxidant treatment did not reduce photocytotoxicity of nanocurcumin, arguing against the involvement of oxidative stress. By demonstrating the ability of photoexcited nanocurcumin to induce oxidative-stress independent, JNK- and caspase-dependent apoptosis, our results support its further investigation in cancer therapy.

  5. A peptide fragment of ependymin neurotrophic factor uses protein kinase C and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway to activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase and a functional AP-1 containing c-Jun and c-Fos proteins in mouse NB2a cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David S; Hasson, Brendan; Boyer-Boiteau, Anne; El-Khishin, Adam; Shashoua, Victor E

    2003-05-01

    Ependymin (EPN) is a goldfish brain neurotrophic factor previously shown to function in a variety of cellular events related to long-term memory formation and neuronal regeneration. CMX-8933, an 8-amino-acid synthetic peptide fragment of EPN, was designed for aiding an investigation of the biological properties of this glycoprotein. We reported from previous studies that treatment of mouse neuroblastoma (NB2a) cultures with CMX-8933 promotes activation of transcription factor AP-1, a characteristic previously associated with the following full-length neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor, neurotropin-3, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The CMX-8933-activated AP-1 specifically bound an AP-1 consensus probe and appeared to contain c-Jun and c-Fos protein components in antibody supershift experiments. Because AP-1 influences a variety of positive and negative cellular processes, determined in part by its exact protein composition and mechanism of activation, we extended these initial AP-1 observations in the current study to confirm the identity of the CMX-8933-activated c-Jun and c-Fos components. CMX-8933 increases the enzymatic activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), increases the phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun proteins, and increases the cellular titers of c-Jun and c-Fos mRNAs. Furthermore, the AP-1 activated by CMX-8933 is functional, insofar as it transactivates both synthetic and natural AP-1-dependent reporter plasmids. Inhibition studies indicate that activation of the 8933-induced AP-1 occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These data are in agreement with the recently proposed model for the conversion of short- to long-term synaptic plasticity and memory, in which a JNK-activated transcription factor AP-1, containing c-Jun and c-Fos components, functions at the top of a hierarchy of transcription factors known to regulate long-term neural plasticity. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Signaling of mechanical stretch in human keratinocytes via MAP kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenberger, S; Bernd, A; Loitsch, S; Guschel, M; Müller, J; Bereiter-Hahn, J; Kaufmann, R

    2000-03-01

    Cells within human skin are permanently exposed to mechanical stretching. Here we present evidence that alterations in cell shape trigger biochemical signaling via MAP kinases in human keratinocytes. In an in vitro attempt we demonstrate a fast but transient activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in response to cell stretch. This activation is reversed by preincubation with functional blocking antibodies directed towards beta1-integrins. As a second member of MAP kinases, stress-activated protein kinase/c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase was activated in a slower fashion, peaking at 1 h after the initial stimulus. The delay in signal transmission suggests that extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase do not share the same signaling pathway. p38 was not activated by cell stretching. The contribution of cytoskeletal elements in signal perception and transduction was evaluated by selective disruption of either actin filaments, microtubules, or keratin filaments but showed no clear effect on stretch-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-JUN NH2-terminal kinase. In conclusion we found evidence of a cell-shape-dependent activation of MAP kinases in human keratinocytes disclosing beta1-integrins as putative mechano-transducers. It is likely that alterations of skin mechanics in vivo underlying pathogenic processes like wound formation and healing trigger physiologic responses via the MAP kinase pathway.

  7. Flavopiridol suppresses tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of activator protein-1, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p44/p42 MAPK, and Akt, inhibits expression of antiapoptotic gene products, and enhances apoptosis through cytochrome c release and caspase activation in human myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Yasunari; Sethi, Gautam; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2008-05-01

    Although flavopiridol, a semisynthetic flavone, was initially thought to be a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, it has now been shown that flavopiridol mediates antitumor responses through mechanism(s) yet to be defined. We have shown previously that flavopiridol abrogates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. In this report, we examined whether this flavone affects other cellular responses activated by TNF. TNF is a potent inducer of activator protein-1 (AP-1), and flavopiridol abrogated this activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Flavopiridol also suppressed AP-1 activation induced by various carcinogens and inflammatory stimuli. When examined for its effect on other signaling pathways, flavopiridol inhibited TNF-induced activation of various mitogen-activated protein kinases, including c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and p44/p42 MAPK. It is noteworthy that this flavone also suppressed TNF-induced activation of Akt, a cell survival kinase, and expression of various antiapoptotic proteins, such as IAP-1, IAP-2, XIAP, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and TRAF-1. Flavopiridol also inhibited the TNF-induced induction of intercellular adhesion molecule-1, c-Myc, and c-Fos, all known to mediate tumorigenesis. Moreover, TNF-induced apoptosis was enhanced by flavopiridol through activation of the bid-cytochrome-caspase-9-caspase-3 pathway. Overall, our results clearly suggest that flavopiridol interferes with the TNF cell-signaling pathway, leading to suppression of antiapoptotic mechanisms and enhancement of apoptosis.

  8. Phosphorylation of purified mitochondrial Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 modifies channel voltage-dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajeev; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2017-06-01

    Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) phosphorylated by c-Jun N-terminal Kinase-3 (JNK3) was incorporated into the bilayer lipid membrane. Single-channel electrophysiological properties of the native and the phosphorylated VDAC were compared. The open probability versus voltage curve of the native VDAC displayed symmetry around the voltage axis, whereas that of the phosphorylated VDAC showed asymmetry. This result indicates that phosphorylation by JNK3 modifies voltage-dependence of VDAC.

  9. Extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase, and c-Jun are involved in NF-kappa B-dependent IL-6 expression in human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyt, LML; Dokter, WHA; Birbenkamp, K; Koopmans, S.B.; Lummen, C; Kruijer, W; Vellenga, E

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family members extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating IL-6 gene expression in human monocytes, in particular their role in enhancing NF-kappa B

  10. c-Jun N-terminal kinase is required for thermotherapy-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Qing-Xian

    2012-12-28

    To investigate the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in thermotherapy-induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. Human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells were cultured in vitro. Following thermotherapy at 43°C for 0, 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 h, the cells were cultured for a further 24 h with or without the JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125 for 2 h. Apoptosis was evaluated by immunohistochemistry [terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)] and flow cytometry (Annexin vs propidium iodide). Cell proliferation was determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The production of p-JNK, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. The expression of JNK at mRNA level was determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The proliferation of gastric carcinoma SGC-7901 cells was significantly inhibited following thermotherapy, and was 32.7%, 30.6%, 43.8% and 52.9% at 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h post-thermotherapy, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an increased population of SGC-790l cells in G0/G1 phase, but a reduced population in S phase following thermotherapy for 1 or 2 h, compared to untreated cells (P thermotherapy for 0.5, 1, 2 or 3 h, compared to the untreated group (46.5% ± 0.23%, 39.9% ± 0.53%, 56.6% ± 0.35% and 50.4% ± 0.29% vs 7.3% ± 0.10%, P thermotherapy, compared to mock-inhibitor treatment, which was in line with the decreased rate of apoptosis. The expression of Bcl-2 was consistent with thermotherapy alone. Thermotherapy induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells by promoting p-JNK at the mRNA and protein levels, and up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase-3 proteins. Bcl-2 may play a protective role during thermotherapy. Activation of JNK via the Bax-caspase-3 pathway may be important in thermotherapy-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

  11. Resveratrol reduces prostaglandin E1-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts: suppression of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naohiro; Otsuka, Takanobu; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Kondo, Akira; Kainuma, Shingo; Nakakami, Akira; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Tokuda, Haruhiko

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol mainly existing in red grapes and berries, possesses beneficial effects on human being. We have previously reported that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulates vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis via activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) but not p44/p42 MAP kinase in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. In the present study, we investigated the PGE1-effect on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and the effect of resveratrol on the synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. PGE1 induced the expression levels of OPG mRNA and stimulated the OPG release. Resveratrol significantly reduced the PGE1-induced OPG release and the mRNA expression. SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, suppressed the release of OPG. The protein levels of SIRT1 were not up-regulated by resveratrol with or without PGE1. Both SB203580 and SP600125, a specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor and a specific SAPK/JNK inhibitor, respectively, but not PD98059, a specific MEK inhibitor, reduced the PGE1-stimulated OPG release. Resveratrol or SRT1720 failed to affect the phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase. On the contrary, PGE1-induced phosphorylation of SAPK/JNK was significantly attenuated by both resveratrol and SRT1720. Our results strongly suggest that resveratrol inhibits PGE1-stimulated OPG synthesis via suppressing SAPK/JNK but not p38 MAP kinase in osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. c-Jun N-terminal kinase negatively regulates epidermal growth factor-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husvik, Camilla; Bryne, Magne; Halstensen, Trond S

    2009-12-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in squamous cell carcinomas is mediated through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathways. Examination of a basaloid and a conventional oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line revealed that inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) with SP600125 increased EGF-induced (but not basal) COX-2 transcription 1.5-1.9-fold in extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathway-dependent manners. Although JNK may phosphorylate the cyclosporine A-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells c3, it was seemingly not involved because cyclosporine A did not reduce EGF-induced COX-2 expression. Thus, JNK negatively regulated EGF-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and/or p38-mediated COX-2 transcription, presumably through activating an unidentified phosphatase.

  13. Calcium has a permissive role in interleukin-1beta-induced c-jun N-terminal kinase activation in insulin-secreting cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Kapelioukh, Iouri L

    2005-01-01

    The c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway mediates IL-1beta-induced apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells, a mechanism relevant to the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells in type 1 and 2 diabetes. However, the mechanisms that contribute to IL-1beta activation of JNK in beta-cells are la......+) ionophore A23187, or exposure to thapsigargin, an inhibitor of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase, all caused an amplification of IL-1beta-induced JNK activation in INS-1 cells. Finally, a chelator of intracellular free Ca(2+) [bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid...

  14. [Regulating effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline on activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase pathway in rats with silicosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhong-qiu; Yu, Wan-ying; Feng, Hai-li; Ma, Wen-dong; Li, Zhi-guo; Xu, Hong; Wang, Rui-min; Yang, Fang

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the regulatory effect of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) on the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway and its role in silicotic fibrosis. A rat model of silicosis was developed by intratracheal instillation. Sixty rats were randomly divided into 4-week control group (n = 10), 8-week control group (n = 10), 4-week silicosis model group (n = 10), 8-week silicosis model group (n = 10), AcSDKP treatment group (n = 10), and AcSDKP prevention group (n = 10). The content of hydroxyproline in lung tissue was measured using a p-dimethylaminoben-zaldehyde reagent; the expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1 (TGF-β1), phospho-JNK, JNK, and c-jun in lung tissue were measured by Western blot. The lung fibroblasts from neonatal rats were cultured, and the 4th generation of cells were used in the experiment; these cells were divided into control group, TGF-β1 stimulation group, SP600125 intervention group, and AcSDKP intervention group. The distributions of phospho-JNK and c-jun in lung fibroblasts were observed by immunocytochemistry; the expression levels of type I collagen and type III collagen in lung fibroblasts were measured by Western blot. The expression levels of TGF-β1, phospho-JNK, and c-jun and the content of hydroxyproline in the AcSDKP treatment group were 70.60%, 78.03%, 79.85%, and 71.28%, respectively, of those in the 4-week silicosis model group (P silicosis model group (P silicosis model group (P < 0.05). The expression levels of phospho-JNK and c-jun in the AcSDKP intervention group were 54.59% and 55.56%, respectively, of those in the TGF-β1 stimulation group; the expression levels of type I collagen and type III collagen in the AcSDKP intervention group were 79.9% and 84.4%, respectively, of those in the TGF-β1 stimulation group (P < 0.05). AcSDKP exerts anti-silicotic fibrosis effect probably by inhibiting the activation of JNK signal transduction pathway mediated by

  15. Identification of a c-Jun N-terminal kinase-2-dependent signal amplification cascade that regulates c-Myc levels in ras transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, D.P.; Egebjerg, C.; Andersen, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    that is critical for ras transformation in murine embryonic fibroblasts. This cascade is coordinated by ERK and JNK2 MAPKs, whose Ras-mediated activation leads to the enhanced levels of three oncogenic transcription factors, namely, c-Myc, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and ATF3, all of which...... are essential for ras transformation. Previous studies show that ERK-mediated serine 62 phosphorylation protects c-Myc from proteasomal degradation. ERK is, however, not alone sufficient to stabilize c-Myc but requires the cooperation of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A), an oncogene......Ras is one of the most frequently activated oncogenes in cancer. Two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important for ras transformation: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2). Here we present a downstream signal amplification cascade...

  16. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Yoon Choe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL- RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6, JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout.

  17. Nintedanib modulates surfactant protein-D expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-activator protein-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Azuma, Arata; Matsuda, Kuniko; Ishii, Takeo; Inomata, Minoru; Hayashi, Hiroki; Kokuho, Nariaki; Fujita, Kazue; Saito, Yoshinobu; Miya, Toshimichi; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a high mortality rate. Signalling pathways activated by several tyrosine kinase receptors are known to be involved in lung fibrosis, and this knowledge has led to the development of the triple tyrosine kinase inhibitor nintedanib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), for the treatment of IPF. Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D), an important biomarker of IPF, reportedly attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. In this study, we investigated whether nintedanib modulates SP-D expression in human lung epithelial (A549) cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the effects of nintedanib, we evaluated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target c-Jun. The effect of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on c-Jun phosphorylation was also tested. Activation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based test, and cell proliferation assays were performed to estimate the effect of nintedanib on cell proliferation. Furthermore, we treated mice with nintedanib to examine its in vivo effect on SP-D levels in lungs. These experiments showed that nintedanib up-regulated SP-D messenger RNA expression in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations up to 5 μM, with significant SP-D induction observed at concentrations of 3 μM and 5 μM, in comparison with that observed in vehicle controls. Nintedanib stimulated a rapid increase in phosphorylated JNK in A549 cells within 30 min of treatment and stimulated c-Jun phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Additionally, nintedanib was found to activate AP-1. A549 cell proliferation was not affected by nintedanib at any of the tested

  18. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 expression in the retina of ocular hypertension mice: a possible target to reduce ganglion cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, a type of optic neuropathy, is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells. It remains controversial whether c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK participates in the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. This study sought to explore a possible mechanism of action of JNK signaling pathway in glaucoma-induced retinal optic nerve damage. We established a mouse model of chronic ocular hypertension by reducing the aqueous humor followed by photocoagulation using the laser ignition method. Results showed significant pathological changes in the ocular tissues after the injury. Apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells increased with increased intraocular pressure, as did JNK3 mRNA expression in the retina. These data indicated that the increased expression of JNK3 mRNA was strongly associated with the increase in intraocular pressure in the retina, and correlated positively with the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

  19. WNT6 promotes the migration and differentiation of human dental pulp cells partly through c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruimin; Wang, Chenglin; Tong, Juan; Su, Yingying; Lin, Yunfeng; Zhou, Xuedong; Ye, Ling

    2014-07-01

    During the dental pulp repair process, human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) migrate to injury sites where they may differentiate into odontoblastlike cells. WNT6 plays a role in dental development and can activate a noncanonical pathway including the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. The mechanism of WNT6 in dental pulp repair is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of the WNT6/JNK signaling pathway in the promotion of cell migration and the differentiation of HDPCs. The third passage of HDPCs were cultured in vitro and treated with WNT6 conditioned medium with or without the pretreatment of JNK inhibitor SP600125. The activation of JNK was detected by Western blot, the expression of c-Jun was quantified by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the migration of HDPCs was determined by wound healing and transwell migration assays, and the differentiation of HDPCs was investigated using alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red staining. The expression of odontogenesis-related genes such as Runt-related transcription factor 2, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein 1 was quantified. WNT6 activates the JNK pathway in HDPCs and enhances cell migration, mineralization nodule formation, and alkaline phosphatase activation. WNT6 also increases the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein messenger RNA in HDPCs. Blockage of the JNK pathway in HDPCs decreases but does not completely abolish the cell migration and differentiation capacity induced by WNT6. WNT6 activates the JNK signaling pathway in HDPCs, leading to migration and differentiation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Anthrax lethal toxin rapidly reduces c-Jun levels by inhibiting c-Jun gene transcription and promoting c-Jun protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Weiming; Guo, Pengfei; Fang, Hui; Frucht, David M

    2017-10-27

    Anthrax is a life-threatening disease caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis , which expresses lethal factor and the receptor-binding protective antigen. These two proteins combine to form anthrax lethal toxin (LT), whose proximal targets are mitogen-activated kinase kinases (MKKs). However, the downstream mediators of LT toxicity remain elusive. Here we report that LT exposure rapidly reduces the levels of c-Jun, a key regulator of cell proliferation and survival. Blockade of proteasome-dependent protein degradation with the 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 largely restored c-Jun protein levels, suggesting that LT promotes degradation of c-Jun protein. Using the MKK1/2 inhibitor U0126, we further show that MKK1/2-Erk1/2 pathway inactivation similarly reduces c-Jun protein, which was also restored by MG132 pre-exposure. Interestingly, c-Jun protein rebounded to normal levels 4 h following U0126 exposure but not after LT exposure. The restoration of c-Jun in U0126-exposed cells was associated with increased c-Jun mRNA levels and was blocked by inactivation of the JNK1/2 signaling pathway. These results indicate that LT reduces c-Jun both by promoting c-Jun protein degradation via inactivation of MKK1/2-Erk1/2 signaling and by blocking c-Jun gene transcription via inactivation of MKK4-JNK1/2 signaling. In line with the known functions of c-Jun, LT also inhibited cell proliferation. Ectopic expression of LT-resistant MKK2 and MKK4 variants partially restored Erk1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling in LT-exposed cells, enabling the cells to maintain relatively normal c-Jun protein levels and cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings indicate that LT reduces c-Jun protein levels via two distinct mechanisms, thereby inhibiting critical cell functions, including cellular proliferation.

  1. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase is essential for mitochondrial membrane potential change and apoptosis induced by doxycycline in melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Huang, Tur-Fu; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chou, Kuan-Hsien; Tsai, Yih-Jeng; Wu, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tetracyclines were recently found to induce tumour cell death, but the early processes involved in this cytotoxic effect remain unclear. Experimental approach: Viability of human and mouse melanoma cells was determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Kinase/protein/caspase activation was measured by Western blotting and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Key results: Human and mouse melanoma cells were treated with doxycycline or minocycline but only doxycycline was cytotoxic. This cell death (apoptosis) in A2058 cells involved activation of caspase-3, -7 and -9 and contributed to inhibition, by doxycycline, of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and migration of these cells. Doxycycline induced intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, apoptosis signal-regulated kinase 1 (ASK1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation at an early stage of treatment and induced mitochondrial cytochrome c release into cytosol and ΔΨm change during apoptosis. The JNK inhibitor/small interference RNA inhibited doxycycline-induced JNK activation, ΔΨm change and apoptosis, but did not affect ASK1 activation, suggesting a role of ASK1 for JNK activation in melanoma cell apoptosis. Two ROS scavengers reduced doxycycline-induced JNK and caspase activation, and apoptosis. Taken together, the results suggest the involvement of a ROS-ASK1-JNK pathway in doxycycline-induced melanoma cell apoptosis. Conclusions and implications: We have shown a promising cytotoxic effect of doxycycline on melanoma cells, have identified ROS and ASK1 as the possible initiators and have demonstrated that JNK activation is necessary for doxycycline-induced melanoma cell apoptosis. PMID:20590610

  2. Rhinovirus infection causes steroid resistance in airway epithelium through nuclear factor κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Alberto; Contoli, Marco; Adcock, Ian M; Bellettato, Cinzia; Padovani, Anna; Casolari, Paolo; Stanciu, Luminita A; Barnes, Peter J; Johnston, Sebastian L; Ito, Kazuhiro; Caramori, Gaetano

    2013-11-01

    Although inhaled glucocorticoids are the mainstays of asthma treatment, they are poorly effective at treating and preventing virus-induced asthma exacerbations. The major viruses precipitating asthma exacerbations are rhinoviruses. We sought to evaluate whether rhinovirus infection interferes with the mechanisms of action of glucocorticoids. Cultured primary human bronchial or transformed (A549) respiratory epithelial cells were infected with rhinovirus 16 (RV-16) before dexamethasone exposure. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) α nuclear translocation, glucocorticoid response element (GRE) binding, and transactivation/transrepression functional readouts were evaluated by using immunocytochemistry, Western blotting, DNA binding assays, real-time quantitative PCR, coimmunoprecipitation, and ELISA techniques. Specific inhibitors of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and of IκB kinase (IKK) were used to investigate the involvement of intracellular signaling pathways. RV-16 infection impaired dexamethasone-dependent (1) inhibition of IL-1β-induced CXCL8 release, (2) induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 gene expression, and (3) binding of GR to GREs in airway epithelial cells. This was associated with impaired GRα nuclear translocation, as assessed by means of both immunochemistry (54.0% ± 6.8% vs 24.7% ± 3.8% GR-positive nuclei after 10 nmol/L dexamethasone treatment in sham- or RV-16-infected cells, respectively; P rhinovirus-infected cells the combination of JNK and IKK2 inhibitors totally restored dexamethasone suppression of CXCL8 release, induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 gene expression, and GRα nuclear translocation. RV-16 infection of human airway epithelium induces glucocorticoid resistance. Inhibition of RV-16-induced JNK and nuclear factor κB activation fully reversed rhinovirus impairment of both GRα nuclear translocation and the transactivation/transrepression activities of glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2013

  3. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Control Reactive Oxygen Species Release, Mitochondrial Autophagy and C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase/P38 Phosphorylation During Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Baregamian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the disruption of the protective gut barrier through various mechanisms; mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and oxidative injury may potentially be a significant source of apoptosis during necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα is thought to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS and activate the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/p38 pathway. Hence, the focus of our study was to examine the effects of TNFα/ROs on mitochondrial function, ASK1-JNK/p38 cascade activation in intestinal epithelial cells during NEC.

  4. Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor-mediated Invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae into Host Cells Requires a Coordinate Signaling of SRC Family of Protein-tyrosine Kinases, ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M.; Dierdorf, Nina I.; Hauck, Christof R.; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae are commensals of the human nasopharynx with the capacity to invade mucosal respiratory cells. PspC, a pneumococcal surface protein, interacts with the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) to promote bacterial adherence to and invasion into epithelial cells. Internalization of pneumococci requires the coordinated action of actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and the retrograde machinery of pIgR. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Src protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in pneumococcal invasion via pIgR. Pharmacological inhibitors of PTKs and MAPKs and genetic interference with Src PTK and FAK functions caused a significant reduction of pIgR-mediated pneumococcal invasion but did not influence bacterial adhesion to host cells. Furthermore, pneumococcal ingestion by host cells induces activation of ERK1/2 and JNK. In agreement with activated JNK, its target molecule and DNA-binding protein c-Jun was phosphorylated. We also show that functionally active Src PTK is essential for activation of ERK1/2 upon pneumococcal infections. In conclusion, these data illustrate the importance of a coordinated signaling between Src PTKs, ERK1/2, and JNK during PspC-pIgR-mediated uptake of pneumococci by host epithelial cells. PMID:20829350

  5. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-mediated invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae into host cells requires a coordinate signaling of SRC family of protein-tyrosine kinases, ERK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Asmat, Tauseef M; Dierdorf, Nina I; Hauck, Christof R; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2010-11-12

    Streptococcus pneumoniae are commensals of the human nasopharynx with the capacity to invade mucosal respiratory cells. PspC, a pneumococcal surface protein, interacts with the human polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) to promote bacterial adherence to and invasion into epithelial cells. Internalization of pneumococci requires the coordinated action of actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and the retrograde machinery of pIgR. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of Src protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in pneumococcal invasion via pIgR. Pharmacological inhibitors of PTKs and MAPKs and genetic interference with Src PTK and FAK functions caused a significant reduction of pIgR-mediated pneumococcal invasion but did not influence bacterial adhesion to host cells. Furthermore, pneumococcal ingestion by host cells induces activation of ERK1/2 and JNK. In agreement with activated JNK, its target molecule and DNA-binding protein c-Jun was phosphorylated. We also show that functionally active Src PTK is essential for activation of ERK1/2 upon pneumococcal infections. In conclusion, these data illustrate the importance of a coordinated signaling between Src PTKs, ERK1/2, and JNK during PspC-pIgR-mediated uptake of pneumococci by host epithelial cells.

  6. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway of a vector insect is activated by virus capsid protein and promotes viral replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Wan; Li, Jing; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le; Cui, Feng

    2017-01-01

    No evidence has shown whether insect-borne viruses manipulate the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway of vector insects. Using a system comprising the plant virus Rice stripe virus (RSV) and its vector insect, the small brown planthopper, we have studied the response of the vector insect’s JNK pathway to plant virus infection. We found that RSV increased the level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and decreased the level of G protein Pathway Suppressor 2 (GPS2) in the insect vector. The virus capsid protein competitively bound GPS2 to release it from inhibiting the JNK activation machinery. We confirmed that JNK activation promoted RSV replication in the vector, whereas JNK inhibition caused a significant reduction in virus production and thus delayed the disease incidence of plants. These findings suggest that inhibition of insect vector JNK may be a useful strategy for controling the transmission of plant viruses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26591.001 PMID:28716183

  7. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation. Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression and localization. The effects of ketamine on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia were confirmed by behavioral testing. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot were used to quantify the SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression after ketamine administration. Results The present study showed that SNL induced ipsilateral pJNK up-regulation in astrocytes but not microglia or neurons within the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecal ketamine relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, intrathecal administration of ketamine attenuated SNL-induced spinal astrocytic JNK activation in a dose-dependent manner, but not JNK protein expression. Conclusions The present results suggest that inhibition of JNK activation may be involved in the suppressive effects of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocyte activation. Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain.

  8. Metformin prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis through AMPK-PI3K-c-Jun NH2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, T.W.; Lee, M.W.; Lee, Y.-J.; Kim, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is thought to be partially associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress toxicity on pancreatic beta cells and the result of decreased insulin synthesis and secretion. In this study, we showed that a well-known insulin sensitizer, metformin, directly protects against dysfunction and death of ER stress-induced NIT-1 cells (a mouse pancreatic beta cell line) via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3) kinase activation. We also showed that exposure of NIT-1 cells to metformin (5mM) increases cellular resistance against ER stress-induced NIT-1 cell dysfunction and death. AMPK and PI3 kinase inhibitors abolished the effect of metformin on cell function and death. Metformin-mediated protective effects on ER stress-induced apoptosis were not a result of an unfolded protein response or the induced inhibitors of apoptotic proteins. In addition, we showed that exposure of ER stressed-induced NIT-1 cells to metformin decreases the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2) terminal kinase (JNK). These data suggest that metformin is an important determinant of ER stress-induced apoptosis in NIT-1 cells and may have implications for ER stress-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction via regulation of the AMPK-PI3 kinase-JNK pathway.

  9. A Novel Dual NO-donating Oxime and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Inhibitor Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Seledtsov, Victor I.; Swanson, Helen; Quinn, Mark T.; Huang, Paul L.

    2017-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to be an important regulator of neuronal cell death. Previously, we synthesized the sodium salt of 11H-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxalin-11-one (IQ-1S) and demonstrated that it was a high-affinity inhibitor of the JNK family. In the present work, we found that IQ-1S could release nitric oxide (NO) during its enzymatic metabolism by liver microsomes. Moreover, serum nitrite/nitrate concentration in mice increased after intraperitoneal injection of IQ-1S. Because of these dual actions as JNK inhibitor and NO-donor, the therapeutic potential of IQ-1S was evaluated in an animal stroke model. We subjected wild-type C57BL6 mice to focal ischemia (30 minutes) with subsequent reperfusion (48 hours). Mice were treated with IQ-1S (25 mg/kg) suspended in 10% solutol or with vehicle alone 30 minutes before and 24 hours after middle cerebral artery MCA) occlusion (MCAO). Using laser-Doppler flowmetry, we monitored cerebral blood flow (CBF) above the MCA during 30 minutes of MCAO provoked by a filament and during the first 30 minutes of subsequent reperfusion. In mice treated with IQ-1S, ischemic and reperfusion values of CBF were not different from vehicle-treated mice. However, IQ-1S treated mice demonstrated markedly reduced neurological deficit and infarct volumes as compared with vehicle-treated mice after 48 hours of reperfusion. Our results indicate that the novel JNK inhibitor releases NO during its oxidoreductive bioconversion and improves stroke outcome in a mouse model of cerebral reperfusion. We conclude that IQ-1S is a promising dual functional agent for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury. PMID:26923672

  10. Antcin H Protects Against Acute Liver Injury Through Disruption of the Interaction of c-Jun-N-Terminal Kinase with Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Yazhen; Win, Sanda; Than, Tin Aung; Yin, Shutao; Ye, Min; Hu, Hongbo; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2017-02-10

    Antrodia Camphorate (AC) is a mushroom that is widely used in Asian countries to prevent and treat various diseases, including liver diseases. However, the active ingredients that contribute to the biological functions remain elusive. The purpose of the present study is to test the hepatoprotective effect of Antcin H, a major triterpenoid chemical isolated from AC, in murine models of acute liver injury. We found that Antcin H pretreatment protected against liver injury in both acetaminophen (APAP) and galactosamine/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α models. More importantly, Antcin H also offered a significant protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury when it was given 1 h after acetaminophen. The protection was verified in primary mouse hepatocytes. Antcin H prevented sustained c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in both models. We excluded an effect of Antcin H on acetaminophen metabolism and TNF receptor signaling and excluded a direct effect as a free radical scavenger or JNK inhibitor. Since the sustained JNK activation through its interaction with mitochondrial Sab, leading to increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), is pivotal in both models, we examined the effect of Antcin H on p-JNK binding to mitochondria and impairment of mitochondrial respiration. Antcin H inhibited the direct effect of p-JNK on isolated mitochondrial function and binding to isolated mitochondria. Innovation and Conclusion: Our study has identified Antcin H as a novel active ingredient that contributes to the hepatoprotective effect of AC, and Antcin H protects against liver injury through disruption of the binding of p-JNK to Sab, which interferes with the ROS-dependent self-sustaining activation of MAPK cascade. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 207-220.

  11. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases thrombin/paclitaxel-induced endothelial tissue factor expression via the inhibition of c-Jun terminal NH2 kinase phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huang-Joe [Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Lo, Wan-Yu [Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, No. 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung 40447, Taiwan (China); Graduate Integration of Chinese and Western Medicine, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Lu, Te-Ling [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Huang, Haimei, E-mail: hmhuang@life.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Biotechnology, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-01

    Patients with paclitaxel-eluting stents are concerned with stent thrombosis caused by premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy or clopidogrel resistance. This study investigates the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on the expression of thrombin/paclitaxel-induced endothelial tissue factor (TF) expressions in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). EGCG was nontoxic to HAECs at 6 h up to a concentration of 25 {mu}mol/L. At a concentration of 25 {mu}mol/L, EGCG pretreatment potently inhibited both thrombin-stimulated and thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial TF protein expression. Thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel-induced 2.6-fold and 2.9-fold increases in TF activity compared with the control. EGCG pretreatment caused a 29% and 38% decrease in TF activity on thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel treatment, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) showed that thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel-induced 3.0-fold and 4.6-fold TF mRNA expressions compared with the control. EGCG pretreatment caused an 82% and 72% decrease in TF mRNA expression on thrombin and thrombin/paclitaxel treatment, respectively. The c-Jun terminal NH2 kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 reduced thrombin/paclitaxel-induced TF expression. Furthermore, EGCG significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK to 49% of thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated HAECs at 60 min. Immunofluorescence assay did not show an inhibitory effect of EGCG on P65 NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation in the thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial cells. In conclusion, EGCG can inhibit TF expression in thrombin/paclitaxel-stimulated endothelial cells via the inhibition of JNK phosphorylation. The unique property of EGCG may be used to develop a new drug-eluting stent by co-coating EGCG and paclitaxel.

  12. Exercise training protects against atherosclerotic risk factors through vascular NADPH oxidase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase downregulation in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Montezano, Augusto C I; Meziri, Fayçal; Riva, Catherine; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Exercise training reverses atherosclerotic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The aim of the present study was to determine the molecular anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic effects in aorta from rats with high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control (CD) diet for 12 weeks. The HFD rats were then divided into four groups: (i) sedentary HFD-fed rats (HFD-S); (ii) exercise trained (motor treadmill 5 days/week, 60 min/day, 12 weeks) HFD-fed rats (HFD-Ex); (iii) modified diet (HFD to CD) sedentary rats (HF/CD-S); and (iv) an exercise-trained modified diet group (HF/CD-Ex). Tissue levels of NADPH oxidase (activity and expression), NADPH oxidase (Nox) 1, Nox2, Nox4, p47(phox) , superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptors, phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in the aorta. Plasma cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6) levels were also measured. Obesity was accompanied by increases in NADPH oxidase activity, p47(phox) translocation, Nox4 and VCAM-1 protein expression, MAPK (ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK) phosphorylation and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Exercise training and switching from the HFD to CD reversed almost all these molecular changes. In addition, training increased aortic SOD-1 protein expression and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These findings suggest that protective effects of exercise training on atherosclerotic risk factors induced by obesity are associated with downregulation of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and SAPK/JNK activity and increased SOD-1 expression. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Vinken, Mathieu [Department of Toxicology, Center for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussels, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented when animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2-APB

  14. Lower susceptibility of female mice to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity: Role of mitochondrial glutathione, oxidant stress and c-jun N-terminal kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu

    2014-11-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose causes severe hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. However, the mechanisms underlying the gender differences in susceptibility to APAP overdose in mice have not been clarified. In our study, APAP (300 mg/kg) caused severe liver injury in male mice but 69–77% lower injury in females. No gender difference in metabolic activation of APAP was found. Hepatic glutathione (GSH) was rapidly depleted in both genders, while GSH recovery in female mice was 2.6 fold higher in the mitochondria at 4 h, and 2.5 and 3.3 fold higher in the total liver at 4 h and 6 h, respectively. This faster recovery of GSH, which correlated with greater induction of glutamate-cysteine ligase, attenuated mitochondrial oxidative stress in female mice, as suggested by a lower GSSG/GSH ratio at 6 h (3.8% in males vs. 1.4% in females) and minimal centrilobular nitrotyrosine staining. While c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was similar at 2 and 4 h post-APAP, it was 3.1 fold lower at 6 h in female mice. However, female mice were still protected by the JNK inhibitor SP600125. 17β-Estradiol pretreatment moderately decreased liver injury and oxidative stress in male mice without affecting GSH recovery. Conclusion: The lower susceptibility of female mice is achieved by the improved detoxification of reactive oxygen due to accelerated recovery of mitochondrial GSH levels, which attenuates late JNK activation and liver injury. However, even the reduced injury in female mice was still dependent on JNK. While 17β-estradiol partially protects male mice, it does not affect hepatic GSH recovery. - Highlights: • Female mice are less susceptible to acetaminophen overdose than males. • GSH depletion and protein adduct formation are similar in both genders. • Recovery of hepatic GSH levels is faster in females and correlates with Gclc. • Reduced oxidant stress in females leads to reduced JNK activation. • JNK activation and mitochondrial translocation are critical

  15. The human receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and glycosylation variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Ploug, M

    1990-01-01

    The receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) was purified from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated U937 cells by temperature-induced phase separation of detergent extracts, followed by affinity chromatography with immobilized diisopropyl fluorophosphate-treated u....... The protein has a high content of cysteine residues. The NH2-terminal sequence is not closely related to any known sequence. The identification of the purified and sequenced protein with the human u-PA receptor is based on the following findings: 1) the ability of the purified protein to bind u-PA and its...

  16. An androgen receptor NH2-terminal conserved motif interacts with the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bin; Bai, Suxia; Hnat, Andrew T; Kalman, Rebecca I; Minges, John T; Patterson, Cam; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2004-07-16

    The NH2-terminal sequence of steroid receptors is highly variable between different receptors and in the same receptor from different species. In this study, a primary sequence homology comparison identified a 14-amino acid NH2-terminal motif of the human androgen receptor (AR) that is common to AR from all species reported, including the lower vertebrates. The evolutionarily conserved motif is unique to AR, with the exception of a partial sequence in the glucocorticoid receptor of higher species. The presence of the conserved motif in AR and the glucocorticoid receptor and its absence in other steroid receptors suggests convergent evolution. The function of the AR NH2-terminal conserved motif was suggested from a yeast two-hybrid screen that identified the COOH terminus of the Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) as a binding partner. We found that CHIP functions as a negative regulator of AR transcriptional activity by promoting AR degradation. In support of this, two mutations in the AR NH2-terminal conserved motif previously identified in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model reduced the interaction between CHIP and AR. Our results suggest that the AR NH2-terminal domain contains an evolutionarily conserved motif that functions to limit AR transcriptional activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the combination of comparative sequence alignment and yeast two-hybrid screening using short conserved peptides as bait provides an effective strategy to probe the structure-function relationships of steroid receptor NH2-terminal domains and other intrinsically unstructured transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  17. Caruifolin D from artemisia absinthium L. inhibits neuroinflammation via reactive oxygen species-dependent c-jun N-terminal kinase and protein kinase c/NF-κB signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ke-Wu; Liao, Li-Xi; Song, Xiao-Min; Lv, Hai-Ning; Song, Fang-Jiao; Yu, Qian; Dong, Xin; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2015-11-15

    This work aims to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory effects of natural sesquiterpene dimer caruifolin D from Artemisia absinthium L., which is an edible vegetable or traditional medicinal food in East Asia due to its sedation, anti-asthma and antipruritic effects. In this study, we reported that caruifolin D significantly inhibited the productions of various neuroinflammatory mediators from microglia in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Moreover, anti-inflammatory mechanism study showed that caruifolin D markedly suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which was an important player involved in neuroinflammation, leading to inhibitory effects on the activations of protein kinase C (PKC) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which were two major neuroinflammatory signaling pathways in the brains. Furthermore, caruifolin D protected neurons against microglia-mediated neuronal inflammatory damages by up-regulating neuronal viability and maintaining healthy neuronal morphology. Taken together, these results expanded our knowledge about the anti-neuroinflammatory and neuroprotective mechanism of Artemisia absinthium L., and also suggested that caruifolin D was a major anti-inflammatory component from Artemisia absinthium L., which might be developed as a drug candidate for neuroinflammation-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) F-box links the androgen receptor NH2-terminal transactivation domain to p160 coactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Emily B; Bai, Suxia; Hnat, Andrew T; Minges, John T; Wilson, Elizabeth M

    2009-12-11

    Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor (AR) and its coregulators is required for male reproductive development and function. In humans and other primates, melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) is an AR selective coregulator that increases AR transcriptional activity. Here we show that the interaction between AR and MAGE-11 is mediated by AR NH(2)-terminal FXXLF motif binding to a highly conserved MAGE-11 F-box in the MAGE homology domain, and is modulated by serum stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of MAGE-11 Ser-174. The MAGE-11-dependent increase in AR transcriptional activity is mediated by a direct interaction between MAGE-11 and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) through the NH(2)-terminal region of TIF2, and by a MAGE-11 FXXIF motif interaction with an F-box-like region in activation domain 1 of TIF2. The results suggest that MAGE-11 functions as a bridging factor to recruit AR coactivators through a novel FXX(L/I)F motif-F-box interaction paradigm.

  19. Melanoma Antigen Gene Protein-A11 (MAGE-11) F-box Links the Androgen Receptor NH2-terminal Transactivation Domain to p160 Coactivators*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Emily B.; Bai, Suxia; Hnat, Andrew T.; Minges, John T.; Wilson, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Androgen-dependent transcriptional activity by the androgen receptor (AR) and its coregulators is required for male reproductive development and function. In humans and other primates, melanoma antigen gene protein-A11 (MAGE-11) is an AR selective coregulator that increases AR transcriptional activity. Here we show that the interaction between AR and MAGE-11 is mediated by AR NH2-terminal FXXLF motif binding to a highly conserved MAGE-11 F-box in the MAGE homology domain, and is modulated by serum stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of MAGE-11 Ser-174. The MAGE-11-dependent increase in AR transcriptional activity is mediated by a direct interaction between MAGE-11 and transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2) through the NH2-terminal region of TIF2, and by a MAGE-11 FXXIF motif interaction with an F-box-like region in activation domain 1 of TIF2. The results suggest that MAGE-11 functions as a bridging factor to recruit AR coactivators through a novel FXX(L/I)F motif-F-box interaction paradigm. PMID:19828458

  20. Hyperoside Downregulates the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE and Promotes Proliferation in ECV304 Cells via the c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK Pathway Following Stimulation by Advanced Glycation End-Products In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyu Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hyperoside is a major active constituent in many medicinal plants which are traditionally used in Chinese medicines for their neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. The molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. In this study, quiescent ECV304 cells were treated in vitro with advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the presence or absence of hyperoside. The results demonstrated that AGEs induced c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK activation and apoptosis in ECV304 cells. Hyperoside inhibited these effects and promoted ECV304 cell proliferation. Furthermore, hyperoside significantly inhibited RAGE expression in AGE-stimulated ECV304 cells, whereas knockdown of RAGE inhibited AGE-induced JNK activation. These results suggested that AGEs may promote JNK activation, leading to viability inhibition of ECV304 cells via the RAGE signaling pathway. These effects could be inhibited by hyperoside. Our findings suggest a novel role for hyperoside in the treatment and prevention of diabetes.

  1. Highly Oxygenated Sesquiterpene Lactones from Cousinia aitchisonii and their Cytotoxic Properties: Rhaserolide Induces Apoptosis in Human T Lymphocyte (Jurkat) Cells via the Activation of c-Jun n-terminal Kinase Phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahy, Milad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Kasaian, Jamal; Ghandadi, Morteza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Chandran, Jima N; Schneider, Bernd; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-02-01

    Infrared-guided chromatographic fractionation of sesquiterpene lactones from the extracts of Cousinia aitchisonii and Cousinia concolor led to the isolation of five pure compounds. A new sesquiterpene lactone, namely, aitchisonolide, and two known sesquiterpene lactones (desoxyjanerin and rhaserolide) were isolated from C. aitchisonii and two known lignans (arctiin and arctigenin) from C. concolor. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, as well as high-resolution mass spectrometry. The purified and characterized compounds were subjected to cytotoxicity assay. The sesquiterpene lactones desoxyjanerin and rhaserolide showed significant cytotoxic activities against five different cancer cell lines and the normal human embryonic kidney cell line. Rhaserolide was chosen to evaluate the possible mechanism of action. Western blot analysis revealed that rhaserolide could induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells via the activation of c-Jun n-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. MicroRNA-181a Regulates Apoptosis and Autophagy Process in Parkinson's Disease by Inhibiting p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)/c-Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK) Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Yanfeng; Zhu, Xiaotun

    2017-04-02

    BACKGROUND microRNA (miR)-181a has been reported to be downregulated in Parkinson's disease (PD), but the regulatory mechanism of miR-181a on neuron apoptosis and autophagy is still poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of miR-181a on PD in vitro. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells were incubated with different concentrations of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) to induce the PD model. The expression of miR-181a was then analyzed. After transfection with miR-181a mimic or scramble following MPP+ treatment, the expression of autophagy protein markers (LC3II, LC3I, and Beclin 1) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) signaling proteins (p-p38, p38, p-JNK, and JNK) and cell apoptosis were detected. Furthermore, the cells were transfected with miR-181a inhibitor and cultured in the presence or absence of p38 inhibitor SB203582 or JNK inhibitor SP600125, and the cell apoptosis was tested again. RESULTS The expression of miR-181a was gradually decreased with the increase of MPP+ concentration (P<0.05, P<0.01, or P<0.001). Overexpression of miR-181a significantly decreased the LC3II/LC3I ratio, Beclin 1 expression, cell apoptosis, and the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK compared to the MPP+ + miR-181a scramble group (all P<0.05). In addition, we observed that SB203582 or SP600125 showed no effects on cell apoptosis, but the effects of miR-181a inhibitor on cell apoptosis were reversed by administration of SB203582 or SP600125 compared to the scramble group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that miR-181a regulates apoptosis and autophagy in PD by inhibiting the p38 MAPK/JNK pathway.

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells promote liver regeneration and prolong survival in small-for-size liver grafts: involvement of C-Jun N-terminal kinase, cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

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    Weijie Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs has been highlighted recently for treatment of acute or chronic liver injury, by possibly differentiating into hepatocyte-like cells, reducing inflammation, and enhancing tissue repair. Despite recent progress, exact mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we attempted to explore whether and how MSCs protected hepatocytes and stimulated allograft regeneration in small-for-size liver transplantation (SFSLT. METHODS: SFSLT model was established with a 30% partial liver transplantation (30PLT in rats. The differentiation potential and characteristics of bone marrow derived MSCs were explored in vitro. MSCs were infused transvenously immediately after graft implantation in therapy group. Expressions of apoptosis-, inflammatory-, anti-inflammatory-, and growth factor-related genes were measured by RT-PCR, activities of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB were analyzed by EMSA, and proliferative responses of the hepatic graft were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot. RESULTS: MSCs were successfully induced into hepatocyte-like cells, osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. MSCs therapy could not only alleviate ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation to promote liver regeneration, but also profoundly improve one week survival rate. It markedly up-regulated the mRNA expressions of HGF, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, and CXCR2, however, down-regulated TNF-α. Increased activities of AP-1 and NF-κB, as well as elevated expressions of p-c-Jun, cyclin D1, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, were also found in MSCs therapy group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that MSCs therapy promotes hepatocyte proliferation and prolongs survival in SFSLT by reducing ischemia reperfusion injury and acute inflammation, and sustaining early increased expressions of c-Jun N-terminal Kinase, Cyclin D1, and NF-κB.

  4. An anti-NH2-terminal antibody localizes NBCn1 to heart endothelia and skeletal and vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, Helle Hasager; Nielsen, Søren; Prætorius, Jeppe

    2006-01-01

    plexus. The anti-NH2-terminal antibody localized NBCn1 to the plasma membrane domains of endothelia and smooth muscle cells in small mesenteric and renal arteries, as well as the capillaries of the heart ventricles, spleen, and salivary glands. NBCn1 was also detected in neuromuscular junctions......The electroneutral sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 or NBC3 was originally cloned from rat aorta and from human skeletal muscle. NBCn1 (or NBC3) has been localized to the basolateral membrane of various epithelia, but thus far it has been impossible to detect the protein in these tissues...... and vasculature in skeletal muscle. Analysis of variable NBCn1 splicing by RT-PCR revealed that an NH2-terminal sequence, the cassette III, seems absent from cardiovascular NBCn1 and that both cassettes I and III are variable in most epithelia, whereas cassette II is absent from epithelial NBCn1. Thus...

  5. Cytotoxic Activity of 3,6-Dihydroxyflavone in Human Cervical Cancer Cells and Its Therapeutic Effect on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inhibition

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    Eunjung Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that 3,6-dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF is a potent agonist of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (hPPAR with cytotoxic effects on human cervical cancer cells. To date, the mechanisms by which 3,6-DHF exerts its antitumor effects on cervical cells have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrated that 3,6-DHF exhibits a novel antitumor activity against HeLa cells with IC50 values of 25 μM and 9.8 μM after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. We also showed that the anticancer effects of 3,6-DHF are mediated via the toll-like receptor (TLR 4/CD14, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular-signaling regulated kinase (ERK, and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. We found that 3,6-DHF showed a similar IC50 (113 nM value to that of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125 (IC50 = 118 nM in a JNK1 kinase assay. Binding studies revealed that 3,6-DHF had a strong binding affinity to JNK1 (1.996 × 105 M−1 and that the 6-OH and the carbonyl oxygen of the C ring of 3,6-DHF participated in hydrogen bonding interactions with the carbonyl oxygen and the amide proton of Met111, respectively. Therefore, 3,6-DHF may be a candidate inhibitor of JNKs, with potent anticancer effects.

  6. Investigating the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinases in the proliferation of Werner syndrome fibroblasts using diaminopyridine inhibitors

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    Davis Terence

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibroblasts derived from the progeroid Werner syndrome show reduced replicative lifespan and a "stressed" morphology, both alleviated using the MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580. However, interpretation of these data is problematical because although SB203580 has the stress-activated kinases p38 and JNK1/2 as its preferred targets, it does show relatively low overall kinase selectivity. Several lines of data support a role for both p38 and JNK1/2 activation in the control of cellular proliferation and also the pathology of diseases of ageing, including type II diabetes, diseases to which Werner Syndrome individuals are prone, thus making the use of JNK inhibitors attractive as possible therapeutics. We have thus tested the effects of the widely used JNK inhibitor SP600125 on the proliferation and morphology of WS cells. In addition we synthesised and tested two recently described aminopyridine based inhibitors. SP600125 treatment resulted in the cessation of proliferation of WS cells and resulted in a senescent-like cellular phenotype that does not appear to be related to the inhibition of JNK1/2. In contrast, use of the more selective aminopyridine CMPD 6o at concentrations that fully inhibit JNK1/2 had a positive effect on cellular proliferation of immortalised WS cells, but no effect on the replicative lifespan of primary WS fibroblasts. In addition, CMPD 6o corrected the stressed WS cellular morphology. The aminopyridine CMPD 6r, however, had little effect on WS cells. CMDP 6o was also found to be a weak inhibitor of MK2, which may partially explain its effects on WS cells, since MK2 is known to be involved in regulating cellular morphology via HSP27 phosphorylation, and is thought to play a role in cell cycle arrest. These data suggest that total JNK1/2 activity does not play a substantial role in the proliferation control in WS cells.

  7. Antiepileptic Effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla and Rhynchophylline Involved in the Initiation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Phosphorylation of MAPK Signal Pathways in Acute Seizures of Kainic Acid-Treated Rats

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    Hsin-Cheng Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures cause inflammation of the central nervous system. The extent of the inflammation is related to the severity and recurrence of the seizures. Cell surface receptors are stimulated by stimulators such as kainic acid (KA, which causes intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signal pathway transmission to coordinate a response. It is known that Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR and rhynchophylline (RP have anticonvulsive effects, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a novel strategy for treating epilepsy by investigating how UR and RP initiate their anticonvulsive mechanisms. Sprague-Dawley rats were administered KA (12 mg/kg, i.p. to induce seizure before being sacrificed. The brain was removed 3 h after KA administration. The results indicate that pretreatment with UR (1.0 g/kg, RP (0.25 mg/kg, and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg for 3 d could reduce epileptic seizures and could also reduce the expression of c-Jun aminoterminal kinase phosphorylation (JNKp of MAPK signal pathways in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus brain tissues. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α remain unchanged, indicating that the anticonvulsive effect of UR and RP is initially involved in the JNKp MAPK signal pathway during the KA-induced acute seizure period.

  8. Cadmium induces apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway: the role of oxidative stress-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation.

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    Kai-Chih Chang

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd, one of well-known highly toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, causes a number of adverse health effects and diseases in humans. The growing epidemiological studies have suggested a possible link between Cd exposure and diabetes mellitus (DM. However, the toxicological effects and underlying mechanisms of Cd-induced pancreatic β-cell injury are still unknown. In this study, we found that Cd significantly decreased cell viability, and increased sub-G1 hypodiploid cells and annexin V-Cy3 binding in pancreatic β-cell-derived RIN-m5F cells. Cd also increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and malondialdehyde (MDA production and induced mitochondrial dysfunction (the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP and the increase of cytosolic cytochrome c release, the decreased Bcl-2 expression, increased p53 expression, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP cleavage, and caspase cascades, which accompanied with intracellular Cd accumulation. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC effectively reversed these Cd-induced events. Furthermore, exposure to Cd induced the phosphorylations of c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2, and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, which was prevented by NAC. Additionally, the specific JNK inhibitor SP600125 or JNK-specific small interference RNA (si-RNA transfection suppressed Cd-induced β-cell apoptosis and related signals, but not ERK1/2 and p38-MAPK inhibitors (PD98059 and SB203580 did not. However, the JNK inhibitor or JNK-specific si-RNA did not suppress ROS generation in Cd-treated cells. These results indicate that Cd induces pancreatic β-cell death via an oxidative stress downstream-mediated JNK activation-triggered mitochondria-regulated apoptotic pathway.

  9. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-binding protein (JNKBP1) acts as a negative regulator of NOD2 protein signaling by inhibiting its oligomerization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecat, Aurore; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Somja, Joan; Jourdan, Samuel; Fillet, Marianne; Kufer, Thomas A; Habraken, Yvette; Sadzot, Catherine; Louis, Edouard; Delvenne, Philippe; Piette, Jacques; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie

    2012-08-24

    NOD2 is one of the best characterized members of the cytosolic NOD-like receptor family. NOD2 is able to sense muramyl dipeptide, a specific bacterial cell wall component, and to subsequently induce various signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation and autophagy, both events contributing to an efficient innate and adaptive immune response. Interestingly, loss-of-function NOD2 variants were associated with a higher susceptibility for Crohn disease, which highlights the physiological importance of proper regulation of NOD2 activity. We performed a biochemical screen to search for new NOD2 regulators. We identified a new NOD2 partner, c-Jun N-terminal kinase-binding protein 1 (JNKBP1), a scaffold protein characterized by an N-terminal WD-40 domain. JNKBP1, through its WD-40 domain, binds to NOD2 following muramyl dipeptide activation. This interaction attenuates NOD2-mediated NF-κB activation and IL-8 secretion as well as NOD2 antibacterial activity. JNKBP1 exerts its repressor effect by disturbing NOD2 oligomerization and RIP2 tyrosine phosphorylation, both steps required for downstream NOD2 signaling. We furthermore showed that JNKBP1 and NOD2 are co-expressed in the human intestinal epithelium and in immune cells recruited in the lamina propria, which suggests that JNKBP1 contributes to maintain NOD2-mediated intestinal immune homeostasis.

  10. Effects of different therapeutic methods and typical recipes of Chinese medicine on activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in kupffer cells of rats with fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin-He; Hu, Si-Ping; Zhang, Yu-Pei; Ping, Huan-Huan; Yang, Huan-Wen; Chen, Tong-Yan; Liu, Hai-Tao

    2012-10-01

    To observe the effects of different therapeutic methods and the recipes of Chinese medicine (CM) on the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in Kupffer cells of rats with fatty liver disease and to explore the mechanisms of these therapeutic methods. By using a random number table, 98 rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: control group, model group, and 5 treatment groups, including soothing Liver (Gan) recipe group, invigorating Spleen (Pi) recipe group, dispelling dampness recipe group, promoting blood recipe group, and complex recipe group. Rats in the control group were fed with normal food and distilled water by gastric perfusion, while rats in the model group were fed with high-fat food and distilled spirits by gastric perfusion. Rats in the 5 treatment groups were fed with high-fat food and corresponding recipes by gastric perfusion. Twelve weeks later, all rats were sacrificed and liver tissues were stained for pathohistological observation. Kupffer cells were isolated from livers of rats to evaluate JNK and phospho-JNK expressions by Western blotting. The grade of hepatic steatosis was higher in the model group than the control group (PLiver recipe group and invigorating Spleen recipe group were significantly ameliorated (Pliver disease in rats. The recipes of CM, especially invigorating Spleen recipe and soothing Liver recipe, might protect liver against injury by reducing the total JNK protein content and inhibiting the activation of JNK protein in Kupffer cells of fatty liver model rats, which showed beneficial effects on fatty liver disease.

  11. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 prevents luminal cell commitment in normal mammary glands and tumors by inhibiting p53/Notch1 and breast cancer gene 1 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Adam D.; Perou, Charles M.; Van Den Berg, Carla Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with several subtypes carrying unique prognoses. Patients with differentiated luminal tumors experience better outcomes, while effective treatments are unavailable for poorly differentiated tumors, including the basal-like subtype. Mechanisms governing mammary tumor subtype generation could prove critical to developing better treatments. C-Jun N-terminal kinase 2 (JNK2) is important in mammary tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Using a variety of mouse models, human breast cancer cell lines and tumor expression data, studies herein support that JNK2 inhibits cell differentiation in normal and cancer-derived mammary cells. JNK2 prevents precocious pubertal mammary development and inhibits Notch-dependent expansion of luminal cell populations. Likewise, JNK2 suppresses luminal populations in a p53-competent Polyoma Middle T-antigen tumor model where jnk2 knockout causes p53-dependent upregulation of Notch1 transcription. In a p53 knockout model, JNK2 restricts luminal populations independently of Notch1, by suppressing Brca1 expression and promoting epithelial to mesenchymal transition. JNK2 also inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) expression and confers resistance to fulvestrant, an ER inhibitor, while stimulating tumor progression. These data suggest that therapies inhibiting JNK2 in breast cancer may promote tumor differentiation, improve endocrine therapy response, and inhibit metastasis. PMID:25970777

  12. Long-Term Reduction of Kappa Opioid Receptor Function by the Biased Ligand, Norbinaltorphimine, Requires c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activity and New Protein Synthesis in Peripheral Sensory Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Raehannah J; Sullivan, Laura C; Jacobs, Blaine A; Chavera, Teresa A; Berg, Kelly A; Clarke, William P

    2016-11-01

    A single administration of the κ opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist, norbinaltorphimine (norBNI), produces long-term reduction in KOR function in heterologous expression systems and brain that is mediated by activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). In this study, we examined the long-term effects of norBNI on adult rat peripheral sensory neurons in vivo and ex vivo. Following a single intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of norBNI into the hind paw, peripheral KOR-mediated antinociception in the ipsilateral, but not the contralateral, hindpaw was abolished for at least 9 days. By contrast, the antinociceptive response to mu and delta opioid receptor agonists was unaltered. The long-term inhibitory effect on antinociception produced by pretreatment with norBNI required occupancy of peripheral KOR and was completely blocked by i.pl. injection of the JNK inhibitor, SP600125. In cultures of peripheral sensory neurons, norBNI activated JNK for at least 30 minutes. Furthermore, norBNI blocked KOR-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity measured 24 hours later in a JNK-dependent manner, but did not block activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). The long-term inhibitory effect of norBNI on KOR function in vivo and ex vivo was blocked by inhibitors of mRNA translation, cycloheximide and rapamycin. These data suggest that in peripheral sensory neurons norBNI is a KOR-biased ligand for activation of JNK signaling, resulting in long-term blockade of some (antinociception, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity), but not all (ERK), KOR signaling. Importantly, norBNI elicits de novo protein synthesis in sensory neuron terminals that produces selective long-term regulation of KOR. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Differential Effects of Ethanol on c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase, 14-3-3 Proteins, and Bax in Postnatal Day 4 and Postnatal Day 7 Rat Cerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Marieta Barrow; Paiva, Michael; Kubovic, Stacey; Kotler, Alexandra; Rogozinski, Jonathan; Swanson, Eric; Madorsky, Vladimir; Posados, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    These studies investigated ethanol effects on upstream cellular elements and interactions which contribute to Bax-related apoptosis in neonatal rat cerebellum at ages of peak ethanol sensitivity (postnatal day 4 [P4]), compared to later ages of relative resistance (P7). Analyses were made of basal levels of the pro-apoptotic c-jun N-termimal kinase (JNK), Bax, and the 14-3-3 anchoring proteins, as well as the responsiveness of these substances to ethanol at P4 versus P7. Dimerization of Bax with 14-3-3 was also investigated at the two ages following ethanol treatment, a process which sequesters Bax in the cytosol, thus inhibiting its mitochondrial translocation and disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were used to examine the protective potential of JNK inhibition on ethanol-mediated cell death. Basal levels of JNK were significantly higher at P4 than P7, but no differences in the other proteins were found. Activated JNK, and cytosolic and mitochondrially-translocated Bax were increased in P4 but not P7 animals following ethanol exposure, while protective 14-3-3 proteins were increased only at P7. Ethanol treatment resulted in decreases in Bax:14-3-3 heterodimers at P4, but not at P7. Inhibition of JNK activity in vitro provided partial protection against ethanol neurotoxicity. Thus, differential temporal vulnerability to ethanol in this CNS region correlates with differences in both levels of apoptosis-related substances (e.g., JNK), and differential cellular responsiveness, favoring apoptosis at the most sensitive age and survival at the resistant age. The upstream elements contributing to this vulnerability can be targets for future therapeutic strategies. PMID:22169498

  14. Tyrosine-phosphorylated caveolin-1 (Tyr-14) increases sensitivity to paclitaxel by inhibiting BCL2 and BCLxL proteins via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajahan, Ayesha N; Dobbin, Zachary C; Hickman, F Edward; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Clarke, Robert

    2012-05-18

    Paclitaxel, an anti-microtubule agent, is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in breast cancer. Nonetheless, resistance to paclitaxel remains a major clinical challenge. The need to better understand the resistant phenotype and to find biomarkers that could predict tumor response to paclitaxel is evident. In estrogen receptor α-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer cells, phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (CAV1) on Tyr-14 facilitates mitochondrial apoptosis by increasing BCL2 phosphorylation in response to low dose paclitaxel (10 nM). However, two variants of CAV1 exist: the full-length form, CAV1α (wild-type CAV1 or wtCAV1), and a truncated form, CAV1β. Only wtCAV1 has the Tyr-14 region at the N terminus. The precise cellular functions of CAV1 variants are unknown. We now show that CAV1 variants play distinct roles in paclitaxel-mediated cell death/survival. CAV1β expression is increased in paclitaxel-resistant cells when compared with sensitive cells. Expression of CAV1β in sensitive cells significantly reduces their responsiveness to paclitaxel. These activities reflect an essential role for Tyr-14 phosphorylation because wtCAV1 expression, but not a phosphorylation-deficient mutant (Y14F), inactivates BCL2 and BCLxL through activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MCF-7 cells that express Y14F are resistant to paclitaxel and are resensitized by co-treatment with ABT-737, a BH3-mimetic small molecule inhibitor. Using structural homology modeling, we propose that phosphorylation on Tyr-14 enables a favorable conformation for proteins to bind to the CAV1 scaffolding domain. Thus, we highlight novel roles for CAV1 variants in cell death; wtCAV1 promotes cell death, whereas CAV1β promotes cell survival by preventing inactivation of BCL2 and BCLxL via JNK in paclitaxel-mediated apoptosis.

