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Sample records for c-6 como potenciais

  1. Synthesis of aryl b-N-acetylglucosamine desmodified at C-6 as potential antimicrobial agents; Sintese de b-N-acetilglicosaminideos de arila modificados em C-6 como potenciais agentes antimicrobianos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfrini, Rozangela Magalhaes; Souza Filho, Jose Dias de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas; Figueireido, Rute Cunha; D' Angelis, Allison Fabiano; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Nunan, Elziria de Aguiar; Martins, Gabriela Aires; Alves, Ricardo Jose [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Dept. de Produtos Farmaceuticos]. E-mail: ricardodylan@farmacia.ufmg.br

    2008-07-01

    We report herein the synthesis of aryl beta-N-acetylglucosaminides containing azido, amino and acetamido groups at C-6 as potential antimicrobial agents. It was expected that these compounds could interfere with the biosynthesis and/or biotransformation of Nacetylglucosamine in fungi and bacteria. None of the compounds showed antimicrobial activity against bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans and Candida tropicallis), at the concentration of 1 mg/mL in agar diffusion assay. (author)

  2. Staphylinidae e Silphidae (Coleoptera como Potenciais Famílias Bioindicadoras de Qualidade Ambiental

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    Fabiana dos Santos Fernandes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo levantar a biodiversidade de coleópteros do IZMA (Eng. Paulo de Frontin - RJ, compreender suas relações com as composições florísticas e buscar identificar potenciais bioindicadores. Foram realizadas quatro coletas, em oito pontos distintos, de abril de 2008 a março de 2009, com utilização de armadilhas pitfall. Os insetos foram triados, identificados, e armazenados no Laboratório de Monitoramento Ambiental – USS; os dados foram analisados por meio da Diversidade e Dominância de Simpson e Similaridade de Cluster. Capturaram-se 1990 coleópteros (15 famílias, com maior ocorrência de Staphylinidae no interior da mata. Os pontos V e VI foram os mais similares e Silphidae, em áreas intermediárias; os pontos VII e VIII, mais similares. A 1ª coleta apresentou maior dominância; a 4ª coleta, maior diversidade. O ponto IV obteve maior abundância; o V, maior dominância; os pontos I e III, maior diversidade; os pontos III e VII, maior similaridade. Os pontos III, IV, VI, e VII mostraram-se os mais conservados, Staphylinidae e Silphidae foram apontados como potenciais bioindicadores, por apresentar sensibilidade às modificações do ambiente.

  3. UNIDADE DE TERAPIA INTENSIVA NEONATAL: RISCOS FÍSICOS COMO FATORES POTENCIAIS DE AGRAVOS À SAÚDE DO TRABALHADOR

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    Livia Maria Nunes de Almeida

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As UTIN constituem-se em setores onde são internados recém-nascidos em estado grave, em situações de risco, que necessitam de recursos técnicos e humanos especializados para sua recuperação, exigindo uma abordagem integral da saúde por uma equipe multidisciplinar, cujos membros estão expostos a riscos ambientais e ocupacionais diariamente. No Brasil, há inúmeros convênios e recomendações da Organização Internacional do Trabalho (OIT, aprovados pelas Normas Regulamentadoras (NR32, por intermédio do Ministério do Trabalho que têm como objetivo eliminar ou controlar os riscos ocupacionais. Este artigo teve por objetivo geral identificar as fontes potenciais dos riscos físicos presentes em uma UTIN localizada no interior do estado do Maranhão, capazes de gerar acidentes de trabalho e doenças ocupacionais. O método utilizado foi descritivo e exploratório, de campo, transversal com abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados apontaram como principais agravantes para os riscos a acidentes de trabalho: o teto com rachaduras, pisos de cor escura e sem proteção antiderrapante, armários e outros mobiliários em má conservação e instalações elétricas inadequadas. Quanto aos riscos físicos foram identificados o excesso de ruídos, o calor e a radiação. Concluiu-se ser necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos que discutam os riscos a que os profissionais da saúde da UTIN estão expostos e suas implicações, de modo a oferecer segurança a esses profissionais durante suas atividades laborais, possibilitando, consequentemente, a prestação de uma assistência de qualidade.

  4. Perfil farmacológico e fitoquímico de plantas indicadas pelos caboclos do Parque Nacional do Jaú (AM) como potenciais analgésicas: parte I

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    Rodrigues,Eliana; Duarte-Almeida,Joaquim M.; Pires,Júlia Movilla

    2010-01-01

    Muitos estudos de plantas medicinais baseiam-se em informações etnofarmacológicas, na intenção de encurtar o tempo e diminuir os recursos financeiros no desenvolvimento de novas drogas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar estudos de farmacologia pré-clínica e fitoquímica com três extratos vegetais, obtidos de duas das 42 plantas com potenciais efeitos analgésico e/ou antiinflamatório, indicadas pelos moradores do Parque Nacional do Jaú, AM. Os extratos hidroalcoólicos foram submet...

  5. Compreendendo os profissionais de saúde da família como potenciais estudantes na educação à distância

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    José Batista Cisne Tomaz

    Full Text Available Este artigo descreve os principais achados de um inquérito realizado no Estado do Ceará, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar a aceitabilidade de um curso baseado em Educação à Distância entre os profissionais que atuam no Programa Saúde da Família - uma nova estratégia para prover Atenção Primária à Saúde para a população brasileira. Foram enviados 255 questionários aos potenciais sujeitos, com uma taxa de resposta de 81,9%. Os achados mostraram que, em geral, os respondentes têm percepções e atitudes positivas em relação à EAD e estão motivados em participar num curso baseado nessa estratégia. Propõe-se uma lista de recomendações para ajudar os planejadores do curso.

  6. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

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    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815732Em Caravelas, município localizado no sul do estado da Bahia, as principais formações vegetais são as florestas de mangue e as restingas apresentando, estas últimas, alto grau de degradação. O objetivo deste artigo consiste em descrever as principais espécies florestais de restingas e seus usos diretos associados, com vistas à recuperação e ao manejo de áreas degradadas e à geração de trabalho e renda, compondo, dessa forma, importante ferramenta para a gestão integrada da zona costeira. Para isso, a elaboração de listagens florísticas e visitas ao campo foram necessárias para reconhecimento do ambiente. Na seleção das espécies, uma literatura referente ao uso, manejo e valor agregado de cada uma das espécies identificadas foi utilizada e, a partir daí, foram reconhecidas quatro espécies com potencialidade para geração de trabalho e renda nos moldes dessa proposta: mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, pitanga (Eugenia uniflora, caju (Anacardium occidentale e aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius. As três primeiras apresentam associação de seus frutos ao uso alimentar, servindo a aroeira como condimentação, com alta valorização no mercado mundial, e o caju, a partir da sua estrutura fértil (castanha e polpa. A identificação dos subprodutos vegetais fornecidos assegura a utilização sustentada das espécies e do ambiente e os Produtos Florestais Não Madeiráveis podem ser estratégicos no gerenciamento costeiro, tornando-se instrumento para se alcançar inclusão social através da geração de trabalho e renda, sob o movimento da Tecnologia Social, contribuindo, portanto, para a redução da vulnerabilidade social de comunidades costeiras tradicionais.

  7. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

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    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Especificamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antigenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficienciahumana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que see ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  8. Vectores recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA), con deleción en el gen C6L, como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades

    OpenAIRE

    García-Arriaza, J.; Gómez, Carmen E.; Esteban, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    La presente invención se engloba dentro de los campos de la biología molecular y de la biotecnología. Específicamente se refiere a virus recombinantes basados en el virus modificado de Ankara (MVA) que expresan los antígenos gp120 y Gag-Pol-Nef del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH-1) de subtipo B (MVA-B), sobre los que se ha delecionado el gen de vaccinia C6L, y que han sido diseñados para utilizarse como vacunas contra el VIH/SIDA y otras enfermedades.

  9. Mol 7C/6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, J.; Schleisiek, K.; Schmuck, I.; Schmidt, L.; Romer, O.; Weih, G.

    1995-01-01

    The Mol 7C/6 coolant blockage experiment in the Belgian BR2 reactor yielded results different from Mol 7C experiments with low burnup pins: At 10% burnup local failure is not self-limiting, but requires active systems for detection and scram. The Mol 7C series was finished in 1991. In each of the test bundles Mol 7C/4, /5 and /6, 30 Mk I pins pre-irradiated in KNK II were used. The central blockage consisted of enriched UO 2 covering 30 percent of the bundle cross-section, with a height of 40 mm. The most important system for timely detection of coolant blockages of the type studied in Mol 7C/6 is based on DND. (orig.)

  10. Seleção de bactérias endofíticas de tomateiro como potenciais agentes de biocontrole e de promoção de crescimento Screening of endophytic bacteria isolated from tomato plants as potencial biocontrol agents and growth promotion

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    Patrícia Baston Barretti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta isolados bacterianos endofíticos de plantas sadias de tomateiro foram avaliados quanto à sua potencialidade como agentes de biocontrole de doenças do tomateiro. Foi realizada, em casa de vegetação, uma seleção massal utilizando-se Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato e Alternaria solani, como patógenos desafiantes. Com base na média do número de lesões por planta, quatro isolados foram selecionados como potenciais agentes de biocontrole dessas enfermidades fúngica e bacteriana do tomateiro. Esses isolados foram identificados, por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S do DNA ribossômico, como Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 e Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. Os mesmos isolados selecionados para o biocontrole também foram avaliados quanto à sua capacidade de promover o crescimento em plantas e somente S. marcescens (UFV-E13 proporcionou aumento na altura das plantas.Forty isolates of endophytic bacteria obtained from healthy tomato plants were tested for their potential as biocontrol agents of tomato diseases. A massal screening was performed at greenhouse using Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Alternaria solani as challenging pathogens. Based on the average number of lesions per plant, four isolates were selected as potential agents of biocontrol of these tomato diseases caused by fungi and bacteria. These isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter johnsonii (UFV-E05, Serratia marcescens (UFV-E13, Sinorhizobium sp. (UFV-E25 and Bacillus megaterium (UFV-E26. The four endophytes selected for biocontrol were also evaluated for their ability of promoting plant growth and only S. marcescens (UFV-E13 presented increase in the height of the plants.

  11. Análise de potenciais interações medicamentosas em prescrições de um hospital veterinário do noroeste paulista como ferramenta do serviço de farmácia hospitalar para reduzir suas reais manifestações

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    Ana Gabriela dos Reis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre medicamentos é uma ferramenta terapêutica amplamente utilizada, devido à existência de comorbidades. Contudo, essa prática eleva o índice de interações medicamentosas (IM, que podem ser benéficas ou acarretar danos à vida do paciente. Nesse contexto, os farmacêuticos de um hospital veterinário do noroeste paulista, implantaram em sua rotina a análise de todas as prescrições por meio de softwares e programas on line quanto à ocorrência de potenciais IM relacionadas à farmacoterapia de animais internados. Foram analisadas 5.376 prescrições, aviadas pelo serviço de farmácia hospitalar no período de 01 de junho de 2009 a 20 de dezembro de 2010. Todas foram elaboradas pelos médicos veterinários da instituição aos animais de pequeno porte que após atendimento ambulatorial permaneceram sob regime de internação. As IM estiveram presentes em 4,92% (n=265 das prescrições, as mais incidentes ocorreram entre ampicilina e heparina com 23,8% (n=63; ranitidina e cetoprofeno 12,9% (n=34; alimento e cefalexina 11,7% (n=31; cetoprofeno e heparina 9,4% (n=25 e metoclopramida e tramadol 8,3% (n=22. Quanto à gravidade, a maioria 52,4% (n=139 foi classificada como de nível menor; 24,9% (n=66 moderadas, 11% (n=29 potencialmente fatais, e 11,7% (n=31 não foram classificadas. As informações sobre estudos de IM e interações alimentares em animais são escassas, embora seja comum a ocorrência de IM na prática clínica. Assim essa avaliação tem o papel principal de alertar o médico veterinário prescritor para as consequências dessas no tratamento medicamentoso do animal e ainda no prognóstico da doença.

  12. Interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em pacientes com doenca renal cronica

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    Alessandra Batista Marquito

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Interações medicamentosas (IMs são frequentes na prática clínica e estão diretamente relacionadas a fatores como polifarmácia, idade avançada e deficiência na metabolização e excreção de fármacos. Indivíduos com doença renal crônica (DRC comumente utilizam diversas classes de medicamentos, constituindo um importante grupo de risco para IMs. Objetivo: Identificar potenciais interações entre medicamentos prescritos a renais crônicos em tratamento conservador, e fatores associados a sua ocorrência. Métodos: Estudo observacional transversal, com análise de 558 prescrições. O potencial interativo dos medicamentos foi traçado tendo como suporte a base de dados MICROMEDEX®, software que disponibiliza farmacopeias conhecidas internacionalmente. Resultados: Houve predomínio de indivíduos do sexo masculino (54,7%, idosos (69,4%, no estágio 3 da DRC (47,5%, com sobrepeso e obesos (66,7%. As comorbidades mais prevalentes foram a hipertensão arterial sistêmica (68,5% e o diabetes mellitus (31,9%. IMs potenciais foram detectadas em 74,9% das prescrições. De um total de 1.364 IMs detectadas, 229 (16,8% foram de gravidade maior e 5 (0,4% contraindicadas, com necessidade de intervenção imediata. Interações de gravidade moderada ou menor foram identificadas respectivamente em 1.049 (76,9% e 81 (5,9% das prescrições. Observou-se que a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma IM aumentou em 2,5 vezes para cada medicamento adicional (IC = 2,18-3,03. Obesidade, diabetes, hipertensão e estágio avançado da DRC foram fatores de risco fortemente associados para ocorrência de IM. Conclusão: A associação de medicamentos em indivíduos com DRC relacionou-se com alta prevalência de IMs potencialmente graves, especialmente nos estágios mais avançados da doença.

  13. Mol 7C/6; Mol 7C/6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberle, J.; Schleisiek, K.; Schmuck, I.; Schmidt, L.; Romer, O.; Weih, G.

    1995-08-01

    The Mol 7C/6 coolant blockage experiment in the Belgian BR2 reactor yielded results different from Mol 7C experiments with low burnup pins: At 10% burnup local failure is not self-limiting, but requires active systems for detection and scram. The Mol 7C series was finished in 1991. In each of the test bundles Mol 7C/4, /5 and /6, 30 Mk I pins pre-irradiated in KNK II were used. The central blockage consisted of enriched UO{sub 2} covering 30 percent of the bundle cross-section, with a height of 40 mm. The most important system for timely detection of coolant blockages of the type studied in Mol 7C/6 is based on DND. (orig.)

  14. Perfil farmacológico e fitoquímico de plantas indicadas pelos caboclos do Parque Nacional do Jaú (AM como potenciais analgésicas: parte I Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of plants indicated by caboclos of Jaú National Park (AM as potential analgesic: part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Muitos estudos de plantas medicinais baseiam-se em informações etnofarmacológicas, na intenção de encurtar o tempo e diminuir os recursos financeiros no desenvolvimento de novas drogas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo realizar estudos de farmacologia pré-clínica e fitoquímica com três extratos vegetais, obtidos de duas das 42 plantas com potenciais efeitos analgésico e/ou antiinflamatório, indicadas pelos moradores do Parque Nacional do Jaú, AM. Os extratos hidroalcoólicos foram submetidos à caracterização fitoquímica por meio de cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD. Os testes de farmacologia pré-clínica empregados foram: screening inicial, rota rod, atividade motora, placa quente, tail flick e contorções abdominais, nas doses de 300 e 500 mg/kg. Os três extratos foram obtidos a partir das cascas da cumandá: Campsiandra comosa Benth., Fabaceae (EHCC e das folhas (EHSF e cascas (EHSC da sucuuba: Himatanthus sucuuba (Spruce ex Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae. As análises fitoquímicas revelaram a presença de flavonóides, taninos, iridóides e triterpenos nos diferentes extratos; enquanto os alcalóides e cumarinas não foram detectados. A investigação farmacológica demonstrou atividade analgésica discreta apenas no teste de contorções abdominais para os extratos EHSF e EHCC; nenhuma alteração foi observada no aparelho de rota rod e de modo geral, observou-se diminuição da atividade motora em todos os extratos nas diferentes doses testadas. Diferentes extratos destas plantas estão sendo testados em outros modelos, pelo mesmo grupo de trabalho, a fim de aprofundar os conhecimentos acerca do perfil farmacológico destas espécies.This work aimed to study the pre-clinical pharmacology and phytochemistry of three plant extracts, obtained from two of the 42 plants with potential analgesic and / or anti-inflammatory, indicated by the residents of the National Park of Jaú, AM. The hydroalcoholic extracts were

  15. Eventos adversos por interações medicamentosas potenciais em unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital de ensino

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    Mariana Macedo Alvim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a existência de interações medicamentosas potenciais na unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital, com foco nos antimicrobianos. Métodos: Estudo transversal, que analisou prescrições eletrônicas de pacientes da unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital de ensino, avaliando potenciais interações medicamentosas relacionadas aos antimicrobianos, entre 1º de janeiro e 31 de março de 2014. O consumo dos antimicrobianos foi expresso em dose diária definida por 100 pacientes-dia. A busca e a classificação das interações foram realizadas com base no sistema Micromedex®. Resultados: Foram analisadas prescrições diárias de 82 pacientes, totalizando 656 prescrições. Do total de medicamentos prescritos, 25% eram antimicrobianos, sendo meropenem, vancomicina e ceftriaxona os mais prescritos. Os antimicrobianos mais consumidos, segundo a metodologia de dose diária definida por 100 pacientes-dia, foram cefepime, meropenem, sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima e ciprofloxacino. A média de interações por paciente foi de 2,6. Entre as interações, 51% foram classificadas como contraindicadas ou de gravidade importante. Destacaram-se as interações altamente significativas (valor clínico 1 e 2, com prevalência de 98%. Conclusão: Com o presente trabalho verifica-se que os antimicrobianos são uma classe frequentemente prescrita na unidade de terapia intensiva, apresentando elevada quantidade de interações medicamentosas potenciais, sendo a maior parte das interações considerada altamente significativa.

  16. POTENCIAIS SEQUÊNCIAS DE APRENDIZAGEM INTERCULTURAL NO TELETANDEM: A IMPORTÂNCIA DA MEDIAÇÃO

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    Ana Carolina Freschi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir da caracterização do teletandem como Terceiro Espaço, onde o contato intercultural tem território privilegiado (KRAMSCH; URYU, 2014, e dos conceitos de competência intercultural (BELZ, 2003 e paráfrases (ORLANDI, 1987; 2000; PECHÊUX, 1997,  discutimos a relevância da identificação de potenciais sequências de aprendizagem intercultural (BORGHETTI et al, 2015 como oportunidades para melhor autocompreensão e autocrítica e desenvolvimento da competência intercultural a partir da mediação realizada no teletandem. Assim, nosso artigo situa-se na interface entre estudos linguísticos, estudos culturais e análise do discurso de linha francesa. Os dados analisados foram coletados em 2011, 2012 e 2014 e tiveram como temas: preconceito linguístico e regional, eleições presidenciais, copa do mundo de futebol no Brasil e generalizações quanto a situação das escolas no Estado de São Paulo. Esses assuntos embasaram parte das interações e suscitaram diversas paráfrases que nos levaram aos questionamentos apresentados. Por meio da análise de quatro sessões de teletandem de pares diferentes, pudemos identificar potenciais sequências de aprendizagem intercultural, o que demonstra o potencial do teletandem como espaço desse tipo de aprendizagem. As sessões de mediação podem contribuir significativamente para o desenvolvimento dessa competência, auxiliando a compreender as identidades e o que entendemos ser a identidade que afirmamos ter.

  17. A pesquisa multicultural como eixo na formação docente: potenciais para a discussão da diversidade e das diferenças La investigación multicultural como eje de la formación de profesores: potenciales para las discusiones de la diversidad y de las diferencias Multicultural research as a backbone of teacher's formation: potential topics for the discussion about diversity and difference

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    Ana Canen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo argumenta que a compreensão da pesquisa como fenômeno multicultural pode tornar a articulação ensino-pesquisa mais impactante na formação de professores, Desenvolve o argumento, propondo quatro dimensões centrais nessa perspectiva: a compreensão dos futuros professores e professores formadores como identidades culturais plurais de pesquisadores em ação; o incentivo às discussões dos temas educacionais em termos de vozes silenciadas e representadas, analisando tensões entre universalismo e valorização da diversidade; a apresentação dos professores em formação a metodologias plurais de pesquisa; a análise das identidades institucionais ou organizacionais onde se processa a formação docente e sua articulação à perspectiva de pesquisa, problematizando relações desiguais de poder e lutando para que essas instituições se constituam em instituições ou organizações multiculturais.El artículo discute que la comprensión de la investigación como un fenómeno multicultural puede llevar a una articulación entre educación-investigación de más impacto en la formación de profesores. Este trabajo desenvuelve la discusión proponiendo cuatro dimensiones centrales: la comprensión de los futuros profesores y de los profesores formadores como identidades culturales plurales de investigadores en acción; el incentivo a las discusiones de los temas educacionales en término de voces silenciadas y representadas, analizando las tensiones entre universalismo y valorización de la diversidad; la presentación de la metodología plural de investigación a los profesores en formación; el análisis de las identidades institucionales o organizacionales donde se construye la formación del profesor y su articulación a la perspectiva de investigación, colocando como problema las relaciones desiguales de poder y luchando para que esas instituciones se organicen en instituciones o organizaciones multiculturales

  18. Complexos de escorpionato: papel biológico como potenciais agentes anti-tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina O cancro é uma doença genética com origem em células somáticas desordenadas à nível celular, que sofreram alterações permitindo escapar à vigilância do sistema imunitário. O tratamento por quimioterapia pretende controlar a disseminação da doença por metastização. Sendo assim, a investigação de compostos com acção citostática é de grande importância. Tendo sido comprovado a existência de complexos de escorpi...

  19. Conflitos Potenciais na Relação entre Franqueadores e Franqueados Soteropolitanos

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    Marcos Albuquerque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar conflitos potenciais que ocorrem na relação entre Franqueadores e Franqueados soteropolitanos, atuantes nas áreas de alimentação, vestuário e calçados e acessórios. A seleção dos segmentos investigados deveu-se não somente pela sua participação representativa na produtividade de varejo, mas também por concentrar grande número de empresas, muitas delas associadas à Associação Brasileira de Franchising (ABS. A pesquisa teve caráter exploratório, utilizando técnicas qualitativas do tipo estudos de casos múltiplos, com aplicação de entrevistas semiestruturadas, análise documental e observação participante. Uma vez identificados os pontos de conflitos entre os participantes investigados - perfil do candidato (falta de critérios específicos, previamente, recursos financeiros (nenhum planejamento financeiro anual acompanhado pelo franqueador junto ao seu franqueado, ponto comercial (as franqueadoras não orientam quanto à melhor escolha do ponto ou quanto aos aspectos que podem e devem ser observados e comunicação (ponto de amenização de conflitos, quando constante e bem conduzida – e avaliadas as práticas adotadas, foi possível propor medidas para minimizar o impacto dos conflitos no sistema de franchising.

  20. Antiproliferative activity of some novel platinum complexes on C6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MCF-7) and glioma cells (C6). IC50 values of the three compounds were lower in the cisplatin-resistant cell type C6 cell lines than in MCF-7 cells. Key words: Cisplatin, antiproliferative activity, breast cancer cells (MCF-7), glioma cells (C6), IC50.

  1. C_6_0"3"- versus C_6_0"4"- /C_6_0"2"- - synthesis and characterization of five salts containing discrete fullerene anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeddinghaus, M. Bele; Klein, Wilhelm; Wahl, Bernhard; Faessler, Thomas F.; Jakes, Peter; Eichel, Ruediger A.

    2014-01-01

    Five new compounds, [Rb(18crown-6)]_3[C_6_0] (1), [Rb(18crown-6)]_6[C_6_0]_2(C_3H_7NO)_2(C_4H_8O)_2 (2), [Rb(benzo18crown-6)]_6[C_6_0]_2(C_2H_8N_2)_5 (3), [Cs(benzo18crown-6)]_3C_6_0(C_2H_8N_2)_2 (4), and [Cs_3(benzo18crown-6)_5]C_6_0(C_2H_8N_2)_(_4_._5_+_x_) (5) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. All compounds contain discrete C_6_0 anions, which are ordered in 1, 2, and 4, where direct cation-anion contacts occur. The unit cells of 1 and 2 contain two independent fullerides, which coordinate to the rubidium atoms either of two or of four [Rb(18crown-6)] units. Owing to the presence of differently coordinated fullerene units in compounds 1 and 2, a possible disproportionation of C_6_0"3"- into C_6_0"2"- and C_6_0"4"- anions is discussed. In 3 and 4 the C_6_0 anions are coordinated by three Rb and Cs atoms, respectively. In all compounds the average charge of the anion is -3. Magnetic data reveal a doublet spin state for 3. The EPR spectra are discussed for compounds 3 and 5. The role of a dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion is discussed, and we report the first IR spectroscopic data of fullerene trianions, which have been obtained in solution. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Interações medicamentosas potenciais entre medicamentos psicotrópicos dispensados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Balen

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a frequência e caracterizar as interações medicamentosas potenciais entre fármacos psicotrópicos sujeitos a controle especial pela portaria 344/98 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (Anvisa, os quais foram prescritos e dispensados em uma farmácia pública do Município de Cascavel, Paraná. Métodos Estudo retrospectivo com desenho seccional foi realizado em uma Farmácia Pública Municipal. A amostra foi composta por prescrições de medicamentos sujeitos a controle especial, dispensados entre primeiro de julho a 31 de agosto de 2010. As prescrições retidas na farmácia foram analisadas retrospectivamente e as informações, coletadas. As interações medicamentosas potenciais foram identificadas em 824 prescrições. Resultados As prescrições eram na maioria para pacientes do sexo feminino e com idade entre 19 e 59 anos. Em relação à especialidade do prescritor, 30,6% foram prescritas por psiquiatra. Em 77,9% das prescrições identificou-se pelo menos uma interação medicamentosa potencial. Foram descritas 54 diferentes interações medicamentosas potenciais, sendo 34 graves e 20 moderadas. Encontrou-se uma correlação linear entre medicamentos prescritos e interações medicamentosas potenciais (p valor < 0,001. Conclusão O presente estudo identificou uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas potenciais envolvendo fármacos de controle especial e uma associação positiva entre o número de fármacos prescritos com a maior frequência dessas interações.

  3. Potenciais benefícios do sistema de rastreabilidade animal dos EUA para o setor de carnes americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés de Andrade Resende Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investigou os potenciais ganhos do setor de carnes americano advindos da implantação do Sistema Nacional de Identificação Animal (NAIS, dos EUA. Foram analisados os potenciais efeitos do NAIS sobre a percepção de risco dos consumidores americanos em relação aos perigos decorrentes do consumo das carnes bovina, suína e de aves e seus derivados. Sistemas de equações de demanda foram estimados, incorporando-se como "proxies" da percepção de risco do consumidor, séries de índices de segurança do alimento, separadamente construídas para cada tipo de carne. Tais séries foram concebidas, somando-se o número de referências nos principais jornais americanos a problemas de segurança da carne. Foi utilizado o melhor modelo estimado, escolhido com base em uma série de testes de especificação, para se construir três cenários, simulando-se os casos em que o NAIS não está implementado; que está implementado apenas para o gado bovino; e que está implementado para suínos e bovinos. Foram utilizadas as diferenças entre as receitas estimadas para cada cenário e para cada tipo de carne, como uma medida do potencial ganho advindo da implementação do NAIS. Foi concluído que os setores da carne bovina e suína poderiam arcar com os custos do NAIS. Esse resultado, contudo, depende de o quanto desses potenciais ganhos chegarão efetivamente aos produtores agrícolas.This article investigates the potential gains to the U.S. meat sector with the implantation of the U.S. National Animal Identification System (NAIS. The focus is on the effect that the NAIS could have on consumers' risk perception about eating meat. System of demand equations are estimated using time series of food safety indexes variables used as proxies for consumers' reactions to news on meat safety issues. The series of food safety indexes are built on the basis of the number of food safety news reported in top U.S. newspapers. Using the preferred model

  4. Isomerisation of c4-c6 aldoses with zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to isomerization of C4-C6 aldoses to their corresponding C4-C6 ketoses. In particular, the invention concerns isomerization of C4-C6 aldoses over solid zeolite catalysts free of any metals other than aluminum, in the presence of suitable solvent(s) at suitable elevated...... temperatures. C6 and C5 aldose sugars such as glucose and xylose, which are available in large amounts from biomass precursors, are isomerized to fructose and xylulose respectively, in a one or two-step process over inexpensive commercially available zeolite catalysts, containing aluminum as the only metal...

  5. Potenciais interações medicamentosas em pacientes com artrite reumatoide Potential drug interactions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Bagatini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O termo polifarmácia, ou seja, a utilização concomitante de múltiplos fármacos pelo mesmo indivíduo vem sendo amplamente associado a pacientes institucionalizados e idosos, no entanto pode ocorrer em grupos de pacientes portadores de doenças crônicas como artrite reumatoide (AR. OBJETIVO: Quantificar a polifarmácia em um grupo de pacientes com AR e realizar um levantamento sobre o risco de potenciais interações indesejáveis entre os medicamentos utilizados no manejo dessa doença e os fármacos utilizados em enfermidades não crônicas. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo de coorte com 103 pacientes portadores de AR, atendidos no Componente Especializado da Assistência Farmacêutica/MS, Florianópolis/SC. Os pacientes foram acompanhados mensalmente, por meio de fichas. As interações medicamentosas foram identificadas pelo Drugdex System - Thomson Micromedex® - Interactions. RESULTADOS: Observou-se a presença de polifarmácia em 95,1% dos pacientes e de 19 potenciais interações indesejáveis entre os medicamentos utilizados por 74 pacientes, em média 3,0 ± 1,2 interações/paciente. Todas as potenciais interações estavam relacionadas a metotrexato. Omeprazol foi o principal representante, correspondendo a 29,3% delas, seguido por diclofenaco sódico (17,6% e dipirona sódica (13,2%. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando que este estudo confirma que a polifarmácia é uma prática comum na terapêutica dos pacientes portadores de AR, deve haver maior vigilância acerca de efeitos adversos ou de redução da efetividade de determinados fármacos devido às suas interações farmacológicasINTRODUCTION: The term polypharmacy, meaning the concomitant use of multiple medications by one individual, has been widely reported in institutionalized or elderly patients. It can, however, occur in patients with chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA. OBJECTIVE: To quantify polypharmacy in a group of RA patients and to assess the

  6. Unresolved problems in superconductivity of CaC6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazin, I.I.; Boen, L.; Dolgov, O.V.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Bachelet, G.B.; Giantomassi, M.; Andersen, O.K.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss the current status of the theory of the “high-temperature” superconductivity in intercalated graphites YbC6 and CaC6. We emphasize that while the general picture of conventional, phonon-driven superconductivity has already emerged and is generally accepted, there are still interesting

  7. Plastocyanin/cytochrome c6 interchange in Scenedesmus vacuolatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miramar, M Dolores; Inda, Luis A; Saraiva, Lígia M; Peleato, M Luisa

    2003-12-01

    Plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 from the green alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus were immunoquantified in cells grown under different concentrations of copper and iron. Plastocyanin expression was constitutive, its synthesis was not significantly affected by iron availability, and increases with copper availability. On the contrary, cytochrome c6 synthesis is repressed by copper, and only residual amounts of the protein were detected at 0.1 micromol/L copper. Under copper deficiency, cytochrome c6 is slightly dependent on iron. In natural environments, plastocyanin seems to be the predominant electron donor to P700.

  8. Anos potenciais de vida perdidos e custos hospitalares da leptospirose no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Maria Mendes de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar os custos associados à hospitalização e os anos potenciais de vida perdidos devido à leptospirose. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados os bancos de dados de sistemas de informação em saúde do Ministério da Saúde para o relacionamento probabilístico dos casos e internações que evoluíram a óbito por leptospirose em 2007. No Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação os casos confirmados foram subdivididos em internação e óbito, que foram relacionados às seguintes bases: Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (registros com diagnóstico principal e Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (causa básica do óbito, A27.0, A27.8 e A27.9. Foram estimados os custos parciais de internação, os óbitos pela doença, os anos potenciais de vida e de trabalho perdidos. RESULTADOS: As características da maioria das internações que evoluíram para óbito eram: sexo masculino, entre 18 e 49 anos, raça branca, zona urbana e ensino fundamental incompleto. Foram 6.490 anos potenciais de vida perdidos, sendo 75% da faixa etária de 20 a 49 anos. Quando ajustada pela população, a perda foi de 15 dias de vida/1.000 habitantes. A proporção de anos potenciais de vida perdidos pelo número de óbitos foi em média de 30 anos perdidos para cada óbito. O impacto financeiro estimado foi equivalente a R$ 22,9 milhões em salários não ganhos. Os custos hospitalares foram de R$ 831,5 mil. Considerando os dias de salário perdidos por período de internação (mediana: 6 dias, houve perda de R$ 103,0 mil. CONCLUSÕES: Houve elevado custo social em termo de anos potenciais de vida perdidos e gasto hospitalar parcial com leptospirose quando comparado ao possível tratamento precoce ou não adoecimento, o que poderia ter minimizado o impacto dessa doença na população brasileira.

  9. Kinematic characteristics of tenodesis grasp in C6 quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, S; Revol, P; Fourtassi, M; Rossetti, Y; Collet, C; Rode, G

    2013-02-01

    Descriptive control case study. To analyze the kinematics of tenodesis grasp in participants with C6 quadriplegia and healthy control participants in a pointing task and two daily life tasks involving a whole hand grip (apple) or a lateral grip (floppy disk). France. Four complete participants with C6 quadriplegia were age matched with four healthy control participants. All participants were right-handed. The measured kinematic parameters were the movement time (MT), the peak velocity (PV), the time of PV (TPV) and the wrist angle in the sagittal plane at movement onset, at the TPV and at the movement end point. The participants with C6 quadriplegia had significantly longer MTs in both prehension tasks. No significant differences in TPV were found between the two groups. Unlike control participants, for both prehension tasks the wrist of participants with C6 quadriplegia was in a neutral position at movement onset, in flexion at the TPV, and in extension at the movement end point. Two main kinematic parameters characterize tenodesis grasp movements in C6 quadriplegics: wrist flexion during reaching and wrist extension during the grasping phase, and increased MT reflecting the time required to adjust the wrist's position to achieve the tenodesis grasp. These characteristics were observed for two different grips (whole hand and lateral grip). These results suggest sequential planning of reaching and tenodesis grasp, and should be taken into account for prehension rehabilitation in patients with quadriplegia.

  10. High temperature hydrogenation of CaC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, G.; Howard, C.A.; Skipper, N.T.; Bennington, S.M.; Ellerby, M.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and superconducting properties of high temperature hydrogenated calcium-graphite intercalation compound, CaC 6 have been investigated using room temperature X-ray diffraction, and temperature and field dependence of magnetisation. It is found that the hydrogenation can only decompose the CaC 6 phase, and generate a mixture of CaH 2 and graphite as the final compound. The hydrogenation of CaC 6 also reveals a degradation of its superconducting properties. The experimental results are discussed in detail and it is found that the formation of stable CaH 2 and deintercalation are the main source for observed phase separation and suppression in superconductivity.

  11. Interações Medicamentosas Potenciais em Pacientes de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Batista Vieira; Adriano Max Moreira Reis; Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de Carvalho; Leila Márcia Pereira de Faria; Silvia Helena de Bortoli Cassiani

    2012-01-01

    O objetivo do estudo é determinar a frequência de interações fármaco-fármaco em prescrições de pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e analisar os fatores associados relativos à farmacoterapia e ao paciente. O estudo descritivo transversal foi realizado em dois hospitais de ensino da região centro oeste do Brasil. As interações medicamentosas potenciais foram identificadas nas prescrições do primeiro dia (24 horas) e do quinto dia (120 horas) de interna...

  12. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em usuários de crack e múltiplas drogas Auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Fabianni Nigri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em usuários de crack e múltiplas drogas, bem como levantar as possíveis queixas auditivas e de equilíbrio nesta população. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 40 usuários de drogas (20 com uso há mais de cinco anos e 20 há menos de cinco anos e 20 não usuários, do sexo masculino, com idades entre 19 e 46 anos, com limiares auditivos dentro da normalidade. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferenças significativas dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico dos usuários de drogas quando comparados ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico dos usuários de drogas não diferiram significantemente do grupo controle. As queixas apresentadas pelos usuários de drogas foram hiperacusia, alucinação auditiva, zumbido e alteração de equilíbrio.PURPOSE: To study the findings of auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs users, as well as to raise possible auditory and balance complaints in this population. METHODS: A total of 40 drugs addicts (20 who had been using drugs for over five years and 20 for less than five years and 20 non-users were evaluated. Subjects were all male, with ages ranging from 19 to 46 years, and had auditory thresholds within normal. RESULTS: No significant statistical differences were found regarding the auditory brainstem evoked potentials findings of the addicts group, when compared to the non-users. CONCLUSION: Auditory brainstem evoked potentials in crack and multiple drugs users did not differ significantly from the control group. Complaints presented by drugs addicts were hyperacusis, auditory hallucination, tinnitus and altered balance.

  13. A relação de valores de potenciais consumidores de cursos de graduação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Carvalho De Benedicto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1983-4535.2012v5n2p174   Atualmente as Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES enfrentam grande competitividade, por isso, buscam um novo posicionamento no mercado. A compreensão do perfil do consumidor permite o desenvolvimento de estratégias de posicionamento para novos produtos/serviços. Para tanto, é necessário compreender as variáveis que precisam ser aperfeiçoadas a fim de melhorar a imagem corporativa da organização e a satisfação dos ingressantes e dos alunos com os serviços educacionais oferecidos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a relação de valores de potenciais consumidores de cursos de graduação, quando da escolha de uma IES. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade utilizando a técnica qualitativa laddering, que faz uso dos pressupostos teóricos da cadeia de meios e fins. Foi construído um Mapa Hierárquico de Valor (MHV, o qual permite identificar as cadeias dominantes que influenciam o comportamento do consumidor em sua decisão de compra. Os resultados mostram a preocupação dos consumidores com IES que apresentem um conjunto de atributos essenciais que lhes permitam um lugar no mercado de trabalho e alcançar uma gama de aspirações pessoais. Os clientes/consumidores pesquisados almejam IES que tenham: reconhecimento da sociedade; professores qualificados; ensino de qualidade; aulas práticas em laboratórios especializados. Tais atributos levam a diversas conseqüências desejáveis aos consumidores dos serviços educacionais no ensino superior: a ampliação do conhecimento do estudante; o aumento das chances de conseguir um emprego; a segurança no exercício da profissão; a conquista da tão sonhada independência financeira. Tais atributos e conseqüências se encontram ligados a diversos valores, tais como: prazer, segurança, realização pessoal, felicidade, solidariedade e independência/liberdade.

  14. Estudo de potenciais interações medicamentosas em pacientes hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Cristina Moutinho MONTEIRO ; Wandson Rodrigues SOUSA1, Clemilson da Silva BARROS ; Karla Valéria Santos de CAMPOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hipertensão arterial é uma elevação crônica da pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica e é provavelmente a doença crônica mais comum nos dias de hoje. Os portadores desse agravo necessitam de atenção especial, uma vez que muitos fazem uso de associação de medicamentos, aumentando assim o risco de interações medicamentosas. O objetivo do trabalho foi verificar potenciais interações medicamentosas com anti-hipertensivos em usuários hipertensos de uma estratégia de saúde da família, em São Luís. MA. Foi realizado um estudo quantitativo observacional de corte transversal com 60 hipertensos do Sistema de Cadastramento e Acompanhamento de Hipertensos e Diabéticos (SIS-HIPERDIA, vinculado a uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS de São Luís, MA. A população estudada foi predominantemente do sexo feminino (71,67%, de cor parda (46,66%, com ensino fundamental incompleto (55% e renda familiar de até meio salário mínimo (65%. Foram observadas 70 potenciais interações medicamentosas, onde destacaram-se as interações moderadas (84,28%. As classes terapêuticas mais frequentemente envolvidas foram os anti-inflamatórios e as associações mais frequentes ocorreram entre ácido acetilsalicílico com losartana e hidroclorotiazida com captopril. Os resultados mostraram alta prevalência de potenciais interações medicamentosas na população estudada, ratificando dados encontrados na literatura. A busca do trabalho colaborativo entre prescritores e farmacêuticos deve ser constante objetivando a intensificação do processo de cuidados em saúde, o compartilhamento de conhecimentos e a integralidade do cuidado

  15. Interações Medicamentosas Potenciais em Pacientes de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Batista Vieira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é determinar a frequência de interações fármaco-fármaco em prescrições de pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e analisar os fatores associados relativos à farmacoterapia e ao paciente. O estudo descritivo transversal foi realizado em dois hospitais de ensino da região centro oeste do Brasil. As interações medicamentosas potenciais foram identificadas nas prescrições do primeiro dia (24 horas e do quinto dia (120 horas de internação empregando o software Drug Reax. Dos 117 pacientes do estudo, 63,2% apresentaram interações medicamentosas potenciais nas primeiras 24 horas de internação e 68,4% pacientes em 120 horas. Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o número de medicamentos prescritos e a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas nos dois momentos de internação. O estudo demonstrou que a prevalência de interações fármaco-fármaco foi elevada nos hospitais investigados e que a chance de interação aumentou com o número de medicamentos prescritos, número de diagnósticos e idade maior que 60 anos. O conhecimento do mecanismo farmacológico e dos fatores de risco para interações medicamentosas potenciais contribuem para aumentar a segurança e efetividade do tratamento. Para ampliar a segurança da farmacoterapia, é essencial implementar estratégias que auxiliem a equipe de saúde a identificar as interações e implementar medidas de prevenção e monitorização de pacientes em riscos de desenvolver interações medicamentosas. A atuação do farmacêutico clínico na unidade de terapia intensiva é uma ferramenta importante para a prevenção, identificação e monitorização das interações medicamentosas.

  16. Multimodal evoked potentials and the ovarian cycle in young ovulating women Potenciais evocados nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual da mulher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ANTONIO DE LIMA RESENDE

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy over how hormonal conditions influence cerebral physiology. We studied pattern-shift visual evoked potentials (PS-VEP, brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP and short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEV in 20 female volunteers at different phases of the menstrual cycle (estrogen phase, ovulatory day and progesterone phase. Statistical analysis showed decreased latencies for P100 (PS-VEP, N19 and P22 (SSEV waves in the progesterone phase compared with the estrogen phase. There was no significant difference between the estrogen and the ovulation day values. Comparing the three above stages, there were no significant differences in the brainstem auditory evoked potentials. The reduction of the latencies of the potentials generated in multisynaptic circuits provides the first consistent neurophysiological basis for a tentative comprehension of human pre-menstrual syndrome.Há controvérsias sobre como variações hormonais do ciclo menstrual da mulher influenciam a neurofisiologia cerebral. Estudamos potenciais evocados de curta latência, visuais, auditivos e sômato-sensoriais, em 20 mulheres voluntárias normais, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual (fase estrogênica, fase ovulatória, fase progestacional. Comparação entre fase estrogênica e ovulatória mostrou resultados similares. Ondas I, III, V dos potenciais evocados auditivos não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as três fases do ciclo. Análise estatística dos resultados mostrou diminuição significativa das latências das ondas P100, N19 e P22 obtidas na fase progestacional, comparadas com aquelas obtidas na fase estrogênica. Como estas ondas são geradas em circuitos multissinápticos, tal redução de latências, na fase progestacional, fornece a primeira base neurofisiológica consistente para tentativa de compreensão da síndrome pré-menstrual da mulher.

  17. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA), Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao; Cristiano Soares de Moura; Danielle Souto de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA), visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medsc...

  18. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA, visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medscape e Micromedex(r. Verificou-se ainda a frequência de polifarmácia e associação desta com a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas. Os resultados mostraram frequência de 48,9% de interações medicamentosas, 74,9% delas de gravidade moderada ou maior, e 8,6% de prescrições em polifarmácia que, em teste qui-quadrado, mostrou associação positiva com ocorrência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (p < 0,001. As prescrições oriundas da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA apresentaram uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas, porém faz-se necessária a análise de outros fatores de risco para ocorrência destas nesse nível de atenção à saúde.

  19. Bilateral C6 spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis in 3 adolescent siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushare, Indranil V; Colo, Dino; Kadhim, Muayad; Dormans, John P

    2014-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis is a rare condition in the pediatric population. The nature of this condition and clinical presentation are important to provide appropriate management. This is a case report of 3 adolescent siblings who had C6 cervical spondylolysis with spondylolisthesis. Two cases were diagnosed insidiously with absence of neurological deficits and no instability on imaging and were treated conservatively. One case had a traumatic presentation associated with instability on imaging and was managed with cervical fusion and instrumentation. All 3 patients were doing well on a follow-up of >2 years. These cases suggest that cervical spondylolysis could be familial. The treatment was offered based on clinical presentation and presence of instability on radiographic studies. Level IV.

  20. Cytochrome c6B of Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 – Crystal structure and basic properties of novel c6-like family representative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zatwarnicki, Pawel; Barciszewski, Jakub; Krzywda, Szymon; Jaskolski, Mariusz; Kolesinski, Piotr; Szczepaniak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of cytochrome c 6B from Synechococcus sp. WH 8102 was solved. • Basic biophysical properties of cytochrome c 6B were determined. • Cytochrome c 6B exhibits similar architecture to cytochrome c 6 . • Organization of heme binding pocket of cytochrome c 6B differs from that of c 6 . • Midpoint potential of cytochrome c 6B is significantly lower than of cytochrome c 6 . - Abstract: Cytochromes c are soluble electron carriers of relatively low molecular weight, containing single heme moiety. In cyanobacteria cytochrome c 6 participates in electron transfer from cytochrome b 6 f complex to photosystem I. Recent phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of a few families of proteins homologous to the previously mentioned. Cytochrome c 6A from Arabidopsis thaliana was identified as a protein responsible for disulfide bond formation in response to intracellular redox state changes and c 550 is well known element of photosystem II. However, function of cytochromes marked as c 6B , c 6C and c M as well as the physiological process in which they take a part still remain unidentified. Here we present the first structural and biophysical analysis of cytochrome from the c 6B family from mesophilic cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. WH 8102. Purified protein was crystallized and its structure was refined at 1.4 Å resolution. Overall architecture of this polypeptide resembles typical I-class cytochromes c. The main features, that distinguish described protein from cytochrome c 6 , are slightly red-shifted α band of UV–Vis spectrum as well as relatively low midpoint potential (113.2 ± 2.2 mV). Although, physiological function of cytochrome c 6B has yet to be determined its properties probably exclude the participation of this protein in electron trafficking between b 6 f complex and photosystem I

  1. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em fumantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Miranda Terra Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo: comparar os resultados dos exames de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em indivíduos não tabagistas e tabagistas. Métodos: foram estudados 40 indivíduos, sendo 20 não tabagistas e 20 tabagistas, com idades entre 20 e 59 anos. Todos os participantes incluídos na pesquisa deveriam apresentar respostas de limiares tonais dentro dos padrões da normalidade e timpanometria tipo A com presença de reflexos acústicos contralaterais e ipsilaterais. Em ambos os grupos foram realizados os potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico (PEATE, por meio de cliques. Os parâmetros que foram utilizados na comparação dos dois grupos foram as latências absolutas das ondas I, III e V; as interlatências das ondas I-III, I-V e III-V em ambas as orelhas; a diferença da latência interpico I-V entre as duas orelhas e a diferença interaural da latência absoluta da onda V entre as duas orelhas. Resultados: os resultados encontrados mostraram que o grupo de tabagistas apresentou latência I da Orelha Direita (p=0,036, latência V da Orelha Direita (p=0,007, latência V da Orelha Esquerda (p=0,014, interlatência III-V da Orelha Direita (p=0,015 e Orelha Esquerda (p=0,016 significantemente maior que o grupo de não tabagistas. Não houve diferença significante na latência da onda V entre as duas orelhas. Conclusão: os resultados da pesquisa levaram à conclusão de que o tabaco é um fator de risco para o sistema nervoso auditivo central, que pode interferir nas latências e interlatências das ondas do PEATE no grupo de tabagistas quando comparado com o grupo de não tabagistas.

  2. Influência dos contrastes de fala nos potenciais evocados auditivos corticais The influence of speech stimuli contrast in cortical auditory evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos voltados aos potenciais evocados auditivos com estímulos de fala em indivíduos ouvintes são importantes para compreender como a complexidade do estímulo influencia nas características do potencial cognitivo auditivo gerado. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar o potencial evocado auditivo cortical e o potencial cognitivo auditivo P3 com estímulos de contrastes vocálico e consonantal em indivíduos com audição normal. MÉTODO: Participaram deste estudo 31 indivíduos sem alterações auditivas, neurológicas e de linguagem na faixa etária de 7 a 30 anos. Os potenciais evocados auditivos corticais e cognitivo auditivo P3 foram registrados nos canais ativos Fz e Cz utilizando-se os contrastes de fala consonantal (/ba/-/da/ e vocálico (/i/-/a/. Desenho: Estudo de coorte, transversal e prospectivo. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença entre o contraste de fala utilizado e as latências dos componentes N2 (p = 0,00 e P3 (p = 0,00, assim como entre o canal ativo considerado (Fz/Cz e os valores de latência e amplitude de P3. Estas diferenças não ocorreram para os componentes exógenos N1 e P2. CONCLUSÃO: O contraste do estímulo de fala, vocálico ou consonantal, deve ser considerado na análise do potencial evocado cortical, componente N2, e do potencial cognitivo auditivo P3.Studies about cortical auditory evoked potentials using the speech stimuli in normal hearing individuals are important for understanding how the complexity of the stimulus influences the characteristics of the cortical potential generated. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the cortical auditory evoked potential and the P3 auditory cognitive potential with the vocalic and consonantal contrast stimuli in normally hearing individuals. METHOD: 31 individuals with no risk for hearing, neurologic and language alterations, in the age range between 7 and 30 years, participated in this study. The cortical auditory evoked potentials and the P3 auditory cognitive one were recorded in the Fz and Cz

  3. Prevalência de potenciais interações medicamentosas droga-droga em unidades de terapia intensiva

    OpenAIRE

    Hammes,Jean André; Pfuetzenreiter,Felipe; Silveira,Fabrízio da; Koenig,Álvaro; Westphal,Glauco Adrieno

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Interações medicamentosas ocorrem quando os efeitos e/ou a toxicidade de um fármaco são alterados pela presença de outro. São geralmente imprevistas e indesejáveis. Realizado estudo com objetivo de verificar a prevalência e o valor clínico das interações medicamentosas potenciais em unidades de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Incluídos todos pacientes de três unidades de terapia intensiva em um período de 2 meses, analisados transversalmente. Foram excluídos aqueles com tempo de perman...

  4. Radiolabeling and animal experimental studies of anti-breast cancer McAb 6C6 and mouse-human chimeric antibody 6C6CHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhi; Hu Xiaoqian; Li Erqiu

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study bio-distribution and tumor absorption of anti breast cancer monoclonal antibody 6C6 and its chimeric antibody 6C6-CHI. The modified Schwartz method was employed to label 6C6 and 6C6CHI with 99 Tc m . The labeled antibody was injected to mouse via tail vein and the blood clearance and whole body clearance were observed. Nude mice bearing breast cancer MCF7 were injected with 99 Tc m -labeled antibody and the bio-distribution was studied and imaged with γ-ray camera. The yield of the two labeled antibodies was more than 90% and their immunoactivities were more than 80%. The whole body eliminated half-time of 99 Tc m -6C6 was 4.1h, and the half-times in blood were T α =0.55h and T β =12.42h respectively. The whole body half-time of 99 Tc m -6C6CHI was 4.28h and the half-times in blood were T α =0.98h and T β =12.42h respectively. The bio-distribution of nude mice bearing breast cancer MCF7 cells was as follows: the ID%/g of tumor and blood was (7.42±0.85) and (5.67±1.44) respectively at 23h after injection of 99 Tc m -6C6. The T/NT (tumor to non tumor) ratios were all more than 1.0 except kidney and the ID%/g of tumor and blood was (4.23±0.64) and (6.97±0.23) respectively at 23 h after injection of 99 Tc m -6C6CHI. The T/NT (tumor to non tumor) ratios were all more than 1.0 except blood and kidney. The γ imaging results showed that the tumor was imaged clearly at 24h after injection of radiolabeled antibodies and the other organs did not concentrate the antibodies except kidney. Anti-breast cancer monoclonal antibody 6C6 can be well located in tumor. Although ID%/g of tumor of the chimeric antibody 6C6CHI was slightly lower than that of 6C6 antibody, and ID%/g of blood was higher than that of 6C6, the tumor imaging of 6C6-CHI was also clear

  5. Production of lactic acid from C6-polyols by alkaline hydrothermal reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Huazhen; Jin Fangming; Wu Bing; Cao Jianglin; Duan Xiaokun; Kishita, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Production of lactic acid from C6-polyols (Mannitol) under alkaline hydrothermal conditions was investigated. Experiments were performed to examine the difference in the production of lactic acid between C6-polyols and C3-polyols (glycerine), as well as C6-aldoses (glucose). Results showed that the yield of lactic acid from C6-polyols was lower than that from both glycerine and glucose. It indicated that long chain polyols might follow a different reaction pathway from that of glycerine. Further investigation is needed to clarify the reaction mechanism and improve the relatively low lactic acid acid yield from C6-polyols.

  6. Chimeric anti-tenascin antibody 81C6: Increased tumor localization compared with its murine parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, Michael R.; Archer, Gary E.; Garg, Pradeep K.; Batra, Surinder K.; Bigner, Darell D.

    1996-01-01

    When labeled using the Iodogen method, a chimeric antibody composed of the human IgG 2 constant region and the variable regions of murine anti-tenascin 81C6 exhibited superior uptake in human glioma xenografts compared with its murine parent. In the current study, three paired-label experiments were performed in athymic mice with subcutaneous D-54 MG human glioma xenografts to evaluate further the properties of radioiodinated chimeric 81C6. These studies demonstrated that (a) the enhanced tumor uptake of chimeric 81C6 is specific; (b) when labeling was performed using N-succinimidyl 3-iodobenzoate, chimeric 81C6 again showed preferential accumulation in tumor compared with murine 81C6; and (c) the tumor uptake advantage observed previously with murine 81C6 for N-succinimidyl 3-iodobenzoate compared with Iodogen labeling did not occur with chimeric 81C6

  7. A Imagem como Agente Motivador para o Ecoturismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Geerdink

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Os objetivos deste trabalho são delimitar o quanto a imagem é efetiva no processo motivacional para o Ecoturismo, em comparação ao relato textual descritivo do mesmo local, além de comparar e avaliar as diferentes percepções individuais e seu poder de motivar ecoturistas potenciais, bem como quantificar o impacto que a imagem e o relato causam no indivíduo, e qual a influência de um sobre o outro na perspectiva de potenciais ecoturistas. A partir das metodologias do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo juntamente com a Escala de Análise de Humor, no sentido de captar de forma quantitativa as percepções em uma avaliação de natureza discreta sobre as imagens e relatos aos quais os discentes do curso de Bacharelado em Turismo da Universidade Federal de São Carlos, campus de Sorocaba foram expostos. A partir dos resultados, a hipótese foi refutada, contrariando as expectativas deste trabalho.

  8. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência é um teste objetivo promissor na audiologia na pesquisa neuro-diagnóstica das disfunções do sistema auditivo. Tem como vantagens a precisão e objetividade na avaliação e por isso é útil em crianças. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em dois pacientes com distúrbio de processamento auditivo e relacionar as medidas objetivas e comportamentais. Para tanto foi realizado estudo de caso de dois pacientes (P1= feminino, 12 anos; P2= masculino, 17 anos, ambos com ausência de alterações sensoriais, distúrbios neurológicos, neuropsiquiátricos. Ambos foram submetidos à anamnese, inspeção do meato acústico externo, avaliação audiológica e avaliação do exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência. Houve associação significante entre os resultados dos exames comportamentais e objetivos. Na anamnese, houve queixas referentes à dificuldade de escuta em ambiente ruidoso, localização sonora, desatenção, além de trocas fonológicas na escrita e na fala. Foram observadas alterações no processo de decodificação auditiva à direita em ambos os casos na avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo e no exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência a resposta da via contralateral direita foi deficitária, confirmando as dificuldades dos pacientes estudados na atribuição de significado às informações acústicas em condição de competição sonora à direita nos dois casos. Para os casos estudados comprovou-se à associação entre os resultados, porém há necessidade de novos estudos com maior amostra para confirmação dos dados.

  9. Simultaneous occurrence of hereditary C6 and C2 deficiency in a French-Canadian family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delâge, J M; Lehner-Netsch, G; Lafleur, R; Simard, J; Brun, G; Prochazka, E

    1979-06-01

    The sera of four sisters were found to lack the sixth component of complement (C6) and the serum of one was also partially deficient in the second component (C2). Two other blood relatives were found to be heterozygous for both deficiencies, while only one sibling had normal values. The father of these eight siblings was heterozygous for C2D and C6D and in the third generation, six children were heterozygous for C6 deficiency was treated for chronic active brucel-transmitted; the C6 deficiency was not linked to the HLA system, while the C2-deficiency segregated with the haplotype A10,B18. The proband, homozygous for C6 deficiency was treated for chronic active Brucellosis and in another sibling with C6 deficiency, toxoplasmosis was diagnosed. Neither bleeding disorders nor a tendency to collagen diseases have been observed and the opsonic activity was normal in the sera of all family members.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Acinetobacter johnsonii C6, an Environmental Isolate Engaging in Interspecific Metabolic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Mordhorst, Hanne; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter johnsonii C6 originates from creosote-polluted groundwater and performs ecological and evolutionary interactions with Pseudomonas putida in biofilms. The draft genome of A. johnsonii C6 is 3.7 Mbp and was shaped by mobile genetic elements. It reveals genes facilitating the biodegrad......Acinetobacter johnsonii C6 originates from creosote-polluted groundwater and performs ecological and evolutionary interactions with Pseudomonas putida in biofilms. The draft genome of A. johnsonii C6 is 3.7 Mbp and was shaped by mobile genetic elements. It reveals genes facilitating...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of [Ru(η6-C6Me6)Cl2(CNPy)] and [Cl2(η6-C6Me6)Ru-(μ-CNPy)-Ru(η6-C6Me6)Cl2] and reactivity of [Ru(η6-C6Me6)Cl2(CNPy)] with various bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, D.S.; Sahay, A.N.; Agarwala, U.C.

    1996-01-01

    Reactions of [(Ru(η 6 -C 6 Me 6 )Cl 2 ) 2 ] with 4-cyanopyridine leads to the formation of neutral mono and dimeric complexes viz., [Ru(η 6 C 6 Me 6 )Cl 2 (CNPy)] (I) and [Cl 2 (η 6 -C 6 Me 6 ) Ru-(μ-CNPy)-Ru(η 6 -C 6 Me 6 )Cl 2 ] (II). Complex (I) undergoes metathetical reactions with EPh 3 (E=P, As and Sb) and N-donor heterocyclic bases yielding corresponding substitutional products which have been characterized by elemental analyses and spectroscopic: (IR, UV/vis, 1 H and 13 C NMR) studies. (author). 21 refs., 1 tab

  12. Short-chain C6 ceramide sensitizes AT406-induced anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Sun, Baoyou; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ruishen; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that AT406, a first-in-class small molecular antagonist of IAPs (inhibitor of apoptosis proteins), inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this research is to increase AT406's sensitivity by adding short-chain C6 ceramide. We show that co-treatment of C6 ceramide dramatically potentiated AT406-induced caspase/apoptosis activation and cytotoxicity in established (Panc-1 and Mia-PaCa-2 lines) and primary human pancreatic cancer cells. Reversely, caspase inhibitors largely attenuated C6 ceramide plus AT406-induced above cancer cell death. Molecularly, C6 ceramide downregulated Bcl-2 to increase AT406's sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells. Intriguingly, C6 ceramide-mediated AT406 sensitization was nullified with Bcl-2 shRNA knockdown or pretreatment of the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737. In vivo, liposomal C6 ceramide plus AT406 co-administration dramatically inhibited Panc-1 xenograft tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The combined anti-tumor activity was significantly more potent than either single treatment. Expressions of IAPs (cIAP1/XIAP) and Bcl-2 were downregulated in Panc-1 xenografts with the co-administration. Together, we demonstrate that C6 ceramide sensitizes AT406-mediated anti-pancreatic cancer cell activity possibly via downregulating Bcl-2. - Highlights: • C6 ceramide dramatically potentiates AT406-induced pancreatic cancer cell death. • C6 ceramide facilitates AT406-induced pancreatic cancer cell apoptosis. • C6 ceramide downregulates Bcl-2 to increase AT406's sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells. • Liposomal C6 ceramide enhances AT406-induced anti-pancreatic cancer activity in vivo.

  13. Estudo de caso aplicando modelo para identificação de potenciais geradores de intangíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Wernke

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata estudo de caso em que foi aplicado o modelo Mapa para Identificação de Potenciais Geradores de Intangíveis. Após mencionar resumidamente a ferramenta utilizada, apresentam-se os procedimentos seguidos para implementar tal modelo numa empresa industrial, evidenciando os passos seguidos, as análises realizadas, os resultados alcançados e as limitações inerentes.This article reports on a case study which applied the model called Map for the Identification of Potential Intangible Asset Generators. After a summarized description of the applied tool, we present the procedures followed to implement such a model in an industrial company, disclosing the steps that were taken, the analyses carried out, obtained results and inherent limitations.

  14. 40 CFR 721.2088 - Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... linear. 721.2088 Section 721.2088 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2088 Carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear. (a) Chemical... as carboxylic acids, (C6-C9) branched and linear (PMNs P-93-313, 314, 315, and 316) are subject to...

  15. Positronium formation in CS2 and C6F6 mixtures with triethylamine or tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhicheng Zhang; Ito, Yasuo; Tabata, Yoneho

    1990-01-01

    Positronium (Ps) yields were measured for CS 2 /THF, CS 2 /TEA, C 6 F 6 THF and C 6 F 6 /TEA mixtures. Addition of C 6 F 6 or CS 2 into TEA or THF showed a similar influence which induces a decrease of Ps yield. This is ascribed to the non-dissociative electron scavenging by both CS 2 and C 6 F 6 . On the other hand, the effect of addition of TEA and THF has been found to be different for C 6 F 6 and CS 2 , i.e. both TEA and THF did not change Ps yield in CS 2 substantially, while they caused a sharp decrease of Ps yield in C 6 F 6 . The latter sharp decreases was ascribed to quenching of excited state of C 6 F 6 . This interpretation is supported by pulse radiolysis emission measurements for the same system, in which it was found that TEA quenches the excited state of C 6 F 6 efficiently. (author)

  16. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(6)-1 - Depreciation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depreciation method. 1.381(c)(6)-1 Section 1.381... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(6)-1 Depreciation method. (a) Carryover... corporation which computes its allowance for the depreciation of the property under section 167(b)(2), (3), or...

  17. Potenciais interações entre fármacos e produtos à base de valeriana ou alho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Alexandre

    Full Text Available Atualmente, as potenciais interações entre fármacos e plantas medicinais e/ou medicamentos fitoterápicos são objetos de inúmeros estudos. Tais estudos são motivados pelo fato de que a fitoterapia é amplamente utilizada em associação com diversos fármacos. Nesta revisão, as informações sobre as principais interações entre produtos elaborados com valeriana ou alho foram localizadas, avaliadas e sistematizadas. Verificou-se que tais plantas podem alterar os perfis farmacocinéticos e/ou farmacodinâmicos de diversos fármacos, podendo provocar conseqüências graves aos pacientes. A valeriana pode aumentar os efeitos adversos dos benzodiazepínicos, reduzir a biodisponibilidade dos fármacos metabolizados pelo sistema P450-CYP3A4 e provocar hemorragias graves quando utilizada juntamente com anticoagulantes orais e antiplaquetários. O alho pode aumentar a biodisponibilidade dos relaxantes musculares, potencializar os efeitos terapêuticos e adversos dos hipoglicemiantes, provocar hemorragias quando administrado juntamente com anticoagulantes orais e antiplaquetários e reduzir a biodisponibilidade dos anti-retrovirais inibidores de protease. Porém, tais potenciais interações não são consensos na literatura, visto que há limitações metodológicas e diferenças significativas entre os estudos localizados. Mesmo assim, o uso de produtos à base de valeriana ou alho, associado com determinados fármacos, deve ser adequadamente monitorado por um profissional da área da saúde.

  18. Inhibitory effect of 12C6+ ion and X-ray on angiogenesis in HMEC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuanyuan; Zhang Hong; Liu Yang; Wu Zhenhua; Sun Chao; Li Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to explore the effect of 12 C 6+ ion and X-ray on proliferation, migration, tube formation and MMPS of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Transwell migration experiment showed that the radiation could inhibit the migration of HMEC-1 in sub-lethal dose 24 h after irradiation. Furthermore, the inhibition ability of 12 C 6+ ion was stronger than that of X-ray. Matrigel experiment indicated that 12 C 6+ ion suppressed the tube formation of HMEC-1 spontaneously. However, the inhibitory effect of X-ray had no significance. Meanwhile, Gelatin Zymography showed the expression of MMP-2 was inhibited obviously by 12 C 6+ ion, while X-ray had little effect on the expression of MMP-2. In conclusion, 12 C 6+ ion is superior to X-ray in radiotherapy of tumor. (authors)

  19. Interrogating the vibrational relaxation of highly excited polyatomics with time-resolved diode laser spectroscopy: C6H6, C6D6, and C6F6+CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, A.J.; Weston, R.E. Jr.; Flynn, G.W.

    1991-01-01

    The vibrational relaxation of highly excited ground state benzene, benzene d 6 , and hexafluorobenzene by CO 2 has been investigated with high resolution diode laser spectroscopy. The vibrationally hot polyatomics are formed by single photon 248 nm excitation to the S 1 state followed by rapid radiationless transitions. It has been found that in all cases less than 1% of the energy initially present in the polyatomics is deposited into the high frequency mode of CO 2 (ν 3 ). An investigation of the CO 2 (00 0 1) nascent rotational distribution under single collision conditions reveals that very little rotational excitation accompanies vibrational energy transfer to the ν 3 mode. The CO 2 (ν 3 ) rotational states can be described by temperatures, T rot , as follows: C 6 H 6 , T rot =360±30 K; C 6 D 6 , T rot =350±35 K and C 6 F 6 , T rot =340±23 K. An estimate of left-angle ΔE right-angle ν3 , the mean energy transferred to the CO 2 ν 3 mode per collision, suggests that as the availability of low frequency modes in the excited molecule increases, less energy is deposited into the high frequency mode of CO 2 . Finally, evidence is presented suggesting that even at moderate laser fluences, the two-photon ionization of benzene can lead to substantial CO 2 ν 3 excitation via electron+CO 2 inelastic collisions

  20. Dinâmica populacional canina: potenciais efeitos de campanhas de esterilização Canine population dynamics: the potential effect of sterilization campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Amaku

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar, por meio de modelos matemáticos, os potenciais impactos das campanhas de esterilização na redução da densidade populacional de cães domiciliados. MÉTODOS: Foram elaborados modelos matemáticos para simular a dinâmica populacional de cães domiciliados e projetar os resultados de estratégias de controle para diferentes taxas de esterilização. RESULTADOS:Mesmo para altas taxas de esterilização (por exemplo, 0,80 ano-1, seriam necessários cerca de 5 anos de campanhas para possibilitar uma redução de 20% na densidade. No entanto, outras fontes de crescimento populacional, como a importação de cães de outras áreas, poderiam reduzir a efetividade dos programas de esterilização. CONCLUSÕES: A efetividade de um programa depende não apenas da taxa de esterilização, mas também da taxa de crescimento populacional. As campanhas de esterilização podem potencialmente reduzir a densidade populacional, embora a redução nem sempre possa ser notada de imediato.OBJECTIVE: To analyze, through mathematical modeling, the potential ability of sterilization campaigns to reduce the population density of pet dogs. METHODS: Mathematical models were constructed to simulate the canine population dynamics and project the results of control strategies based on several sterilization rates. RESULTS: Even at high sterilization rates (for example, 0.80 year-1, it would take approximately 5 years to reduce density by 20%. Even so, other sources of population growth, such as the importing of dogs from other geographic areas, could outweigh the effects of a sterilization program. CONCLUSIONS: A program's effectiveness is contingent upon not only on the sterilization rate, but also the rate of population growth. Sterilization campaigns may potentially reduce population density, but this reduction may not be immediately evident.

  1. Potenciais biomarcadores da terapia cognitivo-comportamental para o transtorno de estresse pós-traumático: uma revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O estabelecimento de biomarcadores relacionados à terapia cognitivo-comportamental (TCC é uma maneira de consolidar a eficácia do tratamento de forma mais objetiva, sendo crítico para o avanço desse campo de pesquisa. OBJETIVOS: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de estudos que: 1 utilizaram parâmetros biológicos para verificar a eficácia da TCC no tratamento do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático (TEPT; e 2 utilizaram esses parâmetros como preditores de resposta à CBT. MÉTODOS: Foram conduzidas buscas eletrônicas nas bases PubMed/Medline, ISI/Thompson Reuters e Pilot. RESULTADOS: Doze artigos foram selecionados para esta revisão, sendo quatro deles estudos sobre predição de resposta ao tratamento. Foi observada relação entre a eficácia da TCC e modificações nesses parâmetros, sendo a resposta da frequência cardíaca à evocação de sintomas o parâmetro mais utilizado até o presente momento. Sua redução está associada à melhora nos sintomas de TEPT. Potenciais biomarcadores de predição de resposta encontrados incluem 5α-redutase, ativação da amígdala, ativação e volume do córtex cingulado anterior e frequência cardíaca. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da escassez de estudos e das limitações metodológicas neles observadas, investigações iniciais sugerem que os biomarcadores da TCC em pacientes com TEPT poderão ser úteis para o monitoramento mais objetivo dos efeitos do tratamento, identificação de predição de resposta e para o desenvolvimento de estratégias mais eficazes de tratamento e prevenção do desenvolvimento de TEPT.

  2. Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Estado Estável no diagnóstico audiológico infantil: uma comparação com os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Tronco Encefálico Steady-state auditory evoked responses in audiological diagnosis in children: a comparison with brainstem evoked auditory responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ribeiro Ivo Rodrigues

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Estado Estável (PEAEE têm sido apontados como uma técnica promissora na avaliação audiológica infantil. OBJETIVO: Investigar o nível de concordância entre os resultados dos PEAEE e dos Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Tronco Encefálico (PEATE-clique em um grupo de crianças com perda auditiva sensorioneural, averiguando assim a aplicabilidade clínica desta técnica na avaliação audiológica infantil. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo de coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 15 crianças com idade entre dois e 36 meses e diagnóstico de perda auditiva sensorioneural. A concordância entre as respostas dos dois testes foi avaliada por meio do coeficiente de correlação intraclasse e o teste de McNemar comparou os dois testes quanto à probabilidade de ocorrência de resposta. RESULTADOS: Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram 0,70; 0,64; 0,49; 0,69; 0,63 e 0,68 respectivamente para as frequências de 1, 2, 4, 1-2, 2-4 e 1-2-4kHz. No teste de McNemar foi obtido p=0.000, indicando que a probabilidade de se obter resposta presente nos dois testes não é igual, sendo maior nos PEAEE. CONCLUSÃO: A boa concordância observada entre as técnicas sugere que um exame pode ser complementar ao outro. Os PEAEE, entretanto, promoveram informações adicionais nos casos de perdas severas e profundas, acrescentando dados importantes para a reabilitação destas crianças e proporcionando maior precisão no diagnóstico audiológico.Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR are being recognized as a promising technique in the assessment of hearing in children. AIM: To investigate the agreement level between results obtained from ASSR and click-ABR in a group of children with sensorineural hearing loss, in order to study the clinical applicability of this technique to evaluate the hearing status in young children. STUDY DESIGN: clinical prospective with a cross-sectional cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS

  3. New metal-organic frameworks of [M(C6H5O7)(C6H6O7)(C6H7O7)(H2O)] . H2O (M=La, Ce) and [Ce2(C2O4)(C6H6O7)2] . 4H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Shengfeng; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Two novel materials, [M(C 6 H 5 O 7 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 )(C 6 H 7 O 7 )(H 2 O)] . H 2 O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 ) 2 ] . 4H 2 O (2), with a metal-organic framework (MOF) were prepared with hydrothermal reactions and characterized with photoluminescence, magnetic susceptibility, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction in situ. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallized in triclinic space group P1-bar (No. 2); compound 2 crystallized in monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14). The structure of 1 is built from a 1D MOF, composed of deprotonated citric ligands of three kinds. Compound 2 contains a 2D MOF structure consisting of citrate and oxalate ligands; the oxalate ligand arose from the decomposition in situ of citric acid in the presence of Cu II ions. Photoluminescence spectra of compounds 1b and 2 revealed transitions between the 5d 1 excited state and two levels of the 4f 1 ground state ( 2 F 5/2 and 2 F 7/2 ). Compounds 1b and 2 containing Ce III ion exhibit a paramagnetic property with weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent magnetic centers. - Graphical Abstract: [M(C 6 H 5 O 7 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 )(C 6 H 7 O 7 )(H 2 O)] . H 2 O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 ) 2 ] . 4H 2 O (2)—with 1D and 2D structures were synthesized and characterized. Highlights: ► Two MOF – [M(C 6 H 5 O 7 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 )(C 6 H 7 O 7 )(H 2 O)] . H 2 O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 ) 2 ] . 4H 2 O (2) – with 1D and 2D structures. ► The adjacent chains of the 1D framework were correlated with each other through an oxalate ligand to form a 2D layer structure. ► The source of the oxalate ligand was the decomposition in situ of citric acid oxidized in the presence of Cu II ions.

  4. Análise dos medicamentos e interações potenciais de prescrições contendo antimicrobianos dispensados em uma farmácia comunitária de Ijuí / RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rodrigues Weber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A resistência bacteriana se constitui em preocupação mundial e a prescrição inadequada de antimicrobianos é um dos fatores que pode influenciar nas suas taxas. O objetivo foi avaliar as prescrições contendo antimicrobianos dispensados em uma farmácia comunitária do município de Ijuí/RS, para identificar os antimicrobianos e osfármacos prescritos em associação, bem como interações medicamentosas potenciais. Métodos: A amostra foi constituída por prescrições retidas no local do estudo, de 28 de novembro de 2010 a 31 de março de 2011, que continham ao menos um antimicrobiano listado no Anexo I da RDC 44/2010. Resultados: Foram analisadas 268 prescrições, contendo 283 antimicrobianos, em 15 prescrições foram prescritos dois produtos. A classe das penicilinas, presente em 30,04% das prescrições, e as quinolonas (23,67% foram os mais prescritos. Em 45,9% das prescrições, pelo menos mais um medicamento foi associado aoantimicrobiano, totalizando 167 medicamentos, sendo principalmente a classe dos analgésicos e antipiréticos (43,11% e dos antiinflamatórios e antirreumáticos não-esteróides (29,94%. Os antiinflamatórios e antirreumáticos não-esteróides estavampresentes em 82,05% das 39 interações medicamentosas potenciais encontradas, sendo que a principal classe de antimicrobianosenvolvida foi a das penicilinas (64,1%. Conclusão: é necessário que os profissionais responsáveis pela prescrição e pela dispensação estejam capacitados para identificar e evitar a presença de interações medicamentosas, proporcionando mais segurança para o usuário e efetividade no tratamento. Entende-se que seja necessário rever e padronizar os critérios de prescrição, dispensação e administração, a fim de racionalizar o uso dos antimicrobianos.

  5. Solubility of DCH18C6 and n-octanol in nitric acid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qiange; Wang Jianchen; Chen Jing

    2011-01-01

    Equilibrium solubility of DCH18C6 and n-octanol in aqueous solution were determined by GC. And effects of temperature, concentration of Sr 2+ or HNO 3 were studied. The results indicate that solubility of DCH18C6 is substantial and make the crown ether continually drain from organic phase which could be 3% at most. As diluent, n-octanol could dissolve in water with certain quantity. So n-octanol, and then kerosene should be used to extract DCH18C6 and n-octanol from aqueous phase. Or toluene is taken to recover DCH18C6 and n-octanol at the same time. Above extractants could recover more than 99% of solute from aqueous solution in the volume ratio 1:1. (author)

  6. Quantitative twoplex glycan analysis using 12C6 and 13C6 stable isotope 2-aminobenzoic acid labelling and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váradi, Csaba; Mittermayr, Stefan; Millán-Martín, Silvia; Bones, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers excellent efficiency and orthogonality to liquid chromatographic (LC) separations for oligosaccharide structural analysis. Combination of CE with high resolution mass spectrometry (MS) for glycan analysis remains a challenging task due to the MS incompatibility of background electrolyte buffers and additives commonly used in offline CE separations. Here, a novel method is presented for the analysis of 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) labelled glycans by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry (CE-MS). To ensure maximum resolution and excellent precision without the requirement for excessive analysis times, CE separation conditions including the concentration and pH of the background electrolyte, the effect of applied pressure on the capillary inlet and the capillary length were evaluated. Using readily available 12/13 C 6 stable isotopologues of 2-AA, the developed method can be applied for quantitative glycan profiling in a twoplex manner based on the generation of extracted ion electropherograms (EIE) for 12 C 6 'light' and 13 C 6 'heavy' 2-AA labelled glycan isotope clusters. The twoplex quantitative CE-MS glycan analysis platform is ideally suited for comparability assessment of biopharmaceuticals, such as monoclonal antibodies, for differential glycomic analysis of clinical material for potential biomarker discovery or for quantitative microheterogeneity analysis of different glycosylation sites within a glycoprotein. Additionally, due to the low injection volume requirements of CE, subsequent LC-MS analysis of the same sample can be performed facilitating the use of orthogonal separation techniques for structural elucidation or verification of quantitative performance.

  7. Sensitivity of C6 Glioma Cells Carrying the Human Poliovirus Receptor to Oncolytic Polioviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovtseva, A O; Lipatova, A V; Grinenko, N F; Baklaushev, V P; Chumakov, P M; Chekhonin, V P

    2016-10-01

    A humanized line of rat C6 glioma cells expressing human poliovirus receptor was obtained and tested for the sensitivity to oncolytic effects of vaccine strains of type 1, 2, and 3 polioviruses. Presentation of the poliovirus receptor on the surface of C6 glioma cells was shown to be a necessary condition for the interaction of cells with polioviruses, but insufficient for complete poliovirus oncolysis.

  8. Ion irradiation-induced precipitation of Cr23C6 at dislocation loops in austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Shuoxue; Guo, Liping; Luo, Fengfeng; Yao, Zhongwen; Ma, Shuli; Tang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The irradiation-induced precipitates in argon ion-irradiated austenitic stainless steel at 550 °C were examined via transmission electron microscopy. The selected-area electron diffraction patterns of precipitates indicated unambiguously that the precipitates were Cr 23 C 6 carbides. It was observed directly for the first time that irradiation-induced Cr 23 C 6 precipitates formed at dislocation loops in austenitic stainless steel, and coarsened with increasing irradiation dose.

  9. Coprecipitation of M23C6 and MC type carbide under the influence of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesternich, W.; Nandedkar, R.V.

    1991-01-01

    After high-temperature neutron irradiation of 1.4970 type steel, M 23 C 6 precipitation was observed in the matrix. This precipitate phase was found only at grain boundaries after thermal treatments. A unique feature of this irradiation-modified phase formation was that the M 23 C 6 precipitates nucleated at the surfaces of pre-existing MC type carbides and grew in a very unusual way by forming facetted enclosures around the primary precipitates. (orig.)

  10. The novel cytochrome c6 of chloroplasts: a case of evolutionary bricolage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Christopher J; Schlarb-Ridley, Beatrix G; Wastl, Juergen; Purton, Saul; Bendall, Derek S

    2006-01-01

    Cytochrome c6 has long been known as a redox carrier of the thylakoid lumen of cyanobacteria and some eukaryotic algae that can substitute for plastocyanin in electron transfer. Until recently, it was widely accepted that land plants lack a cytochrome c6. However, a homologue of the protein has now been identified in several plant species together with an additional isoform in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This form of the protein, designated cytochrome c6A, differs from the 'conventional' cytochrome c6 in possessing a conserved insertion of 12 amino acids that includes two absolutely conserved cysteine residues. There are conflicting reports of whether cytochrome c6A can substitute for plastocyanin in photosynthetic electron transfer. The evidence for and against this is reviewed and the likely evolutionary history of cytochrome c6A is discussed. It is suggested that it has been converted from a primary role in electron transfer to one in regulation within the chloroplast, and is an example of evolutionary 'bricolage'.

  11. Vestuário de profissionais de saúde como potenciais reservatórios de microrganismos: uma revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se objetivó identificar, por revisión integrativa de la literatura, artículos sobre la ocurrencia de contaminación por microorganismos en gabachas, delantales y uniformes de profesionales de salud, y su relación con las Infecciones presentadas al realizar el Cuidado de Salud, teniendo en cuenta el perfil de resistencia a los antimicrobiano. Se realizó la búsqueda por artículos en los bancos de dados MEDLINE, LILACS y SCOPUS, publicados desde 2000 hasta 2010. Fueron seleccionados y analizados nueve artículos. Se destaco en los estudios la presencia de bacterias, principalmente en los bolsillos, los puños y en la región abdominal. Sobre el perfil de sensibilidad se destacó la recuperación de Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente/MRSA, seguidos por Gram negativos resistentes a los antimicrobianos. Se identificaron similitudes entre las cepas en el vestuario de los trabajadores de la salud y la aparición de infecciones. Por tanto las gabachas, delantales y uniformes de los profesionales en salud, deben ser considerados en la cadena de diseminación de microorganismos.

  12. Geographic information systems as a tool for environmental evaluation of hydropower potential; Sistemas de informacoes geograficas como ferramenta para avaliacao ambiental de potenciais hidreletricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzedzej, Maira; Correa, Fabio; Malta, Joao [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Flauzino, Barbara Karoline [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The hydropower plants are responsible for much of the energy generated in the country, there is also a large hydro potential in Brazilian rivers. This form of power generation is considered renewable and fits into the concept of sustainable development, however, social and environmental impacts from the implementation of hydropower projects are known and widely discussed, especially when it comes to large plants. In this context, study the environmental analysis of potential hydropower was incorporated at various stages of the studies implementation, in order to, identify environmental factors and that will restrict or impede construction, to obtain the best option for the environment, evaluate the role and of social and environmental impacts, contribute to improving the design and functionality of the enterprises in order to reduce overall costs, minimize conflicts and assist in preserving the environment. To fulfill these functions to a satisfactory and reliable level, it the study has increasingly used the techniques, tools and applications of Geographic Information Systems in the process of environmental assessment, since they provide procurement, integration, visualization and data analysis of natural resources, its uses and protection, offering greater security and speed in decision making. This paper presents some applications of GIS in environmental assessment processes, developed mainly in the steps of estimating hydropower potential, hydropower inventory, basic design and environmental licensing. (author)

  13. Espécies florestais de restingas como potenciais instrumentos para gestão costeira e tecnologia social em Caravelas, Bahia (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,Henrique Machado; Soares,Mario Luiz Gomes; Neffa,Elza

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509815732Em Caravelas, município localizado no sul do estado da Bahia, as principais formações vegetais são as florestas de mangue e as restingas apresentando, estas últimas, alto grau de degradação. O objetivo deste artigo consiste em descrever as principais espécies florestais de restingas e seus usos diretos associados, com vistas à recuperação e ao manejo de áreas degradadas e à geração de trabalho e renda, compondo, dessa forma, importante ferramenta para a ...

  14. Espécies florestais de restingas como potenciais instrumentos para gestão costeira e tecnologia social em Caravelas, Bahia (Brasil)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Henrique Machado; Soares, Mario Luiz Gomes; Neffa, Elza

    2014-01-01

    Em Caravelas, município localizado no sul do estado da Bahia, as principais formações vegetais são as florestas de mangue e as restingas apresentando, estas últimas, alto grau de degradação. O objetivo deste artigo consiste em descrever as principais espécies florestais de restingas e seus usos diretos associados, com vistas à recuperação e ao manejo de áreas degradadas e à geração de trabalho e renda, compondo, dessa forma, importante ferramenta para a gestão integrada da zona costeira. Para...

  15. ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DE RESTINGAS COMO POTENCIAIS INSTRUMENTOS PARA GESTÃO COSTEIRA E TECNOLOGIA SOCIAL EM CARAVELAS, BAHIA (BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Machado Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Caravelas, located in southern Bahia state, the main vegetation formations are the mangrove forests and ‘restingas’ (sandbanks presenting, the latter, a high degree of degradation. The aim of this paper is to describe the main forest species of these ‘restingas’ and their direct uses associated with the recovery and management of degraded areas and creation of jobs and income, making thus an important tool for integrated coastal zone. For this, elaborate floral listings and field visits were necessary for recognizing the environment. In the selection of species, a literature about the use, management and value of each species were used, and from there, four species with potential for generating jobs and income along of this proposal were recognized: Mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa , Pitanga ( Eugenia uniflora , Mangaba ( Anacardium occidentale and Aroeira ( Schinus terebinthifolius . The first three are associated with the use of its fruit food, serving these ‘aroeiras’ as pepper trees, with a high value on the world market, and cashew, because of its fertile structure. The identification of products provided sustainable use of species and environment and the Non-Timber Forest Products can be strategic in coastal management, making it an instrument to subsidize social inclusion through the creation of jobs and income, under the movement of Social Technology, contributing to reduce the social vulnerability of traditional coastal communities.

  16. Avaliação dos efeitos da orientação da bobina de estimulação magnética transcraniana nos potenciais evocados motores do músculo abdutor curto do polegar por eletromiografia de alta densidade

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Hugo de Oliveira e Souza

    2014-01-01

    A estimulação magnética transcraniana (EMT) aplicada com diferentes orientações da bobina causa variações na amplitude e na latência dos potenciais evocados motores (PEM) dos músculos da mão. No entanto, as propriedades dos PEM são afetadas também pelos sistemas de detecção, e.g. localização e tamanho dos eletrodos de aquisição, e pela anatomia do músculo analisado, e.g. arquitetura dos tecidos muscular e adiposo. Neste estudo, verificamos como variam a distribuição espacial, a amplitude pico...

  17. Fine and hyperfine collisional excitation of C6H by He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle M.; Lique, François; Dawes, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogenated carbon chains have been detected in interstellar and circumstellar media and accurate modelling of their abundances requires collisional excitation rate coefficients with the most abundant species. Among them, the C6H molecule is one of the most abundant towards many lines of sight. Hence, we determined fine and hyperfine-resolved rate coefficients for the excitation of C6H(X2Π) due to collisions with He. We present the first interaction potential energy surface for the C6H-He system, obtained from highly correlated ab initio calculations and characterized by a large anisotropy due to the length of the molecule. We performed dynamical calculations for transitions among the first fine structure levels (up to J = 30.5) of both spin-orbit manifolds of C6H using the close-coupling method, and rate coefficients are determined for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The largest rate coefficients for even ΔJ transitions conserve parity, while parity-breaking rate coefficients are favoured for odd ΔJ. Spin-orbit changing rate coefficients are several orders of magnitude lower than transitions within a single manifold. State-to-state hyperfine-resolved cross-sections for the first levels (up to J = 13.5) in the Ω = 3/2 spin-orbit manifold are deduced using recoupling techniques. Rate coefficients are obtained and the propensity rule ΔJ = ΔF is seen. These new data will help determine the abundance of C6H in astrophysical environments such as cold dense molecular clouds, star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes, and will help in the interpretation of the puzzling C6H-/C6H abundance ratios deduced from observations.

  18. Estradiol Receptors Regulate Differential Connexin 43 Expression in F98 and C6 Glioma Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moinfar

    Full Text Available Glioma is the most common malignant primary brain tumour with male preponderance and poor prognosis. Glioma cells express variable amounts of connexin 43 (Cx43 and estrogen receptors (ERs. Both, Cx43 and ERs, play important roles in cell proliferation and migration. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 17-ß estradiol (E2 on Cx43 expression in two glioma cell lines with variable native expression of Cx43.F98 and C6 rat glioma cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of 10 nM or 100 nM E2, and the E2-antagonist, Fulvestrant. An MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell viability. ERα, ERβ and Cx43 protein expressions were analysed by western blotting and Cx43 mRNA expression was analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To quantify cell migration, an exclusive zone migration assay was used. Functional coupling of cells via gap junctions was examined using whole-cell patch-clamp technique.E2 reduced Cx43 expression in C6 cells, but increased Cx43 expression in F98 cultures. These effects were mediated via ERs. Moreover, E2 promoted C6 cell migration, but it did not affect F98 cell migration. The expression level of ERα was found to be high in C6, but low in F98 cells. ERβ was exclusively expressed in C6 cells. In addition, E2 treatment induced a significant decrease of ERβ in C6 cultures, while it decreased ERα expression in F98 glioma cells.These findings show that E2 differentially modulates Cx43 expression in F98 and C6 glioma cells, likely due to the differential expression of ERs in each of these cell lines. Our findings point to the molecular mechanisms that might contribute to the gender-specific differences in the malignancy of glioma and could have implications for therapeutic strategies against glioma.

  19. C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells have a dysfunctional antiviral RNA interference response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug E Brackney

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes rely on RNA interference (RNAi as their primary defense against viral infections. To this end, the combination of RNAi and invertebrate cell culture systems has become an invaluable tool in studying virus-vector interactions. Nevertheless, a recent study failed to detect an active RNAi response to West Nile virus (WNV infection in C6/36 (Aedes albopictus cells, a mosquito cell line frequently used to study arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses. Therefore, we sought to determine if WNV actively evades the host's RNAi response or if C6/36 cells have a dysfunctional RNAi pathway. C6/36 and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells were infected with WNV (Flaviviridae, Sindbis virus (SINV, Togaviridae and La Crosse virus (LACV, Bunyaviridae and total RNA recovered from cell lysates. Small RNA (sRNA libraries were constructed and subjected to high-throughput sequencing. In S2 cells, virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs from all three viruses were predominantly 21 nt in length, a hallmark of the RNAi pathway. However, in C6/36 cells, viRNAs were primarily 17 nt in length from WNV infected cells and 26-27 nt in length in SINV and LACV infected cells. Furthermore, the origin (positive or negative viral strand and distribution (position along viral genome of S2 cell generated viRNA populations was consistent with previously published studies, but the profile of sRNAs isolated from C6/36 cells was altered. In total, these results suggest that C6/36 cells lack a functional antiviral RNAi response. These findings are analogous to the type-I interferon deficiency described in Vero (African green monkey kidney cells and suggest that C6/36 cells may fail to accurately model mosquito-arbovirus interactions at the molecular level.

  20. Mosquitos vetores potenciais de dirofilariose canina na Região Nordeste do Brasil Mosquitoes potential vectors of canine heartworm in the Northeast Region from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MM Ahid

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em alguns bairros costeiros de São Luís, Maranhão, a prevalência da dirofilariose chega a mais de 40% entre os cães domiciliados. Porém, desconhecem-se os vetores naturais, tanto lá quanto no resto do Nordeste do país. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar os prováveis vetores dessa parasitose. MÉTODOS: Realizaram-se coletas mensais de mosquitos em um bairro costeiro de São Luís, MA, de março de 1996 a maio de 1997, no peridomicílio, tendo cão e homem como iscas. Os mosquitos foram dissecados para a pesquisa de larvas da Dirofilaria immitis. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 1.738 mosquitos de 11 espécies. Culex quinquefasciatus, capturada todos os meses, porém menos freqüente na estação chuvosa, correspondeu a 54,5% do total, seguido de Aedes albopictus (20,3%, Aedes taeniorhynchus e Aedes scapularis (ambos 11%. Larvas de D.immitis foram encontradas em 0,1% dos Cx. quinquefasciatus e 0,5% dos Ae. taeniorhynchus. CONCLUSÕES: Ae. taeniorhynchus e Cx. quinquefasciatus foram considerados vetores potenciais da dirofilariose em São Luís. A importância local de Cx. quinquefasciatus como transmissor primário da D. immitis necessita ser melhor avaliada.INTRODUCTION: In some coastal districts of São Luís, capital of the state of Maranhão, Brazil, the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis is more than 40% in house dogs. Natural potential vectors, as found in other areas of Northeastern Brazil, are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify probable vectors of the disease. METHODS: Mosquito catches were performed at a coastal, district Olho d'Água, in S. Luís, to look for local potential vectors. Captures were carried out monthly, from March 1996 to May 1997, outdoors, having a man and a dog as baits. Mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae. RESULTS: A total of 1,738 mosquitoes belonging to 11 species were collected. Culex quinquefasciatus, the only species collected every month, was more frequently in the dry

  1. HeLa DNA damage response induced by 12C6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jidong; Li Ning; Zhang Hong; Wu Zhenhua

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the DNA damage response of HeLa irradiated by 12 C 6+ beam and the mechanism of the p53 activation change in this response.In our present study, double strands break(DSB)of HeLa cells irradiated with 12 C 6+ beam were detected through neutral single cell gel electrophoresis, and AO/EB staining was used to detect the apoptosis of irradiated HeLa in 24h irradiation. Moreover, HeLa was pre-treated with caffeine (ATM and ATR inhibiting) or wormannin with certain concentrations (20 μmol/L, ATM and DNA-PK inhibiting) and irradiated with 1Gy of 12 C 6+ beam,and the expression of p53 was detected with Western blot analysis. The results show that DSB of HeLa caused by 12 C 6+ beam increases with absorbed doses and decreases with the time after irradiation. The apoptosis percentage of irradiated HeLa increases with absorbed doses. It has been found that the p53 expression increases after irradiation, but has not significant increment with caffeine or wortmannin pre-treatment in cells.It can be deduced that the p53 activation is ATM-dependent, but not ATR and DNA-PK-dependent in HeLa DNA damage response induced by 12 C 6+ beam. (authors)

  2. The functional curcumin liposomes induce apoptosis in C6 glioblastoma cells and C6 glioblastoma stem cells in vitro and in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yahua; Ying, Xue; Xu, Haolun; Yan, Helu; Li, Xia; Tang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a kind of malignant gliomas that is almost impossible to cure due to the poor drug transportation across the blood-brain barrier and the existence of glioma stem cells. We prepared a new kind of targeted liposomes in order to improve the drug delivery system onto the glioma cells and induce the apoptosis of glioma stem cells afterward. In this experiment, curcumin was chosen to kill gliomas, while quinacrine was used to induce apoptosis of the glioma stem cells. Also, p -aminophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside could facilitate the transport of liposomes across the blood-brain barrier and finally target the brain glioma cells. The cell experiments in vitro indicated that the targeted liposomes could significantly improve the anti-tumor effects of the drugs, while enhancing the uptake effects, apoptosis effects, and endocytic effects of C6 glioma cells and C6 glioma stem cells. Given the animal experiments in vivo, we discovered that the targeted liposomes could obviously increase the survival period of brain glioma-bearing mice and inhibit the growth of gliomas. In summary, curcumin and quinacrine liposomes modified with p -aminophenyl-α-D-mannopyranoside is a potential preparation to treat brain glioma cells and brain glioma stem cells.