  15. The Green Tea Component (--Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Primary Endothelial Cells to Arsenite-Induced Apoptosis by Decreasing c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Catalase Activity.

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    Jee-Youn Kim

    Full Text Available The green tea component (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG has been shown to sensitize many different types of cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis, although it protects against non-cancerous primary cells against toxicity from certain conditions such as exposure to arsenic (As or ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we found that EGCG promotes As-induced toxicity of primary-cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC at doses in which treatment with each chemical alone had no such effect. Increased cell toxicity was accompanied by an increased condensed chromatin pattern and fragmented nuclei, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, activity of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspases 3, 8 and 9, and Bax translocation into mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of an apoptotic signaling pathway. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed that compared with EGCG or As alone, combined EGCG and As (EGCG/As treatment significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which was accompanied by decreased catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed EGCG/As-induced caspase activation and EC toxicity. EGCG/As also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, which was not reversed by catalase. However, pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed all of the observed effects of EGCG/As, suggesting that JNK may be the most upstream protein examined in this study. Finally, we also found that all the observed effects by EGCG/As are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, this is firstly to show that EGCG sensitizes non-cancerous EC to As-induced toxicity through ROS-mediated apoptosis, which was attributed at least in part to a JNK-activated decrease in catalase activity.

  16. Neuroprotection by inhibiting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway after cerebral ischemia occurs independently of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC/CXCL1 secretion

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    Benakis Corinne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischemia is associated with the activation of glial cells, infiltration of leukocytes and an increase in inflammatory mediators in the ischemic brain and systemic circulation. How this inflammatory response influences lesion size and neurological outcome remains unclear. D-JNKI1, an inhibitor of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway, is strongly neuroprotective in animal models of stroke. Intriguingly, the protection mediated by D-JNKI1 is high even with intravenous administration at very low doses with undetectable drug levels in the brain, pointing to a systemic mode of action, perhaps on inflammation. Findings We evaluated whether D-JNKI1, administered intravenously 3 h after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO, modulates secretion of the inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the plasma and from the spleen and brain at several time points after MCAO. We found an early release of both mediators in the systemic circulation followed by an increase in the brain and went on to show a later systemic increase in vehicle-treated mice. Release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine from the spleen of mice with MCAO was not significantly different from sham mice. Interestingly, the secretion of these inflammatory mediators was not altered in the systemic circulation or brain after successful neuroprotection with D-JNKI1. Conclusions We demonstrate that neuroprotection with D-JNKI1 after experimental cerebral ischemia is independent of systemic and brain release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the early systemic release of interleukin-6 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine may not necessarily predict an unfavorable outcome in this model.

  17. The effects of urotensin II on migration and invasion are mediated by NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species through the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway in human hepatoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Ying; Shi, Zheng-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Tong; Feng, Ping; Wang, Xue-Jiang

    2017-02-01

    Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive neuropeptide involved in migration and invasion in various cell types. However, the effects of UII on human hepatoma cells still remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role and mechanism of UII on migration and invasion in human hepatoma cells. Migration was measured by wound healing assays and a Transwell(®) methodology, and invasion was analyzed using Matrigel(®) invasion chambers. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were detected using a 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe, and flow cytometry, and protein expression levels were evaluated by western blotting. Cell proliferation and actin polymerization were examined using cell proliferation reagent WST-1 and F-actin immunohistochemistry staining. Exposure to UII promoted migration and invasion in hepatoma cells compared with that in cells without UII. UII also increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression in a time-independent manner. Furthermore, UII markedly enhanced ROS generation and NADPH oxidase subunit expression, and consequently facilitated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The UT antagonist urantide or the antioxidant/NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin decreased UII-induced ROS production. JNK phosphorylation, migration, invasion, and MMP9/2 expression were also reversed by pretreatment with apocynin. Urantide and JNK inhibitor SP600125 abrogated migration, invasion, or MMP9/2 expression in response to UII. UII induced actin polymerization and fascin protein expression, and could be reversed by apocynin and SP600125. Exogenous UII induced migration and invasion in hepatoma cells that mainly involved NADPH oxidase-derived ROS through JNK activation. UT played an additional role in regulating hepatoma cells migration and invasion. Thus, our data suggested an important effect of UII in hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) during hypoxia in cerebral cortical nuclei of guinea pig fetus at term: role of nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulik, Dev; Ashraf, Qazi M; Mishra, Om P; Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Maria

    2008-07-04

    Previously we have shown that cerebral tissue hypoxia results in generation of nitric oxide (NO) free radicals as well as increased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase like extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The present study tested the hypothesis that administration of l-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, prior to hypoxia prevents the hypoxia-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and in the cerebral cortex of the term guinea pig fetus. To test this hypothesis normoxic (Nx, n=6), hypoxic (Hx, n=7) and hypoxic pretreated with l-NAME (Hx+L-NAME, n=6) guinea pig fetuses at 60 days gestation were studied to determine the phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pregnant guinea pigs to FiO2 of 0.07 for 1h. l-NAME (30mg/kg i.p.) was administered to pregnant mothers 60min prior to hypoxia. Cerebral tissue hypoxia was documented biochemically by determining the tissue levels of ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr). Neuronal nuclei were isolated, purified and proteins separated using 12% SDS-PAGE, and then probed with specific phosphorylated ERK, JNK and p38 antibodies. Protein bands were detected by enhanced chemiluminescence, analyzed by imaging densitometry and expressed as absorbance (ODxmm2). The relative level of p-p38 was 51.41+/-9.80 (Nx), 173.67+/-3.63 (Hx), 58.56+/-3.40 (Hx+L-NAME), phypoxia decreased the relative level of phosphorylated p38, ERK and JNK at term gestation. Since a NOS inhibitor prevented the hypoxia-induced phosphorylation of p38, ERK and JNK, we conclude that the hypoxia-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK in the cerebral cortical nuclei of guinea pig fetus at term is NO-mediated. We speculate that NO-mediated modification of cysteine residue leading to inhibition of MAP kinase phosphatases results in increased activation of p38, ERK and JNK

  19. Expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in human schwannomas and traumatic neuromas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivane, Aditya; Parkinson, David B; Ammoun, Sylwia; Hanemann, Clemens O

    2013-03-01

    Schwann cells myelinate axons of the peripheral nervous system. This process of myelination is regulated by various transcription factors. c-Jun and Sox-2 are negative regulators of myelination and control Schwann cell differentiation and plasticity. Schwannoma cells within tumours no longer express myelin markers, and show increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We have shown previously that several signalling pathways are activated in schwannoma cells in situ, in particular the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Both in vitro and in vivo we have demonstrated that c-Jun and Sox-2 are co-regulated in Schwann cells and evidence shows that both these proteins regulate myelination negatively. In this study, we aimed to characterize the expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in schwannoma and traumatic neuroma. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies to c-Jun and Sox-2 was applied to six schwannomas, and the results were compared with those seen in traumatic neuroma and normal nerve. Increased expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 was seen in schwannoma. We have demonstrated increased expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in schwannoma compared to traumatic neuroma. There was no expression of c-Jun and Sox-2 in a histologically normal peripheral nerve. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. The drosophila T-box transcription factor midline functions within Insulin/Akt and c-Jun-N terminal kinase stress-reactive signaling pathways to regulate interommatial bristle formation and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q Brent; Das, Sudeshna; Visic, Petra; Buford, Kendrick D; Zong, Yan; Buti, Wisam; Odom, Kelly R; Lee, Hannah; Leal, Sandra M

    2015-05-01

    We recently reported that the T-box transcription factor midline (mid) functions within the Notch-Delta signaling pathway to specify sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell fates in early-staged pupal eye imaginal discs and to suppress apoptosis (Das et al.). From genetic and allelic modifier screens, we now report that mid interacts with genes downstream of the insulin receptor(InR)/Akt, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Notch signaling pathways to regulate interommatidial bristle (IOB) formation and cell survival. One of the most significant mid-interacting genes identified from the modifier screen is dFOXO, a transcription factor exhibiting a nucleocytoplasmic subcellular distribution pattern. In common with dFOXO, we show that Mid exhibits a nucleocytoplasmic distribution pattern within WT third-instar larval (3(o)L) tissue homogenates. Because dFOXO is a stress-responsive factor, we assayed the effects of either oxidative or metabolic stress responses on modifying the mid mutant phenotype which is characterized by a 50% loss of IOBs within the adult compound eye. While metabolic starvation stress does not affect the mid mutant phenotype, either 1 mM paraquat or 20% coconut oil, oxidative stress inducers, partially suppresses the mid mutant phenotype resulting in a significant recovery of IOBs. Another significant mid-interacting gene we identified is groucho (gro). Mid and Gro are predicted to act as corepressors of the enhancer-of-split gene complex downstream of Notch. Immunolabeling WT and dFOXO null 3(o)L eye-antennal imaginal discs with anti-Mid and anti-Engrailed (En) antibodies indicate that dFOXO is required to activate Mid and En expression within photoreceptor neurons of the eye disc. Taken together, these studies show that Mid and dFOXO serve as critical effectors of cell fate specification and survival within integrated Notch, InR/dAkt, and JNK signaling pathways during 3(o)L and pupal eye imaginal disc development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  1. The MEKK1 SWIM domain is a novel substrate receptor for c-Jun ubiquitylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Michael A; Duellman, Tyler; Hooper, Christopher; Ameka, Magdalene; Bakowska, Joanna C; Cuevas, Bruce D

    2012-08-01

    MEKK1 [MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase)/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) kinase kinase 1] is a MAP3K (MAPK kinase kinase) that regulates MAPK activation, and is the only known mammalian kinase that is also a ubiquitin ligase. MEKK1 contains a RING domain within its N-terminal regulatory region, and MEKK1 has been shown to ubiquitylate the AP-1 (activator protein 1) transcription factor protein c-Jun, but the mechanism by which MEKK1 interacts with c-Jun to induce ubiquitylation has not been defined. Proximal to the RING domain is a SWIM (SWI2/SNF2 and MuDR) domain of undetermined function. In the present study, we demonstrate that the MEKK1 SWIM domain, but not the RING domain, directly associates with the c-Jun DNA-binding domain, and that the SWIM domain is required for MEKK1-dependent c-Jun ubiquitylation. We further show that this MEKK1 SWIM-Jun interaction is specific, as SWIM domains from other proteins failed to bind c-Jun. We reveal that, although the Jun and Fos DNA-binding domains are highly conserved, the MEKK1 SWIM domain does not bind Fos. Finally, we identify the sequence unique to Jun proteins required for specific interaction with the MEKK1 SWIM domain. Therefore we propose that the MEKK1 SWIM domain represents a novel substrate-binding domain necessary for direct interaction between c-Jun and MEKK1 that promotes MEKK1-dependent c-Jun ubiquitylation.

  2. Growth arrest- and DNA-damage-inducible 45beta gene inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and decreases IL-1beta-induced apoptosis in insulin-producing INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Claus Morten; Døssing, M G; Papa, S

    2006-01-01

    -activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. Inhibition of JNK prevents IL-1beta-mediated beta cell destruction. In mouse embryo fibroblasts and 3DO T cells, overexpression of the gene encoding growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45beta (Gadd45b) downregulates pro-apoptotic JNK signalling. The aim of this study...

  3. Saw palmetto extract suppresses insulin-like growth factor-I signaling and induces stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation in human prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Teri L; Carroll, Julie M; Mallinson, Rebecca A; Roberts, Charles T; Roselli, Charles E

    2004-07-01

    A common alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the extract from the fruit of saw palmetto (SPE). BPH is caused by nonmalignant growth of epithelial and stromal elements of the prostate. IGF action is important for prostate growth and development, and changes in the IGF system have been documented in BPH tissues. The main signaling pathways activated by the binding of IGF-I to the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) are the ERK arm of the MAPK cascade and the phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) cascade. We tested the hypothesis that SPE suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in the P69 prostate epithelial cell line by inhibiting IGF-I signaling. Treatment with 150 microg/ml SPE for 24 h decreased IGF-I-induced proliferation of P69 cells and induced cleavage of the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), an index of apoptosis. Treatment of serum-starved P69 cells with 150 microg/ml SPE for 6 h reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of Akt (assessed by Western blot) and Akt activity (assessed by an Akt kinase assay). Western blot analysis showed that SPE reduced IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of the adapter protein insulin receptor substrate-1 and decreased downstream effects of Akt activation, including increased cyclin D1 levels and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and p70(s6k). There was no effect on IGF-I-induced phosphorylation of MAPK, IGF-IR, or Shc. Treatment of starved cells with SPE alone induced phosphorylation the proapoptotic protein JNK. SPE treatment may relieve symptoms of BPH, in part, by inhibiting specific components of the IGF-I signaling pathway and inducing JNK activation, thus mediating antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on prostate epithelia.

  4. Sustained activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways by hepatitis B virus X protein mediates apoptosis via induction of Fas/FasL and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1/TNF-alpha expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Horng; Grégori, Gérald; Hullinger, Ronald L; Andrisani, Ourania M

    2004-12-01

    Activation of the cellular stress pathways (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] and p38 mitogen-activated protein [MAP] kinase) is linked to apoptosis. However, whether both pathways are required for apoptosis remains unresolved. Hepatitis B virus X protein (pX) activates p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways and, in response to weak apoptotic signals, sensitizes hepatocytes to apoptosis. Employing hepatocyte cell lines expressing pX, which was regulated by tetracycline, we investigated the mechanism of apoptosis by p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathway activation. Inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway rescues by 80% the initiation of pX-mediated apoptosis, whereas subsequent apoptotic events involve both pathways. pX-mediated activation of p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways is sustained, inducing the transcription of the death receptor family genes encoding Fas/FasL and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)/TNF-alpha and the p53-regulated Bax and Noxa genes. The pX-dependent expression of Fas/FasL and TNFR1/TNF-alpha mediates caspase 8 activation, resulting in Bid cleavage. In turn, activated Bid, acting with pX-induced Bax and Noxa, mediates the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, resulting in the activation of caspase 9 and apoptosis. Combined antibody neutralization of FasL and TNF-alpha reduces by 70% the initiation of pX-mediated apoptosis. These results support the importance of the pX-dependent activation of both the p38 MAP kinase and JNK pathways in pX-mediated apoptosis and suggest that this mechanism of apoptosis occurs in vivo in response to weak apoptotic signals.

  5. c-jun gene expression in human cells exposed to either ionizing radiation or hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collart, F.R.; Horio, M.; Huberman, E.

    1993-06-01

    We investigated the role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and protein kinase C (PKC) in radiation- and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-evoked c-jun gene expression in human HL-205 cells. This induction of c-jun gene expression could be prevented by pretreatment of the cells with Nacetylcysteine (an antioxidant) or H7 (a PKC and PKA inhibitor) but not by HA1004, a PKA inhibitor, suggesting a role for ROls and PKC in mediating c-jun gene expression. We also investigated potential differences in c-jun gene expression in a panel of normal and tumor cells untreated or treated with ionizing radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Treatment with radiation or H{sub 2}O{sub 2} produced a varied response, from some reduction to an increase of more than an order of magnitude in the steady-state level of c-jun mRNA. These data indicate that although induction of c-jun may be a common response to ionizing radiation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, this response was reduced or absent in some cell types.

  6. Selection and characterization of a DNA aptamer that can discriminate between cJun/cJun and cJun/cFos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Walters

    Full Text Available The AP-1 family of transcriptional activators plays pivotal roles in regulating a wide range of biological processes from the immune response to tumorigenesis. Determining the roles of specific AP-1 dimers in cells, however, has remained challenging because common molecular biology techniques are unable to distinguish between the role of, for example, cJun/cJun homodimers versus cJun/cFos heterodimers. Here we used SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment to identify and characterize DNA aptamers that are >100-fold more specific for binding cJun/cJun compared to cJun/cFos, setting the foundation to investigate the biological functions of different AP-1 dimer compositions.

  7. Peptide affinity analysis of proteins that bind to an unstructured NH2-terminal region of the osmoprotective transcription factor NFAT5

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuMond, Jenna F.; Ramkissoon, Kevin; Zhang, Xue; Izumi, Yuichiro; Wang, Xujing; Eguchi, Koji; Gao, Shouguo; Mukoyama, Masashi; Ferraris, Joan D.

    2016-01-01

    NFAT5 is an osmoregulated transcription factor that particularly increases expression of genes involved in protection against hypertonicity. Transcription factors often contain unstructured regions that bind co-regulatory proteins that are crucial for their function. The NH2-terminal region of NFAT5 contains regions predicted to be intrinsically disordered. We used peptide aptamer-based affinity chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to identify protein preys pulled down by one or more overlapping 20 amino acid peptide baits within a predicted NH2-terminal unstructured region of NFAT5. We identify a total of 467 unique protein preys that associate with at least one NH2-terminal peptide bait from NFAT5 in either cytoplasmic or nuclear extracts from HEK293 cells treated with elevated, normal, or reduced NaCl concentrations. Different sets of proteins are pulled down from nuclear vs. cytoplasmic extracts. We used GeneCards to ascertain known functions of the protein preys. The protein preys include many that were previously known, but also many novel ones. Consideration of the novel ones suggests many aspects of NFAT5 regulation, interaction and function that were not previously appreciated, for example, hypertonicity inhibits NFAT5 by sumoylating it and the NFAT5 protein preys include components of the CHTOP complex that desumoylate proteins, an action that should contribute to activation of NFAT5. PMID:26757802

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase is essential for interleukin-1-induced and nuclear factor kappaB-mediated gene expression in insulin-producing INS-1E cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lykke; Størling, J; Darville, M

    2005-01-01

    The beta cell destruction and insulin deficiency that characterises type 1 diabetes mellitus is partially mediated by cytokines, such as IL-1beta, and by nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and -independent effector mechanisms. IL-1beta activates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including...... extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and the nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) pathway. Both pathways are required for expression of the gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and for IL-1beta-mediated beta cell death. The molecular mechanisms...... by which these two pathways regulate beta cell Nos2 expression are currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the putative crosstalk between MAPK and NFkappaB activation in beta cells....

  9. Protein kinases: mechanisms and downstream targets in inflammation-mediated obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandipati, Kalyana C; Subramanian, Saravanan; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-02-01

    Obesity-induced low-grade inflammation (metaflammation) impairs insulin receptor signaling. This has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Insulin signaling in the target tissues is mediated by stress kinases such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, inhibitor of NF-kB kinase complex β (IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase, protein kinase C, Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase, and RNA-activated protein kinase. Most of these kinases phosphorylate several key regulators in glucose homeostasis. The phosphorylation of serine residues in the insulin receptor and IRS-1 molecule results in diminished enzymatic activity in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. This has been one of the key mechanisms observed in the tissues that are implicated in insulin resistance especially in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2-DM). Identifying the specific protein kinases involved in obesity-induced chronic inflammation may help in developing the targeted drug therapies to minimize the insulin resistance. This review is focused on the protein kinases involved in the inflammatory cascade and molecular mechanisms and their downstream targets with special reference to obesity-induced T2-DM.

  10. Increased phosphorylation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase at NH2-terminal sites during physiological hyperinsulinemia in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Staehr, Peter; Hansen, Bo Falck

    2003-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. In animal muscle, insulin activates GS by reducing phosphorylation at both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal sites, but the mecha......In type 2 diabetes, insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase (GS) is impaired. This defect plays a major role for the development of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. In animal muscle, insulin activates GS by reducing phosphorylation at both NH(2)- and COOH-terminal sites......, but the mechanism involved in human muscle and the defect in type 2 diabetes remain unclear. We studied the effect of insulin at physiological concentrations on glucose metabolism, insulin signaling and phosphorylation of GS in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic and well-matched control subjects during euglycemic......-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Analysis using phospho-specific antibodies revealed that insulin decreases phosphorylation of sites 3a + 3b in human muscle, and this was accompanied by activation of Akt and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha. In type 2 diabetic subjects these effects of insulin were fully intact...

  11. A feed-forward regulation of endothelin receptors by c-Jun in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junming; Ma, Hai-Ying; Krishnamoorthy, Raghu R; Yorio, Thomas; He, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    c-Jun, c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK) and endothelin B (ETB) receptor have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Previously, we reported that an increase of c-Jun and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) immunohistostaining is associated with upregulation of the ETB receptor within the ganglion cell layer of rats with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In addition, both transcription factors regulate the expression of the ETB receptor in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPE). The current study addressed the mechanisms by which ET-1 produced upregulation of ET receptors in primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and HNPE cells. Treatment of ET-1 and ET-3 increased the immunocytochemical staining of c-Jun and C/EBPβ in primary rat RGCs and co-localization of both transcription factors was observed. A marked increase in DNA binding activity of AP-1 and C/EBPβ as well as elevated protein levels of c-Jun and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) were detected following ET-1 treatment in HNPE cells. Overexpression of ETA or ETB receptor promoted the upregulation of c-Jun and also elevated its promoter activity. In addition, upregulation of C/EBPβ augmented DNA binding and mRNA expression of c-Jun, and furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun and C/EBPβ was confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis of HNPE cells was identified following ET-1 treatment, and overexpression of the ETA or ETB receptor produced enhanced apoptosis. ET-1 mediated upregulation of c-Jun and C/EBPβ and their interaction may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the regulation of endothelin receptor expression. Reciprocally, c-Jun was also found to regulate the ET receptors and C/EBPβ appeared to play a regulatory role in promoting expression of c-Jun. Taken together, the data suggests that ET-1 triggers the upregulation of c-Jun through both ETA and ETB receptors, and conversely c-Jun also upregulates endothelin receptor expression, thereby

  12. A feed-forward regulation of endothelin receptors by c-Jun in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junming Wang

    Full Text Available c-Jun, c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK and endothelin B (ETB receptor have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Previously, we reported that an increase of c-Jun and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ immunohistostaining is associated with upregulation of the ETB receptor within the ganglion cell layer of rats with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. In addition, both transcription factors regulate the expression of the ETB receptor in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPE. The current study addressed the mechanisms by which ET-1 produced upregulation of ET receptors in primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and HNPE cells. Treatment of ET-1 and ET-3 increased the immunocytochemical staining of c-Jun and C/EBPβ in primary rat RGCs and co-localization of both transcription factors was observed. A marked increase in DNA binding activity of AP-1 and C/EBPβ as well as elevated protein levels of c-Jun and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK were detected following ET-1 treatment in HNPE cells. Overexpression of ETA or ETB receptor promoted the upregulation of c-Jun and also elevated its promoter activity. In addition, upregulation of C/EBPβ augmented DNA binding and mRNA expression of c-Jun, and furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun and C/EBPβ was confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis of HNPE cells was identified following ET-1 treatment, and overexpression of the ETA or ETB receptor produced enhanced apoptosis. ET-1 mediated upregulation of c-Jun and C/EBPβ and their interaction may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the regulation of endothelin receptor expression. Reciprocally, c-Jun was also found to regulate the ET receptors and C/EBPβ appeared to play a regulatory role in promoting expression of c-Jun. Taken together, the data suggests that ET-1 triggers the upregulation of c-Jun through both ETA and ETB receptors, and conversely c-Jun also upregulates endothelin receptor expression

  13. Mixed lineage kinase-3/JNK1 axis promotes migration of human gastric cancer cells following gastrin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prajna; Senthivinayagam, Subramanian; Rangasamy, Velusamy; Sondarva, Gautam; Rana, Basabi

    2010-03-01

    Gastrin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone, secreted by the gastric G cells and can exist as a fully processed amidated form (G17) or as unprocessed forms. All forms of gastrin possess trophic properties towards the gastrointestinal mucosa. An understanding of the signaling pathways involved is important to design therapeutic approaches to target gastrin-mediated cellular events. The studies described here were designed to identify the signaling pathways by which amidated gastrin (G17) mediates cancer cell migration. These studies indicated a time- and dose-dependent increase in gastric cancer cell migration after G17 stimulation, involving cholecystokinin 2 receptor. G17-induced migration was preceded by activation of MAPK pathways and was antagonized after pretreatment with SP600125, a pharmacological inhibitor of c-Jun-NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Knockdown of endogenous JNK1 expression via small interference RNA (JNK1-siRNA) inhibited G17-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun and migration, and overexpression of wild-type JNK1 or constitutive active JNK1 promoted G17-induced migration. Studies designed to identify the MAPK kinase kinase member mediating JNK activation indicated the involvement of mixed lineage kinase-3 (MLK3), which was transiently activated upon G17 treatment. Inhibition of MLK3 pathway via a pan-MLK inhibitor or knockdown of MLK3 expression by MLK3-siRNA antagonized G17-induced migration. Incubation with G17 also resulted in an induction of matrix metalloproteinase 7 promoter activity, which is known to mediate migration and invasion pathways in cancer cells. Modulation of MLK3, JNK1, and c-Jun pathways modulated G17-induced matrix metalloproteinase 7 promoter activation. These studies indicate that the MLK3/JNK1 axis mediates G17-induced gastric cancer cell migration, which can be targeted for designing novel therapeutic strategies for treating gastric malignancies.

  14. Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum TP0136 protein is heterogeneous among isolates and binds cellular and plasma fibronectin via its NH2-terminal end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wujian; Molini, Barbara J; Lukehart, Sheila A; Giacani, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Adherence-mediated colonization plays an important role in pathogenesis of microbial infections, particularly those caused by extracellular pathogens responsible for systemic diseases, such as Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (T. pallidum), the agent of syphilis. Among T. pallidum adhesins, TP0136 is known to bind fibronectin (Fn), an important constituent of the host extracellular matrix. To deepen our understanding of the TP0136-Fn interaction dynamics, we used two naturally-occurring sequence variants of the TP0136 protein to investigate which region of the protein is responsible for Fn binding, and whether TP0136 would adhere to human cellular Fn in addition to plasma Fn and super Fn as previously reported. Fn binding assays were performed with recombinant proteins representing the two full-length TP0136 variants and their discrete regions. As a complementary approach, we tested inhibition of T. pallidum binding to Fn by recombinant full-length TP0136 proteins and fragments, as well as by anti-TP0136 immune sera. Our results show that TP0136 adheres more efficiently to cellular Fn than to plasma Fn, that the TP0136 NH2-terminal conserved region of the protein is primarily responsible for binding to plasma Fn but that binding sites for cellular Fn are also present in the protein's central and COOH-terminal regions. Additionally, message quantification studies show that tp0136 is highly transcribed during experimental infection, and that its message level increases in parallel to the host immune pressure on the pathogen, which suggests a possible role for this protein in T. pallidum persistence. In a time where syphilis incidence is high, our data will help in the quest to identify suitable targets for development of a much needed vaccine against this important disease.

  15. Fluid shear stress activation of focal adhesion kinase. Linking to mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Kim, M; Hu, Y L; Jalali, S; Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T; Chien, S; Shyy, J Y

    1997-11-28

    Shear stress, the tangential component of hemodynamic forces, activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathways in cultured vascular endothelial cells to induce the transcriptional activation of many immediate early genes. It appears that integrins, protein-tyrosine kinases, and the structural integrity of actin are important factors involved in these shear stress-induced responses. The underlying molecular events were investigated by the application of a shear stress of 12 dyn/cm2 on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We found that such a shear stress increased the tyrosine phosphorylation and the kinase activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its association with growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2) in a rapid and transient manner, suggesting that FAK may be linked to these mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways through a Grb2. Son of sevenless (Sos) complex. FAK(F397Y), which encodes a dominant negative mutant of FAK, attenuated the shear stress-induced kinase activity of Myc epitope-tagged ERK2 and hemagglutinin epitope-tagged JNK1. DeltamSos1, encoding a dominant negative mutant of Sos in which the guanine nucleotide exchange domain has been deleted, also attenuated shear stress activation of Myc-ERK2 and hemagglutinin-JNK1. Pretreating the confluent BAEC monolayers with a blocking type anti-vitronectin receptor monoclonal antibody had similar inhibitory effects in these shear stress-activated ERKs and JNKs. Confocal microscopic observation further demonstrated that FAK tended to cluster with vitronectin receptor near the abluminal side of the sheared BAEC. These results demonstrate that FAK signaling is critical in the shear stress-induced dual activation of ERK and JNK.

  16. Hepatic mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 selectively regulates glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawan, Ahmed; Zhang, Lei; Gatzke, Florian; Min, Kisuk; Jurczak, Michael J; Al-Mutairi, Mashael; Richter, Patric; Camporez, Joao Paulo G; Couvillon, Anthony; Pesta, Dominik; Roth Flach, Rachel J; Shulman, Gerald I; Bennett, Anton M

    2015-01-01

    The liver plays a critical role in glucose metabolism and communicates with peripheral tissues to maintain energy homeostasis. Obesity and insulin resistance are highly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the precise molecular details of NAFLD remain incomplete. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) regulate liver metabolism. However, the physiological contribution of MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) as a nuclear antagonist of both p38 MAPK and JNK in the liver is unknown. Here we show that hepatic MKP-1 becomes overexpressed following high-fat feeding. Liver-specific deletion of MKP-1 enhances gluconeogenesis and causes hepatic insulin resistance in chow-fed mice while selectively conferring protection from hepatosteatosis upon high-fat feeding. Further, hepatic MKP-1 regulates both interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). Mice lacking hepatic MKP-1 exhibit reduced circulating IL-6 and FGF21 levels that were associated with impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial oxidation and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Hence, hepatic MKP-1 serves as a selective regulator of MAPK-dependent signals that contributes to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and peripheral tissue energy balance. These results also demonstrate that hepatic MKP-1 overexpression in obesity is causally linked to the promotion of hepatosteatosis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Radiation-induced apoptosis in developing rats and kainic acid-induced excitotoxicity in adult rats are associated with distinctive morphological and biochemical c-Jun/AP-1 (N) expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozas, E. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Planas, A.M. [Departament de Farmacologia i Toxicologia, IIBB, CSIC Barcelona (Spain); Ferrer, I. [Unitat de Neuropatologia, Servei d' Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Princeps d' Espanya, Universitat de Barcelona, 08907 Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain)

    1997-07-14

    Ionizing radiation produces apoptosis in the developing rat brain. Strong c-Jun immunoreactivity, as revealed with the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) which is raised against the amino acids 91-105 mapping with the amino terminal domain of mouse c-Jun p39, is simultaneously observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of apoptotic cells. Western blotting of total brain homogenates, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats which is accompanied by a strong, phosphorylated p62 double-band in irradiated animals. In addition, increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as found on western blots, is found in irradiated rats when compared with controls. Intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid at convulsant doses to the adult rat produces cell death with morphological features of necrosis, together with the appearance of cells with fine granular chromatin degeneration and small numbers of apoptotic-like cells, in the entorhinal and piriform cortices, basal amygdala, certain thalamic nuclei, and CA1 region of the hippocampus. c-Jun expression in kainic acid-treated rats, as revealed with the c-Jun/AP-1 (N) antibody, is found in the nuclei of a minority of cells in the same areas. The vast majority of c-Jun-immunoreactive cells have normal nuclear morphology, whereas necrotic cells are negative and only a few cells with fine granular chromatin condensation and apoptotic cells following kainic acid injection are stained with c-Jun antibodies. Western blotting, using the same antibody, shows a p39 band in control rats, which is accompanied by a band at about p26 from 6 h onwards following kainic acid injection. Decreased c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 expression, as revealed on western blots, is observed in kainic acid-treated rats.These results show that the antibody c-Jun/AP-1 (N) recognizes three different forms of c-Jun-related immunoreactivity in normal and pathological states, which are associated with the different outcome of cells. These results stress the necessity

  18. c-Jun interacts with the corepressor TG-interacting factor (TGIF) to suppress Smad2 transcriptional activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessah, Marcia; Prunier, Céline; Marais, Jacqueline; Ferrand, Nathalie; Mazars, Anne; Lallemand, François; Gauthier, Jean-Michel; Atfi, Azeddine

    2001-01-01

    The Sma and Mad related (Smad) family proteins are critical mediators of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily signaling. After TGF-β-mediated phosphorylation and association with Smad4, Smad2 moves to the nucleus and activates expression of specific genes through cooperative interactions with DNA-binding proteins, including members of the winged-helix family of transcription factors, forkhead activin signal transducer (FAST)-1 and FAST2. TGF-β has also been described to activate other signaling pathways, such as the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway. Here, we show that activation of JNK cascade blocked the ability of Smad2 to mediate TGF-β-dependent activation of the FAST proteins. This inhibitory activity is mediated through the transcriptional factor c-Jun, which enhances the association of Smad2 with the nuclear transcriptional corepressor TG-interacting factor (TGIF), thereby interfering with the assembly of Smad2 and the coactivator p300 in response to TGF-β signaling. Interestingly, c-Jun directly binds to the nuclear transcriptional corepressor TGIF and is required for TGIF-mediated repression of Smad2 transcriptional activity. These studies thus reveal a mechanism for suppression of Smad2 signaling pathway by JNK cascade through transcriptional repression. PMID:11371641

  19. Critical role of c-Jun overexpression in liver metastasis of human breast cancer xenograft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background c-Jun/AP-1 has been linked to invasive properties of aggressive breast cancer. Recently, it has been reported that overexpression of c-Jun in breast cancer cell line MCF-7 resulted in increased AP-1 activity, motility and invasiveness of the cells in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. However, the role of c-Jun in metastasis of human breast cancer in vivo is currently unknown. Methods To further investigate the direct involvement of c-Jun in tumorigenesis and metastasis, in the present study, the effects of c-Jun overexpression were studied in both in vitro and in nude mice. Results Ectopic overexpression of c-Jun promoted the growth of MCF-7 cells and resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of cells in S phase and increased motility and invasiveness. Introduction of c-Jun gene alone into weakly invasive MCF-7 cells resulted in the transfected cells capable of metastasizing to the nude mouse liver following tail vein injection. Conclusion The present study confirms that overexpression of c-Jun contributes to a more invasive phenotype in MCF-7 cells. It indicates an interesting relationship between c-Jun expression and increased property of adhesion, migration and in vivo liver metastasis of MCF-7/c-Jun cells. The results provide further evidence that c-Jun is involved in the metastasis of breast cancer. The finding also opens an opportunity for development of anti-c-Jun strategies in breast cancer therapy.

  20. Mapping of the Neisseria meningitidis NadA cell-binding site: relevance of predicted {alpha}-helices in the NH2-terminal and dimeric coiled-coil regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Regina; Capecchi, Barbara; Montanari, Paolo; Franzoso, Susanna; Marin, Oriano; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Segat, Daniela; Scarselli, Maria; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    NadA is a trimeric autotransporter protein of Neisseria meningitidis belonging to the group of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins. It is implicated in the colonization of the human upper respiratory tract by hypervirulent serogroup B N. meningitidis strains and is part of a multiantigen anti-serogroup B vaccine. Structure prediction indicates that NadA is made by a COOH-terminal membrane anchor (also necessary for autotranslocation to the bacterial surface), an intermediate elongated coiled-coil-rich stalk, and an NH(2)-terminal region involved in cell interaction. Electron microscopy analysis and structure prediction suggest that the apical region of NadA forms a compact and globular domain. Deletion studies proved that the NH(2)-terminal sequence (residues 24 to 87) is necessary for cell adhesion. In this study, to better define the NadA cell binding site, we exploited (i) a panel of NadA mutants lacking sequences along the coiled-coil stalk and (ii) several oligoclonal rabbit antibodies, and their relative Fab fragments, directed to linear epitopes distributed along the NadA ectodomain. We identified two critical regions for the NadA-cell receptor interaction with Chang cells: the NH(2) globular head domain and the NH(2) dimeric intrachain coiled-coil α-helices stemming from the stalk. This raises the importance of different modules within the predicted NadA structure. The identification of linear epitopes involved in receptor binding that are able to induce interfering antibodies reinforces the importance of NadA as a vaccine antigen.

  1. Mapping of the Neisseria meningitidis NadA Cell-Binding Site: Relevance of Predicted α-Helices in the NH2-Terminal and Dimeric Coiled-Coil Regions▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Regina; Capecchi, Barbara; Montanari, Paolo; Franzoso, Susanna; Marin, Oriano; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Segat, Daniela; Scarselli, Maria; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2011-01-01

    NadA is a trimeric autotransporter protein of Neisseria meningitidis belonging to the group of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins. It is implicated in the colonization of the human upper respiratory tract by hypervirulent serogroup B N. meningitidis strains and is part of a multiantigen anti-serogroup B vaccine. Structure prediction indicates that NadA is made by a COOH-terminal membrane anchor (also necessary for autotranslocation to the bacterial surface), an intermediate elongated coiled-coil-rich stalk, and an NH2-terminal region involved in cell interaction. Electron microscopy analysis and structure prediction suggest that the apical region of NadA forms a compact and globular domain. Deletion studies proved that the NH2-terminal sequence (residues 24 to 87) is necessary for cell adhesion. In this study, to better define the NadA cell binding site, we exploited (i) a panel of NadA mutants lacking sequences along the coiled-coil stalk and (ii) several oligoclonal rabbit antibodies, and their relative Fab fragments, directed to linear epitopes distributed along the NadA ectodomain. We identified two critical regions for the NadA-cell receptor interaction with Chang cells: the NH2 globular head domain and the NH2 dimeric intrachain coiled-coil α-helices stemming from the stalk. This raises the importance of different modules within the predicted NadA structure. The identification of linear epitopes involved in receptor binding that are able to induce interfering antibodies reinforces the importance of NadA as a vaccine antigen. PMID:20971901

  2. Lead decreases cell survival, proliferation, and neuronal differentiation of primary cultured adult neural precursor cells through activation of the JNK and p38 MAP kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Anna; Wang, Hao; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is the process whereby adult neural precursor cells (aNPCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) generate adult-born, functional neurons in the hippocampus. This process is modulated by various extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and the adult-born neurons have been implicated in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. However, studies on how neurotoxic agents affect this process and the underlying mechanisms are limited. The goal of this study was to determine whether lead, a heavy metal, directly impairs critical processes in adult neurogenesis and to characterize the underlying signaling pathways using primary cultured SGZ-aNPCs isolated from adult mice. We report here that lead significantly increases apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in SGZ-aNPCs. In addition, lead significantly impairs spontaneous neuronal differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, we found that activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways are important for lead cytotoxicity. Our data suggest that lead can directly act on adult neural stem cells and impair critical processes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which may contribute to its neurotoxicity and adverse effects on cognition in adults. PMID:25967738

  3. [Expression of c-jun protein after experimental rat brain concussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Li, Yong-hong

    2010-02-01

    To observe e-jun protein expression after rat brain concussion and explore the forensic pathologic markers following brain concussion. Fifty-five rats were randomly divided into brain concussion group and control group. The expression of c-jun protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. There were weak positive expression of c-jun protein in control group. In brain concussion group, however, some neutrons showed positive expression of c-jun protein at 15 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 3 h after brain concussion. The research results suggest that detection of c-jun protein could be a marker to determine brain concussion and estimate injury time after brain concussion.

  4. Fibroblast growth factor-4 enhances proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells via activation of c-Jun signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Ho Kook

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF4 is expressed in embryonic stages and in adult tissues, where it plays critical roles in modulating multiple cellular functions. However, the exact roles of FGF4 on proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs are not completely understood. Exogenous addition of FGF4 stimulated proliferation of mouse ESCs (mESCs, as proven by the increases in DNA synthesis and cell cycle regulatory protein induction. These increases were almost completely inhibited by pre-treating cells with anti-FGF4 antibody. FGF4 also activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK signaling, but not p38 kinase. Blockage of JNK signaling by SP600125 or by transfection with its specific siRNA significantly inhibited FGF4-stimulated cell proliferation through the suppression of c-Jun induction and activator protein-1 (AP-1 activity. However, ERK or p38 kinase inhibitor did not affect FGF4-stimulated proliferation in mESCs. FGF4 suppressed osteogenic differentiation of mESCs by inhibiting expression of transcription factors involved in bone formation. Further, exogenous FGF4 addition stimulated proliferation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs via activation of ERK signaling. FGF4 also augmented mineralization of hPDLSCs, but not of BMMSCs. Collectively, it is suggested that FGF4 triggers proliferation of stem cells by activating MAPK-mediated signaling, while it affects differently osteogenic differentiation according to the origins of stem cells.

  5. C-Jun expression in lichen planus, psoriasis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Marae, Alaa Hassan; Shoeib, Mohammed; Dawood, Ghada; Abouelfath, Enas

    2017-11-16

    The AP-1 transcription factor complex is a key player in regulating inflammatory processes, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell transformation. The aim of the present study is to investigate C-Jun (one of AP-1complex) expression and its proliferative role in skin samples of lichen planus, psoriasis as common inflammatory skin diseases and squamous cell carcinoma using immunohistochemical method. The present study was carried out on skin biopsies of 15 psoriatic patients, 15 lichen planus patients, 15 SCC and 15 normal skin biopsies. Nuclear expression of C-Jun was detected in basal and few suprabasal layers of epidermis of normal skin. C-Jun was expressed in the whole epidermal layers of both psoriasis (14/15) and lichen planus (15/15) in addition to its expression in lymphocytic infiltrate in the latter in about half of cases (8/15). C-Jun was also expressed in 93.3% (14/15) of SCC in a percentage lower than that of psoriasis, lichen planus and normal skin. The percentage of C-Jun expression in SCC was significantly associated with an early stage (p = 0.000), free surgical margins (p = 0.022) and small tumor size (p = 0.003). The marked reduction of C-Jun in SCC in comparison to normal skin and inflammatory skin dermatoses may refer to its tumor suppressor activity. C-Jun expression in SCC carries favorable prognosis. Absence of significant association between C-Jun and Ki-67 either in SCC or inflammatory skin diseases indicates that it does not affect proliferative capacity of cells.

  6. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma mediates shear stress-dependent activation of JNK in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Y M; Park, H; Maland, M C; Darley-Usmar, V M; Stoyanov, B; Wetzker, R; Jo, H

    1998-11-01

    Shear stress differentially activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) by mechanisms involving Galphai2 and Gbeta/gamma proteins, respectively, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). The early events in this signaling mechanism by which G proteins regulate ERK and JNK in response to shear stress have not been defined. Here we show that BAEC endogenously express a G protein-dependent form of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3Kgamma, and its activity is stimulated by shear stress. PI3Kgamma activity was measured in vitro using BAEC that were transiently transfected with an epitope-tagged PI3Kgamma (vsv-PI3Kgamma). Exposure of BAEC to shear stress rapidly and transiently stimulated the activity of vsv-PI3Kgamma (maximum by 15 s, with a return to basal after 1-min exposure to 5 dyn/cm2 shear stress). Activity of vsv-PI3Kgamma was stimulated by shear stress intensities as low as 0.5 dyn/cm2. Treatment of BAEC with an inhibitor of PI3K, wortmannin, inhibited shear-dependent activation of JNK but had no effect on that of ERK. Furthermore, expression of a kinase-inactive mutant (PI3KgammaK799R) in BAEC inhibited the shear-dependent activation of JNK but not ERK. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3Kgamma selectively regulates the shear-sensitive JNK pathway. This differential and novel signaling pathway may be responsible for coordinating various mechanosensitive events in endothelial cells.

  7. JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways contribute to porcine circovirus type 2 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Zhongwu; Wang, Jing; Liu, Jue

    2009-06-01

    Infection with a wide variety of viruses often perturbs host cell signaling pathways including the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38/MAPK), which are important components of cellular signal transduction pathways. The present study demonstrated for the first time that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), which is the primary causative agent of an emerging swine disease, postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, can activate JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways in PCV2-infected PK15 cells. However, PCV2 at an early stage of infection, as well as UV-irradiated PCV2, failed to activate these two MAPK families, which demonstrated that PCV2 replication was necessary for their activation. We further found that PCV2 activated the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK downstream targets c-Jun and ATF-2 with virus replication in the cultured cells. The roles of these kinases in PCV2 infection were further evaluated using specific inhibitors: the JNK inhibitor 1 for JNK1/2 and SB202190 for p38. Inhibition of JNK1/2 and p38 kinases by these specific inhibitors did result in significant reduction of PCV2 viral mRNA transcription and protein synthesis, viral progeny release, and blockage of PCV2-induced apoptotic caspase-3 activation in the infected cells. Taken together, these data suggest that JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK pathways play important roles in the PCV2 replication and contribute to virus-mediated changes in host cells.

  8. Proteolytic Inhibition of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium-Induced Activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases ERK and JNK in Cultured Human Intestinal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynott, Tracey L.; Crossett, Ben; Prathalingam, S. Radhika

    2002-01-01

    Bromelain, a mixture of cysteine proteases from pineapple stems, blocks signaling by the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK-1) and ERK-2, inhibits inflammation, and protects against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection. In this study, we examined the effect of bromelain on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, since an important feature of its pathogenesis is its ability to induce activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2, which leads to internalization of bacteria and induction of inflammatory responses. Our results show that bromelain dose dependently blocks serovar Typhimurium-induced ERK-1, ERK-2, and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in Caco-2 cells. Bromelain also blocked signaling induced by carbachol and anisomycin, pharmacological MAP kinase agonists. Despite bromelain inhibition of serovar Typhimurium-induced MAP kinase signaling, it did not prevent subsequent invasion of the Caco-2 cells by serovar Typhimurium or alter serovar Typhimurium -induced decreases in resistance across Caco-2 monolayers. Surprisingly, bromelain also did not block serovar Typhimurium-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion but synergized with serovar Typhimurium to enhance IL-8 production. We also found that serovar Typhimurium does not induce ERK phosphorylation in Caco-2 cells in the absence of serum but that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion and decreases in monolayer resistance are unaffected. Collectively, these data indicate that serovar Typhimurium-induced invasion of Caco-2 cells, changes in the resistance of epithelial cell monolayers, and IL-8 production can occur independently of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Data also confirm that bromelain is a novel inhibitor of MAP kinase signaling pathways and suggest a novel role for proteases as inhibitors of signal transduction pathways in intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:11748167

  9. Caveolin-1 regulates shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.; Go, Y. M.; Darji, R.; Choi, J. W.; Lisanti, M. P.; Maland, M. C.; Jo, H.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid shear stress activates a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase family, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), by mechanisms dependent on cholesterol in the plasma membrane in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Caveolae are microdomains of the plasma membrane that are enriched with cholesterol, caveolin, and signaling molecules. We hypothesized that caveolin-1 regulates shear activation of ERK. Because caveolin-1 is not exposed to the outside, cells were minimally permeabilized by Triton X-100 (0.01%) to deliver a neutralizing, polyclonal caveolin-1 antibody (pCav-1) inside the cells. pCav-1 then bound to caveolin-1 and inhibited shear activation of ERK but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Epitope mapping studies showed that pCav-1 binds to caveolin-1 at two regions (residues 1-21 and 61-101). When the recombinant proteins containing the epitopes fused to glutathione-S-transferase (GST-Cav(1-21) or GST-Cav(61-101)) were preincubated with pCav-1, only GST-Cav(61-101) reversed the inhibitory effect of the antibody on shear activation of ERK. Other antibodies, including m2234, which binds to caveolin-1 residues 1-21, had no effect on shear activation of ERK. Caveolin-1 residues 61-101 contain the scaffolding and oligomerization domains, suggesting that binding of pCav-1 to these regions likely disrupts the clustering of caveolin-1 or its interaction with signaling molecules involved in the shear-sensitive ERK pathway. We suggest that caveolae-like domains play a critical role in the mechanosensing and/or mechanosignal transduction of the ERK pathway.

  10. Primate Torpor: Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs, MAPK kinase (MEK, and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27. The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected downstream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently during torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  11. Tauroursodeoxycholate Protects Rat Hepatocytes from Bile Acid-Induced Apoptosis via β1-Integrin- and Protein Kinase A-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Sommerfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ursodeoxycholic acid, which in vivo is rapidly converted into its taurine conjugate, is frequently used for the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. Apart from its choleretic effects, tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC can protect hepatocytes from bile acid-induced apoptosis, but the mechanisms underlying its anti-apoptotic effects are poorly understood. Methods: These mechanisms were investigated in perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes. Results: It was found that TUDC inhibited the glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC-induced activation of the CD95 death receptor at the level of association between CD95 and the epidermal growth factor receptor. This was due to a rapid TUDC-induced β1-integrin-dependent cyclic AMP (cAMP signal with induction of the dual specificity mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1, which prevented GCDC-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4 and c-jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK activation. Furthermore, TUDC induced a protein kinase A (PKA-mediated serine/threonine phosphorylation of the CD95, which was recently identified as an internalization signal for CD95. Furthermore, TUDC inhibited GCDC-induced CD95 targeting to the plasma membrane in a β1-integrin-and PKA-dependent manner. In line with this, the β1-integrin siRNA knockdown in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp-transfected HepG2 cells abolished the protective effect of TUDC against GCDC-induced apoptosis. Conclusion: TUDC exerts its anti-apoptotic effect via a β1-integrin-mediated formation of cAMP, which prevents CD95 activation by hydrophobic bile acids at the levels of JNK activation and CD95 serine/threonine phosphorylation.

  12. c-Jun-N-terminal phosphorylation regulates DNMT1 expression and genome wide methylation in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Dieter H; Ferrarese, Roberto; Claus, Rainer; Dai, Fangping; Masilamani, Anie P; Kling, Eva; Weyerbrock, Astrid; Kling, Teresia; Nelander, Sven; Carro, Maria S

    2017-01-24

    High-grade gliomas (HGG) are the most common brain tumors, with an average survival time of 14 months. A glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), associated with better clinical outcome, has been described in low and high-grade gliomas. Mutation of IDH1 is known to drive the G-CIMP status. In some cases, however, the hypermethylation phenotype is independent of IDH1 mutation, suggesting the involvement of other mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that DNMT1 expression is higher in low-grade gliomas compared to glioblastomas and correlates with phosphorylated c-Jun. We show that phospho-c-Jun binds to the DNMT1 promoter and causes DNA hypermethylation. Phospho-c-Jun activation by Anisomycin treatment in primary glioblastoma-derived cells attenuates the aggressive features of mesenchymal glioblastomas and leads to promoter methylation and downregulation of key mesenchymal genes (CD44, MMP9 and CHI3L1). Our findings suggest that phospho-c-Jun activates an important regulatory mechanism to control DNMT1 expression and regulate global DNA methylation in Glioblastoma.

  13. IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun and STAT3 expression in B-CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antosz, Halina; Wojciechowska, Katarzyna; Sajewicz, Joanna; Choroszyńska, Dorota; Marzec-Kotarska, Barbara; Osiak, Magdalena; Pająk, Natalia; Tomczak, Waldemar; Jargiełło-Baszak, Małgorzata; Baszak, Jacek

    2015-03-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is characterized by the accumulation of functionally abnormal, monoclonal B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen, resulting in a reduction count of normal immunocompetent cells and their impaired immune function. The defect in transmission of signals from various types of extracellular receptors, leading to aberrant cytokines and transcription factors gene expression, may underlie the basis of immune failure in B-CLL. The aim of the study was to assess of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 expression. In response to antigenic stimulation IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 proteins induce mutual activity. The subject of the study was subpopulations of leukemic lymphocytes (CD5+ CD19+) and CD19+ B cells from healthy donors (control group). Our results provide evidence that the regulation of IL-6, IL-10, c-Jun, and STAT3 gene expression in CLL B cells is clearly different from normal B lymphocytes. In B-CLL STAT3 expression in unstimulated lymphocytes is significantly higher (pCLL in comparison with the control group, in all cases (pCLL stage according Rai we revealed decreasing c-Jun expression, both at the mRNA and protein levels, along with advancing stage of disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Short waves-induced enhancement of proliferation of human chondrocytes: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated map-kinase (erk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue-Long; Chan, Rai-Chi; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Huang, Chun-Jen; Lu, Yih-Chau; Chen, I-Shu; Liu, Shiuh-Inn; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Chang, Hong-Tai; Huang, Jong-Khing; Chen, Jin-Shyr; Ho, Chin-Man; Jan, Chung-Ren

    2007-07-01

    1. Short-wave diathermy (SWD) is a form of radiofrequency radiation that is used therapeutically by physiotherapists. The cellular mechanisms of SWD are unclear. The present study was performed to explore the effect of different conditions of short-wave exposure on the proliferation of cultured human chondrocytes. 2. Cells exposed to short waves once per day for seven consecutive days exhibited a significant increase in proliferation by 42% compared with the control cells. In cells that were treated with short waves twice per day for seven consecutive days, or only once on Day 1 and then examined for proliferation on Day 7, cell proliferation was greater than the control cells by 40% and 30%, respectively. 3. Given the importance of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the proliferation of different cell types, efforts were extended to explore the role of three major types of MAPK; that is, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38. 4. It was found that the level of phosphorylated ERK (phospho-ERK 1 and ERK 2) increased significantly within 5-120 min following consecutive exposure to short waves for 7 days. Exposure to short waves failed to alter the intensity of phosphorylated JNK and p38 within 0-240 min. 5. Cells were exposed to short waves once for seven consecutive days in the presence of 0, 10 micromol/L, 20 micromol/L or 50 micromol/L PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor). PD98059 totally inhibited short waves-induced enhancement of proliferation without altering normal control viability. In the presence of short waves and PD98059, the cell viability was lower than the normal control. Together, the data suggest that short waves could increase proliferation in human chondrocytes through activation of the ERK pathway, which is also involved in maintaining normal cell proliferation under physiological conditions.

  15. The role of mitogen-activated protein kinases in crystalline silica-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in A549 human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaru, Makoto; Matsuoka, Masato

    2011-09-01

    We examined the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in crystalline silica-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an important mediator of airway inflammation, in A549 human lung epithelial cells. The levels of COX-2 mRNA increased after a 30-min exposure, and COX-2 protein increased after a 2-h exposure to crystalline silica. Both remained elevated at 8 h; however, no change was observed in the expression of the constitutive COX-1 isoform. The level of prostaglandin E(2), a major product of COX enzymes, increased in response to crystalline silica exposure. Phosphorylated forms of MAPKs including extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and p38 were also increased after crystalline silica exposure. COX-2 expression was markedly suppressed by treatment with the p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and mildly suppressed by the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor, U0126. Treatment with the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, BAY11-7082, markedly suppressed silica-induced COX-2 expression. These results show that crystalline silica exposure induces COX-2 expression in A549 cells in a manner that is dependent on the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Although a marked induction of MAPK phosphatase (MKP)-1 expression was observed in A549 cells exposed to crystalline silica, the silencing of MKP-1 expression using short interference RNA did not affect silica-induced COX-2 expression, suggesting that the down-regulation of COX-2 expression by MKP-1 is unlikely.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in renal cell carcinoma by reactive oxygen species: involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38delta/gamma, cyclooxygenase-2 down-regulation, and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, Monica

    2012-02-03

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney. Unfortunately, RCCs are highly refractory to conventional chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy. Thus, novel therapeutic targets need to be sought for the successful treatment of RCCs. We now report that 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583), an inhibitor of cyclic GMP production, induced growth arrest and apoptosis of the RCC cell line 786-0. It did not prove deleterious to normal renal epithelial cells, an important aspect of chemotherapy. To address the cellular mechanism(s), we used both genetic and pharmacological approaches. LY83583 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in RCC apoptosis through dephosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1\\/2 and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1 and -2. In addition, we observed a decrease in Elk-1 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) down-regulation. We were surprised that we failed to observe an increase in either c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase or p38alpha and -beta mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. In contradiction, reintroduction of p38delta by stable transfection or overexpression of p38gamma dominant negative abrogated the apoptotic effect. Cell death was associated with a decrease and increase in Bcl-x(L) and Bax expression, respectively, as well as release of cytochrome c and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor. These events were associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species formation. The antioxidant N-acetyl l-cysteine, however, opposed LY83583-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, ERK1\\/2 inactivation, COX-2 down-regulation, and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that LY83583 may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of RCC, which remains highly refractory to antineoplastic agents. Our data provide a molecular basis for the anticancer activity of LY83583.

  17. Thrombin-induced apoptosis in neurons through activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lei; Zu, Jie; He, Qianqian; Zhao, Hui; Zhou, Su; Ye, Xinchun; Yang, Xinxin; Zan, Kun; Zhang, Zuohui; Shi, Hongjuan; Cui, Guiyun

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that thrombin activation played a central role in cell injuries associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Here, our study investigated the cytotoxicity of thrombin on neurons, and determined the involvement of JNK pathways in thrombin-induced neuronal apoptosis. Primary cultured neurons were treated with different doses of thrombin. Some neurons were given either SP600125 or vehicle. LDH release assay and flow cytometry were used to measure neuronal apoptosis caused by thrombin. The activation of JNK and capases-3 were measured by Western blot. Our results showed large doses of thrombin that increased the LDH release, the level of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptosis rate of neurons. JNK was activated by thrombin in a time-dependent manner. Administration of SP600125 protects neurons from thrombin-induced apoptosis. These data indicate that the activation of JNK is crucial for thrombin-induced neuronal apoptosis, and inhibition of JNK may be a potential therapeutic target for ICH.

  18. Defizienz der c-Jun n-terminalen Kinase und das metabolische Syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Haß, Tim Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Auswirkungen eines JNK2/3 Doppelknockout im Mausmodel im Hinblick auf das Metabolische Syndrom. Die untersuchten Parameter waren u. a. Gewichtsentwicklung, Fettzellgröße, Stoffwechsel des Fettgewebes und der Leber. Effects of the double knockout of JNK2 and JNK3 in mice with regards to the metabolic syndrome. Analysis of weight, fat cell size and metabolism of liver and fat tissue.

  19. Modelling the mechanism of GR/c-Jun/Erg crosstalk in apoptosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne eChen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL is one of the most common forms of malignancy that occurs in lymphoid progenitor cells, particularly in children. Synthetic steroid hormones glucocorticoids (GCs are widely used as part of the ALL treatment regimens due to their apoptotic function, but their use also brings about various side effects and drug resistance. The identification of the molecular differences between the GCs responsive and resistant cells therefore are essential to decipher such complexity and can be used to improve therapy. However, the emerging picture is complicated as the activities of genes and proteins involved are controlled by multiple factors. By adapting the systems biology framework to address this issue, we here integrated the available knowledge together with experimental data via the building of a series of mathematical models. This rationale enabled us to unravel molecular interactions involving c-Jun in GC induced apoptosis and identify Erg as determinant for GC resistance. The results revealed an alternative potential mechanism where c-Jun may be an indirect GR target that is controlled via an upstream repressor protein. The models also highlight the importance of Erg for GR function, particularly in GC sensitive C7 cells where Erg directly regulates GR in agreement with our previous experimental results. Our models describe potential GR-controlled molecular mechanisms of c-Jun/Bim and Erg regulation. We also demonstrate the importance of using a systematic approach to translate human disease processes into computational models in order to derive information-driven new hypotheses.