  3. New type of M23C6 carbide precipitation in an austenitic stainless steel containing niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, Nobuzo; Sasmal, B.

    1981-01-01

    An electron microscopic study has been made of precipitation in an austenitic stainless steel, 16Cr-16Ni-0.8Nb-1.8Mo-0.06C. Attention has been focused on structural changes which take place during long ageing treatments, extended up to 14.4 Ms (4000 h). In addition to the wellknown chromium rich M 23 C 6 carbides, which appear, together with NbC, from the beginning of the precipitation treatment at 1073 K, a new plate-like morphology of M 23 C 6 carbide precipitation was observed after long ageing treatments. These M 23 C 6 carbide plates were formed on (110) planes in regions near pre-existing undissolved NbC particles and their edges were bounded by (111) planes of the fcc alloy matrix. It is suggested that this unexpected process might be favoured by the stresses produced around the undissolved NbC particles. (author)

  4. Structural and magnetic properties of Co films on highly textured and randomly oriented C_6_0 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Ok; Choi, Jun Woo; Lee, Dong Ryeol

    2016-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of Co/C_6_0/pentacene and Co/C_6_0 thin film structures were investigated. Atomic force microscopy and x-ray reflectivity analysis show that the presence or absence of a pentacene buffer layer leads to a highly textured or randomly oriented C_6_0 layer, respectively. A Co film deposited on a randomly oriented C_6_0 layer penetrates into the C_6_0 layer when it is deposited at a slow deposition rate. The Co penetration can be minimized, regardless of the Co deposition rate, by growth on a highly textured and nanostructured C_6_0/pentacene layer. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements show that the saturation magnetization of Co/C_6_0/pentacene is significantly reduced compared to that of Co/C_6_0. On the other hand, the Co penetration does not seem to have an effect on the magnetic properties, suggesting that the structural properties of the Co and C_6_0 layer, rather than the Co penetration into the organic C_6_0 layer, are critical to the magnetic properties of the Co/C_6_0. - Highlights: • Structural and magnetic properties of metal(Co)-organic(C_6_0) interface is studied. • Highly textured C_6_0 layer was grown on a pentacene buffer layer (C_6_0/pentacene). • Co penetration into the C_6_0 is significantly suppressed in Co/C_6_0/pentacene. • The Co magnetization in Co/C_6_0/pentacene is reduced than that in Co/C_6_0.

  5. The Prevalence of Medial Epicondylitis Among Patients With C6 and C7 Radiculopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Taylor; Lee-Robinson, Ayse L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Medial epicondylitis, or golfer’s/pitcher’s elbow, develops as a result of medial stress overload on the flexor muscles at the elbow and presents as pain at the medial epicondyle. Cervical radiculopathy has been associated with lateral epicondylitis, but few associations between the cervical spine and medial epicondylitis have been made. Researchers propose that there is an association, suggesting that the weakness and imbalance in the elbow flexor and extensor muscles from C6 and C7 radiculopathy allow for easy onset of medial epicondylitis. Hypothesis: Medial epicondylitis will present in over half the patients diagnosed with C6 and C7 radiculopathy. Methodology: A total of 102 patients initially presenting with upper extremity or neck symptoms were diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy. They were then examined for medial epicondylitis. Data were collected by referring to patient charts from February 2008 until June 2009. Results: Fifty-five patients were diagnosed with medial epicondylitis. Of these, 44 had C6 and C7 radiculopathy whereas 11 presented with just C6 radiculopathy. Conclusion: Medial epicondylitis presented with cervical radiculopathy in slightly more than half the patients. Weakening of the flexor carpi radialis and pronator teres and imbalance of the flexor and extensor muscles from the C6 and C7 radiculopathy allow for easy onset of medial epicondylitis. Patients with medial epicondylitis should be examined for C6 and C7 radiculopathy to ensure proper treatment. Physicians dealing with golfers, pitchers, or other patients with medial epicondylitis should be aware of the association between these 2 diagnoses to optimize care. PMID:23015956

  6. Elimination of C-6-hydrogen during the formation of ecdysteroids from cholesterol in Locusta migratoria ovaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Y.; Hiramoto, M.; Kakinuma, K.; Ikekawa, N.

    1989-01-01

    Being administered to Locusta migratoria adult females, [6- 3 H, 4- 14 C]cholesterol was incorporated into ecdysone and 2-deoxyecdysone. The ratio of 3 H/ 14 C of the two ecdysteroids isolated from newly laid eggs revealed that C-6-hydrogen of cholesterol was eliminated during the conversion to ecdysteroids in the ovaries of the insects. Thus, a hypothetical mechanism involving migration of the C-6-hydrogen to the C-5 position in the formation of A/B cis junction turned out to be less likely

  7. Observation of charge-exchange spectra on C6+ +H in low-energy collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobuchi, Takashi; Sato, Kuninori; Goto, Motoshi; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi; Kawahata, Kazuo; Sudo, Shigeru; Motojima, Osamu

    2003-01-01

    The extreme ultraviolet spectra of C VI have been studied for a Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) plasmas in Large Helical Device (LHD). A strong distortion in the population distribution over the excited levels was observed and we conclude that is caused by charge-exchange recombining (CXR) processes between C 6+ ion and recycling neutral hydrogen. Spatially resolved measurements show that the C 6+ -H CXR processes take place in the plasma peripheral region in LHD. We have taken a CXR part of C VI 1s-4p line using the result of a calculation code. (author)

  8. Bridging Binding Modes of Phosphine-Stabilized Nitrous Oxide to Zn(C6F5)2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neu, Rebecca C.; Otten, Edwin; Stephan, Douglas W.

    2009-01-01

    Reaction of [tBu3PN2O(B(C6H4F)3)] with 1, 1.5, or 2 equivalents of Zn(C6F5)2 affords the species [{tBu3PN2OZn(C6F5)2}2], [{tBu3PN2OZn(C6F5)2}2Zn(C6F5)2], and [tBu3PN2O{Zn(C6F5)2}2] displaying unique binding modes of Zn to the phosphine-stabilized N2O fragment.

  9. [2,4-(13)C]β-hydroxybutyrate metabolism in astrocytes and C6 glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloqayli, Haytham; Melø, Torun M; Haukvik, Anne; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if the ketogenic diet could be useful for glioblastoma patients. The hypothesis tested was whether glioblastoma cells can metabolize ketone bodies. Cerebellar astrocytes and C6 glioblastoma cells were incubated in glutamine and serum free medium containing [2,4-(13)C]β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) with and without glucose. Furthermore, C6 cells were incubated with [1-(13)C]glucose in the presence and absence of BHB. Cell extracts were analyzed by mass spectrometry and media by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Using [2,4-(13)C]BHB and [1-(13)C]glucose it could be shown that C6 cells, in analogy to astrocytes, had efficient mitochondrial activity, evidenced by (13)C labeling of glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. However, in the presence of glucose, astrocytes were able to produce and release glutamine, whereas this was not accomplished by the C6 cells, suggesting lack of anaplerosis in the latter. We hypothesize that glioblastoma cells kill neurons by not supplying the necessary glutamine, and by releasing glutamate.

  10. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuani, S. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy)], E-mail: silvia.capuani@roma1.infn.it; Gili, T. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Bozzali, M. [Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Russo, S. [Victor Horsley Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom); Porcari, P. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Cametti, C. [CNR-INFM SOFT, Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, Rome (Italy); Muolo, M. [Department of Biological Science, University ' Rome III' , Viale G. Marconi 446, Rome (Italy); D' Amore, E. [Serv. Qual./Sicurezza Sperim. Anim., Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome (Italy); Maraviglia, B. [Enrico Fermi Center, Compendio Viminale, Rome (Italy); Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Via Ardeatina 306, Rome (Italy); Lazzarino, G. [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy); Pastore, F.S. [Department of Neuroscience, Institute of Neurosurgery, University ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of {sup 10}B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  11. Modeling the degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Danilov, D.L.; Zwikirsch, B.; Fichtner, M.; Yang, Y.; Eichel, R.A.; Notten, P.H.L.

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental electrochemical model is developed, describing the capacity fade of C6/LiFePO4 batteries as a function of calendar time and cycling conditions. At moderate temperatures the capacity losses are mainly attributed to Li immobilization in Solid-Electrolyte-Interface (SEI) layers at the

  12. Catalytic pyrolysis of recalcitrant, insoluble humin byproducts from C6 sugar biorefineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agarwal, Shilpa; van Es, Daan; Heeres, Hero Jan

    Humins are solid by-products formed during the acid-catalysed conversions of C-6 sugars to platform chemicals like hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid. We here report an experimental study on the liquefaction/depolymerisation of humins using catalytic pyrolysis. Synthetic humins (SH) and crude

  13. Mode of action of pectin lyase A of Aspergillus niger on differently C6-substituted oligogalacturonides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Christensen, T.M.I.E.; Schols, H.A.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    A thorough investigation of the mode of action of Aspergillus niger (4M-147) pectin lyase A (PLA) on differently C6-substituted oligogalacturonides is described. PLA appeared to be very specific for fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides: removal of the methyl-ester or changing the type of

  14. Correlated linear response calculations of the C6 dispersion coefficients of hydrogen halides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sauer, S. P. A.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-4 (2007), s. 399-421 ISSN 1574-0404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA401870702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : hydrogen halides * C6 dospersion coefficients * van der Waals coefficients * polarizability at imaginary frequences * SOPPA Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  15. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of C6-Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruibo; Aotegen, Bayaer; Zhong, Zhimei

    2017-12-01

    C 6 -Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan were synthesized for the first time. C 2 -amino groups and C 3 -hydroxy groups were firstly protected by CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O, and the C 6 -hydroxy was then transformed into aldehyde, which then reacted with anilines through nucleophilic addition to introduce the CN group at C 6 -position in chitosan chain. Finally, C 6 -Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan were got by the deprotection of C 2 -NH 2 with cation exchange resin. The structures and properties of the new synthesized products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 13 C NMR, SEM image, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activities of derivatives were tested in the experiment, and the results showed that the prepared chitosan derivatives had significantly improved antibacterial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The Cytotoxicity test showed that the prepared chitosan derivatives had low Cytotoxicity, compared with chitosan and C 2 -benzaldehyde Schiff bases of chitosan. This paper allowed a new method for the synthesis of Schiff bases of chitosan, which was enlightening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Boronophenylalanine uptake in C6 glioma model is dramatically increased by L-DOPA preloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuani, S.; Gili, T.; Bozzali, M.; Russo, S.; Porcari, P.; Cametti, C.; Muolo, M.; D'Amore, E.; Maraviglia, B.; Lazzarino, G.; Pastore, F.S.

    2009-01-01

    One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of 10 B nuclei within tumour cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as enhancer for boronophenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6 glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro, and then extended in vivo to the animal model. BPA accumulation in C6 glioma cells was assessed, using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy (RDS), with and without L-DOPA preloading. C6 glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 25 rats, randomly assigned to two experimental branches: (1) intra-carotid BPA infusion; (2) intra-carotid BPA infusion after pre-treatment with L-DOPA, administrated 24 h before BPA infusion. All animals were sacrificed, and assessment of BPA concentrations in tumour tissue, normal brain, and blood samples was performed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration either in vitro on C6 glioma cells or in vivo in the animal model tumour. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the normal brain and blood samples between the two animal groups. This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1402(c)-6 - Members of certain professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(c)-6 Members of certain..., chiropractor, naturopath, optometrist, Christian Science practitioner, architect, certified public accountant, accountant registered or licensed as an accountant under State or municipal law, full-time practicing public...

  18. Scientific Impact of MODIS C5 Calibration Degradation and C6+ Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Xiong, X.; Meister, G.; Platnick, S.; Levy, R.; Franz, B.; Korkin, S.; Hilker, T.; Tucker, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Collection 6 (C6) MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) land and atmosphere data sets are scheduled for release in 2014. C6 contains significant revisions of the calibration approach to account for sensor aging. This analysis documents the presence of systematic temporal trends in the visible and near-infrared (500 m) bands of the Collection 5 (C5) MODIS Terra and, to lesser extent, in MODIS Aqua geophysical data sets. Sensor degradation is largest in the blue band (B3) of the MODIS sensor on Terra and decreases with wavelength. Calibration degradation causes negative global trends in multiple MODIS C5 products including the dark target algorithm's aerosol optical depth over land and Ångstrom exponent over the ocean, global liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, as well as surface reflectance and vegetation indices, including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI). As the C5 production will be maintained for another year in parallel with C6, one objective of this paper is to raise awareness of the calibration-related trends for the broad MODIS user community. The new C6 calibration approach removes major calibrations trends in the Level 1B (L1B) data. This paper also introduces an enhanced C6C calibration of the MODIS data set which includes an additional polarization correction (PC) to compensate for the increased polarization sensitivity of MODIS Terra since about 2007, as well as detrending and Terra- Aqua cross-calibration over quasi-stable desert calibration sites. The PC algorithm, developed by the MODIS ocean biology processing group (OBPG), removes residual scan angle, mirror side and seasonal biases from aerosol and surface reflectance (SR) records along with spectral distortions of SR. Using the multiangle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm over deserts, we have also developed a detrending and cross-calibration method which removes residual decadal trends on

  19. Neutron diffraction analysis of HRh[P(C6H5)3]4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, R.; Stevens, R.C.; McLean, M.; Koetzle, T.F.

    1987-01-01

    We have collected neutron diffraction data on a large single crystal of the title compound. The most surprising result is an extremely short Rh-H distance of 1.31(8) A, presumably caused by steric interactions involving the bulky triphenyl phosphine ligands. Crystallographic details: HRh[P(C 6 H 5 ) 3 ] 4 . 1 / 2 C 6 H 6 crystallizes in the space group Pa3, with a = b = c = 22.776(3) A, Z = 8. Data were collected at the Brookhaven High Flux Beam reactor at a temperature of -23 0 C, λ = 1.15882(7) A -1 . Least-squares refinement (in which the phenyl rings were treated as rigid groups) resulted in an R factor [based on data with f > 4σ(F)] of 0.12 for 914 reflections and 95 parameters. 10 refs

  20. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of C(6-Modified Celastrol Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Tang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New six C6-celastrol derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxic activities against nine human cancer cell lines (BGC-823, H4, Bel7402, H522, Colo 205, HepG2 and MDA-MB-468. The results showed that most of the compounds displayed potent inhibition against BGC823, H4, and Bel7402, with IC50s of 1.84–0.39 μM. The best compound NST001A was tested in an in vivo antitumor assay on nude mice bearing Colo 205 xenografts, and showed significant inhibition of tumor growth at low concentrations. Therefore, celastrol C-6 derivatives are potential drug candidates for treating cancer.

  1. Aspectos biológicos e espécies potenciais para restauração ecológica de áreas em desertificação no Sul do Piauí - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Marques Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado em uma área em processo de desertificação no município de Gilbués – PI. Este trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar espécies lenhosas potenciais para restauração de áreas em processo de desertificação, por meio do levantamento fitossociológica e a relação com as propriedades químicas do solo. As espécies lenhosas (DNS > 1 cm foi amostrada em um trecho de área desertificada em um transecto de 10000 m2 (1 ha sendo subdividida em 10 parcelas de 1000 m2 (0,1. Myracroduon urundeuva Fr. All., Tabebuia aurea Benth. & Hook. e Astronium fraxinifolium Schott. baseado nos parâmetros fitossociológicos  são espécies arbóreas com maior potencial para restauração de áreas desertificadas aliado ao fato de serem pioneiras com dispersão pelo vento. A vegetação lenhosa da área desertificada apresenta-se no inicio da sucessão ecológica com maior parte dos indivíduos nas menores classes de altura e diâmetro.  Myracroduon urundeuva Fr. All. e Astronium fraxinifolium Schott. apresentaram correlação significativa com propriedades químicas do solo sendo mais adaptadas as condições edáficas das áreas desertificadas.  

  2. Zero-Point Corrections for Isotropic Coupling Constants for Cyclohexadienyl Radical, C6H7 and C6H6Mu: Beyond the Bond Length Change Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce S. Hudson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zero-point vibrational level averaging for electron spin resonance (ESR and muon spin resonance (µSR hyperfine coupling constants (HFCCs are computed for H and Mu isotopomers of the cyclohexadienyl radical. A local mode approximation previously developed for computation of the effect of replacement of H by D on 13C-NMR chemical shifts is used. DFT methods are used to compute the change in energy and HFCCs when the geometry is changed from the equilibrium values for the stretch and both bend degrees of freedom. This variation is then averaged over the probability distribution for each degree of freedom. The method is tested using data for the methylene group of C6H7, cyclohexadienyl radical and its Mu analog. Good agreement is found for the difference between the HFCCs for Mu and H of CHMu and that for H of CHMu and CH2 of the parent radical methylene group. All three of these HFCCs are the same in the absence of the zero point average, a one-parameter fit of the static HFCC, a(0, can be computed. That value, 45.2 Gauss, is compared to the results of several fixed geometry electronic structure computations. The HFCC values for the ortho, meta and para H atoms are then discussed.

  3. Cervical pedicle screw fixation at C6 and C7 A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The intersection of the horizontal line through the midpoint of the transverse process root and vertical line through the intersection of the posterolateral and posterior planes of the isthmus can be used as an entry point for C6 and C7 pedicle screw fixation. The screws should be inserted at 60 or 90° with the posterolateral isthmus in the horizontal plane and at 75° with the posterior isthmus in the sagittal plane. The LSC should not exceed 30 mm.

  4. Nqrs Data for C6H7F4N2OSb (Subst. No. 0879)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C6H7F4N2OSb (Subst. No. 0879)

  5. Nqrs Data for C6H7F7N2OSb2 (Subst. No. 0880)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C6H7F7N2OSb2 (Subst. No. 0880)

  6. Photoemission study of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Rikiya; Iwai, Keisuke; Noami, Kengo; Muro, Takayuki; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Hirai, Masaaki; Tomioka, Fumiaki; Takano, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Asami; Toyoda, Masahiro; Oguchi, Tamio; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we have performed resonant photoemission studies of Ca-intercalated graphite superconductor CaC 6 . Using photon energy of the Ca 2p-3d threshold, the photoemission intensity of the peak at Fermi energy (E F ) is resonantly enhanced. This result provides spectroscopic evidence for the existence of Ca 3d states at E F , and strongly supports that Ca 3d state plays a crucial role for the superconductivity of this material with relatively high T c .

  7. MRI and morphological observation in C6 glioma model rats and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Yuan Bo; Wang Hao; Lu Jin; Yuan Changji; Ma Yue; Tong Dan; Zhang Kun; Gao Feng; Wu Xiaogang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish stable and reliable rat C6 glioma model, and to perform MRI dynamic observation and pathomorphological observation in model animal brain, and to provide experimental basis for pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. Methods: The C6 glioma cells were cultured and 20 μL cultural fluid containing 1×10 6 C6 cells was sterotactically implanted into the left caudate nuclei in 10 male Wistar rats, respectively. The changes in the behavior of the rats after implantation were observed and recorded. MRI dynamic scanning was performed in 10 rats 2, 3 and 4 weeks after implantation and the brain tissues were taken for general and pathological examination when the 10 rats were naturally dead. The survival period of tumor-bearing rats was calculated. Results: 2 weeks after implantation the rats showed decreased activities and food intake, fur lackluster, and conjunctival congestion and so on; 3 weeks later, some rats appeared nerve symptoms such as body twitch, body hemiplegy, body distortion, rotation and so on. All the 10 rats died in 8-30 d. The median survival period of the tumor-bearing rats was 18 d, the average survival period was (18.3±7.3) d. The pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged irregularly closely and karyokinesis was easy to see; tumor vascular tissue proliferation and tumor invasive growth into surrounding normal tissues were found. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was positive in the tumors. Conclusion: A stable animal model of intracranial glioma is successfully established by stereotactic implantation of C6 cells into the rat caudate nucleus. The results of MRI dynamic observation and pathohistological observation on the model animal brain tissue. Can provide experimental basis for selecting the appropriate time window to perform the pharmaceutical research on anti-glioma drugs. (authors)

  8. Ebselen Induced C6 Glioma Cell Death in Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Honglian; Liu, Shimin; Miyake, Minoru; Liu, Ke Jian

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that ebselen is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidative agent. Its protective effect has been investigated in oxidative stress related diseases such as cerebral ischemia in recent years. However, experimental evidence also shows that ebselen causes cell death in several different cell types. Whether ebselen will have beneficial or detrimental effect on cells under ischemic condition is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of ebselen on C6 glioma cell under oxygen and glu...

  9. Synthesis of [13C6]-labelled phenethylamine derivatives for drug quantification in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Morten; Liu, HuiLing; Berg, Thomas; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2014-05-15

    The availability of high-quality (13)C-labelled internal standards will improve accurate quantification of narcotics and drugs in biological samples. Thus, the synthesis of 10 [(13)C6]-labelled phenethylamine derivatives, namely amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine, 4-methoxyamphetamine, 4-methoxymethamphetamine, 3,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine, have been undertaken. [(13)C6]-Phenol proved to be an excellent starting material for making (13)C-labelled narcotic substances in the phenethylamine class, and a developed Stille-type coupling enabled an efficient synthesis of the 3,4-methylenedioxy and 4-methoxy derivatives. The pros and cons of alternative routes and transformations are also discussed. The [(13)C6]-labelled compounds are intended for use as internal standards in forensic analysis, health sciences and metabolomics studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Oleic Acid and Hydroxytyrosol Inhibit Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Synthesis in C6 Glioma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Priore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the discovery of natural compounds capable of modulating nervous system function has revealed new perspectives for a healthier brain. Here, we investigated the effects of oleic acid (OA and hydroxytyrosol (HTyr, two important extra virgin olive oil compounds, on lipid synthesis in C6 glioma cells. OA and HTyr inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without affecting cell viability. The inhibitory effect of the individual compounds was more pronounced if OA and HTyr were administered in combination. A reduction of polar lipid biosynthesis was also detected, while triglyceride synthesis was marginally affected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their effects on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase-ACC and fatty acid synthase-FAS and cholesterologenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase-HMGCR were investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized C6 cells. ACC and HMGCR activities were especially reduced after 4 h of 25 μM OA and HTyr treatment. No change in FAS activity was observed. Inhibition of ACC and HMGCR activities is corroborated by the decrease of their mRNA abundance and protein level. Our results indicate a direct and rapid downregulatory effect of the two olive oil compounds on lipid synthesis in C6 cells.

  11. Undersulfation of proteoglycans and proteins alter C6 glioma cells proliferation, adhesion and extracellular matrix organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Aguiar, Claudia B N; Garcez, Ricardo Castilho; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves

    2002-11-01

    Proteoglycans are considered to be important molecule in cell-microenvironment interactions. They are overexpressed in neoplastic cells modifying their growth and migration in hosts. In this work we verified that undersulfation of proteoglycans and other sulfated molecules, induced by sodium chlorate treatment, inhibited C6 glioma cells proliferation in a dose-dependent way. This effect was restored by the addition of exogenous heparin. We could not detect significant cell mortality in our culture condition. The treatment also impaired in a dose-dependent manner, C6 cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin). In addition, sodium chlorate treatment altered C6 glioma cell morphology, from the fibroblast-like to a more rounded one. This effect was accompanied by increased synthesis of fibronectin and alterations in its extracellular network organization. However, we could not observe modifications on laminin organization and synthesis. The results suggest an important connection between sulfation degree with important tumor functions, such as proliferation and adhesion. We suggest that proteoglycans may modulate the glioma microenvironment network during tumor cell progression and invasion.

  12. Extracellular diffusion quantified by magnetic resonance imaging during rat C6 glioma cell progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Song

    Full Text Available Solution reflux and edema hamper the convection-enhanced delivery of the standard treatment for glioma. Therefore, a real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI method was developed to monitor the dosing process, but a quantitative analysis of local diffusion and clearance parameters has not been assessed. The objective of this study was to compare diffusion into the extracellular space (ECS at different stages of rat C6 gliomas, and analyze the effects of the extracellular matrix (ECM on the diffusion process. At 10 and 20 days, after successful glioma modeling, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA was introduced into the ECS of rat C6 gliomas. Diffusion parameters and half-life of the reagent were then detected using MRI, and quantified according to the mathematical model of diffusion. The main ECM components [chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs, collagen IV, and tenascin C] were detected by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses. In 20-day gliomas, Gd-DTPA diffused more slowly and derived higher tortuosity, with lower clearance rate and longer half-life compared to 10-day gliomas. The increased glioma ECM was associated with different diffusion and clearance parameters in 20-day rat gliomas compared to 10-day gliomas. ECS parameters were altered with C6 glioma progression from increased ECM content. Our study might help better understand the glioma microenvironment and provide benefits for interstitial drug delivery to treat brain gliomas.

  13. Recusa de doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante relatados por familiares de potenciais doadores

    OpenAIRE

    Moraes,Edvaldo Leal de; Massarollo,Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Conhecer a percepção de familiares de potenciais doadores sobre os motivos de recusa para doação de órgãos e tecidos para transplante. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa, na vertente fenomenológica, modalidade "estrutura do fenômeno situado". Participaram do estudo oito familiares que recusaram a doação dos órgãos e tecidos. RESULTADOS: Após análise das entrevistas, foram revelados dez motivos de recusa, considerados pelos familiares. CONSIDERAÇÕES FINAIS: As proposições ...

  14. Potenciais interações entre medicamentos usados na síndrome metabólica = Potential interactions between drugs used in metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandeira, Vanessa Adelina Casali

    2014-01-01

    Conclusões: O tratamento da síndrome metabólica é complexo por requerer a associação de vários medicamentos, o que aumenta os riscos de interações medicamentosas e de efeitos adversos. O presente estudo identificou um grande número de potenciais interações medicamentosas entre esses medicamentos, o que pode reduzir ou potencializar a eficácia dos mesmos e expor o usuário a riscos

  15. Six potencial woods for bows of stringed instruments: organoleptic properties, machining and commercial availability. Seis madeiras potenciais para arcos de instrumentos de corda: propriedades organolépticas, trababilidade e disponibilidade comercial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz LONGUI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it was investigated the organoleptic properties and machining of six potential woods for bows of stringed instruments and compared the results with those mentioned for the Caesalpinia echinata wood, the reference for modern bows. Thirty wood stores were visited in different cities of the São Paulo state to verify the commercial availability of these woods. We concluded that despite the traditionalism of the red tones in the woods for bows, woods with yellowish tones such as Handroanthus spp. and Dipteryx spp. or brownish such as Diplotropis spp. with appropriate properties, may offer alternative colors and textures to the musicians. It was observed that the Mezilaurus itauba and Astronium lecointei, woods with easy machining, have no potential suitable for bows. Regarding to availability, all woods tested are relatively easy to find nowadays in the wood market. Handroanthus spp. and Dipteryx spp. showed greater potential for making bows for professional musicians.The woods of Mezilaurus itauba and Astronium lecointei did not show good potentialfor bows.Neste trabalho foram investigadas as propriedades organolépticas e a trabalhabilidade de seis madeiras potenciais para arcos de instrumentos de corda e os resultados comparados com os da madeira de Caesalpinia echinata, referência para arcos modernos. Foram visitadas 30 madeireiras em diferentes cidades do Estado de São Paulo para observar a disponibilidade das seis madeiras. Conclui-se que apesar do tradicionalismo dos tons de vermelhos na madeira para arcos, outras madeiras com tons amarelados como Handroanthus spp. e Dipteryx spp. ou acastanhados como Diplotropis spp., desde que possuam propriedades adequadas, podem oferecer alternativas de cores e texturas para os músicos. Madeiras de fácil trabalhabilidade, como Mezilaurus itauba e Astronium lecointei não são adequadas para a fabricação dos arcos. Atualmente, todas as madeiras testadas são relativamente fáceis de

  16. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico em frentistas Auditory brainstem response in gas station attendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenita da Silva Quevedo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A ototoxidade dos solventes orgânicos pode atingir o sistema auditivo a nível coclear e retrococlear. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a integridade neurofisiológica do sistema auditivo até tronco cerebral por meio do PEATE. MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo. Estudados frentistas de três postos de gasolina da cidade de Santa Maria/RS. A amostra ficou composta por 21 sujeitos, que foram avaliados por meio de potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico. RESULTADOS: Alteração nas latências absolutas das ondas I e III e em todas as latências interpicos, na orelha direita. Na orelha esquerda houve alteração na latência absoluta de todas as ondas, e em todos os intervalos interpicos. Alteração na diferença interaural da onda V foi verificada em 19% dos sujeitos. No grupo exposto há mais de cinco anos, foram estatisticamente significantes o número de sujeitos com alteração: no intervalo interpico I-V da orelha direita; na latência absoluta da onda I e no intervalo interpico III-V da orelha esquerda. CONCLUSÃO: A exposição a combustíveis pode causar alterações no sistema auditivo central.Ototoxicity of organic solvents can affect the hearing system up to the cochlea level and the central structures of hearing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neurophysiological integrity of the hearing system in subjects exposed to fuels using ABR. METHOD: Prospective study. We evaluated attendants from three gas stations in Santa Maria/RS. The sample had 21 subjects, who were evaluated by auditory brainstem response. RESULTS: We found an alteration in the absolute latencies of Waves I and III and in all the interpeak latencies, in the right ear. In the left ear there was a change in the absolute latencies of all Waves, and in all the interpeak intervals. A change in the interaural difference of Wave V was found in 19% of the individuals. In the group exposed for more than five years, there were subjects with a statistically significant changes: in the I

  17. Complexation of c6-ceramide with cholesteryl phosphocholine - a potent solvent-free ceramide delivery formulation for cells in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Sukumaran

    Full Text Available Ceramides are potent bioactive molecules in cells. However, they are very hydrophobic molecules, and difficult to deliver efficiently to cells. We have made fluid bilayers from a short-chain D-erythro-ceramide (C6-Cer and cholesteryl phosphocholine (CholPC, and have used this as a formulation to deliver ceramide to cells. C6-Cer complexed with CholPC led to much larger biological effects in cultured cells (rat thyroid FRTL-5 and human HeLa cells in culture compared to C6-Cer dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis was significantly more efficient by C6-Cer/CholPC compared to C6-Cer dissolved in DMSO. C6-Cer/CholPC also permeated cell membranes and caused mitochondrial Ca(2+ influx more efficiently than C6-Cer in DMSO. Even though CholPC was taken up by cells to some extent (from C6-Cer/CholPC bilayers, and was partially hydrolyzed to free cholesterol (about 9%, none of the antiproliferative effects were due to CholPC or excess cholesterol. The ceramide effect was not limited to D-erythro-C6-Cer, since L-erythro-C6-Cer and D-erythro-C6-dihydroCer also inhibited cell priolifereation and affected Ca(2+ homeostasis. We conclude that C6-Cer complexed to CholPC increased the bioavailability of the short-chain ceramide for cells, and potentiated its effects in comparison to solvent-dissolved C6-Cer. This new ceramide formulation appears to be superior to previous solvent delivery approaches, and may even be useful with longer-chain ceramides.

  18. Analysis on Biomechanical Characteristics of Post-operational Vertebral C5-C6 Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heqiang Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Both anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF and artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR have obvious advantages in the treatment of cervical spondylosis. To analyze the operation results, it is absolutely necessary to study the biomechanics of the movement range of post-operational vertebral C5-C6 segments, especially the biomechanical characteristics in cervical tissues in actual movements. In this study, using the human vertebral 3D graph gained by imaging diagnosis (CT, a vertebral solid model is established by the 3D reconstruction algorithm and reverse engineering technology. After that, with cervical soft tissue structure added to the solid model and set with a joint contact mechanism, a finite element model with a complete, accurate cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit is constructed, based on relevant physiological anatomical knowledge. This model includes vertebral segments, an intervertebral disc, ligament and zygopophysis in the cervical C5-C6 kinematic unit. In the created vertebral finite element model, the model is amended, referring to ACDF and ACDR, and the load and constraint are applied to a normal group, a fusion group and a displacement group, so as to analyze the biomechanical characteristics of the cervical vertebra after ACDF and ACDR. By comparing the finite element simulation results of different surgeries, this paper is intended to evaluate the functions and biomechanical behaviors of the post-operational vertebra, and explore the influence of the operation on the biomechanical stability of the cervical vertebra. This will provide theoretical guidance for implementation and optimization of ACDF and ACDR.

  19. Solvent extraction of Pu(IV) with TODGA in C6mimTf2N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaohong Huang; Qiuyue Zhang; Jinping Liu; Hui He; Wenbin Zhu; Xiaorong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the solvent extraction of Plutonium(Pu(IV)) from aqueous nitric acid by N,N,N'N'tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (C 6 mimTf 2 N) room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) were carried out. It was found that Pu(IV) is extracted into RTIL phase as [Pu(NO 3 )(TODGA)] 3+ through cation exchange mechanism. Extraction reaction equation is obtained by the influence of acidity and extractant concentration, and the parameters of thermodynamic equilibrium constant was calculated. (author)

  20. 16O resonances near 4α threshold through 12C(6Li,d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Faria, P. Neto de; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M.; Napoli, M. di; Ukita, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    Several narrow alpha resonant 16 O states were detected through the 12 C( 6 Li,d) reaction, in the range of 13.5 to 17.5 MeV of excitation energy. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Experimental angular distributions associated with natural parity quasi-bound states around the 4α threshold are presented and compared to DWBA predictions. The upper limit for the resonance widths obtained is near the energy resolution (15 keV)

  1. 16O resonances near 4α threshold through 12C (6Li,d ) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; de Faria, P. Neto; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M.; di Napoli, M.; Ukita, G. M.

    2014-11-01

    Several narrow alpha resonant 16O states were detected through the 12C (6Li,d ) reaction, in the range of 13.5 to 17.5 MeV of excitation energy. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Experimental angular distributions associated with natural parity quasi-bound states around the 4α threshold are presented and compared to DWBA predictions. The upper limit for the resonance widths obtained is near the energy resolution (15 keV).

  2. Ejected electron energy distribution in the ionization of atomic hydrogen by C6+ impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Ritu; Roy, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    We report doubly differential cross section (DDCS) for C 6+ impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at the incident energy of 2.5 MeV/amu. The calculation is based on the eikonal approximation (EA) method. A comparison is made of the present DDCS with the results of other theoretical methods and experiment. It is found that the multiple scattering effect has a significant influence on the energy distributions of the ejected electrons. The cross sections predicted by the present EA also show reasonably good agreement with experiment

  3. Ab initio calculation of the voltage profile for LiC6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kganyago, KR

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available , Council for the Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa c Davy Faraday Research Laboratory, The Royal Institution of Great Britain, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS, UK Received 12 March 2002; received in revised form 10 June....2 Faraday per mole and the cyclable charge x is around 0.5 [1].Theanode reaction can be summarised as: xLi? ?xeC0 ?6C ? LixC6 ?1? In this communication, we explore the contribution to the voltage by the anode material using first- principles electronic...

  4. The profile of potential organ and tissue donors El perfil de probables donadores de órganos y tejidos O perfil de potenciais doadores de órgãos e tecidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Leal de Moraes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize donors according to gender, age group, cause of brain death; quantify donors with hypernatremia, hyperpotassemia and hypopotassemia; and get to know which organs were the most used in transplantations. This quantitative, descriptive, exploratory and retrospective study was performed at the Organ Procurement Organization of the University of São Paulo Medical School Hospital das Clínicas. Data from the medical records of 187 potential donors were analyzed. Cerebrovascular accidents represented 53.48% of all brain death causes, sodium and potassium disorders occurred in 82.36% of cases and 45.46% of the potential donors were between 41 and 60 years old. The results evidenced that natural death causes exceeded traumatic deaths, and that most donors presented sodium and potassium alterations, likely associated to inappropriate maintenance.Se tuvo como objetivos determinar las características de los donadores según el sexo, el intervalo de edad, y, las causas por muerte encefálica; determinar el número donadores que presentaban hipernatremia, hiperpotasemia y hipopotasemia; conocer los órganos que fueron más utilizados para el trasplante. Es un estudio de tipo cuantitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio y retrospectivo. La investigación fue realizada en una Institución de donación de Órganos perteneciente al Hospital de las Clínicas de Sao Paulo. Fueron analizados los datos de 187 probables donadores. Entre las causas de muerte encefálica el 53,48% fueron por accidente cerebro vascular, en 82,36% de los casos se produjeron alteraciones en los valores de sodio y potasio y los donadores se encontraban entre 41 y 60 años de edad. Los resultados muestran que las causas naturales de muerte superaron a las muertes por traumatismo. La mayoría de los donadores tuvo alteraciones en los niveles de sodio y potasio, estando posiblemente relacionadas a medidas de conservación inadecuadas.Objetivou-se caracterizar os

  5. Metabolic effect of streptomyces avermitilis irradiated by ion beam of "1"2C"6"+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyang; Chen Jihong; Li Wenjian; Liang Jianping; Liu Jing; Bo Yongheng; Wang Lihua

    2013-01-01

    pH value, mycelium concentration, carbon source and nitrogen metabolism in flask fermentation of the mutant high-producing strain ZJAV-Yl-203 and the original strain ZJAV-A1 have been investigated, in order to show the metabolic effect of avermitilis irradiated by ion beam of "1"2C"6"+. In early stage (48 h) of the fermentation, pH value of the original fermentation was lower than that of the mutant strains. In 96∼196 h of fermentation, the nitrogen utilization in the strains ZJAV-Y1-203 was higher than that in the original strains, its reproductive was fast, and its growing was vigorous. The mycelium concentration of ZJAV-Yl-203 was greater than the original strain, and the pH value of fermentation were stable, so its metabolism was relatively more stable. In 144∼240 h of fermentation, the strain ZJAV-Y1-203 on sugar consumption was less than the original strains. The effect of "1"2C"6"+ ion irradiation on metabolism of Streptomyces avermitilis is conducive to the synthesis of avermectin. (authors)

  6. Covalent functionalization of octagraphene with magnetic octahedral B6- and non-planar C6- clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigo-Anota, E.; Cárdenas-Jirón, G.; Salazar Villanueva, M.; Bautista Hernández, A.; Castro, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the magnetic boron octahedral (B6-) and non-planar (C6-) carbon clusters with semimetal nano-sheet of octa-graphene (C64H24) in the gas phase is studied by means of DFT calculations. These results reveal that non-planar-1 (anion) carbon cluster exhibits structural stability, low chemical reactivity, magnetic (1.0 magneton bohr) and semiconductor behavior. On the other hand, there is chemisorption phenomena when the stable B6- and C6- clusters are absorbed on octa-graphene nanosheets. Such absorption generates high polarity and the low-reactivity remains as on the individual pristine cases. Electronic charge transference occurs from the clusters toward the nanosheets, producing a reduction of the work function for the complexes and also induces a magnetic behavior on the functionalized sheets. The quantum descriptors obtained for these systems reveal that they are feasible candidates for the design of molecular circuits, magnetic devices, and nano-vehicles for drug delivery.

  7. In vivo detection of c-Met expression in a rat C6 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, R A; Smith, N; Doblas, S; Tesiram, Y; Garteiser, P; Saunders, D; Cranford, R; Silasi-Mansat, R; Herlea, O; Ivanciu, L; Wu, D; Lupu, F

    2008-01-01

    The tyrosine kinase receptor, c-Met, and its substrate, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), are implicated in the malignant progression of glioblastomas. In vivo detection of c-Met expression may be helpful in the diagnosis of malignant tumours. The C6 rat glioma model is a widely used intracranial brain tumour model used to study gliomas experimentally. We used a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) molecular targeting agent to specifically tag the cell surface receptor, c-Met, with an anti-c-Met antibody (Ab) linked to biotinylated Gd (gadolinium)-DTPA (diethylene triamine penta acetic acid)-albumin in rat gliomas to detect overexpression of this antigen in vivo. The anti-c-Met probe (anti-c-Met-Gd-DTPA-albumin) was administered intravenously, and as determined by an increase in MRI signal intensity and a corresponding decrease in regional T(1) relaxation values, this probe was found to detect increased expression of c-Met protein levels in C6 gliomas. In addition, specificity for the binding of the anti-c-Met contrast agent was determined by using fluorescence microscopic imaging of the biotinylated portion of the targeting agent within neoplastic and 'normal'brain tissues following in vivo administration of the anti-c-Met probe. Controls with no Ab or with a normal rat IgG attached to the contrast agent component indicated no non-specific binding to glioma tissue. This is the first successful visualization of in vivo overexpression of c-Met in gliomas.

  8. Isolation of the antibiotic pseudopyronine B and SAR evaluation of C3/C6 alkyl analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouthillette, Leah M; Darcey, Catherine A; Handy, Tess E; Seaton, Sarah C; Wolfe, Amanda L

    2017-06-15

    Natural products are an abundant source of structurally diverse compounds with antibacterial activity that can be used to develop new and potent antibiotics. One such class of natural products is the pseudopyronines. Here we present the isolation of pseudopyronine B (2) from a Pseudomonas species found in garden soil in Western North Carolina, and SAR evaluation of C3 and C6 alkyl analogs of the natural product for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We found a direct relationship between antibacterial activity and C3/C6 alkyl chain length. For inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria, alkyl chain lengths between 6 and 7 carbons were found to be the most active (IC 50 =0.04-3.8µg/mL) whereas short alkyl chain analogs showed modest activity against Gram-negative bacteria (IC 50 =223-304µg/mL). This demonstrates the potential for this class of natural products to be optimized for selective activity against either Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the M23C6 precipitation in AISI 304 stainless steel by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeuf, A.; Caciuffo, R.G.M.; Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble; Ancona Univ.; Melone, S.; Puliti, P.; Rustichelli, F.; Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble; Ancona Univ.; Coppola, R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of some small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments on M 23 C 6 (M=Fe, Cr) carbide precipitation in AISI 304 stainless steel, aged at different temperatures during different times, are presented. The total volume fraction, the total surface of precipitates per unit sample volume and the size distribution functions of the M 23 C 6 carbides were determined. (orig.)

  10. Unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch and associated vertebral schisis at C6 level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bonis, Pasquale de; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Rocco, Concezio di [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Rome (Italy); Byvaltsev, Vadim [Irkutsk Railway Clinical Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Leone, Antonio [Catholic University, School of Medicine, Department of Bioimaging and Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch of C6 associated with spina bifida occulta at the same level. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed hypertrophy of the left lamina as well as overgrowth and elongation of the left spinous process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) examination better depicted this congenital variant and clearly showed the associated schisis of the posterior arch at the same level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination ruled out other spinal anomalies. The neck pain, the young age of the patient and the local aesthetic abnormality contributed to the surgical indication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of unilateral hyperplasia of a posterior cervical arch. Only one previous study has reported a similar congenital anomaly, but it was limited to the left side of the spinous process. (orig.)

  11. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  12. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-01-01

    A prototype C 6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4

  13. Mosquito cell line C6/36 shows resistence to Cyt1Aa6

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Huang, E.; Tang, B.; Guan, X.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-269 ISSN 0019-5189 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Grant - others:National Nature Science Foundation of China(CN) 31071745; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515110010; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515120010; Transformation Fund for Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements(CN) 2010GB2C400212; Fujian Colleges and Universities for the Development of the West Strait(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * C6/36 cells * indirect immunofluorescence assay Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2012 http://nopr.niscair.res.in/bitstream/123456789/13748/1/IJEB%2050(4)%20265-269.pdf

  14. Unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch and associated vertebral schisis at C6 level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Bonis, Pasquale de; Tamburrini, Gianpiero; Massimi, Luca; Rocco, Concezio di; Byvaltsev, Vadim; Leone, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 5-year-old girl with unilateral hyperplasia of the left posterior arch of C6 associated with spina bifida occulta at the same level. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the cervical spine showed hypertrophy of the left lamina as well as overgrowth and elongation of the left spinous process of the sixth cervical vertebra. Computed tomography (CT) examination better depicted this congenital variant and clearly showed the associated schisis of the posterior arch at the same level. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination ruled out other spinal anomalies. The neck pain, the young age of the patient and the local aesthetic abnormality contributed to the surgical indication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case in the English literature of unilateral hyperplasia of a posterior cervical arch. Only one previous study has reported a similar congenital anomaly, but it was limited to the left side of the spinous process. (orig.)

  15. Theoretical investigation of the photochemical C2-C6 cyclisation of enyne-heteroallenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spöler, Carsten; Engels, Bernd

    2003-10-06

    Herein we discuss computations that explain experimental results regarding a highly efficient triplet analogue of the C(2)-C(6) cyclisation of enyne-heteroallenes recently discovered by Schmittel and co-workers.1 To shed some light on the reasons for the differences found between enyne-carbodiimides, enyne-ketenimines and enyne-allenes, we have computed the reaction profiles of the C(2)-C(6) and of the C(2)-C(7) cyclisations for various model compounds, assuming that the reactions take place on the lowest-lying triplet surfaces. Our results nicely explain the differences and the unexpected high efficiency found for the enyne-carbodiimides. The differences between enyne-carbodiimides and enyne-ketenimines prove to be due to differences in the shapes of the corresponding triplet surfaces. In contrast to the enyne-carbodiimides, for which our calculations predict that a direct cyclisation to the biradical intermediates should occur after the vertical excitation, the enyne-ketenimines relax into a local minimum on the triplet surface. As a consequence, further reaction channels are opened. Our computations indicate that enyne-allene compounds do not react because the necessary excitation energy lies outside the range of the employed triplet photosensitizer. Finally, the close agreement between our results and the experimental findings indicates that the underlying reasons for the differences in the photochemical behaviour of enyne-carbodiimides, enyne-ketenimines and enyne-allenes are related to differences in the electronic structures of the parent systems, while substituent effects are less important.

  16. TUBERCULOSIS COMO ENFERMEDAD OCUPACIONAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Ticona, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Existe evidencia suficiente para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en diversos profesionales especialmente entre los trabajadores de salud. En el Perú están normados y reglamentados los derechos laborales inherentes a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional, como la cobertura por discapacidad temporal o permanente. Sin embargo, estos derechos aún no han sido suficientemente socializados. En este trabajo se presenta información sobre el riesgo de adquirir tuberculosis en el lugar de trabajo, se revisan las evidencias para declarar a la tuberculosis como enfermedad ocupacional en trabajadores de salud y se presenta la legislación peruana vigente al respecto. PMID:22858771

  17. Interações medicamentosas potenciais entre idosos em uso dos anti-hipertensivos da Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Mibielli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de interações medicamentosas potenciais entre anti-hipertensivos e outros fármacos. Foi realizado um inquérito domiciliar com pessoas de 60 anos ou mais de idade, residentes no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foram identificadas as interações medicamentosas potenciais entre os anti- hipertensivos com evidência estabelecida, provável ou suspeita e com gravidade moderada ou elevada. Foram entrevistados 577 idosos (média de idade = 72 anos, 45,2% dos quais em uso de anti-hipertensivos, sendo 31,0% deles sujeitos a interações medicamentosas potenciais. A maioria das interações foi moderadamente grave. Comparados aos demais, os sujeitos às interações medicamentosas potenciais têm chance acima de 4 vezes de usar 5 ou mais medicamentos e acima de duas vezes de ter sido hospitalizado no ano anterior. Entre os pares de interações mais frequentes, 75% produzem redução do efeito hipotensivo (65/87, o que pode resultar em baixa efetividade no controle da pressão arterial, prescrição de mais medicamentos e risco de outros efeitos adversos e de interações.

  18. Antitumor Activity of Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells during Direct or Indirect Co-Culturing with C6 Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabashvili, A N; Baklaushev, V P; Grinenko, N F; Mel'nikov, P A; Cherepanov, S A; Levinsky, A B; Chehonin, V P

    2016-02-01

    The tumor-suppressive effect of rat mesenchymal stem cells against low-differentiated rat C6 glioma cells during their direct and indirect co-culturing and during culturing of C6 glioma cells in the medium conditioned by mesenchymal stem cells was studied in an in vitro experiment. The most pronounced antitumor activity of mesenchymal stem cells was observed during direct co-culturing with C6 glioma cells. The number of live C6 glioma cells during indirect co-culturing and during culturing in conditioned medium was slightly higher than during direct co-culturing, but significantly differed from the control (C6 glioma cells cultured in medium conditioned by C6 glioma cells). The cytotoxic effect of medium conditioned by mesenchymal stem cells was not related to medium depletion by glioma cells during their growth. The medium conditioned by other "non-stem" cells (rat astrocytes and fibroblasts) produced no tumor-suppressive effect. Rat mesenchymal stem cells, similar to rat C6 glioma cells express connexin 43, the main astroglial gap junction protein. During co-culturing, mesenchymal stem cells and glioma C6 cells formed functionally active gap junctions. Gap junction blockade with connexon inhibitor carbenoxolone attenuated the antitumor effect observed during direct co-culturing of C6 glioma cells and mesenchymal stem cells to the level produced by conditioned medium. Cell-cell signaling mediated by gap junctions can be a mechanism of the tumor-suppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells against C6 glioma cells. This phenomenon can be used for the development of new methods of cell therapy for high-grade malignant gliomas.

  19. Calculos de potenciais de ionização de algumas bases e aza-analogas utilizando o metodo semi-empirico HAM/3

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Jair Vianna Cirino

    1994-01-01

    Resumo: Inicialmente procedeu-se a otimização de geometrias das bases purinas guanina, 8-azaguanjna, xantina, 8-azaxantina e hipoxantina com o uso dos métodos semi-empíricos MNDO, AMI e MNDO-PM3. Nesta etapa também fez-se uso de métodos ab initio utilizando o conjunto de base cep-31G. Os potenciais de ionização dos elétrons do caroço das bases purinas foram calculados posteriormente por meio do método semi-empírico HAM/3 empregando as geometrias otimizadas pelos métodos semi-empíricos na etap...

  20. Structural Stability and Electronic Properties of Na2C6O6 for a Rechargeable Sodium-ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Fujii, Akihiro; Momida, Hiroyoshi; Oguchi, Tamio

    2014-03-01

    Sodium-ion batteries have been explored as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries owing to a significant advantage of a natural abundance of sodium. Recently, it has been reported that disodium rhodizonate, Na2C6O6, exhibit good electrochemical properties and cycle performance as a minor-metal free organic cathode for sodium-ion batteries. However, its crystal structures during discharge/charge cycle still remain unclear. In this work, we theoretically propose feasible crystal structures of Na2+xC6O6 using first principles calculations. A structural phase transition has been found: Na4C6O6 has a different C6O6 packing arrangement from Na2C6O6. Electronic structures of Na2+xC6O6 during discharge/charge cycle are also discussed. Our predictions could be the key to understanding the discharge/charge process of Na2C6O6. Supported by MEXT program ``Elements Strategy Initiative to Form Core Rersearch Center'' (since 2012), MEXT; Ministry of Education Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  1. Quasi-bound alpha resonant states populated by the 12C(6Li, d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A.; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M.; Ukita, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster phenomenon in the light nuclei structure has been the subject of a long time investigation since the proposal of the Ikeda diagrams [1]. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of this phenomenon in (xα) and (xα+n) nuclei through the ( 6 Li, d) alpha transfer reaction [2-4]. Alpha resonant states around the (4α) threshold in the nucleus 16 O are the focus of the present contribution. In fact, the importance of these resonances at the elements production in stars is recognized, as primarily pointed out by Hoyle in 12 C [6]. The existence of a rotational band with the α + 12 C (Hoyle) cluster state structure was recently demonstrated by Ohkubo and Hirabayashi [6]. In order to explore this region of interest, measurements of the 12 C( 6 Li, d) 16 O reaction up to 17 MeV of excitation at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique (plates Fuji G6B, 50 μm thick). Spectra associated with six scattering angles, from 5 deg to 29 deg in the laboratory frame, each one 50 cm along the focal surface, were measured. Several narrow resonances with a quasi-bound behavior embedded in the continuum were detected and the resolution of 25 keV allowed for the separation of doublets not resolved before [7,8]. The absolute cross sections and the respective deuteron angular distributions were determined and the analysis is in progress. [1] K. Ikeda et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. E 68, 464 (1968); H. Horiuchi, K. Ikeda, and Y. Suzuki, ibid. 44, 225 (1978). [2] M.R.D.Rodrigues et al., in12th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanism, Varenna, Italy, edited by F. Cerutti and A. Ferrari , CERN Proceedings, 2010-2, pp. 331- 335. [3] T. Borello-Lewin et al., Proceedings of SOTANCP2, Brussels, Belgium 2010, edited by P. Descouvemount et al., Int. J. Mod. Mod. Phys E 20, 1018-1021 (2011). [4] T. Borello

  2. Human ClC-6 is a late endosomal glycoprotein that associates with detergent-resistant lipid domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie Ignoul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mammalian CLC protein family comprises nine members (ClC-1 to -7 and ClC-Ka, -Kb that function either as plasma membrane chloride channels or as intracellular chloride/proton antiporters, and that sustain a broad spectrum of cellular processes, such as membrane excitability, transepithelial transport, endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. In this study we focus on human ClC-6, which is structurally most related to the late endosomal/lysomal ClC-7. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a polyclonal affinity-purified antibody directed against a unique epitope in the ClC-6 COOH-terminal tail, we show that human ClC-6, when transfected in COS-1 cells, is N-glycosylated in a region that is evolutionary poorly conserved between mammalian CLC proteins and that is located between the predicted helices K and M. Three asparagine residues (N410, N422 and N432 have been defined by mutagenesis as acceptor sites for N-glycosylation, but only two of the three sites seem to be simultaneously N-glycosylated. In a differentiated human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y, endogenous ClC-6 colocalizes with LAMP-1, a late endosomal/lysosomal marker, but not with early/recycling endosomal markers such as EEA-1 and transferrin receptor. In contrast, when transiently expressed in COS-1 or HeLa cells, human ClC-6 mainly overlaps with markers for early/recycling endosomes (transferrin receptor, EEA-1, Rab5, Rab4 and not with late endosomal/lysosomal markers (LAMP-1, Rab7. Analogously, overexpression of human ClC-6 in SH-SY5Y cells also leads to an early/recycling endosomal localization of the exogenously expressed ClC-6 protein. Finally, in transiently transfected COS-1 cells, ClC-6 copurifies with detergent-resistant membrane fractions, suggesting its partitioning in lipid rafts. Mutating a juxtamembrane string of basic amino acids (amino acids 71-75: KKGRR disturbs the association with detergent-resistant membrane fractions and also affects the segregation of ClC-6

  3. Formation of M23C6-type precipitates and chromium-depleted zones in austenite stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kenji; Fukunaga, Tatsuya; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Nakada, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Masao; Saghi, Zineb; Barnard, Jon S.; Midgley, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Precipitate formation during the in situ annealing experiment at 650 o C. -- Formation of M 23 C 6 carbides and chromium-depleted zones in commercially available type 304L stainless steel were investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. It was found that each individual small M 23 C 6 carbide starts to grow with a clear orientation relationship with the matrix, and film-like carbide was subsequently observed at the interfaces with asymmetric Cr-depleted zones. From these experimental results, a model describing the precipitation of M 23 C 6 and the formation of the Cr-depleted zone was proposed.

  4. 3D organic Na4C6O6/graphene architecture for fast sodium storage with ultralong cycle life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianan; Gu, Yue; Yang, Shubin

    2017-11-23

    Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) have aroused increasing interest as one of the most promising replacements for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Here, a novel organic-inorganic 3D Na 4 C 6 O 6 -graphene architecture was successfully fabricated from commercial Na 2 C 6 O 6 and for the first time applied for sodium storage. Hence, the 3D Na 4 C 6 O 6 -graphene architecture exhibits a high reversible capacity, good cyclic performance and high-rate capability for sodium storage.

  5. Mutant breeding of Aspergillus niger irradiated by 12C6+ for hyper citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wei; Li Wenjian; Chen Jihong; Liu Jing; Wang Shuyang; Wang Jufang; Lu Dong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, strains of Aspergillus niger No.4 for hyper citric acid were irradiated to different doses by 80 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams. Seven mutant strains showed marked citric acid over-production records and faster productivity than initial Aspergillus niger No.4 by shaking flash fermentation. The maximum product yield was 132.8 gL -1 (the H4002 strain) being a 8.8% increase to the initial strain. The scale-up experiment was carried out in a 100 L bioreactor. The mutant H4002 can accumulate 187gL -1 product yield of citric acid from starch liquefying supernatant. The productivity of citric acid was 2.75 g L -1 h -1 . So, the mutant H4002 possesses rapid sugar katabolism for producing citric acid. Meanwhile, the pellet morphology kept compact and round during the whole submerged fermentation, which was suited to produce citric acid. The results indicate that mutant H4002 has potential ability to produce citric acid rapidly. (authors)

  6. Evaluation of the MODIS C6 Aerosol Optical Depth Products over Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangming Shi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 6 (C6 aerosol optical depth (AOD products from the 10/3 km Dark Target (DT and Deep Blue (DB algorithms are firstly evaluated using ground observed AODs by the sun photometer in Chongqing, a mountainous mega-city in southwest China. The validation results show that MODIS AODs from 10/3 km DT algorithm are comparable with those of the sun photometer, although there are slight overestimations. However, the DB algorithm substantially underestimates MODIS AODs when comparing with those of the sun photometer. Error analyses imply that the bias of surface reflectance estimation is the main error source for both algorithms. The cloud screening scheme of the DT algorithm is more effective than the DB algorithm. The cloud vicinity effect should be considered in the quality control processes for both of the algorithms. A sensitivity test suggests that in complex terrain area, like Chongqing, the collocation method in the validation of satellite products should be carefully selected according to local circumstances. When comparing the monthly mean AODs of MODIS products with sun photometer observations, it shows that the Terra MODIS AOD products are valid to represent the mean statuses in summer and autumn, but the monthly mean of Aqua MODIS AODs are limited in Chongqing.

  7. Analytical system for stable carbon isotope measurements of low molecular weight (C2-C6 hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present setup, testing and initial results from a new automated system for stable carbon isotope ratio measurements on C2 to C6 atmospheric hydrocarbons. The inlet system allows analysis of trace gases from air samples ranging from a few liters for urban samples and samples with high mixing ratios, to many tens of liters for samples from remote unpolluted regions with very low mixing ratios. The centerpiece of the sample preparation is the separation trap, which is used to separate CO2 and methane from the compounds of interest. The main features of the system are (i the capability to sample up to 300 l of air, (ii long term (since May 2009 operational δ13C accuracy levels in the range 0.3–0.8 ‰ (1-σ, and (iii detection limits of order 1.5–2.5 ngC (collected amount of substance for all reported compounds. The first application of this system was the analysis of 21 ambient air samples taken during 48 h in August 2009 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Results obtained are generally in good agreement with those from similar urban ambient air studies. Short sample intervals allowed by the design of the instrument help to illustrate the complex diurnal behavior of hydrocarbons in an urban environment, where diverse sources, dynamical processes, and chemical reactions are present.

  8. Kinetics of M23C6 carbide growth in Type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, G.; Norbury, J.

    1980-11-01

    A mathematical model has been developed which describes the kinetics of the reduction in the dissolved carbon concentration in austenitic steels due to the precipitation of M 23 C 6 . It is assumed that carbon and chromium diffuse simultaneously and independently to carbide nucleation sites, and that at the carbide/matrix interface (a) the ratio of the fluxes of carbon and chromium is constant, and (b) the elements are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Two types of nucleation site have been considered, (a) at grain boundaries and (b) as isolated particles throughout the grains. Since the diffusion coefficient of carbon is several orders of magnitude greater than that of chromium, the carbon is shown to respond relatively rapidly to concentration changes and this fact has facilitated the formulation of approximate solutions to the equations. It is shown that the rate controlling process is the diffusion of chromium to the carbide site. The resultant equations are compared with available published data on carbide precipitation. Good agreement is found between the models and experimental observations. (U.K.)

  9. Serum-dependent effects of tamoxifen and cannabinoids upon C6 glioma cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, S O; Rongård, E; Stridh, M; Tiger, G; Fowler, C J

    2000-12-15

    In the present study, the effects of the combination of tamoxifen ((Z)-2[p-(1,2-diphenyl-1-butenyl)phenoxy]-N,N-dimethylamine citrate) and three cannabinoids (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [Delta(9)-THC], cannabidiol, and anandamide [AEA]) upon the viability of C6 rat glioma cells was assessed at different incubation times and using different culturing concentrations of foetal bovine serum (FBS). Consistent with previous data for human glioblastoma cells, the tamoxifen sensitivity of the cells was increased as the FBS content of the culture medium was reduced from 10 to 0.4 and 0%. The cells expressed protein kinase C alpha and calmodulin (the concentration of which did not change significantly as the FBS concentration was reduced), but did not express estrogen receptors. Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol, but not AEA, produced a modest reduction in cell viability after 6 days of incubation in serum-free medium, whereas no effects were seen in 10% FBS-containing medium. There was no observed synergy between the effects of tamoxifen and the cannabinoids upon cell viability.

  10. Modeling the degradation mechanisms of C6/LiFePO4 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongjiang; Danilov, Dmitri L.; Zwikirsch, Barbara; Fichtner, Maximilian; Yang, Yong; Eichel, Rüdiger-A.; Notten, Peter H. L.

    2018-01-01

    A fundamental electrochemical model is developed, describing the capacity fade of C6/LiFePO4 batteries as a function of calendar time and cycling conditions. At moderate temperatures the capacity losses are mainly attributed to Li immobilization in Solid-Electrolyte-Interface (SEI) layers at the anode surface. The SEI formation model presumes the availability of an outer and inner SEI layers. Electron tunneling through the inner SEI layer is regarded as the rate-determining step. The model also includes high temperature degradation. At elevated temperatures, iron dissolution from the positive electrode and the subsequent metal sedimentation on the negative electrode influence the capacity loss. The SEI formation on the metal-covered graphite surface is faster than the conventional SEI formation. The model predicts that capacity fade during storage is lower than during cycling due to the generation of SEI cracks induced by the volumetric changes during (dis)charging. The model has been validated by cycling and calendar aging experiments and shows that the capacity loss during storage depends on the storage time, the State-of-Charge (SoC), and temperature. The capacity losses during cycling depend on the cycling current, cycling time, temperature and cycle number. All these dependencies can be explained by the single model presented in this paper.

  11. Comparative study of the catalytic activity of the complexes Cp*RuCl(PAr3)2 [Ar = -C6H5 and 4-CF3-C6H4] in the ATRP of styrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Hernandez, Alejandro M.; Rosales-Velazquez, Claudia P.; Torres-Lubian, Jose R.; Saldivar-Guerra, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Styrene polymerization by ATRP was conducted independently using the complexes Cp * RuCl(PPh 3 ) 2 , and Cp * RuCl[P(4-CF 3 -C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 2 as catalysts, in order to evaluate the influence of the electronic properties of the phosphine ligands on the rate and control of the polymerization. The kinetic data for polymerizations carried out with Cp * RuCl(PPh 3 ) 2 , show that molecular weights increase linearly with conversion with an average initiation efficiency of 0.77. The molecular weights obtained in the kinetic study with Cp * RuCl[P(4-CF 3 -C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 2 also increase with conversion but show a marked deviation below the theoretical molecular weights. This behavior was explained by the gradual, irreversible, oxidation of catalyst Cp * RuCl[P(4-CF 3 -C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 2 as confirmed by 31 P-NMR spectroscopy. Catalyst Cp * RuCl(PPh 3 ) 2 promotes the polymerization with a rate of polymerization higher than that obtained using Cp * RuCl[P(4-CF 3 -C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 2 ; this is consistent with the better electron donating properties of PPh 3 versus P(4-CF 3 -C 6 H 4 ) 3 . Preliminary studies of styrene polymerization by ATRP in supercritical CO 2 , shows that only catalyst Cp * RuCl[P(4-CF 3 -C 6 H 4 ) 3 ] 2 , with fluorinated ligands, was active. (author)

  12. Enteógenos e Inteligência Existencial: Plantas Mestres como Instrumentos Cognitivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Tupper

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.12957/periferia.2011.3946 A partir de recentes mudanças nas legislações em relação às drogasem diferentes países, investiguei o potencial dos enteógenos (i.e.,plantas psicoativas usadas como sacramentos espirituais comoinstrumentos para favorecer a inteligência existencial. PlantasMestres das Américas como a ayahuasca, os cogumelos depsilocibina, o peiote e o soma indo-ariano da Eurásia, são alguns dosexemplos de enteógenos que foram e continuam a ser utilizados, nopassado e no presente. Todas estas plantas foram reverenciadas porpessoas e culturas diferentes como instrumentos cognitivos quepromovem um mais rico entendimento cosmológico do mundo. Utilizoa teoria das múltiplas inteligências revisada por Gardner (1999 e suaformulação de uma inteligência “existencial” como uma lente teóricaatravés da qual se deve considerar as possibilidades cognitivas dosenteógenos e explorar potenciais caminhos na Educação.

  13. Detecção de potenciais marcadores moleculares séricos da doença de Hodgkin Detection of potential serum molecular markers for Hodgkin's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Costa Carvalho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available MOTIVAÇÃO: Neste trabalho foi analisado o perfil de proteínas séricas de pacientes com doença de Hodgkin (DH localizada e avançada em busca de novos e potenciais biomarcadores para o diagnóstico médico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O perfil de proteínas presentes no soro de 14 indivíduos saudáveis, 14 pacientes com DH avançada e 15 pacientes com DH localizada, assim como pools de soro dos respectivos grupos, foi analisado em gel desnaturante de poliacrilamida a 12% corado pela prata. A densitometria e a intensidade média das bandas de interesse foram estudadas utilizando-se o Kodak 1D Scientific Imaging System. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: O perfil protéico apresentou acentuada variação entre os pacientes examinados; entretanto foi observada a indução predominante de determinadas proteínas (aproximadamente 26kDa e 18kDa, cuja expressão foi substancialmente diferente quando em comparação com os controles (p AIM: In this work the serum protein profile of patients with localized and advanced Hodgkin's disease (HD was analyzed to search for new potential biomarkers of medical interest. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The serum protein profile of 14 healthy donors, 14 patients with advanced disease, 15 patients with localized disease and serum pools of the respective groups, were analyzed using silver stained 12% denaturating polyacrylamide gel. The densitometry and mean band intensity from the bands of interest were analyzed using the Kodak 1D Scientific Imaging System. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The patients' protein profiles presented heterogenous variations; however over-expressed proteins of approximately 26kDa and 18kDa were proven to be statistically different when compared to healthy donors. Such proteins could potentially constitute in molecular markers for diagnosis and patient treatment follow-up.

  14. Árvores geneticamente modificadas: técnicas, aplicações, riscos e os potenciais impactos associados a sua utilização Genetically modified trees: techniques, applications, risk and potential impacts associated with their use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlon Barbosa Valdetaro

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    As espécies florestais possuem grande importância, oferecendo diversos produtos madeireiros e não madeireiros fundamentais para a sociedade. Neste contexto, a busca de novas tecnologias capazes de promover incremento na produtividade das florestas comerciais tem merecido grande atenção, sendo que a biotecnologia tem contribuído substancialmente para isso. Este ramo da ciência pode promover a modificação direta do genoma de um organismo alvo, por meio da análise e manipulação do DNA ou pela inserção de fragmentos do mesmo com função conhecida e, deste modo, alcançar características previamente desejadas, tais como resistência a doenças e ataques de pragas, redução do teor de lignina na madeira e geração de plantas tolerantes a diferentes tipos de estresse. Esta revisão objetiva relatar técnicas para a geração de árvores geneticamente modificadas, aplicações da transformação genética em essências florestais, riscos do uso desta tecnologia e seus potenciais impactos ambientais.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.65.51

    Forest species have great economic and social importance, offering various products as wood and non-timber fundamental to society. In this context, the search for new technologies that promote increase in productivity of commercial forests has received special attention and biotechnology has contributed substantially to this. This branch of science can promote direct modification of the genome of a target organism, through the analysis and manipulation of DNA genome or by insertion of fragments of the same with known function and thus to achieve desired characteristics, such as resistance to diseases and pests, lignin reduction in wood and generation of plants tolerant to different kinds of stresses. This review aims at reporting techniques for the generation of genetically modified trees, applications of genetic transformation in forest species, risks of using this technology and its potential

  15. Chromosomal aberrations induced by 12C6+ ions and 6Co γ-rays in mouse immature oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong; Duan Xin; Yuan Zhigang; Li Wenjian; Zhou Guangming; Zhou Qingming; Bing Liu; Min Fengling; Li Xiaoda; Xie Yi

    2006-01-01

    The ovaries of Kun-Ming strain mice (3 weeks) were irradiated with different doses of 12 C 6+ ion or 6 Co γ-ray. Chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in metaphase II oocytes at 7 weeks after irradiation. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 12 C 6+ ion was calculated with respect to 6 Co γ-ray for the induction of chromosomal aberrations. The 12 C 6+ ion and 6 Co γ-ray dose-response relationships for chromosomal aberrations were plotted by linear quadratic models. The data showed that there was a dose-related increase in frequency of chromosomal aberrations in all the treated groups compared to controls. The RBE values for 12 C 6+ ions relative to 6 Co γ-rays were 2.49, 2.29, 1.57, 1.42 or 1.32 for the doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 or 6.0 Gy, respectively. Moreover, a different distribution of the various types of aberrations has been found for 12 C 6+ ion and 6 Co γ-ray irradiations. The dose-response relationships for 12 C 6+ ion and 6 Co γ-ray exhibited positive correlations. The results from the present study may be helpful for assessing genetic damage following exposure of immature oocytes to ionizing radiation

  16. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Pretreated Fibre Pressed Oil Palm Frond by using Sacchariseb C6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, F. S.; Yussof, H. W.; Zahari, M. A. K. M.; Rahman, R. A.; Illias, R. M.

    2017-06-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis becomes a prominent technology for conversion of cellulosic biomass to its glucose monomers that requires an action of cellulolytic enzymes in a sequential and synergistic manner. In this study, the effect of agitation speed, glucan loading, enzyme loading, temperature and reaction time on the production of glucose from fibre pressed oil palm frond (FPOPF) during enzymatic hydrolysis was screened by a half factorial design 25-1 using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The FPOPF sample was first delignified by alkaline pretreatment at 4.42 (w/v) sodium hydroxide for an hour prior to enzymatic hydrolysis using commercial cellulase enzyme, Sacchariseb C6. The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the structural of FPOPF has been evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. Characterization of raw FPOPF comprised of 4.5 extractives, 40.7 glucan, 26.1 xylan, 26.2 lignin and 1.8 ash, whereas for pretreated FPOPF gave 0.3 extractives, 61.4 glucan, 20.4 xylan, 13.3 lignin and 1.3 ash. From this study, it was found that the best enzymatic hydrolysis condition yielded 33.01 ± 0.73 g/L of glucose when performed at 200 rpm of agitation speed, 60 FPU/mL of enzyme loading, 4 (w/w) of glucan loading, temperature at 55 □ and 72 hours of reaction time. The model obtained was significant with p-value enzymatic hydrolysis from pretreated FPOPF produce high amount of glucose that enhances it potential for industrial application. This glucose can be further used to produce high-value products.

  17. Prevalência de potenciais interações medicamentosas droga-droga em unidades de terapia intensiva Potential drug interactions prevalence in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean André Hammes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Interações medicamentosas ocorrem quando os efeitos e/ou a toxicidade de um fármaco são alterados pela presença de outro. São geralmente imprevistas e indesejáveis. Realizado estudo com objetivo de verificar a prevalência e o valor clínico das interações medicamentosas potenciais em unidades de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Incluídos todos pacientes de três unidades de terapia intensiva em um período de 2 meses, analisados transversalmente. Foram excluídos aqueles com tempo de permanência menor que 2 dias. Os dados foram tabulados de acordo com as combinações de fármacos observadas no período de 24 horas. A presença e o valor clínico das interações medicamentosas potenciais foram conferidos ao final do seguimento. RESULTADOS: Analisados 140 pacientes, 67,1% apresentaram alguma interações medicamentosas potenciais significativa e das 1069 prescrições, 39,2% tiveram este achado. De 188 interações medicamentosas potenciais diferentes, 29 foram consideradas altamente significativas. Por análise univariada, observou-se no grupo que apresentou interação significativa maior quantidade de medicamentos, fármacos/dia, número de médicos prescritores e tempo de internação na unidade de teapia intensiva. Por modelo de regressão logística multivariada, apenas o número de fármacos/dia correlacionou-se com o aumento do risco de interação medicamentosa potencial significativa (p = 0.0011; o uso de mais que 6 medicamentos/dia aumenta em 9.8 vezes este risco. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes em unidades de terapia intensiva estão submetidos a alto risco de interações medicamentosas potenciais e o número de fármacos/dia é condição com alto valor preditivo positivo para tal. Os intensivistas devem ser alertados para o reconhecimento do problema e criados mecanismos para o manejo adequado e prudente, diminuindo iatrogenias.OBJECTIVES: Drug interactions occur when effects and/or toxicity of a drug are affected by

  18. Antitenascin antibody 81C6 armed with {sup 177}Lu: in vivo comparison of macrocyclic and acyclic ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yordanov, Alexander T. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Hens, Marc [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Pegram, Charles [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Bigner, Darell D. [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710 (United States)]. E-mail: zalut001@mc.duke.edu

    2007-02-15

    Introduction: When labeled with iodine-131, the antitenascin monoclonal antibody (mAb) 81C6 has shown promise as a targeted radiotherapeutic in patients with brain tumors. Because of its more favorable {gamma}-ray properties, lutetium-177 might be a better low-energy {beta}-emitter for this type of therapy. Materials and Methods: Chimeric 81C6 (ch81C6) was labeled with {sup 177}Lu using the acyclic 1B4M ligand and the macrocyclic ligands NHS-DOTA and MeO-DOTA and evaluated for binding to tenascin. Three paired-label tissue distribution experiments were performed in normal mice receiving one of the {sup 177}Lu-labeled immunoconjugates plus {sup 125}I-labeled ch81C6 labeled using Iodogen. Paired-label experiments in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous D54 MG human glioma xenografts were done to directly compare the biodistribution of ch81C6-1B4M-{sup 177}Lu and {sup 125}I-labeled ch81C6, and ch81C6-MeO-DOTA-{sup 177}Lu and {sup 125}I-labeled ch81C6. Similar comparisons were done using murine (mu) instead of ch81C6. The primary parameter utilized for evaluation was the {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I uptake ratio in each tissue. Results: In the studies performed in normal mice, the NHS-DOTA ligand yielded the highest {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I uptake ratios in tissues indicative of loss of label from the chelate; for this reason, only 1B4M and MeO-DOTA were evaluated further. The {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I ratio in bone increased gradually with time for the chimeric conjugates; however, there were no significant differences between ch81C6-1B4M-DTPA-{sup 177}Lu and ch81C6-MeO-DOTA-{sup 177}Lu. In contrast, mu81C6-1B4M-DTPA-{sup 177}Lu and mu81C6-MeO-DOTA-{sup 177}Lu showed a more dramatic increase in the {sup 177}Lu/{sup 125}I ratio in bone - from 2.4{+-}0.3 and 1.7{+-}0.2 at Day 1 to 8.5{+-}1.1 and 4.2{+-}0.5 at Day 7, respectively. Conclusion: With these antitenascin constructs, the nature of the mAb had a profound influence on the relative degree of loss of {sup 177}Lu from these

  19. Identificação das áreas potenciais de produção de sedimentos com o modelo AGNPS e técnicas de SIG em uma microbacia hidrográfica Identification of the potential areas of sediment production with the AGNPS model and GIS techniques in a micro-basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Rausch Souto

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O planejamento de uso do solo em bacias hidrográficas deveria ter, como base, a identificação de áreas agrícolas suscetíveis aos processos erosivos, visto que a avaliação de sistemas integrados de manejo de solo e culturas em microbacias é campo ideal para esta investigação, uma vez que a qualidade final das águas dos rios é o reflexo das atividades ali desenvolvidas. Objetivou-se determinar áreas potenciais de poluição não pontual e avaliar práticas conservacionistas de solo, empregando-se o modelo matemático AGNPS, associado a técnicas de SIG. O estudo foi conduzido na microbacia hidrográfica córrego Água Grande e Ribeirão Pensamento, no município de Mamborê, PR, sobre as reais condições de produção agrícola. A estimativa da produção de sedimentos foi realizada através de simulações para diferentes cenários de uso do solo, referindo-se a distintos eventos de precipitação em uma seqüência de quatro anos agrícolas. Foram identificadas as causas de produção de sedimentos e as áreas potenciais, verificando-se que a modificação das técnicas de cultivo reduziu a produção de sedimentos.Planning soil use in watersheds should be supported by the identification of agricultural areas susceptible to erosion. The evaluation of integrated systems of soil and crop management is a proper subject for this investigation since the final water quality of rivers is a reflection of the activities developed in the micro-basin. The objective of this study was to determine potential sources of nonpoint pollution and to evaluate soil conservation practices through the AGNPS model associated with GIS techniques. The study location was the Água Grande and Pensamento micro-basin in Mamborê, Paraná State, under real agricultural production. The sediment production estimation was accomplished through simulations for different scenarios of soil use and different precipitation events in a sequence of four agricultural years

  20. Abordagens comparativas de ciclos e de potenciais da termodinâmica: escolha racional ou pragmática?

    OpenAIRE

    Jojomar Lucena da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Talvez mais que a própria Mecânica, a Termodinâmica possui em seu interior uma grande diversidade de teorias, que se distinguem por motivos vários. Um modo de identificá-las é analisar como se organizam, reflexo da metodologia empregada ao construí-las. Em particular, a organização que Carnot, Thomson e Clausius conferiram à ciência do calor é do tipo sintética, baseada no poder heurístico de ciclos termodinâmicos. Por isso, tal formalismo é chamado de termodinâmica de ciclos. Por outro lado,...

  1. NESS038C6, a novel selective CB1 antagonist agent with anti-obesity activity and improved molecular profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastinu, Andrea; Pira, Marilena; Pani, Luca; Pinna, Gérard Aimè; Lazzari, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    The present work aims to study the effects induced by a chronic treatment with a novel CB1 antagonist (NESS038C6) in C57BL/6N diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Mice treated with NESS038C6 and fed with a fat diet (NESS038C6 FD) were compared with the following three reference experimental groups: DIO mice fed with the same fat diet used for NESS038C6 and treated with vehicle or the reference CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant, "VH FD" and "SR141716 FD", respectively; DIO mice treated with vehicle and switched to a normal diet (VH ND). NESS038C6 chronic treatment (30 mg/kg/day for 31 days) determined a significant reduction in DIO mice weight relative to that of VH FD. The entity of the effect was comparable to that detected in both SR141716 FD and VH ND groups. Moreover, if compared to VH FD, NESS038C6 FD evidenced: (i) improvement of cardiovascular risk factors; (ii) significant decrease in adipose tissue leptin expression; (iii) increase in mRNA expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides and a decrease of anorexigenic peptides; (iv) expression increase of metabolic enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in the liver; (v) normalization of monoaminergic transporters and neurotrophic expression in mesolimbic area. However, in contrast to the case of rimonabant, the novel CB1 antagonist improved the disrupted expression profile of genes linked to the hunger-satiety circuit, without altering monoaminergic transmission. In conclusion, the novel CB1 antagonist compound NESS038C6 may represent a useful candidate agent for the treatment of obesity and its metabolic complications, without or with reduced side effects relative to those instead observed with rimonabant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the C6 Lyme Enzyme Immunoassay for the Diagnosis of Lyme Disease in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsett, Susan C; Branda, John A; McAdam, Alexander J; Vernacchio, Louis; Gordon, Caroline D; Gordon, Catherine R; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2016-10-01

    The commercially-available C6 Lyme enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has been approved to replace the standard whole-cell sonicate EIA as a first-tier test for the diagnosis of Lyme disease and has been suggested as a stand-alone diagnostic. However, the C6 EIA has not been extensively studied in pediatric patients undergoing evaluation for Lyme disease. We collected discarded serum samples from children and adolescents (aged ≤21 years) undergoing conventional 2-tiered testing for Lyme disease at a single hospital-based clinical laboratory located in an area endemic for Lyme disease. We performed a C6 EIA on all collected specimens, followed by a supplemental immunoblot if the C6 EIA result was positive but the whole-cell sonicate EIA result was negative. We defined a case of Lyme disease as either a clinician-diagnosed erythema migrans lesion or a positive standard 2-tiered serologic result in a patient with symptoms compatible with Lyme disease. We then compared the performance of the C6 EIA alone and as a first-tier test followed by immunoblot, with that of standard 2-tiered serology for the diagnosis of Lyme disease. Of the 944 specimens collected, 114 (12%) were from patients with Lyme disease. The C6 EIA alone had sensitivity similar to that of standard 2-tiered testing (79.8% vs 81.6% for standard 2-tiered testing; P = .71) with slightly lower specificity (94.2% vs 98.8% 2; P Lyme disease, the C6 EIA could guide initial clinical decision making, although a supplemental immunoblot should still be performed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Mode of action of pectin lyase A of Aspergillus niger on differently C(6)-substituted oligogalacturonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Alebeek, Gert-Jan W M; Christensen, Tove M I E; Schols, Henk A; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Voragen, Alphons G J

    2002-07-19

    A thorough investigation of the mode of action of Aspergillus niger (4M-147) pectin lyase A (PLA) on differently C(6)-substituted oligogalacturonides is described. PLA appeared to be very specific for fully methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides: removal of the methyl-ester or changing the type of ester (ethyl esterification) or transamidation resulted in (almost) complete loss of conversion. The PLA activity increased with increasing length of the substrate up to a degree of polymerization (DP) of 8 indicating the presence of at least eight subsites on the enzyme. Product analysis demonstrated the formation of several Delta 4,5 unsaturated products and their saturated counterparts. The Delta 4,5 unsaturated trimer was the main product up to DP 8. For DP 9 and 10 Delta 4,5 unsaturated tetramer was the major product. Based upon the bond cleavage frequencies, a provisional subsite map was calculated, which supports the presence of eight subsites. By limited alkaline de-esterification of fully methyl-esterified pentamer and hexamer two sets of partially methyl-esterified pentamers (x and y methyl groups) and hexamers (a and b methyl groups) were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis demonstrated that the methyl-ester distribution was fully random. Using these partially methyl-esterified oligogalacturonides as substrates for PLA a 10-fold decrease in reaction rate was recorded compared with the fully methyl-esterified counterparts. Analysis of the methyl-ester distribution of the products showed that PLA tolerates carboxyl groups in the substrate binding cleft. At either subsite +2, +4, or -1 to -4 a free carboxyl group could be tolerated, whereas methyl-esters were obligatory at subsite +1 and +3. So PLA is capable to cleave the bond between a methyl-esterified and a non-esterified galacturonic acid residue, where the newly formed Delta 4,5 unsaturated non-reducing end residue always contains a

  4. Bioprospecção dos potenciais farmacológicos do monoterpeno 7-hidroxicitronelal: Ensaios in silico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Antônio Bezerra da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais de plantas, bem como os compostos derivados destes óleos como os terpenos, têm atraído cada vez mais interesse por causa das suas propriedades antioxidantes. O 7-hidroxicitronelal é um monoterpeno derivado do citronelal, apresentando fórmula molecular C10H20O2. Objetivou-se avaliar as atividades farmacológicas in silico do monoterpeno, entre elas a atividade antioxidante. Para isso, utilizou-se as técnicas in silico através do programa: PASS® online, para avaliação das propriedades farmacológicas teóricas da substância. Os resultados mostraram amplo espectro de atividades farmacológicas in silico, entre elas efeito antioxidante. Assim conclui-se que o monoterpeno é portador de atividade antioxidante teórica in silico. Contudo mais estudos in vitro e em organismos vivos devem ser realizados para corroborar essas atividades.

  5. Densities, viscosities, and refractive indexes for {C2H5CO2(CH2)2CH3+C6H13OH+C6H6} at T=308.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, Herminio; Garcia-Garabal, Sandra; Segade, Luisa; Cabeza, Oscar.; Franjo, Carlos; Jimenez, Eulogio

    2003-01-01

    In this work we present densities, kinematic viscosities, and refractive indexes of the ternary system {C 2 H 5 CO 2 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 +C 6 H 13 OH+C 6 H 6 } and the corresponding binary mixtures {C 2 H 5 CO 2 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 +C 6 H 6 }, {C 2 H 5 CO 2 (CH 2 ) 2 CH 3 +C 6 H 13 OH}, and {C 6 H 13 OH+C 6 H 6 }. All data have been measured at T=308.15 K and atmospheric pressure over the whole composition range. The excess molar volumes, dynamic viscosity deviations, and changes of the refractive index on mixing were calculated from experimental measurements. The results for binary mixtures were fitted to a polynomial relationship to estimate the coefficients and standard deviations. The Cibulka equation has been used to correlate the experimental values of ternary mixtures. Also, the experimental values obtained for the ternary mixture were used to test the empirical methods of Kohler, Jacob and Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao and Smith, Toop, Scatchard et al., and Hillert. These methods predict excess properties of the ternary mixtures from those of the involved binary mixtures. The results obtained for dynamic viscosities of the binary mixtures were used to test the semi-empirical relations of Grunberg-Nissan, McAllister, Auslaender, and Teja-Rice. Finally, the experimental refractive indexes were compared with the predicted results for the Lorentz-Lorenz, Gladstone-Dale, Wiener, Heller, and Arago-Biot equations. In all cases, we give the standard deviation between the experimental data and that calculated with the above named relations

  6. Potenciais miogênicos evocados vestibulares: metodologias de registro em homens e cobaias Vestibular evoked myogenic potential: recording methods in humans and guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cabral de Oliveira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O potencial miogênico evocado vestibular (VEMP é um teste clínico que avalia a função vestibular através de um reflexo vestíbulo-cervical inibitório captado nos músculos do corpo em resposta à estimulação acústica de alta intensidade. OBJETIVO: Verificar e analisar os diversos métodos de registro dos potenciais miogênicos evocados vestibulares no homem e em cobaias. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Realizou-se busca eletrônica nas bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO e COCHRANE. RESULTADOS: Foram verificadas divergências quanto às formas de registro dos potenciais miogênicos evocados vestibulares, relacionadas com os seguintes fatores: posição do paciente no momento do registro, tipo de estímulo sonoro utilizado (clicks ou tone bursts, parâmetros para a promediação dos estímulos (intensidade, freqüência, tempo de apresentação, filtros, ganho de amplificação das respostas e janelas para captação dos estímulos, tipo de fone utilizado e forma de apresentação dos estímulos (monoaural ou binaural, ipsi ou contralateral. CONCLUSÃO: Não existe consenso na literatura quanto ao melhor método de registro dos potenciais evocados miogênicos vestibulares, havendo necessidade de pesquisas mais específicas para comparação entre estes registros e a definição de um modelo padrão para a utilização na prática clínica.The vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP is a clinical test that assess the vestibular function by means of an inhibitory vestibulo-neck reflex, recorded in body muscles in response to high intensity acoustic stimuli. AIM: To check and analyze the different methods used to record VEMPs in humans and in guinea pigs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We researched the following databases: MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and COCHRANE. RESULTS: we noticed discrepancies in relation to the ways used to record the vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in relation to the following factors: patient position at the time of recording

  7. The change of p16 gene expression in glioma cell line C6 after radiation with gamma knife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xingli; Zhao Conghai; Tian Yu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: T observe the change of expression of p16 gene product, P16 protein, after treated by gamma knife on glioma cell line C6. Methods: Glioma C6 cells proliferated in vitro, treated by γ-knife in dose of 5.00 and 6.22 Gy, respectively. P16 protein was detected by immunohistochemical technique and image analysis. Results: The P16 protein in glioma C6 cells was notably increased after treatment with γ knife (P < 0.01). The grey number in C6 group (control group) was 167.1 +- 6.2 and was 155.4 +- 2.0 and 124.9 +- 7.1, respectively, in 5.00 Gy and 6.22 Gy gamma knife treated group. Conclusion: It is suggests that one of the mechanisms of glioma cell C6 apoptosis induced by γ-knife radiation may be associated with activation of p16 gene and increase of P16 protein expression

  8. Analysis of the Aedes albopictus C6/36 genome provides insight into cell line utility for viral propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason R; Koren, Sergey; Dilley, Kari A; Puri, Vinita; Brown, David M; Harkins, Derek M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Rosen, Benjamin; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Tu, Zhijian; Sharakhov, Igor V; Sharakhova, Maria V; Sebra, Robert; Stockwell, Timothy B; Bergman, Nicholas H; Sutton, Granger G; Phillippy, Adam M; Piermarini, Peter M; Shabman, Reed S

    2018-03-01

    The 50-year-old Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line is a resource for the detection, amplification, and analysis of mosquito-borne viruses including Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. The cell line is derived from an unknown number of larvae from an unspecified strain of Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Toward improved utility of the cell line for research in virus transmission, we present an annotated assembly of the C6/36 genome. The C6/36 genome assembly has the largest contig N50 (3.3 Mbp) of any mosquito assembly, presents the sequences of both haplotypes for most of the diploid genome, reveals independent null mutations in both alleles of the Dicer locus, and indicates a male-specific genome. Gene annotation was computed with publicly available mosquito transcript sequences. Gene expression data from cell line RNA sequence identified enrichment of growth-related pathways and conspicuous deficiency in aquaporins and inward rectifier K+ channels. As a test of utility, RNA sequence data from Zika-infected cells were mapped to the C6/36 genome and transcriptome assemblies. Host subtraction reduced the data set by 89%, enabling faster characterization of nonhost reads. The C6/36 genome sequence and annotation should enable additional uses of the cell line to study arbovirus vector interactions and interventions aimed at restricting the spread of human disease.

  9. THE DISTRIBUTION OF COMMERCIAL CROWN ETHER DC18C6 AND THE EXTRACTION STUDY OF ALKALI AND EARTH ALKALI METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rusdiarso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of A and B isomers of crown-ether DC18C6 on their organic and water phases (chloride, nitrate and sulphocyanide salts and extraction of alkali and earth alkali metals has been studied. In LiCl 0.1 M environment, lithium extraction could be ignored. The presence of extracted potassium metal may affect the crown ether DC18C6 distribution albeit only a little. In KNO3 0.1 M environment, the distribution coefficient values (d were 6.1 and 10.3 for A and B isomers, respectively ; while in KCl  0.1 M environment the values were 4.9 and 11.8, respectively. In KSCN 0.1 M, d values for A and B isomers were 40.4 and 36.6, respectively, which were higher than the value obtained from both KNO3 and KCl  0.1 M environments. Caesium metal extraction using DC18C6 occurred weakly, up to only 5%. Strontium extraction using DC18C6 achieved better yield than the caesium extraction. The percentage of extraction increased under organic solvent according to the following: toluene (4% < chloroform (28% < TBP (35%.   Keywords: distribution, crown-ether DC18C6, extraction.