  20. Modeling the Mechanism of GR/c-Jun/Erg Crosstalk in Apoptosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daphne Wei-Chen; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija; Schwartz, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common forms of malignancy that occurs in lymphoid progenitor cells, particularly in children. Synthetic steroid hormones glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used as part of the ALL treatment regimens due to their apoptotic function, but their use also brings about various side effects and drug resistance. The identification of the molecular differences between the GCs responsive and resistant cells therefore are essential to decipher such complexity and can be used to improve therapy. However, the emerging picture is complicated as the activities of genes and proteins involved are controlled by multiple factors. By adopting the systems biology framework to address this issue, we here integrated the available knowledge together with experimental data by building a series of mathematical models. This rationale enabled us to unravel molecular interactions involving c-Jun in GC induced apoptosis and identify Ets-related gene (Erg) as potential biomarker of GC resistance. The results revealed an alternative possible mechanism where c-Jun may be an indirect GR target that is controlled via an upstream repressor protein. The models also highlight the importance of Erg for GR function, particularly in GC sensitive C7 cells where Erg directly regulates GR in agreement with our previous experimental results. Our models describe potential GR-controlled molecular mechanisms of c-Jun/Bim and Erg regulation. We also demonstrate the importance of using a systematic approach to translate human disease processes into computational models in order to derive information-driven new hypotheses.

  1. The apoptotic mechanism of action of the sphingosine kinase 1 selective inhibitor SKI-178 in human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Taryn E; Hengst, Jeremy A; Fox, Todd E; Colledge, Ashley L; Kale, Vijay P; Sung, Shen-Shu; Sharma, Arun; Amin, Shantu; Loughran, Thomas P; Kester, Mark; Wang, Hong-Gang; Yun, Jong K

    2015-03-01

    We previously developed SKI-178 (N'-[(1E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethylidene]-3-(4-methoxxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazole-5-carbohydrazide) as a novel sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1) selective inhibitor and, herein, sought to determine the mechanism-of-action of SKI-178-induced cell death. Using human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines as a model, we present evidence that SKI-178 induces prolonged mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Further examination of the mechanism of action of SKI-178 implicated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDK1) as critical factors required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. In cell cycle synchronized human AML cell lines, we demonstrate that entry into mitosis is required for apoptotic induction by SKI-178 and that CDK1, not JNK, is required for SKI-178-induced apoptosis. We further demonstrate that the sustained activation of CDK1 during prolonged mitosis, mediated by SKI-178, leads to the simultaneous phosphorylation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, as well as the phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of Mcl-1. Moreover, multidrug resistance mediated by multidrug-resistant protein1 and/or prosurvival Bcl-2 family member overexpression did not affect the sensitivity of AML cells to SKI-178. Taken together, these findings highlight the therapeutic potential of SKI-178 targeting SphK1 as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of AML, including multidrug-resistant/recurrent AML subtypes. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  2. Plasma membrane cholesterol is a key molecule in shear stress-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H; Go, Y M; St John, P L; Maland, M C; Lisanti, M P; Abrahamson, D R; Jo, H

    1998-11-27

    Shear stress, the dragging force generated by fluid flow, differentially activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) (Jo, H., Sipos, K., Go, Y. M., Law, R., Rong, J., and McDonald, J. M. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 1395-1401). Here, we examine whether cholesterol-enriched compartments in the plasma membrane are responsible for such differential regulation. Pretreatment of BAEC with a cholesterol-binding antibiotic, filipin, did not inhibit shear-dependent activation of JNK. In contrast, filipin and other membrane-permeable cholesterol-binding agents (digitonin and nystatin), but not the lipid-binding agent xylazine, inhibited shear-dependent activation of ERK. The effect of cholesterol-binding drugs did not appear to be due to membrane permeabilization, since treatment of BAEC with a detergent, Triton X-100 which also permeabilizes membranes, did not inhibit shear-dependent activation of ERK. Furthermore, shear-dependent activation of ERK, but not JNK, was inhibited by cyclodextrin, a membrane-impermeable cholesterol-binding agent, which removes cell-surface cholesterol. Moreover, the effects of cyclodextrin were prevented by adding cholesterol during the incubation. These results indicate that cholesterol or cholesterol-sensitive compartments in the plasma membrane play a selective and essential role in activation of ERK, but not JNK, by shear stress. Although exposure to shear stress (1 h) increased the number of caveolae by 3-fold, treatment with filipin had no effect in either control or shear-exposed cells suggesting that caveolae density per se is not a crucial determinant in shear-dependent ERK activation. In summary, the current study suggests that cholesterol-sensitive microdomains in the plasma membrane, such as caveolae-like domains, play a critical role in differential activation of ERK and JNK by shear stress.

  3. ERK/c-Jun Recruits Tet1 to Induce Zta Expression and Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation through DNA Demethylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Han, Dongjie; Wan, Pin; Pan, Pan; Cao, Yanhua; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-10-06

    DNA demethylation plays an essential role in the reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) from latency infection. However, it is unclear how epigenetic modification is initiated in responding to stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that ERK/c-Jun signaling is involved in DNA demethylation of EBV immediate early (IE) gene Zta in response to 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) stimulation. Remarkably, Ser73 phosphorylation of c-Jun facilitates Zta promoter demethylation and EBV reactivation, whereas knockdown of c-Jun attenuates Zta demethylation and viral reactivation. More importantly, we reveal for the first time that c-Jun interacts with DNA dioxygenase Tet1 and facilitates Tet1 to bind to Zta promoter. The binding of c-Jun and Tet1 to Zta enhances promoter demethylation, resulting in the activation of Zta, the stimulation of BHRF1 (a lytic early gene) and gp350/220 (a lytic late gene), and ultimately the reactivation of EBV. Knockdown of Tet1 attenuates TPA-induced Zta demethylation and EBV reactivation. Thus, TPA activates ERK/c-Jun signaling, which subsequently facilitates Tet1 to bind to Zta promoter, leading to DNA demethylation, gene expression, and EBV reactivation. This study reveals important roles of ERK/c-Jun signaling and Tet1 dioxygenase in epigenetic modification, and provides new insights into the mechanism underlying the regulation of virus latent and lytic infection.

  4. MAGE-A1 promotes melanoma proliferation and migration through C-JUN activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong [Department of Dermatology, General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China); The 309th Hospital of China People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Junyun; Ding, Nan [CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yongjun; Yang, Yaran [CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Fang, Xiangdong, E-mail: fangxd@big.ac.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhao, Hua, E-mail: luckhua301@163.com [Department of Dermatology, General Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2016-05-13

    MAGE-A1 belongs to the chromosome X-clustered genes of cancer-testis antigen family and is normally expressed in the human germ line but is also overexpressed in various tumors. Previous studies of MAGE-A1 in melanoma mainly focused on methylation changes or its role in immunotherapy, however, its biological functions in melanoma have remained unknown. In order to determine the role of MAGE-A1 in melanoma growth and metastasis, we manipulated melanoma cell lines with overexpression and knockdown of MAGE-A1. Integration of cell proliferation assays, transwell migration and invasion assays, and RNA-Seq analysis revealed that up-regulation of MAGE-A1 dramatically promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of human melanoma cell lines in vitro, while down-regulation of MAGE-A1 inhibited those characteristics associated with tumor cells. Furthermore, transcriptome sequencing revealed that MAGE-A1 exerts its tumor promoting activity by activating p-C-JUN directly or through ERK-MAPK signaling pathways. Based on our findings, we propose that MAGE-A1 may be a potential therapeutic target for melanoma patients. - Highlights: • MAGE-A1 promotes proliferation and clone formation in melanoma cell lines. • MAGE-A1 enhances tumor cell migration and invasion in melanoma cell lines. • Network including C-JUN, IL8, and ARHGAP29 play critical role in malignant melanoma. • Oncogenic MAGE-A1 increases p-C-JUN levels, possibly via ERK-MAPK signaling pathway.

  5. Anti-proliferative activities of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells require stromal fibroblasts and c-Jun gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the role of mouse fibroblast-mediated c-Jun and IGF-1 signaling in the therapeutic effect of finasteride on benign prostatic epithelial cells. BPH-1 cells, alone or with fibroblasts (c-Jun+/+ or c-Jun-/-, were implanted subcutaneously in male nude mice who were then treated with finasteride. The degrees of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sizes of the xenografts were determined. BPH-1 cells were grown alone or co-cultured with mouse fibroblasts in the presence of finasteride and the level of IGF-1 secreted into the medium by the fibroblasts was determined. The proliferation-associated signaling pathway in BPH-1 cells was also evaluated. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted xenograft growth, stimulated Ki-67 expression, and inhibited BPH-1 apoptosis. Finasteride did not induce the shrinkage of xenografts in the combined-grafted groups despite repressing Ki-67 expression and inducing cell apoptosis. The addition of c-Jun-/- fibroblasts did not promote xenograft growth. In the absence of c-Jun and fibroblasts, finasteride did not alter xenograft growth, Ki-67 expression, or cell apoptosis. The in vitro results demonstrated that when BPH-1 cells were grown in monoculture, treatment with finasteride did not induce cell death and stimulated the expression of pro-proliferative signaling molecules, while in the presence of fibroblasts containing c-Jun, finasteride treatment repressed epithelial cell proliferation, the level of IGF-1 in the medium, and the activation of downstream pro-proliferative signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that fibroblasts, c-Jun, and IGF-1 play key roles in mediating stromal-epithelial interactions that are required for the therapeutic effects of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells.

  6. Anti-proliferative activities of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells require stromal fibroblasts and c-Jun gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Song; Fan, Dongdong; Wang, Mingshuai; Xing, Nianzeng; Niu, Yinong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the role of mouse fibroblast-mediated c-Jun and IGF-1 signaling in the therapeutic effect of finasteride on benign prostatic epithelial cells. BPH-1 cells, alone or with fibroblasts (c-Jun+/+ or c-Jun-/-), were implanted subcutaneously in male nude mice who were then treated with finasteride. The degrees of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sizes of the xenografts were determined. BPH-1 cells were grown alone or co-cultured with mouse fibroblasts in the presence of finasteride and the level of IGF-1 secreted into the medium by the fibroblasts was determined. The proliferation-associated signaling pathway in BPH-1 cells was also evaluated. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted xenograft growth, stimulated Ki-67 expression, and inhibited BPH-1 apoptosis. Finasteride did not induce the shrinkage of xenografts in the combined-grafted groups despite repressing Ki-67 expression and inducing cell apoptosis. The addition of c-Jun-/- fibroblasts did not promote xenograft growth. In the absence of c-Jun and fibroblasts, finasteride did not alter xenograft growth, Ki-67 expression, or cell apoptosis. The in vitro results demonstrated that when BPH-1 cells were grown in monoculture, treatment with finasteride did not induce cell death and stimulated the expression of pro-proliferative signaling molecules, while in the presence of fibroblasts containing c-Jun, finasteride treatment repressed epithelial cell proliferation, the level of IGF-1 in the medium, and the activation of downstream pro-proliferative signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that fibroblasts, c-Jun, and IGF-1 play key roles in mediating stromal-epithelial interactions that are required for the therapeutic effects of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells.

  7. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael [San Diego, CA; Hibi, Masahiko [San Diego, CA; Lin, Anning [La Jolla, CA

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  8. c-Jun is involved in interstitial cystitis antiproliferative factor (APF)-induced growth inhibition of human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zeliang; Zhu, Yuyan; Yu, Meng; Ji, Decai; Yang, Zhenxing; Kong, Chuize

    2013-02-01

    To uncover the role of c-Jun, a proto-oncogene, in inhibitory effects of antiproliferative factor (APF) on tumor cell growth. Expression of c-Jun was analyzed by Western blotting in 45 clinical specimens (30 tumorous tissues and 15 paired non-tumorous tissues) and 3 bladder cancer cell lines. APF-responsive T24 transitional carcinoma bladder cells were treated with APF or mock control. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Change of c-Jun expression was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The influence of c-Jun on APF treatment was evaluated by transient transfection of c-Jun and MTT assay in T24 cells. c-Jun was significantly higher in invasive bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. T24 cells treated with APF had decreased c-Jun expression and suppressed cell growth. More importantly, ectopic c-Jun attenuated APF inhibitory effects on cell growth. These observations suggest that c-Jun is involved in APF-mediated inhibition for bladder tumor cell growth, as potential target of APF in patients with aggressive bladder carcinoma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cigarette smoke inhibits LPS-induced FABP5 expression by preventing c-Jun binding to the FABP5 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deviyani; Perraud, Anne-Laure; Schmitz, Carsten; Gally, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with repeated and sustained infections linked to disease pathogenesis and exacerbations. The airway epithelium constitutes the first line of host defense against infection and is known to be impaired in COPD. We have previously identified Fatty Acid Binding Protein 5 (FABP5) as an important anti-inflammatory player during respiratory infections and showed that overexpression of FABP5 in primary airway epithelial cells protects against bacterial infection and inflammation. While cigarette smoke down regulates FABP5 expression, its mechanism remains unknown. In this report, we have identified three putative c-Jun binding sites on the FABP5 promoter and show that cigarette smoke inhibits the binding of c-Jun to its consensus sequence and prevents LPS-induced FABP5 expression. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we have determined that c-Jun binds the FABP5 promoter when stimulated with LPS but the presence of cigarette smoke greatly reduces this binding. Furthermore, cigarette smoke or a mutation in the c-Jun binding site inhibits LPS-induced FABP5 promoter activity. These data demonstrate that cigarette smoke interferes with FABP5 expression in response to bacterial infection. Thus, functional activation of FABP5 may be a new therapeutic strategy when treating COPD patients suffering from exacerbations.

  10. Palbociclib inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer via c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ge; Xu, Fei; Qin, Tao; Zheng, Qiufan; Shi, Dingbo; Xia, Wen; Tian, Yun; Tang, Yanlai; Wang, Jingshu; Xiao, Xiangshen; Deng, Wuguo; Wang, Shusen

    2015-12-08

    Palbociclib, a highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, has been shown to be a novel anti-tumor agent that suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation. However, its anti-metastasis activity remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated whether palbociclib prevented breast cancer cell metastasis and revealed its regulatory mechanism. We found that palbociclib inhibited migration and invasion in the breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T47D. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, vimentin and Snail, were down-regulated with palbociclib treatment. Moreover, we revealed that this inhibition was mediated by the c-Jun/COX-2 pathway. COX-2 was decreased after palbociclib treatment. The production of PGE2 was also reduced along with COX-2. Additionally, our data showed that c-Jun, a crucial transcriptional regulator of COX-2, was down-regulated by palbociclib. We found that palbociclib weakened the COX-2 promoter binding activity of c-Jun and prevented its translocation from the cytoplasm to cell nuclei. Bioluminescence imaging and tail intravenous injection were used to evaluate the anti-metastasis effect of palbociclib in vivo. The data demonstrated that palbociclib reduced breast cancer metastasis to the lung. These results therefore demonstrated that the anti-metastasis activity of palbociclib is mediated via the c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway by inhibiting EMT in breast cancer cells.

  11. c-Jun DNAzymes inhibit myocardial inflammation, ROS generation, infarct size, and improve cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao; Cai, Hong; Ni, Jun; Bhindi, Ravinay; Lowe, Harry C; Chesterman, Colin N; Khachigian, Levon M

    2009-11-01

    Coronary reperfusion has been the mainstay therapy for reduced infarct size after a heart attack. However, this intervention also results in myocardial injury by initiating a marked inflammatory reaction, and new treatments are keenly sought. The basic-region leucine zipper protein, c-Jun is poorly expressed in the normal myocardium and is induced within 24 hours after myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Synthetic catalytic DNA molecules (DNAzymes) targeting c-Jun (Dz13) reduce infarct size in the area-at-risk (AAR) regardless of whether it is delivered intramyocardially at the initiation of ischemia or at the time of reperfusion. Dz13 attenuates neutrophil infiltration, c-Jun and ICAM-1 expression in vascular endothelium, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and the generation of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused myocardium. It inhibits infiltration into the AAR of complement 3 (C3), C3a receptor (C3aR), membrane attack complex-1 (Mac-1), or matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) positive inflammatory cells. Dz13 also improves cardiac function without influencing myocardial vascularity or fibrosis. These findings demonstrate the regulatory role of c-Jun in the pathogenesis of myocardial inflammation and infarction following ischemia-reperfusion injury, and inhibition of this process using catalytic DNA.

  12. c-fos/c-jun expression and AP-1 activation in skin fibroblasts from centenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassilli, E; Bellesia, E; Salomoni, P; Croce, M A; Sikora, E; Radziszewska, E; Tesco, G; Vergelli, M; Latorraca, S; Barbieri, D; Fagiolo, U; Santacaterina, S; Amaducci, L; Tiozzo, R; Sorbi, S; Franceschi, C

    1996-09-13

    In vitro replicative senescence is characterized by an irreversible growth arrest due to the inability of the cell to induce some key regulators of cell cycle progression, such as c-fos and AP-1, in response to mitogenic stimuli. In vitro replicative senescence and in vivo aging have been assumed to be two related phenomena, likely controlled by overlapping or interacting genes. As a corollary, fibroblasts from centenarians, which have undergone a long process of senescence in vivo should have very limited proliferative capability. On the contrary, in a previous work we found that fibroblasts from centenarians exhibited the same capacity to respond to different mitogenic stimuli as fibroblasts from young donors. Here we provide evidences that the well preserved proliferative response is likely due to the fact that some pivotal regulators- c-fos, c-jun and AP-1-are still fully inducible, despite a long process of in vivo senescence. Our data therefore suggest that in vivo and in vitro aging are separate phenomena whose possible relationships, if any, have to be ascertained very carefully.

  13. Effect of growth hormone and serum on the expression of the proto-oncogenes c-jun and c-fos in insulin producing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Elisabeth D.; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun was analysed in the insulin producing rat tumor cell line, RIN 5AH. Addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) to serum-starved cells in the presence of cycloheximid induced a modest increase in c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels, whereas growth hormone (GH...

  14. Telmisartan directly ameliorates the neuronal inflammatory response to IL-1β partly through the JNK/c-Jun and NADPH oxidase pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Tao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blockade of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptors ameliorates brain inflammation, and reduces excessive brain interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β production and release from cortical microglia. The aim of this study was to determine whether, in addition, AT1 receptor blockade directly attenuates IL-1β-induced inflammatory responses in neuronal cultures. Methods SK-N-SH human neuroblasts and primary rat cortical neurons were pretreated with telmisartan followed by exposure to IL-1β. Gene expression was determined by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR, protein expression and kinase activation by western blotting, NADPH oxidase activity by the lucigenin method, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 release by enzyme immunoassay, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation by the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe assay, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ involvement was assessed with the antagonists GW9662 and T0070907, the agonist pioglitazone and the expression of PPARγ target genes ABCG1 and CD36. Results We found that SK-N-SH neuroblasts expressed AT1 but not AT2 receptor mRNA. Telmisartan reduced IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and PGE2 release more potently than did candesartan and losartan. Telmisartan reduced the IL-1β-induced increase in IL-1R1 receptor and NADPH oxidase-4 (NOX-4 mRNA expression, NADPH oxidase activity, and ROS generation, and reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced COX-2 gene expression. Telmisartan did not modify IL-1β-induced ERK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphorylation or nuclear factor-κB activation but significantly decreased IL-1β-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and c-Jun activation. The JNK inhibitor SP600125 decreased IL-1β-induced PGE2 release with a potency similar to that of telmisartan. The PPARγ agonist pioglitazone reduced IL-1β-induced inflammatory reaction, whereas telmisartan did not activate PPARγ, as shown by its

  15. Hypertonic stress induces c-fos but not c-jun expression in the human embryonal EUE epithelial cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, D; Fuhrman Conti, A M; De Grada, L; Larizza, L

    1995-12-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a role for the two early response genes c-fos and c-jun in transcriptional regulation of genes acting in osmoregulation. On this basis we investigated their expression in response to hypertonic stress in the human embryonal EUE epithelial cell line. EUE cells have proven to be a useful tool for studying long-term in vitro adaptation to hypertonic stress. After culturing EUE cells in hypertonic medium a marked c-fos induction was observed, both at the mRNA and the protein level. Northern analysis of fos-mRNA showed a peak expression at 4 h, followed by a progressive decline till complete extinction at 8 h. Immunofluorescence analysis of FOS protein evidenced a similar, although slightly delayed kinetics of expression. Conversely, neither c-jun nor c-myc up-regulation could be detected. The treatment of EUE cells with cycloheximide led to superinduction of c-fos expression, (with high levels up to 12 h), and to a c-jun expression that was just detectable. Hypertonic stimulation of the transformed cell lines A549, MCF7 and JR induced both c-fos and c-jun only in JR cells. Hypertonic shock was also effective in inducing c-fos expression in fetal human diploid fibroblasts, although the response was earlier and more transient than in EUE cells. These findings indicate that c-fos is a primary response gene in hypertonic stress-activated cells, although the pattern and kinetics of its induction may differ according to the type of cell.

  16. The tobacco smoke component, acrolein, suppresses innate macrophage responses by direct alkylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristova, Milena; Spiess, Page C; Kasahara, David I; Randall, Matthew J; Deng, Bin; van der Vliet, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The respiratory innate immune system is often compromised by tobacco smoke exposure, and previous studies have indicated that acrolein, a reactive electrophile in tobacco smoke, may contribute to the immunosuppressive effects of smoking. Exposure of mice to acrolein at concentrations similar to those in cigarette smoke (5 ppm, 4 h) significantly suppressed alveolar macrophage responses to bacterial LPS, indicated by reduced induction of nitric oxide synthase 2, TNF-α, and IL-12p40. Mechanistic studies with bone marrow-derived macrophages or MH-S macrophages demonstrated that acrolein (1-30 μM) attenuated these LPS-mediated innate responses in association with depletion of cellular glutathione, although glutathione depletion itself was not fully responsible for these immunosuppressive effects. Inhibitory actions of acrolein were most prominent after acute exposure (system.

  17. The sequence-specific transcription factor c-Jun targets Cockayne syndrome protein B to regulate transcription and chromatin structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robert J; Boetefuer, Erica L; Tsai, Pei-Fang; Jeong, Jieun; Choi, Inchan; Won, Kyoung-Jae; Fan, Hua-Ying

    2014-04-01

    Cockayne syndrome is an inherited premature aging disease associated with numerous developmental and neurological defects, and mutations in the gene encoding the CSB protein account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome cases. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSB functions in transcription regulation, in addition to its roles in DNA repair, and those defects in this transcriptional activity might contribute to the clinical features of Cockayne syndrome. Transcription profiling studies have so far uncovered CSB-dependent effects on gene expression; however, the direct targets of CSB's transcriptional activity remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive analysis of CSB genomic occupancy during replicative cell growth. We found that CSB occupancy sites display a high correlation to regions with epigenetic features of promoters and enhancers. Furthermore, we found that CSB occupancy is enriched at sites containing the TPA-response element. Consistent with this binding site preference, we show that CSB and the transcription factor c-Jun can be found in the same protein-DNA complex, suggesting that c-Jun can target CSB to specific genomic regions. In support of this notion, we observed decreased CSB occupancy of TPA-response elements when c-Jun levels were diminished. By modulating CSB abundance, we found that CSB can influence the expression of nearby genes and impact nucleosome positioning in the vicinity of its binding site. These results indicate that CSB can be targeted to specific genomic loci by sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate transcription and local chromatin structure. Additionally, comparison of CSB occupancy sites with the MSigDB Pathways database suggests that CSB might function in peroxisome proliferation, EGF receptor transactivation, G protein signaling and NF-κB activation, shedding new light on the possible causes and mechanisms of Cockayne syndrome.

  18. The sequence-specific transcription factor c-Jun targets Cockayne syndrome protein B to regulate transcription and chromatin structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Lake

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome is an inherited premature aging disease associated with numerous developmental and neurological defects, and mutations in the gene encoding the CSB protein account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome cases. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSB functions in transcription regulation, in addition to its roles in DNA repair, and those defects in this transcriptional activity might contribute to the clinical features of Cockayne syndrome. Transcription profiling studies have so far uncovered CSB-dependent effects on gene expression; however, the direct targets of CSB's transcriptional activity remain largely unknown. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive analysis of CSB genomic occupancy during replicative cell growth. We found that CSB occupancy sites display a high correlation to regions with epigenetic features of promoters and enhancers. Furthermore, we found that CSB occupancy is enriched at sites containing the TPA-response element. Consistent with this binding site preference, we show that CSB and the transcription factor c-Jun can be found in the same protein-DNA complex, suggesting that c-Jun can target CSB to specific genomic regions. In support of this notion, we observed decreased CSB occupancy of TPA-response elements when c-Jun levels were diminished. By modulating CSB abundance, we found that CSB can influence the expression of nearby genes and impact nucleosome positioning in the vicinity of its binding site. These results indicate that CSB can be targeted to specific genomic loci by sequence-specific transcription factors to regulate transcription and local chromatin structure. Additionally, comparison of CSB occupancy sites with the MSigDB Pathways database suggests that CSB might function in peroxisome proliferation, EGF receptor transactivation, G protein signaling and NF-κB activation, shedding new light on the possible causes and mechanisms of Cockayne syndrome.

  19. Melatonin promotes sorafenib-induced apoptosis through synergistic activation of JNK/c-jun pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shibo; Hoffmann, Katrin; Gao, Chao; Petrulionis, Marius; Herr, Ingrid; Schemmer, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Melatonin has been shown to exert anticancer activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through its antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effect in both experimental and clinical studies, and sorafenib is the only approved drug for the systemic treatment of HCC. Thus, this study was designed to investigate the combined effect of melatonin and sorafenib on proliferation, apoptosis, and its possible mechanism in human HCC. Here, we found that both melatonin and sorafenib resulted in a dose-dependent growth inhibition of HuH-7 cells after 48 hours treatment, and the combination of them enhanced the growth inhibition in a synergistic manner. Colony formation assay indicated that co-treatment of HuH-7 cells with melatonin and sorafenib significantly decreased the clonogenicity compared to the treatment with single agent. Furthermore, FACS and TUNEL assay confirmed that melatonin synergistically augmented the sorafenib-induced apoptosis after 48 hours incubation, which was in accordance with the activation of caspase-3 and the JNK/c-jun pathway. Inhibition of JNK/c-jun pathway with its inhibitor SP600125 reversed the phosphorylation of c-jun and the activation of caspase-3 induced by co-treatment of HuH-7 cells with melatonin and sorafenib in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, SP600125 exhibited protective effect against apoptosis induced by the combination of melatonin and sorafenib. This study demonstrates that melatonin in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human HCC cells; therefore, supplementation of sorafenib with melatonin may serve as a potential therapeutic choice for advanced HCC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Elevated cJUN expression and an ATF/CRE site within the ATF3 promoter contribute to activation of ATF3 transcription by the amino acid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lingchen; Kilberg, Michael S

    2013-02-15

    Mammalian cells respond to amino acid deprivation through multiple signaling pathways referred to as the amino acid response (AAR). Transcription factors mediate the AAR after their activation by several mechanisms; examples include translational control (activating transcription factor 4, ATF4), phosphorylation (p-cJUN), and transcriptional control (ATF3). ATF4 induces ATF3 transcription through a promoter-localized C/EBP-ATF response element (CARE). The present report characterizes an ATF/CRE site upstream of the CARE that also contributes to AAR-induced ATF3 transcription. ATF4 binds to the ATF/CRE and CARE sequences and both are required for a maximal response to ATF4 induction. ATF3, which antagonizes ATF4 and represses its own gene, also exhibited binding activity to the ATF/CRE and CARE sequences. The AAR resulted in elevated total cJUN and p-cJUN protein levels and both forms exhibited binding activity to the ATF/CRE and CARE ATF3 sequences. Knockdown of AAR-enhanced cJUN expression blocked induction of the ATF3 gene and mutation of either the ATF/CRE or the CARE site prevented the cJUN-dependent increase in ATF3-driven luciferase activity. The results indicate that both increased cJUN and the cis-acting ATF/CRE sequence within the ATF3 promoter contribute to the transcriptional activation of the gene during the AAR.

  1. miR-138 protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis via MLK3/JNK/c-jun pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Siyi; Liu, Peng; Jian, Zhao; Li, Jingwei; Zhu, Yun; Feng, Zezhou; Xiao, Yingbin, E-mail: xiaoyb@vip.sina.com

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •First time to find miR-138 is up-regulated in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. •First time to find miR-138 targets MLK3 and regulates JNK/c-jun pathway. •Rare myocardial biopsy of patients with CHD were collected. •Both silence and overexpression of miR-138 were implemented. •Various methods were used to detect cell function. -- Abstract: Cardiomyocytes experience a series of complex endogenous regulatory mechanisms against apoptosis induced by chronic hypoxia. MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate cellular pathophysiological processes. Recently, microRNA-138 (miR-138) has been found related to hypoxia, and beneficial for cell proliferation. Therefore, we intend to study the role of miR-138 in hypoxic cardiomyocytes and the main mechanism. Myocardial samples of patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) were collected to test miR-138 expression. Agomir or antagomir of miR-138 was transfected into H9C2 cells to investigate its effect on cell apoptosis. Higher miR-138 expression was observed in patients with cyanotic CHD, and its expression gradually increased with prolonged hypoxia time in H9C2 cells. Using MTT and LDH assays, cell growth was significantly greater in the agomir group than in the negative control (NC) group, while antagomir decreased cell survival. Dual luciferase reporter gene and Western-blot results confirmed MLK3 was a direct target of miR-138. It was found that miR-138 attenuated hypoxia-induced apoptosis using TUNEL, Hoechst staining and Annexin V-PE/7-AAD flow cytometry analysis. We further detected expression of apoptosis-related proteins. In the agomir group, the level of pro-apoptotic proteins such as cleaved-caspase-3, cleaved-PARP and Bad significantly reduced, while Bcl-2 and Bcl-2/Bax ratio increased. Opposite changes were observed in the antagomir group. Downstream targets of MLK3, JNK and c-jun, were also suppressed by miR-138. Our study demonstrates that up-regulation of miR-138 plays

  2. Tristetraprolin induces cell cycle arrest in breast tumor cells through targeting AP-1/c-Jun and NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Ning, Huan; Gu, Ling; Wang, Qinghong; Lu, Wenbao; Peng, Hui; Cui, Weiguang; Ying, Baoling; Ross, Christina R; Wilson, Gerald M; Wei, Lin; Wold, William S M; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-08

    The main characteristic of cancers, including breast cancer, is the ability of cancer cells to proliferate uncontrollably. However, the underlying mechanisms of cancer cell proliferation, especially those regulated by the RNA binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP), are not completely understood. In this study, we found that TTP inhibits cell proliferation in vitro and suppresses tumor growth in vivo through inducing cell cycle arrest at the S phase. Our studies demonstrate that TTP inhibits c-Jun expression through the C-terminal Zn finger and therefore increases Wee1 expression, a regulatory molecule which controls cell cycle transition from the S to the G2 phase. In contrast to the well-known function of TTP in regulating mRNA stability, TTP inhibits c-Jun expression at the level of transcription by selectively blocking NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. Reconstitution of NF-κB p65 completely abolishes the inhibition of c-Jun transcription by TTP. Moreover, reconstitution of c-Jun in TTP-expressing breast tumor cells diminishes Wee1 overexpression and promotes cell proliferation. Our results indicate that TTP suppresses c-Jun expression that results in Wee1 induction which causes cell cycle arrest at the S phase and inhibition of cell proliferation. Our study provides a new pathway for TTP function as a tumor suppressor which could be targeted in tumor treatment.

  3. The intriguing role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in the chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi-Nong; Wang, Kai; Jin, Song; Fan, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ming-Shuai; Xing, Nian-Zeng; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In a large clinical trial, finasteride reduced the rate of low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) while increasing the incidence of high-grade cancer. Whether finasteride promotes the development of high-grade tumors remains controversial. We demonstrated the role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of PCa. LNCaP (PC3) cells or recombinants of cancer cells and fibroblasts were implanted in male athymic nude mice treated with finasteride. Tumor growth, cell proliferation, apoptosis, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 were evaluated. In LNCaP (PC3) mono-grafted models, finasteride did not change the tumor growth. In recombinant-grafted models, fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted tumor growth; finasteride induced proliferation of LNCaP cells and repressed PC3 cell apoptosis. When c-Jun was knocked out, fibroblasts and/or finasteride did not promote the tumor growth. Finasteride inhibited p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 in mono-culture cancer cells while stimulating the same signaling molecules in the presence of fibroblasts. Reduced p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 were noted in the presence of c-Jun-/- fibroblasts. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promote PCa growth; finasteride further stimulates tumor growth with promoted proliferation, repressed apoptosis, and up-regulated pro-proliferative molecular pathway in the presence of fibroblasts and c-Jun. Stromal-epithelial interactions play critical roles in finasteride's therapeutic effects on PCa. Our findings have preliminary implications in using finasteride as a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for PCa patients.

  4. Pregnane and Xenobiotic Receptor gene expression in liver cells is modulated by Ets-1 in synchrony with transcription factors Pax5, LEF-1 and c-jun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumari, Sangeeta; Saradhi, Mallampati; Rana, Manjul; Chatterjee, Swagata [Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Aumercier, Marc [IRI, CNRS USR 3078, Université de Lille-Nord de France, Parc CNRS de la Haute Borne, 50 Avenue de Halley, BP 70478, 59658 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga [Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tyagi, Rakesh K., E-mail: rktyagi@yahoo.com [Special Centre for Molecular Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2015-01-15

    Nuclear receptor PXR is predominantly expressed in liver and intestine. Expression of PXR is observed to be dysregulated in various metabolic disorders indicating its involvement in disease development. However, information available on mechanisms of PXR self-regulation is fragmentary. The present investigation identifies some of the regulatory elements responsible for its tight regulation and low cellular expression. Here, we report that the PXR-promoter is a target for some key transcription factors like PU.1/Ets-1, Pax5, LEF-1 and c-Jun. Interestingly, we observed that PXR-promoter responsiveness to Pax5, LEF-1 and c-Jun, is considerably enhanced by Ets transcription factors (PU.1 and Ets-1). Co-transfection of cells with Ets-1, LEF-1 and c-Jun increased PXR-promoter activity by 5-fold and also induced expression of endogenous human PXR. Site-directed mutagenesis and transfection studies revealed that two Ets binding sites and two of the three LEF binding sites in the PXR-promoter are functional and have a positive effect on PXR transcription. Results suggest that expression of Ets family members, in conjunction with Pax5, LEF-1 and c-Jun, lead to coordinated up-regulation of PXR gene transcription. Insights obtained on the regulation of PXR gene have relevance in offering important cues towards normal functioning as well as development of several metabolic disorders via PXR signaling. - Highlights: • The study identified cis-regulatory elements in the nuclear receptor PXR promoter. • Several trans-acting factors modulating the PXR-promoter have been identified. • PU.1/Ets-1, Pax5, LEF-1, c-Jun, LyF-VI and NF-1 act as modulators of the PXR-promoter. • Ets-1 in conjunction with LEF-1 and c-Jun exhibit 5-fold activation of the PXR-promoter. • Insights into PXR-regulation have relevance in normal and pathological conditions.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of hepatic injury and repair

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Neil C

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I examined molecular mechanisms involved in acute and chronic liver injury, and also studied basic pathways mediating tumour promotion. Acute hepatic failure secondary to paracetamol poisoning is associated with high mortality. C-jun (NH2) terminal kinase (JNK) is a member of the mitogen activated protein kinase family and is a key intracellular signaling molecule involved in the control of cell fate. Paracetamol induced hepatic JNK activation in both human and m...

  6. Predicting Virulence of Aeromonas Isolates Based-on Changes in Transcription of c-jun and c-fos in Human Tissue Culture Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To assess virulence of Aeromonas isolates based on the change in regulation of c-jun and c-fos in the human intestinal tissue culture cell line Caco-2. Methods and Results: Aeromonas cells were added to Caco-2 cells at approximately a one to one ratio. After 1, 2 and 3 ...

  7. Exopolysaccharides from Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 induce c-Jun dependent Fas/Fasl-mediated apoptosis via TLR2 in mouse intestinal epithelial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingtao; Hong, Tao; Yu, Qiang; Nie, Shaoping; Gong, Deming; Xiong, Tao; Xie, Mingyong

    2017-10-27

    Exopolysaccharides (EPS) from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to play vital parts in the modulation of cell-cycle and apoptosis in cancer cells. However, the mechanisms by which EPS regulate the proliferation and apoptosis of cancer cells remain incompletely understood. We thus used different cancer cells to evaluate the anticancer ability and to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of EPS from Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 (EPS116). Our studies showed that EPS116 inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in a cell type manner, and remarkably repressed the growth and survival of CT26 through induction of apoptosis. Moreover, EPS116 increased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including Fas, Fasl and c-Jun, induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun in CT26 cells. Furthermore, TLR2 (Toll like receptor 2) was upregulated by EPS116, and the CT26 cells with TLR2 knockdown were found to be insensitive to EPS116, suggesting that the anti-cancer activity of EPS116 may be TLR2-dependent. Taken together, the suppressive efficacy of EPS116 on the proliferation of CT26 cells may be mediated via TLR2 and the activation of c-Jun dependent Fas/Fasl-mediated apoptotic pathway. Our study has, for the first time, shown that EPS from LAB induced c-Jun dependent Fas/Fasl-mediated apoptosis via TLR2 in CT26 cells.

  8. Induction of c-Jun immunoreactivity in spinal cord and brainstem neurons in a transgenic mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, D.; Holstege, J. C.; Troost, D.; Davis, M.; Kennis, J.; Haasdijk, E. D.; de Jong, V. J.

    1996-01-01

    Transgenic mice carrying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations develop a motoneuron disease resembling human ALS. c-Jun is a transcription factor frequently induced in injured neurons. In this study we have examined the distribution of

  9. Induction of c-Jun immunoreactivity in spinal cord and brainstem neurons in a transgenic mouse model for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jaarsma (Dick); J.C. Holstege (Jan); D. Troost (Dirk); M. Davis (Maria); J.H.H. Kennis (Josette); E.D. Haasdijk (Elize); J.M.B.V. de Jong (Vianney)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTransgenic mice carrying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations develop a motoneuron disease resembling human ALS. c-Jun is a transcription factor frequently induced in injured neurons. In this study we have examined the distribution of

  10. The intriguing role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in the chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Nong Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large clinical trial, finasteride reduced the rate of low-grade prostate cancer (PCa while increasing the incidence of high-grade cancer. Whether finasteride promotes the development of high-grade tumors remains controversial. We demonstrated the role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of PCa. LNCaP (PC3 cells or recombinants of cancer cells and fibroblasts were implanted in male athymic nude mice treated with finasteride. Tumor growth, cell proliferation, apoptosis, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 were evaluated. In LNCaP (PC3 mono-grafted models, finasteride did not change the tumor growth. In recombinant-grafted models, fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted tumor growth; finasteride induced proliferation of LNCaP cells and repressed PC3 cell apoptosis. When c-Jun was knocked out, fibroblasts and/or finasteride did not promote the tumor growth. Finasteride inhibited p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 in mono-culture cancer cells while stimulating the same signaling molecules in the presence of fibroblasts. Reduced p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 were noted in the presence of c-Jun−/− fibroblasts. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promote PCa growth; finasteride further stimulates tumor growth with promoted proliferation, repressed apoptosis, and up-regulated pro-proliferative molecular pathway in the presence of fibroblasts and c-Jun. Stromal-epithelial interactions play critical roles in finasteride′s therapeutic effects on PCa. Our findings have preliminary implications in using finasteride as a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for PCa patients.

  11. Using c-Jun to identify fear extinction learning-specific patterns of neural activity that are affected by single prolonged stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Dayan; Stanfield, Briana R; Staib, Jennifer M; David, Nina P; DePietro, Thomas; Chamness, Marisa; Schneider, Elizabeth K; Keller, Samantha M; Lawless, Caroline

    2017-12-29

    Neural circuits via which stress leads to disruptions in fear extinction is often explored in animal stress models. Using the single prolonged stress (SPS) model of post traumatic stress disorder and the immediate early gene (IEG) c-Fos as a measure of neural activity, we previously identified patterns of neural activity through which SPS disrupts extinction retention. However, none of these stress effects were specific to fear or extinction learning and memory. C-Jun is another IEG that is sometimes regulated in a different manner to c-Fos and could be used to identify emotional learning/memory specific patterns of neural activity that are sensitive to SPS. Animals were either fear conditioned (CS-fear) or presented with CSs only (CS-only) then subjected to extinction training and testing. C-Jun was then assayed within neural substrates critical for extinction memory. Inhibited c-Jun levels in the hippocampus (Hipp) and enhanced functional connectivity between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) during extinction training was disrupted by SPS in the CS-fear group only. As a result, these effects were specific to emotional learning/memory. SPS also disrupted inhibited Hipp c-Jun levels, enhanced BLA c-Jun levels, and altered functional connectivity among the vmPFC, BLA, and Hipp during extinction testing in SPS rats in the CS-fear and CS-only groups. As a result, these effects were not specific to emotional learning/memory. Our findings suggest that SPS disrupts neural activity specific to extinction memory, but may also disrupt the retention of fear extinction by mechanisms that do not involve emotional learning/memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Inactivation by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase 1 Determines Resistance to Taxanes and Anthracyclines in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Raúl; Zazo, Sandra; Chamizo, Cristina; Manso, Rebeca; González-Alonso, Paula; Martín-Aparicio, Ester; Cristóbal, Ion; Cañadas, Carmen; Perona, Rosario; Lluch, Ana; Eroles, Pilar; García-Foncillas, Jesús; Albanell, Joan; Rovira, Ana; Madoz-Gúrpide, Juan; Rojo, Federico

    2016-11-01

    MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is overexpressed during malignant transformation of the breast in many patients, and it is usually associated with chemoresistance through interference with JNK-driven apoptotic pathways. Although the molecular settings of the mechanism have been documented, details about the contribution of MKP-1 to the failure of chemotherapeutic interventions are unclear. Transient overexpression of MKP-1 and treatment with JNK-modulating agents in breast carcinoma cells confirmed the mediation of MKP-1 in the resistance to taxanes and anthracyclines in breast cancer, through the inactivation of JNK1/2. We next assessed MKP-1 expression and JNK1/2 phosphorylation status in a large cohort of samples from 350 early breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy. We detected that MKP-1 overexpression is a recurrent event predominantly linked to dephosphorylation of JNK1/2 with an adverse impact on relapse of the tumor and overall and disease-free survival. Moreover, MKP-1 and p-JNK1/2 determinations in 64 locally advanced breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy showed an inverse correlation between MKP-1 overexpression (together with JNK1/2 inhibition) and the pathologic response of the tumors. Our results emphasize the importance of MKP-1 as a potential predictive biomarker for a subset of breast cancer patients with worse outcome and less susceptibility to treatment. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2780-90. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Protective effect of DA-9401 in finasteride-induced apoptosis in rat testis: inositol requiring kinase 1 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni KK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiran Kumar Soni,1,* Yu Seob Shin,1,* Bo Ram Choi,1 Keshab Kumar Karna,1 Hye Kyung Kim,2 Sung Won Lee,3 Chul Young Kim,4 Jong Kwan Park1 1Department of Urology, Chonbuk National University and Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute and Clinical Trial Center of Medical Device of Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, 3Department of Urology, Samsung Medical Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University Medical School, Seoul, 4College of Pharmacy, Hangyang University, Ansan, Republic of Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Finasteride is used to treat male pattern baldness and benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study investigated the toxicity of finasteride and recovery by DA-9401 using Sprague Dawley (SD rats. Forty adult male SD rats were assigned to four groups: control (CTR, finasteride 1 mg/kg/day (F, finasteride 1 mg/kg + DA-9401 100 mg/kg/day (F + DA 100 and finasteride 1 mg/kg + DA-9401 200 mg/kg/day (F + DA 200. Treatments were by oral delivery once daily for 90 consecutive days. The gross anatomical parameters assessed included: genital organ weight; vas deferens sperm count and sperm motility; testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT and malondialdehyde levels; and histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase enzyme mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL staining of testis for spermatogenic cell density, Johnsen’s score and apoptosis. Testicular tissue was also used for evaluating endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and apoptotic proteins. Epididymis weight, seminal vesicle weight, prostate weight, penile weight and vas deferens sperm motility showed significant differences between the F group and the CTR, F + DA 100 and F + DA 200 groups. There was no significant change in the testosterone level. DHT level decreased significantly in the F group compared with the CTR group. Testis tissue revealed significant changes in spermatogenic cell density, Johnsen’s score and apoptotic index. Western blot showed significant changes in the ER stress and apoptotic markers. Finasteride resulted in reduced fertility and increased ER stress and apoptotic markers, which were recovered by administration of DA-9401 in the SD rats. Keywords: finasteride, DA-9401, infertility, sperm, dihydrotestosterone, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis 

  14. A role for mixed lineage kinases in granule cell apoptosis induced by cytoskeletal disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Geist, Marie Aavang; Veng, Lone Merete

    2006-01-01

    Microtubule disruption by colchicine induces apoptosis in selected neuronal populations. However, little is known about the upstream death signalling events mediating the neurotoxicity. We investigated first whether colchicine-induced granule cell apoptosis activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase...... (JNK) pathway. Cultured murine cerebellar granule cells were exposed to 1 microm colchicine for 24 h. Activation of the JNK pathway was detected by western blotting as well as immunocytochemistry using antibodies against phospho-c-Jun (p-c-Jun). Next, adult male rats were injected...... intracerebroventricularly with colchicine (10 microg), and JNK pathway activation in dentate granule cells (DGCs) was detected by antibodies against p-c-Jun. The second part of the study tested the involvement of mixed lineage kinases (MLK) as upstream activators of the JNK pathway in colchicine toxicity, using CEP-1347...

  15. β-glucan reduces exercise-induced stress through downregulation of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heeok; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Jae-Deung; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2014-05-01

    Immediate-early genes are involved in acute stress responses in the central nervous system. β-glucan stimulates innate immune defenses, exerts an anti-tumor response and increases resistance to a wide variety of types of infection. To date, the effect of β-glucan on the expression of immediate-early genes under stressful conditions has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of β-glucan on the expression of the oncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dentate gyrus and dorsal raphe in rats following exhaustive treadmill running were investigated. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 in each group) as follows: Control, exercise, exercise and 50 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, exercise and 100 mg/kg β-glucan treatment, and exercise and 200 mg/kg β-glucan treatment. Rats in the β-glucan‑treated groups were administered β-glucan at the respective dose once per day for seven days. Rats in the exercise groups performed treadmill running once per day for six days. On the seventh day of the experiment, the time to exhaustion in response to treadmill running was determined for the exercise groups. The expression of c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dorsal raphe and hippocampus was enhanced by exhaustive treadmill running. Administration of β-glucan resulted in an increase in the time to exhaustion and the suppression of the exercise-induced increment in c-Fos and c-Jun expression. In conclusion, β-glucan may exert an alleviating effect on exercise-induced stress through the suppression of c-Fos and c-Jun expression in the brains of exhausted rats.

  16. Interplay between viral Tat protein and c-Jun transcription factor in controlling LTR promoter activity in different human immunodeficiency virus type I subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Renée M; Derking, Ronald; Breidel, Seyguerney; Speijer, Dave; Berkhout, Ben; Jeeninga, Rienk E

    2014-04-01

    HIV-1 transcription depends on cellular transcription factors that bind to sequences in the long-terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Each HIV-1 subtype has a specific LTR promoter configuration, and minor sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) or their arrangement can influence transcriptional activity, virus replication and latency properties. Previously, we investigated the proviral latency properties of different HIV-1 subtypes in the SupT1 T cell line. Here, subtype-specific latency and replication properties were studied in primary PHA-activated T lymphocytes. No major differences in latency and replication capacity were measured among the HIV-1 subtypes. Subtype B and AE LTRs were studied in more detail with regard to a putative AP-1 binding site using luciferase reporter constructs. c-Jun, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family, can activate both subtype B and AE LTRs, but the latter showed a stronger response, reflecting a closer match with the consensus AP-1 binding site. c-Jun overexpression enhanced Tat-mediated transcription of the viral LTR, but in the absence of Tat inhibited basal promoter activity. Thus, c-Jun can exert a positive or negative effect via the AP-1 binding site in the HIV-1 LTR promoter, depending on the presence or absence of Tat.

  17. Alcohol induces RNA polymerase III-dependent transcription through c-Jun by co-regulating TATA-binding protein (TBP) and Brf1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuping; Machida, Keigo; Tsukamoto, Hide; Johnson, Deborah L

    2011-01-28

    Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with steatohepatitis and cirrhosis, enhancing the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes a variety of small, untranslated RNAs, including tRNAs and 5S rRNAs, which determine the biosynthetic capacity of cells. Increased RNA pol III-dependent transcription, observed in transformed cells and human tumors, is required for oncogenic transformation. Given that alcohol consumption increases risk for liver cancer, we examined whether alcohol regulates this class of genes. Ethanol induces RNA pol III-dependent transcription in both HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes in a manner that requires ethanol metabolism and the activation of JNK1. This regulatory event is mediated, at least in part, through the ability of ethanol to induce expression of the TFIIIB components, Brf1, and the TATA-binding protein (TBP). Induction of TBP, Brf1, and RNA pol III-dependent gene expression is driven by enhanced c-Jun expression. Ethanol promotes a marked increase in the direct recruitment of c-Jun to TBP, Brf1, and tRNA gene promoters. Chronic alcohol administration in mice leads to enhanced expression of TBP, Brf1, tRNA, and 5S rRNA gene transcription in the liver. These alcohol-dependent increases are more pronounced in transgenic animals that express the HCV NS5A protein that display increased incidence of liver tumors. Together, these results identify a new class of genes that are regulated by alcohol through the co-regulation of TFIIIB components and define a central role for c-Jun in this process.

  18. c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun regulation in the regenerating livers of normal and H-2K/c-myc transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, D; Fitzgerald, M J; Babinet, C; Fausto, N

    1990-01-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of regulation of c-myc, c-fos, and c-jun at the early stages of liver regeneration in mice. We show that the transient increase in steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA at the start of liver regeneration is most probably regulated by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Although there was a marked increase in c-myc transcriptional initiation shortly after partial hepatectomy, a block in elongation prevented the completion of most transcripts. To gain further information ...

  19. Src Inhibition Can Synergize with Gemcitabine and Reverse Resistance in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells via the AKT/c-Jun Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hua Wu

    Full Text Available Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy remains one of the standards in management of metastatic breast cancer. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to gemcitabine inevitably occurs. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of the combination of src inhibition and gemcitabine in gemcitabine-resistant breast cancer cells.By using colony formation, sphere forming, flow cytometry, cell counting kit-8 and transwell assays, 231/GEM-res (gemcitabine-resistant cell line, which was 10 times more resistant, was shown to have elevated drug tolerance, enhanced proliferative and self-renewal abilities, compared with its parental cells. Inhibition of src by both saracatinib (AZD0530 and siRNA could partially reverse gemcitabine resistance and attenuate resistance-associated anti-apoptosis, migration and stem cell capacities. In addition, the combination of src inhibition and gemcitabine had synergistic antitumor effects. Western blot analysis revealed up-regulation of pro-apoptotic protein BAX, along with the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins (BCL-XL, Survivin, migration associated proteins (p-FAK, MMP-3 and cancer stem cell (CSC markers (CD44, Oct-4, which was probably mediated by AKT/c-Jun pathway.In highly gemcitabine-resistant 231 cells, src inhibition can synergize with gemcitabine, reverse drug resistance, inhibit tumor growth/metastasis/stemness of cancer stem cells, possibly via the AKT/c-Jun pathway.

  20. Dynamic acetylation of all lysine 4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus: analysis at c-fos and c-jun.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Hazzalin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A major focus of current research into gene induction relates to chromatin and nucleosomal regulation, especially the significance of multiple histone modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation during this process. We have discovered a novel physiological characteristic of all lysine 4 (K4-methylated histone H3 in the mouse nucleus, distinguishing it from lysine 9-methylated H3. K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to continuous dynamic turnover of acetylation, whereas lysine 9-methylated H3 is not. We have previously reported dynamic histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation as a key characteristic of the inducible proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-jun. We show here that dynamically acetylated histone H3 at these genes is also K4-methylated. Although all three modifications are proven to co-exist on the same nucleosome at these genes, phosphorylation and acetylation appear transiently during gene induction, whereas K4 methylation remains detectable throughout this process. Finally, we address the functional significance of the turnover of histone acetylation on the process of gene induction. We find that inhibition of turnover, despite causing enhanced histone acetylation at these genes, produces immediate inhibition of gene induction. These data show that all K4-methylated histone H3 is subject to the continuous action of HATs and HDACs, and indicates that at c-fos and c-jun, contrary to the predominant model, turnover and not stably enhanced acetylation is relevant for efficient gene induction.

  1. Antiestrogenic activity of flavnoid phytochemicals mediated via c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase pathway. Cell-type specific regulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavonoid phytochemicals act as both agonists and antagonists of the human estrogen receptors (ERs). While a number of these compounds act by directly binding to the ER, certain phytochemicals, such as the flavonoid compounds chalcone and flavone, elicit antagonistic effects on estrogen signaling in...

  2. p63/p51-induced Onset of Keratinocyte Differentiation via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase Pathway Is Counteracted by Keratinocyte Growth Factor*

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Eisaku; Okuyama, Ryuhei; Egawa, Teie; Nagoshi, Hirokazu; Obinata, Masuo; Tagami, Hachiro; Ikawa, Shuntaro; Aiba, Setsuya

    2008-01-01

    p63/p51, a homolog of the tumor suppressor protein p53, is chiefly expressed in epithelial tissues, including the epidermis. p63 affects cell death similar to p53, and also plays important roles in the development of epithelial tissues and the maintenance of epithelial stem cells. Because it remains unclear how p63 regulates epithelial cell differentiation, we examined the function(s) of p63 in keratinocyte differentiation through the use of a keratinocyte culture syst...

  3. A nuclear envelope-associated kinase phosphorylates arginine-serine motifs and modulates interactions between the lamin B receptor and other nuclear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakaki, E; Simos, G; Georgatos, S D; Giannakouros, T

    1996-04-05

    Previous studies have identified a subassembly of nuclear envelope proteins, termed "the LBR complex." This complex includes the lamin B receptor protein (LBR or p58), a kinase which phosphorylates LBR in a constitutive fashion (LBR kinase), the nuclear lamins A and B, an 18-kDa polypeptide (p18), and a 34-kDa protein (p34/p32). The latter polypeptide has been shown to interact with the HIV-1 proteins Rev and Tat and with the splicing factor 2 (SF2). Using recombinant proteins produced in bacteria and synthetic peptides representing different regions of LBR, we now show that the LBR kinase modifies specifically arginine-serine (RS) dipeptide motifs located at the nucleoplasmic, NH2-terminal domain of LBR and in members of the SR family of splicing factors. Furthermore, we show that the NH2-terminal domain of LBR binds to p34/p32, whereas a mutated domain lacking the RS region does not. Phosphorylation of LBR by the RS kinase completely abolishes binding of p34/p32, suggesting that this enzyme regulates interactions among the components of the LBR complex.

  4. Differential expression of c-Jun proteins during müllerian duct growth and apoptosis: caspase-related tissue death blocked by diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, C S

    2000-12-01

    To elucidate whether the differentiation of the Müllerian duct (MD) is mediated by c-Jun proteins, Western immunoblot with c-Jun/sc-45 antibody was used to investigate these proteins in female chick left and right MDs (LMD and RMD, respectively). The content of these proteins (e.g., the 66-kDa, 45-kDa, and 39-kDa forms) in the LMD or RMD of various stages of embryos was detected by measuring their density in autoradiograms by a Spot-denso-program with Alpha Ease software. In the LMD, the growing embryonic sex tract, the content of the 66-kDa and 39-kDa proteins increased to their highest level in 9th to 12th day embryos and then declined thereafter. In the RMD, the apoptotic embryonic sex tract, the content of these proteins also showed a linear increase from the 9th to 10th day and then declined at the 13th day. When the RMD entered the apoptosis stages (14th to 18th day of incubation), these proteins were persistently overexpressed. Another protein (45 kDa) was detected in both ducts only at the 9th to 13th days, and its content was higher in RMD than in the LMD. In parallel to this finding, high caspase-3 activity (determined by the measurement of the fragmented 85-kDa poly ADP-ribose polymerase) was found in the RMD during apoptosis. The apoptotic death of RMD was prevented by in vivo diethylstilbestrol treatment, which inhibited the overexpression of the 66-kDa and 45-kDa proteins, the fragmentation of DNA, and the activity of caspase-3. No inhibitory effect was found for the 39-kDa protein.

  5. miR200c attenuates P-gp-mediated MDR and metastasis by targeting JNK2/c-Jun signaling pathway in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Hua; Cai, Guo-Xiang; Pan, Shu-Fang; Deng, Wan-Li; Wang, Yu-Wei; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Cai, San-Jun; Zhu, Hui-Rong; Li, Qi

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNA-200c (miR200c) recently emerged as an important regulator of tumorigenicity and cancer metastasis; however, its role in regulating multidrug resistance (MDR) remains unknown. In the current study, we found that the expression levels of miR200c in recurrent and metastatic colorectal cancers were significantly lower, whereas the JNK2 expression was higher compared with primary tumors. We showed that in MDR colorectal cancer cells, miR200c targeted the 3' untranslated region of the JNK2 gene. Overexpression of miR200c attenuated the levels of p-JNK, p-c-Jun, P-gp, and MMP-2/-9, the downstream factors of the JNK signaling pathway, resulting in increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs, which was accompanied by heightened apoptosis and decreased cell invasion and migration. Moreover, in an orthotopic MDR colorectal cancer mouse model, we demonstrated that overexpression of miR200c effectively inhibited the tumor growth and metastasis. At last, in the tumor samples from patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer with routine postsurgical chemotherapy, we observed an inverse correlation between the levels of mRNA expression of miR200c and JNK2, ABCB1, and MMP-9, thus predicting patient therapeutic outcomes. In summary, we found that miR200c negatively regulated the expression of JNK2 gene and increased the sensitivity of MDR colorectal cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, via inhibiting the JNK2/p-JNK/p-c-Jun/ABCB1 signaling. Restoration of miR200c expression in MDR colorectal cancer may serve as a promising therapeutic approach in MDR-induced metastasis. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Recruitment of nuclear factor Y to the inverted CCAAT element (ICE) by c-Jun and E1A stimulates basal transcription of the bone sialoprotein gene in osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming; Bansal, Anil K; Mantovani, Roberto; Sodek, Jaro

    2005-11-18

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP), a major protein in the extracellular matrix of bone, is expressed almost exclusively by bone cells and by cancer cells that have a propensity to metastasize to bone. Previous studies have shown that v-src stimulates basal transcription of bsp in osteosarcoma (ROS 17/2.8) cells by targeting the inverted CCAAT element (ICE) in the proximal promoter. To identify possible downstream effectors of Src we studied the effects of the proto-oncogene c-jun, which functions downstream of Src, on basal transcription of bsp using transient transfection assays. Increased expression of endogenous c-Jun induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate and ectopic expression of c-Jun increased basal transcription of chimeric reporter constructs encompassing the proximal promoter by 1.5-3-fold in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells, with more modest effects in a normal bone cell line, RBMC-D8. The effects of c-Jun were abrogated by mutations in the ICE box and by co-expression of dominant negative nuclear factor Y, subunit A (NF-YA). The increase in bsp transcription did not require phosphorylation of c-Jun and was not altered by trichostatin treatment or by ectopic expression of p300/CREB-binding protein (CBP) or mutated forms lacking histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Similarly, ectopic expression of p300/CBP-associated factor (P/CAF), which transduces p300/CBP effects, or of HAT-defective P/CAF did not influence the c-jun effects. Surprisingly, E1A, which competes with P/CAF binding to p300/CBP, also stimulated BSP transcription through NF-Y independently of c-jun, p300/CBP, and P/CAF. Collectively, these studies show that c-Jun and E1A regulate basal transcription of bsp in osteosarcoma cells by recruiting the NF-Y transcriptional complex to the ICE box in a mechanism that is independent of p300/CBP and P/CAF HAT activities.