  10. Comportamento de sementes de feijão sob diferentes potenciais osmóticos Bean seed performance under different osmotic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Antonio Freitas de Moraes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A hidratação é o fator externo mais importante na germinação de sementes. Para simular as condições complexas do solo, soluções com diferentes potenciais osmóticos têm sido usadas para umedecer os substratos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estresse hídrico e salino sobre a germinação e o vigor de sementes de feijão. Sementes da cultivar IAPAR 44 foram colocadas a germinar em papel-toalha embebido em soluções de polietileno glicol (PEG 6000 e cloreto de sódio (NaCl nos potenciais osmóticos zero; -0,05; -0,10; -0,15; -0,20; -0,25 e -0,30 MPa. O desempenho das sementes foi avaliado por meio do teste de germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, comprimento e matéria seca de plântulas. Concluiu-se que a redução do potencial osmótico, induzido por PEG 6000 ou NaCl, reduz o vigor e, a partir de -0,20 MPa, reduz a germinação de sementes de feijão. O PEG 6000 produz efeitos adversos mais drásticos do que o NaCl na qualidade fisiológica das sementes.Hydration is the most important external factor for seed germination. To simulate the complex soil conditions solutions with different osmotic potentials have been used to soak substrata. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effects of hydric and saline stress to germination and strength of bean seeds. Seeds of the cultivar IAPAR were germinated in towel-paper soaked in PEG 6000 and NaCl solutions in the zero osmotic potentials; -0.05; -0.10; -0.15; -0.20; -0.25 and 0.30 MPa. Seed performance was evaluated through the germination test, first count of germination, length, and dry seedling weight. In conclusion, osmotic potential reduction, induced by Polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000 or Sodium chlorine (NaCl, reduces the strength and, from -0.20 to -0.30 MPa, the germination of bean seeds. The PEG 6000 produces more severe and adverse effects than the NaCl in the physiologic quality of been seeds.

  11. Protocolo para captação dos potenciais evocados auditivos de longa latência Protocol to collect late latency auditory evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzia Maria Pozzobom Ventura

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os potenciais evocados auditivos de longa latência (PEALLs se referem a uma série de mudanças elétricas, ocorridas no sistema nervoso central, resultante da estimulação da via sensorial auditiva. Muitos estudos abordam o uso destes potenciais, controlando o artefato gerado pelo movimento ocular com a utilização de equipamentos com grande número de canais. Porém, na prática clínica nacional, a realidade é diferente, havendo disponibilidade de equipamentos com número reduzido de canais. OBJETIVO: Comparar dois métodos de controle do artefato gerado pelo movimento ocular durante a captação dos PEALLs usando dois canais de registro. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo pela aplicação de dois métodos de captação dos PEALLs (subtração do artefato ocular e controle do limite de rejeição em 10 adultos ouvintes normais. RESULTADOS: Não foi observada diferença estatisticamente significante entre os valores de latência obtidos com o uso dos dois métodos, apenas entre os valores de amplitude. CONCLUSÃO: Os dois métodos foram eficientes para a captação dos PEALLs e para o controle do artefato do movimento ocular. O método do controle do limite de rejeição promoveu maiores valores de amplitude.Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP represents a number of electrical changes occurring in the central nervous system, resulting from stimulation of the auditory sensorial pathways. Many studies approach the use of these potentials controlling the artifact created by eye movement with the use of equipment with a large number of channels. However, what happens is very different in Brazilian clinical practice, where the equipment used has a very limited number of channels. AIM: to compare the two methods used to control the artifacts created by eye movements during LLAEP capture using two recording channels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: this is a prospective study with the application of two LLAEP capturing methods (eye artifact

  12. Hoy como ayer

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez M.

    2010-01-01

    Leyendo el artículo titulado “Los medicamentos baratos” de la revista La Farmacia Española, publicada en Madrid el jueves 21 de diciembre de 1893, uno se pregunta cómo puede ser que se reconozca la situación como si fuera de ahora mismo, cómo puede ser que estemos igual que hace más de cien años. Entonces eran los descuentos que se empezaban a extender en las farmacias, francesas sobre todo, y que amenazaban el prestigio profesional de todo el colectivo. Con frases como éstas se define la sit...

  13. La razonabilidad como virtud

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Oliveira, Luis Humberto

    2008-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada Esta tesis doctoral explora la idea de que la razonabilidad es una virtud fundamental para que las sociedades plurales puedan convertirse en, o mantenerse como, un sistema de cooperación donde la justicia sea posible. La hipótesis central es que la razonabilidad como virtud es una manera de ser tolerante de forma solidaria, es entender al conciudadano, escucharlo, saber que juntos acordaron las reglas de cooperación y ac...

  14. A informação e o conhecimento como insumo ao processo de desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Guimarães Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As mudanças estruturais e conjunturais, das últimas décadas do século XX, trouxeram um novo paradigma econômico, social e tecnológico, onde a informação, o conhecimento e as tecnologias da informação e da comunicação (TIC surgem como elementos potenciais de transformação, interferindo em diferentes aspectos da vida social, econômica, educacional, cultural, política e do cotidiano do cidadão. O surgimento da Sociedade da Informação e do Conhecimento, como sucessora da Sociedade Industrial, reforçou a importância e a necessidade da informação e do conhecimento em todos os aspectos da realidade atual, constituindo-se num dos principais insumos do processo de desenvolvimento de uma nação, de uma organização e de um povo. Essa nova sociedade revela-se como paradigma norteador no cenário da crise econômica mundial, demonstrando as tendências das relações entre as nações.

  15. Cyclisation versus 1,1-Carboboration: Reactions of B(C6F5)3 with Propargyl Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melen, Rebecca L; Hansmann, Max M; Lough, Alan J; Hashmi, A Stephen K; Stephan, Douglas W

    2013-09-02

    A series of propargyl amides were prepared and their reactions with the Lewis acidic compound B(C6F5)3 were investigated. These reactions were shown to afford novel heterocycles under mild conditions. The reaction of a variety of N-substituted propargyl amides with B(C6F5)3 led to an intramolecular oxo-boration cyclisation reaction, which afforded the 5-alkylidene-4,5-dihydrooxazolium borate species. Secondary propargyl amides gave oxazoles in B(C6F5)3 mediated (catalytic) cyclisation reactions. In the special case of disubstitution adjacent to the nitrogen atom, 1,1-carboboration is favoured as a result of the increased steric hindrance (1,3-allylic strain) in the 5-alkylidene-4,5-dihydrooxazolium borate species. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência é um teste objetivo promissor na audiologia na pesquisa neuro-diagnóstica das disfunções do sistema auditivo. Tem como vantagens a precisão e objetividade na avaliação e por isso é útil em crianças. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em dois pacientes com distúrbio de processamento auditivo e relacionar as medidas objetivas e comportamentais. Para tanto foi realizado estudo de caso de dois pacientes (P1= feminino, 12 anos; P2= masculino, 17 anos, ambos com ausência de alterações sensoriais, distúrbios neurológicos, neuropsiquiátricos. Ambos foram submetidos à anamnese, inspeção do meato acústico externo, avaliação audiológica e avaliação do exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência. Houve associação significante entre os resultados dos exames comportamentais e objetivos. Na anamnese, houve queixas referentes à dificuldade de escuta em ambiente ruidoso, localização sonora, desatenção, além de trocas fonológicas na escrita e na fala. Foram observadas alterações no processo de decodificação auditiva à direita em ambos os casos na avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo e no exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência a resposta da via contralateral direita foi deficitária, confirmando as dificuldades dos pacientes estudados na atribuição de significado às informações acústicas em condição de competição sonora à direita nos dois casos. Para os casos estudados comprovou-se à associação entre os resultados, porém há necessidade de novos estudos com maior amostra para confirmação dos dados.The Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response is one of the most promising objective tests in audiology and in revealing brain dysfunction and neuro-audiologic findings. The main advantages of its clinical use are precision and objectivity in evaluating children

  17. Relação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e distúrbio de processamento auditivo: estudo de casos Relationship between auditory evoked potentials and middle latency auditory processing disorder: cases study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Leite Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência é um teste objetivo promissor na audiologia na pesquisa neuro-diagnóstica das disfunções do sistema auditivo. Tem como vantagens a precisão e objetividade na avaliação e por isso é útil em crianças. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar os potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência em dois pacientes com distúrbio de processamento auditivo e relacionar as medidas objetivas e comportamentais. Para tanto foi realizado estudo de caso de dois pacientes (P1= feminino, 12 anos; P2= masculino, 17 anos, ambos com ausência de alterações sensoriais, distúrbios neurológicos, neuropsiquiátricos. Ambos foram submetidos à anamnese, inspeção do meato acústico externo, avaliação audiológica e avaliação do exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência. Houve associação significante entre os resultados dos exames comportamentais e objetivos. Na anamnese, houve queixas referentes à dificuldade de escuta em ambiente ruidoso, localização sonora, desatenção, além de trocas fonológicas na escrita e na fala. Foram observadas alterações no processo de decodificação auditiva à direita em ambos os casos na avaliação comportamental do processamento auditivo e no exame de potencial evocado auditivo de média latência a resposta da via contralateral direita foi deficitária, confirmando as dificuldades dos pacientes estudados na atribuição de significado às informações acústicas em condição de competição sonora à direita nos dois casos. Para os casos estudados comprovou-se à associação entre os resultados, porém há necessidade de novos estudos com maior amostra para confirmação dos dados.The Auditory Evoked Middle Latency Response is one of the most promising objective tests in audiology and in revealing brain dysfunction and neuro-audiologic findings. The main advantages of its clinical use are precision and objectivity in evaluating children

  18. Cúrcuma: planta medicinal, condimentar e de outros usos potenciais Curcuma: medicinal, spice and of other potential use plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Bernardes Cecilio Filho

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A cúrcuma (Curcuma longa L., espécie originária do sudeste asiático, é considerada uma preciosa especiaria. Com a proibição do uso de pigmentos sintéticos nos principais países da América do Norte e Europa, têm sido procuradas alternativas naturais. A cúrcuma, além de sua principal utilização como condimento, possui substâncias antioxidantes, antimicrobianas e corantes (curcumina que lhe conferem possibilidade de emprego nas áreas de cosméticos, têxtil, medicinal e alimentício. Até o presente momento, poucos estudos foram realizados com a cúrcuma no Brasil, fato que determina baixa produtividade. Entretanto, recentes resultados de pesquisa mostram a possibilidade de obtenção de produtividades semelhantes às de seu país de origem, ainda que maiores estudos sejam necessários para definição de estande, adubação e outras práticas culturais. Os objetivos do presente trabalho são apresentar a versatilidade mercadológica da cúrcuma, caracterizar a espécie quanto a aspectos botânicos, nutricionais e químicos, bem como reunir e discutir informações técnicas para melhoria da produtividade e qualidade dos rizomas.The turmeric (Curcuma longa L., original species of the Asian Southeast, is considered a precious spice. With the prohibition of the use of synthetic pigments in the main countries of North America and Europe, it has natural alternatives have been sought. The turmeric, besides its main use as condiment, has anti-oxidant, anti-microbial and dye (curcumin substances that can be used in the cosmetic, textile, medicinal and food areas. Until the present moment, few studies were accomplished with the turmeric in Brazil, fact this that determines low yield. However, recent research results show the possibility of obtaining of yields similar to the one of its origin country, although larger studies are necessary for stand definition, fertilizer and other cultural practices. The objectives of the present work are

  19. Effect of fluoxetine and adenosine receptor NECA agonist on G alpha q/11 protein of C6 glioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářů, H.; Kovářů, F.; Lisá, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2012), s. 614-618 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : C6 glioma cells * SSRI antidepressant * G alpha q/11 signalling * G protein coupled receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2012

  20. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-6 - Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of a remainder interest in property... § 1.642(c)-6 Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund. (a) In... transferred property on the valuation date. The fact that the income beneficiary may not receive the last...

  1. Monitoring in real time the effect of TLX overexpression on proliferation and migration of C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G L; Fang, S H; Xu, B

    2017-01-01

    Orphan nuclear receptor TLX has been shown to play an essential role in regulating the self-renewal and proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs). However, TLX overexpression in NSCs induces long-term NSC expansion and further leads to glioma initiation in mouse when combined with p53 mutations. Whether overexpression of TLX plays a role in glioma stem cell (GSC) proliferation and migration still remains largely unknown. In this study, we infected C6 cells, a special glioma cell line which is mainly composed of cancer stem cells(CSCs), with lentiviruses expressing GFP(LV-GFP) or GFP-T2A-TLX(LV-TLX) and then monitored cell proliferation and migration using the real-time analyzer system (RTCA, xCELLigence, Roche). We found that the cell index (CI) observed for the TLX overexpressing C6 cells showed a lower value than that of the LV-GFP transduced cells. And the MTT results correlated highly with the RTCA proliferation assessments. Furthermore, the expression of p21 was decreased while other downstream genes PTEN and p53 were not significantly changed in TLX overexpressing C6 cells . These findings strongly indicate that TLX overexpression has the ability to decrease the proliferating and migratory properties of C6 cells by targeting p21. Further, our results suggest that TLX overexpression may also have a similar inhibitory effect on GSC proliferation and migration.

  2. Insulation Strength and Decomposition Characteristics of a C6F12O and N2 Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the decomposition characteristics of a new type of environmentally friendly insulating gas C6F12O and N2 mixed gas under AC voltage. The breakdown behavior of 3% C6F12O and N2 mixed gas in quasi-uniform field was investigated through a breakdown experiment. The self-recovery of the mixed gas was analyzed by 100 breakdown experiments. The decomposition products of C6F12O and N2 under breakdown voltage were determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Finally, the decomposition process of the products was calculated by density functional theory, and the ionization energy, affinity, and molecular orbital gap of the decomposition products were also calculated. The properties of the decomposition products were analyzed from the aspects of insulation and environmental protection. The experimental results show that the 3% C6F12O and N2 mixed gas did not show a downward trend over 100 breakdown tests under a 0.10 MPa breakdown voltage. The decomposition products after breakdown were CF4, C2F6, C3F6, C3F8, C4F10, and C5F12. The ionization energies of several decomposition products are more than 10 eV. The Global Warming Potential (GWP values of the main products are lower than SF6. C2F6, C3F8, and C4F10 have better insulation properties.

  3. Development of a mathematical model describing hydrolysis and co-fermentation of C6 and C5 sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gernaey, Krist; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of C6 and C5 sugars. Model construction has been carried out by combining existing mathematical models for enzymatic hydrolysis on the one hand and co-fermentation on the other hand. An inhibition of ethanol on cellulose conversion was introduced in order to increase...

  4. Atmospheric CO2 promoted synthesis of N-containing heterocycles over B(C6F5)3 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Gao; Bo Yu; Qingqing Mei; Zhenzhen Yang; Yanfei Zhao; Hongye Zhang; Leiduan Hao, Zhimin Liu

    2016-01-01

    B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 combined with atmospheric CO 2 was found to be highly effective for the cyclization of ortho substituted aniline derivatives with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), and a series of N-containing heterocycles including benzothiazoles, benzimidazoles, quinazolinone and benzoxazole were obtained in good to excellent yields. (authors)

  5. Composition of the C6+ Fraction of Natural Gas by Multiple Porous Layer Open Tubular Capillaries Maintained at Low Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jessica L; Lovestead, Tara M; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-03-17

    As the sources of natural gas become more diverse, the trace constituents of the C 6 + fraction are of increasing interest. Analysis of fuel gas (including natural gas) for compounds with more than 6 carbon atoms (the C 6 + fraction) has historically been complex and expensive. Hence, this is a procedure that is used most often in troubleshooting rather than for day-to-day operations. The C 6 + fraction affects gas quality issues and safety considerations such as anomalies associated with odorization. Recent advances in dynamic headspace vapor collection can be applied to this analysis and provide a faster, less complex alternative for compositional determination of the C 6 + fraction of natural gas. Porous layer open tubular capillaries maintained at low temperatures (PLOT-cryo) form the basis of a dynamic headspace sampling method that was developed at NIST initially for explosives in 2009. This method has been recently advanced by the combining of multiple PLOT capillary traps into one "bundle," or wafer, resulting in a device that allows the rapid trapping of relatively large amounts of analyte. In this study, natural gas analytes were collected by flowing natural gas from the laboratory (gas out of the wall) or a prepared surrogate gas flowing through a chilled wafer. The analytes were then removed from the PLOT-cryo wafer by thermal desorption and subsequent flushing of the wafer with helium. Gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) was then used to identify the analytes.

  6. Grão de girassol e seus subprodutos: potenciais fontes proteicas para alimentação de aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Thyciana Vasconcelos Fernandes

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O setor de avicultura pode ser considerado um dos mais desenvolvidos e tecnificados da agropecuária mundial. Os avanços do melhoramento genético aliado ao desenvolvimento da nutrição, sanidade e técnicas de manejo, resultaram na avicultura atual, de alta eficiência e organização com a finalidade de produzir proteína animal de alto valor biológico para o consumo humano a baixo custo. A cadeia produtiva avícola tem íntima relação com a agricultura, principalmente com milho e soja (principais alimentos utilizados na alimentação de aves, no entanto a utilização destes alimentos para nutrição humana e ou refinarias gera uma competição e consequentemente a valorização dos preços destas commodities, o que aumenta o custo de produção e reduz as margens de comercialização. Desta forma, pesquisadores buscam alternativas alimentares economicamente viáveis numa tentativa de minimizar estes custos e manter os índices de desempenho produtivo.  Neste contexto, o grão de girassol e seus subprodutos são caracterizados como uma fonte proteica de boa qualidade capaz de compor dietas para aves.

  7. Human/murine chimeric 81C6 F(ab')2 fragment: preclinical evaluation of a potential construct for the targeted radiotherapy of malignant glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boskovitz, Abraham; Akabani, Gamal H.; Pegram, Charles N.; Bigner, Darrell D.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    We have obtained encouraging responses in recent Phase I studies evaluating 131 I-labeled human/murine chimeric 81C6 anti-tenascin monoclonal antibody (ch81C6) administered into surgically-created tumor resection cavities in brain tumor patients. However, because the blood clearance is slow, hematologic toxicity has been higher than seen with murine 81C6 (mu81C6). In the current study, a series of paired-label experiments were performed in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous D-245 MG human glioma xenografts to compare the biodistribution of the fragment ch81C6 F(ab') 2 labeled using Iodogen to a) intact ch81C6, b) mu81C6, and c) ch81C6 F(ab') 2 labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[ 131 I]iodobenzoate. Tumor retention of radioiodine activity for the F(ab') 2 fragment was comparable to that for intact ch81C6 for the first 24 h and to that for mu81C6 for the first 48 h; as expected, blood and other normal tissue levels declined faster for ch81C6 F(ab') 2. Radiation dosimetry calculations suggest that 131 I-labeled ch81C6 F(ab') 2 may warrant further evaluation as a targeted radiotherapeutic for the treatment of brain tumors

  8. Interações fármaco-alimento/nutriente potenciais em pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Moraes Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação e a administração de medicamentos são indispensáveis na rotina hospitalar, porém sua interação pode acarretar prejuízos ao estado nutricional ou ao tratamento farmacológico, principalmente em crianças, uma vez que possuem certas particularidades. Por isso, profissionais da saúde devem aumentar a atenção durante a administração de fármacos, sobretudo os enfermeiros, por estarem envolvidos diretamente nesse processo. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar as possíveis interações entre medicamentos e alimentos/nutrientes na unidade de pediatria em um hospital piauiense. Tratou-se de um estudo descritivo, transversal, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 90 pacientes hospitalizados. A amostra apresentou prevalência do sexo masculino (55,6% e uma média de idade de 62,76 meses (± 44,101. Os antimicrobianos tiveram uma frequência significativa, com 79 interações entre os medicamentos estudados, seguidos pelos corticoides com 22 ocorrências. Foram encontrados ainda, nove episódios de interações envolvendo os antiulcerosos. Entre os nutrientes, a vitamina B12 teve sua biodisponibilidade reduzida por muitos fármacos. Em suma, pode ser observado que as interações estão presentes na clínica pediátrica, e só o conhecimento pode minimizar prejuízos e/ou multiplicar os benefícios decorrentes das associações de medicamentos com alimentos. Assim, esse trabalho surge como um indicador de segurança do paciente, uma vez que identifica erros de medicação (interações entre prescrições médicas e a da equipe de nutrição.

  9. Ouabaina como Hormona

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    1996-01-01

    Comentario sobre su origen endógeno y sus aplicaciones terapéuticas

    Pocas drogas han sido más estudiadas que el grupo de los digitálicos, estrofantinas y ouabaina, cuyo estudio es objeto del presente trabajo.

    La ouabaina empezó a ser estudiada desde el siglo pasado. La primera referencia conocida corresponde a Pelikan, 1865 (1), como veneno que empleaban para las flechas en Gabón (Africa). (.)

  10. Hoy como ayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Leyendo el artículo titulado “Los medicamentos baratos” de la revista La Farmacia Española, publicada en Madrid el jueves 21 de diciembre de 1893, uno se pregunta cómo puede ser que se reconozca la situación como si fuera de ahora mismo, cómo puede ser que estemos igual que hace más de cien años. Entonces eran los descuentos que se empezaban a extender en las farmacias, francesas sobre todo, y que amenazaban el prestigio profesional de todo el colectivo. Con frases como éstas se define la situación que se presentaba en aquel momento: “…el desprestigio de que vaya por unos cuantos desnaturalizándose el ejercicio de la farmacia en tal forma que se convierta en un comercio impuro y de la peor estofa; pero conviene mucho combatir con mano firme la tendencia a la baratería, tanto más cuanto que no puede dudarse que significa un rebajamiento a todas luces nocivo y que supone una desorganización que nos llevaría en breve a la más completa ruina, y lo que creo aún más grave, a la desmoralización y el desorden, que no se compadecen en modo alguno con lo que en realidad es hoy y ha sido siempre el ejercicio de una profesión genuinamente científica como lo es la de la farmacia”. La propuesta que se hacía para controlar la situación era “la limitación de farmacias, con vigilancia estrecha del Estado y tarifa uniforme oficial”, así como “hace falta mucha inteligencia y mucha unión, hace falta que nadie permanezca indiferente, que todos y cada uno pongan de su parte lo que puedan”. Nuestra profesión mezcla una doble vertiente sanitaria y comercial que no siempre es fácil mantener equilibrada y, por lo que se ve, esto ha ocurrido así desde siempre. El problema que existe hoy en día es la mercantilización de la farmacia, un desplazamiento de establecimiento sanitario hacia una simple empresa.

  11. Evaluation of sex specificity on oxidative stress induced in lungs of mice irradiated by 12C6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Zhang Hong; Zhang Luwei

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify if there is sex specificity on 12 C 6+ ion-induced oxidative damage in mouse lung at different time points. Kun-Ming mice were divided into two groups, each composed of six males and six females: control group and irradiation group with a single acute dose of 4 Gy. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 4 and 12 h respectively, there lungs were removed immediately, and the oxidative stress-related biomarkers were measured by Diagnostic Reagent Kits. The results showed that the relative activities of superoxide dismutase (4 h), catalase (2 h) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (12 h) have significant changes (P 12 C 6+ ion is pronounced in the lungs of males. We thought that these sex-responded differences may be attributed to the influence of sex hormones. (authors)

  12. Evaluation of radiation effects against C6 glioma in combination with vaccinia virus-p53 gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, D. S.; Andres, M. L.; Li, J.; Timiryasova, T.; Chen, B.; Fodor, I.; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the antitumor effects of recombinant vaccinia virus-p53 (rVV-p53) in combination with radiation therapy against the C6 rat glioma, a p53 deficient tumor that is relatively radioresistant. VV-LIVP, the parental virus (Lister strain), was used as a control. Localized treatment of subcutaneous C6 tumors in athymic mice with either rVV-p53 or VV-LIVP together with tumor irradiation resulted in low tumor incidence and significantly slower tumor progression compared to the agents given as single modalities. Assays of blood and spleen indicated that immune system activation may account, at least partly, for the enhance tumor inhibition seen with combined treatment. No overt signs of treatment-related toxicity were noted.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of few-layer graphene prepared by C2–C6 cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z.S.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.D.; Huang, Z.H.; Liu, C.S.; Fu, D.J.; Liu, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Few-layer graphene has been prepared on 300 nm-thick Ni films by C 2 –C 6 cluster ion implantation at 20 keV/cluster. Raman spectroscopy reveals significant influence of the number of atoms in the cluster, the implantation dose, and thermal treatment on the structure of the graphene layers. In particular, the graphene samples exhibit a sharp G peak at 1584 cm −1 and 2D peaks at 2711–2717 cm −1 . The I G /I 2D ratios higher than 1.70 and I G /I D ratio as high as 1.95 confirm that graphene sheets with low density of defects have been synthesized with much improved quality by ion implantation with larger clusters of C 4 –C 6

  14. Bioindicadores ambientais: insetos como um instrumento desta avaliação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio de Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Atividades agrícolas, florestais e do setor imobiliário vêm, ao longo do tempo, modificando ambientes ecologicamente estruturados. As consequências são drásticas e, por isso, faz-se necessária a busca por ferramentas e instrumentos para diagnosticar e monitorar a diversidade biológica desses locais. Os insetos têm-se destacado como potenciais organismos bioindicadores e isso se deve ao fato de apresentarem grande capacidade perceptiva, no que se refere a alterações do meio ambiente, principalmente por seu apurado sistema sensorial, que lhes permite qualificar condições ambientais em determinadas situações e, ainda, quantificar danos causados ao meio. Um dos problemas que podem ser associados a este setor é a falta de padronização e definição de protocolos de coleta e avaliação da biodiversidade, para que esses resultados possam ser analisados e extrapolados para diferentes ambientes antropizados. Neste trabalho, é contextualizada a importância da entomofauna como bioindicadora, em ecossistemas.

  15. Investigation of instability of M23C6 particles in F82H steel under electron and ion irradiation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Sho; Yang, Huilong; Shen, Jingjie; Zhao, Zishou; McGrady, John; Hamaguchi, Dai; Ando, Mamami; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Abe, Hiroaki

    2018-04-01

    In order to clarify the instability of M23C6 in F82H steel under irradiation, both electron irradiation using a high voltage electron microscope (HVEM) and ion irradiation using an ion accelerator were performed. For the electron irradiation, in-situ observation under 2 MV electron irradiation and ex-situ high resolution electron microscopic (HREM) analysis were utilized to evaluate the response of M23C6 against irradiation. The temperature dependence of the irradiation induced instability of the carbide was first confirmed: 293 K indicating severe loss of crystallinity due to dissolution of the constituent atoms though irradiation-enhanced diffusion under the vacancy diffusion by the focused electron beam irradiation. For the ion irradiation, 10.5 MeV-Fe3+ ion was applied to bombard the F82H steel at 673 K to achieve the displacement damage of ≈20 dpa at the depth of 1.0 μm from surface. Cross-section TEM specimens were prepared by a focused ion beam technique. The shrinkage of carbide particles was observed especially near the irradiation surface. Besides, the lattice fringes at the periphery of carbide were observed in the irradiated M23C6 by the HREM analysis, which is different from that observed in the electron irradiation. It was clarified that the instability of M23C6 is dependent on the irradiation conditions, indicating that the flow rate of vacancy type defects might be the key factor to cause the dissolution of constituent atoms of carbide particles into matrix under irradiation.

  16. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide potentiated paclitaxel for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Butler, Jonathan T.; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma grows aggressively due to its ability to maintain abnormally high potentials for cell proliferation. The present study examines the synergistic actions of N-(4-hdroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and paclitaxel (PTX) to control the growth of rat glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cell lines. 4-HPR induced astrocytic differentiation was accompanied by increased expression of the tight junction protein e-cadherin and sustained down regulation of Id2 (member of inhibitor of differentiation family...

  17. Coherent Structure in Solar Wind C$^{6+}$/C$^{4+}$ Ionic Composition Data During the Quiet-Sun Conditions of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Edmondson, J. K.; Lynch, B. J.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2013-01-01

    This analysis offers evidence of characteristic scale sizes in solar wind charge state data measured in-situ for thirteen quiet-sun Carrington rotations in 2008. Using a previously established novel methodology, we analyze the wavelet power spectrum of the charge state ratio C$^{6+}$/C$^{4+}$ measured in-situ by ACE/SWICS for 2-hour and 12-minute cadence. We construct a statistical significance level in the wavelet power spectrum to quantify the interference effects arising from filling missi...

  18. Pregnenolone biosynthesis in C6-2B glioma cell mitochondria: regulation by a mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitor receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, V; Guarneri, P; Kreuger, K E; Guidotti, A; Costa, E

    1992-01-01

    The C6-2B glioma cell line, rich in mitochondrial receptors that bind with high affinity to benzodiazepines, imidazopyridines, and isoquinolinecarboxamides (previously called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors), was investigated as a model to study the significance of the polypeptide diazepam binding inhibitor (DBI) and the putative DBI processing products on mitochondrial receptor-regulated steroidogenesis. DBI and its naturally occurring fragments have been found to be present in high...

  19. Thermodynamic study of charge-transfer complex of iodine with HT18C6 in chloroform solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Javadian Jazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A spectrophotometric study concerning the interaction between HT18C6 as n-donor and I2 as σ-acceptor has been performed in chloroform solution at different temperatures. The results are indicative of the formation 1:1 complex through equilibrium reaction. The stability constant of the complex at 7, 13, 19 and 25 oC is obtained by the computer-fitting of absorbance-mole ratio data in MATLAB software. The ΔHo and ΔSo values are obtained by the Vant Hoff method. The obtained data show that the complex is enthalpy stabilized and entropy destabilized. The entropy destabilitization is attributed to the decrease of the entropy of the free donor upon complexation. Comparison of the data from this work with those of previous works done on 18C6-I2 and HA18C6-I2 is indicative of different stability, stoichiometry and products. The possible reasons for such differences are discussed.

  20. Topologically guided tuning of Zr-MOF pore structures for highly selective separation of C6 alkane isomers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao; Dong, Xinglong; Lin, Junzhong; Teat, Simon J.; Jensen, Stephanie; Cure, Jeremy; Alexandrov, Eugeny V.; Xia, Qibin; Tan, Kui; Wang, Qining; Olson, David H.; Proserpio, Davide M.; Chabal, Yves J.; Thonhauser, Timo; Sun, Junliang; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2018-01-01

    As an alternative technology to energy intensive distillations, adsorptive separation by porous solids offers lower energy cost and higher efficiency. Herein we report a topology-directed design and synthesis of a series of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with optimized pore structure for efficient separation of C6 alkane isomers, a critical step in the petroleum refining process to produce gasoline with high octane rating. Zr6O4(OH)4(bptc)3 adsorbs a large amount of n-hexane but excluding branched isomers. The n-hexane uptake is ~70% higher than that of a benchmark adsorbent, zeolite-5A. A derivative structure, Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4(abtc)2, is capable of discriminating all three C6 isomers and yielding a high separation factor for 3-methylpentane over 2,3-dimethylbutane. This property is critical for producing gasoline with further improved quality. Multicomponent breakthrough experiments provide a quantitative measure of the capability of these materials for separation of C6 alkane isomers. A detailed structural analysis reveals the unique topology, connectivity and relationship of these compounds.

  1. Topologically guided tuning of Zr-MOF pore structures for highly selective separation of C6 alkane isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Dong, Xinglong [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia). Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division; Lin, Junzhong [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Teat, Simon J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Jensen, Stephanie [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Department of Physics; Cure, Jeremy [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Department of Materials Science & Engineering; Alexandrov, Eugeny V. [Samara University (Russia). Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS; Xia, Qibin [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Tan, Kui [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Department of Materials Science & Engineering; Wang, Qining [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Olson, David H. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Proserpio, Davide M. [Samara University (Russia). Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS; Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy). Dipartimento di Chimica; Chabal, Yves J. [Univ. of Texas-Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Department of Materials Science & Engineering; Thonhauser, Timo [Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States). Department of Physics; Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Chemistry; Sun, Junliang [Peking University, Beijing (China). College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering; Han, Yu [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia). Advanced Membranes and Porous Materials Center, Physical Sciences and Engineering Division; Li, Jing [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2018-05-01

    As an alternative technology to energy intensive distillations, adsorptive separation by porous solids offers lower energy cost and higher efficiency. Herein we report a topology-directed design and synthesis of a series of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with optimized pore structure for efficient separation of C6 alkane isomers, a critical step in the petroleum refining process to produce gasoline with high octane rating. Zr6O4(OH)4(bptc)3 adsorbs a large amount of n-hexane but excluding branched isomers. The n-hexane uptake is ~70% higher than that of a benchmark adsorbent, zeolite-5A. A derivative structure, Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4(abtc)2, is capable of discriminating all three C6 isomers and yielding a high separation factor for 3-methylpentane over 2,3-dimethylbutane. This property is critical for producing gasoline with further improved quality. Multicomponent breakthrough experiments provide a quantitative measure of the capability of these materials for separation of C6 alkane isomers. A detailed structural analysis reveals the unique topology, connectivity and relationship of these compounds.

  2. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide against the irradiation damage in mice induced by "1"2C"6"+ ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shuai; Ma Xiaofei; Zhang Hong; Liu Yang

    2013-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Diallyl disulfide (DADS) on "1"2C"6"+ ion irradiation was studied. Pretreated with DADS of different concentration, male Kung-Ming mice were exposed to whole body irradiation with dosage of 4 Gy "1"2C"6"+ ion. The animals were sacrificed after irradiation. Then the bone marrow cells micronucleus rate, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, content of protein carbonylation, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were measured. As compared with those in irradiated group, the ratio of micronucleus cells in marrow and the hepatic ALT activity in the pretreatment group with low dose DADS decreased significantly (p < O.OOl). Similarly, the content of protein carbonylation and the levels of MDA dropped dramatically in the group with middle dose DADS treatment (p < 0.05). On the contrary, the hepatic T-AOC increased markedly in the group of pretreatment with low dose DADS (p < 0.05). The results showed that DADS protect lipoid, protein and genetic material from "1"2C"6"+ ion irradiation by right of resisting oxidative stress. (authors)

  3. Kinetics of hydrogen peroxide elimination by astrocytes and C6 glioma cells analysis based on a mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Nobuo; Mise, Takeshi; Sagara, Jun-Ichi

    2008-06-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in a variety of disorders including neurodegenerative diseases, and H(2)O(2) is important in the generation of reactive oxygen and oxidative stress. In this study, we have examined the rate of extracellular H(2)O(2) elimination and relevant enzyme activities in cultured astrocytes and C6 glioma cells and have analyzed the results based on a mathematical model. As compared with other types of cultured cells, astrocytes showed higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but lower activities for GSH recycling. C6 cells showed relatively low GPx activity, and treatment of C6 cells with dibutyryl-cAMP, which induces astrocytic differentiation, increased catalase activity and H(2)O(2) permeation rate but exerted little effect on other enzyme activities. A mathematical model [N. Makino, K. Sasaki, N. Hashida, Y. Sakakura, A metabolic model describing the H(2)O(2) elimination by mammalian cells including H(2)O(2) permeation through cytoplasmic and peroxisomal membranes: comparison with experimental data, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1673 (2004) 149-159.], which includes relevant enzymes and H(2)O(2) permeation through membranes, was found to be fitted well to the H(2)O(2) concentration dependences of removal reaction with the permeation rate constants as variable parameters. As compared with PC12 cells as a culture model for neuron, H(2)O(2) removal activity of astrocytes was considerably higher at physiological H(2)O(2) concentrations. The details of the mathematical model are presented in Appendix.

  4. Chloroquine Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Replication in Vero Cells but Not in C6/36 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Juvenal Silva Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2. Real-time RT-PCR and plaque assays were used to quantify the DENV-2 load in infected Vero and C6/36 cells after chloroquine treatment. Our results showed that a dose of 50 μg/ml of chloroquine was not toxic to the cells and induced a statistically significant inhibition of virus production in infected Vero cells when compared to untreated cells. In C6/36 cells, chloroquine does not induce a statistically significant difference in viral replication when compared to untreated cells, showing that this virus uses an unlikely pathway of penetration in these cells, and results were also confirmed by the plaque assay (PFU. These data suggest that the inhibition of virus infection induced by chloroquine is due to interference with acidic vesicles in mammalian cells.

  5. Chloroquine inhibits dengue virus type 2 replication in Vero cells but not in C6/36 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Real-time RT-PCR and plaque assays were used to quantify the DENV-2 load in infected Vero and C6/36 cells after chloroquine treatment. Our results showed that a dose of 50 μg/ml of chloroquine was not toxic to the cells and induced a statistically significant inhibition of virus production in infected Vero cells when compared to untreated cells. In C6/36 cells, chloroquine does not induce a statistically significant difference in viral replication when compared to untreated cells, showing that this virus uses an unlikely pathway of penetration in these cells, and results were also confirmed by the plaque assay (PFU). These data suggest that the inhibition of virus infection induced by chloroquine is due to interference with acidic vesicles in mammalian cells.

  6. Hydroxyl radical yields in the tracks of high energy 13C6+ and 36Ar18+ ions in liquid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldacchino, G.; Vigneron, G.; Renault, J.P.; Le Caer, S.; Pin, S.; Mialocq, J.-C.; Balanzat, E.; Bouffard, S.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the determination of the OH · radiolytic yields in water irradiated by high energy C 6+ and Ar 18+ ions with LET values of 32 ± 2 and 280 ± 10 eV nm -1 . The time evolution of the yields between 9 x 10 -11 and 9 x 10 -8 s was deduced using the scavenging method with SCN - and Br - and pulse radiolysis with pulses of 5 and 10 μs. The thiocyanate chemical system is less affected with the local high dose rates specific to the high LET particles than the bromide system. At 32 eV nm -1 with C 6+ ions, G(OH · ) reaches a maximum of 1.5 x 10 -7 mol J -1 at 1 ns and decreases at earlier times. With Ar 18+ ions of 280 eV nm -1 G(OH · ) is always increasing at early times up to 1.6 x 10 -7 mol J -1 at 9 x 10 -11 s. In this case the evolution of the hydroxyl radical yields agrees with the high local concentrations obtained with Ar 18+ and C 6+ ions and depicted in recent literature with the yields of the hydrated electron in the ns range

  7. Topologically guided tuning of Zr-MOF pore structures for highly selective separation of C6 alkane isomers

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hao

    2018-04-25

    As an alternative technology to energy intensive distillations, adsorptive separation by porous solids offers lower energy cost and higher efficiency. Herein we report a topology-directed design and synthesis of a series of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with optimized pore structure for efficient separation of C6 alkane isomers, a critical step in the petroleum refining process to produce gasoline with high octane rating. Zr6O4(OH)4(bptc)3 adsorbs a large amount of n-hexane but excluding branched isomers. The n-hexane uptake is ~70% higher than that of a benchmark adsorbent, zeolite-5A. A derivative structure, Zr6O4(OH)8(H2O)4(abtc)2, is capable of discriminating all three C6 isomers and yielding a high separation factor for 3-methylpentane over 2,3-dimethylbutane. This property is critical for producing gasoline with further improved quality. Multicomponent breakthrough experiments provide a quantitative measure of the capability of these materials for separation of C6 alkane isomers. A detailed structural analysis reveals the unique topology, connectivity and relationship of these compounds.

  8. Potential drug interactions in intensive care patients at a teaching hospital Interacciones medicamentosas potenciales en pacientes de una unidad de terapia intensiva de un hospital universitario Interações medicamentosas potenciais em pacientes de unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital universitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima

    2009-04-01

    realizadas por el enfermero. Sin embargo, para que estas ocurran, de hecho, es importante que el enfermero conozca los mecanismos farmacológicos de las IMs, así como sus factores precipitantes.Este estudo investigou interações medicamentosas (IM potenciais em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI de um hospital universitário do Ceará. Dos 102 pacientes do estudo, 72,5% apresentaram 311 potenciais IMs. Desses, 64% eram do sexo feminino, com idade maior ou igual a 60 anos e tempo de internação maior ou igual a nove dias. Houve associação estatisticamente significativa entre o número de medicamentos e a ocorrência de IM, e 1 140 medicamentos foram aprazados no mesmo horário. Desses, 74% apresentaram potencial para IM. Quanto à classificação das IMs, 48,2% apresentaram perfil farmacocinético, 55,4% início demorado, 54,7% moderada gravidade e 60,6% bem documentadas na literatura. O manejo clínico mais freqüente foi "observar sinais e sintomas". Oitenta por cento das intervenções para evitar os efeitos indesejáveis das IMs podem ser realizadas pelo enfermeiro. No entanto, para que essas ocorram, de fato, é importante que o enfermeiro conheça os mecanismos farmacológicos das IMs, bem como seus fatores precipitantes.

  9. O ensaio como narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Duarte

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tenta demonstrar que todos os textos, mesmo aqueles cuja natureza é teórica, têm alguma forma de narrativa. Nem sempre são personagens que os ocupam, podem ser ideias, mas mesmo assim há um enredo conceitual que se passa. Modernamente, a forma dessa narrativa foi sobretudo o sistema, com a pretensão totalizadora presente, por exemplo, na filosofia de Hegel. Contemporaneamente, porém, a forma do ensaio – surgida ainda na era moderna – ganha destaque por sua forma descontínua de narrar. O objetivo do artigo é apontar que, se o ensaio é uma forma, como explicitaram Lukács, Benjamin e Adorno, ele é também uma forma de narrar – ainda que de narrar conceitualmente objetos da cultura.

  10. La Justicia como virtud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Sicluna y Sepúlveda, Consuelo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El sentimiento de la justicia representa el hábito de conducta por el que nos vemos obligados, en cualquier relación, a dar a cada uno lo suyo. Ahora bien, esta disposición del espíritu se inscribe en las coordenadas que definen al hombre: verdad, libertad y bien. El hombre como ser racional y por tanto libre: el único ser que se determina a sí mismo y que alcanza en el bien el sentido de su proyección personal, esto es, la perfección. Dar a cada uno lo suyo es dar al sujeto el reconocimiento de este fundamento ontológico.

  11. Como comunicar la Alegria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Portales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ofrece un amplio análisis sobre la industria electoral, recordando que un candidato a presidente es "un producto para la venta". Se Desmenuzan las estrategias utilizadas en el plebiscito chileno,las elecciones norteamericanas con el NO a BUSH. El Mercadeo Social es una nueva metodología utilizada en proyectos de desarrollo a nivel de campo por ello se hace un esclarecimiento y clarifica el vínculo con la comunicación. Se agrega temas como: Los modelos de recepción de mensajes cuyos marcos conceptuales y metodologías aún no se han adaptado al potencial de esta línea de trabajo.Se analiza la agonía de las radios mineras en Bolivia en la que 42 años de historia y heroísmo se desmoronan.

  12. El inquisidor como profesor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano PROSPERI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Giovanni Botero, en una célebre página de su Ragion di stato, se detuvo sobre el tema de la fuerza de la religión en los gobiernos. Esta función de la religión cristiana —para Botero, católica— es garante del orden público y se presenta también como opuesta a la generadora de desorden de Lutero y Calvino, quienes siembran por todo cizañas y revoluciones de estados y ruinas de los reinos. Estamos en los orígenes del esquema historiografía de la periodización de la Edad Moderna que confió precisamente a la Reforma el papel de nodriza de las revoluciones que nacieron en Europa.

  13. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei; Duan, Chenfan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Jing; Chai, Hongyan; Tang, Tian; Chen, Honglei; Yue, Jiang; Li, Ying; Yang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in tumor

  14. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei; Duan, Chenfan; Zhang, Xiaoyan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Chen, Honglei [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying, E-mail: lyying0@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in tumor

  15. Microwave-assisted solid phase conversion study of Meldrum's acid to ethylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (C 6O 6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherpour, Avat (Arman)

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of microwave irradiation provides an effective method for fast synthesizing of some important compounds. Microwave-assisted solid phase is an especial class in chemical synthesis. By the use of MW-irradiation on chemicals, sometimes interesting results can be seen. The synthesis of the interesting molecule ethylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (C 6O 6) was attempted with a few different methods. In this study, the microwave-assisted solid phase conversion of Meldrum's acid to ethylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride was reported. This conversion was characterized by FT-IR, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy results.

  16. Precalculation of the fission gas behaviour in the MOL 7C/6 experiment with the LAKU model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, L.

    1988-03-01

    The fission gas behaviour in the planned experiment MOL 7C/6 is simulated with the Karlsruhe model LAKU, employing temperatures calculated with the pin behaviour model TRANSURANUS. Two different modes of experimental flow blockage simulation are investigated and compared to an estimated fission gas behaviour during a realistic blockage build-up. The results indicate, that the start-up procedure leading to greatly reduced fission gas content is the more realistic one. Details of the calculations and their results are presented in the report

  17. ORIGIN FOR IRRADIATION EFFECT OF 0.56GeV C6+ ON CaVSn:YIG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊宏齐; 侯明东; 等

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents numerous physical characteristics of Ca,V.Sn doped yttrium iron garnet(CaVSn:YIG) irradiated with 0.56GeV carbon ions delivered by the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL).The reason for change of the magnetic properties of the samples induced by energetic carbon ions bombardment is discussed.By comparison of this results with the irradiation effects of YIG induced by eneregetic argon,krypton and xenon oibtained on the GANIL,Caen,France,it is concluded that the irradiation effect of 0.56GeV C6+ on CaVSn:YIG arises from the electronic energy losses.

  18. Determination of C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water by purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eganhouse, R.P.; Dorsey, T.F.; Phinney, C.S.; Westcott, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of the C6-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection. Retention time data and 70 eV mass spectra were obtained for benzene and all 35 C7-C10 aromatic hydrocarbons. With optimized chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometric detection, benzene and 33 of the 35 alkylbenzenes can be identified and measured in a 45-min run. Use of a flame ionization detector permits the simultaneous determination of benzene and 26 alkylbenzenes.

  19. Chloroquine Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Replication in Vero Cells but Not in C6/36 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Machado, Paula Renata Lima; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Real-time RT-PCR a...

  20. La persona como creatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Housset

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo de Emmanuel Housset implica un esfuerzo de rehabilitación del concepto «persona» para la filosofía contemporánea y la fenomenología. Para ello el autor busca mostrar cómo poco a poco «persona» tomó otra significación que la de «personaje» o sujeto de derecho. Es en autores como san Agustín y santo Tomás de Aquino que se halla un acceso diferente que pone el énfasis más bien en su carácter relacional y responsivo de la persona, antes que en su dimensión autónoma y autotélica. Tal dimensión aparece, según Housset, junto con la idea de persona como creatura y en oposición a la de individuo racional dueño de sí. La dimensión afectiva, la personalidad despertada por las diversas figuras de la alteridad son algunas de las dimensiones de la persona que examina el autor a partir del examen de la carne, las pasiones, la memoria, la historicidad y el amor alteridad.Emmanuel Housset's paper is an effort to revitalize the concept of 'person' for contemporary philosophy and phenomenology To this end the author looks to show how little by little the understanding of 'person' took on a different meaning to that of 'character' or "right bearing individual". It is in authors such as St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas that a different approach is found, one that puts emphasis on the relational and responsive character of a person, rather than on the autonomous and auto telic dimension. According to Housset, such a dimension appears together with the idea of the person as a creation, and in opposition to the idea of the rational individual, that is his own master. The emotional dimension and the personality that is awoken by the many figures of alterity are some of the dimensions of the person that the author analyzes, based on examining the flesh, passions, memory historicity and love.

  1. Almond and peanut flours suppelmented with iron as potential ingredients to develop gluten-free cookies Farinhas de amêndoa e amendoim suplementadas com ferro como ingredientes potenciais para desenvolvimento de biscoitos sem glúten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the second biggest worldwide producer of cookies and there are many varieties in the market; however, only a few are gluten-free. The objectives of this work were to formulate two gluten-free cookies added with iron, peanut or almond, and analyze their physicochemical, chromatic and sensory properties. Moisture, instrumental color (L*, a*, b* and C*, ash, proteins, lipids, iron, carbohydrates (estimated by difference, and water activity were determined. The acceptance of the products was assessed by 115 untrained taste panelists using a five-point hedonic scale. The data collected from the physicochemical analyses were submitted to Levene's, ANOVA, and Tukey's tests, which showed statistical difference (p O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor de biscoitos do mundo e possui muitas variedades no mercado, entretanto, poucos são destituídos de glúten. O objetivo deste trabalho foi formular dois biscoitos sem glúten: um de amendoim e outro de amêndoa adicionados com ferro e analisar suas propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais. Os parâmetros físico-químicos avaliados foram: umidade, cor (L*, a*, b* e C*, cinzas, proteínas, lipídios, ferro, carboidratos (estimados por diferença e atividade de água. A aceitação dos produtos foi testada por 115 provadores não treinados que utilizaram uma escala hedônica de cinco pontos. Os dados coletados foram submetidos aos testes de Levene, de ANOVA e de Tukey, que mostraram a diferença estatística (p < 0,05 em todos os atributos da composição centesimal, atividade de água e da cor dos biscoitos desenvolvidos. Os biscoitos de amendoim e de amêndoa apresentaram ferro em uma concentração que faz com que possam ser considerados fonte (pelo menos 15% IDR. Apresentam também índice de aceitação de 80% e 85%, respectivamente, concluindo que ambas as formulações desenvolvidas neste estudo apresentaram satisfatórias quantidades de ferro em sua composição e elevados teores de lipídios e proteínas, com elevada aceitação sensorial, sugerindo seu consumo potencial por pessoas intolerantes ao glúten.

  2. El signo como emblema

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    Sáez, Carlos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the signs and symbols that appear in the hispanic medieval documents and manuscripts. These signs and symbols have usually been considered simply as mere elements to validate the charters. However, these alements were useful as a mean of visual communication between the high classes, able to generate charters, and the rest of medieval society—the majority illiterate— who received those charters. Because of their inability of understand an alphabetical code, they needed the graphic help to comprehend the message. Besides this, the article deals with non diplomatic signs and their function.

    Este artículo se centra en los signos o símbolos presentes en los documentos y manuscritos medievales hispanos, que habitualmente han sido tratados como meros elementos de validación de los diplomas. Pero estos elementos servían también de nexos de comunicación visual entre las clases poderosas, capaces de producir escritos, y los demás miembros de la sociedad medieval, receptores y destinatarios de tales escritos, en su mayoría analfabetos. Precisamente por esta razón, su incapacidad de descifrar un código alfabético, necesitan de auxilio gráfico para acercarse a la comprensión del mensaje. Asimismo, tratamos de los signos no diplomáticos y de su función.

  3. O analista como testemunha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jô Gondar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A proposta deste artigo é pensar o lugar da testemunha como um lugar terceiro que o analista, na clínica do traumático, é capaz de sustentar. Nos sonhos traumáticos, segundo Ferenczi, já existe a convocação de um terceiro. Não se trata da testemunha da esfera do Direito, tampouco do lugar do pai ou da Lei simbólica. Trata-se de um terceiro espaço que pode ser chamado de potencial, espaço intersticial, indeterminado e informe no qual circula - e aos poucos ganha forma -, algo que a princípio seria incomunicável. Esse espaço permite e suporta a literalidade da narrativa testemunhal, seus titubeios, paradoxos e silêncios. Mais do que uma teoria do trauma, a noção de espaço potencial seria a grande contribuição da psicanálise às pesquisas teóricas e clínicas com sobreviventes de campos de extermínio, de situações de tortura e de violência.

  4. Arte como espelho

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    Pedro Süssekind

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como ponto de partida o exemplo da relação espelhada entre um livro e uma pintura de mesmo nome: o retrato que Lucian Freud fez do crítico de arte Martin Gayford e o diário que esse crítico escreveu sobre seu retratista, ambas as obras chamadas Homem com cachecol azul. A partir do exemplo, discuto a metáfora do espelho para caracterizar a arte, recorrendo para isso à teoria da representação artísticas elaborada pelo filósofo norte-americano Arthur Danto no artigo “O mundo da arte”, de 1964, e no primeiro capítulo do livro A transfiguração do lugar-comum, de 1981. Recorro, por fim, a dois exemplos artísticos de espelhamento na representação analisados por Danto em O abuso da beleza, de 2003, um quadro holandês do século dezessete e um poema de Rainer Maria Rilke.

  5. El riesgo como oportunidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gargantini

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años el crecimiento mundial de catástrofes naturales ha ido en franco aumento. Sin embargo, desde un enfoque sistémico puede verificarse que la gran mayoría de los desastres se origina en los países en desarrollo (entre ellos los latinoamericanos, siendo las pérdidas en ellos significativamente más altas que en los países industrializados. Bajo esta postura los desastres no son sólo naturales sino socio- naturales, enfatizando la estrecha relación de causalidad entre modelos de desarrollo y urbanización y procesos de generación de riesgos, al incrementar la vulnerabilidad de los sectores más desprotegidos. El desastre pone en evidencia así una situación (la pobreza y segregación urbana ya existente, pero no considerada hasta el momento de la catástrofe. Frente a este panorama el desastre aparece como oportunidad que precipita tres catalizadores de políticas habitacionales: tierra, asistencia técnica y financiamiento, incrementando la celeridad y la creatividad de las respuestas. El interrogante que surge es por qué esperar el desastre para ponerlos en marcha, cuando ninguno de ellos es estrictamente dependiente de la situación de riesgo, sino sujeto de luchas de poder.

  6. Endomarketing: como diferencial competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Birck

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, com a profissionalização das empresas e com a grande concorrência no mercado, observa-se uma demanda cada vez maior de gestores comprometidos com o bem-estar pessoal e profissional de seus colaboradores. E, com esse intuito, de apresentar algumas idéias básicas de gestão voltadas à aplicação nas mais diversas técnicas de Endomarketing. Demonstra assim, a importância da utilização de feedback, tanto por parte dos colaboradores quanto dos gestores, destacando a importância de trabalhos de motivação, do clima organizacional favorável e de uma comunicação interna eficaz e a necessidade ímpar de tratar o colaborador como o diferencial dentro de uma empresa. Desta forma, foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica que auxiliará e dará subsídios que lhe permitam retribuir em ações e atitudes de sucesso e, também, fazer um confronto de idéias, onde os autores apresentam suas mais diversas opiniões. Contudo, valendo-se, muitas vezes, de narrativas de experiências de outros gestores e até mesmo de suas próprias, tirando cada um suas próprias conclusões.

  7. Estabilidade dos potenciais evocados auditivos em indivíduos adultos com audição normal Stability of auditory evoked potentials in adults with normal hearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gentile Matas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a estabilidade dos parâmetros dos potenciais evocados auditivos em adultos normais. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à avaliação audiológica e eletrofisiológica (potencial evocado auditivo de tronco encefálico - PEATE, potencial evocado auditivo de média latência - PEAML e potencial cognitivo - P300 49 indivíduos normais, de 18 a 40 anos (25 do gênero feminino e 24 do gênero masculino. Realizou-se reavaliação três meses após a avaliação. RESULTADOS: Foram observadas diferenças entre os gêneros na avaliação para as latências das ondas III e V e interpicos I-III e I-V do PEATE e amplitude N2-P3 do P300. Não foram verificadas diferenças significativas para os parâmetros do PEATE, PEAML (latência das ondas Na, Pa e amplitude Na - Pa e P300 (latência da onda P300 entre os resultados obtidos na avaliação e reavaliação. CONCLUSÃO: Exceção feita à amplitude N2-P3, observou-se estabilidade dos parâmetros de PEATE, PEAML e P300 em adultos normais após período de três meses.PURPOSE: To evaluate the stability of parameters of auditory evoked potentials in normal adults. METHODS: Forty-nine normal subjects with ages from 18 to 40 years (25 females and 24 males were submitted to audiological and electrophysiological hearing evaluation (auditory brainstem response - ABR, middle latency response - MLR, and cognitive potential - P300. Subjects were reassessed three months after the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between genders regarding the wave latencies III and V and the interpeaks I-III and I-IV of ABR, and the amplitude N2-P3 of the P300. No differences were found between the results of initial and final assessments for the parameters of the ABR, MLR (Na, Pa latencies and Na-Pa amplitude and P300 (P300 latency. CONCLUSION: Except for the N2-P3 amplitude, it was observed stability of the parameters of ABR, MLR and P300 in normal adults after a period of three months.

  8. Avaliação de teratógenos potenciais na população brasileira Evaluation of potential teratogens in Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavínia Schüler-Faccini

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O fato de agentes ambientais, nomeadamente fármacos, infecções maternas, e agentes químicos ou físicos poderem causar danos ao embrião ou feto em desenvolvimento é um problema reconhecido principalmente a partir do século 20. Nos países em desenvolvimento, existem características especiais que podem tornar esse problema mais agudo. Essas características incluem níveis educacionais e econômicos baixos da população, alta incidência de doenças infecciosas e carenciais, escassos recursos para saúde e pesquisa, prática freqüente e sem controle de automedicação, facilidade de obtenção de medicações que deveriam estar submetidas à prescrição médica e, finalmente, proibição legal de interrupção da gestação. Além disso, pode somar-se uma qualidade ambiental precária ou mesmo condições de trabalho insalubres durante a gravidez. No presente trabalho apresentamos as principais metodologias para detecção e monitorização de potenciais teratógenos, com ênfase especial nos programas desenvolvidos no Brasil e América Latina.The fact that environmental agents, namely drugs, maternal infections, other chemical or physical agents could harm the developing embryo or fetus is a problem recognized specially since the XXth century. In developing countries there are some special characteristics that can make this problem more severe. These include low educational and economical level of the population, high incidence of infectious and carential diseases, habits of self-medication associated to easy ways to obtain prescription drugs and, finally no legal permission for pregnancy termination. More than that, sometimes there are also bad environmental conditions or unhealthy working conditions during pregnancy. In this article we present the main methodologies to detect and to monitorize potential teratogens, with special emphasis in present programs going on in Brazil and Latin America.

  9. The pro1(+) gene from Sordaria macrospora encodes a C6 zinc finger transcription factor required for fruiting body development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masloff, S; Pöggeler, S; Kück, U

    1999-05-01

    During sexual morphogenesis, the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora differentiates into multicellular fruiting bodies called perithecia. Previously it has been shown that this developmental process is under polygenic control. To further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in fruiting body formation, we generated the protoperithecia forming mutant pro1, in which the normal development of protoperithecia into perithecia has been disrupted. We succeeded in isolating a cosmid clone from an indexed cosmid library, which was able to complement the pro1(-) mutation. Deletion analysis, followed by DNA sequencing, subsequently demonstrated that fertility was restored to the pro1 mutant by an open reading frame encoding a 689-amino-acid polypeptide, which we named PRO1. A region from this polypeptide shares significant homology with the DNA-binding domains found in fungal C6 zinc finger transcription factors, such as the GAL4 protein from yeast. However, other typical regions of C6 zinc finger proteins, such as dimerization elements, are absent in PRO1. The involvement of the pro1(+) gene in fruiting body development was further confirmed by trying to complement the mutant phenotype with in vitro mutagenized and truncated versions of the pro1 open reading frame. Southern hybridization experiments also indicated that pro1(+) homologues are present in other sexually propagating filamentous ascomycetes.

  10. Rapid and sensitive quantification of C3- and C6-phosphoesters in starch by fluorescence-assisted capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Jeremy; Penverne, Christophe; D'Hulst, Christophe; Rolando, Christian; Szydlowski, Nicolas

    2016-11-05

    Phosphate groups are naturally present in starch at C3- or C6-position of the glucose residues and impact the structure of starch granules. Their precise quantification is necessary for understanding starch physicochemical properties and metabolism. Nevertheless, reliable quantification of Glc-3-P remains laborious and time consuming. Here we describe a capillary electrophoresis method for simultaneous measurement of both Glc-6-P and Glc-3-P after acid hydrolysis of starch. The sensitivity threshold was estimated at the fg scale, which is compatible with the analysis of less than a μg of sample. The method was validated by analyzing antisense potato lines deficient in SBEs, GWD or GBSS. We show that Glc-3-P content is altered in the latter and that these variations do not correlate with modifications in Glc-6-P content. We anticipate the method reported here to be an efficient tool for high throughput study of starch phosphorylation at both C3- and C6-position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Gara, Pedro M.; Garabano, Natalia I.; Llansola Portoles, Manuel J.; Moreno, M. Sergio; Dodat, Diego; Casas, Oscar R.; Gonzalez, Mónica C.; Kotler, Mónica L.

    2012-01-01

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O 2 •− /HO 2 • , HO • , and H 2 O 2 generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 μM silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 μM per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic 1 O 2 was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO 2 and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of 1 O 2 upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  12. Induction of P450 3A1/2 and 2C6 by gemfibrozil in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiming; Yang, Julin; Zhao, Xin; Jiao, Xiaolan; Zhao, Weihong; Ma, Qing; Tang, Zhiyuan; Dai, Renke

    2011-01-01

    Fibrates are a group of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists used in the treatment of dyslipidemia; however, they have been reported to cause species-related hepatocarcinogenesis and clinical myotoxicity. Gemfibrozil is one of the most commonly used fibrates, and it shows the highest risk for myotoxicity among the fibrates. The inhibitory drug-drug interaction mechanism associated with gemfibrozil has been explored recently, and the induction of human P450 3A4 and 2C8 has been reported. In this study, in vivo induction of rat P450 by gemfibrozil was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. After the rats were dosed with gemfibrozil by oral gavage, microsomes were prepared. The metabolic activities of P450 3A1/2, 2C6, and 2D2 were assayed using probe substrates, and the systemic concentration of gemfibrozil during its administration was determined. P450 3A1/2 and 2C6 activities were induced 32-77% in the rats by gemfibrozil when the exposure concentration was in the clinical range. These data indicate that the inducibility of homologous P450 isoforms by gemfibrozil is similar in Sprague-Dawley rats and in humans. Inductive drug-drug interactions and inhibitory actions are involved in the co-administration of gemfibrozil with other drugs, which suggests the relevance for a fibrate-toxicology investigation.

  13. Ouabaina como Hormona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Comentario sobre su origen endógeno y sus aplicaciones terapéuticas

    Pocas drogas han sido más estudiadas que el grupo de los digitálicos, estrofantinas y ouabaina, cuyo estudio es objeto del presente trabajo.

    La ouabaina empezó a ser estudiada desde el siglo pasado. La primera referencia conocida corresponde a Pelikan, 1865 (1, como veneno que empleaban para las flechas en Gabón (Africa. (.

    (. Vinieron luego los trabajos de Fraser, 1869, (2, 3, 6, Polaillon, 1871 (4, Amaud, 1888 (5, Vaquez y Lutembacher, 1917 (7, Stoll, 1939 (8, Lapicque, 1929 (9, Wiggers, 1927 (10, Ytantos otros (11, 12, 13. En la obra de Kisch (14 aparecen más de 700 referencias bibliográficas sobre el particular.

    Ouabaina de origen endógeno. Purificación
    Durante muchos años se conoció la ouabaina como de origen vegetal, elaborada por las plantas Strophanthus Glaber(k-estrofantina,AcocantheraOuabaio(Ouabaina yStrophanthus Kombe (k-estrofantina y kestrofantósido. Una propiedad común a todos los digitálicos, estrofantina y ouabaina es que todos son inhibidores de la bomba de Na-K, encargada de regular la salida de Na y la entrada de K celular.

    Estudiando los inhibido res de esta bomba han encontrado en años recientes resultados extraordinarios en relación con el origen endógeno de algunos de estos inhibidores, entre ellos la ouabaina. Por considerarlos de extrema importancia y actualidad científica me permito citar algunos de ellos. Hamlyn y Manunta (15, 16, 17, 18, Y 19 hicieron estudios sobre el particular y lograron identificar en el plasma humano un compuesto igual a la ouabaina. Estos hallazgos fueron confirmados después por otros autores (20, 21, 22, 23 Y24.

    Ham bl yn (19 da varios argumentos que ponen en evidencia que el compuesto químico encontrado es ouabaina pura, y, lo que es más interesante, que tiene un origen endógeno. a Por espectroscopia de alta resoluci

  14. O direito como imperativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cloter Miglioriani

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available We have examined one of the facets which Law presents to society, looking at the theme through a brief history of Law, in which Roman Law stands out, up to modem times, comparing current juridical systems such as the Continental System, Common Law, and Soviet Law. We have looked at Law from the viewpoint of society 's need to have basic mies for living together, with the juridical ruZe being one of the most important. We have highlighted the views of Hart and Kelsen on the foundations of the validity of Law. We have also considered the obligatoriness of Law; giving the point of view of tadbruch who, explaining his ''Theory of the Obligatoriness of Law ", concluded that the obligatoriness of Law can only be withdraw when there is a Clash between morals, law, use and social conventions. We have looked at the notion of the imperativeness of Law the central theme of the work -drawing on the views of Miguel Reale, for whom the juridical nonn cannot be reduced to a "command of a volitional nature", but rather the obligatory character of the juridical nonn arises from the pressure of social values. Del Vecchio, who is also quoted, recognized that imperativeness exists in the juridical norm, whether it is preceptive (a positive command or permissive. Also mentioned is the opinion of Tercio Sampaio Ferraz, for whom the juridical norm has imperativeness to the extent that the imposition of behaviour is unconditionally guaranteed. Foi feita a abordagem de uma das facetas com que o Direito se apresenta à sociedade, enfocando o tema a partir de um brevíssimo histórico do Direito, onde revela a fase romana, até os períodos modernos, com comparações dos sistemas jurídicos hodiernos, como o sistema continental, o da Commum Law e o soviético. Foi enfocado o Direito em face da necessidade sociedade em ter básicas de convivência, despontando a regra jurídica como das mais importantes. Foi dado destaque às posições de Hart e Kelsen, sobre os

  15. Dentritic Carbosilanes Containing Silicon-Bonded 1-[C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-3,5-Li-4] or 1-[C6H3(CH2NMe2)-4-Li-3] Mono-and Bis(amino)aryllithium End Groups: Structure of {[CH2SiMe2C6H3(CH2NMe2)-4-Li-3]2}2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Kleij, A.W.; Kleijn, H.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A useful synthetic procedure for the incorporation of the potentially multidentate monoanionic 1-[C6H2(CH2NMe2)2-3,5]- (=NCN) and 1-[C6H3(CH2NMe2)-4]- (=CN) ligands via the para-position on the periphery of carbosilane (CS) dendrimers has been developed. Lithiation of suitable brominated precursors

  16. The Observation of the Structure of M23C6/ γ Coherent Interface in the 100Mn13 High Carbon High Manganese Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenfeng; Ding, Zhimin; Liang, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The M23C6 carbides precipitate along the austenite grain boundary in the 100Mn13 high carbon high manganese steel after 1323 K (1050 °C) solution treatment and subsequent 748 K (475 °C) aging treatment. The grain boundary M23C6 carbides not only spread along the grain boundary and into the incoherent austenite grain, but also grow slowly into the coherent austenite grain. On the basis of the research with optical microscope, a further investigation for the M23C6/ γ coherent interface was carried out by transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that the grain boundary M23C6 carbides have orientation relationships with only one of the adjacent austenite grains in the same planes: (\\bar{1}1\\bar{1})_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //(\\bar{1}1\\bar{1})_{γ } , (\\bar{1}11)_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //(\\bar{1}11)_{γ } ,[ 1 10]_{{{M}_{ 2 3} {C}_{ 6} }} //[ 1 10]_{γ } . The flat M23C6/ γ coherent interface lies on the low indexed crystal planes {111}. Moreover, in M23C6/ γ coherent interface, there are embossments which stretch into the coherent austenite grain γ. Dislocations distribute in the embossments and coherent interface frontier. According to the experimental observation, the paper suggests that the embossments can promote the M23C6/ γ coherent interface move. Besides, the present work has analyzed chemical composition of experimental material and the crystal structures of austenite and M23C6, which indicates that the transformation can be completed through a little diffusion for C atoms and a simple variant for austenite unit cell.

  17. Vaccinia virus protein C6 is a virulence factor that binds TBK-1 adaptor proteins and inhibits activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Unterholzner

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs causes interferon-β (IFN-β induction, a key event in the anti-viral innate immune response, and also a target of viral immune evasion. Here the vaccinia virus (VACV protein C6 is identified as an inhibitor of PRR-induced IFN-β expression by a functional screen of select VACV open reading frames expressed individually in mammalian cells. C6 is a member of a family of Bcl-2-like poxvirus proteins, many of which have been shown to inhibit innate immune signalling pathways. PRRs activate both NF-κB and IFN regulatory factors (IRFs to activate the IFN-β promoter induction. Data presented here show that C6 inhibits IRF3 activation and translocation into the nucleus, but does not inhibit NF-κB activation. C6 inhibits IRF3 and IRF7 activation downstream of the kinases TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1 and IκB kinase-ε (IKKε, which phosphorylate and activate these IRFs. However, C6 does not inhibit TBK1- and IKKε-independent IRF7 activation or the induction of promoters by constitutively active forms of IRF3 or IRF7, indicating that C6 acts at the level of the TBK1/IKKε complex. Consistent with this notion, C6 immunoprecipitated with the TBK1 complex scaffold proteins TANK, SINTBAD and NAP1. C6 is expressed early during infection and is present in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Mutant viruses in which the C6L gene is deleted, or mutated so that the C6 protein is not expressed, replicated normally in cell culture but were attenuated in two in vivo models of infection compared to wild type and revertant controls. Thus C6 contributes to VACV virulence and might do so via the inhibition of PRR-induced activation of IRF3 and IRF7.

  18. O Papel dos Ácidos Gordos na Nutrição Humana e Desenvolvimentos Sobre o Modo Como Influenciam a Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guiné

    2016-02-01

    Segundo alguns estudos realizados, a maior parte destes efeitos está comprovada, mas nem todos os casos estão ainda cientificamente aceites e existem casos em que, muitos dos autores entram em “conflito” devido a divergência de opiniões, por via de resultados eventualmente contraditórios obtidos em estudos quer “in vitro” quer “in vivo”. É, então, necessário verificar e comprovar todos estes potenciais efeitos, no sentido de verificar que os ácidos gordos, provavelmente, na sua maioria, podem funcionar muitas vezes como nutracêuticos ou complementar uma medicação em variadas situações.

  19. Efeitos de potenciais de água no solo, em diferentes estádios fenológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L. Effects of soil water potentials at different phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Urchei

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar os efeitos de défices hídricos, em três estádios fonológicos da cultura da cevada (Hordeum vulgare L., foi conduzido experimento em vasos, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Foram utilizados nove tratamentos decorrentes da combinação dos potenciais mínimos de água no solo de -0,05, -0,20 e -1,50 MPa, com os estádios fenológicos de máximo perfilhamento, florescimento e grão leitoso, permanecendo uniformizados durante o restante do ciclo, entre os potenciais de -0,01 a -0,05 MPa. Os resultados de produção, peso e teor de proteína dos grãos, tamanho de espigas, número total e número de espigas chochas, mostraram que os efeitos de défices hídricos variaram com a intensidade, duração e estádio fenológico da cultura, onde o estádio de florescimento mostrou-se mais sensível ao défice de água. A ocorrência de défice hídrico intenso, em cada um dos estádios, bem como ciclos repetidos de défices moderados ou intensos, levaram à diminuições significativas na produção de grãos, além de ocorrer tendência ao aumento do teor de protema dos grãos. O manejo da irrigação na cultura da cevada, quando se busca a máxima eficiência no uso da água, deve levar em conta os diferentes estádios fenológicos.The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, with the objective of evaluating the effects of water deficits in three phenological phases of barley crop (Hordeum vulgare L.. Pots were arranged in a randomized block design with nine treatments. They originated from the combination of minimum soil water potentials of -0,05, -0,20 and -1,50 MPa, with the phenological phases of maximum tillering, flowering and milky grain, having been hold uniformly along the rest of the cycle, between -0,01 and -0,05 MPa potentials. Weight of grain, protein content, spike sizes, spike total number and number of hollow spikes, showed that water deficit effects varied with the intensity, duration and

  20. Europa como cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier San Martín

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available El presente texto tiene un origen muy concreto. El día 15 de marzo de 2002, con motivo de la Cumbre Europea de Barcelona, Jorge Semprún reflexionaba, en las páginas de un conocido diario madrileño, sobre el significado que para él tenía ser europeo. Para ello emprendía tres "viajes intelectuales" a Viena, Praga y Buchenwald, los tres de gran significado histórico y cultural. Dado el interés del texto y del momento, me pareció entonces oportuno glosar algunos aspectos de aquel artículo, primero, para subrayar el valor de la aportación de Semprún, luego para corregir alguna inexactitud de carácter biográfico, debida posiblemente a la rapidez de la traducción, y, tercero, para ampliar con algún comentario la valiosa contribución de Sempnín, sobre todo en lo que concierne al sentido de Europa. En este texto se toma aquel comentario como punto de partida.The origins of this text are very specific. On 15 March 2002, on the occasion of the European Summit in Barcelona, and on the pages of a well-known Madrid newspaper, Jorge Semprún reflected on the meaning that being European had for him. To do this, he embarked on three "intellectual journeys" to Vienna, Prague and Buchenwald, all three of great historical and cultural significance. Given the interest of the text and of the moment, I considered it appropriate to comment on aspects of the article -firstly, to underline the value of Semprún's contribution; secondly, to correct certain biographical inaccuracies, possibly due to a hasty translation; and thirdly, to complement Semprún's valuable contribution, essentially concerning the meaning of Europe. This text takes that comment as its starting point.

  1. pH dependent green synthesis of gold nanoparticles by completely C6-carboxylated curdlan under high temperature and various pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wen-Yi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Yao-Yao; Ding, Zhi-Chao; Wu, Li-Xia; Cai, Wu-Dan; Yan, Jing-Kun

    2018-01-01

    A C6-carboxylated curdlan (C6-Cc) obtained from 4-acetamido-TEMPO-mediated oxidation of curdlan was used both as a reducing and stabilizing agent for green synthesis of pH-responsive AuNPs, which was carried out by controlling the pH of the C6-Cc solution at a high temperature (100°C). C6-Cc presented a semi-flexible random coil chain in the aqueous medium at pH 5.5 and became more expanded and rigid in alkaline conditions (pH 7.1-12.0), though the primary chemical structure of C6-Cc was virtually unchanged with the pH variation. The AuNPs prepared with C6-Cc at various pHs were characterized by various instrumental measurements. The shapes and sizes of AuNPs were found to be strongly dependent on the pH of the C6-Cc solution. The C6-Cc-decorated AuNPs exhibited a more well-dispersed spherical morphology with smaller particle sizes under alkaline conditions (pH 7.1-12.0). Through this study, a facile, simple, and green method has been demonstrated for preparation of stimuli-sensitive AuNPs using biocompatible polyanionic polysaccharides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Studies on 2-phenylquinoline Staphylococcus aureus NorA efflux pump inhibitors: New insights on the C-6 position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Tommaso; Cannalire, Rolando; Nizi, Maria Giulia; Tabarrini, Oriana; Massari, Serena; Barreca, Maria Letizia; Manfroni, Giuseppe; Schindler, Bryan D; Cecchetti, Violetta; Kaatz, Glenn W; Sabatini, Stefano

    2018-06-06

    The alarming and rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria represents a high risk for global health. Targeting factors involved in resistance to restore the activity of failing antibiotics is a promising strategy to overcome this urgent medical need. Efflux pump inhibitors are able to increase antibiotic concentrations in bacteria, thus they can be considered true antimicrobial resistance breakers. In this work, continuing our studies on inhibitors of the Staphylococcus aureus NorA pump, we designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated novel 2-phenylquinoline derivatives starting from our hits 1 and 2. Two of the synthesized compounds (6 and 7) bearing a C-6 benzyloxy group showed the best NorA inhibition activity, thereby providing an excellent starting point to direct future chemical optimizations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A Mathematical Model for Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-fermentation (SSCF) of C6 and C5 Sugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Rodriguez, Ricardo; Gernaey, Krist; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of C6 and C5 sugars. The model is constructed by combining existing mathematical models for enzymatic hydrolysis and co-fermentation. An inhibition of ethanol on cellulose conversion is introduced in order to increase the reliability. The mathematical model for the SSCF...... is verified by comparing the model predictions with experimental data obtained from the ethanol production based on kraft paper mill sludge. When fitting the model to the data, only the yield coefficients for glucose and xylose metabolism were fine-tuned, which were found to be 0.43 g·g−1 (ethanol....../glucose) and 0.35 g·g−1 (ethanol/xylose) respectively. These promising validation results encourage further model application to evaluate different process configurations for lignocellulosic bioethanol technology....

  5. The ANC of 16O subthreshold states from 12C(6Li, d) reaction at energies near the barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Sucheta; Basu, Chinmay

    2011-01-01

    The ANC of the 2 + (6.92 MeV) and 1 - (7.12 MeV) subthreshold states of 16 O have been extracted from the normalization of 12 C( 6 Li, d) angular distribution to a Finite Range Distorted Wave Born Approximation (FRDWBA) calculation. The theoretical analysis indicates a peripheral reaction and the extracted ANCs are not sensitive to the number of nodes in the bound state potential. The uncertainty from the entrance channel potential is minimized to 8% for the 6.92 and 11% for the 7.12 MeV state if the normalization is performed at the grazing angle. The uncertainty from the exit channel potential at the grazing angle is found to be 10% and 12% respectively for the 7.12 and 6.92 MeV states.

  6. Effect of compound nuclear reaction mechanism in 12C(6Li,d) reaction at sub-Coulomb energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Ashok; Adhikari, S.; Basu, C.

    2017-09-01

    The angular distribution of the 12C(6Li,d) reaction populating the 6.92 and 7.12 MeV states of 16O at sub-Coulomb energy (Ecm=3 MeV) are analysed in the framework of the Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA). Recent results on excitation function measurements and backward angle angular distributions derive ANC for both the states on the basis of an alpha transfer mechanism. In the present work, we show that considering both forward and backward angle data in the analysis, the 7.12 MeV state at sub-Coulomb energy is populated from Compound nuclear process rather than transfer process. The 6.92 MeV state is however produced from direct reaction mechanism.

  7. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  8. A Hiker's guide to K3. Aspects of N=(4,4) superconformal field theory with central charge c=6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahm, W.; Wendland, K.

    2001-01-01

    We study the moduli space M of N=(4,4) superconformal field theories with central charge c=6. After a slight emendation of its global description we find the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces. Among them are the Z 2 and Z 4 orbifold theories obtained from the torus component of M. Here, SO(4,4) triality is found to play a dominant role. We obtain the B-field values in direction of the exceptional divisors which arise from orbifolding. We prove T-duality for the Z 2 orbifolds and use it to derive the form of M purely within conformal field theory. For the Gepner model (2) 4 and some of its orbifolds we find the locations in M and prove isomorphisms to nonlinear σ models. In particular we prove that the Gepner model (2) 4 has a geometric interpretation with Fermat quartic target space. (orig.)

  9. Nitric oxide donors attenuate clongenic potential in rat C6 glioma cells treated with alkylating chemotherapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jir-Jei; Yin, Jiu-Haw; Yang, Ding-I

    2007-05-11

    1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) kills tumor cells via multiple actions including alkylation and carbamoylation. Previously, we have reported that formation of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in glioma cells overexpressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contributed to nitric oxide (NO)-dependent carbamoylating chemoresistance against BCNU. To further characterize the effects of NO on alkylating cytotoxicity, colony formation assay was applied to evaluate the effects of various NO donors on rat C6 glioma cells challenged with alkylating agents. We demonstrate that NO donors including GSNO, diethylamine NONOate (DEA/NO), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) substantially reduced the extent of colony formation in glioma cells treated with alkylating agents, namely methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU). Without alkylating agents these NO-releasing agents alone had no effects on clongenic potential of rat C6 glioma cells. Among these three NO donors used, the effectiveness in potentiating alkylating cytotoxicity is in the order of "GSNO>DEA/NO>SNP" when applied at the same dosages. GSNO also exerted similar synergistic actions reducing the extents of colony formation when co-administrated with 1,2-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1-(2-chloroethyl)-hydrazine (compound #1), another alkylating agent that mimics the chloroethylating action of BCNU. Together with our previous findings, we propose that NO donors may be used as adjunct chemotherapy with alkylating agents for such malignant brain tumors as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In contrast, production of NO as a result of iNOS induction, such as that occurring after surgical resection of brain tumors, may compromise the efficacy of carbamoylating chemotherapy.

  10. Infection of Mosquito Cells (C6/36) by Dengue-2 Virus Interferes with Subsequent Infection by Yellow Fever Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrao, Emiliana Pereira; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is one of the most important diseases caused by arboviruses in the world. Yellow fever is another arthropod-borne disease of great importance to public health that is endemic to tropical regions of Africa and the Americas. Both yellow fever and dengue viruses are flaviviruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, and then, it is reasonable to consider that in a given moment, mosquito cells could be coinfected by both viruses. Therefore, we decided to evaluate if sequential infections of dengue and yellow fever viruses (and vice-versa) in mosquito cells could affect the virus replication patterns. Using immunofluorescence and real-time PCR-based replication assays in Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells with single or sequential infections with both viruses, we demonstrated the occurrence of viral interference, also called superinfection exclusion, between these two viruses. Our results show that this interference pattern is particularly evident when cells were first infected with dengue virus and subsequently with yellow fever virus (YFV). Reduction in dengue virus replication, although to a lower extent, was also observed when C6/36 cells were initially infected with YFV followed by dengue virus infection. Although the importance that these findings have on nature is unknown, this study provides evidence, at the cellular level, of the occurrence of replication interference between dengue and yellow fever viruses and raises the question if superinfection exclusion could be a possible explanation, at least partially, for the reported lack of urban yellow fever occurrence in regions where a high level of dengue transmission occurs.

  11. Fracture of coherent interfaces between an fcc metal matrix and the Cr23C6 carbide precipitate from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Elric; Fu, Chu-Chun; Sauzay, Maxime

    2018-02-01

    It is known that microcrack initiation in metallic alloys containing second-phase particles may be caused by either an interfacial or an intraprecipitate fracture. So far, the dependence of these features on properties of the precipitate and the interface is not clearly known. The present study aims to determine the key properties of carbide-metal interfaces controlling the energy and critical stress of fracture, based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. We address coherent interfaces between a fcc iron or nickel matrix and a frequently observed carbide, the M23C6 , for which a simplified chemical composition Cr23C6 is assumed. The interfacial properties such as the formation and Griffith energies, and the effective Young's modulus are analyzed as functions of the magnetic state of the metal lattice, including the paramagnetic phase of iron. Interestingly, a simpler antiferromagnetic phase is found to exhibit similar interfacial mechanical behavior to the paramagnetic phase. A linear dependence is determined between the surface (and interface) energy and the variation of the number of chemical bonds weighted by the respective bond strength, which can be used to predict the relative formation energy for the surface and interface with various chemical terminations. Finally, the critical stresses of both intraprecipitate and interfacial fractures due to a tensile loading are estimated via the universal binding energy relation (UBER) model, parametrized on the DFT data. The validity of this model is verified in the case of intraprecipitate fracture, against results from DFT tensile test simulations. In agreement with experimental evidences, we predict a much stronger tendency for an interfacial fracture for this carbide. In addition, the calculated interfacial critical stresses are fully compatible with available experimental data in steels, where the interfacial carbide-matrix fracture is only observed at incoherent interfaces.

  12. ROS enhancement by silicon nanoparticles in X-ray irradiated aqueous suspensions and in glioma C6 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gara, Pedro M. [CITOMA, Fundacion Avanzar, Instituto de Terapia Radiante S.A., CIO La Plata (Argentina); Garabano, Natalia I. [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA (Argentina); Llansola Portoles, Manuel J. [UNLP, INIFTA, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Moreno, M. Sergio [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina); Dodat, Diego; Casas, Oscar R. [CITOMA, Fundacion Avanzar, Instituto de Terapia Radiante S.A., CIO La Plata (Argentina); Gonzalez, Monica C., E-mail: gonzalez@inifta.unlp.edu.ar [UNLP, INIFTA, Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Kotler, Monica L., E-mail: kotler@qb.fcen.uba.ar [University of Buenos Aires, Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, UBA (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The capability of silicon nanoparticles to increase the yield of reactive species upon 4 MeV X-ray irradiation of aqueous suspensions and C6 glioma cell cultures was investigated. ROS generation was detected and quantified using several specific probes. The particles were characterized by FTIR, XPS, TEM, DLS, luminescence, and adsorption spectroscopy before and after irradiation to evaluate the effect of high energy radiation on their structure. The total concentration of O{sub 2}{sup Bullet -}/HO{sub 2}{sup Bullet}, HO{sup Bullet}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated upon 4-MeV X-ray irradiation of 6.4 {mu}M silicon nanoparticle aqueous suspensions were on the order of 10 {mu}M per Gy, ten times higher than that obtained in similar experiments but in the absence of particles. Cytotoxic {sup 1}O{sub 2} was generated only in irradiation experiments containing the particles. The particle surface became oxidized to SiO{sub 2} and the luminescence yield reduced with the irradiation dose. Changes in the surface morphology did not affect, within the experimental error, the yields of ROS generated per Gy. X-ray irradiation of glioma C6 cell cultures with incorporated silicon nanoparticles showed a marked production of ROS proportional to the radiation dose received. In the absence of nanoparticles, the cells showed no irradiation-enhanced ROS generation. The obtained results indicate that silicon nanoparticles of <5 nm size have the potential to be used as radiosensitizers for improving the outcomes of cancer radiotherapy. Their capability of producing {sup 1}O{sub 2} upon X-ray irradiation opens novel approaches in the design of therapy strategies.

  13. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are involved in manganese toxicity in rat astrocytoma C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana M; Kotler, Mónica L

    2011-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a trace element known to be essential for maintaining the proper function and regulation of many biochemical and cellular reactions. However, chronic exposure to high levels of Mn in occupational or environmental settings can lead to its accumulation in the brain resulting in a degenerative brain disorder referred to as Manganism. Astrocytes are the main Mn store in the central nervous system and several lines of evidence implicate these cells as major players in the role of Manganism development. In the present study, we employed rat astrocytoma C6 cells as a sensitive experimental model for investigating molecular mechanisms involved in Mn neurotoxicity. Our results show that C6 cells undergo reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptotic cell death involving caspase-8 and mitochondrial-mediated pathways in response to Mn. Exposed cells exhibit typical apoptotic features, such as chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, caspase-3 activation and caspase-specific cleavage of the endogenous substrate poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Participation of the caspase-8 dependent pathway was assessed by increased levels of FasL, caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage. The involvement of the mitochondrial pathway was demonstrated by the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, cytochrome c release, caspase-9 activation and the increased mitochondrial levels of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In addition, our data also shows for the first time that mitochondrial fragmentation plays a relevant role in Mn-induced apoptosis. Taking together, these findings contribute to a deeper elucidation of the molecular signaling mechanisms underlying Mn-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. El CO2 como disolvente y como reactivo

    OpenAIRE

    La Franca Pitarresi, Vincenzo Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Existen numerosas ventajas asociada con el uso de CO2 , tanto como disolvente que como reactivo, y todas se pueden resumir en cuatro categorías generales: beneficios ambiental, beneficios de salud y seguridad, beneficios en el procedimiento y beneficios químicos. Los procesos que implican el CO2 como disolvente no aumentaría las emisiones de CO2, más bien proporcionaría una oportunidad para el reciclaje de CO2 residual. Además, los esfuerzos para secuestrar el CO2 producido de los gases de co...

  15. Potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico de ex-usuários de drogas Brain stem evoked response audiometry of former drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara Milbradt Weich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As drogas ilícitas são conhecidas pelos seus efeitos deletérios no sistema nervoso central; no entanto, elas também podem atingir o sistema auditivo, provocando alterações. OBJETIVOS: Analisar e comparar os resultados dos potenciais evocados auditivos de tronco encefálico (PEATE de frequentadores de grupos de apoio a ex-usuários de drogas. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, não experimental, descritivo e quantitativo. A amostra foi composta por 17 indivíduos divididos conforme o tipo de droga mais consumida: 10 indivíduos no grupo maconha (G1 e sete no grupo crack/cocaína (G2. Eles foram subdivididos pelo tempo de uso de drogas: um a cinco anos, seis a 10 anos e mais que 15 anos. A avaliação foi feita por meio de anamnese, audiometria tonal liminar, medidas de imitância acústica e PEATE. RESULTADOS: Ao comparar os resultados de G1 e G2, independente do tempo de uso de drogas, não se observou diferença estatisticamente significante nas latências absolutas e nos intervalos interpicos. No entanto, apenas cinco dos 17 indivíduos tiveram PEATE com resultados adequados para a faixa etária. CONCLUSÃO: Independentemente do tempo de utilização das drogas, o uso de maconha e crack/cocaína pode provocar alterações difusas no tronco encefálico, comprometendo a transmissão do estímulo auditivo.Illicit drugs are known for their deleterious effects upon the central nervous system and more specifically for how they adversely affect hearing. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze and compare the hearing complaints and the results of brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA of former drug user support group goers. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional non-experimental descriptive quantitative study. The sample consisted of 17 subjects divided by their preferred drug of use. Ten individuals were placed in the marijuana group (G1 and seven in the crack/cocaine group (G2. The subjects were further divided based on how long they had been using

  16. Potenciais evocados auditivos de longa latência: um estudo comparativo entre hemisférios cerebrais Long auditory evoked potential: comparative study between cerebral hemispheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia F. Frizzo

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A partir dos primeiros registros de atividades elétricas cerebrais (EEG em resposta à apresentação de estímulos auditivos em seres humanos, durante a década de 30, pôde-se observar os potenciais evocados auditivos de longa latência - PEALLs (Mendel, 1989. Desde então, muitas pesquisas têm sido realizadas enfatizando o estudo do sistema auditivo em sua totalidade (periférico e central. Considerando a diferenciação funcional entre os hemisférios cerebrais, o presente estudo procurou identificar evidências eletrofisiológicas que constatem diferenciações interhemisféricas. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico randomizado. Objetivo: O objetivo principal foi verificar a ocorrência de possíveis diferenciações entre os PEALLs dos hemisférios direito (Cz/A2 e esquerdo (Cz/A1 em um grupo de normoouvintes entre 8 e 18 anos de idade, por meio da análise comparativa dos registros dos PEALLs, quanto à latência e amplitude. Resultados: Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre as medidas, exceto para o componente P2, na população masculina. Porém, não se pode negar a diferenciação funcional entre os hemisférios e deve-se considerar essa variável durante a realização da pesquisa dos PEALLs. Conclusão: Contudo, futuros trabalhos ainda serão necessários, com amostras maiores ou até mesmo com diferentes posicionamentos de eletrodos, a fim de verificarmos a existência ou não de evidências eletrofisiológicas que constatam essas diferenciações, garantindo a aplicação mais segura e efetiva deste método.Introduction: Since of the first registration of cerebral electric activities (EEG in response to the presentation hearing stimulus in human, decade 30‘s, can be observed the late components or long latency auditory evoked potentials - LLAEP (Mendel, 1989. Ever since, a lot of number of researches have been performed emphasizing the study of the hearing system (the ear and

  17. Entericidin is required for a probiotic treatment (Enterobacter sp. strain C6-6) to protect trout from cold-water disease challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubiger, Carla B; Orfe, Lisa H; Sudheesh, Ponnerassery S; Cain, Kenneth D; Shah, Devendra H; Call, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum causes bacterial cold-water disease in multiple fish species, including salmonids. An autochthonous Enterobacter strain (C6-6) inhibits the in vitro growth of F. psychrophilum, and when ingested as a putative probiotic, it provides protection against injection challenge with F. psychrophilum in rainbow trout. In this study, low-molecular-mass (≤3 kDa) fractions from both Enterobacter C6-6 and Escherichia coli K-12 culture supernatants inhibited the growth of F. psychrophilum. The ≤3-kDa fraction from Enterobacter C6-6 was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, and subsequent tandem mass spectroscopy identified EcnB, which is a small membrane lipoprotein that is a putative pore-forming toxin. Agar plate diffusion assays demonstrated that ecnAB knockout strains of both Enterobacter C6-6 and E. coli K-12 no longer inhibited F. psychrophilum (P ) and the wild-type strain (C6-6) were added to the fish diet every day for 38 days. On day 11, the fish were challenged by injection with a virulent strain of F. psychrophilum (CSF 259-93). Fish that were fed C6-6 had significantly longer survival than fish fed the ecnAB knockout strain (P Enterobacter C6-6, and it may present new opportunities for therapeutic and prophylactic treatments against similarly susceptible pathogens. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. C6 Coefficients and Dipole Polarizabilities for All Atoms and Many Ions in Rows 1-6 of the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Tim; Bučko, Tomáš

    2016-08-09

    Using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with exchange kernels, we calculate and test imaginary frequency-dependent dipole polarizabilities for all atoms and many ions in rows 1-6 of the periodic table. These are then integrated over frequency to produce C6 coefficients. Results are presented under different models: straight TDDFT calculations using two different kernels; "benchmark" TDDFT calculations corrected by more accurate quantum chemical and experimental data; and "benchmark" TDDFT with frozen orbital anions. Parametrizations are presented for 411+ atoms and ions, allowing results to be easily used by other researchers. A curious relationship, C6,XY ∝ [αX(0)αY(0)](0.73), is found between C6 coefficients and static polarizabilities α(0). The relationship C6,XY = 2C6,XC6,Y/[(αX/αY)C6,Y + (αY/αX)C6,X] is tested and found to work well (30% errors) in a small fraction of cases.