  7. ATF3 expression precedes death of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-SOD1 transgenic mice and correlates with c-Jun phosphorylation, CHOP expression, somato-dendritic ubiquitination and Golgi fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlug, Angela S; Teuling, Eva; Haasdijk, Elize D; French, Pim; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Jaarsma, Dick

    2005-10-01

    To obtain insight into the morphological and molecular correlates of motoneuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice that express G93A mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD)1 (G93A mice), we have mapped and characterized 'sick' motoneurons labelled by the 'stress transcription factors' ATF3 and phospho-c-Jun. Immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that a subset of motoneurons express ATF3 from a relatively early phase of disease before the onset of active caspase 3 expression and motoneuron loss. The highest number of ATF3-expressing motoneurons occurred at symptom onset. The onset of ATF3 expression correlated with the appearance of ubiquitinated neurites. Confocal double-labelling immunofluorescence showed that all ATF3-positive motoneurons were immunoreactive for phosphorylated c-Jun. Furthermore, the majority of ATF3 and phospho-c-Jun-positive motoneurons were also immunoreactive for CHOP (GADD153) and showed Golgi fragmentation. A subset of ATF3 and phosphorylated c-Jun-immunoreactive motoneurons showed an abnormal appearance characterized by a number of distinctive features, including an eccentric flattened nucleus, perikaryal accumulation of ubiquitin immunoreactivity, juxta-nuclear accumulation of the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, and intense Hsp70 immunoreactivity. These abnormal cells were not immunoreactive for active caspase 3. We conclude that motoneurons in ALS-SOD1 mice prior to their death and disappearance experience a prolonged sick phase, characterized by the gradual accumulation of ubiquitinated material first in the neurites and subsequently the cell body.

  8. Overexpression of ATF3 or the combination of ATF3, c-Jun, STAT3 and Smad1 promotes regeneration of the central axon branch of sensory neurons but without synergistic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagoe, Nitish D; Attwell, Callan L; Kouwenhoven, Dorette; Verhaagen, J.; Mason, M.R.J.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury results in the activation of a number of transcription factors (TFs) in injured neurons, some of which may be key regulators of the regeneration-associated gene (RAG) programme. Among known RAG TFs, ATF3, Smad1, STAT3 and c-Jun have all been linked to successful axonal

  9. The human receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and glycosylation variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Ploug, M

    1990-01-01

    -PA. The purified protein shows a single 55-60 kDa band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. It is a heavily glycosylated protein, the deglycosylated polypeptide chain comprising only 35 kDa. The glycosylated protein contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and sialic acid...

  10. In vivo crypt surface hyperproliferation is decreased by butyrate and increased by deoxycholate in normal rat colon: associated in vivo effects on c-Fos and c-Jun expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, O C; Zhou, D; Seto, R W; Jabbar, A; Choi, J; Lederer, H M; Rombeau, J L

    1996-01-01

    Studies on colon carcinogenesis suggest that the short-chain fatty acid butyrate may be protective, whereas the secondary bile acid deoxycholate may promote tumor development. Crypt surface hyperproliferation is regarded as a biomarker of colon cancer risk and can be modulated in vitro by the differentiation inducer butyrate and the tumor promoter deoxycholate. We hypothesized that butyrate decreases and deoxycholate increases crypt surface proliferation in vivo and that these effects are mediated by changes in the expression of the protooncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun, which are known to regulate proliferation and differentiation. Twenty-five adult Sprague-Dawley rats underwent colonic isolation and 24-hour intraluminal instillation of 10 mmol/L sodium chloride, 10 mmol/ L sodium butyrate, or 10 mmol/L sodium deoxycholate. Proliferation of the whole crypt and five crypt compartments from base to surface was assessed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. The øh value, an index of "premalignant" hyperproliferation, was calculated as the ratio of labeled cells in the two surface compartments divided by the labeled cells in the entire crypt. Expression of c-Fos and c-Jun was evaluated by Western blot. Crypt surface proliferation and the øh value were significantly decreased by butyrate and increased by deoxycholate. Butyrate increased colonic expression of c-Jun, whereas deoxycholate significantly induced c-Fos. The in vivo effects on surface proliferation are consistent with a potential protective [corrected] role for butyrate and a promotive role for deoxycholate in colon carcinogenesis. The concurrently observed effects on colonic c-Jun and c-Fos expression represent a novel finding and suggest that direct or indirect modulation of protooncogene expression may be the mechanism by which these dietary byproducts regulate proliferation in vivo.

  11. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Induction of c-myc and c-jun proto-oncogene expression in rat L6 myoblasts by cadmium is inhibited by zinc preinduction of the metallothionein gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abshire, M.K.; Buzard, G.S.; Shiraishi, Noriyuki; Waalkers, M.P. [National Cancer Institute, Fredrick, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Certain proto-oncogenes transfer growth regulatory signals from the cell surface to the nucleus. These genes often show activation soon after cells are exposed to mitogenic stimulation but can also be activated as a nonmitogenic stress response. Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic metal in humans and rodents and, though its mechanism of action is unknown, it could involve activation of such proto-oncogenes. Metallothionein (MT), a metal-inducible protein that binds Cd, can protect against many aspects of Cd toxicity, including genotoxicity and possibly carcinogenesis. Thus, the effects of Cd on expression of c-myc and c-jun in rat L6 myoblasts, and the effect of preactivation of the MT gene by Zn treatment on such oncogene expression, were studied. MT protein levels were measured using oligonucleotide hybridization and standardized to {beta}-actin levels. Cd (5 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}, 0-30 h) stimulated both c-myc and c-jun mRNA expression. An initial peak of activation of c-myc expression occurred 2 h after initiation of Cd exposure, and levels remained elevated throughout the assessment period. Zn pretreatment markedly reduced the activation of c-myc expression by Cd compared to cells not receiving Zn pretreatment. Cd treatment increased c-jun mRNA levels by up to 3.5-fold. Again, Zn pretreatment markedly reduced. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 serine 307 correlates with JNK activity in atrophic skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilder, Thomas L.; Tou, Janet C L.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Wade, Charles E.; Graves, Lee M.

    2003-01-01

    c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) has been shown to negatively regulate insulin signaling through serine phosphorylation of residue 307 within the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) in adipose and liver tissue. Using a rat hindlimb suspension model for muscle disuse atrophy, we found that JNK activity was significantly elevated in atrophic soleus muscle and that IRS-1 was phosphorylated on Ser(307) prior to the degradation of the IRS-1 protein. Moreover, we observed a corresponding reduction in Akt activity, providing biochemical evidence for the development of insulin resistance in atrophic skeletal muscle.

  14. Quinacrine induces apoptosis in human leukemia K562 cells via p38 MAPK-elicited BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changchien, Jung-Jung; Chen, Ying-Jung; Huang, Chia-Hui [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tian-Lu [Department of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shinne-Ren [Department of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, Long-Sen, E-mail: lschang@mail.nsysu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2015-04-01

    Although previous studies have revealed the anti-cancer activity of quinacrine, its effect on leukemia is not clearly resolved. We sought to explore the cytotoxic effect and mechanism of quinacrine action in human leukemia K562 cells. Quinacrine induced K562 cell apoptosis accompanied with ROS generation, mitochondrial depolarization, and down-regulation of BCL2L1 and BCL2. Upon exposure to quinacrine, ROS-mediated p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation were observed in K562 cells. Quinacrine-induced cell death and mitochondrial depolarization were suppressed by the p38MAPK inhibitor SB202190 and constitutively active MEK1 over-expression. Activation of p38 MAPK was shown to promote BCL2 degradation. Further, ERK inactivation suppressed c-Jun-mediated transcriptional expression of BCL2L1. Over-expression of BCL2L1 and BCL2 attenuated quinacrine-evoked mitochondrial depolarization and rescued the viability of quinacrine-treated cells. Taken together, our data indicate that quinacrine-induced K562 cell apoptosis is mediated through mitochondrial alterations triggered by p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation and suppression of ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression. - Highlights: • Quinacrine induces K562 cell apoptosis via down-regulation of BCL2 and BCL2L1. • Quinacrine induces p38 MAPK activation and ERK inactivation in K562 cells. • Quinacrine elicits p38 MAPK-mediated BCL2 down-regulation. • Quinacrine suppresses ERK/c-Jun-mediated BCL2L1 expression.

  15. Roles of PI3K/Akt and c-Jun signaling pathways in human papillomavirus type 16 oncoprotein-induced HIF-1α, VEGF, and IL-8 expression and in vitro angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erying Zhang

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV-16 infection may be related to non-smoking associated lung cancer. Our previous studies have found that HPV-16 oncoproteins promoted angiogenesis via enhancing hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells. In this study, we further investigated the roles of PI3K/Akt and c-Jun signaling pathways in it.Human NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H460, were stably transfected with pEGFP-16 E6 or E7 plasmids. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expression of HIF-1α, p-Akt, p-P70S6K, p-P85S6K, p-mTOR, p-JNK, and p-c-Jun proteins. VEGF and IL-8 protein secretion and mRNA levels were determined by ELISA and Real-time PCR, respectively. The in vitro angiogenesis was observed by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs tube formation assay. Co-immunoprecipitation was performed to analyze the interaction between c-Jun and HIF-1α.HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins promoted the activation of Akt, P70S6K, P85S6K, mTOR, JNK, and c-Jun. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, inhibited HPV-16 oncoprotein-induced activation of Akt, P70S6K, and P85S6K, expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and IL-8, and in vitro angiogenesis. c-Jun knockdown by specific siRNA abolished HPV-16 oncoprotein-induced HIF-1α, VEGF, and IL-8 expression and in vitro angiogenesis. Additionally, HPV-16 oncoproteins promoted HIF-1α protein stability via blocking proteasome degradation pathway, but c-Jun knockdown abrogated this effect. Furthermore, HPV-16 oncoproteins increased the quantity of c-Jun binding to HIF-1α.PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and c-Jun are involved in HPV-16 oncoprotein-induced HIF-1α, VEGF, and IL-8 expression and in vitro angiogenesis. Moreover, HPV-16 oncoproteins promoted HIF-1α protein stability possibly through enhancing the interaction between c-Jun and HIF-1α, thus making a contribution to angiogenesis in NSCLC cells.

  16. MORINGA TEA BLOCKS ACUTE LUNG INFLAMMATION INDUCED BY SWINE CONFINEMENT DUST THROUGH A MECHANISM INVOLVING TNF-α EXPRESSION, C-JUN N-TERMINAL KINASE ACTIVATION AND NEUTROPHIL REGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mykea Mcknight; Jabria Allen; Jenora T. Waterman; Steven Hurley; Joshua Idassi; Radiah C. Minor

    2014-01-01

    Plant based products represent a promising alternative to conventional treatments for inflammation. Moringa oleifera Lam is a tree rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and a variety of phytochemcals with health benefits. Among the reported health benefits are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether tea brewed from dried Moringa leaves would abrogate inflammation in a mouse model of acute lung inflammation induced by...

  17. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK mediates Wnt5a-induced cell motility dependent or independent of RhoA pathway in human dental papilla cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglin Wang

    Full Text Available Wnt5a plays an essential role in tissue development by regulating cell migration, though the molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Our study investigated the pathways involved in Wnt5a-dependent cell motility during the formation of dentin and pulp. Over-expression of Wnt5a promoted cell adhesion and formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs in human dental papilla cells (hDPCs, while inhibiting cell migration. Instead of activating the canonical Wnt signal pathway in hDPCs, Wnt5a stimulation induced activation of the JNK signal in a RhoA-dependent or independent manner. Inhibiting JNK abrogated Wnt5a-induced FACs formation but not cytoskeletal rearrangement. Both dominant negative RhoA (RhoA T19N and constitutively active RhoA mutants (RhoA Q63L blocked the Wnt5a-dependent changes in hDPCs adhesion, migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement here too, with the exception of the formation of FACs. Taken together, our study suggested that RhoA and JNK signaling have roles in mediating Wnt5a-dependent adhesion and migration in hDPCs, and the Wnt5a/JNK pathway acts both dependently and independently of the RhoA pathway.

  18. C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) Mediates Wnt5a-Induced Cell Motility Dependent or Independent of RhoA Pathway in Human Dental Papilla Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglin; Zhao, Yuan; Su, Yingying; Li, Ruimin; Lin, Yunfeng; Zhou, Xuedong; Ye, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Wnt5a plays an essential role in tissue development by regulating cell migration, though the molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Our study investigated the pathways involved in Wnt5a-dependent cell motility during the formation of dentin and pulp. Over-expression of Wnt5a promoted cell adhesion and formation of focal adhesion complexes (FACs) in human dental papilla cells (hDPCs), while inhibiting cell migration. Instead of activating the canonical Wnt signal pathway in hDPCs, Wnt5a stimulation induced activation of the JNK signal in a RhoA-dependent or independent manner. Inhibiting JNK abrogated Wnt5a-induced FACs formation but not cytoskeletal rearrangement. Both dominant negative RhoA (RhoA T19N) and constitutively active RhoA mutants (RhoA Q63L) blocked the Wnt5a-dependent changes in hDPCs adhesion, migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement here too, with the exception of the formation of FACs. Taken together, our study suggested that RhoA and JNK signaling have roles in mediating Wnt5a-dependent adhesion and migration in hDPCs, and the Wnt5a/JNK pathway acts both dependently and independently of the RhoA pathway. PMID:23844260

  19. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Shiow-Lin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1 in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549 cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN, two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC and glutathione (GSH, a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK inhibitor (SP600125, and an activator protein-1 (AP-1 inhibitor (curcumin. Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis.

  20. Dysregulation of glycogen synthase COOH- and NH2-terminal phosphorylation by insulin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Kurt; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Klein, Ditte Kjærsgaard

    2009-01-01

    , phospholamban-Thr17, was also evident in T2DM. Dephosphorylation of GS by phosphatase treatment fully restored GS activity in all groups. Conclusions: Dysregulation of GS phosphorylation plays a major role in impaired insulin regulation of GS in obesity and T2DM. In obesity, independent of T2DM......Context: Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal is impaired in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is tightly linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. Impaired activation of glycogen synthase (GS) by insulin is a well-established defect in both obesity and T2DM......, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Design and Participants: Insulin action was investigated in a matched cohort of lean healthy, obese nondiabetic, and obese type 2 diabetic subjects by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique combined with muscle biopsies. Activity, site-specific phosphorylation...

  1. Isolation, purification, and characterization of fragment B, the NH2-terminal half of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Lei, D L; Sugimoto, N; Ozutsumi, K; Okabe, T

    1989-11-01

    Fragment B, the N-terminal half of the heavy chain, an important domain of the tetanus neurotoxin molecule, was isolated for the first time. Tetanus toxin (composed of three domains, A, B, and C) was prepared from culture filtrates. Fragment A-B, derived from the toxin treated mildly with papain, was used for the isolation of fragment B. Fragment A-B obtained was dissociated into fragments A and B by reduction with 100 mM dithiothreitol and treatment with 2 M urea. Fragment B was separated from fragment A by ion-exchange column chromatography on a Mono Q column equilibrated with 20 mM Tris hydrochloride buffer (pH 7.6), containing 1 mM dithiothreitol and 2 M urea, in a fast-protein liquid chromatography system by elution with a linear gradient of 0 to 0.5 M NaCl. Fragment B was obtained in two forms having molecular weights of 48,000 +/- 2,000, which were indistinguishable by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis or antigenic specificity, but distinguishable on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis without sodium dodecyl sulfate and on isoelectric focusing (pI 6.7 and 7.3). The recovery of fragment B was 50 to 72% of that of fragment A-B on a molar basis. Purified fragment B was not toxic to mice on intravenous or intramuscular injection at doses of up to 100 micrograms, but was found to form channels (ca. 2.3 pS) in a lipid bilayer membrane by a patch clamp technique. The role of domain B of the tetanus toxin molecule in the mechanism of action of the toxin is discussed.

  2. Isolation, purification, and characterization of fragment B, the NH2-terminal half of the heavy chain of tetanus toxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, M; Lei, D L; N. Sugimoto; Ozutsumi, K; Okabe, T.

    1989-01-01

    Fragment B, the N-terminal half of the heavy chain, an important domain of the tetanus neurotoxin molecule, was isolated for the first time. Tetanus toxin (composed of three domains, A, B, and C) was prepared from culture filtrates. Fragment A-B, derived from the toxin treated mildly with papain, was used for the isolation of fragment B. Fragment A-B obtained was dissociated into fragments A and B by reduction with 100 mM dithiothreitol and treatment with 2 M urea. Fragment B was separated fr...

  3. The NH2-terminal php domain of the alpha subunit of the Escherichia coli replicase binds the epsilon proofreading subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Anna; McHenry, Charles S

    2006-05-05

    The alpha subunit of the replicase of all bacteria contains a php domain, initially identified by its similarity to histidinol phosphatase but of otherwise unknown function (Aravind, L., and Koonin, E. V. (1998) Nucleic Acids Res. 26, 3746-3752). Deletion of 60 residues from the NH2 terminus of the alpha php domain destroys epsilon binding. The minimal 255-residue php domain, estimated by sequence alignment with homolog YcdX, is insufficient for epsilon binding. However, a 320-residue segment including sequences that immediately precede the polymerase domain binds epsilon with the same affinity as the 1160-residue full-length alpha subunit. A subset of mutations of a conserved acidic residue (Asp43 in Escherichia coli alpha) present in the php domain of all bacterial replicases resulted in defects in epsilon binding. Using sequence alignments, we show that the prototypical gram+ Pol C, which contains the polymerase and proofreading activities within the same polypeptide chain, has an epsilon-like sequence inserted in a surface loop near the center of the homologous YcdX protein. These findings suggest that the php domain serves as a platform to enable coordination of proofreading and polymerase activities during chromosomal replication.

  4. rse, a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase with homology to Axl/Ufo, is expressed at high levels in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, M R; Scadden, D T; Wang, Z; Gu, Q; Goddard, A; Godowski, P J

    1994-04-08

    We have isolated cDNA clones that encode the human and murine forms of a novel receptor-type tyrosine kinase termed Rse. Sequence analysis indicates that human Rse contains 890 amino acids, with an extracellular region composed of two immunoglobulin-like domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains. Murine Rse contains 880 amino acids and shares 90% amino acid identity with its human counterpart. Rse is structurally similar to the receptor-type tyrosine kinase Axl/Ufo, and the two proteins have 35 and 63% sequence identity in their extracellular and intracellular domains, respectively. To study the synthesis and activation of this putative receptor-type tyrosine kinase, we constructed a version of Rse (termed gD-Rse, where gD represents glycoprotein D) that contains an NH2-terminal epitope tag. NIH3T3 cells were engineered to express gD-Rse, which could be detected at the cell surface by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Moreover, gD-Rse was rapidly phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon incubation of the cells with an antibody directed against the epitope tag, suggesting that rse encodes an active tyrosine kinase. In the human tissues we examined, the highest level of expression of rse mRNA was observed in the brain; rse mRNA was also detected in the premegakaryocytopoietic cell lines CMK11-5 and Dami. The gene for rse was localized to human chromosome 15.

  5. From JNK to pay dirt: jun kinases, their biochemistry, physiology and clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Gallagher, Ewen

    2005-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) were originally identified by their ability to phosphorylate c-Jun in response to UV-irradiation, but now are recognized as critical regulators of various aspects of mammalian physiology, including: cell proliferation, cell survival, cell death, DNA repair and metabolism. JNK-mediated phosphorylation enhances the ability of c-Jun, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, to activate transcription, in response to a plethora of extracellular stimuli. The JNK activation leads to induction of AP-1-dependent target genes involved in cell proliferation, cell death, inflammation, and DNA repair. The JNKs, which are encoded by three different Jnk loci, are now known to be regulated by many other stimuli, from pro-inflammatory cytokines to obesity, in addition to UV-irradiation. Targeted disruption of the Jnk loci in mice has proved to be a critical tool in better understanding their physiological functions. Such studies revealed that the JNKs play important roles in numerous cellular processes, including: programmed cell death, T cell differentiation, negative regulation of insulin signaling, control of fat deposition, and epithelial sheet migration. Importantly, the JNKs have become prime targets for drug development in several important clinical areas, including: inflammation, diabetes, and cancer.

  6. Long-chain bases from sea cucumber mitigate endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shiwei; Wang, Jinhui; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2017-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation can induce hyperglycemia. Long-chain bases (LCBs) from sea cucumber exhibit antihyperglycemic activities. However, their effects on ER stress and inflammation are unknown. We investigated the effects of LCBs on ER stress and inflammatory response in high-fat, fructose diet-induced obesity mice. Reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids were measured. Inflammatory cytokines in serum and their mRNA expressions in epididymal adipose tissues were investigated. Hepatic ER stress-related key genes were detected. c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase and nuclear factor κB inflammatory pathways were also evaluated in the liver. Results showed that LCBs reduced serum and hepatic reactive oxygen species and free fatty acids concentrations. LCBs decreased serum proinflammatory cytokines levels, namely interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1, and c-reactive protein, and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 concentration. The mRNA and protein expressions of these cytokines in epididymal adipose tissues were regulated by LCBs as similar to their circulatory contents. LCBs inhibited phosphorylated c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase and inhibitor κ kinase β, and nuclear factor κB nuclear translocation. LCBs also inhibited mRNA expression of ER stress markers glucose regulated protein, activating transcription factor 6, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase, and X-box binding protein 1, and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-α and inositol requiring enzyme 1α. These results indicate that LCBs can alleviate ER stress and inflammatory response. Nutritional supplementation with LCBs may offer an adjunctive therapy for RE stress-associated inflammation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms Behind the Chemopreventive Effects of Anthocyanidins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xing Hou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are polyphenolic ring-based flavonoids, and are widespread in fruits and vegetables of red-blue color. Epidemiological investigations and animal experiments have indicated that anthocyanins may contribute to cancer chemoprevention. The studies on the mechanism have been done recently at molecular level. This review summarizes current molecular bases for anthocyanidins on several key steps involved in cancer chemoprevention: (i inhibition of anthocyanidins in cell transformation through targeting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway and activator protein 1 (AP-1 factor; (ii suppression of anthocyanidins in inflammation and carcinogenesis through targeting nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB pathway and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 gene; (iii apoptotic induction of cancer cells by anthocyanidins through reactive oxygen species (ROS / c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK-mediated caspase activation. These data provide a first molecular view of anthocyanidins contributing to cancer chemoprevention.

  8. Midazolam induces apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells through caspase activation and the involvement of MAPK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So EC

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Edmund Cheung So,1,2 Yu-Xuan Lin,3 Chi Hao Tseng,1 Bo-Syong Pan,3 Ka-Shun Cheng,2 Kar-Lok Wong,2 Lyh-Jyh Hao,4 Yang-Kao Wang,5 Bu-Miin Huang2 1Department of Anesthesia, Tainan Municipal An Nan Hospital, China Medical University, Tainan, Taiwan; 2Department of Anesthesia, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital Tainan Branch Tainan, Taiwan; 5Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Purpose: The present study aims to investigate how midazolam, a sedative drug for clinical use with cytotoxicity on neuronal and peripheral tissues, induced apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Methods: The apoptotic effect and underlying mechanism of midazolam to MA-10 cells were investigated by flow cytometry assay and Western blotting methods. Results: Data showed that midazolam induced the accumulation of the MA-10 cell population in the sub-G1 phase and a reduction in the G2/M phase in a time- and dose-dependent manner, suggesting an apoptotic phenomenon. Midazolam could also induce the activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase proteins. There were no changes in the levels of Bax and cytochrome-c, whereas Bid was significantly decreased after midazolam treatment. Moreover, midazolam decreased both pAkt and Akt expression. In addition, midazolam stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Conclusion: Midazolam could induce MA-10 cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase cascade, the inhibition of pAkt pathway, and the induction of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathways. Keywords: midazolam, apoptosis, MA-10 cell, caspase, Akt, MAPKs

  9. Mitochondrial Kinases in Parkinson's Disease: Converging Insights from Neurotoxin and Genetic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagda, Ruben K.; Zhu, Jianhui; Chu, Charleen T.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in mitochondrial biology have long been implicated in neurotoxin, and more recently, genetic models of parkinsonian neurodegeneration. In particular, kinase regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and turnover are emerging as central mechanisms at the convergence of neurotoxin, environmental and genetic approaches to studying Parkinson's disease (PD). Kinases that localize to mitochondria during neuronal injury include mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as extracellular signal regulated protein kinases (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), protein kinase B/Akt, and PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1). Although site(s) of action within mitochondria and specific kinase targets are still unclear, these signaling pathways regulate mitochondrial respiration, transport, fission-fusion, calcium buffering, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial autophagy and apoptotic cell death. In this review, we summarize accelerating experimental evidence gathered over the last decade that implicate a central role for kinase signaling at the mitochondrion in Parkinson's and related neurodegenerative disorders. Interactions involving α-synuclein, leucine rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), DJ-1 and parkin are discussed. Converging mechanisms from different model systems support the concept of common pathways in parkinsonian neurodegeneration that may be amenable to future therapeutic interventions. PMID:19563915

  10. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

      The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture....... Metabolic differences were then investigated in the basal state or after chronic palmitate treatment. At basal, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited higher CD36 and HSP70 protein expression as well as elevated phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1......) serine(307) compared to myocytes from active individuals. Despite equal lipid accumulation following palmitate treatment, myocytes from sedentary individuals exhibited delayed acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase phosphorylation compared to the active group. Myocytes from sedentary individuals had significantly...

  11. JNK Promotes Epithelial Cell Anoikis by Transcriptional and Post-translational Regulation of BH3-Only Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomeda Girnius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developmental morphogenesis, tissue injury, and oncogenic transformation can cause the detachment of epithelial cells. These cells are eliminated by a specialized form of apoptosis (anoikis. While the processes that contribute to this form of cell death have been studied, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we tested the role of the cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway using murine models with compound JNK deficiency in mammary and kidney epithelial cells. These studies demonstrated that JNK is required for efficient anoikis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, JNK-promoted anoikis required pro-apoptotic members of the BCL2 family of proteins. We show that JNK acts through a BAK/BAX-dependent apoptotic pathway by increasing BIM expression and phosphorylating BMF, leading to death of detached epithelial cells.

  12. Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans protected the cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis by inhibiting high-mobility group box protein-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Il-Joo; Bae, Gi-Sang; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Choi, Sun Bok; Jung, Won-Seok; Jung, Su-Young; Cho, Jung-Hee; Choi, Mee-Ok; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2013-03-14

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans (SSM) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in a mouse model. SSM water extract (0.1, 0.5, or 1 g/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally 1 h prior to the first injection of cerulein. Once AP developed, the stable cholecystokinin analogue, cerulein was injected hourly, over a 6 h period. Blood samples were taken 6 h later to determine serum amylase, lipase, and cytokine levels. The pancreas and lungs were rapidly removed for morphological examination, myeloperoxidase assay, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. To specify the role of SSM in pancreatitis, the pancreatic acinar cells were isolated using collagenase method. Then the cells were pre-treated with SSM, then stimulated with cerulein. The cell viability, cytokine productions and high-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1) were measured. Furthermore, the regulating mechanisms of SSM action were evaluated. The administration of SSM significantly attenuated the severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis associated lung injury, as was shown by the reduction in pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, vacuolization and necrosis. SSM treatment also reduced pancreatic weight/body weight ratio, serum amylase, lipase and cytokine levels, and mRNA expression of multiple inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. In addition, treatment with SSM inhibited HMGB-1 expression in the pancreas during AP. In accordance with in vivo data, SSM inhibited the cerulein-induced acinar cell death, cytokine, and HMGB-1 release. SSM also inhibited the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. These results suggest that SSM plays a protective role during the development of AP and pancreatitis associated lung injury via deactivating c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, p38 and NF-κB.

  13. Interactions of the integrin subunit beta1A with protein kinase B/Akt, p130Cas and paxillin contribute to regulation of radiation survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidler, Julia; Durzok, Rita; Brakebusch, Cord

    2005-01-01

    in presence or absence of growth factors or inhibitors for phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), i.e. Ly294002 and wortmannin. In addition to colony formation, protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) kinase activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), p130Cas, paxillin and c-Jun N2-terminal kinase (JNK) expression...... substrates. PI3K inhibition moderately or strongly radiosensitized GD25beta1A or GD25beta1B cells, respectively. The pro-survival effects detected in serum starved GD25beta1A cells were due to direct, PI3K-mediated stimulation of PKB/Akt activity by beta1-integrins and induced p130Cas and paxillin...... phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p130Cas and paxillin subsequently prevented activation of cell death-regulating JNK. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that beta1-integrin-mediated signaling through the cytoplasmic integrin domains is critical for efficient pro-survival regulation after irradiation. Profound knowledge...

  14. Inhibition by anandamide of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mnich, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a selective neurotoxin that is widely used to investigate cell death and protective strategies in models of Parkinson\\'s disease. Here, we investigated the effects of the endogenous cannabinoid, anandamide, on 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in rat adrenal phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells. Morphological analysis and caspase-3 activity assay revealed that anandamide inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. The protection was not affected by antagonists of either cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) or CB(2)) or the vanilloid receptor TRPV1. Anandamide-dependent protection was reduced by pretreatment with LY294002 (inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K) and unaffected by U0126 (inhibitor of extracellularly-regulated kinase). Interestingly, phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in cells exposed to 6-OHDA was strongly reduced by anandamide pre-treatment. Furthermore, 6-OHDA induced c-Jun activation and increased Bim expression, both of which were inhibited by anandamide. Together, these data demonstrate antiapoptotic effects of anandamide and also suggest a role for activation of PI3K and inhibition of JNK signalling in anandamide-mediated protection against 6-OHDA.

  15. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Hypoxic/Ischemic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengbao Luo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tissue hypoxia/ischemia is a pathological feature of many human disorders including stroke, myocardial infarction, hypoxic/ischemic nephropathy, as well as cancer. In the kidney, the combination of limited oxygen supply to the tissues and high oxygen demand is considered the main reason for the susceptibility of the kidney to hypoxic/ischemic injury. In recent years, increasing evidence has indicated that a reduction in renal oxygen tension/blood supply plays an important role in acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and renal tumorigenesis. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms, whereby hypoxia alters cellular behaviors, remain poorly understood. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are key signal-transducing enzymes activated by a wide range of extracellular stimuli, including hypoxia/ischemia. There are four major family members of MAPKs: the extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK1/2, the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, p38 MAPKs, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 (ERK5/BMK1. Recent studies, including ours, suggest that these MAPKs are differentially involved in renal responses to hypoxic/ischemic stress. This review will discuss their changes in hypoxic/ischemic pathophysiology with acute kidney injury, chronic kidney diseases and renal carcinoma.

  16. Botulinum Toxin Complex Increases Paracellular Permeability in Intestinal Epithelial Cells via Activation of p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIYASHITA, Shin-ichiro; SAGANE, Yoshimasa; INUI, Ken; HAYASHI, Shintaro; MIYATA, Keita; SUZUKI, Tomonori; OHYAMA, Tohru; WATANABE, Toshihiro; NIWA, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, and MAPK activation was estimated from western blots. L-TC of C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 increased paracellular dextran flux and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in IEC-6 cells. The permeability increase induced by L-TC was abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results indicate that L-TC increases paracellular permeability by activating p38, but not JNK and ERK. PMID:23884081

  17. Light induces Fos expression via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in melanopsin-expressing PC12 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldrup, Marie-Louise Bülow; Georg, Birgitte; Falktoft, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    and the cells respond to light by a membrane depolarization and induction of the immediate early response gene Fos. Previous studies showed that the light activated melanopsin-induced signaling, the phototransduction, leading to depolarization of the membrane resembles the invertebrate opsins, which involves......-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) was found as pharmacological blockage of this kinase suppressed the light-induced Fos expression. Illumination increased the inositol phosphate turnover and induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The Galpha(q/11) protein inhibitor YM......254890 attenuated these intracellular light responses. Our data strongly indicate that Galpha(q/11)-mediated ERK1/2 activation is essential for expression of Fos upon illumination of melanopsin-expressing PC12 cells....

  18. Regulation of the Ste20-like Kinase, SLK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhovy, Artem Y.; Jaberi, Aala; Papillon, Joan; Guillemette, Julie; Cybulsky, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    Expression and activation of the Ste20-like kinase, SLK, is increased during kidney development and recovery from ischemic acute kidney injury. SLK promotes apoptosis, and it may regulate cell survival during injury or repair. This study addresses the role of phosphorylation in the regulation of kinase activity. We mutated serine and threonine residues in the putative activation segment of the SLK catalytic domain and expressed wild type (WT) and mutant proteins in COS-1 or glomerular epithelial cells. Compared with SLK WT, the T183A, S189A, and T183A/S189A mutants showed reduced in vitro kinase activity. SLK WT, but not mutants, increased activation-specific phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. Similarly, SLK WT stimulated activator protein-1 reporter activity, but activation of activator protein-1 by the three SLK mutants was ineffective. To test if homodimerization of SLK affects phosphorylation, the cDNA encoding SLK amino acids 1–373 (which include the catalytic domain) was fused with a cDNA for a modified FK506-binding protein, Fv (Fv-SLK 1–373). After transfection, the addition of AP20187 (an FK506 analog) induced regulated dimerization of Fv-SLK 1–373. AP20187-stimulated dimerization enhanced the kinase activity of Fv-SLK 1–373 WT. In contrast, kinase activity of Fv-SLK 1–373 T183A/S189A was weak and was not enhanced after dimerization. Finally, apoptosis was increased after expression of Fv-SLK 1–373 WT but not T183A/S189A. Thus, phosphorylation of Thr-183 and Ser-189 plays a key role in the activation and signaling of SLK and could represent a target for novel therapeutic approaches to renal injury. PMID:22203681

  19. Determination of amino acid compositions and NH2-terminal sequences of peptides electroblotted onto PVDF membranes from tricine-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Jensen, A L; Barkholt, V.

    1989-01-01

    amounts of peptides and protein fragments (Mr 1000-20,000) in a suitable form for amino acid sequencing, directly on the blotting membrane. Conditions for electrophoresis and electroblotting were optimized with respect to high transfer yield and suitability for both amino acid analysis and sequence...... of polymorphic forms of human complement component C3....

  20. Cell-induced potentiation of the plasminogen activation system is abolished by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the NH2-terminal domain of the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ellis, V

    1991-01-01

    We have raised four monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes within the human cell-surface receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). One of these antibodies completely abolishes the potentiation of plasmin generation observed upon incubation of the zymogens pro-u-PA an...

  1. Akt2 influences glycogen synthase activity in human skeletal muscle through regulation of NH2-terminal (sites 2+2a) phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrichsen, Martin; Birk, Jesper Bratz; Richter, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by reduced muscle glycogen synthesis. The key enzyme in this process, glycogen synthase (GS), is activated via proximal insulin signaling, but the exact molecular events remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that phosphorylation of Threonine-308 on Akt (p...

  2. Vaccinia-Related Kinase 2 Modulates the Stress Response to Hypoxia Mediated by TAK1▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Sandra; Santos, Claudio; Lazo, Pedro A.

    2007-01-01

    Hypoxia represents a major stress that requires an immediate cellular response in which different signaling pathways participate. Hypoxia induces an increase in the activity of TAK1, an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK), which responds to oxidative stress by triggering cascades leading to the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). JNK activation by hypoxia requires assembly with the JIP1 scaffold protein, which might also interact with other intracellular proteins that are less well known but that might modulate MAPK signaling. We report that TAK1 is able to form a stable complex with JIP1 and thus regulate the activation of JNK, which in turn determines the cellular stress response to hypoxia. This activation of TAK1-JIP1-JNK is suppressed by vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2). VRK2A is able to interact with TAK1 by its C-terminal region, forming stable complexes. The kinase activity of VRK2 is not necessary for this interaction or the downregulation of AP1-dependent transcription. Furthermore, reduction of the endogenous VRK2 level with short hairpin RNA can increase the response induced by hypoxia, suggesting that the intracellular levels of VRK2 can determine the magnitude of this stress response. PMID:17709393

  3. PGD2 stimulates osteoprotegerin synthesis via AMP-activated protein kinase in osteoblasts: Regulation of ERK and SAPK/JNK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainuma, Shingo; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Yamamoto, Naohiro; Ohguchi, Reou; Fujita, Kazuhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2015-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key enzyme sensing cellular energy metabolism, is currently known to regulate multiple metabolic pathways. Osteoprotegerin plays a pivotal role in the regulation of bone metabolism by inhibiting osteoclast activation. We have previously reported that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) stimulates the synthesis of osteoprotegerin through the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, p44/p42 MAP kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. On the basis of these findings, we herein investigated the implication of AMPK in PGD2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in these cells. PGD2 induced the phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr-172) and AMPKβ (Ser-108), and the phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a direct AMPK substrate. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, which suppressed the phosphorylation of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, significantly attenuated both the release and the mRNA levels of osteoprotegerin stimulated by PGD2. The PGD2-induced phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK but not p38 MAP kinase were markedly inhibited by compound C. These results strongly suggest that AMPK regulates the PGD2-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis at a point upstream of p44/p42 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK in osteoblasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pb2+ induces gastrin gene expression by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and transcription factor activator protein 1 in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chien-Pin; Tsai, Yao-Ting; Chen, Yao-Li; Hsu, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Joseph T; Chuang, Hung-Yi; Shiurba, Robert; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Wang, Jaw-Yuan; Chang, Wei-Chiao

    2015-02-01

    Divalent lead ions (Pb(2+) ) are toxic environmental pollutants known to cause serious health problems in humans and animals. Absorption of Pb(2+) from air, water, and food takes place in the respiratory and digestive tracts. The ways in which absorbed Pb(2+) affects cell physiology are just beginning to be understood at the molecular level. Here, we used reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting to analyze cultures of human gastric carcinoma cells exposed to 10 μM lead nitrate. We found that Pb(2+) induces gastrin hormone gene transcription and translation in a time-dependent manner. Promoter deletion analysis revealed that activator protein 1 (AP1) was necessary for gastrin gene transcription in cells exposed to Pb(2+) . MitogIen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 suppressed the Pb(2+) -induced increase in messenger RNA. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors AG1478 and PD153035 reduced both transcription and phosphorylation by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Cells exposed to Pb(2+) also increased production of c-Jun protein, a component of AP1, and over-expression of c-Jun enhanced activation of the gastrin promoter. In sum, the findings suggest the EGFR-ERK1/2-AP1 pathway mediates the effects of Pb(2+) on gastrin gene activity in cell culture. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Amantadine inhibits RANTES production by influenzavirus-infected human bronchial epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Yasukiyo; Hashimoto, Shu; Kujime, Kousei; Gon, Yasuhiro; Mizumura, Kenji; Shimizu, Kazufumi; Horie, Takashi

    2001-01-01

    Amantadine can prevent and decrease airway inflammation by inhibiting influenza virus (IV) replication; however, the effect of amantadine on RANTES production by human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effect of amantadine on RANTES production and also analysed p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) activation to clarify the mechanism in the effect of amantadine on RANTES production, since we have previously shown that p38 MAP kinase and JNK regulate RANTES production by IV-infected BEC. BEC that had been preincubated with amantadine were infected with IV and then p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation in the cells and RANTES concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined. Amantadine-induced inhibition of virus replication resulted in a decrease in p38 MAP kinase and JNK activity and decreased expression of RANTES in IV-infected cells. Amantadine did not inhibit p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation induced by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as a non-viral stimulus. These results indicate that amantadine inhibits IV infection-induced RANTES production by human BEC and that the inhibition by amantadine of RANTES production might result from an indirect inhibitory effect of amantadine on p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation via the inhibition of virus replication, and we emphasize that amantadine may produce a beneficial effect on controlling bronchial asthma exacerbation caused by IV infection. PMID:11181433

  6. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Maite Rocío, E-mail: arana@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás, E-mail: gtocchetti@live.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Domizi, Pablo, E-mail: domizi@ibr-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Arias, Agostina, E-mail: agoarias@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo, E-mail: jprigalli@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Ruiz, María Laura, E-mail: ruiz@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2015-09-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  7. Casein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    The present review on casein kinases focuses mainly on the possible metabolic role of CK-2, with special emphasis on its behavior in pathological tissues. From these data at least three ways to regulate CK-2 activity emerge: (i) CK-2 activity changes during embryogenesis, being high at certain...

  8. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling pathways in perfluorooctane sulfonic acid-induced inflammatory reaction in BV2 microglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jingying; Qian, Wenyi; Wang, Yixin; Gao, Rong; Wang, Jun; Xiao, Hang

    2015-12-01

    Microglial activation is closely related to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by producing proinflammatory cytokines. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), known as an emerging persistent organic pollutant, is reported to disturb human immune homeostasis; however, whether it affects cytokine production or the immune response in the central nervous system remains unclear. The present study was aimed to explore whether PFOS contributed to inflammatory action and to investigate the corresponding mechanisms in BV2 microglia. PFOS-mediated morphologic changes, cytokine responses and signaling events were examined by light microscopy, real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot assays. Our results indicated that PFOS increased BV2 cells activation and simultaneously increased tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 expression. In addition, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor (SP600125), as well as ERK1/2 blocker (PD98059), transcriptionally at least, displayed anti-inflammatory properties on PFOS-elicited cytokine responses. Moreover, the inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB was specifically activated by PFOS as well. These results, taken together, suggested that PFOS exerts its functional effects on the response of microglial cell activation via, in part, the c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways with its subsequent influence on proinflammatory action. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Inactivation of the integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in osteoblasts increases mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hoss, Jad; Arabian, Alice; Dedhar, Shoukat; St-Arnaud, René

    2014-01-01

    In osteoblasts, Integrin-Linked Kinase (ILK)-dependent phosphorylation of the cJUN transcriptional coactivator, αNAC, induces the nuclear accumulation of the coactivator and potentiates cJUN-dependent transcription. Mutation of the ILK phosphoacceptor site within the αNAC protein leads to cytoplasmic retention of the coactivator and cell-autonomous increases in osteoblastic activity. In order to gain further insight into the ILK-αNAC signaling cascade, we inactivated ILK using RNA knockdown in osteoblastic cells and engineered mice with specific ablation of ILK in osteoblasts. ILK knockdown in MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells reduced phosphorylation of its downstream target glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which led to cytoplasmic retention of αNAC and increased mineralization with augmented expression of the osteoblastic differentiation markers, pro-α1(I) collagen (col1A1), Bone Sialoprotein (Bsp) and Osteocalcin (Ocn). Cultured ILK-deficient primary osteoblasts also showed increased cytoplasmic αNAC levels, and augmented mineralization with higher Runx2, Col1a1 and Bsp expression. Histomorphometric analysis of bones from mutant mice with ILK-deficient osteoblasts (Col1-Cre;Ilk(-/fl)) revealed transient changes, with increased bone volume in newborn animals that was corrected by two weeks of age. Our data suggest that the ILK-αNAC cascade acts to reduce the pace of osteoblast maturation. We propose that in vivo, functional redundancy is able to compensate for the loss of ILK activity, leading to the absence of an obvious phenotype when osteoblast-specific Ilk-deficient mice reach puberty. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 alters the wound epidermis and enhances auricular cartilage regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Shi Zhang

    Full Text Available Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1, also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5, after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage. Histological analysis showed the ASK1 KO ears displayed enhanced protein markers associated with blastema formation, hole closure and regeneration of auricular cartilage. At seven days after punch, the wound epidermis morphology was markedly different in the KO, showing a thickened stratum corneum with rounded cell morphology and a reduction of both the granular cell layer and decreased expression of filament aggregating protein. In addition, cytokeratin 6 was expressed in the stratum spinosum and granulosum. Topical application of inhibitors of ASK1 (NQDI-1, the upstream ASK1 activator, calcium activated mitogen kinase 2 (KN93, or the downstream target, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125 also resulted in enhanced regeneration; whereas inhibition of the other downstream target, the p38 α/β isoforms, (SB203580 had no effect. The results of this investigation indicate ASK1 inhibition prolongs keratinocyte and blastemal cell activation leading to ear regeneration.

  11. Effects of protein kinase C activators on phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansbury, H M; Wisehart-Johnson, A E; Qi, C; Fulwood, S; Meier, K E

    1997-09-01

    Phorbol ester-sensitive EL4 murine thymoma cells respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate with activation of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases, synthesis of interleukin-2, and death, whereas phorbol ester-resistant variants of this cell line do not exhibit these responses. Additional aspects of the resistant phenotype were examined, using a newly-established resistant cell line. Phorbol ester induced morphological changes, ERK activation, calcium-dependent activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), interleukin-2 synthesis, and growth inhibition in sensitive but not resistant cells. A series of protein kinase C activators caused membrane translocation of protein kinase C's (PKCs) alpha, eta, and theta in both cell lines. While PKC eta was expressed at higher levels in sensitive than in resistant cells, overexpression of PKC eta did not restore phorbol ester-induced ERK activation to resistant cells. In sensitive cells, PKC activators had similar effects on cell viability and ERK activation, but differed in their abilities to induce JNK activation and interleukin-2 synthesis. PD 098059, an inhibitor of the mitogen activated protein (MAP)/ERK kinase kinase MEK, partially inhibited ERK activation and completely blocked phorbol ester-induced cell death in sensitive cells. Thus MEK and/or ERK activation, but not JNK activation or interleukin-2 synthesis, appears to be required for phorbol ester-induced toxicity. Alterations in phorbol ester response pathways, rather than altered expression of PKC isoforms, appear to confer phorbol ester resistance to EL4 cells.

  12. Resveratrol suppresses prostaglandin F(2α)-induced osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts: inhibition of the MAP kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kondo, Akira; Mizutani, Jun; Kozawa, Osamu; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2014-01-15

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundantly found in grape skins and red wine, possesses various beneficial properties for human health. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) on osteoprotegerin (OPG) synthesis and of resveratrol on the OPG synthesis in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. PGF2α stimulated both the release of the OPG protein and the expression of OPG mRNA. Treatment with PD98059, SB203580 and SP600125, specific inhibitors of MEK1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) all suppressed the OPG release induced by PGF2α. Resveratrol also significantly reduced the PGF2α-stimulated OPG release and the mRNA levels of OPG. Similarly, treatment with SRT1720, an activator of SIRT1, also suppressed the PGF2α-stimulated OPG release. Resveratrol and SRT1720 both attenuated the phosphorylation of p44/p42 MAP kinase, MEK1/2, Raf-1, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK induced by PGF2α. These findings strongly suggest that resveratrol suppresses PGF2α-stimulated OPG synthesis by inhibiting the MAP kinase pathways in osteoblasts, and that the effect is mediated via SIRT1 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 alters the wound epidermis and enhances auricular cartilage regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Shi; Kurpad, Deepa S; Mahoney, My G; Steinbeck, Marla J; Freeman, Theresa A

    2017-01-01

    Why regeneration does not occur in mammals remains elusive. In lower vertebrates, epimorphic regeneration of the limb is directed by the wound epidermis, which controls blastema formation to promote regrowth of the appendage. Herein, we report that knockout (KO) or inhibition of Apoptosis Signal-regulated Kinase-1 (ASK1), also known as mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5), after full thickness ear punch in mice prolongs keratinocyte activation within the wound epidermis and promotes regeneration of auricular cartilage. Histological analysis showed the ASK1 KO ears displayed enhanced protein markers associated with blastema formation, hole closure and regeneration of auricular cartilage. At seven days after punch, the wound epidermis morphology was markedly different in the KO, showing a thickened stratum corneum with rounded cell morphology and a reduction of both the granular cell layer and decreased expression of filament aggregating protein. In addition, cytokeratin 6 was expressed in the stratum spinosum and granulosum. Topical application of inhibitors of ASK1 (NQDI-1), the upstream ASK1 activator, calcium activated mitogen kinase 2 (KN93), or the downstream target, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125) also resulted in enhanced regeneration; whereas inhibition of the other downstream target, the p38 α/β isoforms, (SB203580) had no effect. The results of this investigation indicate ASK1 inhibition prolongs keratinocyte and blastemal cell activation leading to ear regeneration.

  14. The role of stress-activated protein kinase signaling in renal pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Y. Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two major stress-activated protein kinases are the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK. p38 and JNK are widely expressed in different cell types in various tissues and can be activated by a diverse range of stimuli. Signaling through p38 and JNK is critical for embryonic development. In adult kidney, p38 and JNK signaling is evident in a restricted pattern suggesting a normal physiological role. Marked activation of both p38 and JNK pathways occurs in human renal disease, including glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy and acute renal failure. Administration of small molecule inhibitors of p38 and JNK has been shown to provide protection from renal injury in different types of experimental kidney disease through inhibition of renal inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis. In particular, a role for JNK signaling has been identified in macrophage activation resulting in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and the induction of renal injury. The ability to provide renal protection by blocking either p38 or JNK indicates a lack of redundancy for these two signaling pathways despite their activation by common stimuli. Therefore, the stress-activated protein kinases, p38 and JNK, are promising candidates for therapeutic intervention in human renal diseases.

  15. Activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases in the esophageal epithelium of patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwiesko, A; Baniukiewicz, A; Semeniuk, J; Kaczmarski, M; Wasielica-Berger, J; Milewski, R; Dabrowski, A

    2015-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE), a complication of gastroesophageal reflux disease, is associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinases may play an important role in the pathogenesis of this process. We aimed to evaluate mitogen-activated protein kinases activity in esophageal mucosa of patients with BE and find possible relationship between reflux type and BE. Twenty-four patients (mean age: 59 years) with gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) were prospectively enrolled for testing by a multichannel intraluminal impedance monitoring along with a Bilitec 2000. Endoscopic biopsies were taken from methylene blue-positive pit patterns (sites suggesting specialized intestinal metaplasia [SIM]), from 2 cm above the Z-line and from cardial parts of the stomach. The biopsies were analyzed for extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 activity by Western blot. Seventeen ESEMs had histologically proven metaplasia: eight patients had SIM and nine had gastric-type epithelia (GE). Biliary reflux was more evident in SIM (P = 0.019) but not in GE (P = 0.019); non-biliary reflux was typical for GE (P = 0.005) but not for SIM (P = 0.04). Strong activations of ERK and p38 were found predominantly in SIM, but not in normal esophageal mucosa (NE) (P = 0.01 and P Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Silver nanoparticles increase connexin43-mediated gap junctional intercellular communication in HaCaT cells through activation of reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yu; Han, Limin; Yang, Di

    2017-01-01

    of Cx43 on GJIC were assessed. HaCaT cells exposed to non-coated AgNPs at different doses after a 24 hour exposure. To explore further the underlying mechanism, reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway were evaluated after 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours. Our results revealed that non......-coated AgNP exposure at subcytotoxic doses increase GJIC partially via Cx43 upregulation. Reactive oxygen species and extracellular signal-regulated kinase and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase were involved in the AgNP-induced upregulation of Cx43. This study provides new insight into the potential......Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in health and consumer products that routinely contact skin. However, the biological effects and possible mechanisms of AgNPs on skin remain unclear. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) plays a critical role in multicellular organisms...

  17. Calcium Hydroxide-induced Proliferation, Migration, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Mineralization via the Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luoping; Zheng, Lisha; Jiang, Jingyi; Gui, Jinpeng; Zhang, Lingyu; Huang, Yan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ji, Jing; Fan, Yubo

    2016-09-01

    Calcium hydroxide has been extensively used as the gold standard for direct pulp capping in clinical dentistry. It induces proliferation, migration, and mineralization in dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Human DPSCs between passages 3 and 6 were used. DPSCs were preincubated with inhibitors of MAP kinases and cultured with calcium hydroxide. The phosphorylated MAP kinases were detected by Western blot analysis. Cell viability was analyzed via the methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. Cell migration was estimated using the wound healing assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression was analyzed using the ALP staining assay. Mineralization was studied by alizarin red staining analysis. Calcium hydroxide significantly promoted the phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. The inhibition of JNK and p38 signaling abolished calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation of DPSCs. The inhibition of JNK, p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling suppressed the migration, ALP expression, and mineralization of DPSCs. Our study showed that the MAP kinase pathway was involved in calcium hydroxide-induced proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and mineralization in human DPSCs. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Leuconostoc citreum HJ-P4 (KACC 91035) regulates immunoglobulin E in an ovalbumin-induced allergy model and induces interleukin-12 through nuclear factor-kappa B and p38/c-Jun N-terminal kinases signaling in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee; Oh, Yoo-Joung; Ahn, Kyoo-Seok; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Han, NamSoo; Kim, Yoon-Bum; Sohn, Nak-Won

    2009-06-01

    Leuconostoc citreum (L. citreum) HJ-P4 (KACC 91035) is one of the major predominant species in kimchi fermentation in Korea. The purpose of the present study was to test the immunomodulatory capacity of L. citreum to modulate the IgE-mediated allergic response and to examine the involvement of NF-kappaB and MAPK in IL-12 production in macrophages. Balb/c mice were sensitized with OVA/alum and oral administration of L. citreum to the mice began before or after the OVA sensitization. Protein and mRNA expression of Th1 cytokines in splenocytes by L. citreum in vitro was measured. The role of NF-kappaB and MAPK such as p38, ERK1/2 and JNK in L. citreum-induced IL-12 was investigated in peritoneal macrophages and RAW264.7 cell lines. L. citreum inhibited the serum levels of total IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a altogether and increased OVA-specific IFN-gamma production in splenocytes from pre- and post-sensitized animals. However, the downregulation of IL-4 and IL-5 production was observed only in the pre-sensitization group. The ability of L. citreum to stimulate IFN-gamma was dependent on its induction of IL-12. NF-kappaB, p38 and JNK were mainly involved in L. citreum-induced IL-12 production. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that L. citreum is able to regulate serum IgE generation at the induction and effector phases of allergic response through overall control over antibody production and that its involvement of IL-12 production was mediated through NF-kappaB and p38/JNK. Taken together, the use of L. citreum can be useful in preventing the development and progression of IgE production.

  19. JNK1/2 Activation by an Extract from the Roots of Morus alba L. Reduces the Viability of Multidrug-Resistant MCF-7/Dox Cells by Inhibiting YB-1-Dependent MDR1 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Kyung Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells acquire anticancer drug resistance during chemotherapy, which aggravates cancer disease. MDR1 encoded from multidrug resistance gene 1 mainly causes multidrug resistance phenotypes of different cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrate that JNK1/2 activation by an extract from the root of Morus alba L. (White mulberry reduces doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Dox cell viability by inhibiting YB-1 regulation of MDR1 gene expression. When MCF-7 or MCF-7/Dox cells, where MDR1 is highly expressed were treated with an extract from roots or leaves of Morus alba L., respectively, the root extract from the mulberry (REM but not the leaf extract (LEM reduced cell viabilities of both MCF-7 and MCF-7/Dox cells, which was enhanced by cotreatment with doxorubicin. REM but not LEM further inhibited YB-1 nuclear translocation and its regulation of MDR1 gene expression. Moreover, REM promoted phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2 and JNK1/2 inhibitor, SP600125 and rescued REM inhibition of both MDR1 expression and viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. Consistently, overexpression of JNK1, c-Jun, or c-Fos inhibited YB-1-dependent MDR1 expression and reduced viabilities in MCF-7/Dox cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that REM-activated JNK-cJun/c-Fos pathway decreases the viability of MCF-7/Dox cells by inhibiting YB-1-dependent MDR1 gene expression. Thus, we suggest that REM may be useful for treating multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

  20. Analysis of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Bone and Cartilage of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Abatacept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Kanbe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the histological changes related to mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in bone and cartilage treated with abatacept for rheumatoid arthritis (RA. A total of 20 patients of bone and cartilage were assessed: 10 abatacept with methotrexate (MTX-treated RA patients were compared with 10 MTX-treated RA patients (control. The histology of bone and cartilage was observed by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and analyzed immunohistochemically for the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, CD4 (T cell, CD68 (macrophage, receptor activator of nuclear kappa-B ligand, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, CD29 (β-1 integrin, phospho-p38 MAPK (Tyr180/Tyr182, phospho-p44/42 MAPK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/ERK2, and phosphor-c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The expressions of CD29 known as mechanoreceptor and ERK known as mechanotransduction signal protein in MAP kinases in the bone and cartilage of patients treated with abatacept were significantly different from those of control. These findings suggest that increases in CD29 and ERK in MAP kinases may change the metabolism of bone and cartilage in RA patients treated with abatacept.

  1. Involvement of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways in Staphylococcus aureus Invasion of Normal Osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, John K.; Elhofy, Adam; Bost, Kenneth L.; Hudson, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus invades osteoblasts and can persist in the intracellular environment. The present study examined the role of osteoblast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in bacterial invasion. S. aureus infection of normal human and mouse osteoblasts resulted in an increase in the phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK 1 and 2). This stimulation of ERK 1 and 2 correlated with the time course of S. aureus invasion, and bacterial adherence induced the MAPK pathway. ERK 1 and 2 phosphorylation was time and dose dependent and required active S. aureus gene expression for maximal induction. The nonpathogenic Staphylococcus carnosus was also able to induce ERK 1 and 2 phosphorylation, albeit at lower levels than S. aureus. Phosphorylation of the stress-activated protein kinases was increased in both infected human and mouse osteoblasts; however, the p38 MAPK pathway was not activated in response to S. aureus. Finally, the transcription factor c-Jun, but not Elk-1 or ATF-2, was phosphorylated in response to S. aureus infection. PMID:11500391

  2. Protection against chronic hypoperfusion-induced retinal neurodegeneration by PARP inhibition via activation of PI-3-kinase Akt pathway and suppression of JNK and p38 MAP kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mester, Laszlo; Szabo, Aliz; Atlasz, Tamas; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Reglodi, Dora; Kiss, Peter; Racz, Boglarka; Tamas, Andrea; Gallyas, Ferenc; Sumegi, Balazs; Hocsak, Eniko; Gabriel, Robert; Kovacs, Krisztina

    2009-07-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation is considered as a major regulator of cell death in various pathophysiological conditions, however, no direct information is available about its role in chronic hypoperfusion-induced neuronal death. Here, we provide evidence for the protective effect of PARP inhibition on degenerative retinal damage induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), an adequate chronic hypoperfusion murine model. We found that BCCAO in adult male Wistar rats led to severe degeneration of all retinal layers that was attenuated by a carboxaminobenzimidazol-derivative PARP inhibitor (HO3089) administered unilaterally into the vitreous body immediately following carotid occlusion and then 4 times in a 2-week-period. Normal morphological structure of the retina was preserved and the thickness of the retinal layers was increased in HO3089-treated eyes compared to the BCCAO eyes. For Western blot studies, HO3089 was administered immediately after BCCAO and retinas were removed 4 h later. According to Western blot analysis utilizing phosphorylation-specific primary antibodies, besides activating poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) synthesis, BCCAO induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). HO3089 inhibited PAR synthesis, and decreased the phosphorylation of these proapoptotic MAPKs. In addition, HO3089 treatment induced phosphorylation, that is activation, of the protective Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. These data indicate that PARP activation has a major role in mediating chronic hypoperfusion-induced neuronal death, and inhibition of the enzyme prevents the pathological changes both in the morphology and the kinase signaling cascades involved. These results identify PARP inhibition as a possible molecular target in the clinical management of chronic hypoperfusion-induced neurodegenerative diseases

  3. Accumulating microglia phagocytose injured neurons in hippocampal slice cultures: involvement of p38 MAP kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Katayama

    Full Text Available In this study, microglial migration and phagocytosis were examined in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures, which were treated with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA to selectively injure neuronal cells. Microglial cells were visualized by the expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein. Daily observation revealed microglial accumulation in the pyramidal cell layer, which peaked 5 to 6 days after NMDA treatment. Time-lapse imaging showed that microglia migrated to the pyramidal cell layer from adjacent and/or remote areas. There was no difference in the number of proliferating microglia between control and NMDA-treated slices in both the pyramidal cell layer and stratum radiatum, suggesting that microglial accumulation in the injured areas is mainly due to microglial migration, not to proliferation. Time-lapse imaging also showed that the injured neurons, which were visualized by propidium iodide (PI, disappeared just after being surrounded by microglia. Daily observation revealed that the intensity of PI fluorescence gradually attenuated, and this attenuation was suppressed by pretreatment with clodronate, a microglia toxin. These findings suggest that accumulating microglia phagocytosed injured neurons, and that PI fluorescence could be a useful indicator for microglial phagocytosis. Using this advantage to examine microglial phagocytosis in living slice cultures, we investigated the involvements of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases in microglial accumulation and phagocytosis. p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580, but not MAP kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, suppressed the attenuation of PI fluorescence. On the other hand, microglial accumulation in the injured areas was not inhibited by any of these inhibitors. These data suggest that p38 MAP kinase plays an important role in microglial phagocytosis of injured neurons.

  4. Recent Insights into the Biological Functions of Sestrins in Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menglong Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sestrins (Sesns have been identified as a family of highly conserved stress-inducible proteins that are strongly up-regulated by various stresses, including DNA damage, oxidative stress, and hypoxia. The Sesns play protective roles in most physiological and pathological conditions mainly through the regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we discussed the possible regulators of Sesns expression, such as p53, forkhead box O, nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (Nrf2, NH (2-terminal kinase (JNK/c-Jun pathway and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α, and the downstream pathways regulated by the Sesns including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling, Nrf2 signaling, NADPH oxidase signaling and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling in heart diseases, lung diseases, gastrointestinal tract diseases, liver and metabolism diseases, neurological diseases, kidney diseases and immunological diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive understanding the protective effects of Sesns.

  5. Apoptotic effect of cordycepin combined with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Fu-Chi; Chen, Pei-Jung; Pan, Bo-Syong; Lai, Meng-Shao; Chen, Yung-Chia; Huang, Bu-Miin

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy is not limited to a single treatment, and the evidence demonstrates that different drug combinations can have positive results in patients. In this study, we sought to determine whether cordycepin combined with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel would have an additive effective on inducing apoptosis in mouse Leydig tumor cells, and the mechanisms were also briefly examined. Methods The additive effects of cordycepin combined with cisplatin and/or paclitaxel on apoptosis in MA-10 cells were investigated by monitoring changes in morphological characteristics and examining cell viability, flow cytometry assays, and Western blot analyses. Results Combination of cordycepin plus cisplatin and/or paclitaxel for 12 and 24 hours induced apoptotic features in MA-10 cells. The MTT assay showed that the combination treatment reduced the viability of MA-10 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with additive effects. Cell cycle analysis showed that combination treatment significantly increased subG1 phase cell numbers in MA-10 cells, indicating apoptosis. Moreover, cordycepin plus cisplatin and/or paclitaxel significantly induced cleavage of caspase-8, caspase-9, caspase-3, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, and phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and p53 proteins in MA-10 cells. Conclusion Cordycepin plus cisplatin and/or paclitaxel can have an additive effect on apoptosis in MA-10 cells, with activation of caspase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and p53 signal pathways. PMID:26366090

  6. Indirubin Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammation via TLR4 Abrogation Mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Liu, Chang; Qi, Ming-Pu; Liu, Rui-Ning; Zhu, Xi-Fang; Zhou, Qiu-Ge; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-02-01

    Indirubin plays an important role in the treatment of many chronic diseases and exhibits strong anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mode of action during mastitis prophylaxis remains poorly understood. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis mouse model showed that indirubin attenuated histopathological changes in the mammary gland, local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, indirubin significantly downregulated the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). We explored the mechanism whereby indirubin exerts protective effects against LPS-induced inflammation of mouse mammary epithelial cells (MMECs). The addition of different concentrations of indirubin before exposure of cells to LPS for 1 h significantly attenuated inflammation and reduced the concentrations of the three inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin downregulated LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression, inhibited phosphorylation of the LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kB) P65 protein and its inhibitor IkBα of the NF-kB signaling pathway. Furthermore, indirubin suppressed phosphorylation of P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathways. Thus, indirubin effectively suppressed LPS-induced inflammation via TLR4 abrogation mediated by the NF-kB and MAPK signaling pathways and may be useful for mastitis prophylaxis.

  7. Tropisetron Protects Against Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury via Suppressing Hepatic Oxidative Stress and Modulating the Activation of JNK/ERK MAPK Pathways

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    Fu-Chao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the protective effects of tropisetron on acetaminophen- (APAP- induced liver injury in a mice model. Methods. C57BL/6 male mice were given tropisetron (0.3 to 10 mg/kg 30 minutes before a hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (300 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Twenty hours after APAP intoxication, sera alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities, and liver histopathological changes were examined. The MAP kinases were also detected by western blotting. Results. Our results showed that tropisetron pretreatment significantly attenuated the acute elevations of the liver enzyme ALT level, hepatic MPO activity, and hepatocytes necrosis in a dose-dependent manner (0.3–10 mg/kg in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity mice. Tropisetron (1 and 3 mg/kg suppressed APAP-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation expression and alleviated GSH and SOD depletion. Administration of tropisetron also attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK caused by APAP. Conclusion. Our data demonstrated that tropisetron’s hepatoprotective effect was in part correlated with the antioxidant, which were mediated via JNK and ERK pathways on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice.

  8. Baicalein attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Chen, Libin; Kou, Jinhua; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Zhengtao

    2015-09-01

    Baicalein is a phenolic flavonoid presented in the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. It has been reported that baicalein possesses a number of biological properties, such as antiviral, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and anticancer properties. However, the effect of baicalein on mastitis has not yet been reported. This research aims to detect the effect of baicalein on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and to investigate the molecular mechanisms. Baicalein was administered intraperitoneally 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results indicated that baicalein treatment markedly attenuated the damage of the mammary gland induced by LPS, suppressed the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in mice with LPS-induced mastitis. Besides, baicalein blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα) and, and inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. These findings suggested that baicalein may have a potential prospect against mastitis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF- κ B signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF- κ B and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  10. Bioactive peptide from Pyropia yezoensis and its anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-12-01

    Pyropia yezoensis (P. yezoensis) is an important marine algae. Its high protein content serves as a good source of biologically active peptides. Potent inhibitory effects on the production of inflammatory mediators were observed in a bioactive peptide derived from P. yezoensis (peptide from P. yezoensis; PPY1), as demonstrated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. The present study showed that peptide concentrations ranging from 250 to 1,000 ng/ml had no significant cytotoxicity in the cell viability assay when applied to the RAW 264.7 cells for 24 h. PPY1 completely inhibited LPS‑stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release in a dose-dependent manner. Fluorescence intensity, corresponding to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by 10 ng/ml LPS-stimulated cells, significantly shifted, indicating that the peptide reduced the level of ROS. Furthermore, PPY1 exerted potent inhibitory activity to reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) in LPS-stimulated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. These results also showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of PPY1 was associated with downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, protein 38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase phosphorylation in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. In conclusion, PPY1 can have a significant role as an anti-inflammatory agent, with a potential for use in marine products.

  11. Inhibition of MAP kinases by crude extract and pure compound isolated from Commiphora mukul leads to down regulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-2.

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    Manjula, N; Gayathri, B; Vinaykumar, K S; Shankernarayanan, N P; Vishwakarma, R A; Balakrishnan, A

    2006-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the medicinal plant, Commiphora mukul gum was studied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Bioassay-guided fractionation using conventional solvent extraction procedures, subsequent column fractionation, followed by monitoring specific activity in PBMC led to the isolation of a lead compound. Both crude ethyl acetate extract and the lead compound, thus isolated, showed inhibitory effect on proliferative response of PBMC in mitogenic lymphocyte proliferation and MLR assays. Further studies on inflammatory mediators such as IFN-gamma, IL-12, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and NO showed down regulation, whereas no inhibition was observed in the case of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Immunoblot analysis revealed the inhibitory effect of crude ethyl acetate extract on phosphorylation of all the three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) such as ERK, JNK and p38 MAPK. In contrast treatment with pure compound showed no inhibitory effect on ERK. c-fos and c-jun mRNA levels were also reduced in PMA stimulated cells on treatment with crude extract and pure compound. This reduction in c-fos and c-jun levels, when taken together with inhibition of MAPK activation, provides a possible mechanism by which both crude ethyl acetate extract and purified compound isolated from C. mukul exert its action.

  12. Theobromine, the primary methylxanthine found in Theobroma cacao, prevents malignant glioblastoma proliferation by negatively regulating phosphodiesterase-4, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Miwa, Shinji; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2014-01-01

    Theobromine, a caffeine derivative, is the primary methylxanthine produced by Theobroma cacao. We previously showed that methylxanthines, including caffeine and theophylline, have antitumor and antiinflammatory effects, which are in part mediated by their inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE). A member of the PDE family, PDE4, is widely expressed in and promotes the growth of glioblastoma, the most common type of brain tumor. The purpose of this study was to determine whether theobromine could exert growth inhibitory effects on U87-MG, a cell line derived from human malignant glioma. We show that theobromine treatment elevates intracellular cAMP levels and increases the activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, whereas it attenuates p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin kinase and nuclear factor-kappa B signal pathways. It also inhibits cell proliferation. These results suggest that foods and beverages containing cocoa bean extracts, including theobromine, might be extremely effective in preventing human glioblastoma.

  13. The Effect of Minimally Invasive Hematoma Aspiration on the JNK Signal Transduction Pathway after Experimental Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats

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    Haitao Pei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effect of minimally invasive hematoma aspiration (MIHA on the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signal transduction pathway after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Methods: In this experiment, 300 adult male Wistar rats were randomly and averagely divided into sham-operated group, ICH group and MIHA group. In each group, 60 rats were used in the detection of indexes in this experiment, while the other 40 rats were used to replace rats which reached the exclusion criteria (accidental death or operation failure. In ICH group and MIHA group, ICH was induced by injection of 70 µL of autologous arterial blood into rat brain, while only the rats in MIHA group were treated by MIHA 6 h after ICH. Rats in sham-operated group were injected nothing into brains, and they were not treated either, like rats in ICH group. In each group, six rats were randomly selected to observe their Bederson’s scales persistently (6, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 h after ICH. According to the time they were sacrificed, the remaining rats in each group were divided into 3 subgroups (24, 72, 120 h. The change of brain water content (BWC was measured by the wet weight to dry weight ratio method. The morphology of neurons in cortex was observed by the hematoxylin–eosin (HE staining. The expressions of phospho-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (pJNK and JNK in peri-hematomal brain tissue were determined by the immunohistochemistry (IHC and Western blotting (WB. Results: At all time points, compared with the ICH groups, the expression of pJNK decreased obviously in MIHA groups (p < 0.05, while their Bederson’s scales and BWC declined, and neuron injury in the cortex was relieved. The expression level of JNK was not altered at different groups. The data obtained by IHC and WB indicated a high-level of consistency, which provided a certain dependability of the test results. Conclusion: The JNK signal transduction pathway could be activated after intracerebral hemorrhage

  14. Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in APP Hyperphosphorylation Induced by NMDA Stimulation in Cortical Neurons

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    Xanthi Antoniou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 can all be responsible for this phosphorylation. These kinases are activated by excitotoxic stimuli fundamental hallmarks of AD. The exposure of cortical neurons to a high dose of NMDA (100 μM for 30’-45’ led to an increase of P-APP Thr668. During NMDA stimulation APP hyperphosphorylation has to be assigned to GSK-3β activity, since addition of L803-mts, a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β reduced APP phosphorylation induced by NMDA. On the contrary, inhibition of JNK and Cdk5 with D-JNKI1 and Roscovitine respectively did not prevent NMDA-induced P-APP increase. These data show a tight connection, in excitotoxic conditions, between APP metabolism and the GSK-3β signaling pathway.

  15. Epidermal growth factor stimulates Rac1 and p21-activated kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Imke; Düsing, Rainer; Vetter, Hans; Schmitz, Udo

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been shown to be a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) both in vitro and in vivo, thus contributing to the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Stimulation of Rho-family GTPases Rac/Cdc42 exerts pleiotropic cellular effects and have been demonstrated to contribute to EGF-induced proliferation in other cell systems. However, the effect of EGF on Rac/Cdc42 activation is unknown for VSMC. In the present report, we evaluated stimulation of Rac/Cdc42 by EGF in VSMC performing PAK-PBD binding assay. EGF treatment of VSMC induced time and concentration dependent binding of GTP-bound Rac1 to PAK-PBD peaking at 1 min and showing sustained activation up to 15 min. However, stimulation of Cdc42 could not be demonstrated. To further evaluate downstream effectors of Rac1 stimulation of p21-activated kinase (PAK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by EGF was determined. In VSMC, EGF sequentially stimulated PAK, peaking at 5 min, and JNK, peaking at 15 min. Pretreatment of VSMC by EGF receptor specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478 and non-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibited EGF-induced activation of Rac1, PAK and JNK, whereas tyrosine kinase inhibitors specific for Src (PP1) and specific for platelet-derived growth factor (AG1296) had no effect. Specific inhibition or Rac1 by NSC23766 attenuated EGF-induced [(3)H] thymidine incorporation in VSMC. Our data provide evidence for EGF-induced Rac1 activation and implicate PAK and JNK as downstream targets of Rac1 in EGF signal transduction in VSMC.

  16. Flavopiridol protects against inflammation by attenuating leukocyte-endothelial interaction via inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerwitz, Ulrike K; Sass, Gabriele; Khandoga, Alexander G; Joore, Jos; Mayer, Bettina A; Berberich, Nina; Totzke, Frank; Krombach, Fritz; Tiegs, Gisa; Zahler, Stefan; Vollmar, Angelika M; Fürst, Robert

    2011-02-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor flavopiridol is currently being tested in clinical trials as anticancer drug. Beyond its cell death-inducing action, we hypothesized that flavopiridol affects inflammatory processes. Therefore, we elucidated the action of flavopiridol on leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and endothelial activation in vivo and in vitro and studied the underlying molecular mechanisms. Flavopiridol suppressed concanavalin A-induced hepatitis and neutrophil infiltration into liver tissue. Flavopiridol also inhibited tumor necrosis factor-α-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the mouse cremaster muscle. Endothelial cells were found to be the major target of flavopiridol, which blocked the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and E-selectin), as well as NF-κB-dependent transcription. Flavopiridol did not affect inhibitor of κB (IκB) kinase, the degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear translocation of p65, or nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA-binding activity. By performing a cellular kinome array and a kinase activity panel, we found LIM domain kinase-1 (LIMK1), casein kinase 2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C (PKC), CDK4, CDK6, CDK8, and CDK9 to be influenced by flavopiridol. Using specific inhibitors, as well as RNA interference (RNAi), we revealed that only CDK9 is responsible for the action of flavopiridol. Our study highlights flavopiridol as a promising antiinflammatory compound and inhibition of CDK9 as a novel approach for the treatment of inflammation-associated diseases.

  17. Leptin enhances synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in human osteoarthritic cartilage--mediator role of NO in leptin-induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Koskinen, Anna; Kukkonen, Meiju; Nieminen, Riina; Päivärinta, Unto; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor. In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. Leptin alone or in combination with IL-1 enhanced the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and production of NO, PGE(2), IL-6, and IL-8. The results suggest that the effects of leptin are mediated through activation of transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). Interestingly, inhibition of leptin-induced NO production with a selective iNOS inhibitor 1400 W inhibited also the production of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2), and this was reversed by exogenously added NO-donor SNAP, suggesting that the effects of leptin on IL-6, IL-8, and PGE(2) production are dependent on NO. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis.

  18. Leptin Enhances Synthesis of Proinflammatory Mediators in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage—Mediator Role of NO in Leptin-Induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Koskinen, Anna; Kukkonen, Meiju; Nieminen, Riina; Päivärinta, Unto; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor. In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. Leptin alone or in combination with IL-1 enhanced the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and production of NO, PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. The results suggest that the effects of leptin are mediated through activation of transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Interestingly, inhibition of leptin-induced NO production with a selective iNOS inhibitor 1400 W inhibited also the production of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2, and this was reversed by exogenously added NO-donor SNAP, suggesting that the effects of leptin on IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production are dependent on NO. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis. PMID:19688109

  19. Involvement of Prohibitin Upregulation in Abrin-Triggered Apoptosis

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    Yu-Huei Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abrin (ABR, a protein purified from the seeds of Abrus precatorius, induces apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, the detailed mechanism remains largely uncharacterized. By using a cDNA microarray platform, we determined that prohibitin (PHB, a tumor suppressor protein, is significantly upregulated in ABR-triggered apoptosis. ABR-induced upregulation of PHB is mediated by the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK pathway, as demonstrated by chemical inhibitors. In addition, ABR significantly induced the expression of Bax as well as the activation of caspase-3 and poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in Jurkat T cells, whereas the reduction of PHB by specific RNA interference delayed ABR-triggered apoptosis through the proapoptotic genes examined. Moreover, our results also indicated that nuclear translocation of the PHB-p53 complex may play a role in the transcription of Bax. Collectively, our data show that PHB plays a role in ABR-induced apoptosis, which may be helpful for the development of diagnostic or therapeutic agents.

  20. l-Theanine prevents ETEC-induced liver damage by reducing intrinsic apoptotic response and inhibiting ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhihua; Liu, Qiuling; Lin, Ling; Deng, Yanli; Cai, Shuxian; Liu, Zunying; Zhang, Sheng; Xiao, Wenjun; Xiong, Shuo; Chen, Dong

    2018-01-05

    l-Theanine (LTA; γ-glutamylethylamide), a peculiar non-protein-derived amino acid isolated from tea, is widely used as a functional ingredient and dietary supplement. l-Theanine has been confirmed to have hepatoprotective effects, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study investigated the protective effect of l-Theanine-in vivo, using an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)-infected mouse model. l-Theanine significantly decreased the elevated serum activities of both aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), two biomarkers of hepatic impairment. This was consistent with histopathological images from the microscopic observation of liver tissue. In addition, l-theanine significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, anti- and pro-apoptotic molecules, respectively, compared with levels in the ETEC control group. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein in the group pre-treated with l-theanine was significantly lower than that in the ETEC group. Additionally, decreases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase(JNK1/2) MAPK phosphorylation were observed in the l-theanine pre-treated group. Our study demonstrates that l-theanine possesses anti-apoptotic activity, which can be attributed to suppression of the intrinsic mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and MAPK phosphorylation signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Manoela; Banini, Bubu A; Cazanave, Sophie C; Sanyal, Arun J

    2016-08-01

    The exposure of hepatocytes to high concentrations of lipids and carbohydrates and the ensuing hepatocellular injury are termed lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity, respectively. A common denominator is metabolic derangement, especially in regards to intracellular energy homeostasis, which is brought on by glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in tissues. In this review, we highlight the lipids and carbohydrates that provoke hepatocyte injury and the mechanisms involved in lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and mitochondrial impairment. Through upregulation of proteins involved in various pathways including PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), CCAAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK), Bcl-2 interacting mediator (BIM), p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), and eventually caspases, hepatocytes in lipotoxic states ultimately undergo apoptosis. The protective role of certain lipids and possible targets for pharmacological therapy are explored. Finally, we discuss the role of high fructose and glucose diets in contributing to organelle impairment and poor glucose transport mechanisms, which perpetuate hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia by shunting of excess carbohydrates into lipogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiple roles for the non-coding RNA SRA in regulation of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity.

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    Bin Xu

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ is a master transcriptional regulator of adipogenesis. Hence, the identification of PPARγ coactivators should help reveal mechanisms controlling gene expression in adipose tissue development and physiology. We show that the non-coding RNA, Steroid receptor RNA Activator (SRA, associates with PPARγ and coactivates PPARγ-dependent reporter gene expression. Overexpression of SRA in ST2 mesenchymal precursor cells promotes their differentiation into adipocytes. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous SRA inhibits 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation. Microarray analysis reveals hundreds of SRA-responsive genes in adipocytes, including genes involved in the cell cycle, and insulin and TNFα signaling pathways. Some functions of SRA may involve mechanisms other than coactivation of PPARγ. SRA in adipocytes increases both glucose uptake and phosphorylation of Akt and FOXO1 in response to insulin. SRA promotes S-phase entry during mitotic clonal expansion, decreases expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21Cip1 and p27Kip1, and increases phosphorylation of Cdk1/Cdc2. SRA also inhibits the expression of adipocyte-related inflammatory genes and TNFα-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun NH(2-terminal kinase. In conclusion, SRA enhances adipogenesis and adipocyte function through multiple pathways.

  3. Arecoline stimulated early growth response-1 production in human buccal fibroblasts: suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Ping; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Deng, Yi-Ting; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein plays an important role in many human fibrotic diseases. Areca nut chewing is the most important risk factor of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). Egr-1 protein expression in OSF was examined using antibody to Egr-1. Arecoline-induced Egr-1 expression and its signaling pathways were assessed by Western blot analyses in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Elevated Egr-1 staining was observed in epithelial cells, fibroblast, and inflammatory cells in 7 of 10 OSF cases. Arecoline, a main alkaloid found in the areca nut, stimulated Egr-1 synthesis in BMFs. Pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor SP600125, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor PD98059 significantly reduced arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) inhibited arecoline-induced Egr-1 synthesis and collagen gel contraction in a dose-responsive manner. Constitutive Egr-1 expression during areca nut chewing may play a role in the pathogenesis of OSF. EGCG could be a good candidate for prevention or treatment of OSF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Leptin Enhances Synthesis of Proinflammatory Mediators in Human Osteoarthritic Cartilage—Mediator Role of NO in Leptin-Induced PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katriina Vuolteenaho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is an important risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA in weight-bearing joints, but also in hand joints, pointing to an obesity-related metabolic factor that influences on the pathogenesis of OA. Leptin is an adipokine regulating energy balance, and it has recently been related also to arthritis and inflammation as a proinflammatory factor. In the present paper, the effects of leptin on human OA cartilage were studied. Leptin alone or in combination with IL-1 enhanced the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and production of NO, PGE2, IL-6, and IL-8. The results suggest that the effects of leptin are mediated through activation of transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK. Interestingly, inhibition of leptin-induced NO production with a selective iNOS inhibitor 1400 W inhibited also the production of IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2, and this was reversed by exogenously added NO-donor SNAP, suggesting that the effects of leptin on IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 production are dependent on NO. These findings support the idea of leptin as a factor enhancing the production of proinflammatory factors in OA cartilage and as an agent contributing to the obesity-associated increased risk for osteoarthritis.

  5. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Standen, Claire L; Morel, Caroline; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K; Swat, Wojciech; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

    2017-09-19

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-dependent cJun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Cytoplasmic kinase inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroyuki

    2010-10-01

    Protein kinases play essential roles in the regulation of cell proliferation. Point mutations or/and fusions of protein kinases are frequently identified in human cancers, and targeting such activated kinases provides us with a chance to eradicate tumor cells. This was first proved by imatinib mesylate that inhibits ABL tyrosine kinase and, thereby, efficiently kills malignant cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. In addition, other clinical trials are ongoing for kinase inhibitors against EML4--ALK in lung cancer, JAK2 in myeloproliferative disorders and BRAF in malignant melanoma. Early reports indeed reveal that such targeting compounds are promising drugs for human cancers with activated kinases.

  7. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase (Mkp)-1 Protects Mice against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wancket, Lyn M.; Meng, Xiaomei; Rogers, Lynette K.; Liu, Yusen

    2012-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation promotes hepatocyte death during acetaminophen overdose, a common cause of drug-induced liver failure. While mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (Mkp)-1 is a critical negative regulator of JNK MAPK, little is known about the role of Mkp-1 during hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the role of Mkp-1 during acute acetaminophen toxicity. Mkp-1+/+ and Mkp-1−/− mice were dosed ip with vehicle or acetaminophen at 300 mg/kg (for mechanistic studies) or 400 mg/kg (for survival studies). Tissues were collected 1–6 hr post 300 mg/kg dosing to assess glutathione levels, organ damage, and MAPK activation. Mkp-1−/− mice exhibited more rapid plasma clearance of acetaminophen than did Mkp-1+/+ mice, indicated by a quicker decline of plasma acetaminophen level. Moreover, Mkp-1−/− mice suffered more severe liver injury, indicated by higher plasma alanine transaminase activity and more extensive centrilobular apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatic JNK activity in Mkp-1−/− mice was higher than in Mkp-1+/+ mice. Finally, Mkp-1−/− mice displayed a lower overall survival rate and shorter median survival time after dosing with 400 mg/kg acetaminophen. The more severe phenotype exhibited by Mkp-1−/− mice indicates that Mkp-1 plays a protective role during acute acetaminophen overdose, potentially through regulation of JNK. PMID:22623522

  8. [Oxidative stress promotes hepatocyte apoptosis mediated by glycogen synthase kinase 3β].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangying; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li; Wen, Tao; Piao, Zhengfu; Shi, Hongbo; Chen, Dexi; Duan, Zhongping; Ren, Feng

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in hepatocyte apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Human HL-7702 hepatoma cells were induced by H₂O₂/antimycin A to establish oxidative stress-induced cell apoptosis models. SB216763, a specific inhibitor of GSK3β, was given to the cells two hours before H₂O₂/antimycin A induction. Cell survival was observed using calcein acetoxymethyl ester/propidium iodide (PI) double staining, and cell apoptosis was detected using annexin V-FITC/PI staining combined with flow cytometry. In the meanwhile, the cell culture supernatant was subjected to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay to evaluate the extent of cell death. The expressions of p-GSK3β, GSK3β, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and cytochrome C (CytC) proteins were examined using Western blotting. Oxidative stress triggered by H₂O₂/antimycin A promoted GSK3β activity; inhibition of GSK3β activity by SB216763 relieved oxidative stress and reduced cell apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Compared with the model groups, SB216763 intervened group showed that the cell apoptosis rate and the level of LDH were reduced significantly, and that the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, JNK, CytC proteins decreased. GSK3β is an important signaling molecule in the apoptosis pathway induced by oxidative stress. The inhibition on GSK3β may alleviate the oxidative stress-induced hepatocyte apoptosis.

  9. Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Is Critical for Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

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    Chen-Shuang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are recognized as candidate progenitor cells for bone regeneration. However, the mechanism of hUCMSC osteogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling is involved in hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Particularly, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK and p38 signaling pathways maintained a consistent level in hUCMSCs through the entire 21-day osteogenic differentiation period. At the same time, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK signaling significantly increased from day 5, peaked at day 9, and declined thereafter. Moreover, gene profiling of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity measurement, and alizarin red staining demonstrated that the application of U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK activation, completely prohibited hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation. However, when U0126 was removed from the culture at day 9, ERK activation and osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs were partially recovered. Together, these findings demonstrate that the activation of ERK signaling is essential for hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation, which points out the significance of ERK signaling pathway to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs as an alternative cell source for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Serine-threonine protein kinase activation may be an effective target for reducing neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord injury

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    Mu Jin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The signaling mechanisms underlying ischemia-induced nerve cell apoptosis are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of apoptosis-related signal transduction pathways following ischemic spinal cord injury, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, serine-threonine protein kinase (Akt and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathways. We established a rat model of acute spinal cord injury by inserting a catheter balloon in the left subclavian artery for 25 minutes. Rat models exhibited notable hindlimb dysfunction. Apoptotic cells were abundant in the anterior horn and central canal of the spinal cord. The number of apoptotic neurons was highest 48 hours post injury. The expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt and phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK increased immediately after reperfusion, peaked at 4 hours (p-Akt or 2 hours (p-ERK, decreased at 12 hours, and then increased at 24 hours. Phosphorylated JNK expression reduced after reperfusion, increased at 12 hours to near normal levels, and then showed a downward trend at 24 hours. Pearson linear correlation analysis also demonstrated that the number of apoptotic cells negatively correlated with p-Akt expression. These findings suggest that activation of Akt may be a key contributing factor in the delay of neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord ischemia, particularly at the stage of reperfusion, and thus may be a target for neuronal protection and reduction of neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord injury.

  11. Protein kinase D2 regulates migration and invasion of U87MG glioblastoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhart, Eva; Damm, Sabine; Wintersperger, Andrea [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria); DeVaney, Trevor [Institute of Biophysics, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Zimmer, Andreas [Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Karl-Franzens University, Graz (Austria); Raynham, Tony; Ireson, Christopher [Cancer Research Technology Ltd, London (United Kingdom); Sattler, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.sattler@medunigraz.at [Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Medical University of Graz, Graz (Austria)

    2013-08-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined modality treatment, reoccurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Recently, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was shown to be a potent mediator of glioblastoma growth. Here we studied the role of PRKD2 in U87MG glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an activator of PRKD2 and a GBM mitogen. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that random cell migration was significantly diminished in response to PRKD2 silencing. The pharmacological PRKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 decreased chemotactic migration and invasion across uncoated or matrigel-coated Transwell inserts. Silencing of PRKD2 attenuated migration and invasion of U87MG cells even more effectively. In terms of downstream signaling, CRT0066101 prevented PRKD2 autophosphorylation and inhibited p44/42 MAPK and to a smaller extent p54/46 JNK and p38 MAPK activation. PRKD2 silencing impaired activation of p44/42 MAPK and p54/46 JNK, downregulated nuclear c-Jun protein levels and decreased c-Jun{sup S73} phosphorylation without affecting the NFκB pathway. Finally, qPCR array analyses revealed that silencing of PRKD2 downregulates mRNA levels of integrin alpha-2 and -4 (ITGA2 and -4), plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (PLAUR), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Findings of the present study identify PRKD2 as a potential target to interfere with glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, two major determinants contributing to recurrence of glioblastoma after multimodality treatment. Highlights: • Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces glioma cell migration and invasion. • Part of the effects is mediated by protein kinase D2 (PRKD2) activation. • Inactivation of PRKD2 attenuates glioblastoma cell migration and invasion. • Both, RNAi and pharmacological inhibition of PRKD2 inhibits MAPK

  12. Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound Treatment at an Early Osteoarthritis Stage Protects Rabbit Cartilage From Damage via the Integrin/Focal Adhesion Kinase/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Shen, Shihao; Lin, Qiang; Cheng, Kai; Ren, Shasha; Gao, Mingxia; Li, Xueping

    2015-11-01

    To investigate whether low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (US) has different protective effects on early and late rabbit osteoarthritis cartilage via the integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Thirty-six New Zealand White rabbits were divided into early control, early osteoarthritis, early treatment, late control, late osteoarthritis, and late treatment groups. The early and late osteoarthritis and treatment groups underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection. The remaining groups underwent sham operations with knee joint exposure. The early and late treatment groups were exposed to low-intensity pulsed US 4 and 8 weeks after surgery. After 6 weeks of US exposure, pathologic changes on the articular surface of the femoral condyle were assessed by modified Mankin scores. Expression of type II collagen, matrix metalloproteinase, integrin β1, phosphorylated FAK, and MAPKs (including extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, MAPK 38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase) was assessed by Western blot analysis. Cartilage damage was less severe in the early treatment group than the early osteoarthritis group. The Mankin score was significantly lower in the early treatment group than the early osteoarthritis group (P treatment and late osteoarthritis groups. There was a significant increase in type II collagen expression but a significant decrease in matrix metalloproteinase 13 expression in the early treatment group compared to the early osteoarthritis group, whereas no significant difference was found between the late treatment and late osteoarthritis groups. Integrin β1 and phosphorylated FAK expression was significantly higher, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and phosphorylated MAPK 38 expression was significantly lower in the early treatment group than the early osteoarthritis group. Our findings indicate that low-intensity pulsed US protects cartilage from damage in early

  13. Protective effects and functional mechanisms of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 against oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Kobatake

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055 is one of the probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that feeding with LG2055 extended the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and that the prolongevity effect was dependent upon the regulation of oxidative stress response. In this study, we assessed whether LG2055 regulated the oxidative stress response of mammalian cells. In NIH-3T3 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, low cell proliferation rates and high reactive oxygen species levels were observed following paraquat treatment. LG2055 treatment suppressed these responses in paraquat-treated cells, indicating that LG2055 protected against oxidative stress in mammalian cells. The mRNA expression of oxidative stress-related genes, total nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 protein levels, and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 were increased by LG2055 treatment. These results suggested that the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE signaling pathway was activated by LG2055. Furthermore, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK was activated by LG2055 treatment and the inhibition of JNK suppressed the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in LG2055-treated cells. Together, these findings suggest that LG2055 activated the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway by JNK activation, thus strengthening the defense system against oxidative stress in mammalian cells.

  14. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Vernia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathway is implicated in metabolic syndrome, including dysregulated blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of glycemia. To test the role of FGF21, we established mice with selective ablation of the Fgf21 gene in hepatocytes. FGF21 deficiency in the liver caused marked loss of FGF21 protein circulating in the blood. Moreover, the protective effects of hepatic JNK deficiency to suppress metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice were not observed in mice with hepatocyte-specific FGF21 deficiency, including reduced blood glucose concentration and reduced intolerance to glucose and insulin. Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome.

  15. MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Emily; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vacca, Barbara; Dupasquier, Sébastien; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Suddason, Tesha; Costa, Ana C; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Zihni, Ceniz; Gallagher, Ewen; Pierreux, Christophe E; Balda, Maria S; Matter, Karl

    2014-03-03

    MarvelD3 is a transmembrane component of tight junctions, but there is little evidence for a direct involvement in the junctional permeability barrier. Tight junctions also regulate signaling mechanisms that guide cell proliferation; however, the transmembrane components that link the junction to such signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we show that MarvelD3 is a dynamic junctional regulator of the MEKK1-c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Loss of MarvelD3 expression in differentiating Caco-2 cells resulted in increased cell migration and proliferation, whereas reexpression in a metastatic tumor cell line inhibited migration, proliferation, and in vivo tumor formation. Expression levels of MarvelD3 inversely correlated with JNK activity, as MarvelD3 recruited MEKK1 to junctions, leading to down-regulation of JNK phosphorylation and inhibition of JNK-regulated transcriptional mechanisms. Interplay between MarvelD3 internalization and JNK activation tuned activation of MEKK1 during osmotic stress, leading to junction dissociation and cell death in MarvelD3-depleted cells. MarvelD3 thus couples tight junctions to the MEKK1-JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival.

  16. MarvelD3 couples tight junctions to the MEKK1–JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Emily; Elbediwy, Ahmed; Vacca, Barbara; Dupasquier, Sébastien; Hemkemeyer, Sandra A.; Suddason, Tesha; Costa, Ana C.; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Zihni, Ceniz; Gallagher, Ewen; Pierreux, Christophe E.

    2014-01-01

    MarvelD3 is a transmembrane component of tight junctions, but there is little evidence for a direct involvement in the junctional permeability barrier. Tight junctions also regulate signaling mechanisms that guide cell proliferation; however, the transmembrane components that link the junction to such signaling pathways are not well understood. In this paper, we show that MarvelD3 is a dynamic junctional regulator of the MEKK1–c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway. Loss of MarvelD3 expression in differentiating Caco-2 cells resulted in increased cell migration and proliferation, whereas reexpression in a metastatic tumor cell line inhibited migration, proliferation, and in vivo tumor formation. Expression levels of MarvelD3 inversely correlated with JNK activity, as MarvelD3 recruited MEKK1 to junctions, leading to down-regulation of JNK phosphorylation and inhibition of JNK-regulated transcriptional mechanisms. Interplay between MarvelD3 internalization and JNK activation tuned activation of MEKK1 during osmotic stress, leading to junction dissociation and cell death in MarvelD3-depleted cells. MarvelD3 thus couples tight junctions to the MEKK1–JNK pathway to regulate cell behavior and survival. PMID:24567356

  17. Danger signaling protein HMGB1 induces a distinct form of cell death accompanied by formation of giant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdynia, Georg; Keith, Martina; Kopitz, Jürgen; Bergmann, Marion; Fassl, Anne; Weber, Alexander N R; George, Julie; Kees, Tim; Zentgraf, Hans-Walter; Wiestler, Otmar D; Schirmacher, Peter; Roth, Wilfried

    2010-11-01

    Cells dying by necrosis release the high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, which has immunostimulatory effects. However, little is known about the direct actions of extracellular HMGB1 protein on cancer cells. Here, we show that recombinant human HMGB1 (rhHMGB1) exerts strong cytotoxic effects on malignant tumor cells. The rhHMGB1-induced cytotoxicity depends on the presence of mitochondria and leads to fast depletion of mitochondrial DNA, severe damage of the mitochondrial proteome by toxic malondialdehyde adducts, and formation of giant mitochondria. The formation of giant mitochondria is independent of direct nuclear signaling events, because giant mitochondria are also observed in cytoplasts lacking nuclei. Further, the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine as well as c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase blockade inhibited the cytotoxic effect of rhHMGB1. Importantly, glioblastoma cells, but not normal astrocytes, were highly susceptible to rhHMGB1-induced cell death. Systemic treatment with rhHMGB1 results in significant growth inhibition of xenografted tumors in vivo. In summary, rhHMGB1 induces a distinct form of cell death in cancer cells, which differs from the known forms of apoptosis, autophagy, and senescence, possibly representing an important novel mechanism of specialized necrosis. Further, our findings suggest that rhHMGB1 may offer therapeutic applications in treatment of patients with malignant brain tumors. ©2010 AACR.

  18. A RNA interference screen identifies the protein phosphatase 2A subunit PR55gamma as a stress-sensitive inhibitor of c-SRC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter J A Eichhorn

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein Phosphatase type 2A (PP2A represents a family of holoenzyme complexes with diverse biological activities. Specific holoenzyme complexes are thought to be deregulated during oncogenic transformation and oncogene-induced signaling. Since most studies on the role of this phosphatase family have relied on the use of generic PP2A inhibitors, the contribution of individual PP2A holoenzyme complexes in PP2A-controlled signaling pathways is largely unclear. To gain insight into this, we have constructed a set of shRNA vectors targeting the individual PP2A regulatory subunits for suppression by RNA interference. Here, we identify PR55gamma and PR55delta as inhibitors of c-Jun NH(2-terminal kinase (JNK activation by UV irradiation. We show that PR55gamma binds c-SRC and modulates the phosphorylation of serine 12 of c-SRC, a residue we demonstrate to be required for JNK activation by c-SRC. We also find that the physical interaction between PR55gamma and c-SRC is sensitive to UV irradiation. Our data reveal a novel mechanism of c-SRC regulation whereby in response to stress c-SRC activity is regulated, at least in part, through loss of the interaction with its inhibitor, PR55gamma.

  19. 3β-Hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid prolongs lifespan in C. elegans by modulating JNK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Hema; Shukla, Aparna; Khan, Feroz; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-11-25

    Remarkably the c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is all evolutionarily conserved across species. In view of the hypothesis that increased stress resistance subdue aging, we investigated the role of ursolic acid (3β-Hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid; UA) in the pioneering aging model Caenorhabditis elegans with an increase in mean and maximum lifespan by up to 30%. Our genetic study unravelled the underlying pathway where JNK-1 is acting independently of insulin-IGF-1 signalling (IIS) pathway to modulate longevity. In support of in vivo results in silico docking study of UA with C. elegans JNK-1 ATP-binding site suggested promising binding affinity exhibiting binding energy of -8.11 kcalmol(-1). UA induced JNK-1 activation in wild-type animals underlie the importance of pharmacological interventions in the delineation of molecular targets for aging and associated pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cyclosporine A induces connective tissue growth factor expression in human gingival fibroblasts: suppression by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, King-Jean; Huang, Guay-Fen; Chen, Chun-Hao; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Deng, Yi-Ting

    2014-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth (GO). Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) acts as a cofactor with TGF-β to induce the maximal profibrotic effects of TGF-β. We investigated the effects of CsA on CCN2 expression in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and the potential chemopreventive agent for CsA-induced GO. Western blot analyses were used to examine the signaling pathways of CsA-induced CCN2 expression in HGFs and whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), curcumin, or lovastatin can inhibit CsA-induced CCN2 expression. CsA significantly stimulated CCN2 synthesis in HGFs. This effect can be inhibited by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and Smad3 inhibitors but not by TGF-β neutralizing antibody and TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor. Furthermore, EGCG completely blocked CsA-induced CCN2 expression. CsA-induced CCN2 protein expression is mediated through JNK and Smad signaling. CsA may contribute to the pathogenesis of GO through upregulation of CCN2 expression in HGFs. EGCG could be an adjuvant for the prevention of CsA-induced GO. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. U-Bang-Haequi Tang: A Herbal Prescription that Prevents Acute Inflammation through Inhibition of NF-κB-Mediated Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hwangbo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since antiquity, medical herbs have been prescribed for both treatment and preventative purposes. Herbal formulas are used to reduce toxicity as well as increase efficacy in traditional Korean medicine. U-bang-haequi tang (UBT is a herbal prescription containing Arctii fructus and Forsythia suspensa as its main components and has treated many human diseases in traditional Korean medicine. This research investigated the effects of UBT against an acute phase of inflammation. For this, we measured induction of nitric oxide (NO and related proteins in macrophage cell line stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Further, paw swelling was measured in carrageenan-treated rats. Carrageenan significantly induced activation of inflammatory cells and increases in paw volume, whereas oral administration of 0.3 or 1 g/kg/day of UBT inhibited the acute inflammatory response. In RAW264.7 cells, UBT inhibited mRNA and protein expression levels of iNOS. UBT treatment also blocked elevation of NO production, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα induced by LPS. Moreover, UBT treatment significantly blocked the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases by LPS. In conclusion, UBT prevented both acute inflammation in rats as well as LPS-induced NO and iNOS gene expression through inhibition of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells.

  2. Protective effects and functional mechanisms of Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobatake, Eiji; Nakagawa, Hisako; Seki, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Tadaaki

    2017-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 (LG2055) is one of the probiotic lactic acid bacteria. Recently, we demonstrated that feeding with LG2055 extended the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans and that the prolongevity effect was dependent upon the regulation of oxidative stress response. In this study, we assessed whether LG2055 regulated the oxidative stress response of mammalian cells. In NIH-3T3 cells and primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells, low cell proliferation rates and high reactive oxygen species levels were observed following paraquat treatment. LG2055 treatment suppressed these responses in paraquat-treated cells, indicating that LG2055 protected against oxidative stress in mammalian cells. The mRNA expression of oxidative stress-related genes, total nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels, and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 were increased by LG2055 treatment. These results suggested that the Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway was activated by LG2055. Furthermore, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was activated by LG2055 treatment and the inhibition of JNK suppressed the activation of the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway in LG2055-treated cells. Together, these findings suggest that LG2055 activated the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway by JNK activation, thus strengthening the defense system against oxidative stress in mammalian cells.

  3. Serratia marcescens Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Host Immune Cells via a Lipopolysaccharide- and Flagella-dependent Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Takano, Shinya; Usui, Kimihito; Suzuki, Kazushi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Injection of Serratia marcescens into the blood (hemolymph) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, induced the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), followed by caspase activation and apoptosis of blood cells (hemocytes). This process impaired the innate immune response in which pathogen cell wall components, such as glucan, stimulate hemocytes, leading to the activation of insect cytokine paralytic peptide. S. marcescens induced apoptotic cell death of silkworm hemocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. We searched for S. marcescens transposon mutants with attenuated ability to induce apoptosis of silkworm hemocytes. Among the genes identified, disruption mutants of wecA (a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis), and flhD and fliR (essential genes in flagella synthesis) showed reduced motility and impaired induction of mouse macrophage cell death. These findings suggest that S. marcescens induces apoptosis of host immune cells via lipopolysaccharide- and flagella-dependent motility, leading to the suppression of host innate immunity. PMID:22859304

  4. JIP3 regulates neuronal radial migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huixian; Yu, Hui; Li, Ting; Zhao, Yan; Hou, Ming; Chen, Zheyu; Wang, Yue; Sun, Tao

    2017-04-15

    Radial migration is essential for the precise lamination and the coordinated function of the cerebral cortex. However, the molecular mechanisms for neuronal radial migration are not clear. Here, we report that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-interacting protein-3 (JIP3) is highly expressed in the brain of embryonic mice and essential for radial migration. Knocking down JIP3 by in utero electroporation specifically perturbs the radial migration of cortical neurons but has no effect on neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, we illustrate that JIP3 knockdown delays but does not block the migration of cortical neurons by investigating the distribution of neurons with JIP3 knocked down in the embryo and postnatal mouse. Finally, we find that JIP3 regulates cortical neuronal migration by mediating TrkB axonal anterograde transport during brain development. These findings deepen our understanding of the regulation of neuronal development by JIP3 and provide us a novel view on the regulating mechanisms of neuronal radial migration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative stress-induced JNK1/2 activation triggers proapoptotic signaling and apoptosis that leads to diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezheng; Weng, Hongbo; Xu, Cheng; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic embryopathy. The proapoptotic c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNK)1/2 activation is associated with diabetic embryopathy. We sought to determine whether 1) hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress is responsible for the activation of JNK1/2 signaling, 2) JNK1 contributes to the teratogenicity of hyperglycemia, and 3) both JNK1 and JNK2 activation cause activation of downstream transcription factors, caspase activation, and apoptosis, resulting in neural tube defects (NTDs). Wild-type (WT) embryos from nondiabetic WT dams and WT, superoxide dismutase (SOD)1-overexpressing, jnk1(+/-), jnk1(-/-), and jnk2(-/-) embryos exposed to maternal hyperglycemia were used to assess JNK1/2 activation, NTDs, activation of transcription factors downstream of JNK1/2, caspase cascade, and apoptosis. SOD1 overexpression abolished diabetes-induced activation of JNK1/2 and their downstream effectors: phosphorylation of c-Jun, activating transcription factor 2, and E twenty-six-like transcription factor 1 and dephosphorylation of forkhead box class O3a. jnk1(-/-) embryos had significantly lower incidences of NTDs than those of WT or jnk1(+/-) embryos. Either jnk1 or jnk2 gene deletion blocked diabetes-induced activation of JNK1/2 signaling, caspases 3 and 8, and apoptosis in Sox1(+) neural progenitors of the developing neural tube. Our results show that JNK1 and JNK2 are equally involved in diabetic embryopathy and that the oxidative stress-JNK1/2-caspase pathway mediates the proapoptotic signals and the teratogenicity of maternal diabetes.

  6. Mitogen-activated protein kinases inhibit the ROMK (Kir 1.1)-like small conductance K channels in the cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilonia, Elisa; Li, Dimin; Wang, Zhijian; Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Jin, Yan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2006-10-01

    It was demonstrated previously that low dietary potassium (K) intake stimulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) expression via a superoxide-dependent signaling. This study explored the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in mediating the effect of superoxide anions on PTK expression and ROMK (Kir 1.1) channel activity. Western blot analysis demonstrated that low K intake significantly increased the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK (P38) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but had no effect on phosphorylation of c-JUN N-terminus kinase in renal cortex and outer medulla. The stimulatory effect of low K intake on P38 and ERK was abolished by treatment of rats with tempol. The possibility that increases in superoxide and related products that are induced by low K intake were responsible for stimulating phosphorylation of P38 and ERK also was supported by the finding that application of H(2)O(2) increased the phosphorylation of ERK and P38 in the cultured mouse collecting duct cells. Simultaneous blocking of ERK and P38 completely abolished the effect of H(2)O(2) on c-Src expression in mouse collecting duct cells. For determination of the role of P38 and ERK in the regulation of ROMK-like small-conductance K (SK) channels, the patch-clamp technique was used to study the effect of inhibiting P38 and ERK on SK channels in the cortical collecting duct from rats that were on a control K diet (1.1%) and on a K-deficient diet for 1 d. Inhibition of ERK, c-JUN N-terminus kinase, or P38 alone had no effect on SK channels. In contrast, simultaneous inhibition of P38 and ERK significantly increased channel activity. The effect of inhibiting MAPK on SK channels was not affected in the presence of herbimycin A, a PTK inhibitor, and was larger in rats that were on a K-deficient diet than in rats that were on a normal-K diet. However, the stimulatory effect of inhibiting ERK and P38 on SK was absent in the cortical collecting duct that was treated with

  7. Inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway reduces caspase-14 expression in impaired keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Several investigations have revealed that caspase-14 is responsible for the epidermal differentiation and cornification, as well as the regulation of moisturizing effect. However, the precise regulation mechanism is still not clear. This study was aimed to investigate the expression of caspase-14 in filaggrin-deficient normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs and to explore the possible mechanism that contributes to the regulation of caspase-14. Materials and Methods:The filaggrin-deficient NHEKs were induced by transfection with lentivirus (LV vector encoding small hairpin RNAs (shRNA. The inhibitors SB203580, PD98059 and SP600125 were used for suppressing the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK. The expression of filaggrin, p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and SAPK/JNK, caspase-14, keratin1and keratin2 were detected by western blot.  Results:In filaggrin-deficient NHEKs, the expression of p38, p44/42 MAPK and SAPK/JNK and caspase-14 were significantly decreased. The inhibition of p38 and SAPK/JNK reduced the expression of caspase-14, while the p44/42 MAPK showed no consistent effects. Moreover, the filaggrin knockdown decreased the expression of keratin2, but had no effects on the level of keratin1. Conclusion: The decreased expression of caspase-14 in filaggrin-deficient NHEKs may be induced by the inactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. These provide a novel perspective to understand the mechanism for the protective effects of filaggrin and caspase-14 on skin barrier function.

  8. Inactivation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway reduces caspase-14 expression in impaired keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ningning; Pang, Shuguang; Song, Haiyan; An, Liguo; Ma, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations have revealed that caspase-14 is responsible for the epidermal differentiation and cornification, as well as the regulation of moisturizing effect. However, the precise regulation mechanism is still not clear. This study was aimed to investigate the expression of caspase-14 in filaggrin-deficient normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) and to explore the possible mechanism that contributes to the regulation of caspase-14. The filaggrin-deficient NHEKs were induced by transfection with lentivirus (LV) vector encoding small hairpin RNAs (shRNA). The inhibitors SB203580, PD98059 and SP600125 were used for suppressing the expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p44/42 MAPK and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK). The expression of filaggrin, p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and SAPK/JNK, caspase-14, keratin1and keratin2 were detected by western blot. In filaggrin-deficient NHEKs, the expression of p38, p44/42 MAPK and SAPK/JNK and caspase-14 were significantly decreased. The inhibition of p38 and SAPK/JNK reduced the expression of caspase-14, while the p44/42 MAPK showed no consistent effects. Moreover, the filaggrin knockdown decreased the expression of keratin2, but had no effects on the level of keratin1. The decreased expression of caspase-14 in filaggrin-deficient NHEKs may be induced by the inactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. These provide a novel perspective to understand the mechanism for the protective effects of filaggrin and caspase-14 on skin barrier function.

  9. Ste20-like kinase, SLK, activates the heat shock factor 1 - Hsp70 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulsky, Andrey V; Guillemette, Julie; Papillon, Joan

    2016-09-01

    Expression and activation of SLK increases during renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. When highly expressed, SLK signals via c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 to induce apoptosis, and it exacerbates apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury. Overexpression of SLK in glomerular epithelial cells (GECs)/podocytes in vivo induces injury and proteinuria. In response to various stresses, cells enhance expression of chaperones or heat shock proteins (e.g. Hsp70), which are involved in the folding and maturation of newly synthesized proteins, and can refold denatured or misfolded proteins. We address the interaction of SLK with the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)-Hsp70 pathway. Increased expression of SLK in GECs (following transfection) induced HSF1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, HSF1 transcriptional activity was increased by in vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury (chemical anoxia/recovery) and heat shock, and in both instances was amplified further by SLK overexpression. HSF1 binds to promoters of target genes, such as Hsp70 and induces their transcription. By analogy to HSF1, SLK stimulated Hsp70 expression. Hsp70 was also enhanced by anoxia/recovery and was further amplified by SLK overexpression. Induction of HSF1 and Hsp70 was dependent on the kinase activity of SLK, and was mediated via polo-like kinase-1. Transfection of constitutively active HSF1 enhanced Hsp70 expression and inhibited SLK-induced apoptosis. Conversely, the proapoptotic action of SLK was augmented by HSF1 shRNA, or the Hsp70 inhibitor, pifithrin-μ. In conclusion, increased expression/activity of SLK activates the HSF1-Hsp70 pathway. Hsp70 attenuates the primary proapoptotic effect of SLK. Modulation of chaperone expression may potentially be harnessed as cytoprotective therapy in renal cell injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-01-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  11. Regulation of endothelial protein C receptor shedding by cytokines is mediated through differential activation of MAP kinase signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menschikowski, Mario, E-mail: Mario.Menschikowski@uniklinikum-dresden.de [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Medical Faculty ' Carl Gustav Carus' , Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Hagelgans, Albert; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Siegert, Gabriele [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Technical University of Dresden, Medical Faculty ' Carl Gustav Carus' , Fetscherstrasse 74, D-01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-09-10

    The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) plays a pivotal role in coagulation, inflammation, cell proliferation, and cancer, but its activity is markedly changed by ectodomain cleavage and release as the soluble protein (sEPCR). In this study we examined the mechanisms involved in the regulation of EPCR shedding in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), but not interferon-{gamma} and interleukin-6, suppressed EPCR mRNA transcription and cell-associated EPCR expression in HUVEC. The release of sEPCR induced by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha} correlated with activation of p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). EPCR shedding was also induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, ionomycin, anisomycin, thiol oxidants or alkylators, thrombin, and disruptors of lipid rafts. Both basal and induced shedding of EPCR was blocked by the metalloproteinase inhibitors, TAPI-0 and GM6001, and by the reduced non-protein thiols, glutathione, dihydrolipoic acid, dithiothreitol, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Because other antioxidants and scavengers of reactive oxygen species failed to block the cleavage of EPCR, a direct suppression of metalloproteinase activity seems responsible for the observed effects of reduced thiols. In summary, the shedding of EPCR in HUVEC is effectively regulated by IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}, and downstream by MAP kinase signaling pathways and metalloproteinases.

  12. Advances in revealing the molecular targets downstream of oxidative stress-induced proapoptotic kinase signaling in diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2015-08-01

    Preexisting maternal diabetes is a high-risk factor of diabetic embryopathy, such as neural tube defects and congenital heart defects. Maternal diabetes significantly increases the production of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress and diabetic embryopathy. Multiple cellular and metabolic factors contribute to these processes. Forkhead box O (FoxO)-3a has been demonstrated as a key transcription factor in the signaling transduction pathways responsible for maternal diabetes-induced birth defects. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activated by oxidative stress stimulates nuclear translocation of FoxO3a, resulting in the overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated death domain protein, which, in turn, leads to caspase-8 activation and apoptosis. Maternal diabetes-activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-1/2, downstream effectors of ASK1, can be blocked by superoxide dismutase-1 overexpression, suggesting that oxidative stress is responsible for JNK1/2 signaling activation. Deletion of JNK1/2 significantly suppressed the activity of FoxO3a. These observations indicate that maternal diabetes-induced oxidative stress stimulates the activation of ASK1, JNK1/2, FoxO3a, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1-associated death domain protein, caspase-8 cleavage, and finally, apoptosis and diabetic embryopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  14. The nitric oxide-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid, NCX 4016, stimulates glucose transport and glucose transporters translocation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaddai, V; Gonzalez, T; Bolla, M; Le Marchand-Brustel, Y; Cormont, M

    2008-07-01

    NCX 4016 is a nitric oxide (NO)-donating derivative of acetylsalicylic acid. NO and salicylate, in vivo metabolites of NCX 4016, were shown to be potential actors in controlling glucose homeostasis. In this study, we evaluated the action of NCX 4016 on the capacity of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to transport glucose in basal and insulin-stimulated conditions. NCX 4016 induced a twofold increase in glucose uptake in parallel with the translocation of the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, leaving unaffected their total expression levels. Importantly, NCX 4016 further increased glucose transport induced by a physiological concentration of insulin. The stimulatory effect of NCX 4016 on glucose uptake appears to be mediated by its NO moiety. Indeed, it is inhibited by a NO scavenger and treatment with acetylsalicylic or salicylic acid had no effect. Although NO is involved in the action of NCX 4016, it did not mainly depend on the soluble cGMP cyclase/protein kinase G pathway. Furthermore, NCX 4016-stimulated glucose transport did not involve the insulin-signaling cascade required to stimulate glucose transport. NCX 4016 induces a small activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and no activation of other stress-activated signaling molecules, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, inhibitory factor kappaB, or AMP-activated kinases. Interestingly, NCX 4016 modified the content of S-nitrosylated proteins in adipocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NCX 4016 induced glucose transport in adipocytes through a novel mechanism possibly involving S-nitrosylation. NCX 4016 thus possesses interesting characteristics to be considered as a candidate molecule for the treatment of patients suffering from metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

  15. Polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum evokes antitumor activity via Toll-like receptor 4-mediated NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenshen; Nie, Shaoping; Huang, Danfei; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Yawei; Xie, Mingyong

    2013-04-17

    Ganoderma atrum has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. In this study, the antitumor activity of a novel G. atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) was investigated in vitro and in vivo using S180 tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that PSG-1 significantly inhibited the proliferation of S180 via the activation of macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. PSG-1-primed macrophages exhibited a higher tumoricidal activity than untreated macrophages. Administration of PSG-1 significantly inhibited the growth of transplantable sarcoma S180-bearing mice and increased macrophage phagocytosis and the levels of cytokines and nitride oxide. Expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in the membrane was markedly increased in PSG-1-treated groups, suggesting that it may be a possible receptor for PSG-1. PSG-1 also promoted the translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB from cytosol to nucleus and the degradation of IκBα. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in macrophages was improved by PSG-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, it is suggested that PSG-1 may elicit its antitumor effect by improving immune system functions through TLR4-mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

  16. Moringa oleifera fruit induce apoptosis via reactive oxygen species-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in human melanoma A2058 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guon, Tae Eun; Chung, Ha Sook

    2017-08-01

    The present study was performed to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera fruit extract on the apoptosis of human melanoma A2058 cells. A2058 cells were treated for 72 h with Moringa oleifera fruit extract at 50-100 µg/ml, and cell viability with apoptotic changes was examined. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was examined. It was revealed that Moringa oleifera fruit extract significantly inhibited the cell viability and promoted apoptosis of A2058 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moringa oleifera fruit extract-treated A2058 cells exhibited increased activities of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. It also caused an enhancement of MAPK phosphorylation and ROS production. The pro-apoptotic activity of Moringa oleifera fruit extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment with the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98058 or ROS inhibitor N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Taken together, Moringa oleifera fruit extract is effective in inducing mitochondrial apoptosis of A2058 cells, which is mediated through induction of ROS formation, and JNK and ERK activation. Moringa oleifera fruit extract may thus have therapeutic benefits for human melanoma A2058 cells.

  17. Mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway is involved in physiological testosterone-induced tissue factor pathway inhibitor expression in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong; Wang, Da-yu; Mei, Yi-fang; Qiu, Wen-bing; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Dong-ming; Tan, Xue-rui; Li, Yu-guang

    2010-07-01

    The mechanism of testosterone inducing the tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in protecting against thrombosis is unknown. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the induction by observing, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), a major cell signaling system. The level of testosterone regulating several signaling pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK, was measured by western blot in HUVECs. ELISA and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR were used to analyze TFPI expression after blocking ERK1/2 (with PD98059) or JNK (with SP600125) pathway in HUVECs. Testosterone-induced a rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAPK in HUVECs, which could not be inhibited by androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. Blocking ERK1/2 or JNK pathway could significantly impair testosterone-induced TFPI at both translational and transcriptional levels in HUVECs. Testosterone at a physiological concentration may help to prevent thrombosis development by stimulating TFPI expression in HUVECs, partly through the ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK pathway.

  18. Resveratrol prevents impairment in activation of retinoic acid receptors and MAP kinases in the embryos of a rodent model of diabetic embryopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandra K; Kumar, Ambrish; LaVoie, Holly A; DiPette, Donald J; Singh, Ugra S

    2012-09-01

    Diabetes induces impairments in gene expression during embryonic development that leads to premature and improper tissue specialization. Retinoic acid receptors (RARs and retinoid X receptor [RXRs]) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play crucial roles during embryonic development, and their suppression or activation has been shown as a determinant of the fate of embryonic organogenesis. We studied the activation of RARs and MAPKs in embryonic day 12 (E12) in embryos of rats under normal, diabetic, and diabetic treated with resveratrol ([RSV]; 100 mg/kg body weight) conditions. We found downregulation of RARs and RXRs expressions as well as their DNA-binding activities in the embryos exhibiting developmental delays due to diabetes. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 was decreased and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and p38 was increased. Interestingly, embryos of diabetic rats treated with RSV showed normalized patterns of RARs, RXRs, neuronal markers, and ERK, JNK and p38 phosphorylation.