  19. Optimization of hydrothermal pretreatment for co-utilization C-5 and C-6 sugars of cassava alcohol residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Huisheng; Lv, Chunliu; Zhang, Minhua; Liu, Shuangyan; Liu, Jiatao; Lian, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Cassava alcohol residue was first pretreated by hydrothermal reaction. • Hydrothermal pretreatment was optimized by RSM for co-utilization of C-5 and C-6 sugars. • The maximum xylose yield and the highest enzymatic digestibility were not obtained at the same conditions. • Optimum pretreatment conditions were at 193 °C, with 11.4% solids and for 51 min. • The optimal theoretical ethanol production was 69.5 mg/g raw materials by co-utilization of C-5 and C-6 sugars. - Abstract: Hydrothermal reaction was first applied to pretreat cassava alcohol residue for realizing the co-utilization of xylose and glucose to assume fermentation ethanol. This work focused on the influence of hydrothermal pretreatment conditions on ethanol production. Hydrothermal reaction was used to explore the maximum xylose and glucose yields, in respect to reaction temperature (120–240 °C), solid-liquid ratio (0.023–0.150) and reaction time (15–120 min). The results showed that the suitable conditions were at 180–200 °C, for 45–60 min and with 10–12.5% solids. In this range, the conjunct of xylose and glucose would reach the maximum, which can make full use of hemicellulose and cellulose in cassava alcohol residue. According to the results, respond surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was used to further optimize the three independent variables for the highest ethanol by co-utilization of xylose and glucose. RSM revealed that the effect of temperature on ethanol production was much more significant than the effect of reaction time and solid-liquid ratio, and the highest ethanol production was 70.6 mg/g that was close to the experiment value of 69.5 mg/g at 193 °C for 51 min and with 11.5% solids. Furthermore, the crystallinity and morphology of the untreated and pretreated cassava alcohol residue were investigated to assess the effect of hydrothermal pretreatment by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD

  20. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mosquito C6/36 Cells Reveals Host Proteins Involved in Zika Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Qi-Lin; Deng, Cheng-Lin; Chen, Xi; Wang, Jun; Wang, Shao-Bo; Wang, Wei; Deng, Fei; Zhang, Bo; Xiao, Gengfu; Zhang, Lei-Ke

    2017-06-15

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae During replication processes, flavivirus manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while the host cells activate antiviral responses. Identification of host proteins involved in the flavivirus replication process may lead to the discovery of antiviral targets. The mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are epidemiologically important vectors for ZIKV, and effective restrictions of ZIKV replication in mosquitoes will be vital in controlling the spread of virus. In this study, an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of ZIKV-infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells was performed to investigate host proteins involved in the ZIKV infection process. A total of 3,544 host proteins were quantified, with 200 being differentially regulated, among which CHCHD2 can be upregulated by ZIKV infection in both mosquito C6/36 and human HeLa cells. Our further study indicated that CHCHD2 can promote ZIKV replication and inhibit beta interferon (IFN-β) production in HeLa cells, suggesting that ZIKV infection may upregulate CHCHD2 to inhibit IFN-I production and thus promote virus replication. Bioinformatics analysis of regulated host proteins highlighted several ZIKV infection-regulated biological processes. Further study indicated that the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) plays roles in the ZIKV entry process and that an FDA-approved inhibitor of the 20S proteasome, bortezomib, can inhibit ZIKV infection in vivo Our study illustrated how host cells respond to ZIKV infection and also provided a candidate drug for the control of ZIKV infection in mosquitoes and treatment of ZIKV infection in patients. IMPORTANCE ZIKV infection poses great threats to human health, and there is no FDA-approved drug available for the treatment of ZIKV infection. During replication, ZIKV manipulates host cell systems to facilitate its replication, while host cells activate

  1. Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUDA NDOYE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound has been obtained on allowing [C6H3(CO23(Et2NH23] to react with SnBr4. The molecular structure of Et2NH2C6H3(CO23SnBr2.4H2O has been determined on the basis of the infrared data. The suggested structure is a dimer in which each tin atom is hexacoordinated by two chelating C6H3(CO233- anions and two Br atoms. Cy2NH2+cations are involved through hydrogen bonds with non-coordinating CO2 groups. The suggested structure is a cage.

  2. Bis(arene) actinide sandwich complexes, (η6-C6H3R3)2An: Linear or bent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Bursten, B.E.

    1999-01-01

    The syntheses of the sandwich complexes ferrocene, (η 5 -C 5 H 5 ) 2 -Fe, in 1951 and uranocene, (η 8 -C 8 H 8 ) 2 U, in 1968 ushered in the modern eras of organotransition metal and organoactinide chemistry, respectively. Ferrocene and uranocene are examples of linear sandwich complexes, that is, those in which the (ring centroid)-M-(ring centroid) angle (denoted θ) is 180 degree. In the case of (η 5 -C 5 H 5 ) 2 M chemistry, a number of bent (θ 2 An (An = Th-Am) and (η 6 -C 6 H 3 R 3 ) 2 An (An = Th, U, Pu; R = Me, t Bu) obtained by using local density approximation (LDA) and Perdew-Wang (PW91) gradient-corrected relativistic density functional theory (DFT) methods. These DFT methods are found to be able to reproduce the experimental geometries and vibrational frequencies of organoactinide complexes with satisfactory accuracy. The (TTB) 2 An calculations that are reported here are, to date, the largest full geometry optimizations to be carried out on an actinide system

  3. Mechanism of isotactic styrene polymerization with a C 6F 5-substituted bis(phenoxyimine) titanium system

    KAUST Repository

    Caporaso, Lucia; Loria, Marianna; Mazzeo, Mina; Michiue, Kenji; Nakano, Takashi; Fujita, Terunori; Cavallo, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    We report a combined, experimental and theoretical, study of styrene polymerization to clarify the regio- and stereocontrol mechanism operating with a C 6F 5-substituted bis(phenoxyimine) titanium dichloride complex. Styrene homopolymerization, styrene-propene and styrene-ethene-propene copolymerizations have been carried out to this aim. A combination of 13C NMR analysis of the chain-end groups and of the microstructure of the homopolymers and copolymers reveals that styrene polymerization is highly regioselective and occurs prevalently through 2,1-monomer insertion. DFT calculations evidenced that steric interaction between the growing chain and the monomer in the transition state insertion stage is at the origin of this selectivity. The formation of isotactic polystyrene with a chain-end like microstructure is rationalized on the base of a mechanism similar to that proposed for the syndiospecific propene polymerization catalyzed by bis(phenoxyimine) titanium dichloride complexes. Finally, a general stereocontrol mechanism operative in olefin polymerization with this class of complexes is proposed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Physiological and transcriptional approaches reveal connection between nitrogen and manganese cycles in Shewanella algae C6G3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigle, Axel; Bonin, Patricia; Iobbi-Nivol, Chantal; Méjean, Vincent; Michotey, Valérie

    2017-03-01

    To explain anaerobic nitrite/nitrate production at the expense of ammonium mediated by manganese oxide (Mn(IV)) in sediment, nitrate and manganese respirations were investigated in a strain (Shewanella algae C6G3) presenting these features. In contrast to S. oneidensis MR-1, a biotic transitory nitrite accumulation at the expense of ammonium was observed in S. algae during anaerobic growth with Mn(IV) under condition of limiting electron acceptor, concomitantly, with a higher electron donor stoichiometry than expected. This low and reproducible transitory accumulation is the result of production and consumption since the strain is able to dissimilative reduce nitrate into ammonium. Nitrite production in Mn(IV) condition is strengthened by comparative expression of the nitrate/nitrite reductase genes (napA, nrfA, nrfA-2), and rates of the nitrate/nitrite reductase activities under Mn(IV), nitrate or fumarate conditions. Compared with S. oneidensis MR-1, S. algae contains additional genes that encode nitrate and nitrite reductases (napA-α and nrfA-2) and an Outer Membrane Cytochrome (OMC)(mtrH). Different patterns of expression of the OMC genes (omcA, mtrF, mtrH and mtrC) were observed depending on the electron acceptor and growth phase. Only gene mtrF-2 (SO1659 homolog) was specifically expressed under the Mn(IV) condition. Nitrate and Mn(IV) respirations seem connected at the physiological and transcriptional levels.

  5. Comblike poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers as anti-infection surface modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-ngam, Katanchalee

    2006-05-01

    A series of structurally well-defined poly(ethylene oxide)/hydrophobic C6 branched chitosan surfactant polymers that undergo surface induced self assembly on hydrophobic biomaterial surfaces were synthesized and characterized. The surfactant polymers consist of low molecular weight (Mw) chitosan backbone with hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic hexyl pendant groups. Chitosan was depolymerized by nitrous acid deaminative cleavage. Hexanal and aldehyde-terminated PEO chains were simultaneously attached to low Mw chitosan hydrochloride via reductive amination. The surfactant polymers were prepared with various ratios of the two side chains. The molecular composition of the surfactant polymers was determined by FT-IR and 1H NMR. Surface active properties at the air-water interface were determined by Langmuir film balance measurements. The surfactant polymers with PEO/hexyl ratios of 1:3.0 and 1:14.4 were used as surface modifying agents to investigate their anti-infection properties. E. coli adhesion on Silastic surface was decreased significantly by the surfactant polymer with PEO/hexyl 1:3.0. Surface growth of adherent E. coli was effectively suppressed by both tested surfactant polymers.

  6. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl) retinamide potentiated paclitaxel for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Rajiv; Butler, Jonathan T.; Banik, Naren L.; Ray, Swapan K.

    2009-01-01

    Glioblastoma grows aggressively due to its ability to maintain abnormally high potentials for cell proliferation. The present study examines the synergistic actions of N-(4-hdroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) and paclitaxel (PTX) to control the growth of rat glioblastoma C6 and RG2 cell lines. 4-HPR induced astrocytic differentiation was accompanied by increased expression of the tight junction protein e-cadherin and sustained down regulation of Id2 (member of inhibitor of differentiation family), catalytic subunit of rat telomerase reverse transcriptase (rTERT), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Flow cytometric analysis showed that the microtubule stabilizer PTX caused cell cycle deregulation due to G2/M arrest. This in turn could alter the fate of kinetochore-spindletube dynamics thereby halting cell cycle progression. An interesting observation was induction of G1/S arrest by combination of 4-HPR and PTX, altering the G2/M arrest induced by PTX alone. This was further ratified by the upregulation of tumor suppressor protein retinoblastoma, which repressed the expression of the key signaling moieties to induce G1/S arrest. Collectively, combination of 4-HPR and PTX diminished the survival factors (e.g., rTERT, PCNA, and Bcl-2) to make glioblastoma cells highly prone to apoptosis with activation of cysteine proteases (e.g., calpain, cathepsins, caspase-8, caspase-3) in two glioblastoma cell lines. Hence, combination 4-HPR and PTX can be considered as an effective therapeutic strategy for controlling the growth of heterogeneous glioblastoma cell populations. PMID:19285047

  7. Sustainable Synthesis of Oxalic and Succinic Acid through Aerobic Oxidation of C6 Polyols Under Mild Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Maria; Williamson, David; Lobefaro, Francesco; Jones, Matthew D; Mattia, Davide; Nocito, Francesco; Aresta, Michele; Dibenedetto, Angela

    2018-03-22

    The sustainable chemical industry encompasses a shift from the use of fossil carbon to renewable carbon. The synthesis of chemicals from nonedible biomass (cellulosic or oil) represents one of the key steps for "greening" the chemical industry. In this paper, we report the aerobic oxidative cleavage of C6 polyols (5-HMF, glucose, fructose and sucrose) to oxalic acid (OA) and succinic acid (SA) in water under mild conditions using M@CNT and M@NCNT (M=Fe, V; CNT=carbon nanotubes; NCNT=N-doped CNT), which, under suitable conditions, were recoverable and reusable without any loss of efficiency. The influence of the temperature, O 2 pressure (PO2 ), reaction time and stirring rate are discussed and the best reaction conditions are determined for an almost complete conversion of the starting material and a good OA yield of 48 %. SA and formic acid were the only co-products. The former could be further converted into OA by oxidation in the presence of formic acid, resulting in an overall OA yield of >62 %. This process was clean and did not produce organic waste nor gas emissions. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. 16O resonances near the 4α threshold through the 12C(6Li,d) reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Duarte, J. L. M.; Rodrigues, C. L.; Souza, M. A.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L. B.; Ukita, G. M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Foti, A.

    2014-02-01

    Background: Resonances around xα thresholds in light nuclei are recognized to be important in basic aspects of nuclear structure. However, there is scarce experimental information associated with them. Purpose: We study the α-clustering phenomenon in resonant states around the 4α threshold (14.44 MeV) in the 16O nucleus. Method: The 12C(6Li,d )16O reaction was investigated with an unprecedented resolution at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV by employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique. Results: Several narrow resonances were populated and the energy resolution of 15 keV allows for the separation of doublet states that were not resolved previously. The upper limits for the resonance widths in this region were extracted. The angular distributions of the absolute differential cross section associated with four natural parity quasibound states are presented and compared to distorted wave Born approximation predictions. Conclusions: Narrow resonances not previously reported in the literature were observed. This indicates that the α-cluster structure information in this region should be revised.

  9. Mechanism of isotactic styrene polymerization with a C 6F 5-substituted bis(phenoxyimine) titanium system

    KAUST Repository

    Caporaso, Lucia

    2012-11-13

    We report a combined, experimental and theoretical, study of styrene polymerization to clarify the regio- and stereocontrol mechanism operating with a C 6F 5-substituted bis(phenoxyimine) titanium dichloride complex. Styrene homopolymerization, styrene-propene and styrene-ethene-propene copolymerizations have been carried out to this aim. A combination of 13C NMR analysis of the chain-end groups and of the microstructure of the homopolymers and copolymers reveals that styrene polymerization is highly regioselective and occurs prevalently through 2,1-monomer insertion. DFT calculations evidenced that steric interaction between the growing chain and the monomer in the transition state insertion stage is at the origin of this selectivity. The formation of isotactic polystyrene with a chain-end like microstructure is rationalized on the base of a mechanism similar to that proposed for the syndiospecific propene polymerization catalyzed by bis(phenoxyimine) titanium dichloride complexes. Finally, a general stereocontrol mechanism operative in olefin polymerization with this class of complexes is proposed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  10. Studies of 12C6+ heavy ions irradiation on seed germination and young seedling growth of four crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Landi; Zhang Yingcong; Wu Dali; Liang Kai; Zhang Yanping; Jia Ruiling; Qin Qianqian; Cheng Xi; Qian Pingping; Li Wenjian; Hou Suiwen

    2008-01-01

    Crops of Brassica napus L., Linum usitatissmum L., Allium f istulosum L. and Lens culinaris Medic. were irradiated by 80 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams with doses of 30, 90 and 180 Gy. The germination rates and heights of seedlings of M 1 and M 2 generation of these four plants were studied. The results indicated that germination rates and average heights of the B. napus and L. usitatissmum were improved by appropriate dose treatment, while great suppression was found in the irradiated groups of the A. fistulosum. As far as the L. Culinaris was concerned, little differences was observed on M 1 germination rate, but the 90 Gy irradiation was favorable to growth of plant. The treatments with 30, 90 and 180 Gy were inferior to contrast one on M 2 germination rate of the four species. Seedlings of M 2 generation of the B. napus, L. sitatissmum and L. culinaris under 30 Gy grew better than the other groups, while the best performance of the A. fistulosum was shown by the control group. (authors)

  11. A condicionalidade como zona conceitual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Peres de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho avaliam-se diferentes padrões de construções condicionais no português a partir dos parâmetros de condicionalidade. O objetivo principal é mostrar como a categoria está internamente organizada não apenas em termos de um núcleo prototípico, mas mostrando como os exemplares mais periféricos se relacionam a ele. As bases teóricas deste trabalho assentam-se sobre concepções funcional-cognitivistas, nos termos de Bybee (2010 e Dancygier (1998, especialmente considerando a relativa instabilidade da gramática e a fluidez da categoria. As reflexões principais apontam a condicionalidade como uma categoria bastante complexa que serve de/como abrigo de múltiplas construções.

  12. Identification of a 48 kDa tubulin or tubulin-like C6/36 mosquito cells protein that binds dengue virus 2 using mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, H.-Y.; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2004-01-01

    Binding of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) to C6/36 mosquito cells protein was investigated. A 48 kDa DENV-2-binding C6/36 cells protein (D2BP) was detected in a virus overlay protein-binding assay. The binding occurred only to the C6/36 cells cytosolic protein fraction and it was inhibited by free D2BP. D2BP was shown to bind to DENV-2 E in the far-Western-binding studies and using mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS, peptide masses of the D2BP that matched to β-tubulin and α-tubulin chains were identified. These findings suggest that DENV-2 through DENV-2 E binds directly to a 48 kDa tubulin or tubulin-like protein of C6/36 mosquito cells

  13. Aspects of transmetallation reactions of 2-Me2NCH2C6H4- and 2,6-(Me2NCH2)-C6H3-metal (Pd,Pt,Hg,Tl) complexes with metal carboxylates and low-valent metal (Pd,Pt) complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der; Vrieze, K.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of reactions involving organometallic compounds containing ortho-Me{2}NCH{2} substituted aryl ligands. The single step syntheses of the new compounds [(2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4}){2}TlCl], [ [{(S)-2-Me{2}NCH(Me)C{6}H{4}}{2}TlCl], [{(S)-2-Me{2}NCH(Me)C{6}H{4}}TlCl{2}], [{2,

  14. PLC-dependent intracellular Ca2+ release was associated with C6-ceramide-induced inhibition of Na+ current in rat granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Fei, Xiao-Wei; Fang, Yan-Jia; Shi, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Mei, Yan-Ai

    2008-09-01

    In this report, the effects of C(6)-ceramide on the voltage-gated inward Na(+) currents (I(Na)), two types of main K(+) current [outward rectifier delayed K(+) current (I(K)) and outward transient K(+) current (I(A))], and cell death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells were investigated. At concentrations of 0.01-100 microM, ceramide produced a dose-dependent and reversible inhibition of I(Na) without alteration of the steady-state activation and inactivation properties. Treatment with C(2)-ceramide caused a similar inhibitory effect on I(Na). However, dihydro-C(6)-ceramide failed to modulate I(Na). The effect of C(6)-ceramide on I(Na) was abolished by intracellular infusion of the Ca(2+)-chelating agent, 1,2-bis (2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N, N, N9, N9-tetraacetic acid, but was mimicked by application of caffeine. Blocking the release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum with ryanodine receptor blocker induced a gradual increase in I(Na) amplitude and eliminated the effect of ceramide on I(Na). In contrast, the blocker of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca(2+) receptor did not affect the action of C(6)-ceramide. Intracellular application of GTPgammaS also induced a gradual decrease in I(Na) amplitude, while GDPbetaS eliminated the effect of C(6)-ceramide on I(Na). Furthermore, the C(6)-ceramide effect on I(Na) was abolished after application of the phospholipase C (PLC) blockers and was greatly reduced by the calmodulin inhibitors. Fluorescence staining showed that C(6)-ceramide decreased cell viability and blocking I(Na) by tetrodotoxin did not mimic the effect of C(6)-ceramide, and inhibiting intracellular Ca(2+) release by dantrolene could not decrease the C(6)-ceramide-induced cell death. We therefore suggest that increased PLC-dependent Ca(2+) release through the ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+) receptor may be responsible for the C(6)-ceramide-induced inhibition of I(Na), which does not seem to be associated with C(6)-ceramide-induced granule

  15. Avaliação de interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA), Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Leão,Danyllo Fábio Lessa; Moura,Cristiano Soares de; Medeiros,Danielle Souto de

    2014-01-01

    As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA), visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medsc...

  16. Reactivity of Amine/E(C6F53 (E = B, Al Lewis Pairs toward Linear and Cyclic Acrylic Monomers: Hydrogenation vs. Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reveals the contrasting reactivity of amine/E(C6F53 (E = B, Al Lewis pairs toward linear and cyclic acrylic monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA and biorenewable γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (γMMBL. While mixing of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP and B(C6F53 leads to a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP, Et3N reacts with B(C6F53 to form disproportionation products, ammonium hydridoborate ionic pair and iminium zwitterion. On the other hand, the stoichiometric reaction of either TMP or Et3N with Al(C6F53 leads to clean formation of a classic Lewis adduct (CLA. Neither TMP nor Et3N, when paired with E(C6F53, polymerizes MMA, but the Et3N/2B(C6F53 pair promotes transfer hydrogenation of MMA to form methyl isobutyrate. In contrast, the amine/E(C6F53 pairs promote rapid polymerization of γMMBL carrying the more reactive exocyclic methylene moiety, achieving full conversion in less than 3 min even at a low catalyst loading of 0.0625 mol %. TMP is more effective than Et3N for the polymerization when paired with either the borane or the alane, while the alane exhibits higher polymerization activity than the borane when paired with Et3N. Overall, the TMP/Al(C6F53 system exhibits the highest polymerization activity, achieving a maximum turn-over frequency of 96,000 h−1 at 0.125 mol % of catalyst loading, producing high molecular weight PγMMBL with Mn = 1.29 × 105 g∙mol−1.

  17. Genetic, biochemical, and structural characterization of a new densovirus isolated from a chronically infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Senxiong; Cheng Lingpeng; Zhang Qinfen; Lin Wei; Lu Xinying; Brannan, Jennifer; Zhou, Z.H.; Zhang Jingqiang

    2004-01-01

    We report the isolation, sequencing, biochemical, and structural characterization of a previously undescribed virus in a chronically infected Aedes albopictus C6/36 cell line. This virus is identified as a new densovirus under the Densovirinae subfamily of the Parvoviridae based on its biological and morphologic properties as well as sequence homologies, and is tentatively designated A. albopictus C6/36 cell densovirus (C6/36 DNV). Analysis of the 4094 nt of the C6/36 DNV genome revealed that the plus strand had three large open reading frames (ORFs): a left ORF, a right ORF, and a mid-ORF (within the left ORF), whose potential coding capacities are 91.0, 40.8, and 41.2 kDa, respectively. The left ORF likely encodes the nonstructural protein NS-1, which contains NTP-binding and helicase domains. The right ORF likely encodes structural proteins, VP1 and VP2. Our analyses revealed that C6/36 DNV has a similar genomic organization and shares very high homology in nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequences with Aedes aegypti densovirus (AaeDNV) and A. albopictus densovirus (AalDNV), members of the genus Brevidensovirus of the Densovirinae. Similar to other densoviruses, C6/36 DNV has a different genomic organization and no recognizable sequence homology with viruses in the Parvovirinae. The three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the C6/36 DNV at 15.6-A resolution by electron cryomicroscopy (cryoEM) revealed distinctive outer surface features not previously seen in other parvoviruses, indicating structural divergence of densoviruses, in addition to its genomic differences, while the inner surface of the C6/36 DNV capsid exhibits features that are conserved among parvoviruses

  18. Investigating effect of fusion gene therapy by MR diffusion-weighted imaging in a rat C6 glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Huicong; Dai Jianping; Wei Xinhua; Wang Jianjiao; Li Shaowu; Ma Jun; Ai Lin; Liu Fengsheng; Chai Qi; Zhao Weijiang; Gao Peiyi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for early detection of tumor response to Angiostatin-Endostatin (Statin-AE) fusion gene therapy in a rat C6 glioma model. Methods: Fifty male wistar rats with C6 tumor cells implanted into the striatum were examined by a 3.0T MR scanner, then the rats bearing tumors were divided into two groups, treatment group and control group. Rats in the treatment group received 107 plaque forming unit (pfu) recombinant herps simplex viral (R-HSV) mediated Statin-AE fusion gene therapy on day 7, and then the tumors were conformed on MRI. Conventional MR and DWI examination were acquired on 1, 2, 3 weeks after implantation with a 5-inch surface coil. Two (1 w), eight (2 w) and all the residual rats (3 w) of each group were sacrificed to perform the histopathological examination after each MRI examination. Pretreatment and post treatment tumor volumes and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were calculated. Bank sum test and t test were employed for statistical analysis. Results: On MRI, 43 rats demonstrated tumors on day 7 with a successful rate of 86%. On week 2, the tumor volumes of the controls and treatment group were 90. 6 and 91.64 mm 3 , with no significant difference (Z=-0.14, P>0.05). On week 3, the tumor volumes of the controls and treatment group were 156.64 and 29.64 mm 3 , and a significant difference was observed (Z=-3.45, P -3 and (0.99 ± 0.08) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and the values of the tumor peripheral parts of the two groups were (1.00 ± 0.25) x 10 -3 and (0.83 ± 0.12) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the ADC values of both tumor centers and peripheral parts of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control group (t=-0.82 and -0.46, P -3 and (0.99 ± 0.09) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and the values of the tumor peripheral parts of the two groups were (0.81±0.19) x 10 -3 and (0.78±0.11) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, there were no statistical difference between the two groups (t=0.82, and -0.46, P<0

  19. Farinha de banana verde como ingrediente funcional em produtos alimentícios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Anjos Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Nos últimos anos, a banana verde tem despertado interesse do mercado consumidor, pois, além do aspecto nutricional, destaca-se a presença de compostos funcionais, em especial o amido resistente. Contudo, sua adstringência limita seu consumo e sua comercialização em forma de farinhas é a principal forma de consumo e utilização, como ingrediente funcional. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar os potenciais usos da farinha de banana verde (FBV na elaboração de produtos alimentícios e os principais métodos de obtenção, e seus efeitos sobre a qualidade físico-química, sensorial e funcional das farinhas obtidas. Fatores como tipo de cultivar ou variedade da fruta, presença ou ausência de casca, técnica de desidratação e condições de operação do equipamento influenciam as características físico-químicas, tecnológicas e funcionais da FBV. A FBV tem sido utilizada como ingrediente funcional na elaboração de diferentes produtos alimentícios, como pão, biscoito cookie, pré-mistura de bolo, snacks, nuggets e, sobretudo, na elaboração de massas alimentícias. De forma geral, o emprego de FBV e produtos alimentícios promove a melhoria de suas propriedades funcionais, devido ao aumento do teor de amido resistente, compostos fenólicos e da atividade antioxidante. A FBV também reduz o teor e a porcentagem de hidrólise do amido digerível e, consequentemente, do índice glicêmico dos produtos, que apresentaram potencial para compor a dieta, principalmente de indivíduos diabéticos e obesos. A FBV pode ser amplamente utilizada tanto pela indústria de alimentos (pães, biscoitos, macarrão, etc., como ingrediente na preparação de pratos prontos e na elaboração de produtos cárneos.

  20. Mechanical behavior of 27CD4 and 100C6 steel joints, rapidly welded using dynamic diffusion welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G. le; Hourcade, M.; Criqui, B.

    1993-01-01

    A new process, dynamic-diffusion-bonding (DDB) was improved in our laboratory (1). It offers the advantages of both classical diffusion-bonding and rapidity, which is consistent with mass production. It was proven possible to carry out high strength bonds in a very short time: 60 seconds with specimens of 27CD4 steel (diameter=16mm). After bonding, the specimens were heat treated in order to homogeneize the structure along the piece. With the optimal bonding conditions, namely a few seconds at 1060 C, in a nitrogen with 5% hydrogen gas, with a proper surface preparation (Ra=0,04 μm) and under a modulated pressure during the whole bonding process (2,3): a) deformation of the bonded specimens is limited to about 2% of the heated length, b) tensile and torsion behaviour is very good: failure occurs out of the interface. No defect remains across the weld interface, c) the failure energy of joints measured with impact tests is lower than that of the base metal, because of the flatness of the interface and because of the presence of very fine oxide particles in the bond, d) fatigue behaviour (rotating beam tests) of bonded pieces is very good: their fatigue strength (720 MPa: stair case estimation for 5 .10 6 cycles) is very closed to those of unbonded specimens (780 MPa), and the crack initiates out of the interface near a big inclusion. With the 100C6 steel, bonds of the same quality were obtained, and with higher roughness of specimens (Ra=0,15 μm), high quality joints were achieved with a duration of 60 seconds at 1050 C. (orig.)

  1. Engineering temporal accumulation of a low recalcitrance polysaccharide leads to increased C6 sugar content in plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Loqué, Dominique [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Lao, Jeemeng [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Catena, Michela [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Verhertbruggen, Yves [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Herter, Thomas [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Yang, Fan [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Harholt, Jesper [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Ebert, Berit [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg C Denmark; Baidoo, Edward E. K. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Keasling, Jay D. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA USA; Heazlewood, Joshua L. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Ronald, Pamela C. [Joint BioEnergy Institute and Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA; Department of Plant Pathology and the Genome Center, University of California, Davis CA USA

    2015-01-14

    Reduced cell wall recalcitrance and increased C6 monosaccharide content are desirable traits for future biofuel crops, as long as these biomass modifications do not significantly alter normal growth and development. Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG), a cell wall polysaccharide only present in grasses and related species among flowering plants, is comprised of glucose monomers linked by both β-1,3 and β-1,4 bonds. Previous data have shown that constitutive production of MLG in barley (Hordeum vulgare) severely compromises growth and development. Here, we used spatio-temporal strategies to engineer Arabidopsis thaliana plants to accumulate significant amounts of MLG in the cell wall by expressing the rice CslF6 MLG synthase using secondary cell wall and senescence-associated promoters. Results using secondary wall promoters were suboptimal. When the rice MLG synthase was expressed under the control of a senescence-associated promoter, we obtained up to four times more glucose in the matrix cell wall fraction and up to a 42% increase in saccharification compared to control lines. Importantly, these plants grew and developed normally. The induction of MLG deposition at senescence correlated with an increase of gluconic acid in cell wall extracts of transgenic plants in contrast to the other approaches presented in this study. MLG produced in Arabidopsis has an altered structure compared to the grass glucan, which likely affects its solubility, while its molecular size is unaffected. The induction of cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis in senescing tissues offers a novel engineering alternative to enhance cell wall properties of lignocellulosic biofuel crops.

  2. Volumetric spiral chemical shift imaging of hyperpolarized [2-(13) c]pyruvate in a rat c6 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Mo; Josan, Sonal; Jang, Taichang; Merchant, Milton; Watkins, Ron; Hurd, Ralph E; Recht, Lawrence D; Mayer, Dirk; Spielman, Daniel M

    2016-03-01

    MRS of hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate can be used to assess multiple metabolic pathways within mitochondria as the (13)C label is not lost with the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. This study presents the first MR spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate in glioma-bearing brain. Spiral chemical shift imaging with spectrally undersampling scheme (1042 Hz) and a hard-pulse excitation was exploited to simultaneously image [2-(13)C]pyruvate, [2-(13)C]lactate, and [5-(13)C]glutamate, the metabolites known to be produced in brain after an injection of hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate, without chemical shift displacement artifacts. A separate undersampling scheme (890 Hz) was also used to image [1-(13)C]acetyl-carnitine. Healthy and C6 glioma-implanted rat brains were imaged at baseline and after dichloroacetate administration, a drug that modulates pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity. The baseline metabolite maps showed higher lactate and lower glutamate in tumor as compared to normal-appearing brain. Dichloroacetate led to an increase in glutamate in both tumor and normal-appearing brain. Dichloroacetate-induced %-decrease of lactate/glutamate was comparable to the lactate/bicarbonate decrease from hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate studies. Acetyl-carnitine was observed in the muscle/fat tissue surrounding the brain. Robust volumetric imaging with hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate and downstream products was performed in glioma-bearing rat brains, demonstrating changes in mitochondrial metabolism with dichloroacetate. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A multi-parametric imaging investigation of the response of C6 glioma xenografts to MLN0518 (tandutinib treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K R Boult

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth; this process is stimulated by the secretion of numerous growth factors including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF. PDGF signalling, through its receptor platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR, is involved in vessel maturation, stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of other angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. PDGFR is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy because it is expressed on both tumour cells and stromal cells associated with the vasculature. MLN0518 (tandutinib is a potent inhibitor of type III receptor tyrosine kinases that demonstrates activity against PDGFRα/β, FLT3 and c-KIT. In this study a multi-parametric MRI and histopathological approach was used to interrogate changes in vascular haemodynamics, structural response and hypoxia in C6 glioma xenografts in response to treatment with MLN0518. The doubling time of tumours in mice treated with MLN0518 was significantly longer than tumours in vehicle treated mice. The perfused vessel area, number of alpha smooth muscle actin positive vessels and hypoxic area in MLN0518 treated tumours were also significantly lower after 10 days treatment. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in vessel calibre or fractional blood volume as assessed using susceptibility contrast MRI. Histological assessment of vessel size and total perfused area did not demonstrate any change with treatment. Intrinsic susceptibility MRI did not reveal any difference in baseline R2* or carbogen-induced change in R2*. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed anti-vascular effects of MLN0518 following 3 days treatment. Hypoxia confers chemo- and radio-resistance, and alongside PDGF, is implicated in evasive resistance to agents targeted against VEGF signalling. PDGFR antagonists may improve potency and efficacy of other therapeutics in combination. This study highlights

  4. A multi-parametric imaging investigation of the response of C6 glioma xenografts to MLN0518 (tandutinib) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boult, Jessica K R; Terkelsen, Jennifer; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Bradley, Daniel P; Robinson, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth; this process is stimulated by the secretion of numerous growth factors including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF signalling, through its receptor platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), is involved in vessel maturation, stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of other angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PDGFR is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy because it is expressed on both tumour cells and stromal cells associated with the vasculature. MLN0518 (tandutinib) is a potent inhibitor of type III receptor tyrosine kinases that demonstrates activity against PDGFRα/β, FLT3 and c-KIT. In this study a multi-parametric MRI and histopathological approach was used to interrogate changes in vascular haemodynamics, structural response and hypoxia in C6 glioma xenografts in response to treatment with MLN0518. The doubling time of tumours in mice treated with MLN0518 was significantly longer than tumours in vehicle treated mice. The perfused vessel area, number of alpha smooth muscle actin positive vessels and hypoxic area in MLN0518 treated tumours were also significantly lower after 10 days treatment. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in vessel calibre or fractional blood volume as assessed using susceptibility contrast MRI. Histological assessment of vessel size and total perfused area did not demonstrate any change with treatment. Intrinsic susceptibility MRI did not reveal any difference in baseline R2* or carbogen-induced change in R2*. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed anti-vascular effects of MLN0518 following 3 days treatment. Hypoxia confers chemo- and radio-resistance, and alongside PDGF, is implicated in evasive resistance to agents targeted against VEGF signalling. PDGFR antagonists may improve potency and efficacy of other therapeutics in combination. This study highlights the challenges

  5. Vaccinia Virus Protein C6 Inhibits Type I IFN Signalling in the Nucleus and Binds to the Transactivation Domain of STAT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Stuart

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The type I interferon (IFN response is a crucial innate immune signalling pathway required for defense against viral infection. Accordingly, the great majority of mammalian viruses possess means to inhibit this important host immune response. Here we show that vaccinia virus (VACV strain Western Reserve protein C6, is a dual function protein that inhibits the cellular response to type I IFNs in addition to its published function as an inhibitor of IRF-3 activation, thereby restricting type I IFN production from infected cells. Ectopic expression of C6 inhibits the induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs in response to IFNα treatment at both the mRNA and protein level. C6 inhibits the IFNα-induced Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT signalling pathway at a late stage, downstream of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and binding of the interferon stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3 complex to the interferon stimulated response element (ISRE. Mechanistically, C6 associates with the transactivation domain of STAT2 and this might explain how C6 inhibits the type I IFN signalling very late in the pathway. During virus infection C6 reduces ISRE-dependent gene expression despite the presence of the viral protein phosphatase VH1 that dephosphorylates STAT1 and STAT2. The ability of a cytoplasmic replicating virus to dampen the immune response within the nucleus, and the ability of viral immunomodulators such as C6 to inhibit multiple stages of the innate immune response by distinct mechanisms, emphasizes the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions and viral immune evasion.

  6. O Estado Federativo de cooperação e as políticas de municipalização do ensino: limites e potenciais

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira,Sonia Martins de Almeida; Rangel,Juliano Soares

    2011-01-01

    A municipalização do ensino emerge como diretriz política adotada pelo Brasil em sua identidade de Estado Federativo de caráter cooperativo, em decorrência de políticas internacionais em sua abrangência e afirmação do sistema neoliberal-capitalista, da globalização, da inserção na Constituição Federal de 1988, da distribuição de competências entre os entes federativos, dos princípios da gestão democrática do ensino público e da colaboração recíproca. Este ensaio tem como objetivo delinear com...

  7. Kinetic study of the degradation of C5 and C6 unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols by ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalalian, Carmen; Roth, Estelle; Chakir, Abdelkhaleq

    2017-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are higher than those from anthropogenic sources. They are therefore likely to have a great influence on atmospheric chemistry both locally and regionally, through their impact on the HOx balance (HOx = HO + HO2), ozone production and ability to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Among the volatile organic compounds of biogenic origin are the family of C5 and C6 unsaturated aldehydes and alcohols. Few information exist regarding the fate of these compounds in the atmosphere especially there reaction with ozone. In this work, we studied the kinetics of the reaction of three unsaturated aldehydes (trans-2-pentenal, trans-2-hexenal and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and three unsaturated alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, cis-2-penten-1-ol and trans-3-hexen-1-ol) with ozone O3 in a rigid atmospheric simulation chamber coupled to an FTIR spectrometer at four different temperatures (273, 298, 333 and 353 K) and at atmospheric pressure. The rate constants of the ozonolysis reaction of the unsaturated aldehydes and the unsaturated alcohols studied were determined and the following Arrhenius expression was obtained (cm3 molecule -1 s -1): k (Trans -2-pentenal)= (3.83 ± 3.71) x 10-16 exp (- (1706 ± 295) / T) k (Trans-2-hexenal)= (1.43 ± 0.67) x 10-16 exp (- (1369 ± 141) / T) k(2-Methyl-2-pentenal)= (3.62± 0.22) x 10-18 exp (- (121 ± 20) / T) k(1-penten-3-ol) = (1.42 ± 1.24) x 10-16 exp (- (642 ± 250) / T) k(Cis-2-penten-1-ol)= (3.14 ± 0.45) x 10-15 exp (- (1045 ± 40) / T) k(Trans-3-hexen-1-ol)= (6.38 ± 1.75) x 10-16 exp (- (686 ± 89) / T) The obtained data will be discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationship and compared with the reported reactivity with OH radicals. The atmospheric implications derived from this study are discussed as well.

  8. Ancestry-shift refinement mapping of the C6orf97-ESR1 breast cancer susceptibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon N Stacey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We used an approach that we term ancestry-shift refinement mapping to investigate an association, originally discovered in a GWAS of a Chinese population, between rs2046210[T] and breast cancer susceptibility. The locus is on 6q25.1 in proximity to the C6orf97 and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1 genes. We identified a panel of SNPs that are correlated with rs2046210 in Chinese, but not necessarily so in other ancestral populations, and genotyped them in breast cancer case:control samples of Asian, European, and African origin, a total of 10,176 cases and 13,286 controls. We found that rs2046210[T] does not confer substantial risk of breast cancer in Europeans and Africans (OR = 1.04, P = 0.099, and OR = 0.98, P = 0.77, respectively. Rather, in those ancestries, an association signal arises from a group of less common SNPs typified by rs9397435. The rs9397435[G] allele was found to confer risk of breast cancer in European (OR = 1.15, P = 1.2 x 10(-3, African (OR = 1.35, P = 0.014, and Asian (OR = 1.23, P = 2.9 x 10(-4 population samples. Combined over all ancestries, the OR was 1.19 (P = 3.9 x 10(-7, was without significant heterogeneity between ancestries (P(het = 0.36 and the SNP fully accounted for the association signal in each ancestry. Haplotypes bearing rs9397435[G] are well tagged by rs2046210[T] only in Asians. The rs9397435[G] allele showed associations with both estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. Using early-draft data from the 1,000 Genomes project, we found that the risk allele of a novel SNP (rs77275268, which is closely correlated with rs9397435, disrupts a partially methylated CpG sequence within a known CTCF binding site. These studies demonstrate that shifting the analysis among ancestral populations can provide valuable resolution in association mapping.

  9. Investigations for the use of the fast digitizers with C6D6 detectors for radiative capture measurements at GELINA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailescu, L.C.; Borella, A.; Massimi, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2009-01-01

    The relatively long dead time in conventional data acquisition systems that provide simultaneously the pulse height and the time information for the detected events hinders cross-section measurements with high count rates. This is the case for capture cross-section measurements at the time-of-flight facility GELINA using high radioactive samples or thick samples of materials having strong resonances. Either the high average count rate (e.g. due to the radioactivity of the sample) or the high instantaneous count rate for strong resonances results in a large dead time correction. One solution to reduce the impact of the dead time is the use of a data acquisition system based on fast digitizers. The performances of two commercial digitizers (CAEN N172B and Acqiris DC282), coupled to a C 6 D 6 scintillator, have been tested in terms of pulse height linearity and resolution, dead time and time resolution. The signal processing was done on-line obtaining simultaneously the pulse height and time information for each detected event. With both digitizers a comparable pulse height linearity and resolution has been obtained as with a conventional system. The total dead time of both digital systems is at least a factor 5 shorter than the one for the conventional system. The main difference in performance between the two digitizers is the time resolution. For a relatively large scintillator, a time resolution of about 2 ns has been achieved with the DC282 module and the conventional system while the time resolution was limited to 15 ns with the CAEN N1728B module. For most nuclei a 15 ns time resolution is sufficient to perform resonance shape analysis. Therefore, the CAEN N1728B module can be used for the majority of capture cross-section measurements at GELINA. However, for nuclei with low level density, for which the resolved resonance region extends to the keV-region, a better time resolution is required and the Acqiris DC282 module has to be used.

  10. BaSO4:Eu as an energy independent thermoluminescent radiation dosimeter for gamma rays and C6+ ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Bahl, Shaila; Singh, Birendra; Kumar, Pratik; Lochab, S. P.; Pandey, Anant

    2018-04-01

    BaSO4:Eu nanophosphor is delicately optimized by varying the concentration of the impurity element and compared to the commercially available thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) and by extension also to CaSO4:Dy (TLD-900) so as to achieve its maximum thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivity. Further, the energy dependence property of this barite nanophosphor is also explored at length by exposing the phosphor with 1.25 MeV of Co-60, 0.662 MeV of Cs-137, 85 MeV and 65 MeV of Carbon ion beams. Various batches of the phosphor at hand (with impurity concentrations being 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.50 and 1.00 mol%) are prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method out of which BaSO4:Eu with 0.20 mol% Eu exhibits the maximum TL sensitivity. Further, the optimized nanophosphor exhibits a whopping 28.52 times higher TL sensitivity than the commercially available TLD-100 and 1.426 times higher sensitivity than TLD-900, a noteworthy linear response curve for an exceptionally wide range of doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2 kGy and a simple glow curve structure. Furthermore, when the newly optimized nanophosphor is exposed with two different energies of gamma radiations, namely 1.25 MeV of Co-60 (dose range- 10-300 Gy) and 0.662 MeV of Cs-137 (dose range- 1-300 Gy), it is observed that the shape and structure of the glow curves remain remarkably similar for different energies of radiation while the TL response curve shows little to no variation. When exposed to different energies of carbon ion beam BaSO4:Eu displays energy independence at lower doses i.e. from 6.059 to 14.497 kGy. Finally, even though energy independence is lost at higher doses, the material shows high sensitivity to higher energy (85 MeV) of carbon beam compared to the lower energy (65 MeV of C6+) and saturation is apparent only after 121.199 kGy. Therefore the present nanophosphor displays potential as an energy independent TLD.

  11. Tailoring the key fuel properties using different alcohols (C2–C6) and their evaluation in gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masum, B.M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Palash, S.M.; Wakil, M.A.; Imtenan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimized C 2 –C 6 alcohols–gasoline blends achieved better properties than E15. • Optimum blends improved torque and reduced BSFC than that of E15 fuel. • Higher peak in-cylinder pressure obtained for alcohol gasoline blends. • Compared to E15, optimum blends reduced BSCO, BSHC and BSNOx emission. - Abstract: The use of ethanol as a fuel for internal combustion engines has been given much attention mostly because of its possible environmental and long-term economical advantages over fossil fuel. Higher carbon number alcohols, such as propanol, butanol, pentanol and hexanol also have the potential to use as alternatives as they have higher energy content, octane number and can displace more petroleum gasoline than that of ethanol. Therefore, this study focuses on improvement of different physicochemical properties using multiple alcohols at different ratios compared to that of the ethanol–gasoline blend (E10/E15). To optimize the properties of multiple alcohol–gasoline blends, properties of each fuel were measured. An optimization tool of Microsoft Excel “Solver” was used to find out the optimum blend. Three optimum blends with maximum heating value (MaxH), maximum research octane number (MaxR) and maximum petroleum displacement (MaxD) are selected for testing in a four cylinder gasoline engine. Tests were conducted under the wide open throttle condition with varying speeds and compared results with that of E15 (Ethanol 15% with gasoline 85%) as well as gasoline. Optimized blends have shown higher brake torque than gasoline. In the terms of BSFC (Brake specific fuel consumption), optimized blends performed better than that of E15. In-cylinder pressure started to rise earlier for all alcohol–gasoline blends than gasoline. The peak in-cylinder pressure and peak heat release rate obtained higher for alcohol gasoline blend than that of gasoline. On the other hand, the use of optimized blends reduces BSCO (Brake specific carbon

  12. Montagem e Imagem como Paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Huapaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available O pensar como montagem e imagem tornou-se um método revelador nos processos de estudos práticos e teóricos do artista e dos pesquisadores nos séculos XX e XXI. Este artigo procura articular três formas de pensar por montagem: nas obras de Bertolt Brecht, Sergei Eisenstein e Georges DidiHuberman. O filósofo e historiador da arte Georges Didi-Huberman reinaugura o debate e o exercício de pensar a antropologia da imagem e a montagem como metalinguagem e forma de conhecimento.

  13. Activation of sp3-CH Bonds in a Mono(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)yttrium Complex. X-ray Crystal Structures and Dynamic Behavior of Cp*Y(o-C6H4CH2NMe2)2 and Cp*Y[o-C6H4CH2NMe(CH2-μ)][μ-o-C6H4CH2NMe(CH2-μ)]YCp*[THF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, Martin; Kiers, Niklaas H.; Meetsma, Auke; Teuben, Jan H.; Smeets, Wilberth J.J.; Spek, Anthony L.

    1989-01-01

    Reaction of Y(o-C6H4CH2NMe2)3 (1) with Cp*H gives Cp*Y(o-C6H4CH2NMe2)2 (2), which crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n (No. 14) with a = 18.607 (4) Å, b = 15.633 (3) Å, c = 8.861 (3) Å, β = 102.73 (3)°, and Z = 4. Least-squares refinement with 3006 independent reflections (F > 4.0σ(F))

  14. La ciudad como ecosistema urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Esther

    2013-01-01

    LA CIUDAD COMO ECOSISTEMA URBANO .- La ecología y los ecosistemas .- El ecosistema urbano, definición, alcance y oportunidad .- El metabolismo urbano .- Los síntomas de la patología urbana .- Los objetivos del nuevo ecosistema urbano .- Las aportaciones de los ecobarrios

  15. LA CUESTIÓN AGRARIA COMO ENFOQUE Y COMO PROBLEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salgado

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo trata de llamar la atención sobre los problemas del agro hoy, colocando especial énfasis en la disrupción entre las razones tecnológicas -que se asumen como ideológicas-, económicas y políticas que han inspirado el desarrollo del agro, o mejor, sobre las cuales se han basado las políticas de crecimiento agropecuario.