  19. Localization of the disulfide bonds in the NH2-terminal domain of the cellular receptor for human urokinase-type plasminogen activator. A domain structure belonging to a novel superfamily of glycolipid-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, M; Kjalke, M.; Rønne, E

    1993-01-01

    with chymotrypsin. The four disulfide bonds present within this domain were assigned by a combination of plasma desorption mass spectrometry, amino acid composition, and sequence analyses of peptides generated by trypsin, endoproteinase Asp-N, and thermolysin. The following disulfide bond structure was determined...

  20. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ching Chang

    Full Text Available Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  1. Local anesthetics induce apoptosis in human thyroid cancer cells through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Liu, Chien-Liang; Huang, Shih-Yuan; Hu, Meng-Chun; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Local anesthetics are frequently used in fine-needle aspiration of thyroid lesions and locoregional control of persistent or recurrent thyroid cancer. Recent evidence suggests that local anesthetics have a broad spectrum of effects including inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in neuronal and other types of cells. In this study, we demonstrated that treatment with lidocaine and bupivacaine resulted in decreased cell viability and colony formation of both 8505C and K1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Lidocaine and bupivacaine induced apoptosis, and necrosis in high concentrations, as determined by flow cytometry. Lidocaine and bupivacaine caused disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c, accompanied by activation of caspase 3 and 7, PARP cleavage, and induction of a higher ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Based on microarray and pathway analysis, apoptosis is the prominent transcriptional change common to lidocaine and bupivacaine treatment. Furthermore, lidocaine and bupivacaine attenuated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activity and induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase. Pharmacological inhibitors of MAPK/ERK kinase and p38 MAPK suppressed caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Taken together, our results for the first time demonstrate the cytotoxic effects of local anesthetics on thyroid cancer cells and implicate the MAPK pathways as an important mechanism. Our findings have potential clinical relevance in that the use of local anesthetics may confer previously unrecognized benefits in the management of patients with thyroid cancer.

  2. Studying Kinetochore Kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saurin, Adrian T; Kops, Geert J P L

    2016-01-01

    Mitotic kinetochores are signaling network hubs that regulate chromosome movements, attachment error-correction, and the spindle assembly checkpoint. Key switches in these networks are kinases and phosphatases that enable rapid responses to changing conditions. Describing the mechanisms and dynamics

  3. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  4. Preferential Expression of PAPP-A in Human Preadipocytes from Omental Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge-Pitts, Caroline; Escande, Carlos J.; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2014-01-01

    Fat distribution differs between individuals, and those with visceral fat predominance develop metabolic profiles that increase risk of adverse cardiovascular events. This is due, in part, to the proinflammatory state associated with visceral obesity as well as depot-specific adipogenesis. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is important in adipose tissue development and metabolic function. Pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) is a novel zinc metalloproteinase that regulates local IGF availability. The first aim of this study was to characterize PAPP-A mRNA and protein expression in primary cultures of human preadipocytes isolated from omental, mesenteric and subcutaneous depots. PAPP-A expression was significantly increased in omental preadipocytes compared to mesenteric and subcutaneous preadipocytes. The second aim was to investigate factors regulating PAPP-A expression, focusing on proinflammatory cytokines and resveratrol that have been shown to have negative and positive effects, respectively, on metabolism and diet-induced obesity. Treatment of cultured primary human preadipocytes with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL) 1-β led to significant increases in PAPP-A expression. Activated pathways mediating cytokine-induced PAPP-A expression include the nuclear factor (NF) κB pathway and the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, particularly c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated kinase. Resveratrol, a polyphenol with beneficial cardiometabolic effects, significantly down-regulated PAPP-A expression under basal and stimulated conditions. Resveratrol appeared to mediate its effects on PAPP-A through pathways independent of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and AMP kinase (AMPK) activation. Depot-specific PAPP-A expression in human preadipocytes may contribute to depot-specific function. PMID:24781252

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of lycopene in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Myung Hwan; Chang, Moon Jeong

    2017-04-01

    Although the antioxidative effects of lycopene are generally known, the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene are not fully elucidated. This study aimed to examine the role and mechanism of lycopene as an inhibitor of inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, and 30 µM lycopene. The MTT assay was performed to determine the effects of lycopene on cell proliferation. Western blotting was performed to observe the expression of inflammation-related proteins, including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitor kappa B (IκB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 (p38 MAP kinase). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. In cells treated with lycopene and LPS, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS, and COX-2 were decreased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P lycopene concentration (P lycopene concertation (P Lycopene restrains NF-κB and JNK activation, which causes inflammation, and suppresses the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOS in SW480 human colorectal cancer cells.

  6. Role of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) in human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Lv, Wentao; Piao, Hongying; Chu, Xiaojie; Wang, Hao

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular remodeling disease characterized by enhanced proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) and suppressed apoptosis. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen involved in cell proliferation and migration. PDGF-BB induces the proliferation and migration of PASMCs and has been proposed to be a key mediator in the progression of PAH. Previous studies have shown that PDGF and its receptor are substantially elevated in lung tissues and PASMCs isolated from patients and animals with PAH, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly manifested. MAP kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase1/2 (JNK1/2), and p38 are the key intracellular signals for stimuli-induced cell proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to determine whether PDGF-BB on cell proliferation process is mediated through the MAP kinases pathway in human PASMCs (HPASMCs). Our results showed PDGF-BB-induced proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Cyclin A and Cyclin E expression in a concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of phosphorylated JNK (p-JNK) was upregulated with 20 ng/ml PDGF-BB treatment, while PDGF-BB could not increase phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and p-38 (p-p38) expression. The effects of PDGF-BB on cell proliferation and survival were weakened after the administration of antagonist of the JNK pathway or si-JNK. In addition, PDGF-BB protected against the loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials evoked by serum deprivation (SD) in a JNK-dependent manner. These results suggest that PDGF-BB promotes HPASMCs proliferation and survival, which is likely to be mediated via the JNK pathway.

  7. Oligonol Ameliorates CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats via the NF-Kappa B and MAPK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghyeon Bak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to be a key risk factor in the development of hepatic diseases. Blocking or retarding the reactions of oxidation and the inflammatory process by antioxidants could be a promising therapeutic intervention for prevention or treatment of liver injuries. Oligonol is a low molecular weight polyphenol containing catechin-type monomers and oligomers derived from lychee fruit. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of oligonol on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced acute hepatic injury in rats. Oral administration of oligonol (10 or 50 mg/kg reduced CCl4-induced abnormalities in liver histology and serum AST and serum ALT levels. Oligonol treatment attenuated the CCl4-induced production of inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA levels. Western blot analysis showed that oligonol suppressed proinflammatory nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 activation, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs as well as Akt. Oligonol exhibited strong antioxidative activity in vitro and in vivo, and hepatoprotective activity against t-butyl hydroperoxide-induced HepG2 cells. Taken together, oligonol showed antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in CCl4-intoxicated rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and NF-κB activation via blockade of the activation of upstream kinases including MAPKs and Akt.

  8. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase enhances apoptosis induced by arsenic trioxide in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jian; Li, Aiping; Liu, Qizhan; Wang, Xinru; Zhou, Jianwei

    2005-12-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has recently been used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia and has activity in vitro against several solid tumour cell lines where the induction of differentiation and apoptosis are the prime effects. The mechanism of As2O3-induced cell death has yet to be clarified, especially in solid cancers. In the present study, the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was examined as a cellular model for As2O3 treatment. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was investigated in As2O3-induced cell death. 3. It was found that As2O3 activates the prosurvival mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/ERK pathway in MCF-7 cells, which, conversely, may compromise the efficacy of As2O3. Hence, a combination treatment of As2O3 and MEK inhibitors was investigated to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhanced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. 4. Inhibition of MEK/ERK with the pharmacological inhibitors U0126 (10 micromol/L) or PD98059 (20 micromol/L) together with As2O3 (2 and 5 micromol/L) resulted in a significant enhancement of growth inhibition in breast cancer MCF-7 cells as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay and [Methyl-3H]-thymidine incorporation. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that combined treatment with As2O3 and the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 could augment breast cancer MCF-7 cell apoptosis approximately twofold compared with the effects of the two drugs alone, as determined by Hoechst 33258 or annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. 5. In addition, As2O3 activated p38 in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on JNK1/2. Treatment with a p38 inhibitor did not prevent As2O3-induced apoptosis. 6. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that enhanced apoptosis is detected in breast cancer MCF-7 cells in the presence of As2O3 and an MEK inhibitor, which may be a

  9. Torilin Inhibits Inflammation by Limiting TAK1-Mediated MAP Kinase and NF-κB Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endale, Mehari; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwak, Yi-Seong; Kim, Na-Mi; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cho, Jae Youl; Yun, Bong-Sik; Rhee, Man-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin's effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed. Torilin strongly inhibited LPS-induced NO release, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, NF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF gene and protein expressions. In addition, MAPKs were also suppressed by torilin pretreatment. Involvement of ERK1/2, P38MAPK, and JNK1/2 was further confirmed by PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125 mediated suppression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, torilin attenuated NF-kB and AP-1 translocation, DNA binding, and reporter gene transcription. Interestingly, torilin inhibited TAK1 kinase activation with the subsequent suppression of MAPK-mediated JNK, p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 (ATF-2 and c-jun) activation and IKK-mediated I-κBα degradation, p65/p50 activation, and translocation. Together, the results revealed the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 regulated inflammatory mediator and cytokine expressions, suggesting the test compound's potential as a candidate anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Torilin Inhibits Inflammation by Limiting TAK1-Mediated MAP Kinase and NF-κB Activation

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    Mehari Endale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Torilin, a sesquiterpene isolated from the fruits of Torilis japonica, has shown antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. However, data on the mechanism of torilin action against inflammation is limited. This study aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory property of torilin in LPS-induced inflammation using in vitro model of inflammation. We examined torilin’s effect on expression levels of inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The involvement of NF-kB and AP-1, MAP kinases, and adaptor proteins were assessed. Torilin strongly inhibited LPS-induced NO release, iNOS, PGE2, COX-2, NF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and GM-CSF gene and protein expressions. In addition, MAPKs were also suppressed by torilin pretreatment. Involvement of ERK1/2, P38MAPK, and JNK1/2 was further confirmed by PD98059, SB203580, and SP600125 mediated suppression of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, torilin attenuated NF-kB and AP-1 translocation, DNA binding, and reporter gene transcription. Interestingly, torilin inhibited TAK1 kinase activation with the subsequent suppression of MAPK-mediated JNK, p38, ERK1/2, and AP-1 (ATF-2 and c-jun activation and IKK-mediated I-κBα degradation, p65/p50 activation, and translocation. Together, the results revealed the suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 regulated inflammatory mediator and cytokine expressions, suggesting the test compound’s potential as a candidate anti-inflammatory agent.

  11. Functional Role and Therapeutic Potential of the Pim-1 Kinase in Colon Carcinoma

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    Ulrike Weirauch

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1 kinase is overexpressed in various tumors and has been linked to poor prognosis. Its role as proto-oncogene is based on several Pim-1 target proteins involved in pivotal cellular processes. Here, we explore the functional relevance of Pim-1 in colon carcinoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: RNAi-based knockdown approaches, as well as a specific small molecule inhibitor, were used to inhibit Pim-1 in colon carcinoma cells. The effects were analyzed regarding proliferation, apoptosis, sensitization toward cytostatic treatment, and overall antitumor effect in vitro and in mouse tumor models in vivo. RESULTS: We demonstrate antiproliferative, proapoptotic, and overall antitumor effects of Pim-1 inhibition. The sensitization to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU treatment upon Pim-1 knockdown offers new possibilities for combinatorial treatment approaches. Importantly, this also antagonizes a 5-FU-triggered Pim-1 up-regulation, which is mediated by decreased levels of miR-15b, a microRNA we newly identify to regulate Pim-1. The analysis of the molecular effects of Pim-1 inhibition reveals a complex regulatory network, with therapeutic Pim-1 repression leading to major changes in oncogenic signal transduction with regard to p21Cip1/WAF1, STAT3, c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK, c-Myc, and survivin and in the levels of apoptosis-related proteins Puma, Bax, and Bcl-xL. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that Pim-1 plays a pivotal role in several tumor-relevant signaling pathways and establish the functional relevance of Pim-1 in colon carcinoma. Our results also substantiate the RNAi-mediated Pim-1 knockdown based on polymeric polyethylenimine/ small interfering RNA nanoparticles as a promising therapeutic approach.

  12. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 deficiency attenuates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

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    Oh, Chang Joo; Ha, Chae-Myeong; Choi, Young-Keun; Park, Sungmi; Choe, Mi Sun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Huh, Yang Hoon; Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Lee, Sun Joo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Harris, Robert A; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Clinical prescription of cisplatin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents, is limited by its side effects, particularly tubular injury-associated nephrotoxicity. Since details of the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, we investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Among the PDK isoforms, PDK4 mRNA and protein levels were markedly increased in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation was involved in cisplatin-induced renal PDK4 expression. Treatment with the PDK inhibitor sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) or genetic knockout of PDK4 attenuated the signs of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, including apoptotic morphology of the kidney tubules along with numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, cleaved caspase-3, and renal tubular injury markers. Cisplatin-induced suppression of the mitochondrial membrane potential, oxygen consumption rate, expression of electron transport chain components, cytochrome c oxidase activity, and disruption of mitochondrial morphology were noticeably improved in the kidneys of DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Additionally, levels of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were attenuated, whereas superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expression and glutathione synthetase and glutathione levels were recovered in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice. Interestingly, lipid accumulation was considerably attenuated in DCA-treated or PDK4 knockout mice via recovered expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and coactivator PGC-1α, which was accompanied by recovery of mitochondrial biogenesis. Thus, PDK4 mediates cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury, suggesting that PDK4 might be a therapeutic target for attenuating cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A new identity for MLK3 as an NIMA-related, cell cycle-regulated kinase that is localized near centrosomes and influences microtubule organization.

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    Swenson, Katherine I; Winkler, Katharine E; Means, Anthony R

    2003-01-01

    Although conserved counterparts for most proteins involved in the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle have been found in all eukaryotes, a notable exception is the essential but functionally enigmatic fungal kinase NIMA. While a number of vertebrate kinases have been identified with catalytic domain homology to NIMA, none of these resemble NIMA within its extensive noncatalytic region, a region critical for NIMA function in Aspergillus nidulans. We used a bioinformatics approach to search for proteins with homology to the noncatalytic region of NIMA and identified mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3). MLK3 has been proposed to serve as a component in MAP kinase cascades, particularly those resulting in the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Here we describe the first in-depth study of endogenous MLK3 and report that, like NIMA, MLK3 phosphorylation and activity are enhanced during G(2)/M, whereas JNK remains inactive. Coincident with the G(2)/M transition, a period marked by dramatic reorganization of the cytoplasmic microtubule network, endogenous MLK3 transiently disperses away from the centrosome and centrosomal-proximal sites where it is localized during interphase. Furthermore, when overexpressed, MLK3, like NIMA, localizes to the centrosomal region, induces profound disruption of cytoplasmic microtubules and a nuclear distortion phenotype that differs from mitotic chromosome condensation. Cellular depletion of MLK3 protein using siRNA technology results in an increased sensitivity to the microtubule-stabilizing agent taxol. Our studies suggest a new role for MLK3, separable from its function in the JNK pathway, that may contribute to promoting microtubule instability, a hallmark of M phase entry.

  14. Flavopiridol inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α production through inactivation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases in the MyD88-dependent pathway.

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    Haque, Abedul; Koide, Naoki; Iftakhar-E-Khuda, Imtiaz; Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Odkhuu, Erdenezaya; Badamtseren, Battuvshin; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Komatsu, Takayuki; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and inhibits the growth of various cancer cells. The effect of flavopiridol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory mediator production was examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. Flavopiridol significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and, to a lesser extent, nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated cells. Flavopiridol inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and IκB kinase in response to LPS. Flavopiridol also inhibited the activation of a series of mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as p38, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in response to LPS. However, flavopiridol did not alter the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) or CD14/toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. Flavopiridol inhibited nitric oxide production induced by a MyD88-dependent TLR2 ligand, but not a MyD88-independent TLR3 ligand. Further, flavopiridol did not alter the phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 in the MyD88-independent pathway. Therefore, it was suggested that flavopiridol exclusively inhibited the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases in the MyD88-dependent pathway. Flavopiridol might be useful for the prevention of LPS-induced inflammatory response. © 2011 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Immunostimulatory Activity of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten Cladodes Fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

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    Hwang, Joon-Ho; Lim, Sang-Bin

    2017-02-01

    To increase the functionality of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten cladodes, it was fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis. Eighty percent methanol extracts were investigated for their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production, cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells. Methanol extracts of L. plantarum culture medium (LPCME) and B. subtilis culture medium (BSCME) did not affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production but, at 500 μg/mL, increased interferon (IFN)-γ-induced NO production by 55.2 and 66.5 μM, respectively, in RAW 264.7 cells. In RAW 264.7 cells not treated with LPS and IFN-γ, LPCME did not affect NO production, but BSCME increased NO production significantly in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BSCME induced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. BSCME at 500 μg/mL increased TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels by 83.8% and 82.2%, respectively. BSCME increased NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in a dose-dependent manner; 500 μg/mL BSCME increased activity 9.1-fold compared with the control. BSCME induced the phosphorylation of p38, c-JUN NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in a dose-dependent manner, but did not affect total ERK levels. In conclusion, BSCME exerted immunostimulatory effects, which were mediated by MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation, resulting in increased TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Therefore, BSCM shows promise for use as an immunostimulatory therapeutic.

  16. Protective Effects of Resveratrol against UVA-Induced Damage in ARPE19 Cells

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    Chi-Ming Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet radiation, especially UVA, can penetrate the lens, reach the retina, and induce oxidative stress to retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Even though it is weakly absorbed by protein and DNA, it may trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and generate oxidative injury; oxidative injury to the retinal pigment epithelium has been implicated to play a contributory role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Studies showed that resveratrol, an abundant and active component of red grapes, can protect several cell types from oxidative stress. In this study, adult RPE cells being treated with different concentrations of resveratrol were used to evaluate the protective effect of resveratrol on RPE cells against UVA-induced damage. Cell viability assay showed that resveratrol reduced the UVA-induced decrease in RPE cell viability. Through flow cytometry analysis, we found that the generation of intracellular H2O2 induced by UVA irradiation in RPE cells could be suppressed by resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of Western blot analysis demonstrated that resveratrol lowered the activation of UVA-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-jun-NH2 terminal kinase and p38 kinase in RPE cells. In addition, there was also a reduction in UVA-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression in RPE cells pretreated with resveratrol. Our observations suggest that resveratrol is effective in preventing RPE cells from being damaged by UVA radiation, and is worth considering for further development as a chemoprotective agent for the prevention of early AMD.

  17. Sphingosine-1-phosphate stimulated connective tissue growth factor expression in human buccal fibroblasts: Inhibition by epigallocatechin-3-gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Jenny I-Chun; Yang, Chih-Jen; Tsai, Yi-Shin; Deng, Yi-Ting; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Liu, Cheing-Meei

    2015-09-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) has been associated with the pathogenesis of various fibrotic diseases, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). The chemical constituents of areca nut along with the mechanical trauma cause OSF. The coarse fibers of areca nut injure the mucosa and hence sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is released at the wounded sites. Recent studies have shown that S1P is involved in wound healing and the development of fibrosis. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of S1P on CCN2 expression in human buccal fibroblasts (HBFs) and identify the potential targets for drug intervention or chemoprevention of OSF. Western blot analyses were used to study the effects of S1P on CCN2 expression and its signaling pathways in HBFs and whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main and most significant polyphenol in green tea, could inhibit this pathway. S1P significantly enhanced CCN2 synthesis in HBFs. This effect can be inhibited by c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor but not by P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor. Interestingly, EGCG completely blocked S1P-induced CCN2 expression via suppressing S1P-induced JNK phosphorylation. S1P released by repetitive mechanical trauma during AN chewing may contribute to the pathogenesis of OSF through upregulating CCN2 expression in HBFs. EGCG could be an adjuvant to the current offered therapy options or the prevention of OSF through suppression of JNK activation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Purple sweet potato color alleviates D-galactose-induced brain aging in old mice by promoting survival of neurons via PI3K pathway and inhibiting cytochrome C-mediated apoptosis.

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    Lu, Jun; Wu, Dong-mei; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Zi-feng

    2010-05-01

    Purple sweet potato color (PSPC), a class of naturally occurring anthocyanins, protects brain function against oxidative stress induced by D-galactose (D-gal) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA). Our data showed that PSPC enhanced open-field activity, decreased step-through latency, and improved spatial learning and memory ability in D-gal-treated old mice by decreasing advanced glycation end-products' (AGEs) formation and the AGE receptor (RAGE) expression, and by elevating Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) (Sigma-Aldrich) and catalase (CAT) expression and activity. Cleavage of caspase-3 and increased terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick-end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in D-gal-treated old mice were inhibited by PSPC, which might be attributed to its antioxidant property. PSPC also suppressed the activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria that counteracted the onset of neuronal apoptosis in D-gal-treated old mice. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activation was required for PSPC to promote the neuronal survival accompanied with phosphorylation and activation of Akt and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) by using PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (Cell Signaling Technology, Inc., Beverly, MA, USA), implicating a neuronal survival mechanism. The present results suggest that neuronal survival promoted by PSPC may be a potentially effective method to enhance resistance of neurons to age-related disease.

  19. Oxidative stress-induced JNK activation contributes to proinflammatory phenotype of aging diabetic mesangial cells.

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    Wu, Jin; Mei, Changlin; Vlassara, Helen; Striker, Gary E; Zheng, Feng

    2009-12-01

    Chronic inflammation and increased oxidative stress (OS) play an important role in diabetic nephropathy progression. Herein, we show that mesangial cells from streptozotocin-induced aging diabetic mice, a model of progressive diabetic nephropathy, exhibited increased OS and a proinflammatory phenotype characterized by elevated chemokines and ICAM-1 expression. This phenotypic change was consistent with the extensive inflammatory lesions present in aging diabetic kidneys and was not found in mesangial cells from old and young controls or young diabetic mice. Activation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway was a likely contributor to the proinflammatory phenotype of aging diabetic mesangial cells since 1) phosphorylated JNK levels and JNK kinase activity were increased in these cells, 2) suppression of JNK significantly decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in these cells, and 3) activation of JNK in normal mesangial cells induced inflammation. Elevated OS in aging diabetic mesangial cells may be a cause of JNK activation and inflammation, because antioxidant treatment decreased JNK phosphorylation and MCP-1 production. Additionally, decreased expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 5 (MKP5) may also contribute to increased JNK and inflammation in aging diabetic mesangial cells since overexpression of MKP5 in these cells normalized phosphorylated JNK levels and reversed the proinflammatory phenotype. Moreover, knocking down of MKP5 expression in old control mesangial cells resulted in JNK activation and MCP-1 production, a phenotype seen in aging diabetic mesangial cells. Interestingly, MKP5 phosphatase activity was diminished by free radicals in vitro. Thus, OS may induce inflammation in mesangial cells by activating JNK through either a direct activation of JNK or indirectly by suppression of MKP5 activity. Proinflammatory phenotype of mesangial cells may contribute to chronic inflammatory lesions and disease

  20. Dapsone inhibits IL-8 secretion from human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and resolves airway inflammation in the ferret.

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    Kanoh, Soichiro; Tanabe, Tsuyoshi; Rubin, Bruce K

    2011-10-01

    IL-8 is an important activator and chemoattractant for neutrophils that is produced by normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 pathways. Dapsone, a synthetic sulfone, is widely used to treat chronic neutrophil dermatoses. We investigated the effects of dapsone on polarized IL-8 secretion from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NHBE cells and further evaluated its ability to decrease LPS-induced inflammation in the ferret airway. NHBE cells were grown at air-liquid interface (ALI) to ciliated differentiation. Baseline and endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated IL-8 secretion was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at air and basal sides with and without dapsone. Western blotting was used to determine signaling pathways. In vivo, ferrets were exposed to intratracheal LPS over a period of 5 days. Once inflammation was established, oral or nebulized dapsone was administered for 5 days. Intraepithelial neutrophil accumulation was analyzed histologically, and mucociliary transport was measured on the excised trachea. Dapsone, 1 μg/mL, did not influence unstimulated (basal) IL-8 secretion. Apical LPS stimulation induced both apical and basolateral IL-8, but basolateral LPS increased only basolateral IL-8. Dapsone inhibited polarized IL-8 secretion from ALI-conditioned cells. Dapsone also decreased LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA level. LPS led to phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, but not p38 MAPK or c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. LPS also induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation, an effect that was inhibited by dapsone. Both oral and aerosol dapsone decreased LPS-induced intraepithelial neutrophil accumulation, but only treatment with aerosol dapsone restored mucociliary transport to normal. Dapsone, given either systemically or as an aerosol, may be useful in treating neutrophilic airway inflammation.

  1. Inhibition of zymosan-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in human corneal fibroblasts by triptolide

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    Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of triptolide on proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression induced by the fungal component zymosan in cultured human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs. METHODS: HCFs were cultured in the absence or presence of zymosan or triptolide. The release of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 into culture supernatants was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The cellular abundance of the mRNAs for these proteins was determined by reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and the endogenous nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB inhibitor IκB-α was examined by immunoblot analysis. The release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity from HCFs was measured with a colorimetric assay. RESULTS: Triptolide inhibited the zymosan-induced release of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 from HCFs in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. It also inhibited the zymosan-induced up-regulation of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNA abundance in these cells. Furthermore, triptolide attenuated zymosan-induced phosphorylation of the MAPKs extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38 as well as the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α. Triptolide did not exhibit cytotoxicity for HCFs. CONCLUSION: Triptolide inhibited proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production by HCFs exposed to zymosan, with this action likely being mediated by suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways. This compound might thus be expected to limit the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the cornea associated with fungal infection.

  2. Cynatratoside-C from Cynanchum atratum displays anti-inflammatory effect via suppressing TLR4 mediated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in LPS-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ge; Hong, Dong; Zhang, Tao; Duan, Huiqin; Wei, Panying; Guo, Xinxin; Mu, Xiang

    2018-01-05

    The present study was conducted to isolate anti-inflammatory compound from Cynanchum atratum and investigate the molecular mechanisms of active compound against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice. Bioassay-guided fractionations and isolation (via ex vivo tests) of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity were performed on roots of C. atratum yielding a pure bioactive compound: Cynatratoside-C, identified by comparing spectral data (EI-MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR) with literature values. Ex vivo tests showed that Cynatratoside-C inhibited the expression of TLR4 and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β) production in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. In vivo results indicated that Cynatratoside-C markedly attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and mammary oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, GPx) activity. Besides, Cynatratoside-C blocked the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and then suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and degradation inhibitor of NF-κBα (IκBα). Further study showed that Cynatratoside-C could suppress the phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway. In conclusion, our results suggest that Cynatratoside-C played an anti-inflammatory role in LPS-induced mastitis by regulating TLR4 and the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in mammary gland tissues. Cynatratoside-C may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for the treatment of mastitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Minocycline suppresses oxidative stress and attenuates fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis triggered by in utero cocaine exposure

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    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Shen, Ruoqing; Nzenwa, Ify; Gelfand, Robert; Mahata, Sushil K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the molecular mechanisms by which minocycline, a second generation tetracycline, prevents cardiac myocyte death induced by in utero cocaine exposure. Timed mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats received one of the following treatments twice daily from embryonic (E) day 15–21 (E15–E21): (i) intraperitoneal (IP) injections of saline (control); (ii) IP injections of cocaine (15 mg/kg BW); and (iii) IP injections of cocaine + oral administration of 25 mg/kg BW of minocycline. Pups were killed on postnatal day 15 (P15). Additional pregnant dams received twice daily IP injections of cocaine (from E15–E21) + oral administration of a relatively higher (37.5 mg/kg BW) dose of minocycline. Minocycline treatment continued from E15 until the pups were sacrificed on P15. In utero cocaine exposure resulted in an increase in oxidative stress and fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis through activation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Continued minocycline treatment from E15 through P15 significantly prevented oxidative stress, kinase activation, perturbation of BAX/BCL-2 ratio, cytochrome c release, caspase activation, and attenuated fetal cardiac myocyte apoptosis after prenatal cocaine exposure. These results demonstrate in vivo cardioprotective effects of minocycline in preventing fetal cardiac myocyte death after prenatal cocaine exposure. Given its proven clinical safety and ability to cross the placental barrier and enter into the fetal circulation, minocycline may be an effective therapy for preventing cardiac consequences of in utero cocaine exposure. PMID:21424555

  4. Fermentation by Lactobacillus enhances anti-inflammatory effect of Oyaksungisan on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells

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    Oh You-Chang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oyaksungisan (OY has been used as a traditional drug in east-Asian countries. However, its effect on inflammation still remains unknown. In this study, to provide insight into the biological effects of OY and OY fermented by Lactobacillus, we investigated their effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated inflammation in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. Methods The investigation was focused on whether OY and fermented OYs could inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin (PG E2 as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, nuclear factor (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Results We found that OY inhibits a little LPS-induced NO, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 productions as well as the expressions of iNOS and COX-2. Interestingly, the fermentation significantly increased its inhibitory effect on the expression of all pro-inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the fermented OYs exhibited elevated inhibition on the translocation of NF-κB p65 through reduced IκBα degradation as well as the phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK MAPKs than untreated control or original OY. Conclusions Finally, the fermentation by Lactobacillus potentiates the anti-inflammatory effect of OY by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK activity in the macrophage cells.

  5. SIRT1 mediates salidroside-elicited protective effects against MPP(+) -induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells: involvement in suppressing MAPK pathways.

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    Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Zhao-Nan; Wang, Ming-Xin; Zhang, Chao

    2017-08-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, leading to tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait impairment. Salidroside has been reported to exhibit antioxidative and neuroprotective properties in PD. However, the underlying neuroprotective mechanisms effects of salidroside are poorly understood. Recently, a growing body of evidences suggest that silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) plays important roles in the pathophysiology of PD. Hence, the present study investigated the roles of SIRT1 in neuroprotective effect of salidroside against N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+) )-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury. Our findings revealed that salidroside attenuates MPP(+) -induced neurotoxicity as evidenced by the increase in cell viability, and the decreases in the caspase-3 activity and apoptosis ratio. Simultaneously, salidroside pretreatment remarkably increased SIRT1 activity, SIRT1 mRNA and protein levels in MPP(+) -treated SH-SY5Y cell. However, sirtinol, a SIRT1 activation inhibitor, significantly blocked the inhibitory effects of salidroside on MPP(+) -induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. In addition, salidroside abolished MPP(+) -induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the up-regulation of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) expression, the down-regulations of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level in SH-SY5Y cells, while these effects were also blocked by sirtinol. Finally, we found that the inhibition of salidroside on MPP(+) -induced phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) were also reversed by sirtinol in SH-SY5Y cells. Taken together, these results indicated that SIRT1 contributes to the neuroprotection of salidroside against MPP(+) -induced apoptosis and oxidative stress, in part through suppressing of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Macrophage Apoptosis and Efferocytosis in the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis

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    Linton, MacRae F.; Babaev, Vladimir R.; Huang, Jiansheng; Linton, Edward F.; Tao, Huan; Yancey, Patricia G.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage apoptosis and the ability of macrophages to clean up dead cells, a process called efferocytosis, are crucial determinants of atherosclerosis lesion progression and plaque stability. Environmental stressors initiate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Unresolved ER stress with activation of the UPR initiates apoptosis. Macrophages are resistant to apoptotic stimuli, because of activity of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Macrophages express 3 Akt isoforms, Akt1, Akt2 and Akt3, which are products of distinct but homologous genes. Akt displays isoform-specific effects on atherogenesis, which vary with different vascular cell types. Loss of macrophage Akt2 promotes the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype and reduces atherosclerosis. However, Akt isoforms are redundant with regard to apoptosis. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) is a pro-apoptotic effector of the UPR, and the JNK1 isoform opposes anti-apoptotic Akt signaling. Loss of JNK1 in hematopoietic cells protects macrophages from apoptosis and accelerates early atherosclerosis. IκB kinase α (IKKα, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase family) plays an important role in mTORC2-mediated Akt signaling in macrophages, and IKKα deficiency reduces macrophage survival and suppresses early atherosclerosis. Efferocytosis involves the interaction of receptors, bridging molecules, and apoptotic cell ligands. Scavenger receptor class B type I is a critical mediator of macrophage efferocytosis via the Src/PI3K/Rac1 pathway in atherosclerosis. Agonists that resolve inflammation offer promising therapeutic potential to promote efferocytosis and prevent atherosclerotic clinical events. PMID:27725526

  7. From Phosphosites to Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Stephanie; Refsgaard, Jan C; Olsen, Jesper V

    2016-01-01

    Kinases play a pivotal role in propagating the phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks in living cells. With the overwhelming quantities of phosphoproteomics data being generated, the number of identified phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) is ever increasing. Often, proteomics investigations...... sequence motifs, mostly based on large scale in vivo and in vitro experiments. The context of the kinase and the phosphorylated proteins in a biological system is equally important for predicting association between the enzymes and substrates, an aspect that is also being tackled with available...

  8. Prolonged fasting induces peripheral insulin resistance, which is not ameliorated by high-dose salicylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Crabben, Saskia N.; Allick, Gideon; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Endert, Erik; Romijn, Johannes A.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Elevated plasma free fatty acids, excess reactive oxygen species, inflammation, and gluco-counterregulatory hormones induce insulin resistance (IR) through activation of Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor kappaB kinase, which leads to hyperphosphorylation of the

  9. Fas-Induced Apoptosis of Renal Cell Carcinoma is Mediated by Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 via Mitochondrial Damage-Dependent Caspase-8 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is a prototype of a chemo refractory tumour. It remains the most lethal of the common urologic cancers and is highly resistant to conventional therapy. Here, we confirmed the efficiency of anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (CH11 as alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of RCC and investigated the molecular mechanism(s, whereby CH11 induces apoptosis of RCC cells. The present study shows an essential role for apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, together with both c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 pathways, and caspase-8 in this process. Furthermore, CH11-dependent induction of the ASK1–JNK/p38 pathways was found to activate the transcription factors AP-1 and ATF-2, and FADD-caspase-8-Bid signalling, resulting in the translocation of both Bax and Bak proteins, and subsequently mitochondrial dysregulation that is characterized by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, cytochrome c release and cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP. Thus, the described molecular mechanisms of CH11-induced apoptosis suggest the reliability of Fas activation as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

  10. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Choo, Young-Kug

    2016-09-30

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model.

  11. Ursolic acid-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qing-you; Jin, Feng-suo; Yao, Chen; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Guo-hui; Ai, Xing

    2012-03-23

    Ursolic acid (UA) has shown the anti-tumor properties against a number of human cancers both in vivo and in vitro, however, its effect in bladder cancer and the corresponding mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Here we found that UA dose-dependently induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells, and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) may contribute to the process. Our Western-blot results demonstrated a significant AMPK activation after UA treatment in T24 cells. Notably, knockdown of AMPKα by the targeted shRNA largely inhibited UA-induced T24 cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, while an AMPK activator 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) or a constitutively active form of AMPK mimic UA's effect. We found the ceramide level was increased after UA treatment in T24 cells, and UA-induced AMPK activation and T24 cell apoptosis were inhibited by ceramide synthase inhibitor fumonisin B1, and was enhanced by exogenously adding cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6), suggesting that ceramide might serve as an upstream signal for AMPK activation. Further, activation of AMPK by UA promoted c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, but inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling to cause survivin down-regulation. Our study suggests that activation of AMPK by UA contributes to growth inhibition and apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Venus kinase receptors control reproduction in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Mathieu Vanderstraete

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Venus kinase receptor (VKR is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G protein coupled receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth

  13. Venus kinase receptors control reproduction in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderstraete, Mathieu; Gouignard, Nadège; Cailliau, Katia; Morel, Marion; Hahnel, Steffen; Leutner, Silke; Beckmann, Svenja; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dissous, Colette

    2014-05-01

    The Venus kinase receptor (VKR) is a single transmembrane molecule composed of an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain close to that of insulin receptor and an extracellular Venus Flytrap (VFT) structure similar to the ligand binding domain of many class C G protein coupled receptors. This receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) was first discovered in the platyhelminth parasite Schistosoma mansoni, then in a large variety of invertebrates. A single vkr gene is found in most genomes, except in S. mansoni in which two genes Smvkr1 and Smvkr2 exist. VKRs form a unique family of RTKs present only in invertebrates and their biological functions are still to be discovered. In this work, we show that SmVKRs are expressed in the reproductive organs of S. mansoni, particularly in the ovaries of female worms. By transcriptional analyses evidence was obtained that both SmVKRs fulfill different roles during oocyte maturation. Suppression of Smvkr expression by RNA interference induced spectacular morphological changes in female worms with a strong disorganization of the ovary, which was dominated by the presence of primary oocytes, and a defect of egg formation. Following expression in Xenopus oocytes, SmVKR1 and SmVKR2 receptors were shown to be activated by distinct ligands which are L-Arginine and calcium ions, respectively. Signalling analysis in Xenopus oocytes revealed the capacity of SmVKRs to activate the PI3K/Akt/p70S6K and Erk MAPK pathways involved in cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, SmVKR1 induced phosphorylation of JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase). Activation of JNK by SmVKR1 was supported by the results of yeast two-hybrid experiments identifying several components of the JNK pathway as specific interacting partners of SmVKR1. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the functions of SmVKR in gametogenesis, and particularly in oogenesis and egg formation. By eliciting signalling pathways potentially involved in oocyte proliferation, growth and migration

  14. JAK protein kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, James E

    2005-06-01

    In humans, the Janus protein tyrosine kinase family (JAKs) contains four members: JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2. JAKs phosphorylate signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) simultaneously with other phosphorylations required for activation, and there are several cellular mechanisms in place to inhibit JAK/STAT signaling. That one might be able to modulate selected JAK/STAT-mediated cellular signals by inhibiting JAK kinase activity to effect a positive therapeutic outcome is a tantalizing prospect, as yet incompletely realized. While current data suggest no therapeutic use for JAK1 and TYK2 inhibition, JAK2 inhibition seems a promising but not definitively tested mechanism for treatment of leukemia. More promising, however, are data indicating a possible therapeutic use of JAK3 inhibition. The restriction of the JAK3-deficient phenotype to the hematopoietic system and the resulting profound immune suppression suggest that JAK3 could be a target for immunosuppressive therapies used to prevent organ transplant rejection.

  15. Tyrosine kinases in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Akiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an inflammatory, polyarticular joint disease. A number of cellular responses are involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, including activation of inflammatory cells and cytokine expression. The cellular responses involved in each of these processes depends on the specific signaling pathways that are activated; many of which include protein tyrosine kinases. These pathways include the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, Janus kinases/signal transducers and activators transcription pathway, spleen tyrosine kinase signaling, and the nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells pathway. Many drugs are in development to target tyrosine kinases for the treatment of RA. Based on the number of recently published studies, this manuscript reviews the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathogenesis of RA and the potential role of kinase inhibitors as new therapeutic strategies of RA.

  16. EPA Prevents the Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms through Gpr-120/Ffar-4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kamata

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs, which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture with a high mortality rate. Although eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA has been reported to prevent AAA formation, the mechanism by which EPA works on vascular smooth muscle cells is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which orally-administered EPA prevents the formation of severe AAAs that develop in Osteoprotegerin (Opg knockout (KO mice. In the CaCl2-induced AAA model, EPA attenuated the enhanced progression of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, including the increase in aortic diameter with destruction of elastic fibers in the media. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that EPA reduced the phosphorylation of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase-1/Map3k7 (Tak-1 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK, as well as the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9 in the media of the aorta. In smooth muscle cell cultures, rh-TRAIL-induced activation of the Tak-1-JNK pathway and increase in Mmp-9 expression were inhibited by EPA. Moreover, GW9508, a specific ligand for G-protein coupled receptor (Gpr-120/Free fatty acid receptor (Ffar-4, mimicked the effects of EPA. The effects of EPA were abrogated by knockdown of the Gpr-120/Ffar-4 receptor gene. Our data demonstrate that the Trail-Tak-1-JNK-Mmp-9 pathway is responsible for the enhancement of AAAs in Opg-KO mice, and that EPA inhibits the Tak-1-JNK pathway by activating Gpr-120/Ffar-4, which results in the attenuation of AAA development.

  17. Doxycycline inhibits TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae-Min; Park, Joo-Hoo; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2016-03-01

    Doxycycline has been shown to have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and suppresses collagen biosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of doxycycline on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production in nasal polyp-derived fibroblasts (NPDFs). We also determined the molecular mechanisms of action for doxycycline. NPDFs were isolated from nasal polyps from 8 patients. Doxycycline was used to pretreat TGF-β1-induced NPDFs. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and fibronectin were measured using Western blot, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunofluorescence staining. Total collagen production was analyzed with the Sircol collagen assay, while mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB activation were determined using Western blot analysis. Luciferase assay was used to evaluate the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Although doxycycline (0 to 40 μg/mL) had no significant cytotoxic effects in TGF-β1-induced NPDFs, it significantly reduced the expression levels of α-SMA, fibronectin, and collagen in TGF-β1-induced NPDFs in a dose-dependent manner. Doxycycline also inhibited the TGF-β1-induced activation of p38, c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK), and NF-κB, and its inhibitory effects were similar to those of the specific inhibitors for each. Doxycycline has an inhibitory effect on TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and extracellular matrix production via the p38 and JNK/NF-κB signal pathways in NPDFs. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  18. Ginsenoside-Rd exhibits anti-inflammatory activities through elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities and inhibition of JNK and ERK activation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Xin; Wang, Li; Xiao, Er-Long; Li, Si-Jia; Chen, Jia-Jia; Gao, Bei; Min, Guang-Ning; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study has reported that ginsenoside-Rd significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators in carrageenan (Carr)-induced rat paw edema, which might be due to its blocking of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway. The aim of the present study was to clarify the more detailed mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside-Rd in Carr-induced rat paw edema model. Rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or ginsenoside-Rd 1 h before the Carr injection. Six hours after Carr injection, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities in inflamed paw tissues were determined. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in serum were measured. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and NF-κB were detected by western blot. In addition, the extent of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) was analyzed by western blot. The results showed that ginsenoside-Rd significantly attenuated MPO activity and MDA level, increased the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT, lowered the levels of NO and PGE2, down-regulated the expressions of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, and suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK. Taken together, the possible mechanisms of anti-inflammatory activity of ginsenoside-Rd were: it could reduce the inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory sites, inhibit the tissue lipid peroxidation, increase the antioxidant enzyme activities, and suppress the proinflammatory enzyme expressions through the downregulation of NF-κB activation via suppression of ERK and JNK phosphorylation.

  19. CHIP−/−-Mouse Liver: Adiponectin-AMPK-FOXO-Activation Overrides CYP2E1-Elicited JNK1-Activation, Delaying Onset of NASH: Therapeutic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Mi; Grenert, James P.; Patterson, Cam; Correia, Maria Almira

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of C-terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP) E3 ubiquitin-ligase impairs hepatic cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 degradation. Consequent CYP2E1 gain of function accelerates reactive O2 species (ROS) production, triggering oxidative/proteotoxic stress associated with sustained activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling cascades, pro-inflammatory effectors/cytokines, insulin resistance, progressive hepatocellular ballooning and microvesicular steatosis. Despite this, little evidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was found in CHIP−/−-mice over the first 8–9-months of life. We herein document that this lack of tissue injury is largely due to the concurrent up-regulation and/or activation of the adiponectin-5′-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-forkhead box O (FOXO)-signaling axis stemming from at the least three synergistic features: Up-regulated expression of adipose tissue adiponectin and its hepatic adipoR1/adipoR2 receptors, stabilization of hepatic AMPKα1-isoform, identified herein for the first time as a CHIP-ubiquitination substrate (unlike its AMPKα2-isoform), as well as nuclear stabilization of FOXOs, well-known CHIP-ubiquitination targets. Such beneficial predominance of the adiponectin-AMPK-FOXO-signaling axis over the sustained JNK-elevation and injurious insulin resistance in CHIP−/−-livers apparently counteracts/delays rapid progression of the hepatic microvesicular steatosis to the characteristic macrovesicular steatosis observed in clinical NASH and/or rodent NASH-models. PMID:27406999

  20. Eptifibatide and abciximab inhibit insulin-induced focal adhesion formation and proliferative responses in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Jianhua

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab or eptifibatide improves clinical outcomes in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. These β3 integrin inhibitors antagonize fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 integrins on platelets and ligand binding to αvβ3 integrins on vascular cells. αvβ3 integrins influence responses to insulin in various cell types but effects in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC are unknown. Results and discussion Insulin elicited a dose-dependent proliferative response in HASMC. Pretreatment with m7E3 (an anti-β3 integrin monoclonal antibody from which abciximab is derived, c7E3 or LM609 inhibited proliferative responses to insulin by 81%, 59% and 28%, respectively. Eptifibatide or cyclic RGD peptides completely abolished insulin-induced proliferation whereas tirofiban, which binds αIIbβ3 but not αvβ3, had no effect. Insulin-induced increases in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1 activity were partially inhibited by m7E3 and eptifibatide whereas antagonism of αvβ3 integrins had no effect on insulin-induced increases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity. Insulin stimulated a rapid increase in the number of vinculin-containing focal adhesions per cell and treatment with m7E3, c7E3 or eptifibatide inhibited insulin-induced increases in focal adhesions by 100%, 74% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion These results demonstrate that αvβ3 antagonists inhibit signaling, focal adhesion formation and proliferation of insulin-treated HASMC.

  1. Eptifibatide and abciximab inhibit insulin-induced focal adhesion formation and proliferative responses in human aortic smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Alokkumar; Zhao, Renyi; Huang, Jianhua; Stouffer, George A

    2008-01-01

    Background The use of abciximab (c7E3 Fab) or eptifibatide improves clinical outcomes in diabetics undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. These β3 integrin inhibitors antagonize fibrinogen binding to αIIbβ3 integrins on platelets and ligand binding to αvβ3 integrins on vascular cells. αvβ3 integrins influence responses to insulin in various cell types but effects in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) are unknown. Results and discussion Insulin elicited a dose-dependent proliferative response in HASMC. Pretreatment with m7E3 (an anti-β3 integrin monoclonal antibody from which abciximab is derived), c7E3 or LM609 inhibited proliferative responses to insulin by 81%, 59% and 28%, respectively. Eptifibatide or cyclic RGD peptides completely abolished insulin-induced proliferation whereas tirofiban, which binds αIIbβ3 but not αvβ3, had no effect. Insulin-induced increases in c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-1 (JNK1) activity were partially inhibited by m7E3 and eptifibatide whereas antagonism of αvβ3 integrins had no effect on insulin-induced increases in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Insulin stimulated a rapid increase in the number of vinculin-containing focal adhesions per cell and treatment with m7E3, c7E3 or eptifibatide inhibited insulin-induced increases in focal adhesions by 100%, 74% and 73%, respectively. Conclusion These results demonstrate that αvβ3 antagonists inhibit signaling, focal adhesion formation and proliferation of insulin-treated HASMC. PMID:19108709

  2. TNFα signals via p66(Shc to induce E-Selectin, promote leukocyte transmigration and enhance permeability in human endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Laviola

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells participate in inflammatory events leading to atherogenesis by regulating endothelial cell permeability via the expression of VE-Cadherin and β-catenin and leukocyte recruitment via the expression of E-Selectins and other adhesion molecules. The protein p66(Shc acts as a sensor/inducer of oxidative stress and may promote vascular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of p66(Shc in tumor necrosis factor TNFα-induced E-Selectin expression and function in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Exposure of HUVEC to 50 ng/ml TNFα resulted in increased leukocyte transmigration through the endothelial monolayer and E-Selectin expression, in association with augmented phosphorylation of both p66(Shc on Ser(36 and the stress kinase c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK-1/2, and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Overexpression of p66(Shc in HUVEC resulted in enhanced p66(Shc phosphorylation on Ser(36, increased ROS and E-Selectin levels, and amplified endothelial cell permeability and leukocyte transmigration through the HUVEC monolayer. Conversely, overexpression of a phosphorylation-defective p66(Shc protein, in which Ser(36 was replaced by Ala, did not augment ROS and E-Selectin levels, nor modify cell permeability or leukocyte transmigration beyond those found in wild-type cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated silencing of p66(Shc resulted in marked reduction of E-Selectin expression and leukocyte transmigration. In conclusion, p66(Shc acts as a novel intermediate in the TNFα pathway mediating endothelial dysfunction, and its action requires JNK-dependent phosphorylation of p66(Shc on Ser(36.

  3. Gossypetin ameliorates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice liver--a molecular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amitava; Manna, Krishnendu; Das, Dipesh Kr; Kesh, Swaraj Bandhu; Sinha, Mahuya; Das, Ujjal; Biswas, Sushobhan; Sengupta, Aaveri; Sikder, Kunal; Datta, Sanjukta; Ghosh, Mahua; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Banerji, Asoke; Dey, Sanjit

    2015-10-01

    Radioprotective action of gossypetin (GTIN) against gamma (γ)-radiation-induced oxidative stress in liver was explored in the present article. Our main aim was to evaluate the protective efficacy of GTIN against radiation-induced alteration of liver in murine system. To evaluate the effect of GTIN, it was orally administered to mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days prior to γ-radiation at a dose of 5 Gy. Radioprotective efficacy of GTIN were evaluated at physiological, cellular, and molecular level using biochemical analysis, comet assay, flow cytometry, histopathology, immunofluorescence, and immunoblotting techniques. Ionizing radiation was responsible for augmentation of hepatic oxidative stress in terms of lipid peroxidation and depletion of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescence studies showed that irradiation enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) level, which leads to hepatic inflammation. To investigate further, we found that radiation induced the activation of stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK)-mediated apoptotic pathway and deactivation of the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated redox signaling pathway, whereas GTIN pretreatment ameliorated these radiation-mediated effects. This is the novel report where GTIN rationally validated the molecular mechanism in terms of the modulation of cellular signaling system' instead of ' This is the novel report where GTIN is rationally validated in molecular terms to establish it as promising radioprotective agents. This might be fruitful especially for nuclear workers and defense personnel assuming the possibility of radiation exposure.

  4. Modulation of both activator protein-1 and nuclear factor-kappa B signal transduction of human T cells by amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Meng; Lin, Wei-Hsiang; Lin, Chin-Sheng; Ho, Ling-Jun; Tsai, Tsung-Neng; Wu, Chun-Hsien; Lai, Jenn-Haung; Yang, Shih-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Amiodarone, a common and effective antiarrhythmic drug, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects such as reducing the activation and movement of neutrophils. However, its effects on human T cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of amiodarone on human T cells. We isolated human primary T cells from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, luciferase assay, and Western blotting to evaluate the modulatory effects of amiodarone on human T cells. We found that amiodarone dose dependently inhibited the production of cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma in activated human T cells. By flow cytometry, we demonstrated that amiodarone suppressed the expression of IL-2 receptor-alpha (CD25) and CD69, the cell surface markers of activated T cells. Moreover, molecular investigations revealed that amiodarone down-regulated activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) DNA-binding activities in activated human T cells and also inhibited DNA binding and transcriptional activities of both AP-1 and NF-κB in Jurkat cells. Finally, by Western blotting, we showed that amiodarone reduced the activation of c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and suppressed stimuli-induced I-kappa B-alpha degradation in activated human T cells. Through regulation of AP-1 and NF-κB signaling, amiodarone inhibits cytokine production and T cell activation. These results show the pleiotropic effects of amiodarone on human T cells and suggest its therapeutic potential in inflammation-related cardiovascular disorders. © 2014 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Hesperidin induces apoptosis and triggers autophagic markers through inhibition of Aurora-A mediated phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin and glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta signalling cascades in experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiprasad, Gowrikumar; Chitra, Palanivel; Manikandan, Ramar; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2014-09-01

    Abnormalities in the homeostasis mechanisms involved in cell survival and apoptosis are contributing factors for colon carcinogenesis. Interventions of these mechanisms by pharmacologically safer agents gain predominance in colon cancer prevention. We previously reported the chemopreventive efficacy of hesperidin against colon carcinogenesis. In the present study, we aimed at investigating the potential of hesperidin over the abrogated Aurora-A coupled pro-survival phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling cascades. Further, the role of hesperidin over apoptosis and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediated autophagic responses were studied. Azoxymethane (AOM) induced mouse model of colon carcinogenesis was involved in this study. Hesperidin treatment was provided either in initiation/post-initiation mode respectively. Hesperidin significantly altered AOM mediated anti-apoptotic scenario by modulating Bax/Bcl-2 ratio together with enhanced cytochrome-c release and caspase-3, 9 activations. In addition, hesperidin enhanced p53-p21 axis with concomitant decrease in cell cycle regulator. Hesperidin treatment caused significant up-regulation of tumour suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) with a reduction in the expression of AOM mediated p-PI3K and p-Akt. Additionally, hesperidin administration exhibited inhibition against p-mTOR expression which in turn led to stimulation of autophagic markers Beclin-1 and LC3-II. Aurora-A an upstream regulator of PI3K/Akt pathway was significantly inhibited by hesperidin. Furthermore, hesperidin administration restored glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) activity which in turn prevented the accumulation of oncoproteins β-catenin, c-jun and c-myc. Taken together, hesperidin supplementation initiated apoptosis via targeted inhibition of constitutively activated Aurora-A mediated PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β and mTOR pathways coupled with autophagic stimulation against AOM induced colon carcinogenesis. Copyright

  6. Activated type I TGFbeta receptor (Alk5) kinase confers enhancedsurvival to mammary epithelial cells and accelerates mammary tumorprogression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Shin, Incheol; Yi, Jae Youn; Easterly,Evangeline; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Zent, Roy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2005-01-02

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF{beta}s) are members of a large superfamily of pleiotropic cytokines that also includes the activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF{beta} family regulate complex physiological processes such cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, motility, and cell death, among others (Massague, 1998). Dysregulation of TGF{beta} signaling contributes to several pathological processes including cancer, fibrosis, and auto-immune disorders (Massague et al., 2000). The TGF{beta}s elicit their biological effects by binding to type II and type I transmembrane receptor serine-threonine kinases (T{beta}RII and T{beta}RI) which, in turn, phosphorylated Smad 2 and Smad 3. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 associate with Smad 4 and, as a heteromeric complex, translocate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The inhibitory Smad7 down regulates TGF{beta} signaling by binding to activated T{beta}RI and interfering with its ability to phosphorylate Smad 2/3 (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Shi and Massague, 2003). Signaling is also regulated by Smad proteolysis. TGF{beta} receptor-mediated activation results in multi-ubiquitination of Smad 2 in the nucleus and subsequent degradation of Smad 2 by the proteasome (Lo and Massague, 1999). Activation of TGF{beta} receptors also induces mobilization of a Smad 7-Smurf complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; this complex recognizes the activated receptors and mediates their ubiquitination and internalization via caveolin-rich vesicles, leading to termination of TGF{beta} signaling (Di Guglielmo et al., 2003). Other signal transducers/pathways have been implicated in TGF{beta} actions. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase PP2A, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the family of Rho GTPases [reviewed in

  7. Effect of Biodentine and Bioaggregate on odontoblastic differentiation via mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J-Y; Woo, S-M; Lee, B-N; Koh, J-T; Nör, J E; Hwang, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    To compare the mineralization inductive capacity of Biodentine and Bioaggregate with Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and to investigate possible signaling pathways of mineralization in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Viability of HDPCs in response to Biodentine, Bioaggregate, and MTA was measured using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide. To investigate their potential to induce odontoblast differentiation, expression of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentine matrix protein1 (DMP1) mRNA level was evaluated by RT-PCR. For the mineralized nodule assay, Alizarin red staining was performed. To determine the role of MAPK signaling in the odontoblastic differentiation of HDPCs, activated MAPKs were investigated by Western blot and the effect of MAPK inhibitor was examined by Alizarin red S staining. The results were statistically analysed using one-way anova and the Bonferroni test. The effects of MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate on cell viability were similar. Biodentine and Bioaggregate enhanced DSPP and DMP1 mRNA expression compared to the control group, but to the same extent as MTA (P Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased the area of calcified nodules compared to the control (P Biodentine, and Bioaggregate increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). MAPK inhibitors attenuated mineralized nodule formation, which was increased by MTA, Biodentine, and Bioaggregate, respectively (P Biodentine and Bioaggregate stimulated odontoblastic differentiation and mineralization nodule formation by activating the MAPK pathway as did MTA. This suggests that the new materials could be useful for regenerative endodontic procedures. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differential Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Macrophages in Response to Intestinal Parasite Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mei Xing; Png, Chin Wen; Tay, Crispina Yan Bing; Teo, Joshua Ding Wei; Jiao, Huipeng; Lehming, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protistan parasite that can cause acute, as well as chronic, infection and is associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the pathogenic status of Blastocystis infection remains unclear. In this study, we found that Blastocystis antigens induced abundant expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in mouse intestinal explants, in mouse colitis colon, and in macrophages. Further investigation utilizing RAW264.7 murine macrophages showed that Blastocystis treatment in RAW264.7 macrophages induced the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38, the three major groups of mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that play essential roles in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. ERK inhibition in macrophages significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and mRNA expression of IL-1β. On the other hand, JNK inhibition resulted in reductions in both c-Jun and ERK activation and significant suppression of all three proinflammatory cytokines at both the mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of p38 suppressed only IL-6 protein expression with no effect on the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Furthermore, we found that serine proteases produced by Blastocystis play an important role in the induction of ERK activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages. Our study thus demonstrated for the first time that Blastocystis could induce the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines via the activation of MAP kinases and that infection with Blastocystis may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory intestinal diseases through the activation of inflammatory pathways in host immune cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25156742

  9. Regulation of Autophagy by Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Savitha; Jain, Kirti; Basu, Alakananda, E-mail: alakananda.basu@unthsc.edu [Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States)

    2011-06-09

    Autophagy is a process of self-degradation that maintains cellular viability during periods of metabolic stress. Although autophagy is considered a survival mechanism when faced with cellular stress, extensive autophagy can also lead to cell death. Aberrations in autophagy are associated with several diseases, including cancer. Therapeutic exploitation of this process requires a clear understanding of its regulation. Although the core molecular components involved in the execution of autophagy are well studied there is limited information on how cellular signaling pathways, particularly kinases, regulate this complex process. Protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process. Atg1, the first autophagy-related protein identified, is a serine/threonine kinase and it is regulated by another serine/threonine kinase mTOR. Emerging studies suggest the participation of many different kinases in regulating various components/steps of this catabolic process. This review focuses on the regulation of autophagy by several kinases with particular emphasis on serine/threonine protein kinases such as mTOR, AMP-activated protein kinase, Akt, mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK, p38 and JNK) and protein kinase C that are often deregulated in cancer and are important therapeutic targets.

  10. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    enzymes that are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyze phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Characterized for the first time only a decade ago, BY-kinases have now come to the fore. Important regulatory roles have been linked with these enzymes, via their involvement......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine...

  11. Interleukin-24 inhibits osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion via the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuo, Baobiao; Shi, Yingchun; Qin, Haihui; Sun, Qingzeng; Li, Zhengwei; Zhang, Fengfei; Wang, Rong; Wang, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 25% of osteosarcoma patients present with clinically detectable metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis. High-dose chemotherapy and/or surgery for the treatment of primary metastatic osteosarcoma is ineffective, and

  12. Methyl gallate isolated from Spondias pinnata exhibits anticancer activity against human glioblastoma by induction of apoptosis and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Singh, Sudhir Shankar; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2015-01-01

    Spondias pinnata has been reported for its efficient anticancer effects, but the studies were mostly focused on its extract. Since its bioactive compounds are largely unknown, this study was designed to characterize the lead components present in it and their anticancer activity against human glioblastoma cell line (U87). Major compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction were isolated by column chromatography and their anticancer potentials against U87 cells were evaluated. Furthermore, flow cytometric and immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate the mechanism of apoptosis inducing activity of methyl gallate (MG) against U87 cell line. Four major compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction. Amongst these, two compounds showed promising activities and with the help of different spectroscopic methods they were identified as gallic acid and MG. Flow cytometric studies revealed that MG-induced apoptosis in U87 cells dose-dependently; the same was confirmed by activation of caspases through cleavage of endogenous substrate poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase. MG treatment also induced the expression of p53 and B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X and cleavage of BH3 interacting-domain with a concomitant decrease in B-cell lymphoma-2 expression. Moreover, MG-induced sustained phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) in U87 cells with no change in the phosphorylation of other mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal of stress-activated protein kinases, p38). MG is a potent antioxidant and it induces sustained ERK1/2 activation and apoptosis in human glioblastoma U87, and provide a rationale for evaluation of MG for other brain carcinoma cell lines for the advancement of glioblastoma therapy.

  13. Xingshentongqiao Decoction Mediates Proliferation, Apoptosis, Orexin-A Receptor and Orexin-B Receptor Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression and Represses Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanli Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypocretin (HCRT signaling plays an important role in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy and can be significantly influenced by Chinese herbal therapy. Our previous study showed that xingshentongqiao decoction (XSTQ is clinically effective for the treatment of narcolepsy. To determine whether XSTQ improves narcolepsy by modulating HCRT signaling, we investigated its effects on SH-SY5Y cell proliferation, apoptosis, and HCRT receptor 1/2 (orexin receptor 1 [OX1R] and orexin receptor 2 [OX2R] expression. The signaling pathways involved in these processes were also assessed. Methods: The effects of XSTQ on proliferation and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells were assessed using cell counting kit-8 and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate assays. OX1R and OX2R expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Western blotting for mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway activation was performed to further assess the signaling mechanism of XSTQ. Results: XSTQ reduced the proliferation and induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. This effect was accompanied by the upregulation of OX1R and OX2R expression and the reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk 1/2, p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. Conclusions: XSTQ inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. XSTQ also promotes OX1R and OX2R expression. These effects are associated with the repression of the Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK signaling pathways. These results define a molecular mechanism for XSTQ in regulating HCRT and MAPK activation, which may explain its ability to treat narcolepsy.

  14. Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) during testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury in nuclear factor-kappaB knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutoli, Letteria; Antonuccio, Pietro; Polito, Francesca; Bitto, Alessandra; Fiumara, Tiziana; Squadrito, Francesco; Nicotina, Piero Antonio; Arena, Salvatore; Marini, Herbert; Romeo, Carmelo; Altavilla, Domenica

    2007-07-12

    Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kappaB), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-jun-N terminal kinase (JNK) play an important role in testicular ischemia. We investigated the patterns of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 activation in NF-kappaB knockout (KO) mice subjected to testicular torsion. KO and normal littermate wild-type (WT) animals underwent at 1 h testicular ischemia followed by 24 h reperfusion (TI/R). Sham testicular ischemia-reperfusion mice served as controls. ERK 1/2, JNK and p38 expression by western blot analysis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression (RT-PCR and western blot analysis) and a complete histological examination were carried out. TI/R caused a greater increase in phosphorylated form of ERK 1/2 in KO mice than in WT animals in either the ischemic testis and the contralateral one. By contrary, active form of JNK and p38 were completely abrogated in both testes of KO mice, while WT animals showed a significant activation of those kinases in both testes. TNF-alpha expression was markedly reduced in KO mice when compared to WT mice either at the mRNA and the protein level. Finally TI/R-induced histological damage was markedly reduced in KO mice. Our data indicate that NF-kappaB plays a pivotal role in the development of testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury and suggest that, in the absence of the transcriptional factor, the up-stream signal JNK and p38 may be abrogated while ERK 1/2 activity is enhanced.

  15. Inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases increases the sensitivity of A549 lung cancer cells to the cytotoxicity induced by a kava chalcone analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmka, Janel K; Solberg, Eric L; Zeliadt, Nicholette A; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Charlson, Aaron T; Xing, Chengguo; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2012-08-03

    We are interested in investigating the biological activity of chalcones, a major class of compounds found in the beverage kava, in order to develop potent and selective chemopreventive candidates. Consumption of kava in the South Pacific Islands is inversely correlated with cancer incidence, even among smokers. Accordingly, chalcones have anti-cancer activities in animal and cell culture models. To investigate signaling pathways that affect chalcone action we studied a potent analog, (E)-3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (chalcone-24). Chalcone-24 was selected from a series of chalcone analogs that were synthesized based on the structures derived from flavokawain compounds found in kava, and screened in A549 lung cancer cells for induction of cytotoxicity and inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor associated with cell survival. Incubation of A549 cells with chalcone-24 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability, inhibition of NF-κB, activation of caspases, and activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); ERK1/2 and JNK are mitogen activated protein kinases that play central roles in regulating cell fate. Pharmacological inhibitors of ERK1/2 or JNK increased the sensitivity of A549 cells to chalcone-24-induced cytotoxicity, without affecting NF-κB or caspase activity. These results will help refine the synthesis of chalcone analogs to maximize the combination of actions required to prevent and treat cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibitor of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yuchao; Ramachandran, Anup [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Breckenridge, David G.; Liles, John T. [Department of Biology, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Foster City, CA (United States); Lebofsky, Margitta [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Farhood, Anwar [Department of Pathology, St. David' s North Austin Medical Center, Austin, TX 78756 (United States); Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic activation and oxidant stress are key events in the pathophysiology of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. The initial mitochondrial oxidative stress triggered by protein adduct formation is amplified by c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction and ultimately cell necrosis. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is considered the link between oxidant stress and JNK activation. The objective of the current study was to assess the efficacy and mechanism of action of the small-molecule ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 in a murine model of APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP (300 mg/kg) caused extensive glutathione depletion, JNK activation and translocation to the mitochondria, oxidant stress and liver injury as indicated by plasma ALT activities and area of necrosis over a 24 h observation period. Pretreatment with 30 mg/kg of GS-459679 almost completely prevented JNK activation, oxidant stress and injury without affecting the metabolic activation of APAP. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of GS-459679, mice were treated with APAP and then with the inhibitor. Given 1.5 h after APAP, GS-459679 was still protective, which was paralleled by reduced JNK activation and p-JNK translocation to mitochondria. However, GS-459679 treatment was not more effective than N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of GS-459679 and N-acetylcysteine exhibited similar efficacy as N-acetylcysteine monotherapy, suggesting that GS-459769 and N-acetylcysteine affect the same pathway. Importantly, inhibition of ASK1 did not impair liver regeneration as indicated by PCNA staining. In conclusion, the ASK1 inhibitor GS-459679 protected against APAP toxicity by attenuating JNK activation and oxidant stress in mice and may have therapeutic potential for APAP overdose patients. - Highlights: • Two ASK1 inhibitors protected against acetaminophen-induced liver injury. • The ASK1 inhibitors protect when used as pre- or post-treatment. • Protection by ASK1 inhibitor is

  17. Markers of Adipogenesis, but Not Inflammation, in Adipose Tissue Are Independently Related to Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulewicz, Natalia; Stefanowicz, Magdalena; Nikolajuk, Agnieszka; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika

    2017-08-01

    In obesity, adipose tissue (AT) undergoes dynamic remodeling, including an alternation in adipogenesis, AT-resident cell content, angiogenesis, and turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Studies of AT in humans have been carried out mostly in people with severe metabolic abnormalities, like type 2 diabetes or morbid obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate subcutaneous AT gene expression of markers of adipogenesis, ECM remodeling, and inflammation in young, healthy, overweight or obese subjects. The study group comprised 83 normal-weight, 48 overweight, and 19 obese subjects. Euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, biopsy of subcutaneous AT, and isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were performed. Gene expression was measured with real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overweight/obese subjects had lower AT expression of markers of adipogenesis, insulin signaling, and angiogenesis; higher expression of markers of ECM remodeling; altered expression of genes of the nuclear factor-κ-B (NFκB), but not c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, pathway; and higher expression of macrophage markers but not markers of other immune cells. In multiple regression analysis, the expression of CEBPA, ADIPOQ, IRS1, IRS2, SLC2A4, and MMP9 was associated with insulin sensitivity independently of body mass index. No differences were found in inflammatory-gene PBMC expression. Overweight/obesity is associated with altered expression of genes of adipogenesis, insulin signaling, ECM remodeling, and inflammation. NFκB seems to be the earliest inflammatory pathway altered at the transcriptional level in AT. Macrophages seem to be the first immune cells to infiltrate AT. Adipogenesis and ECM remodeling are the initial processes in AT that are independently associated with insulin sensitivity.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Gareth

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bortezomib is a highly selective, reversible inhibitor of the 26S proteasome that is indicated for single-agent use in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least 2 prior therapies and are progressing on their most recent therapy. Clinical investigations have been completed or are under way to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bortezomib alone or in combination with chemotherapy in multiple myeloma, both at relapse and presentation, as well as in other cancer types. The antiproliferative, proapoptotic, antiangiogenic, and antitumor activities of bortezomib result from proteasome inhibition and depend on the altered degradation of a host of regulatory proteins. Exposure to bortezomib has been shown to stabilize p21, p27, and p53, as well as the proapoptotic Bid and Bax proteins, caveolin-1, and inhibitor κB-α, which prevents activation of nuclear factor κB-induced cell survival pathways. Bortezomib also promoted the activation of the proapoptotic c-Jun-NH2 terminal kinase, as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. The anticancer effects of bortezomib as a single agent have been demonstrated in xenograft models of multiple myeloma, adult T-cell leukemia, lung, breast, prostate, pancreatic, head and neck, and colon cancer, and in melanoma. In these preclinical in vivo studies, bortezomib treatment resulted in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis, as well as increased survival and tumor apoptosis. In several in vitro and/or in vivo cancer models, bortezomib has also been shown to enhance the antitumor properties of several antineoplastic treatments. Importantly, bortezomib was generally well tolerated and did not appear to produce additive toxicities when combined with other therapies in the dosing regimens used in these preclinical in vivo investigations. These findings provide a rationale for further clinical trials using bortezomib alone or in combination regimens with

  19. Epstein - Barr virus transforming protein LMP-1 alters B cells gene expression by promoting accumulation of the oncoprotein ΔNp73α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosita Accardi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have proved that oncogenic viruses develop redundant mechanisms to alter the functions of the tumor suppressor p53. Here we show that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, via the oncoprotein LMP-1, induces the expression of ΔNp73α, a strong antagonist of p53. This phenomenon is mediated by the LMP-1 dependent activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK-1 which in turn favours the recruitment of p73 to ΔNp73α promoter. A specific chemical inhibitor of JNK-1 or silencing JNK-1 expression strongly down-regulated ΔNp73α mRNA levels in LMP-1-containing cells. Accordingly, LMP-1 mutants deficient to activate JNK-1 did not induce ΔNp73α accumulation. The recruitment of p73 to the ΔNp73α promoter correlated with the displacement of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2 which is part of the transcriptional repressive polycomb 2 complex. Inhibition of ΔNp73α expression in lymphoblastoid cells (LCLs led to the stimulation of apoptosis and up-regulation of a large number of cellular genes as determined by whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq. In particular, the expression of genes encoding products known to play anti-proliferative/pro-apoptotic functions, as well as genes known to be deregulated in different B cells malignancy, was altered by ΔNp73α down-regulation. Together, these findings reveal a novel EBV mechanism that appears to play an important role in the transformation of primary B cells.

  20. Celastrol attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in palmitate-mediated insulin resistance in C3A hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Tan, Joo Shun; Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham

    2017-03-15

    Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction-induced inflammation is among the convergence points for the greatest hallmarks of hepatic insulin resistance. Celastrol, an anti-inflammatory compound from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii has been reported to mitigate insulin resistance and inflammation in animal disease models. Nevertheless, the specific mechanistic actions of celastrol in modulating such improvements at the cellular level remain obscure. The present study sought to explore the mechanistic roles of celastrol upon insulin resistance induced by palmitate in C3A human hepatocytes. The hepatocytes exposed to palmitate (0.75mM) for 48h exhibited reduced both basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to increased mitochondrial oxidative stress with diminished fatty acid oxidation. Elevated expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65), c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways and the amplified release of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP were observed following palmitate treatment. Consistently, palmitate reduced and augmented phosphorylated Tyrosine-612 and Serine-307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) proteins, respectively in hepatocytes. However, celastrol at the optimum concentration of 30nM was able to reverse these deleterious occasions and protected the cells from mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Importantly, we presented evidence for the first time that celastrol efficiently prevented palmitate-induced insulin resistance in hepatocytes at least, via improved mitochondrial functions and insulin signaling pathways. In summary, the present investigation underlines a conceivable mechanism to elucidate the cytoprotective potential of celastrol in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation against the development of hepatic insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation by suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jun, E-mail: hustzhj@hust.edu.cn; Xu, Gang; Ma, Shuai; Li, Fen; Yuan, Miao; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2015-11-27

    Catalpol, a bioactive component from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, has been shown to possess hypoglycemic effects in type 2 diabetic animal models, however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the effect of catalpol on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation in mice. Oral administration of catalpol at 100 mg/kg for 4 weeks had no effect on body weight of HFD-induced obese mice, but it significantly improved fasting glucose and insulin levels, glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Moreover, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue was markedly reduced by catalpol. Intriguingly, catalpol also significantly reduced mRNA expressions of M1 pro-inflammatory cytokines, but increased M2 anti-inflammatory gene expressions in adipose tissue. Concurrently, catalpol significantly suppressed the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that catalpol may ameliorate HFD-induced insulin resistance in mice by attenuating adipose tissue inflammation and suppressing the JNK and NF-κB pathways, and thus provide important new insights into the underlying mechanisms of the antidiabetic effect of catalpol. - Highlights: • Catalpol ameliorates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice. • Catalpol reduces adipose tissue macrophage infiltration in HFD-fed mice. • Catalpol regulates M1 and M2 inflammatory gene expression in obese adipose tissue. • Catalpol suppresses the JNK and NF-κB signaling pathways in obese adipose tissue.

  2. Growth hormone secretagogues preserve the electrophysiological properties of mouse cardiomyocytes isolated from in vitro ischemia/reperfusion heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhang, Lin; Launikonis, Bradley S; Chen, Chen

    2012-11-01

    Ischemic heart diseases often induce cardiac arrhythmia with irregular cardiac action potential (AP). This study aims to demonstrate that GH secretagogues (GHS) ghrelin and its synthetic analog hexarelin can preserve the electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes experiencing ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Isolated hearts from adult male mice underwent 20 min global ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Ghrelin (10 nM) or hexarelin (1 nM) was administered in the perfusion solution either 10 min before or after ischemia, termed pre- or posttreatments. Cardiomyocytes isolated from these hearts were used for whole-cell patch clamping to measure AP, voltage-gated L-type calcium current (I(CaL)), transient outward potassium current (I(to)), and sodium current (I(Na)). AP amplitude and duration were significantly decreased by I/R, but GHS treatments maintained their normality. GHS treatments prevented the decrease in I(CaL) and I(Na) after I/R, thereby maintaining AP amplitude. Although the significant increase in I(to) after I/R partially explained the shortened AP duration, the normalization of it by GHS treatments might contribute to the preservation of AP duration. Phosphorylated p38 and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase and the downstream active caspase-9 in the cellular apoptosis pathway were significantly increased after I/R but not when GHS treatments were included, whereas phosphorylation of ERK1/2 associated with cell survival showed increase after I/R and a further increase after GHS treatments by binding to its receptor GHS receptor type 1a. These results suggest GHS can not only preserve the electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes after I/R but also inhibit cardiomyocyte apoptosis and promote cell survival by modification of MAPK pathways through activating GHS receptor type 1a.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Testing Registry: Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 deficiency Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (1 link) Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Phosphoglycerate Kinase Deficiency (PDF) General Information ...

  4. Citron kinase - renaissance of a neglected mitotic kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avino, Pier Paolo

    2017-05-15

    Cell division controls the faithful segregation of genomic and cytoplasmic materials between the two nascent daughter cells. Members of the Aurora, Polo and cyclin-dependent (Cdk) kinase families are known to regulate multiple events throughout cell division, whereas another kinase, citron kinase (CIT-K), for a long time has been considered to function solely during cytokinesis, the last phase of cell division. CIT-K was originally proposed to regulate the ingression of the cleavage furrow that forms at the equatorial cortex of the dividing cell after chromosome segregation. However, studies in the last decade have clarified that this kinase is, instead, required for the organization of the midbody in late cytokinesis, and also revealed novel functions of CIT-K earlier in mitosis and in DNA damage control. Moreover, CIT-K mutations have recently been linked to the development of human microcephaly, and CIT-K has been identified as a potential target in cancer therapy. In this Commentary, I describe and re-evaluate the functions and regulation of CIT-K during cell division and its involvement in human disease. Finally, I offer my perspectives on the open questions and future challenges that are necessary to address, in order to fully understand this important and yet unjustly neglected mitotic kinase. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Dihydrolipoic Acid Inhibits Lysosomal Rupture and NLRP3 Through Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein-1/Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II/TAK1 Pathways After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Keren; Enkhjargal, Budbazar; Xie, Zhiyi; Sun, Chengmei; Wu, Lingyun; Malaguit, Jay; Chen, Sheng; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, John H

    2018-01-01

    The NLRP3 (nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome is a crucial component of the inflammatory response in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated a role of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) in lysosomal rupture, NLRP3 activation, and determined the underlying pathway. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in male Sprague-Dawley rats. DHLA was administered intraperitoneally 1 hour after SAH. Small interfering RNA for lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 and CaMKIIα (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α) was administered through intracerebroventricular 48 hours before SAH induction. SAH grade evaluation, short- and long-term neurological function testing, Western blot, and immunofluorescence staining experiments were performed. DHLA treatment increased the expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 and decreased phosphorylated CaMKIIα and NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby alleviating neurological deficits after SAH. Lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 small interfering RNA abolished the neuroprotective effects of DHLA and increased the level of phosphorylated CaMKIIα, p-TAK1 (phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase), p-JNK (phosphorylated c-Jun-N-terminal kinase), and NLRP3 inflammasome. CaMKIIα small interfering RNA downregulated the expression of p-TAK1, p-JNK, and NLRP3 and improved the neurobehavior after SAH. DHLA treatment improved neurofunction and alleviated inflammation through the lysosome-associated membrane protein-1/CaMKII/TAK1 pathway in early brain injury after SAH. DHLA may provide a promising treatment to alleviate early brain injury after SAH. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Cardiac signaling molecules and plasma biomarkers after cardiac transplantation: impact of tacrolimus versus cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michel; Cantin, Bernard; Haddad, Haissam; Kobashigawa, Jon A; Ross, Heather; Carrier, Michel; Pflugfelder, Peter W; Isaac, Debra; Cecere, Renzo; Whittom, Lucette; Ali, Imtiaz S; Wang, Shao-Hua; He, Ying; Groulx, Adrienne; Touyz, Rhian M

    2013-12-01

    We investigated cardiac proinflammatory, mitogenic, and apoptotic signaling events, and plasma biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in de novo adult cardiac transplant (CTX) patients receiving tacrolimus (TAC) or cyclosporine A (CsA). One hundred CTX recipients were randomized 1:1 to TAC/CsA in a prospective, randomized open-label multicenter study. Biomarkers of inflammation, immunity, oxidative stress, and cardiac signaling underlying growth and inflammation (extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases [MEK] 1/2 and 3/6, c-Src), and apoptosis and survival (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases [JNK], Bax/Bcl2, Akt) were assessed at 2, 4, 12, 26, and 52 weeks post-CTX. Plasma from healthy controls (n = 30) and tissue from explanted non-failing hearts (n = 6) were used as controls. Biomarkers of inflammation/immunity (interleukin -6 and -18, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule, E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, osteopontin, fibrinogen, N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide, high-sensitive C-reactive protein) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nitrotyrosine) were increased, and antioxidant capacity was (glutathione/glutathione disulfide) decreased in patients vs healthy controls (p transplanted vs non-transplanted hearts. Except for plasma fibrinogen, which was lower in TAC vs. CsA, (p = 0.01), there were no significant differences in parameters studied between TAC vs CsA immunoprophylaxis. De novo CTX recipients exhibit significant sub-clinical inflammation and oxidative stress that persists 12 months after transplantation. Associated with this is activation of myocardial growth and inflammatory signaling and decreased apoptosis. Our findings suggest that CTX is an inflammatory condition associated with oxidative stress and myocardial growth regardless of CsA or TAC immunoprophylaxis and independently of rejection status. © 2013

  7. Structure of the pseudokinase–kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, Patrick J.; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R.; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase–kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and “exon 12” JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state. PMID:24843152

  8. Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupardus, Patrick J; Ultsch, Mark; Wallweber, Heidi; Bir Kohli, Pawan; Johnson, Adam R; Eigenbrot, Charles

    2014-06-03

    Janus kinases (JAKs) are receptor-associated multidomain tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. JAK kinase activity is regulated by the adjacent pseudokinase domain via an unknown mechanism. Here, we report the 2.8-Å structure of the two-domain pseudokinase-kinase module from the JAK family member TYK2 in its autoinhibited form. We find that the pseudokinase and kinase interact near the kinase active site and that most reported mutations in cancer-associated JAK alleles cluster in or near this interface. Mutation of residues near the TYK2 interface that are analogous to those in cancer-associated JAK alleles, including the V617F and "exon 12" JAK2 mutations, results in increased kinase activity in vitro. These data indicate that JAK pseudokinases are autoinhibitory domains that hold the kinase domain inactive until receptor dimerization stimulates transition to an active state.

  9. Cytokine-induced loss of glucocorticoid function: effect of kinase inhibitors, long-acting β(2-adrenoceptor [corrected] agonist and glucocorticoid receptor ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Rider

    Full Text Available Acting on the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1, glucocorticoids are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases. However, glucocorticoid resistance often leads to suboptimal asthma control. Since glucocorticoid-induced gene expression contributes to glucocorticoid activity, the aim of this study was to use a 2 × glucocorticoid response element (GRE reporter and glucocorticoid-induced gene expression to investigate approaches to combat cytokine-induced glucocorticoid resistance. Pre-treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF or interleukin-1β inhibited dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of the putative anti-inflammatory genes RGS2 and TSC22D3, or just TSC22D3, in primary human airway epithelial and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Dexamethasone-induced DUSP1 mRNA was unaffected. In human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells, dexamethasone-induced TSC22D3 and CDKN1C expression (at 6 h was reduced by TNF pre-treatment, whereas DUSP1 and RGS2 mRNAs were unaffected. TNF pre-treatment also reduced dexamethasone-dependent 2×GRE reporter activation. This was partially reversed by PS-1145 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK inhibitor VIII, inhibitors of IKK2 and JNK, respectively. However, neither inhibitor affected TNF-dependent loss of dexamethasone-induced CDKN1C or TSC22D3 mRNA. Similarly, inhibitors of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, phosphoinositide 3-kinase or protein kinase C pathways failed to attenuate TNF-dependent repression of the 2×GRE reporter. Fluticasone furoate, fluticasone propionate and budesonide were full agonists relative to dexamethasone, while GSK9027, RU24858, des-ciclesonide and GW870086X were partial agonists on the 2×GRE reporter. TNF reduced reporter activity in proportion with agonist efficacy. Full and partial agonists showed various degrees of agonism on RGS2 and TSC22D3 expression, but were equally effective at inducing CDKN1C and DUSP1, and did not affect the repression of CDKN1C or TSC22D3

  10. Association of apoptosis with the inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase activity in the tumor necrosis factor alpha-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line UCI 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazlovitskaya, E M; Pelling, J C; Persons, D L

    1999-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) can function as both an autocrine and a paracrine growth factor and may therefore play a role in ovarian tumor progression. TNF alpha initiates multiple cellular responses, many of which are mediated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which transduce signals from the TNF alpha receptors through the cytoplasm to the nucleus, resulting in regulation of gene expression. We examined the role of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1 and 2 in the cellular growth response to TNF alpha in the ovarian carcinoma cell line UCI 101. JNK1 activity was increased to a maximum level ninefold above the basal level after 10-20 min of treatment with 10 ng/mL TNF alpha. A maximum threefold induction of ERK1/2 activity was observed after 1 min of treatment. At concentrations up to 100 ng/mL, TNF alpha had neither a stimulatory nor an inhibitory effect on growth of UCI 101 cells. However, inhibition of TNF alpha-induced ERK1/2 activity by the MAP/ERK kinase 1 inhibitor PD 98059 resulted in 60% inhibition of cell growth in TNF alpha-treated UCI 101 cells. This decrease in cell growth was accompanied by apoptosis, as demonstrated by the presence of a 180-bp DNA ladder. Thus, the inhibition of TNF alpha-induced ERK1/2 activity was associated with induction of apoptosis in the TNF alpha-resistant cell line UCI 101. Inhibition of TNF alpha-induced ERK1/2 activity was accompanied by a subsequent transient increase in TNF alpha-induced JNK1 activity. The significance of this increase with respect to apoptosis induction remains to be determined. These findings demonstrated that ERK1/2 activity can modulate cellular sensitivity to TNF alpha and suggested that the balance between the levels of ERK1/2 and JNK1 activation may be critical in the cellular growth response to TNF alpha.

  11. Acrolein-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling is mediated by alkylation of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Randall

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a major health concern worldwide, and many of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke (CS can be attributed to its abundant electrophilic aldehydes, such as acrolein (2-propenal. Previous studies indicate that acrolein readily reacts with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1, a critical enzyme involved in regulation of thioredoxin (Trx-mediated redox signaling, by alkylation at its selenocysteine (Sec residue. Because alkylation of Sec within TrxR1 has significant implications for its enzymatic function, we explored the potential importance of TrxR1 alkylation in acrolein-induced activation or injury of bronchial epithelial cells. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial HBE1 cells to acrolein (1–30 μM resulted in dose-dependent loss of TrxR thioredoxin reductase activity, which coincided with its alkylation, as determined by biotin hydrazide labeling, and was independent of initial GSH status. To test the involvement of TrxR1 in acrolein responses in HBE1 cells, we suppressed TrxR1 using siRNA silencing or augmented TrxR1 by cell supplementation with sodium selenite. Acrolein exposure of HBE1 cells induced dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinases, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and p38, and activation of JNK was markedly enhanced after selenite-mediated induction of TrxR1, and was associated with increased alkylation of TrxR1. Conversely, siRNA silencing of TrxR1 significantly suppressed the ability of acrolein to activate JNK, and also appeared to attenuate acrolein-dependent activation of ERK and p38. Alteration of initial TrxR1 levels by siRNA or selenite supplementation also affected initial Trx1 redox status and acrolein-mediated alkylation of Trx1, but did not significantly affect acrolein-mediated activation of HO-1 or cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings indicate that alkylation of TrxR1 and/or Trx1 may contribute directly to acrolein-mediated activation of MAP kinases

  12. Anticancer Alkaloid Lamellarins Inhibit Protein Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Meijer

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lamellarins, a family of hexacyclic pyrrole alkaloids originally isolated from marine invertebrates, display promising anti-tumor activity. They induce apoptotic cell death through multi-target mechanisms, including inhibition of topoisomerase I, interaction with DNA and direct effects on mitochondria. We here report that lamellarins inhibit several protein kinases relevant to cancer such as cyclin-dependent kinases, dualspecificity tyrosine phosphorylation activated kinase 1A, casein kinase 1, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and PIM-1. A good correlation is observed between the effects of lamellarins on protein kinases and their action on cell death, suggesting that inhibition of specific kinases may contribute to the cytotoxicity of lamellarins. Structure/activity relationship suggests several paths for the optimization of lamellarins as kinase inhibitors.

  13. A multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders R.; Girandon, Lenart; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases catalyze the rate limiting step during the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides and convert them into the corresponding monophosphate compounds. We have identified and characterized a unique multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase from plants. The phylogenetic relationshi...

  14. A multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Anders Ranegaard; Girandon, Lenart; Knecht, Wolfgang; Survery, Sabeen; Andreasson, Erik; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Piskur, Jure

    2008-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases catalyze the rate limiting step during the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides and convert them into the corresponding monophosphate compounds. We have identified and characterized a unique multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase from plants. The phylogenetic relationship and biochemical properties suggest that this deoxyribonucleoside kinase represents a living fossil resembling the progenitor of the modern animal deoxycytidine, deoxyguanosine and thymidine 2 kinases. The broad substrate specificity makes this enzyme an interesting candidate to be evaluated as a suicide gene in anti-cancer therapy.

  15. Role of calcium in the expression of MAP kinase kinases (MKKs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important intracellular signaling module that functions as a convergent point for crosstalk during stress signaling. In this study, we constructed a phylogenetic tree for MAP kinase kinases (MKKs) and MAP kinases (MPKs) in Arabidopsis and Lycopersicon ...

  16. The alpha-kinase family: an exceptional branch on the protein kinase tree.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelbeek, J.A.J.; Clark, K.; Venselaar, H.; Huynen, M.A.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2010-01-01

    The alpha-kinase family represents a class of atypical protein kinases that display little sequence similarity to conventional protein kinases. Early studies on myosin heavy chain kinases in Dictyostelium discoideum revealed their unusual propensity to phosphorylate serine and threonine residues in

  17. Cymbopogon citratus as source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs: bio-guided assay using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Vera; Figueirinha, Artur; Neves, Bruno Miguel; García-Rodríguez, Carmen; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Batista, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-27

    Aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (Cy) leaves are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions, however, little is known about their mechanism of action. The aim of this study is to explore the anti-inflammatory properties of Cymbopogon citratus leaves and their polyphenol-rich fractions (PFs), as well its mechanism of action in murine macrophages. A lipid- and essential oil-free infusion of Cy leaves was prepared (Cy extract) and fractionated by column chromatography. Anti-inflammatory properties of Cy extract (1.115 mg/ml) and its PFs, namely phenolic acids (530 μg/ml), flavonoids (97.5 μg/ml) and tannins (78 μg/ml), were investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages as in vitro model. As inflammatory parameters, nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated by Griess reaction, as well as effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression and on intracellular signaling pathways activation, which were analyzed by Western blot using specific antibodies. Cy extract inhibited iNOS expression, NO production and various LPS-induced pathways like p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 and the transcription nuclear factor (NF)-κB. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation were not affected by Cy extract. Both phenolic acid- and tannin-rich fractions significantly inhibited NF-κB activation, iNOS expression and NO production but none of the PFs modulated MAPKs or PI3K/Akt activation. Neither Cy extract nor PFs affected LPS-induced COX-2 expression but LPS-induced PGE(2) production is inhibited by Cy extract and by phenolic acid-rich fraction. Our data provide evidence that support the usage of Cymbopogon citratus leaves extract in traditional medicine, and suggest that Cy, in particular its polyphenolic compounds, could constitute a natural source of a new and safe

  18. α-Lipoic Acid Inhibits Expression of IL-8 by Suppressing Activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-Infected Gastric Epithelial AGS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Hyun; Cho, Soon Ok; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial cytokine response, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), is important in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced inflammation. H. pylori induces the production of ROS, which may be involved in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (Jak/Stat), and oxidant-sensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and thus, expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in gastric epithelial cells. α-lipoic acid, a naturally occurring thiol compound, is a potential antioxidant. It shows beneficial effects in treatment of oxidant-associated diseases including diabetes. The present study is purposed to investigate whether α-lipoic acid inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokine IL-8 by suppressing activation of MAPK, Jak/Stat, and NF-κB in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Gastric epithelial AGS cells were pretreated with or without α-lipoic acid for 2 h and infected with H. pylori in a Korean isolate (HP99) at a ratio of 300:1. IL-8 mRNA expression was analyzed by RT-PCR analysis. IL-8 levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-κB-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Phospho-specific and total forms of MAPK and Jak/Stat were assessed by Western blot analysis. ROS levels were determined using dichlorofluorescein fluorescence. As a result, H. pylori induced increases in ROS levels, mRNA, and protein levels of IL-8, as well as the activation of MAPK [extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), p38], Jak/Stat (Jak1/2, Stat3), and NF-κB in AGS cells, which was inhibited by α-lipoic acid. In conclusion, α-lipoic acid may be beneficial for prevention and/or treatment of H. pylori infection-associated gastric inflammation.

  19. Angiotensin II increases CTGF expression via MAPKs/TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in atrial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xu, E-mail: xkliuxu@yahoo.cn [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Quan-xing, E-mail: shmywqx@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Tan, Hong-wei [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Guo, Meng [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Wei-feng; Zhou, Li [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2012-10-01

    The activation of transforming growth factor-{beta}1(TGF-{beta}1)/Smad signaling pathway and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by angiotensin II (AngII) have been proposed as a mechanism for atrial fibrosis. However, whether TGF{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways involved in AngII-induced fibrogenetic factor expression remained unknown. Recently tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/TGF{beta}-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) has been shown to be crucial for the activation of TGF-{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the role of TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression in cultured adult atrial fibroblasts. AngII (1 {mu}M) provoked the activation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). AngII (1 {mu}M) also promoted TGF{beta}1, TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which were suppressed by angiotensin type I receptor antagonist (Losartan) as well as p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Meanwhile, both TGF{beta}1 antibody and TRAF6 siRNA decreased the stimulatory effect of AngII on TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which also attenuated AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. In summary, the MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway is an important signaling pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression, and inhibition of TRAF6 may therefore represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced CTGF expression in atrial fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 may represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis.

  20. A Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase mediates reactive oxygen species homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagami, Hirofumi; Soukupová, Hanka; Schikora, Adam; Zárský, Viktor; Hirt, Heribert

    2006-12-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) play key roles in intra- and extracellular signaling in eukaryotes. Here we report that the MAPKKK MEKK1 regulates redox homeostasis in Arabidopsis. We show that MEKK1-deficient plants are misregulated in the expression of a number of genes involved in cellular redox control and accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Most strikingly, homozygous mekk1 mutant plants exhibit a lethal phenotype when developing true leaves. MEKK1 kinase activity and protein stability was regulated by H(2)O(2) in a proteasome-dependent manner and mekk1 plants were compromised in ROS-induced MAPK MPK4 activation. Whereas mpk3 and mpk6 knock out plants showed no defects in development or changes in redox control genes, mpk4 null mutant shared several phenotypic and transcript profile features with mekk1 plants. In agreement with the concept that ROS negatively regulates auxin responses in plants, mekk1 and mpk4 mutants show reduced expression of several auxin-inducible marker genes. Overall, our data defines MPK4 as downstream target of MEKK1 and show that MEKK1 functions in integrating ROS homeostasis with plant development and hormone signaling.

  1. The JAK kinases: not just another kinase drug discovery target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Andrew F

    2008-08-01

    There are four members of the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in the human genome. Since their discovery in 1989, great strides have been made in the understanding of their role in normal intracellular signalling. Importantly, their roles in pathologies ranging from cancer to immune deficiencies have placed them front and centre as potential drug targets. The recent discovery of the role of activating mutations in the kinase-like domain (KLD) of JAK2 in the development of polycythemia rubra vera, and the elaboration of KLD mutation as a broader mechanism by which cells might become hyperproliferative has sparked enormous interest in the development of JAK selective drug candidates. I review herein the progress that has been made in the discovery of JAK-targeted inhibitors, and discuss the challenges that face the development of these drugs for use in the clinic.

  2. Inhibitors of unactivated p38 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, James; Argentieri, Dennis; Averill, Kristin; Carter, Demetrius; Cavender, Druie; Fahmy, Bohumila; Fan, Xiaodong; Hall, Daniel; Heintzelman, Geoffrey; Jackson, Paul; Leung, Wai-Ping; Li, Xun; Ling, Ping; Olini, Gilbert; Razler, Thomas; Reuman, Michael; Rupert, Kenneth; Russell, Ronald; Siekierka, John; Wadsworth, Scott; Wolff, Russell; Xiang, Bangping; Zhang, Yue-Mei

    2006-12-01

    Inhibition of the p38 map kinase pathway has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The first class of potent p38 kinase inhibitors was the pyridinylimidazole compounds from SKB. Since then several pyridinylimidazole-based compounds have been shown to inhibit activated p38 kinase in vitro and in vivo. We have developed a novel series of pyridinylimidazole-based compounds, which potently inhibit the p38 pathway by binding to unactivated p38 kinase and only weakly inhibiting activated p38 kinase activity in vitro.

  3. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  4. DMPD: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signalling? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15081522 Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signall...ruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signalling? PubmedID 15081522 Title Bruton...'s tyrosine kinase (Btk)-the critical tyrosine kinase in LPS signalling? Authors

  5. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-activated kinase 1 (TAK1 blocks and reverses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Strippoli

    Full Text Available Peritoneal fibrosis is a frequent complication of peritoneal dialysis following repeated low grade inflammatory and pro-fibrotic insults. This pathological process may lead to ultrafiltration failure and eventually to the discontinuing of the therapy. Fibrosis is linked to epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT of the peritoneal mesothelial cells, which acquire invasive and fibrogenic abilities. Here, we analyzed the role of the transforming growth factor-activated kinase-1 (TAK1 in the EMT of primary mesothelial cells from human peritoneum. The inhibition of TAK1 in mesenchymal-like mesothelial cells from the effluents of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis led to the reacquisition of the apical to basolateral polarity, to increased expression of epithelial and to down-regulation of mesenchymal markers. TAK1 inhibition also resulted in decreased migratory/invasive abilities of effluent-derived mesothelial cells. Simultaneous inhibition of ERK1/2 and TAK1 pathways did not lead to an additive effect in the reacquisition of the epithelial phenotype. Inhibition of TAK1 also blocked EMT in vitro and reduced the levels of PAI-1, which is involved in fibrosis and invasion. Analysis of signalling pathways downstream of TAK1 involved in EMT induction, showed that TAK1 inhibition reduced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB and Smad3, as well as the phosphorylation of c-jun, while enhancing Smad1-5-8 activity. These results demonstrate that TAK1 is a cross-point in a network including different pro-EMT transcription factors, such as NF-κB, Snail, AP-1 and Smads. The identification of TAK1 as a main biochemical mediator of EMT and fibrosis in mesothelial cells from human peritoneum and the study of signalling pathways induced by its activity may be relevant in the design of new therapies aimed to counteract peritoneal fibrosis.

  6. Dietary turmeric modulates DMBA-induced p21ras, MAP kinases and AP-1/NF-kappaB pathway to alter cellular responses during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Ingle, Arvind; Maru, Girish

    2008-11-01

    The chemopreventive efficacy of turmeric has been established in experimental systems. However, its mechanism(s) of action are not fully elucidated in vivo. The present study investigates the mechanism of turmeric-mediated chemoprevention in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis at 2, 4, 6, 10 and 12 weeks. Dietary turmeric (1%) led to decrease in DMBA-induced tumor burden and multiplicity, and enhanced the latency period in parallel, to its modulatory effects on oncogene products and various cellular responses during HBP tumorigenesis. DMBA-induced expression of ras oncogene product, p21 and downstream target, the mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly decreased by turmeric during HBP carcinogenesis. Turmeric also diminished the DMBA-induced mRNA expression of proto-oncogenes (c-jun, c-fos) and NF-kappaB, leading to decreased protein levels and in further attenuation of DMBA-induced AP-1/NF-kappaB DNA-binding in the buccal pouch nuclear extracts. Besides, buccal pouch of hamsters receiving turmeric diet showed significant alterations in DMBA-induced effects: (a) decrease in cell proliferation (diminished PCNA and Bcl2 expression), (b) enhanced apoptosis (increased expression of Bax, caspase-3 and apoptotic index), (c) decrease in inflammation (levels of Cox-2, the downstream target of AP-1/NF-kappaB, and PGE2) and (d) aberrant expression of differentiation markers, the cytokeratins (1, 5, 8, and 18). Together, the protective effects of dietary turmeric converge on augmenting apoptosis of the initiated cells and decreasing cell proliferation in DMBA-treated animals, which in turn, is reflected in decreased tumor burden, multiplicity and enhanced latency period. Some of these biomarkers are likely to be helpful in monitoring clinical trials and evaluating drug effect measurements.

  7. A proteomic approach for comprehensively screening substrates of protein kinases such as Rho-kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutsuki Amano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein kinases are major components of signal transduction pathways in multiple cellular processes. Kinases directly interact with and phosphorylate downstream substrates, thus modulating their functions. Despite the importance of identifying substrates in order to more fully understand the signaling network of respective kinases, efficient methods to search for substrates remain poorly explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined mass spectrometry and affinity column chromatography of the catalytic domain of protein kinases to screen potential substrates. Using the active catalytic fragment of Rho-kinase/ROCK/ROK as the model bait, we obtained about 300 interacting proteins from the rat brain cytosol fraction, which included the proteins previously reported as Rho-kinase substrates. Several novel interacting proteins, including doublecortin, were phosphorylated by Rho-kinase both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This method would enable identification of novel specific substrates for kinases such as Rho-kinase with high sensitivity.

  8. Nicotine stimulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression and cell invasiveness through mitogen-activated protein kinase and reactive oxygen species signaling in ECV304 endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoi, Pham Ngoc; Park, Jung Sun; Kim, Nam Ho; Jung, Young Do, E-mail: ydjung@chonnam.ac.kr

    2012-03-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression is elevated during inflammation, tissue remodeling and in many human cancers. This study investigated the effect of nicotine, a major alkaloid in tobacco, on uPAR expression and cell invasiveness in ECV304 endothelial cells. Nicotine stimulated uPAR expression in a dose-dependent manner and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (Erk-1/2), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Specific inhibitors of MEK-1 (PD98059) and JNK (SP600125) inhibited the nicotine-induced uPAR expression, while the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 did not. Expression vectors encoding dominant negative MEK-1 (pMCL-K97M) and JNK (TAM67) also prevented nicotine-induced uPAR promoter activity. The intracellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content was increased by nicotine treatment. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine prevented nicotine-activated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and uPAR expression. Furthermore, exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased uPAR mRNA expression. Deleted and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated the involvement of the binding sites of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein (AP)-1 in the nicotine-induced uPAR expression. Studies with expression vectors encoding mutated NF-κB signaling molecules and AP-1 decoy confirmed that NF-κB and AP-1 were essential for the nicotine-stimulated uPAR expression. MAPK (Erk-1/2 and JNK) and ROS functioned as upstream signaling molecules in the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, respectively. In addition, ECV304 endothelial cells treated with nicotine displayed markedly enhanced invasiveness, which was partially abrogated by uPAR neutralizing antibodies. The data indicate that nicotine induces uPAR expression via the MAPK/AP-1 and ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways and, in turn, stimulates invasiveness in human ECV304 endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► Endothelial cells

  9. Phosphorylation of Icariin Can Alleviate the Oxidative Stress Caused by the Duck Hepatitis Virus A through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xiong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The duck virus hepatitis (DVH caused by the duck hepatitis virus A (DHAV has produced extensive economic losses to the duck industry. The currently licensed commercial vaccine has shown some defects and does not completely prevent the DVH. Accordingly, a new alternative treatment for this disease is urgently needed. Previous studies have shown that icariin (ICA and its phosphorylated derivative (pICA possessed good anti-DHAV effects through direct and indirect antiviral pathways, such as antioxidative stress. But the antioxidant activity showed some differences between ICA and pICA. The aim of this study is to prove that ICA and pICA attenuate oxidative stress caused by DHAV in vitro and in vivo, and to investigate their mechanism of action to explain their differences in antioxidant activities. In vivo, the dynamic deaths, oxidative evaluation indexes and hepatic pathological change scores were detected. When was added the hinokitiol which showed the pro-oxidative effect as an intervention method, pICA still possessed more treatment effect than ICA. The strong correlation between mortality and oxidative stress proves that ICA and pICA alleviate oxidative stress caused by DHAV. This was also demonstrated by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as an intervention method in vitro. pICA can be more effective than ICA to improve duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs viability and reduce the virulence of DHAV. The strong correlation between TCID50 and oxidative stress demonstrates that ICA and pICA can achieve anti-DHAV effects by inhibiting oxidative stress. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px of ICA and pICA showed significant difference. pICA could significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of p38, extra cellular signal regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, which were related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling pathways. Ultimately, compared to ICA, pICA exhibited more

  10. Phosphorylation of Icariin Can Alleviate the Oxidative Stress Caused by the Duck Hepatitis Virus A through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Wenjuan; Du, Hongxu; Ming, Ke; Yao, Fangke; Bai, Jingying; Chen, Yun; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Wu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The duck virus hepatitis (DVH) caused by the duck hepatitis virus A (DHAV) has produced extensive economic losses to the duck industry. The currently licensed commercial vaccine has shown some defects and does not completely prevent the DVH. Accordingly, a new alternative treatment for this disease is urgently needed. Previous studies have shown that icariin (ICA) and its phosphorylated derivative (pICA) possessed good anti-DHAV effects through direct and indirect antiviral pathways, such as antioxidative stress. But the antioxidant activity showed some differences between ICA and pICA. The aim of this study is to prove that ICA and pICA attenuate oxidative stress caused by DHAV in vitro and in vivo, and to investigate their mechanism of action to explain their differences in antioxidant activities. In vivo, the dynamic deaths, oxidative evaluation indexes and hepatic pathological change scores were detected. When was added the hinokitiol which showed the pro-oxidative effect as an intervention method, pICA still possessed more treatment effect than ICA. The strong correlation between mortality and oxidative stress proves that ICA and pICA alleviate oxidative stress caused by DHAV. This was also demonstrated by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intervention method in vitro. pICA can be more effective than ICA to improve duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs) viability and reduce the virulence of DHAV. The strong correlation between TCID50 and oxidative stress demonstrates that ICA and pICA can achieve anti-DHAV effects by inhibiting oxidative stress. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of ICA and pICA showed significant difference. pICA could significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of p38, extra cellular signal regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which were related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways. Ultimately, compared to ICA, pICA exhibited more

  11. Phosphorylation of Icariin Can Alleviate the Oxidative Stress Caused by the Duck Hepatitis Virus A through Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yuan, Wenjuan; Du, Hongxu; Ming, Ke; Yao, Fangke; Bai, Jingying; Chen, Yun; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Wu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    The duck virus hepatitis (DVH) caused by the duck hepatitis virus A (DHAV) has produced extensive economic losses to the duck industry. The currently licensed commercial vaccine has shown some defects and does not completely prevent the DVH. Accordingly, a new alternative treatment for this disease is urgently needed. Previous studies have shown that icariin (ICA) and its phosphorylated derivative (pICA) possessed good anti-DHAV effects through direct and indirect antiviral pathways, such as antioxidative stress. But the antioxidant activity showed some differences between ICA and pICA. The aim of this study is to prove that ICA and pICA attenuate oxidative stress caused by DHAV in vitro and in vivo, and to investigate their mechanism of action to explain their differences in antioxidant activities. In vivo, the dynamic deaths, oxidative evaluation indexes and hepatic pathological change scores were detected. When was added the hinokitiol which showed the pro-oxidative effect as an intervention method, pICA still possessed more treatment effect than ICA. The strong correlation between mortality and oxidative stress proves that ICA and pICA alleviate oxidative stress caused by DHAV. This was also demonstrated by the addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an intervention method in vitro. pICA can be more effective than ICA to improve duck embryonic hepatocytes (DEHs) viability and reduce the virulence of DHAV. The strong correlation between TCID50 and oxidative stress demonstrates that ICA and pICA can achieve anti-DHAV effects by inhibiting oxidative stress. In addition, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of ICA and pICA showed significant difference. pICA could significantly inhibit the phosphorylation of p38, extra cellular signal regulated Kinase (ERK 1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which were related to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathways. Ultimately, compared to ICA, pICA exhibited more

  12. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1 signaling regulates TGF-β-induced WNT-5A expression in airway smooth muscle cells via Sp1 and β-catenin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Kumawat

    Full Text Available WNT-5A, a key player in embryonic development and post-natal homeostasis, has been associated with a myriad of pathological conditions including malignant, fibroproliferative and inflammatory disorders. Previously, we have identified WNT-5A as a transcriptional target of TGF-β in airway smooth muscle cells and demonstrated its function as a mediator of airway remodeling. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced WNT-5A expression. We show that TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1 is a critical mediator of WNT-5A expression as its pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated silencing reduced TGF-β induction of WNT-5A. Furthermore, we show that TAK1 engages p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK signaling which redundantly participates in WNT-5A induction as only simultaneous, but not individual, inhibition of p38 and JNK suppressed TGF-β-induced WNT-5A expression. Remarkably, we demonstrate a central role of β-catenin in TGF-β-induced WNT-5A expression. Regulated by TAK1, β-catenin is required for WNT-5A induction as its silencing repressed WNT-5A expression whereas a constitutively active mutant augmented basal WNT-5A abundance. Furthermore, we identify Sp1 as the transcription factor for WNT-5A and demonstrate its interaction with β-catenin. We discover that Sp1 is recruited to the WNT-5A promoter in a TGF-β-induced and TAK1-regulated manner. Collectively, our findings describe a TAK1-dependent, β-catenin- and Sp1-mediated signaling cascade activated downstream of TGF-β which regulates WNT-5A induction.

  13. Dusp14 protects against hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury via Tak1 suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaozhan; Mao, Wenzhe; Fang, Chun; Tian, Song; Zhu, Xueyong; Yang, Ling; Huang, Zan; Li, Hongliang

    2017-09-06

    Hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterised by severe inflammation and extensive cell death. Multiple signalling pathways, including NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), have important roles in this process. Identifying the unknown critical regulators of these signalling pathways could provide potential targets for therapeutic application. Dual-specificity phosphatase 14 (DUSP14) acts as a negative regulator of NF-κB signalling. However, its function in hepatic I/R injury is unknown. Hepatocyte-specific Dusp14 knockout (HKO) and transgenic (TG) mice were subjected to hepatic I/R surgery to examine Dusp14 function in vivo. Primary hepatocytes isolated from Dusp14-HKO and Dusp14-TG mice were cultured and subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation insult in vitro. Inflammatory cytokine production was measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR and ELISA. Liver damage was analysed using histopathology. Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays followed by Western blot were performed to detect Dusp14 and transforming growth factor (Tgf)-β-activated kinase 1 (Tak1) interactions. Dusp14 was significantly downregulated in liver tissues from liver transplantation patients and mice subjected to hepatic I/R surgery. Dusp14-HKO and Dusp14-TG mouse models demonstrated that Dusp14 reduced cell death, ameliorated inflammation, and promoted hepatocyte proliferation and/or regeneration. Dusp14 also suppressed NF-κB and MAPK signalling via a physical interaction with Tak1, leading to its subsequent inhibition. Tak1 inhibition by 5Z-7-ox abolished Dusp14 function in vivo, indicating that TAK1 is required for Dusp14 function in hepatic I/R injury. Finally, mutant Dusp14 lost the ability to bind Tak1 and failed to protect against hepatic I/R injury. Dusp14 is a protective factor in hepatic I/R injury, and the Dusp14-Tak1-Jnk1/2 regulatory axis is important for the pathogenesis of hepatic I/R injury. Modulation of

  14. In vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory effects of hot water extracts from the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Seung-Jun; Rim, Hong-Kun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Jung, Ji-Yun; Heo, Jin-Sun; Kim, Jong-Bok; Lee, Myung-Suk; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2013-08-26

    Artemisia princeps Pampanini (Asteraceae) is used as a traditional medicine to immune function-related diseases, such as dysmenorrhea, inflammation, cancer, and ulcers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of the hot water extract from the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pampanini (WAPP) in recombinant interferon-γ (rIFN-γ)-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages and in cyclophosphamide (20mg/kg, i.p.)-induced immunosuppressed Sprague-Dawley rats. RAW 264.7 macrophages were treated with WAPP and production and expressions of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by immunoassay, western blot, qRT-PCR and reporter gene assay. In addition, in vivo immunomodulatory activity was studied by cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression in rats. In rIFN-γ-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages, pretreatment with WAPP increased the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),and increased the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at the protein level and of iNOS and TNF-α at the mRNA level. Molecular data revealed that WAPP upregulated the transcriptional activity and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by activating inhibitory kappa B-α (IκB-α) degradation and phosphorylation. Furthermore, WAPP upregulated the phosphorylations of p38 MAP kinase, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). In cycloheximide-induced immunosuppressed rats, pretreatment with WAPP (100, 200, or 400mg/kg, p.o.) increased the serum levels of albumin and globulin, and reduced immobility times. Our results suggest that upregulations of the expressions of iNOS and TNF-α via the activations of NF-κB and MAPK are responsible for the immunostimulatory effects of WAPP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Drosophila Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopko, Richelle; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes. The Drosophila genome encodes more than 20 receptor tyrosine kinases and extensive studies in the past 20 years have illustrated their diverse roles and complex signaling mechanisms. Although some receptor tyrosine kinases have highly specific functions, others strikingly are used in rather ubiquitous manners. Receptor tyrosine kinases regulate a broad expanse of processes, ranging from cell survival and proliferation to differentiation and patterning. Remarkably, different receptor tyrosine kinases share many of the same effectors and their hierarchical organization is retained in disparate biological contexts. In this comprehensive review, we summarize what is known regarding each receptor tyrosine kinase during Drosophila development. Astonishingly, very little is known for approximately half of all Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:23732470

  16. A semisynthetic epitope for kinase substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jasmina J; Li, Manqing; Brinkworth, Craig S; Paulson, Jennifer L; Wang, Dan; Hübner, Anette; Chou, Wen-Hai; Davis, Roger J; Burlingame, Alma L; Messing, Robert O; Katayama, Carol D; Hedrick, Stephen M; Shokat, Kevan M

    2007-06-01

    The ubiquitous nature of protein phosphorylation makes it challenging to map kinase-substrate relationships, which is a necessary step toward defining signaling network architecture. To trace the activity of individual kinases, we developed a semisynthetic reaction scheme, which results in the affinity tagging of substrates of the kinase in question. First, a kinase, engineered to use a bio-orthogonal ATPgammaS analog, catalyzes thiophosphorylation of its direct substrates. Second, alkylation of thiophosphorylated serine, threonine or tyrosine residues creates an epitope for thiophosphate ester-specific antibodies. We demonstrated the generality of semisynthetic epitope construction with 13 diverse kinases: JNK1, p38alpha MAPK, Erk1, Erk2, Akt1, PKCdelta, PKCepsilon, Cdk1/cyclinB, CK1, Cdc5, GSK3beta, Src and Abl. Application of this approach, in cells isolated from a mouse that expressed endogenous levels of an analog-specific (AS) kinase (Erk2), allowed purification of a direct Erk2 substrate.

  17. How versatile are inositol phosphate kinases?

    OpenAIRE

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2004-01-01

    This review assesses the extent and the significance of catalytic versatility shown by several inositol phosphate kinases: the inositol phosphate multikinase, the reversible Ins(1,3,4) P (3)/Ins(3,4,5,6) P (4) kinase, and the kinases that synthesize diphosphoinositol polyphosphates. Particular emphasis is placed upon data that are relevant to the situation in vivo. It will be shown that catalytic promiscuity towards different inositol phosphates is not typically an evolutionary compromise, bu...

  18. MST kinases in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barry J; Sahai, Erik

    2015-09-14

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1 (also called STK25 or SOK1). MST kinases are emerging as key signaling molecules that influence cell proliferation, organ size, cell migration, and cell polarity. Here we review the regulation and function of these kinases in normal physiology and pathologies, including cancer, endothelial malformations, and autoimmune disease. © 2015 Thompson and Sahai.

  19. The Arabidopsis kinase-associated protein phosphatase controls internalization of the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinase 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, K.; Russinova, E.; Gadella, T.W.J.; Willemse, J.; Vries, de S.C.

    2002-01-01

    The AtSERK1 protein is a plasma membrane-located LRR receptor-like serine threonine kinase that is transiently expressed during plant embryogenesis. Our results show that AtSERK1 interacts with the kinase-associated protein phosphatase (KAPP) in vitro. The kinase interaction (KI) domain of KAPP does

  20. Novel Library of Selenocompounds as Kinase Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sanmartín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the causes of cancer lie in mutations or epigenic changes at the genetic level, their molecular manifestation is the dysfunction of biochemical pathways at the protein level. The 518 protein kinases encoded by the human genome play a central role in various diseases, a fact that has encouraged extensive investigations on their biological function and three dimensional structures. Selenium (Se is an important nutritional trace element involved in different physiological functions with antioxidative, antitumoral and chemopreventive properties. The mechanisms of action for selenocompounds as anticancer agents are not fully understood, but kinase modulation seems to be a possible pathway. Various organosulfur compounds have shown antitumoral and kinase inhibition effects but, in many cases, the replacement of sulfur by selenium improves the antitumoral effect of compounds. Although Se atom possesses a larger atomic volume and nucleophilic character than sulfur, Se can also formed interactions with aminoacids of the catalytic centers of proteins. So, we propose a novel chemical library that includes organoselenium compounds as kinase modulators. In this study thirteen selenocompounds have been evaluated at a concentration of 3 or 10 µM in a 24 kinase panel using a Caliper LabChip 3000 Drug Discover Platform. Several receptor (EGFR, IGFR1, FGFR1… and non-receptor (Abl kinases have been selected, as well as serine/threonine/lipid kinases (AurA, Akt, CDKs, MAPKs… implicated in main cancer pathways: cell cycle regulation, signal transduction, angiogenesis regulation among them. The obtained results showed that two compounds presented inhibition values higher than 50% in at least four kinases and seven derivatives selectively inhibited one or two kinases. Furthermore, three compounds selectively activated IGF-1R kinase with values ranging from −98% to −211%. In conclusion, we propose that the replacement of sulfur by selenium seems to be

  1. MST kinases in development and disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Barry J; Sahai, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian MST kinase family, which is related to the Hippo kinase in Drosophila melanogaster, includes five related proteins: MST1 (also called STK4), MST2 (also called STK3), MST3 (also called STK24), MST4, and YSK1...

  2. Palbociclib inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in breast cancer via c-Jun/COX-2 signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Ge; Fei XU; Qin, Tao; Zheng, Qiufan; Shi, Dingbo; Xia, Wen; Tian, Yun; Tang, Yanlai; Wang, Jingshu; Xiao, Xiangshen; Deng, Wuguo; Wang, Shusen

    2015-01-01

    Palbociclib, a highly selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, has been shown to be a novel anti-tumor agent that suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation. However, its anti-metastasis activity remains controversial. In the present study, we evaluated whether palbociclib prevented breast cancer cell metastasis and revealed its regulatory mechanism. We found that palbociclib inhibited migration and invasion in the breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T47D. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marke...

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus control and atherosclerosis prevention in a non-obese rat model using duodenal-jejunal bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Huang, Zhen; Ran, Wenhua; Liao, Gang; Zha, Lang; Wang, Ziwei

    2014-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent disease worldwide and during its conventional treatment, vascular complications remain unavoidable. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) is able to induce the remission of T2DM. However, studies of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), a modified procedure of GBP, are being carried out to investigate its ability to induce the remission of T2DM and protect the aorta from atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of DJB on the rate of T2DM remission and the prevention of atherosclerosis in the aorta in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes without obesity, and to explore the mechanism of DJB in protecting the aorta from atherosclerosis. A T2DM rat model was established with a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. Surgery was performed to analyze its effects on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation and pathological changes. Furthermore, changes in c-jun NH 2 -terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inhibitor of κB kinase (IKKβ) genes in the aorta following DJB surgery were examined. Levels of blood glucose, lipids, insulin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were significantly elevated in the T2DM diabetic model compared with the non-diabetic control. A gradual recovery was observed in the DJB group following surgery. Foam cells and atherosclerotic plaques appeared in the ascending aortic tissue in the sham-surgery and T2DM groups, whereas only slight lesions were observed in the DJB group. The expression levels of JNK1 and IKKβ genes in the aorta were significantly increased in the sham-operated and T2DM groups compared with those in the DJB and normal control groups. The present study demonstrated that DJB caused remission of T2DM without weight loss in non-obese rats. Thus, DJB may delay or prevent the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis in the aorta and this may occur through the JNK1 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways.

  4. Cordycepin enhances cisplatin apoptotic effect through caspase/MAPK pathways in human head and neck tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YH

    2013-07-01

    NH2-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 protein phosphorylations. Moreover, cordycepin plus cisplatin cotreatment significantly activated those proteins with much better effects among three cell lines. Conclusion: Cordycepin plus cisplatin have better apoptotic effect by activating caspase activation with possible MAPK pathway involvement in HNSCC cells. Keywords: cordycepin, cisplatin, apoptosis, caspase, MAPK, HNSCC

  5. Rho-kinase inhibitors from adlay seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya; Zhu, Qinchang; Tran, Hai-Bang; Afifi, Mohamed S; Halim, Ahmed F; Ashour, Ahmed; Fujimoto, Ryoji; Goto, Takahiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-07-19

    Rho-kinase enzymes are one of the most important targets recently identified in our bodies. Several lines of evidence indicate that these enzymes are involved in many diseases and cellular disorders. ROCK inhibitors may have clinical applications for cancer, hypertension, glaucoma, etc. Our study aims to identify the possible involvement of Rho-kinase inhibition to the multiple biological activities of adlay seeds and provide a rationale for their folkloric medicines. Hence, we evaluated Rho-kinase I and II inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract and 28 compounds derived from the seeds. A molecular docking assay was designed to estimate the binding affinity of the tested compounds with the target enzymes. The results of our study suggest a possible involvement of Rho-kinase inhibition to the multiple biological activities of the seeds. Furthermore, the results obtained with the tested compounds revealed some interesting skeletons as a scaffold for design and development of natural Rho-kinase inhibitors.

  6. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Lenskjold, Toke; Jacoby, Anne Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in cognitive disturbances; however, the natural variation in GSK-3β activity over time is unknown. We aimed to investigate GSK-3β activity over time and its possible correlation...... with emotional lability, subjective mood fluctuations and cognitive function in healthy individuals. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tests and blood samples at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Total GSK-3β and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β in peripheral blood mononuclear...... analysis revealed lower activity of GSK-3β in spring and summer compared with the fall season. No correlation was observed between GSK-3β activity and emotional lability, subjective mood fluctuations or cognitive function. The results suggest that intra- and interindividual variation in GSK-3β activity...

  7. Truncated ErbB2 receptor enhances ErbB1 signaling and induces reversible, ERK-independent loss of epithelial morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, M; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Jäättelä, M

    2001-01-01

    Shedding of the extracellular domain of the ErbB2 tyrosine kinase receptor and expression of the remaining NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 correlates with lymph node metastases and adverse outcome in human breast cancer. To study the possible signaling from such a truncated receptor, MCF-7 human...... breast cancer cells expressing NH(2)-terminally truncated ErbB2 (DeltaNErbB2) were compared with cells overexpressing wild-type ErbB2. Expression of DeltaNErbB2 in MCF-7 cells resulted in sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2, extensive loss of the epithelial morphology......, appearance of vesicles and long protrusions as well as pronounced scattering of the cells. Similar alterations were observed upon ErbB2 overexpression but at much lower levels. Employing cell clones with inducible expression of DeltaNErbB2, it was revealed that the morphological changes were fully reversible...

  8. Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors prevents interleukin-1β-induced exacerbation of neuronal toxicity through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões Ana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR affords robust neuroprotection in a number of brain conditions, although the mechanisms are still unknown. A likely candidate mechanism for this neuroprotection is the control of neuroinflammation, which contributes to the amplification of neurodegeneration, mainly through the abnormal release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin(IL-1β. We investigated whether A2AR controls the signaling of IL-1β and its deleterious effects in cultured hippocampal neurons. Methods Hippocampal neuronal cultures were treated with IL-1β and/or glutamate in the presence or absence of the selective A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nmol/l. The effect of SCH58261 on the IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 was evaluated by western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The effect of SCH58261 on glutamate-induced neurodegeneration in the presence or absence of IL-1β was evaluated by nucleic acid and by propidium iodide staining, and by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Finally, the effect of A2AR blockade on glutamate-induced intracellular calcium, in the presence or absence of IL-1β, was studied using single-cell calcium imaging. Results IL-1β (10 to 100 ng/ml enhanced both JNK and p38 phosphorylation, and these effects were prevented by the IL-1 type 1 receptor antagonist IL-1Ra (5 μg/ml, in accordance with the neuronal localization of IL-1 type 1 receptors, including pre-synaptically and post-synaptically. At 100 ng/ml, IL-1β failed to affect neuronal viability but exacerbated the neurotoxicity induced by treatment with 100 μmol/l glutamate for 25 minutes (evaluated after 24 hours. It is likely that this resulted from the ability of IL-1β to enhance glutamate-induced calcium entry and late calcium deregulation, both of which were unaffected by IL-1β alone. The selective A2AR antagonist, SCH58261 (50 nmol

  9. Mitotic regulation by NIMA-related kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blot Joelle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The NIMA-related kinases represent a family of serine/threonine kinases implicated in cell cycle control. The founding member of this family, the NIMA kinase of Aspergillus nidulans, as well as the fission yeast homologue Fin1, contribute to multiple aspects of mitotic progression including the timing of mitotic entry, chromatin condensation, spindle organization and cytokinesis. Mammals contain a large family of eleven NIMA-related kinases, named Nek1 to Nek11. Of these, there is now substantial evidence that Nek2, Nek6, Nek7 and Nek9 also regulate mitotic events. At least three of these kinases, as well as NIMA and Fin1, have been localized to the microtubule organizing centre of their respective species, namely the centrosome or spindle pole body. Here, they have important functions in microtubule organization and mitotic spindle assembly. Other Nek kinases have been proposed to play microtubule-dependent roles in non-dividing cells, most notably in regulating the axonemal microtubules of cilia and flagella. In this review, we discuss the evidence that NIMA-related kinases make a significant contribution to the orchestration of mitotic progression and thereby protect cells from chromosome instability. Furthermore, we highlight their potential as novel chemotherapeutic targets.

  10. Mitotic regulation by NIMA-related kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'regan, Laura; Blot, Joelle; Fry, Andrew M

    2007-08-29

    The NIMA-related kinases represent a family of serine/threonine kinases implicated in cell cycle control. The founding member of this family, the NIMA kinase of Aspergillus nidulans, as well as the fission yeast homologue Fin1, contribute to multiple aspects of mitotic progression including the timing of mitotic entry, chromatin condensation, spindle organization and cytokinesis. Mammals contain a large family of eleven NIMA-related kinases, named Nek1 to Nek11. Of these, there is now substantial evidence that Nek2, Nek6, Nek7 and Nek9 also regulate mitotic events. At least three of these kinases, as well as NIMA and Fin1, have been localized to the microtubule organizing centre of their respective species, namely the centrosome or spindle pole body. Here, they have important functions in microtubule organization and mitotic spindle assembly. Other Nek kinases have been proposed to play microtubule-dependent roles in non-dividing cells, most notably in regulating the axonemal microtubules of cilia and flagella. In this review, we discuss the evidence that NIMA-related kinases make a significant contribution to the orchestration of mitotic progression and thereby protect cells from chromosome instability. Furthermore, we highlight their potential as novel chemotherapeutic targets.

  11. Phenylbutazone radicals inactivate creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y

    2001-02-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) was used as a marker molecule to examine the side effect of damage to tissues by phenylbutazone (PB), an effective drug to treat rheumatic and arthritic diseases, with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H(2)O2). PB inactivated CK during its interaction with HRP-H(2) O(2), and inactivated CK in rat heart homogenate. PB carbon-centered radicals were formed during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2. The CK efficiently reduced electron spin resonance signals of the PB carbon-centered radicals. The spin trap agent 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane strongly prevented CK inactivation. These results show that CK was inactivated through interaction with PB carbon-centered radicals. Sulfhydryl groups and tryptophan residues in CK were lost during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2, suggesting that cysteine and tryptophan residues are oxidized by PB carbon-centered radicals. Other enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, but not lactate dehydrogenase, were also inactivated. Sulfhydryl enzymes seem to be sensitive to attack by PB carbon-centered radicals. Inhibition of SH enzymes may explain some of the deleterious effects induced by PB.

  12. Kinase inhibitors for advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schlumberger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of molecular targeted therapies leads to a reconsideration of the treatment strategy for patients with distant metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma. In patients with progressive disease, treatment with kinase inhibitors should be offered.

  13. Regulation of the interaction between protein kinase C-related protein kinase 2 (PRK2) and its upstream kinase, 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettori, Rosalia; Sonzogni, Silvina; Meyer, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    of numerous AGC kinases, including the protein kinase C-related protein kinases (PRKs). Here we studied the docking interaction between PDK1 and PRK2 and analyzed the mechanisms that regulate this interaction. In vivo labeling of recombinant PRK2 by (32)P(i) revealed phosphorylation at two sites......, the activation loop and the Z/TM in the C-terminal extension. We provide evidence that phosphorylation of the Z/TM site of PRK2 inhibits its interaction with PDK1. Our studies further provide a mechanistic model to explain different steps in the docking interaction and regulation. Interestingly, we found...... that the mechanism that negatively regulates the docking interaction of PRK2 to the upstream kinase PDK1 is directly linked to the activation mechanism of PRK2 itself. Finally, our results indicate that the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the interaction between PRK2 and PDK1 are specific for PRK2 and do...

  14. Regulation of mammalian Ste20 (Mst) kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Sonali J; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Initially identified as mammalian homologs to yeast Ste20 kinases, the mammalian sterile twenty-like (Mst) 1/2 kinases have been widely investigated subsequent to their rediscovery as key components of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in flies. To date, our understanding of Mst substrates and downstream signaling outstrips our knowledge of how these enzymes are controlled by upstream signals. While much remains to be discovered regarding the mechanisms of Mst regulation, it is clear that Mst1 kinase activity is governed at least in part by its state of dimerization, including self-association and also heterodimerization with various other signaling partners. Here we review the basic architecture of Mst signaling and function and discuss recent advances in our understanding of how these important kinases are regulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MAP kinases nomenclature: Time for curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-12-02

    The nomenclature of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) takes different formats composed of symbols, prefixes, suffixes, or descriptive acronyms of their functions that sometimes lead to confusion and make the indexed information redundant and inconsistent. To avoid such redundancy and reduce confusion, a curation of the terminology of MAP kinase families, and that of other protein families that present similar nomenclature issues, is required. Some arguable suggestions are presented here toward this goal.

  16. Protein Kinase A Modulation by Dietary Phytochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Fagervoll, Anne Marthe

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Evidence from epidemiologic studies has shown that diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with reduced risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. Plants contain phytochemicals, which are believed to account for some of the positive effects through interactions with protein kinases. The present work is a screening of dietary phytochemicals for their ability to modulate the activity of the intracellular protein kinase A (PKA) using a novel PKA-sensitive luciferase. Som...

  17. Fyn kinase regulates translation in mammalian mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Emine C; Miller-Lee, Jennifer L; Koc, Hasan

    2017-03-01

    Mitochondrial translation machinery solely exists for the synthesis of 13 mitochondrially-encoded subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in mammals. Therefore, it plays a critical role in mitochondrial energy production. However, regulation of the mitochondrial translation machinery is still poorly understood. In comprehensive proteomics studies with normal and diseased tissues and cell lines, we and others have found the majority of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs) to be phosphorylated. Neither the kinases for these phosphorylation events nor their specific roles in mitochondrial translation are known. Mitochondrial kinases are responsible for phosphorylation of MRPs enriched from bovine mitoplasts by strong cation-exchange chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry-based proteomics analyses of kinase rich fractions. Phosphorylation of recombinant MRPs and 55S ribosomes was assessed by in vitro phosphorylation assays using the kinase-rich fractions. The effect of identified kinase on OXPHOS and mitochondrial translation was assessed by various cell biological and immunoblotting approaches. Here, we provide the first evidence for the association of Fyn kinase, a Src family kinase, with mitochondrial translation components and its involvement in phosphorylation of 55S ribosomal proteins in vitro. Modulation of Fyn expression in human cell lines has provided a link between mitochondrial translation and energy metabolism, which was evident by the changes in 13 mitochondrially encoded subunits of OXPHOS complexes. Our findings suggest that Fyn kinase is part of a complex mechanism that regulates protein synthesis and OXPHOS possibly by tyrosine phosphorylation of translation components in mammalian mitochondria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. MAP kinase meets mitosis: A role for Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein in spindle checkpoint regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosner Marsha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP is an evolutionarily conserved protein that functions as a modulator of signaling by the MAP kinase cascade. Implicated as a metastasis suppressor, Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein depletion correlates with poor prognosis for breast, prostate and melanoma tumors but the mechanism is unknown. Recent evidence indicates that Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein regulates the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint by controlling Aurora B Kinase activity, and the mechanism involves Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. In contrast to elevated MAP kinase signaling during the G1, S or G2 phases of the cell cycle that activates checkpoints and induces arrest or senescence, loss of RKIP during M phase leads to bypass of the spindle assembly checkpoint and the generation of chromosomal abnormalities. These results reveal a role for Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein and the MAP kinase cascade in ensuring the fidelity of chromosome segregation prior to cell division. Furthermore, these data highlight the need for precise titration of the MAP kinase signal to ensure the integrity of the spindle assembly process and provide a mechanism for generating genomic instability in tumors. Finally, these results raise the possibility that RKIP status in tumors could influence the efficacy of treatments such as poisons that stimulate the Aurora B-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint.

  19. Kinase Inhibitor Profiling Reveals Unexpected Opportunities to Inhibit Disease-Associated Mutant Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna C. Duong-Ly

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small-molecule kinase inhibitors have typically been designed to inhibit wild-type kinases rather than the mutant forms that frequently arise in diseases such as cancer. Mutations can have serious clinical implications by increasing kinase catalytic activity or conferring therapeutic resistance. To identify opportunities to repurpose inhibitors against disease-associated mutant kinases, we conducted a large-scale functional screen of 183 known kinase inhibitors against 76 recombinant mutant kinases. The results revealed lead compounds with activity against clinically important mutant kinases, including ALK, LRRK2, RET, and EGFR, as well as unexpected opportunities for repurposing FDA-approved kinase inhibitors as leads for additional indications. Furthermore, using T674I PDGFRα as an example, we show how single-dose screening data can provide predictive structure-activity data to guide subsequent inhibitor optimization. This study provides a resource for the development of inhibitors against numerous disease-associated mutant kinases and illustrates the potential of unbiased profiling as an approach to compound-centric inhibitor development.

  20. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kosior

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently novel treatment modalities has focused on targeted therapies. Tyrosine kinases represent a good target for cancer treatment since they are involved in transferring phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine residues in specific substrate proteins transducing intracellular signals engaged in the many mechanisms, playing an important role in the modulation of growth factors signaling that are strongly related to carcinogenesis. Deregulation of tyrosine kinases activity was also found in hematological malignancies, particularly overexpression of tyrosine kinases was observed in chronic myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Herein we show that tyrosine kinase inhibitors have revolutionized hematology malignancies therapy in a very short period of time and they still remain one of the most interesting anticancer compounds that could give a hope for cure and not only long-lasting complete remission. This manuscript summarizes current view on the first generation tyrosine kinase inhibititor – imatinib, second generation – dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutnib as well as new generation tyrosine kinase inhibititors – ponatinib and danusertib in hematooncology.

  1. Protein kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulates cytokine-dependent cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Thomas

    Full Text Available The dual specificity protein/lipid kinase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, promotes growth factor-mediated cell survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. However, in contrast to canonical lipid-kinase functions, the role of PI3K protein kinase activity in regulating cell survival is unknown. We have employed a novel approach to purify and pharmacologically profile protein kinases from primary human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells that phosphorylate serine residues in the cytoplasmic portion of cytokine receptors to promote hemopoietic cell survival. We have isolated a kinase activity that is able to directly phosphorylate Ser585 in the cytoplasmic domain of the interleukin 3 (IL-3 and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF receptors and shown it to be PI3K. Physiological concentrations of cytokine in the picomolar range were sufficient for activating the protein kinase activity of PI3K leading to Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival but did not activate PI3K lipid kinase signaling or promote proliferation. Blockade of PI3K lipid signaling by expression of the pleckstrin homology of Akt1 had no significant impact on the ability of picomolar concentrations of cytokine to promote hemopoietic cell survival. Furthermore, inducible expression of a mutant form of PI3K that is defective in lipid kinase activity but retains protein kinase activity was able to promote Ser585 phosphorylation and hemopoietic cell survival in the absence of cytokine. Blockade of p110α by RNA interference or multiple independent PI3K inhibitors not only blocked Ser585 phosphorylation in cytokine-dependent cells and primary human AML blasts, but also resulted in a block in survival signaling and cell death. Our findings demonstrate a new role for the protein kinase activity of PI3K in phosphorylating the cytoplasmic tail of the GM-CSF and IL-3 receptors to selectively regulate cell survival highlighting the importance of targeting

  2. Identification of a kinase profile that predicts chromosome damage induced by small molecule kinase inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Olaharski

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Kinases are heavily pursued pharmaceutical targets because of their mechanistic role in many diseases. Small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMKIs are a compound class that includes marketed drugs and compounds in various stages of drug development. While effective, many SMKIs have been associated with toxicity including chromosomal damage. Screening for kinase-mediated toxicity as early as possible is crucial, as is a better understanding of how off-target kinase inhibition may give rise to chromosomal damage. To that end, we employed a competitive binding assay and an analytical method to predict the toxicity of SMKIs. Specifically, we developed a model based on the binding affinity of SMKIs to a panel of kinases to predict whether a compound tests positive for chromosome damage. As training data, we used the binding affinity of 113 SMKIs against a representative subset of all kinases (290 kinases, yielding a 113x290 data matrix. Additionally, these 113 SMKIs were tested for genotoxicity in an in vitro micronucleus test (MNT. Among a variety of models from our analytical toolbox, we selected using cross-validation a combination of feature selection and pattern recognition techniques: Kolmogorov-Smirnov/T-test hybrid as a univariate filter, followed by Random Forests for feature selection and Support Vector Machines (SVM for pattern recognition. Feature selection identified 21 kinases predictive of MNT. Using the corresponding binding affinities, the SVM could accurately predict MNT results with 85% accuracy (68% sensitivity, 91% specificity. This indicates that kinase inhibition profiles are predictive of SMKI genotoxicity. While in vitro testing is required for regulatory review, our analysis identified a fast and cost-efficient method for screening out compounds earlier in drug development. Equally important, by identifying a panel of kinases predictive of genotoxicity, we provide medicinal chemists a set of kinases to avoid when designing

  3. Kinase-Independent Mechanisms of Resistance of Leukemia Stem Cells to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate have changed the clinical course of chronic myeloid leukemia; however, the observation that these inhibitors do not target the leukemia stem cell implies that patients need to maintain lifelong therapy. The mechanism of this phenomenon is unclear: the question of whether tyrosine kinase inhibitors are inactive inside leukemia stem cells or whether leukemia stem cells do not require breakpoint cluster region (Bcr)-Abl signaling is currently under debate. Herein, I propose an alternative model: perhaps the leukemia stem cell requires Bcr-Abl, but is dependent on its kinase-independent functions. Kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptor and Janus kinase 2 possess kinase-independent roles in regulation of gene expression; it is worth investigating whether Bcr-Abl has similar functions. Mechanistically, Bcr-Abl is able to activate the Ras, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt, and/or the Src-kinase Hck/Stat5 pathways in a scaffolding-dependent manner. Whereas the scaffolding activity of Bcr-Abl with Grb2 is dependent on autophosphorylation, kinases such as Hck can use Bcr-Abl as substrate, inducing phosphorylation of Y177 to enable scaffolding ability in the absence of Bcr-Abl catalytic activity. It is worth investigating whether leukemia stem cells exclusively express kinases that are able to use Bcr-Abl as substrate. A kinase-independent role for Bcr-Abl in leukemia stem cells would imply that drugs that target Bcr-Abl’s scaffolding ability or its DNA-binding ability should be used in conjunction with current therapeutic regimens to increase their efficacy and eradicate the stem cells of chronic myeloid leukemia PMID:24598782

  4. Liver inflammation and metabolic signaling in ApcMin/+ mice: the role of cachexia progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi A Narsale

    Full Text Available The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein, IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1, and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3. Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin, despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 and S6 (ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Thus

  5. The effect of ethyl acetate extract from persimmon leaves on Alzheimer's disease and its underlying mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shun-Wang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Liu, Qing-Bo; Luo, Sheng-Yong; Peng, Ying; Sun, Bei; Wu, De-Ling; Song, Shao-Jiang

    2016-06-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders characterized by neuronal loss in the brain and cognitive impairment. AD is now considered to be the third major cause of death in developed countries, after cardiovascular disease and cancer. Persimmon leaves are used as a popular folk medicine to treat hypertension, angina and internal haemorrhage in Cyangbhina, and it has been reported that ethyl acetate extract of persimmon leaves (EAPL) displays a potential therapeutic effect on neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to investigate the effects of EAPL on AD, to clarify the possible mechanism by which EAPL exerts its beneficial effects and prevents AD, and to determine the major constituents involved. AD model was established by bilateral injection of Aβ1-42 into the hippocampus of rats. The cognitive performance was determined by the Morris water maze and step-down tests. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), apoptosis, total and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK/p-JNK), caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 were determined. In addition, a sensitive and reliable LC-QTOF-MS method was applied to identify the major compounds present in EAPL. EAPL at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg could markedly reduce the latency, significantly increase the time in the first quadrant and number of the target crossing times in Morris water maze test, markedly increase the latency and reduce the number of errors in the step-down test, significantly inhibit the reductions in SOD and GSH-Px activities, and increase the level of MDA. In addition, EAPL treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus, reduced the expression of p-JNK, caspase-3, and the relative ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Meanwhile, 32 constituents were identified by LC-QTOF-MS/MS assays. The results indicate that EAPL has a potent protective effect on cognitive deficits induced by Aβ in rats and this effect appears to be

  6. Liver Inflammation and Metabolic Signaling in ApcMin/+ Mice: The Role of Cachexia Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsale, Aditi A.; Enos, Reilly T.; Puppa, Melissa J.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Murphy, E. Angela; Fayad, Raja; Pena, Majorette O’; Durstine, J. Larry; Carson, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The ApcMin/+ mouse exhibits an intestinal tumor associated loss of muscle and fat that is accompanied by chronic inflammation, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Since the liver governs systemic energy demands through regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the liver is a pathological target of cachexia progression in the ApcMin/+ mouse. The purpose of this study was to determine if cancer and the progression of cachexia affected liver endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, inflammation, metabolism, and protein synthesis signaling. The effect of cancer (without cachexia) was examined in wild-type and weight-stable ApcMin/+ mice. Cachexia progression was examined in weight-stable, pre-cachectic, and severely-cachectic ApcMin/+ mice. Livers were analyzed for morphology, glycogen content, ER-stress, inflammation, and metabolic changes. Cancer induced hepatic expression of ER-stress markers BiP (binding immunoglobulin protein), IRE-1α (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1), and inflammatory intermediate STAT-3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3). While gluconeogenic enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression was suppressed by cancer, glycogen content or protein synthesis signaling remained unaffected. Cachexia progression depleted liver glycogen content and increased mRNA expression of glycolytic enzyme PFK (phosphofrucktokinase) and gluconeogenic enzyme PEPCK. Cachexia progression further increased pSTAT-3 but suppressed p-65 and JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase) activation. Interestingly, progression of cachexia suppressed upstream ER-stress markers BiP and IRE-1α, while inducing its downstream target CHOP (DNA-damage inducible transcript 3). Cachectic mice exhibited a dysregulation of protein synthesis signaling, with an induction of p-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin), despite a suppression of Akt (thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1) and S6 (ribosomal protein S6) phosphorylation. Thus, cancer

  7. Previous physical exercise alters the hepatic profile of oxidative-inflammatory status and limits the secondary brain damage induced by severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Mauro Robson Torres; Ferreira, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Busanello, Guilherme Lago; da Silva, Luís Roberto Hart; da Silveira Junior, Mauro Eduardo Porto; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Arrifano, Gabriela; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Cuevas, María J; Bresciani, Guilherme; González-Gallego, Javier; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2017-09-01

    inhibition of citrate synthase activity) and ion gradient homeostasis (inhibition of Na + ,K + -ATPase activity inhibition) when analysed 24 h after TBI. Previous exercise training also protected against dysglycaemia, impaired hepatic signalling (increase in phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase, phosphorylated decreases in insulin receptor substrate and phosphorylated AKT expression), high levels of circulating and neuronal cytokines, the opening of the blood-brain barrier, neutrophil infiltration and Na + ,K + -ATPase activity inhibition in the ipsilateral cortex after TBI. Moreover, the impairment of protein function, neurobehavioural (neuromotor dysfunction and spatial learning) disability and hippocampal cell damage in sedentary rats suggests that exercise training also modulates peripheral oxidative/inflammatory pathways in TBI, which corroborates the ever increasing evidence regarding health-related outcomes with respect to a physically active lifestyle. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  8. Non-degradative Ubiquitination of Protein Kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Aurelia Ball

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports other regulatory roles for protein ubiquitination in addition to serving as a tag for proteasomal degradation. In contrast to other common post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, little is known about how non-degradative ubiquitination modulates protein structure, dynamics, and function. Due to the wealth of knowledge concerning protein kinase structure and regulation, we examined kinase ubiquitination using ubiquitin remnant immunoaffinity enrichment and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify ubiquitinated kinases and the sites of ubiquitination in Jurkat and HEK293 cells. We find that, unlike phosphorylation, ubiquitination most commonly occurs in structured domains, and on the kinase domain, ubiquitination is concentrated in regions known to be important for regulating activity. We hypothesized that ubiquitination, like other post-translational modifications, may alter the conformational equilibrium of the modified protein. We chose one human kinase, ZAP-70, to simulate using molecular dynamics with and without a monoubiquitin modification. In Jurkat cells, ZAP-70 is ubiquitinated at several sites that are not sensitive to proteasome inhibition and thus may have other regulatory roles. Our simulations show that ubiquitination influences the conformational ensemble of ZAP-70 in a site-dependent manner. When monoubiquitinated at K377, near the C-helix, the active conformation of the ZAP-70 C-helix is disrupted. In contrast, when monoubiquitinated at K476, near the kinase hinge region, an active-like ZAP-70 C-helix conformation is stabilized. These results lead to testable hypotheses that ubiquitination directly modulates kinase activity, and that ubiquitination is likely to alter structure, dynamics, and function in other protein classes as well.

  9. Oncogenic mutations of ALK kinase in neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuyan; Takita, Junko; Choi, Young Lim; Kato, Motohiro; Ohira, Miki; Sanada, Masashi; Wang, Lili; Soda, Manabu; Kikuchi, Akira; Igarashi, Takashi; Nakagawara, Akira; Hayashi, Yasuhide; Mano, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Seishi

    2008-10-16

    Neuroblastoma in advanced stages is one of the most intractable paediatric cancers, even with recent therapeutic advances. Neuroblastoma harbours a variety of genetic changes, including a high frequency of MYCN amplification, loss of heterozygosity at 1p36 and 11q, and gain of genetic material from 17q, all of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma. However, the scarcity of reliable molecular targets has hampered the development of effective therapeutic agents targeting neuroblastoma. Here we show that the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), originally identified as a fusion kinase in a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NPM-ALK) and more recently in adenocarcinoma of lung (EML4-ALK), is also a frequent target of genetic alteration in advanced neuroblastoma. According to our genome-wide scans of genetic lesions in 215 primary neuroblastoma samples using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarrays, the ALK locus, centromeric to the MYCN locus, was identified as a recurrent target of copy number gain and gene amplification. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of ALK revealed eight novel missense mutations in 13 out of 215 (6.1%) fresh tumours and 8 out of 24 (33%) neuroblastoma-derived cell lines. All but one mutation in the primary samples (12 out of 13) were found in stages 3-4 of the disease and were harboured in the kinase domain. The mutated kinases were autophosphorylated and displayed increased kinase activity compared with the wild-type kinase. They were able to transform NIH3T3 fibroblasts as shown by their colony formation ability in soft agar and their capacity to form tumours in nude mice. Furthermore, we demonstrate that downregulation of ALK through RNA interference suppresses proliferation of neuroblastoma cells harbouring mutated ALK. We anticipate that our findings will provide new insights into the pathogenesis of advanced neuroblastoma and that ALK-specific kinase inhibitors might improve its clinical outcome.

  10. Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum pyruvate kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Cook

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase plays a critical role in cellular metabolism of glucose by serving as a major regulator of glycolysis. This tetrameric enzyme is allosterically regulated by different effector molecules, mainly phosphosugars. In response to binding of effector molecules and substrates, significant structural changes have been identified in various pyruvate kinase structures. Pyruvate kinase of Cryptosporidium parvum is exceptional among known enzymes of protozoan origin in that it exhibits no allosteric property in the presence of commonly known effector molecules. The crystal structure of pyruvate kinase from C. parvum has been solved by molecular replacement techniques and refined to 2.5 Å resolution. In the active site a glycerol molecule is located near the γ-phosphate site of ATP, and the protein structure displays a partially closed active site. However, unlike other structures where the active site is closed, the α6' helix in C. parvum pyruvate kinase unwinds and assumes an extended conformation. In the crystal structure a sulfate ion is found at a site that is occupied by a phosphate of the effector molecule in many pyruvate kinase structures. A new feature of the C. parvum pyruvate kinase structure is the presence of a disulfide bond cross-linking the two monomers in the asymmetric unit. The disulfide bond is formed between cysteine residue 26 in the short N-helix of one monomer with cysteine residue 312 in a long helix (residues 303-320 of the second monomer at the interface of these monomers. Both cysteine residues are unique to C. parvum, and the disulfide bond remained intact in a reduced environment. However, the significance of this bond, if any, remains unknown at this time.

  11. Homo- and heterodimerization of ROCO kinases: LRRK2 kinase inhibition by the LRRK2 ROCO fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Christian L; Rovelli, Giorgio; Springer, Wolfdieter; Schall, Christoph; Gasser, Thomas; Kahle, Philipp J

    2009-11-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of autosomal-dominant familial and late-onset sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a large multi-domain protein featuring a GTP-binding C-terminal of Ras of complex proteins (ROC) (ROCO) domain combination unique for the ROCO protein family, directly followed by a kinase domain. Dimerization is a well-established phenomenon among protein kinases. Here, we confirm LRRK2 self-interaction, and provide evidence for general homo- and heterodimerization potential among the ROCO kinase family (LRRK2, LRRK1, and death-associated protein kinase 1). The ROCO domain was critically, though not exclusively involved in dimerization, as a LRRK2 deletion mutant lacking the ROCO domain retained dimeric properties. GTP binding did not appear to influence ROCO(LRRK2) self-interaction. Interestingly, ROCO(LRRK2) fragments exerted an inhibitory effect on both wild-type and the elevated G2019S LRRK2 autophosphorylation activity. Insertion of PD mutations into ROCO(LRRK2) reduced self-interaction and led to a reduction of LRRK2 kinase inhibition. Collectively, these results suggest a functional link between ROCO interactions and kinase activity of wild-type and mutant LRRK2. Importantly, our finding of ROCO(LRRK2) fragment-mediated LRRK2 kinase inhibition offers a novel lead for drug design and thus might have important implications for new therapeutic avenues in PD.

  12. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the AKT Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    receptor tyrosine kinase in invasion and metastasis. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:316-25. 2. Gherardi E, Birchmeier W, Birchmeier C, Vande Woude G. Targeting...eIF4B phosphorylation by pim kinases plays a critical role in cellular transformation by Abl oncogenes. Cancer Res. 2013;73:4898-908. 9. van Gorp

  13. Phosphorylation of nm23/nucleoside diphosphate kinase by casein kinase 2 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, M; Issinger, O G; Lascu, I

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated phosphorylation of human nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and of homologous NDPK from different species by human casein kinase 2 (CK-2). The human NDPK isotypes A and B were phosphorylated by CK-2 in vitro both when the purified proteins and total lysate of HL-60 leukemia...

  14. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-19

    Jun 19, 2012 ... Key words: Limb ischemic preconditioning, ischemia–reperfusion injury, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k), protein kinase (p-Akt), signal ... signaling pathways and certain cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, erythropoietin ... involved in the protecting cardiac muscle via the. ADP/PI3k/Akt signaling ...

  15. Role of adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adiponectin/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (ADP/PI3k/Akt) signal transduction pathway has an important role in promoting cell survival. This study was designed to determine if the ADP/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a role in the mechanism of ischemia–reperfusion injury in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats ...

  16. SRC kinase regulation in progressively invasive cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichen Xu

    Full Text Available Metastatic progression is a multistep process that involves tumor growth and survival, motility and invasion, and subsequent proliferation in an inappropriate environment. The Src protein tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many of the biochemical pathways that drive these behaviors. Although Src itself is only rarely mutated in human tumors, its aberrant activity has been noted in various cancers and suggested to serve as a barometer of metastatic potential. With these features in mind, we examined Src kinase regulation at the structural, enzymatic, and expression levels as a function of progressively invasive prostate cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, both total Src content and kinase activity decrease with increasing cell line aggressiveness, an observation that appears to be inconsistent with the well-documented role of Src in the signaling pathways that drive growth and invasion. However, we do observe a direct correlation between Src kinase specific activity (total Src kinase activity/total Src content and metastatic aggressiveness, possibly suggesting that in highly aggressive cell lines, key signaling enzymes are globally recruited to drive the cancerous phenotype. In addition, although the expected enhanced phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-416 (activation site is present in the most aggressive prostate cancer cell lines, unexpectedly high phosphorylation levels at the Tyr-527 inhibitory site are observed as well. The latter, rather than representative of inhibited enzyme, is more indicative of primed Src responsive to local phosphorylated binding partners.

  17. Janus kinase inhibitors: jackpot or potluck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran Keechilat

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The reports of a unique mutation in the Janus kinase-2 gene (JAK2 in polycythemia vera by several independent groups in 2005 quickly spurred the development of the Janus kinase inhibitors. In one of the great victories of translational research in recent times, the first smallmolecule Janus kinase inhibitor ruxolitinib entered a phase I trial in 2007. With the approval of ruxolitinib by the US Federal Drug Administration in November 2011 for high-risk and intermediate-2 risk myelofibrosis, a change in paradigm has occurred in the management of a subset of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN: primary myelofibrosis, post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis, and post-essential thrombocythemia myelofibrosis. Whereas the current evidence for ruxolitinib only covers high-risk and intermediate-2 risk myelofibrosis, inhibitors with greater potency are likely to offer better disease control and survival advantage in patients belonging to these categories, and possibly to the low-risk and intermediate-1 risk categories of MPN as well. But use of the Janus kinase inhibitors also probably has certain disadvantages, such as toxicity, resistance, withdrawal phenomenon, non-reversal of histology, and an implausible goal of disease clone eradication, some of which could offset the gains. In spite of this, Janus kinase inhibitors are here to stay, and for use in more than just myeloproliferative neoplasms.

  18. Therapeutic Innovations: Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Dervisis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy involving DNA-interacting agents and indiscriminate cell death is no longer the future of cancer management. While chemotherapy is not likely to completely disappear from the armamentarium; the use of targeted therapies in combination with conventional treatment is becoming the standard of care in human medicine. Tyrosine kinases are pivotal points of functional cellular pathways and have been implicated in malignancy, inflammatory, and immune-mediated diseases. Pharmaceutical interventions targeting aberrant tyrosine kinase signaling has exploded and is the second most important area of drug development. The “Valley of Death” between drug discovery and approval threatens to blunt the enormous strides in cancer management seen thus far. Kinase inhibitors, as targeted small molecules, hold promise in the treatment and diagnosis of cancer. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding the use of kinase inhibitors in the interpretation and management of cancer. Comparative oncology has the potential to address restrictions and limitations in the advancement in kinase inhibitor therapy.

  19. Mechanism of polyphosphate kinase from Propionibacterium shermanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphate kinase, which catalyzes the reaction shown below, is one of two enzymes which have been reported to catalyze the synthesis of polyphosphate. Purification performed by ammonium sulfate precipitation (0-40% fraction) was followed by chromatography. The enzyme represents 70% of the protein in the hydroxylapatite pool and is stable at this level of purity. The subunit molecular weight was determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel analysis, (83,000 +/- 3000), nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, (80,000 and 86,000 daltons), gel filtration (Biogel A 0.5m column was 85,000 +/- 4000.) Polyphosphate kinase appears to be a monomeric enzyme of approx.83,000 daltons. Four assays were developed for polyphosphate kinase. Basic proteins such as polylysine stimulate the synthesis of polyphosphate, these proteins cause precipitation of polyphosphate kinase from relatively impure enzyme extracts: Synthesized polyphosphate interacts noncovalently with the basic protein-enzyme precipitate. Efficient synthesis of polyphosphate requires the addition of either phosphate or short chain polyphosphate. Synthesis did occur at 1/10 the rate when neither of these two compounds were included. Initiation, elongation, and termination events of polyphosphate synthesis were examined. Short chain polyphosphate acts as a primer, with (/sup 32/P) short-chain polyphosphate incorporation into long chain polyphosphate by the kinase.

  20. The target landscape of clinical kinase drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaeger, Susan; Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Wilhelm, Mathias; Polzer, Harald; Vick, Binje; Koenig, Paul-Albert; Reinecke, Maria; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Petzoldt, Svenja; Meng, Chen; Zecha, Jana; Reiter, Katrin; Qiao, Huichao; Helm, Dominic; Koch, Heiner; Schoof, Melanie; Canevari, Giulia; Casale, Elena; Depaolini, Stefania Re; Feuchtinger, Annette; Wu, Zhixiang; Schmidt, Tobias; Rueckert, Lars; Becker, Wilhelm; Huenges, Jan; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Gohlke, Bjoern-Oliver; Zolg, Daniel Paul; Kayser, Gian; Vooder, Tonu; Preissner, Robert; Hahne, Hannes; Tõnisson, Neeme; Kramer, Karl; Götze, Katharina; Bassermann, Florian; Schlegl, Judith; Ehrlich, Hans-Christian; Aiche, Stephan; Walch, Axel; Greif, Philipp A; Schneider, Sabine; Felder, Eduard Rudolf; Ruland, Juergen; Médard, Guillaume; Jeremias, Irmela; Spiekermann, Karsten; Kuster, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    Kinase inhibitors are important cancer therapeutics. Polypharmacology is commonly observed, requiring thorough target deconvolution to understand drug mechanism of action. Using chemical proteomics, we analyzed the target spectrum of 243 clinically evaluated kinase drugs. The data revealed previously unknown targets for established drugs, offered a perspective on the "druggable" kinome, highlighted (non)kinase off-targets, and suggested potential therapeutic applications. Integration of phosphoproteomic data refined drug-affected pathways, identified response markers, and strengthened rationale for combination treatments. We exemplify translational value by discovering SIK2 (salt-inducible kinase 2) inhibitors that modulate cytokine production in primary cells, by identifying drugs against the lung cancer survival marker MELK (maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase), and by repurposing cabozantinib to treat FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia. This resource, available via the ProteomicsDB database, should facilitate basic, clinical, and drug discovery research and aid clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Protocols for the Design of Kinase-Focused Compound Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Edgar; Wroblowski, Berthold; Buyck, Christophe; Neefs, Jean-Marc; Meyer, Christophe; Cummings, Maxwell D; van Vlijmen, Herman

    2017-11-08

    Protocols for the design of kinase-focused compound libraries are presented. Kinase-focused compound libraries can be differentiated based on the design goal. Depending on whether the library should be a discovery library specific for one particular kinase, a general discovery library for multiple distinct kinase projects, or even phenotypic screening, there exists today a variety of in silico methods to design candidate compound libraries. We address the following scenarios: 1) Datamining of SAR databases and kinase focused vendor catalogues; 2) Predictions and virtual screening; 3) Structure-based design of combinatorial kinase inhibitors; 4) Design of covalent kinase inhibitors; 5) Design of macrocyclic kinase inhibitors; and 6) Design of allosteric kinase inhibitors and activators. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Crystal Structure of Human Nicotinamide Riboside Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan,J.; Xiang, S.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD{sup +} as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 {angstrom} resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 {angstrom} resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel {beta} sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  3. Crystal structure of human nicotinamide riboside kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Javed A; Xiang, Song; Tong, Liang

    2007-08-01

    Nicotinamide riboside kinase (NRK) has an important role in the biosynthesis of NAD(+) as well as the activation of tiazofurin and other NR analogs for anticancer therapy. NRK belongs to the deoxynucleoside kinase and nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase superfamily, although the degree of sequence conservation is very low. We report here the crystal structures of human NRK1 in a binary complex with the reaction product nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) at 1.5 A resolution and in a ternary complex with ADP and tiazofurin at 2.7 A resolution. The active site is located in a groove between the central parallel beta sheet core and the LID and NMP-binding domains. The hydroxyl groups on the ribose of NR are recognized by Asp56 and Arg129, and Asp36 is the general base of the enzyme. Mutation of residues in the active site can abolish the catalytic activity of the enzyme, confirming the structural observations.

  4. Protein Kinases in Shaping Plant Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Wang, Bo; Xin, Xiaoyun; Ren, Dongtao

    2018-02-13

    Plant architecture, the three-dimensional organization of the plant body, includes the branching pattern and the size, shape, and position of organs. Plant architecture is genetically controlled and is influenced by environmental conditions. The regulations occur at most of the stages from the first division of the fertilized eggs to the final establishment of plant architecture. Among the various endogenous regulators, protein kinases and their associated signaling pathways have been shown to play important roles in regulating the process of plant architecture establishment. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the understanding of the mechanisms by which plant architecture formation is regulated by protein kinases, especially mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. PAS kinase: a nutrient sensing regulator of glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMille, Desiree; Grose, Julianne H

    2013-11-01

    Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) kinase (PASK, PASKIN, and PSK) is a member of the group of nutrient sensing protein kinases. These protein kinases sense the energy or nutrient status of the cell and regulate cellular metabolism appropriately. PAS kinase responds to glucose availability and regulates glucose homeostasis in yeast, mice, and man. Despite this pivotal role, the molecular mechanisms of PAS kinase regulation and function are largely unknown. This review focuses on what is known about PAS kinase, including its conservation from yeast to man, identified substrates, associated phenotypes and role in metabolic disease. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  6. The role of PAS kinase in PASsing the glucose signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Julianne H; Rutter, Jared

    2010-01-01

    PAS kinase is an evolutionarily conserved nutrient responsive protein kinase that regulates glucose homeostasis. Mammalian PAS kinase is activated by glucose in pancreatic beta cells, and knockout mice are protected from obesity, liver triglyceride accumulation, and insulin resistance when fed a high-fat diet. Yeast PAS kinase is regulated by both carbon source and cell integrity stress and stimulates the partitioning of glucose toward structural carbohydrate biosynthesis. In our current model for PAS kinase regulation, a small molecule metabolite binds the sensory PAS domain and activates the enzyme. Although bona fide PAS kinase substrates are scarce, in vitro substrate searches provide putative targets for exploration.

  7. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J. (BMS)

    2012-06-27

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

  8. Production of Protein Kinases in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Charlotte A

    2017-01-01

    Recombinant protein expression is widely used to generate milligram quantities of protein kinases for crystallographic, enzymatic, or other biophysical assays in vitro. Expression in E. coli is fast, cheap, and reliable. Here I present a detailed protocol for the production of human Aurora-A kinase. I begin with transformation of a suitable plasmid into an expression strain of E. coli, followed by growth and harvesting of bacterial cell cultures. Finally, I describe the purification of Aurora-A to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity and size exclusion chromatographies.

  9. 2-Aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Min; Bui, Minna; Shen, Wang; Baskaran, Subramanian; Allen, Darin A; Elling, Robert A; Flanagan, W Michael; Fung, Amy D; Hanan, Emily J; Harris, Shannon O; Heumann, Stacey A; Hoch, Ute; Ivy, Sheryl N; Jacobs, Jeffrey W; Lam, Stuart; Lee, Heman; McDowell, Robert S; Oslob, Johan D; Purkey, Hans E; Romanowski, Michael J; Silverman, Jeffrey A; Tangonan, Bradley T; Taverna, Pietro; Yang, Wenjin; Yoburn, Josh C; Yu, Chul H; Zimmerman, Kristin M; O'Brien, Tom; Lew, Willard

    2009-09-01

    This Letter describes the discovery and key structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of 2-aminobenzimidazoles as potent Aurora kinase inhibitors. 2-Aminobenzimidazole serves as a bioisostere of the biaryl urea residue of SNS-314 (1c), which is a potent Aurora kinase inhibitor and entered clinical testing in patients with solid tumors. Compared to SNS-314, this series of compounds offers better aqueous solubility while retaining comparable in vitro potency in biochemical and cell-based assays; in particular, 6m has also demonstrated a comparable mouse iv PK profile to SNS-314.

  10. Rational design of protein kinase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmoluk S. M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern methodological approaches to rational design of low molecular weight compounds with specific activity in relation to predetermined biomolecular targets are considered by example of development of high effective protein kinase inhibitors. The application of new computational methods that allow to significantly improve the quality of computational experiments (in, particular, accuracy of low molecular weight compounds activity prediction without increase of computational and time costs are highlighted. The effectiveness of strategy of rational design is demonstrated by examples of several own investigations devoted to development of new inhibitors that are high effective and selective towards protein kinases CK2, FGFR1 and ASK1.

  11. Protein kinase CK2 in health and disease: Protein kinase CK2: from structures to insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niefind, K; Raaf, J; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade, 40 crystal structures corresponding to protein kinase CK2 (former name 'casein kinase 2'), to its catalytic subunit CK2alpha and to its regulatory subunit CK2beta were published. Together they provide a valuable, yet by far not complete basis to rationalize the biochemical...... the critical region of CK2alpha recruitment is pre-formed in the unbound state. In CK2alpha the activation segment - a key element of protein kinase regulation - adapts invariably the typical conformation of the active enzymes. Recent structures of human CK2alpha revealed a surprising plasticity in the ATP...

  12. Structural Evolution of the Protein Kinase-Like Superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The protein kinase family is large and important, but it is only one family in a larger superfamily of homologous kinases that phosphorylate a variety of substrates and play important roles in all three superkingdoms of life. We used a carefully constructed structural alignment of selected kinases as the basis for a study of the structural evolution of the protein kinase-like superfamily. The comparison of structures revealed a "universal core" domain consisting only of regions required for ATP binding and the phosphotransfer reaction. Remarkably, even within the universal core some kinase structures display notable changes, while still retaining essential activity. Hence, the protein kinase-like superfamily has undergone substantial structural and sequence revision over long evolutionary timescales. We constructed a phylogenetic tree for the superfamily using a novel approach that allowed for the combination of sequence and structure information into a unified quantitative analysis. When considered against the backdrop of species distribution and other metrics, our tree provides a compelling scenario for the development of the various kinase families from a shared common ancestor. We propose that most of the so-called "atypical kinases" are not intermittently derived from protein kinases, but rather diverged early in evolution to form a distinct phyletic group. Within the atypical kinases, the aminoglycoside and choline kinase families appear to share the closest relationship. These two families in turn appear to be the most closely related to the protein kinase family. In addition, our analysis suggests that the actin-fragmin kinase, an atypical protein kinase, is more closely related to the phosphoinositide-3 kinase family than to the protein kinase family. The two most divergent families, alpha-kinases and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs, appear to have distinct evolutionary histories. While the PIPKs probably have an

  13. Gene regulation by MAP kinase cascades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Petersen, Klaus; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are signaling modules that transduce extracellular stimuli to a range of cellular responses. Research in yeast and metazoans has shown that MAPK-mediated phosphorylation directly or indirectly regulates the activity of transcription factors. Plant ...... gene expression....

  14. Drosophila melanogaster deoxyribonucleoside kinase activates gemcitabine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, N.E.; Clausen, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster multisubstrate deoxyribonucleoside kinase (Dm-dNK) can additionally sensitize human cancer cell lines towards the anti-cancer drug gemcitabine. We show that this property is based on the Dm-dNK ability to efficiently phosphorylate gemcitabine. The 2.2 angstrom resolution...

  15. Casein kinase-2 structure-function relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A

    1992-01-01

    Nine mutants of human casein kinase-2 beta subunit have been created and assayed for their ability to assemble with the catalytic alpha subunit to give, at a 1:1 molar ratio, a fully competent CK-2 holoenzyme as judged by the following criteria: 1) the generation of an active heterotetrameric form...

  16. Allosteric small-molecule kinase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads Hartvig; Nielsen, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    current barriers of kinase inhibitors, including poor selectivity and emergence of drug resistance. In spite of the small number of identified allosteric inhibitors in comparison with that of inhibitors targeting the ATP pocket, encouraging results, such as the FDA-approval of the first small...

  17. Discovery of inhibitors of bacterial histidine kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Inhibitors of Bacterial Histidine Kinases

    Summary

    The thesis is on novel antibacterial drug discovery (http://youtu.be/NRMWOGgeysM). Using structure-based and fragment-based

  18. MAP kinases in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet; Olsen, Jørgen; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian family of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is activated by diverse extracellular and intracellular stimuli, and thereby they play an essential role in connecting cell-surface receptors to changes in transcriptional programs. The MAPK signaling pathways regulate a wide range...

  19. Deconstructing Lipid Kinase Inhibitors by Chemical Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Rebecca L; Franks, Caroline E; Campbell, Sean T; Purow, Benjamin W; Harris, Thurl E; Hsu, Ku-Lung

    2018-01-16

    Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) regulate lipid metabolism and cell signaling through ATP-dependent phosphorylation of diacylglycerol to biosynthesize phosphatidic acid. Selective chemical probes for studying DGKs are currently lacking and are needed to annotate isoform-specific functions of these elusive lipid kinases. Previously, we explored fragment-based approaches to discover a core fragment of DGK-α (DGKα) inhibitors responsible for selective binding to the DGKα active site. Here, we utilize quantitative chemical proteomics to deconstruct widely used DGKα inhibitors to identify structural regions mediating off-target activity. We tested the activity of a fragment (RLM001) derived from a nucleotide-like region found in the DGKα inhibitors R59022 and ritanserin and discovered that RLM001 mimics ATP in its ability to broadly compete at ATP-binding sites of DGKα as well as >60 native ATP-binding proteins (kinases and ATPases) detected in cell proteomes. Equipotent inhibition of activity-based probe labeling by RLM001 supports a contiguous ligand-binding site composed of C1, DAGKc, and DAGKa domains in the DGKα active site. Given the lack of available crystal structures of DGKs, our studies highlight the utility of chemical proteomics in revealing active-site features of lipid kinases to enable development of inhibitors with enhanced selectivity against the human proteome.

  20. Mitogen-activated protein kinases mediate Mycobacterium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DR (HLA-DR) receptors in mediating mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain induced lower CD44 surface expression and tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, whereas H37Ra the reverse. Using highly specific ...

  1. Nonorthologous gene displacement of phosphomevalonate kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, S. M.; Waterham, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    Phosphomevalonate kinase (PMK; EC 2.7.4.2) catalyzes the phosphorylation of 5-phosphomevalonate into 5-diphosphomevalonate, an essential step in isoprenoid biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. So far, two nonorthologous genes encoding PMK have been described, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ERG8

  2. Photoactivation of NAD Kinase through Phytochrome: Phosphate Donors and Cofactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takafumi Tezuka; Yukio Yamamoto

    1975-01-01

    .... In the presence of exogenous Mg , which is required for NAD kinase activity, α-nitroso-β-naphthol, cyanide, and dimethylglyoxime, strongly inhibited the activation by red light without affecting the level of NAD kinase in the dark...

  3. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, Lizzy M.; Mairuhu, Gideon; Bindraban, Navin R.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascular

  4. Kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP) quantifies the contribution of protein kinases to the regulation of cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Edmund H; Casado, Pedro; Rajeeve, Vinothini; Cutillas, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    Cell survival is regulated by a signaling network driven by the activity of protein kinases; however, determining the contribution that each kinase in the network makes to such regulation remains challenging. Here, we report a computational approach that uses mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics data to rank protein kinases based on their contribution to cell regulation. We found that the scores returned by this algorithm, which we have termed kinase activity ranking using phosphoproteomics data (KARP), were a quantitative measure of the contribution that individual kinases make to the signaling output. Application of KARP to the analysis of eight hematological cell lines revealed that cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1/2, casein kinase (CK) 2, extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), and p21-activated kinase (PAK) were the most frequently highly ranked kinases in these cell models. The patterns of kinase activation were cell-line specific yet showed a significant association with cell viability as a function of kinase inhibitor treatment. Thus, our study exemplifies KARP as an untargeted approach to empirically and systematically identify regulatory kinases within signaling networks. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Phosphotyrosine enrichment identifies focal adhesion kinase and other tyrosine kinases for targeting in canine hemangiosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, K; Maier, C S; Helfand, S C

    2012-09-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is an endothelial cell malignancy driven, in part, by activating mutations in receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases. Proteomics, Western blots and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor were used to elucidate activating mechanisms in HSA cell lines. Phosphotyrosine peptides from focal adhesion kinase (FAK) STAT3, Lyn, Fyn and other signal transduction kinases were identified by mass spectrometry. FAK was constitutively activated at tyrosine 397, the autophosphorylation site, and this was reversible with high concentrations of a FAK inhibitor. FAK inhibitor-14 suppressed migration and phosphorylation of FAK tyrosine 397 and tyrosines 576/577 and was cytotoxic to HSA cells suggesting FAK signalling may be an important contributor to canine HSA survival. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. CK2: a protein kinase in need of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Boldyreff, B; Sarno, S

    1999-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 is a heterotetrameric alpha2beta2 Ser/Thr protein kinase with some features unusual among the eukaryotic protein kinases: (1) CK2 recognizes phosphoacceptor sites specified by several acidic determinants; (2) CK2 can use both ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors; and (3) the regula...... response to nucleotide analogs. The increasing knowledge of CK2 structure-function relationships will allow the design of highly selective inhibitors of this pleiotropic kinase with oncogenic potential....

  7. A Framework for Classification of Prokaryotic Protein Kinases

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Tyagi; Krishanpal Anamika; Narayanaswamy Srinivasan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overwhelming majority of the Serine/Threonine protein kinases identified by gleaning archaeal and eubacterial genomes could not be classified into any of the well known Hanks and Hunter subfamilies of protein kinases. This is owing to the development of Hanks and Hunter classification scheme based on eukaryotic protein kinases which are highly divergent from their prokaryotic homologues. A large dataset of prokaryotic Serine/Threonine protein kinases recognized from genomes of pro...

  8. Unraveling Kinase Activation Dynamics Using Kinase-Substrate Relationships from Temporal Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanova, Westa; Krycer, James; Chaudhuri, Rima; Yang, Pengyi; Vafaee, Fatemeh; Fazakerley, Daniel; Humphrey, Sean; James, David; Kuncic, Zdenka

    2016-01-01

    In response to stimuli, biological processes are tightly controlled by dynamic cellular signaling mechanisms. Reversible protein phosphorylation occurs on rapid time-scales (milliseconds to seconds), making it an ideal carrier of these signals. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have led to the identification of many tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites, yet for the majority of these the kinase is unknown and the underlying network topology of signaling networks therefore remains obscured. Identifying kinase substrate relationships (KSRs) is therefore an important goal in cell signaling research. Existing consensus sequence motif based prediction algorithms do not consider the biological context of KSRs, and are therefore insensitive to many other mechanisms guiding kinase-substrate recognition in cellular contexts. Here, we use temporal information to identify biologically relevant KSRs from Large-scale In Vivo Experiments (KSR-LIVE) in a data-dependent and automated fashion. First, we used available phosphorylation databases to construct a repository of existing experimentally-predicted KSRs. For each kinase in this database, we used time-resolved phosphoproteomics data to examine how its substrates changed in phosphorylation over time. Although substrates for a particular kinase clustered together, they often exhibited a different temporal pattern to the phosphorylation of the kinase. Therefore, although phosphorylation regulates kinase activity, our findings imply that substrate phosphorylation likely serve as a better proxy for kinase activity than kinase phosphorylation. KSR-LIVE can thereby infer which kinases are regulated within a biological context. Moreover, KSR-LIVE can also be used to automatically generate positive training sets for the subsequent prediction of novel KSRs using machine learning approaches. We demonstrate that this approach can distinguish between Akt and Rps6kb1, two kinases that share the same linear consensus motif

  9. Unraveling Kinase Activation Dynamics Using Kinase-Substrate Relationships from Temporal Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westa Domanova

    Full Text Available In response to stimuli, biological processes are tightly controlled by dynamic cellular signaling mechanisms. Reversible protein phosphorylation occurs on rapid time-scales (milliseconds to seconds, making it an ideal carrier of these signals. Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have led to the identification of many tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites, yet for the majority of these the kinase is unknown and the underlying network topology of signaling networks therefore remains obscured. Identifying kinase substrate relationships (KSRs is therefore an important goal in cell signaling research. Existing consensus sequence motif based prediction algorithms do not consider the biological context of KSRs, and are therefore insensitive to many other mechanisms guiding kinase-substrate recognition in cellular contexts. Here, we use temporal information to identify biologically relevant KSRs from Large-scale In Vivo Experiments (KSR-LIVE in a data-dependent and automated fashion. First, we used available phosphorylation databases to construct a repository of existing experimentally-predicted KSRs. For each kinase in this database, we used time-resolved phosphoproteomics data to examine how its substrates changed in phosphorylation over time. Although substrates for a particular kinase clustered together, they often exhibited a different temporal pattern to the phosphorylation of the kinase. Therefore, although phosphorylation regulates kinase activity, our findings imply that substrate phosphorylation likely serve as a better proxy for kinase activity than kinase phosphorylation. KSR-LIVE can thereby infer which kinases are regulated within a biological context. Moreover, KSR-LIVE can also be used to automatically generate positive training sets for the subsequent prediction of novel KSRs using machine learning approaches. We demonstrate that this approach can distinguish between Akt and Rps6kb1, two kinases that share the same

  10. Overcoming Resistance to Inhibitors of the Akt Protein Kinase by Modulation of the Pim Kinase Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    kills PSa cells. Cells were treated with the indicated doses of compounds for 48h and an MTS assay was done in triplicate. Dual treatment with...a Novartis compound BKM120, a broadly active PI -3Kinase inhibitor and AZD1208, a Pan-Pim kinase inhibitor (Fig. 18). Thus, this first...resolve them During this project period the PI moved from the Medical University of South Carolina to the University of Arizona Health Sciences

  11. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases: two enzyme families catalyze the same reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Piskur, Jure

    2005-01-01

    Mammals have four deoxyribonucleoside kinases, the cytoplasmic (TK1) and mitochondrial (TK2) thymidine kinases, and the deoxycytidine (dCK) and deoxyguanosine (dGK) kinases, which salvage the precursors for nucleic acids synthesis. In addition to the native deoxyribonucleoside substrates, the kin...

  12. The Roles of Protein Kinases in Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Karl Peter; Mizuno, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, more than 250 protein kinases are expressed, but only a few of these kinases are currently known to enable learning and memory. Based on this information it appears that learning and memory-related kinases either impact on synaptic transmission by altering ion channel properties or ion channel density, or regulate…

  13. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biological and physiological functions of these proteins in V. vinifera.

  14. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in Vitis vinifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Birsen; Kılıçkaya, Ozan

    2015-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important mechanisms to control cellular functions in response to external and endogenous signals. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are universal signaling molecules in eukaryotes that mediate the intracellular transmission of extracellular signals resulting in the induction of appropriate cellular responses. MAPK cascades are composed of four protein kinase modules: MAPKKK kinases (MAPKKKKs), MAPKK kinases (MAPKKKs), MAPK kinases (MAPKKs), and MAPKs. In plants, MAPKs are activated in response to abiotic stresses, wounding, and hormones, and during plant pathogen interactions and cell division. In this report, we performed a complete inventory of MAPK cascades genes in Vitis vinifera, the whole genome of which has been sequenced. By comparison with MAPK, MAPK kinases, MAPK kinase kinases and MAPK kinase kinase kinase kinase members of Arabidopsis thaliana, we revealed the existence of 14 MAPKs, 5 MAPKKs, 62 MAPKKKs, and 7 MAPKKKKs in Vitis vinifera. We identified orthologs of V. vinifera putative MAPKs in different species, and ESTs corresponding to members of MAPK cascades in various tissues. This work represents the first complete inventory of MAPK cascades in V. vinifera and could help elucidate the biolog