  16. In vitro kinetics of P700+ reduction of Thermosynechococcus elongatus trimeric Photosystem I complexes by recombinant cytochrome c 6 using a Joliot-type LED spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Khoa; Vaughn, Michael; Frymier, Paul; Bruce, Barry D

    2017-01-01

    The reduction rate of photo-oxidized Photosystem I (PSI) with various natural and artificial electron donors have been well studied by transient absorption spectroscopy. The electron transfer rate from various donors to P 700 + has been measured for a wide range of photosynthetic organisms encompassing cyanobacteria, algae, and plants. PSI can be a limiting component due to tedious extraction and purification methods required for this membrane protein. In this report, we have determined the in vivo, intracellular cytochrome c 6 (cyt c 6 )/PSI ratio in Thermosynechococcus elongatus (T.e.) using quantitative Western blot analysis. This information permitted the determination of P 700 + reduction kinetics via recombinant cyt c 6 in a physiologically relevant ratio (cyt c 6 : PSI) with a Joliot-type, LED-driven, pump-probe spectrophotometer. Dilute PSI samples were tested under varying cyt c 6 concentration, temperature, pH, and ionic strength, each of which shows similar trends to the reported literature utilizing much higher PSI concentrations with laser-based spectrophotometer. Our results do however indicate kinetic differences between actinic light sources (laser vs. LED), and we have attempted to resolve these effects by varying our LED light intensity and duration. The standardized configuration of this spectrophotometer will also allow a more uniform kinetic analysis of samples in different laboratories. We can conclude that our findings from the LED-based system display an added total protein concentration effect due to multiple turnover events of P 700 + reduction by cyt c 6 during the longer illumination regime.

  17. Assessment of the Changes in 9L and C6 Glioma pO2 by EPR Oximetry as a Prognostic Indicator of Differential Response to Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huagang; Mupparaju, Sriram P.; Lariviere, Jean P.; Hodge, Sassan; Gui, Jiang; Swartz, Harold M.; Khan, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia impedes the outcome of radiotherapy. As the extent of hypoxia in solid tumors varies during the course of radiotherapy, methods that can provide repeated assessment of tumor pO2 such as EPR oximetry may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy by scheduling irradiations when the tumors are oxygenated. The repeated measurements of tumor pO2 may also identify responders, and thereby facilitate the design of better treatment plans for nonresponding tumors. We have investigated the temporal changes in the ectopic 9L and C6 glioma pO2 irradiated with single radiation doses less than 10 Gy by EPR oximetry. The 9L and C6 tumors were hypoxic with pO2 of approximately 5–9 mmHg. The pO2 of C6 tumors increased significantly with irradiation of 4.8–9.3 Gy. However, no change in the 9L tumor pO2 was observed. The irradiation of the oxygenated C6 tumors with a second dose of 4.8 Gy resulted in a significant delay in growth compared to hypoxic and 2 Gy × 5 treatment groups. The C6 tumors with an increase in pO2 of greater than 50% from the baseline of irradiation with 4.8 Gy (responders) had a significant tumor growth delay compared to nonresponders. These results indicate that the ectopic 9L and C6 tumors responded differently to radiotherapy. We propose that the repeated measurement of the oxygen levels in the tumors during radiotherapy can be used to identify responders and to design tumor oxygen guided treatment plans to improve the outcome. PMID:23391148

  18. Induction of cell cycle arrest at G1 and S phases and cAMP-dependent differentiation in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Samuel S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation therapy has been shown effective in treatment of several types of cancer cells and may prove to be effective in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and most aggressive primary brain tumor. Although extensively used as a reagent to inhibit protein synthesis in mammalian cells, whether cycloheximide treatment leads to glioma cell differentiation has not been reported. Methods C6 glioma cell was treated with or without cycloheximide at low concentrations (0.5-1 μg/ml for 1, 2 and 3 days. Cell proliferation rate was assessed by direct cell counting and colony formation assays. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33258 staining and FACS analysis. Changes in several cell cycle regulators such as Cyclins D1 and E, PCNA and Ki67, and several apoptosis-related regulators such as p53, p-JNK, p-AKT, and PARP were determined by Western blot analysis. C6 glioma differentiation was determined by morphological characterization, immunostaining and Western blot analysis on upregulation of GFAP and o p-STAT3 expression, and upregulation of intracellular cAMP. Results Treatment of C6 cell with low concentration of cycloheximide inhibited cell proliferation and depleted cells at both G2 and M phases, suggesting blockade at G1 and S phases. While no cell death was observed, cells underwent profound morphological transformation that indicated cell differentiation. Western blotting and immunostaining analyses further indicated that changes in expression of several cell cycle regulators and the differentiation marker GFAP were accompanied with cycloheximide-induced cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation. Increase in intracellular cAMP, a known promoter for C6 cell differentiation, was found to be elevated and required for cycloheximide-promoted C6 cell differentiation. Conclusion Our results suggest that partial inhibition of protein synthesis in C6 glioma by low concentration of cycloheximide induces cell cycle

  19. Assessment of the changes in 9L and C6 glioma pO2 by EPR oximetry as a prognostic indicator of differential response to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huagang; Mupparaju, Sriram P; Lariviere, Jean P; Hodge, Sassan; Gui, Jiang; Swartz, Harold M; Khan, Nadeem

    2013-03-01

    Tumor hypoxia impedes the outcome of radiotherapy. As the extent of hypoxia in solid tumors varies during the course of radiotherapy, methods that can provide repeated assessment of tumor pO2 such as EPR oximetry may enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy by scheduling irradiations when the tumors are oxygenated. The repeated measurements of tumor pO2 may also identify responders, and thereby facilitate the design of better treatment plans for nonresponding tumors. We have investigated the temporal changes in the ectopic 9L and C6 glioma pO2 irradiated with single radiation doses less than 10 Gy by EPR oximetry. The 9L and C6 tumors were hypoxic with pO2 of approximately 5-9 mmHg. The pO2 of C6 tumors increased significantly with irradiation of 4.8-9.3 Gy. However, no change in the 9L tumor pO2 was observed. The irradiation of the oxygenated C6 tumors with a second dose of 4.8 Gy resulted in a significant delay in growth compared to hypoxic and 2 Gy × 5 treatment groups. The C6 tumors with an increase in pO2 of greater than 50% from the baseline of irradiation with 4.8 Gy (responders) had a significant tumor growth delay compared to nonresponders. These results indicate that the ectopic 9L and C6 tumors responded differently to radiotherapy. We propose that the repeated measurement of the oxygen levels in the tumors during radiotherapy can be used to identify responders and to design tumor oxygen guided treatment plans to improve the outcome.

  20. Total Synthesis of Zoanthamine Alkaloids, Part 2. Construction of the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 Fragments of Zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Tedenborg, Lars; Somfai, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R)-hydroxymethyl-butyrolac......This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R...

  1. Baicalein inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis via modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 gene expression in rat glioma cells C6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.-C.; Chow, J.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Wu, C.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the protective mechanism of baicalein (BE) and its glycoside, baicalin (BI), on hydrogen-peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced cell death in rat glioma C6 cells. Results of the MTT assay, LDH release assay, and morphological observation showed that H 2 O 2 addition reduced the viability of C6 cells, and this was prevented by the addition of BE but not BI. Incubation of C6 cells with BE significantly decreased the intracellular peroxide level induced by H 2 O 2 according to flow cytometric analysis using DCHF-DA as a fluorescent substrate. Suppression of H 2 O 2 -induced apoptotic events including DNA ladders, hypodiploid cells, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and, 9 by BE but not BI was identified in C6 cells. The cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of ERK proteins induced by H 2 O 2 were blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Catalase addition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced ROS production, ERKs protein phosphorylation, and cell death, and BE dose-dependently inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced ERK protein phosphorylation in C6 cells. These data suggest that ROS-scavenging activity is involved in BE prevention of H 2 O 2 -induced cell death via blocking ERKs activation. Additionally, BE but not BI induced heat shock protein 32 (HSP32; HO-1) protein expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners, but not heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protein expression. In the absence of H 2 O 2 , BE induces ERKs protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein expression induced by BE was blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059. The addition of the HO inhibitor ZnPP inhibited the protective effect of BE against H 2 O 2 -induced cytotoxicity in C6 cells according to the MTT assay and apoptotic morphology under microscopic observation, accompanied by blocking the ROS-scavenging activity of BE in C6 cells. However, BE treatment was unable to protect C6 cells from C2-ceramide

  2. Effect of preservation of the C-6 spinous process and its paraspinal muscular attachment on the prevention of postoperative axial neck pain in C3-6 laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Eiji; Ueta, Takayoshi; Maeda, Takeshi; Yugué, Itaru; Kawano, Osamu; Shiba, Keiichiro

    2015-03-01

    Axial neck pain after C3-6 laminoplasty has been reported to be significantly lesser than that after C3-7 laminoplasty because of the preservation of the C-7 spinous process and the attachment of nuchal muscles such as the trapezius and rhomboideus minor, which are connected to the scapula. The C-6 spinous process is the second longest spinous process after that of C-7, and it serves as an attachment point for these muscles. The effect of preserving the C-6 spinous process and its muscular attachment, in addition to preservation of the C-7 spinous process, on the prevention of axial neck pain is not well understood. The purpose of the current study was to clarify whether preservation of the paraspinal muscles of the C-6 spinous process reduces postoperative axial neck pain compared to that after using nonpreservation techniques. The authors studied 60 patients who underwent C3-6 double-door laminoplasty for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy or cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; the minimum follow-up period was 1 year. Twenty-five patients underwent a C-6 paraspinal muscle preservation technique, and 35 underwent a C-6 nonpreservation technique. A visual analog scale (VAS) and VAS grading (Grades I-IV) were used to assess axial neck pain 1-3 months after surgery and at the final follow-up examination. Axial neck pain was classified as being 1 of 5 types, and its location was divided into 5 areas. The potential correlation between the C-6/C-7 spinous process length ratio and axial neck pain was examined. The mean VAS scores (± SD) for axial neck pain were comparable between the C6-preservation group and the C6-nonpreservation group in both the early and late postoperative stages (4.1 ± 3.1 vs 4.0 ± 3.2 and 3.8 ± 2.9 vs 3.6 ± 3.0, respectively). The distribution of VAS grades was comparable in the 2 groups in both postoperative stages. Stiffness was the most prevalent complaint in both groups (64.0% and 54

  3. O Estado Federativo de cooperação e as políticas de municipalização do ensino: limites e potenciais El Estado Federativo de cooperación y las políticas de municipalización de la enseñanza: límites y potencialidades The Federal State of cooperation and the municipalization of the educational system: limitations and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Martins de Almeida Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A municipalização do ensino emerge como diretriz política adotada pelo Brasil em sua identidade de Estado Federativo de caráter cooperativo, em decorrência de políticas internacionais em sua abrangência e afirmação do sistema neoliberal-capitalista, da globalização, da inserção na Constituição Federal de 1988, da distribuição de competências entre os entes federativos, dos princípios da gestão democrática do ensino público e da colaboração recíproca. Este ensaio tem como objetivo delinear como se desenvolve o processo político de municipalização, apontando seus limites e potenciais no que se refere à política educacional no Brasil, a partir de uma abordagem dos efeitos de políticas traçadas na legislação constitucional e infraconstitucional, caracterizados em tais documentos como favoráveis ao desenvolvimento de uma nação identificada pela diversidade econômica, política e social.La municipalización de la enseñanza emerge como directriz política que Brasil adoptó en su identidad de Estado Federativo de carácter cooperativo, como consecuencia de políticas internacionales en su amplitud y afirmación del sistema neoliberal-capitalista, de la globalización, de la inserción en la Constitución Federal de 1988, de la distribución de competencias entre las entidades federativas, de los principios de la gestión democrática de la enseñanza pública y de la colaboración recíproca. Este ensayo tiene por objeto delinear el desarrollo del proceso político de municipalización, señalar sus límites y potencialidades referentes a la política educacional brasileña, a partir de un abordaje de los efectos de políticas orientadas en la legislación constitucional e Infra-constitucional, caracterizados en tales documentos como favorables al desarrollo de una nación identificada por su diversidad económica, política y social.The municipalization of education emerges as a policy guideline adopted by Brazil

  4. Genes relacionados ao metabolismo dos fosfolípides como fatores de risco para o transtorno afetivo bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meira-Lima Ivanor V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de epidemiologia genética fornecem consistente evidência de que o componente genético tem um papel preponderante no risco para o Transtorno Afetivo Bipolar (TAB, embora genes de vulnerabilidade ainda não tenham sido identificados de forma inequívoca. Nesta atualização os autores apresentam dados demonstrando que os fosfolípides exercem um relevante papel nos processos de sinalização intracelular e que estudos da neuroquímica dos estabilizadores do humor convergem em apontar para uma ação destas drogas nas vias de transdução de sinais reguladas pelas fosfolipases. Concluem que investigações de variantes nos genes que codificam enzimas do metabolismo dos fosfolípides como potenciais genes de susceptibilidade podem ampliar o conhecimento acerca dos fatores de risco e dos mecanismos fisiopatológicos envolvidos no surgimento destes transtornos do humor.

  5. Los ancianos como actores sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª PIA ARENYS

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se recogen las discusiones de grupo que se realizaron durante cuatro meses en Barcelona como preparación del "II congreso de la gent gran" (II congreso de ancianos de esta ciudad, en noviembre de 1993. las discusiones se llevaron a cabo en las sedes de cada distrito, previa presentación de la ponencia por parte de un técnico. los componentes de los grupos son personas mayores sensibilizadas y comprometidas que forman parte del consejo de bienestar social del ayuntamiento de Barcelona. la metodología utilizada es cualitativa para el análisis del discurso, que se ha estructurado en los siguientes puntos: bajo el epígrafe "los ancianos como ciudadanos de derechos y obligaciones" se recogen los temas de valoración de la vejez, la familia, la jubilación, las implicaciones de los ancianos como ciudadanos de derechos y deberes y las funciones sociales de los ancianos.-- sobre estos temas, los mayores expresaron sus opiniones, que se vertieron, resumidamente, en la redacción final de la ponencia. aquí se recogen y se han analizado los materiales que ofrecen una versión de primera mano sobre lo que opinan los ancianos respecto al tema de "la valoración de la vejez".

  6. Funções de pedotransferência para predição da umidade retida a potenciais específicos em solos do estado de Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Oliveira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Funções de pedotransferência são equações usadas para estimar características edáficas de difícil determinação a partir de outras mais facilmente obtidas. Apesar do bom número de equações disponíveis para estimativa da umidade retida a potenciais matriciais específicos, elas não devem ser usadas indiscriminadamente, pois, em sua maioria, foram desenvolvidas com solos de clima temperado e a partir de dados gerados por métodos diversos dos em uso nos laboratórios brasileiros. O presente trabalho teve por objetivos: (a elaborar funções de pedotransferência para estimar o conteúdo de água nos potenciais de -33 e -1.500 kPa e a água disponível, a partir de dados granulométricos e de densidade do solo, para solos do estado de Pernambuco e (b comparar a eficiência de predição das equações propostas em relação a equações similares, disponíveis na literatura. No desenvolvimento das equações, foi utilizada uma base de dados composta por 98 perfis de solos e 467 horizontes. Os perfis foram agrupados, de acordo com Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, em 27 classes de terceiro nível categórico (grande grupo. As equações desenvolvidas apresentaram bons coeficientes de determinação e baixo erro de predição. A sistematização dos dados por atividade da fração argila ou grau aproximado de desenvolvimento ou classe textural não produziu melhorias na capacidade preditiva das pedofunções. As equações propostas em outros trabalhos apresentaram elevado erro de predição, o que restringe a sua utilização para solos do estado de Pernambuco.

  7. Anos potenciais de vida perdidos por mulheres vítimas de homicídio na cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil Years of potential life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonildo Severino da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudo epidemiológico, transversal, objetivando calcular os anos potenciais de vida perdidos por mulheres vítimas de homicídio na cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, no quinquênio 2003-2007. Utilizou-se de um banco de dados da Gerência Operacional de Informação de Mortalidade e Natalidade da Secretaria de Saúde do Recife, e foram revisadas todas as declarações de óbitos das vítimas de homicídio, com idade fértil no quinquênio analisado. Os resultados revelaram que houve 12.120 anos potenciais de vida perdidos, no período, por mulheres jovens, negras (88%, de escolaridade desconhecida (78,2%, solteiras (80%, mortas na Região Político-administrativa III, que foram assassinadas com uso de arma de fogo, no próprio domicílio. A taxa de mortalidade específica, no período, correspondeu a 10,8 por 100 mil mulheres em idade fértil. Os 43,3 anos de vida perdidos por cada vítima refletem, entre outros aspectos, as características do município, relativas ao nível de pobreza, desemprego, densidade populacional, instabilidade residencial, desigualdade social, que expõem seus habitantes a crises sociais, crimes e violência.This cross-sectional epidemiological study aimed to calculate the potential years of life lost by female homicide victims in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2003-2007. A database was used from the Operational Division for Information on Births and Deaths under the Recife Municipal Health Department. All death certificates for childbearing-age women were reviewed for the five-year period. The results showed a total of 12,120 potential years of life lost by these women, mostly young, black (88%, with unknown levels of schooling (78.2%, single (80%, in District III of the city, and murdered with firearms in their own homes. The specific mortality rate was 10.8 homicides per 100,000 childbearing-age women. The 43.3 years of life lost per woman express the city's characteristics, poverty levels, unemployment

  8. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(6)-1 - Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real... Organizations § 1.501(c)(6)-1 Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate boards, and boards of trade. A... on for profit. It is an organization of the same general class as a chamber of commerce or board of...

  9. Physiological and biochemical and resistance changes and issr polymorphic analysis exposed to 12C6+ heavy ion radiation on calla lily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhen; Xu Bingliang; Tian Gu; Pu Chongjian; Xu Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Physiological and biochemical changes and ISSR Polymorphic of calla lily caused by exposure to 12 C 6+ heavy-ion radiation were studied. The results showed that bulb germination rate and plant height had significant negative correlation with radiation dose, while MDA content had high significant positive correlation with radiation dose. With increasing radiation dose, the activities of CAT, POD and resistance showed a trend of decrease after an initial increasing. Optimum doses of irradiation were 10 ∼ 20 Gy. ISSR molecular marker of the control and variant plants induced by the 12 C 6+ heavy-ion radiation suggested that 121 bands were amplified with 22 ISSR primers among two calla lily varieties, 55 bands were polymorphic and the polymorphism rate reached to 45%, the 12 C 6+ heavy-ion radiation could cause mutation of genome DNA in calla lily. It is suggested that effect of irradiation on calla lily plant was damage and suppression. Optimum doses of irradiation of 12 C 6+ Heavy ion might be applied for breeding method on Calla lily. (authors)

  10. Synthesis of modified proanthocyanidins: easy and general introduction of a hydroxy group at C-6 of catechin; efficient synthesis of elephantorrhizol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, François-Didier; Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Beauhaire, Josiane; Guernevé, Christine Le; Ducrot, Paul-Henri

    2005-02-01

    A general procedure for the oxidation of catechin derivatives is described, leading to the introduction of a new hydroxy group at C-6. This procedure has been applied for the synthesis of elephantorrhizol, a natural flavan-3-ol exhibiting a fully substituted cycle A.

  11. Development of a biocatalytic process for the production of c6-aldehydes from vegetable oils by soybean lipoxygenase and recombinant hydroperoxide lyase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, M.A.; Goot, van der W.; Kooij, van A.J.; Veldsink, J.W.; Veldink, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Volatile C6- and C9-aldehydes and alcohols are widely used as food flavors to reconstitute the "fresh green" odor of fruits and vegetables lost during processing. To meet the high demand for natural flavors, an efficient, cheap, and versatile biocatalytic process was developed to produce

  12. 26 CFR 1.642(c)-6T - Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a pooled income fund (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Valuation of a remainder interest in property..., Trusts, and Beneficiaries § 1.642(c)-6T Valuation of a remainder interest in property transferred to a...) through (c). (d) Valuation. The present value of the remainder interest in property transferred to a...

  13. Degradation mechanisms of the graphite electrode in C6/LiFePO4 batteries unraveled by a non-destructive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, D.; Danilov, D.L.; Gao, L.; Yang, Yong; Notten, P.

    2016-01-01

    C6/LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries have been cycled at various temperatures (20 and 60◦C) and State-of-Charge (SoC) ranges (0–30, 35–65, 70–100% and 0–100%). Electromotive force (emf) curves have regularly been determined by regression extrapolation of the measured voltage discharge curves. A

  14. From laboratory catalysts to a new prototype: a novel real candidate for the isomerization of C5–C6 paraffins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hidalgo, J. M.; Kaucký, Dalibor; Bortnovsky, O.; Černý, R.; Sobalík, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, JUN 2015 (2015), s. 56625-56628 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI3/316 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : C5-C6 paraffins * isomeration * Pt/WO3–ZrO2 materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  15. Systems biology and pathway engineering enable Saccharomyces cerevisiae to utilize C-5 and C-6 sugars simultaneously for cellulosic ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a traditional industrial workhorse for ethanol production. However, conventional ethanologenic yeast is superior in fermentation of hexose sugars (C-6) such as glucose but unable to utilize pentose sugars (C-5) such as xylose richly embedded in lignocellulosic biomass. In...

  16. Total Synthesis of Zoanthamine Alkaloids, Part 2. Construction of the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 Fragments of Zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Tedenborg, Lars; Somfai, Peter

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of three key intermediates for a projected total synthesis of the marine alkaloid zoanthamine. These building blocks, corresponding to the C1-C5, C6-C10 and C11-C24 fragments of the target molecule, are synthesised efficiently form (R...

  17. Combined dehydration/(transfer)-hydrogenation of C6-sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) to gamma-valerolactone using ruthenium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeres, Hans; Handana, Ratna; Chunai, Dai; Rasrendra, Carolus Borromeus; Girisuta, Buana; Heeres, Hero Jan

    2009-01-01

    gamma-Valerolactone (GVL) is considered a very interesting green, bio-based platform chemical with high application potential. We here describe research activities on the one-pot catalytic synthesis of GVL from C6-sugar sources (D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose and cellulose) using an acid catalyst in

  18. In Silico Analysis for Transcription Factors With Zn(II2C6 Binuclear Cluster DNA-Binding Domains in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergi Maicas

    2005-01-01

    presence of the CysX2CysX6CysX5-16CysX2CysX6-8Cys motif and a putative nuclear localization signal. Using this approach, 70 putative Zn(II2C6 transcription factors have been found in the genome of C. albicans.

  19. Cluster-enhanced X-O-2 photochemistry (X=CH3I, C3H6, C6H12, and Xe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baklanov, A.V.; Bogdanchikov, G.A.; Vidma, K.V.; Chestakov, D.A.; Parker, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of a local environment on the photodissociation of molecular oxygen is investigated in the van der Waals complex X-O-2 (X=CH3I, C3H6, C6H12, and Xe). A single laser operating at wavelengths around 226 nm is used for both photodissociation of the van der Waals complex and simultaneous

  20. Highly Efficient Synthesis of Allopurinol Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer by C6 Deamination of 8-Aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine Locked Nucleic Acid Monomer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosbar, Tamer Reda El-Saeed; Sofan, M.; Abou-Zeid, L.

    2013-01-01

    An allopurinol locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomer was prepared by a novel strategy through C6 deamination of the corresponding 8-aza-7-bromo-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer with aqueous sodium hydroxide. An 8-aza-7-deazaadenine LNA monomer was also synthesized by a modification of the new synthetic...... the required LNA monomers....

  1. Techno-economic and ex-ante environmental assessment of C6 sugars production from spruce and corn. Comparison of organosolv and wet milling technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moncada, Jonathan; Vural Gursel, Iris; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Dijkstra, Jan Wilco; Ramírez, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic and environmental performance of C6 sugars production from softwood (spruce) and corn. Two technologies were considered in the assessment: organosolv of spruce woodchips (2nd generation) and corn wet milling (1st generation). Process models were developed to

  2. The role of molecular architecture and layer composition on the properties and performance of CuPc-C6 photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultes, S.M.; Sullivan, P.; Heutz, S.; Sanderson, B.M.; Jones, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the effects of molecular architecture, co-deposition and annealing on the properties and performance of photovoltaic cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-fullerene (C 6 ) heterojunctions. Significant improvements in performance are achieved when mixed CuPc:C 6 layers are incorporated into the device structure due to the creation of an intermolecularly mixed donor (D)-acceptor (A) blend that favours efficient exciton dissociation. We utilise the control afforded by organic molecular beam deposition to show that the mixed-layer composition plays an important role in determining device performance and correlate device efficiency to the morphological and spectroscopic properties of the organic layers. A maximum power conversion efficiency of η p = 1.17% is achieved for devices containing a mixed layer of ratio 75:25 CuPc:C 6 surrounded by thin continuous layers of pure organic material at the electrode interfaces. A structure containing a compositional gradient where the CuPc:C 6 composition is varied from purely D to purely A via three mixed layers of increasing A composition leads to a further improvements in efficiency (η p = 1.36%). Finally, we use thermal annealing to show how structural defects and morphological templating of organic thin films reduces the interfacial area for exciton separation and yields poor device performance

  3. La proyección como proceso y como mecanismo

    OpenAIRE

    Brusset, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    La proyección es a la vez un mecanismo elemental testimonio de la fragilidad de la organización defensiva y un proceso cuyo rol es fundamental en el funcionamiento psíquico. En este doble aspecto, la proyección guarda especificidades diferentes en la neurosis y en la psicosis al punto que se las deba considerar como fundamentalmente diferentes? O bien las diferencias de contexto, del nivel del funcionamiento psíquico, de lugar, de función pueden explicar las diferencias clínicas justificando ...

  4. Intersetorialidade e potenciais conflitos de interesse entre governos e setor privado comercial no âmbito das ações de alimentação e nutrição para o enfrentamento de doenças crônicas não transmissíveis | Intersectoriality and potential conflicts of interest between governments and private, commercial sector within the context of food and nutrition actions to deal with chronic non-communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Burlandy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo foram analisados os potenciais conflitos entre interesses governamentais e privados de caráter comercial em torno das ações de alimentação e nutrição (AN no âmbito de propostas intersetoriais de enfrentamento das DCNT no Brasil. Para tal, foram identificados artigos acadêmicos e documentos institucionais publicados a partir de 2000 que abordassem as ações de AN em políticas de DCNT pautadas pela intersetorialidade. Foram priorizados elementos que contribuíssem para a compreensão dos potenciais conflitos de interesse entre governos e o setor privado comercial no âmbito de estratégias intersetoriais de enfrentamento de DCNT. Concluiu-se que o princípio da intersetorialidade, desassociado de um processo político que problematize os critérios de eleição e as práticas institucionais dos setores que respondem pelo conjunto de ações que compõe as políticas governamentais, pode servir como facilitador do favorecimento de interesses comerciais. A participação no processo decisório de setores de interesse comercial cujas práticas ferem objetivos e princípios das políticas públicas, movidos pela expansão da demanda por seus produtos e pela concentração progressiva de poder, pode retardar, atenuar ou impedir ações efetivas na redução de DCNT. Esta possibilidade é particularmente relevante no âmbito de atribuições que são próprias aos entes Estatais, especialmente as estratégias regulatórias. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- This article analyzed the potential conflicts of interest between government and private commercial sectors in the area of food and nutrition (FN activities within the context of intersectoral proposals for dealing with chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD in Brazil. To this end, academic articles and institutional documents published after 2000 were identified that addressed FN actions in CNCD policies guided by

  5. Aporte de energia, composição e eficiência microbiana em bovinos alimentados com feno de capim-marandu e concentrado balanceados para diferentes ganhos de peso e potenciais de fermentação microbiana Energy aport, microbial composition and efficiency by bovines fed Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu hay and concentrate, balanced for different weight gains and potential of microbial fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Marques de Brito

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o aporte de energia, a composição de bactérias e a eficiência microbiana por tourinhos Santa Gertrudes canulados no rúmen e no duodeno alimentados com dietas compostas de feno de capim-marandu e concentrado. Empregou-se o delineamento em quadrado latino 4 ´ 4, no qual os tratamentos foram concentrados ajustados para ganho de peso corporal (GPC diário de 0,5 e 1 kg/animal e potencial de fermentação microbiana (y de 9,5 e 11 g de PB microbiana/MJ energia metabolizável fermentável. Houve diferença para as concentrações de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e energia metabolizável fermentável (EMFe ingeridos e para a composição em matéria orgânica e mineral das bactérias ruminais para as dietas ajustadas para diferentes GPC. Houve interação significativa GPC ´ y para a ingestão de NDT como porcentagem do peso corporal e a composição em PB e carboidratos totais das bactérias ruminais. Não foram encontradas diferenças para os potenciais de fermentação microbiana. A eficiência de síntese microbiana também não diferiu entre as dietas e apresentou valores de 12,7 g PB microbiana/100 g NDT e 9,2 g PB microbiana/MJ EMFe. As diferenças encontradas não justificaram o balanceamento dos concentrados para os diferentes potenciais de fermentação microbiana avaliados.The experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate the energy aport, microbial composition and efficiency of Santa Gertrudis young bulls, canulated in the rumen and duodenum, fed diets with palisadegrass hay and concentrates. A 4 x 4 latin square design was used, in which the treatments were composed by the concentrates adjusted for daily body weight gain (BWG of 0.5 and 1 kg/animal and potential microbial fermentation (y of 9.5 and 11 g microbial CP/MJ fermentable metabolizable energy. There were differences for the concentrations of total digestible nutrients (TDN and fermentable metabolizable

  6. Identificação das potenciais barreiras e motivações para gestão ambiental em instituições de ensino superior

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Karina Rabelo Ogasawara [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar, por meio da revisão de literatura e estudo exploratório, como as barreiras e motivadores influenciam a implementação de práticas de Sistema de Gestão Ambiental (SGA) em Instituições de Ensino Superio (IES). As barreiras e motivadores à adoção de SGA em IES foram sistematizados e utilizados no estudo dos casos de duas IES públicas, a IES (X) e a IES (Y), para verificar por meio de entrevistas, observação e análise documental e influência destas na adoçã...

  7. Development of sensitive amperometric hydrogen peroxide sensor using a CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushani, Mahmoud; Bakyas, Kobra; Zare Dizajdizi, Behruz

    2016-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) sensor was constructed based on copper nanoparticles/methylene blue/multiwall carbon nanotubes–fullerene–chitosan–ionic liquid (CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL) nanocomposites. The MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL and CuNPs were modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) by the physical adsorption and electrodeposition of copper nitrate solution, respectively. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the surface of modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), respectively. The electrochemical properties of CuNPs/MB/MWCNTs–C_6_0–Cs–IL/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry techniques and the sensor exhibited remarkably strong electrocatalytic activities toward the reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The peak currents possess a linear relationship with the concentration of H_2O_2 in the range of 0.2 μM to 2.0 mM, and the detection limit is 55.0 nM (S/N = 3). In addition, the modified electrode was used to determine H_2O_2 concentration in human blood serum sample with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode was constructed by layer-by-layer method. • The catalytic performance of the sensor was studied with the use of amperometric technique. • The constructed sensor showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the reduction of H_2O_2. • The CuNPs/MB/MWCNT-C_6_0-Cs-IL/GC electrode demonstrated high stability for the detection of H_2O_2.

  8. Silyl Ketene Acetals/B(C6F53 Lewis Pair-Catalyzed Living Group Transfer Polymerization of Renewable Cyclic Acrylic Monomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This work reveals the silyl ketene acetal (SKA/B(C6F53 Lewis pair-catalyzed room-temperature group transfer polymerization (GTP of polar acrylic monomers, including methyl linear methacrylate (MMA, and the biorenewable cyclic monomers γ-methyl-α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MMBL and α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL as well. The in situ NMR monitored reaction of SKA with B(C6F53 indicated the formation of Frustrated Lewis Pairs (FLPs, although it is sluggish for MMA polymerization, such a FLP system exhibits highly activity and living GTP of MMBL and MBL. Detailed investigations, including the characterization of key reaction intermediates, polymerization kinetics and polymer structures have led to a polymerization mechanism, in which the polymerization is initiated with an intermolecular Michael addition of the ester enolate group of SKA to the vinyl group of B(C6F53-activated monomer, while the silyl group is transferred to the carbonyl group of the B(C6F53-activated monomer to generate the single-monomer-addition species or the active propagating species; the coordinated B(C6F53 is released to the incoming monomer, followed by repeated intermolecular Michael additions in the subsequent propagation cycle. Such neutral SKA analogues are the real active species for the polymerization and are retained in the whole process as confirmed by experimental data and the chain-end analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF MS. Moreover, using this method, we have successfully synthesized well-defined PMMBL-b-PMBL, PMMBL-b-PMBL-b-PMMBL and random copolymers with the predicated molecular weights (Mn and narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD.

  9. Application of C_6_0, C_7_2 and carbon nanotubes as anode for lithium-ion batteries: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Meysam

    2017-01-01

    The application of C_6_0, C_7_2, CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Results show that the average values of voltage cell (V_c_e_l_l) and adsorption energy (E_a_d) of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C_6_0 and C_7_2 ca 0.327 V and 6.52 kcal/mol, respectively. The NH_2 functionalization of studied nanostructures as a strategy to improve the performance of these systems as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. Results show that, NH_2 functionalization of studied nanostructures increase the average values of voltage cell and adsorption energy ca 0.197 V and 8.20 kcal/mol, respectively. Obtained results propose that NH_2 functionalized C_7_2 and CNT (10, 0) have larger V_c_e_l_l and E_a_d values and therefore these nanostructures have higher potential as anode material for Lithium-ion battery. - Highlights: • C_6_0 and CNT (10, 0) as anode materials for Lithium-ion batteries were investigated. • V_c_e_l_l and E_a_d of CNT (8, 0) and CNT (10, 0) were higher than C_6_0 and C_7_2 ca. • NH_2 functionalization of C_6_0 improve the performance of it as anode materials of Lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Tissue pO2 of Orthotopic 9L and C6 Gliomas and Tumor-Specific Response to Radiotherapy and Hyperoxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nadeem; Li Hongbin; Hou, Huagang; Lariviere, Jean P.; Gladstone, David J.; Demidenko, Eugene; Swartz, Harold M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor hypoxia is a well-known therapeutic problem; however, a lack of methods for repeated measurements of glioma partial pressure of oxygen (pO 2 ) limits the ability to optimize the therapeutic approaches. We report the effects of 9.3 Gy of radiation and carbogen inhalation on orthotopic 9L and C6 gliomas and on the contralateral brain pO 2 in rats using a new and potentially widely useful method, multisite in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. Methods and Materials: Intracerebral 9L and C6 tumors were established in the left hemisphere of syngeneic rats, and electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry was successfully used for repeated tissue pO 2 measurements after 9.3 Gy of radiation and during carbogen breathing for 5 consecutive days. Results: Intracerebral 9L gliomas had a pO 2 of 30-32 mm Hg and C6 gliomas were relatively hypoxic, with a pO 2 of 12-14 mm Hg (p 2 of the contralateral brain was 40-45 mm Hg in rats with either 9L or C6 gliomas. Irradiation resulted in a significant increase in pO 2 of the 9L gliomas only. A significant increase in the pO 2 of the 9L and C6 gliomas was observed in rats breathing carbogen, but this effect decreased during 5 days of repeated experiments in the 9L gliomas. Conclusion: These results highlight the tumor-specific effect of radiation (9.3.Gy) on tissue pO 2 and the different responses to carbogen inhalation. The ability of electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry to provide direct repeated measurements of tissue pO 2 could have a vital role in understanding the dynamics of hypoxia during therapy that could then be optimized by scheduling doses at times of improved tumor oxygenation

  11. Electronic and electrochemical properties of platinum(II) and platinum-mercury-carboxylato complexes containing 2-Me2NCH2C6H4, 2,6-(Me2NCH2)2C6H3- and 2-Me2NC6H4CH2 - ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Ploeg, A.F.M.J. van der; Schmitz, J.E.J.; Linden, J.G.M. van der

    1982-01-01

    The organoplatinum(II) compounds [{2, 6-(Me{2}NCH{2}){2}C{6}H{3}}PtBr] and cis-[(C-N){2}Pt] (C-N = 2-Me{2}NCH{2}C{6}H{4}, 2-Me{2}NC{6}H{4}CH{2}) can be chemically irreversibly oxidized in the potential range 1.00 to 1.35 V vs. an Ag/AgCl electrode, whereas the organoplatinum@?mercury complexes

  12. On the Functionality of Complex Intermetallics: Frustration, Chemical Pressure Relief, and Potential Rattling Atoms in Y11Ni60C6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yiming; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2016-10-17

    Intermetallic carbides provide excellent model systems for exploring how frustration can shape the structures and properties of inorganic materials. Combinations of several metals with carbon can be designed in which the formation of tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) intermetallics conflicts with the C atoms' requirement of trigonal prismatic or octahedral coordination environments, as offered by the simple close-packings (SCP) of equally sized spheres. In this Article, we explore the driving forces that lead to the coexistence of these incompatible arrangements in the Yb 11 Ni 60 C 6 -type compound Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 (cI154), as well as potential consequences of this intergrowth for the phase's physical properties. Our focus begins on the structure's SCP regions, which appear as C-stuffed versions of a AuCu 3 -type YNi 3 phase that is not observed on its own in the Y-Ni system. DFT-Chemical Pressure (DFT-CP) calculations on this hypothetical YNi 3 phase reveal large negative pressures within the Ni sublattice, as it is stretched to accommodate the size requirements of the Y atoms. In the Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 structure, two structural mechanisms for addressing these CP issues appear: the incorporation of interstitial C atoms, and the presence of interfaces with CaCu 5 -type domains. The relative roles of these two mechanisms are investigated with the CP analysis on a hypothetical YNi 3 C x series of C-stuffed AuCu 3 -type phases, the Y-Ni sublattice of Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 , and finally the full Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 structure. Through these calculations, the C atoms appear to play the roles of relieving positive Y CPs and supporting relaxation at the AuCu 3 -type/CaCu 5 -type interfaces, where the cancellation occurs between opposite CPs experienced by the Y atoms in the two parent structures (following the epitaxial stabilization mechanism). The CP analysis of Y 11 Ni 60 C 6 also highlights a sublattice of Y and Ni atoms with large negative CPs (and thus the potential for soft

  13. Diffuse soil emission of hydrothermal gases (CO2, CH4, and C6H6) at Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, southern Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, F.; Nisi, B.; Cardellini, C.; Capecchiacci, F.; Donnini, M.; Vaselli, O.; Avino, R.; Chiodini, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present the first measurements of soil C 6 H 6 fluxes in a volcanic system. • Methane oxidation rate is controlled by soil gas fluxes. • Benzene oxidation rate is controlled by presence of a SO 4 2- rich aquifer. • Fumarolic emissions cause a strong benzene air contamination at a local scale. • Endogenous monoaromatics are detected in air samples from the whole crater. - Abstract: Measurements of soil fluxes of hydrothermal gases, with special emphasis on C 6 H 6 , as well as chemical composition of mono-aromatic compounds in fumaroles and air, were carried out in April 2012 at the Solfatara crater (Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy) to investigate the distribution and behavior of these species as they migrate through the soil from their deep source to the atmosphere. Soil fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and C 6 H 6 exhibit good spatial correlation, suggesting that diffuse degassing is mainly controlled by local fractures. The calculated total output of diffuse C 6 H 6 from Solfatara is 0.10 kg day −1 , whereas fluxes of CO 2 and CH 4 are 79 × 10 3 and 1.04 kg day −1 , respectively. A comparison between soil gas fluxes and fumarole composition reveals that within the crater soil CH 4 is significantly affected by oxidation processes, which are more efficient for low gas fluxes, being dependent on the residence time of the uprising hydrothermal gases at shallow depth. Benzene degradation, mainly proceeding through oxidation via benzoate, seems to be strongly controlled by the presence of a shallow SO 4 2- rich aquifer located in the central and southwestern sectors of the crater, suggesting that the process is particularly efficient when SO 4 2- acts as terminal electron acceptor (SO 4 reduction). Relatively high C 6 H 6 /C 7 H 8 ratios, typical of hydrothermal fluids, were measured in air close to the main fumarolic field of Solfatara crater. Here, C 6 H 6 concentrations, whose detection limit is ∼0.1 μg m −3 , are more than one order of

  14. El dictado como tarea comunicativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cassany

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo explora las utilidades didácticas del dictado (la práctica comunicativa de oralizar o leer en voz alta un escrito para el aprendizaje funcional de una lengua materna o extranjera, en los diversos niveles de enseñanza. Después de criticar el uso tradicional de este ejercicio lingüístico, presentamos once formas diferentes de desarrollar un dictado en clase, con sus particulares contenidos, objetivos y metodologías. También analizamos con detalle la técnica más tradicional del dictado magistral, en la que el docente dicta palabra por palabra un texto al alumnado, poniendo énfasis en la ortografía; ofrecemos algunas orientaciones para incrementar el componente comunicativo de esta propuesta. Las conclusiones finales proponen entender esta técnica como un recurso metodológico variado, rico y sugerente, adaptado a cada situación de aprendizaje —y no como una práctica obligatoria y fosilizada.

  15. Anos potenciais de vida perdidos e custos hospitalares da leptospirose no Brasil Años potenciales de vida perdidos y costos hospitalarios de la leptospirosis en Brasil Years of potential life lost and hospitalization costs associated with leptospirosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Maria Mendes de Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar os custos associados à hospitalização e os anos potenciais de vida perdidos devido à leptospirose. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados os bancos de dados de sistemas de informação em saúde do Ministério da Saúde para o relacionamento probabilístico dos casos e internações que evoluíram a óbito por leptospirose em 2007. No Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação os casos confirmados foram subdivididos em internação e óbito, que foram relacionados às seguintes bases: Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (registros com diagnóstico principal e Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (causa básica do óbito, A27.0, A27.8 e A27.9. Foram estimados os custos parciais de internação, os óbitos pela doença, os anos potenciais de vida e de trabalho perdidos. RESULTADOS: As características da maioria das internações que evoluíram para óbito eram: sexo masculino, entre 18 e 49 anos, raça branca, zona urbana e ensino fundamental incompleto. Foram 6.490 anos potenciais de vida perdidos, sendo 75% da faixa etária de 20 a 49 anos. Quando ajustada pela população, a perda foi de 15 dias de vida/1.000 habitantes. A proporção de anos potenciais de vida perdidos pelo número de óbitos foi em média de 30 anos perdidos para cada óbito. O impacto financeiro estimado foi equivalente a R$ 22,9 milhões em salários não ganhos. Os custos hospitalares foram de R$ 831,5 mil. Considerando os dias de salário perdidos por período de internação (mediana: 6 dias, houve perda de R$ 103,0 mil. CONCLUSÕES: Houve elevado custo social em termo de anos potenciais de vida perdidos e gasto hospitalar parcial com leptospirose quando comparado ao possível tratamento precoce ou não adoecimento, o que poderia ter minimizado o impacto dessa doença na população brasileira.OBJETIVO: Estimar los costos asociados a la hospitalización y los años potenciales de vida perdidos debido a la leptospirosis. MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron

  16. A Vigilância Sanitária no controle de riscos potenciais em serviços de hemoterapia no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Silva Júnior

    Full Text Available RESUMO O artigo descreve a situação sanitária dos serviços de hemoterapia avaliados pela Vigilância Sanitária em 2011 e 2012 por meio do Método de Avaliação de Risco Potencial de Serviços de Hemoterapia (MARPSH, classificando-os em cinco categorias: Baixo, Médio-Baixo, Médio, Médio-Alto e Alto. Dos 560 avaliados, houve acréscimo de 9% nos classificados como de baixo risco e queda de 6% entre os de alto. Os principais problemas foram encontrados na região Norte, em agências transfusionais e serviços públicos. Destacaram-se não conformidades relacionadas à gestão da qualidade, de pessoal e de equipamentos. Apesar das melhorias observadas, notaram-se serviços críticos com comprometimento à segurança e à eficácia dos produtos e serviços.

  17. Evaluating the performance of graphene with structural defect and functionalized by –C6H4 as an electrode active material for supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Mousavi-Khoshdel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, quantum capacitance of graphene-based electrodes is evaluated using Density Functional Theory (DFT calculations. The obtained results showed that quantum capacitance of graphene-based supercapacitors could be significantly improved by existence of structural defects on the graphene sheets at sufficiently high concentrations because of creating impure states resulted from carbon pz orbitals involved in defect. In another section of calculations, quantum capacitance of functionalized graphene with –C6H4, is evaluated. The obtained results of calculations showed that functionalized graphene with this functional group have a very good capacitance in comparison with pristine graphene, especially at smaller voltages of less than -1.0 V or greater than 1.0 V. Hybrid configurations between structural defects and functional group of –C6H4 was also studied. In general, the results indicated that the combined configuration shows higher capacity than pristine graphene

  18. Analysis of changes in energy and redox states in HepG2 hepatoma and C6 glioma cells upon exposure to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.S.; Yu, L.C.; Gupta, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The energy and redox states of the HepG2 hepatoma and the C6 glioma cells were studied by quantifying the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, GSH, and GSSG. These values were used to calculate the energy charge potential (ECP = [ATP + 0.5ADP]/TAN), total adenosine nucleotides (TAN = ATP + ADP + AMP), total glutathione (TG = [GSH + GSSG]/TAN), and the redox state (GSH/GSSG ratio). For comparison between cell types, the level of each energy metabolite (ATP, ADP, and AMP) was normalized against TAN of the respective cell. The results showed that ATP:ADP:AMP ratio was 0.76:0.11:0.13 for the HepG2 cells and 0.80:0.11:0.09 for the C6 glioma cells. ECP was 0.81 ± 0.01 and 0.85 ± 0.01 for the HepG2 and the C6 glioma cells, respectively. GSH/GSSG ratio was 2.66 ± 0.16 and 3.63 ± 0.48 for HepG2 and C6 glioma cells, respectively. TG was 3.2 ± 0.54 for the HepG2 cells and 2.43 ± 0.18 for the C6 glioma cells, indicating that the level of total glutathione is more than two to three times higher than the total energy metabolites in these cell lines. Following a 3-h incubation in medium containing different concentrations of Cd, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. The 3-h LC 50 for the HepG2 cells was 0.5 mM and that for the C6 glioma cells was 0.4 mM. Cellular TAN decreased with a decrease in cell viability. Upon careful analysis of the energy state, there was a significant increase in relative amount of ATP and decrease in ADP and AMP in both cells as Cd concentration increased from 0 to 0.1, 0.2, and 0.6 mM. However, ECP in both cell lines increased, which indicated that the level of high energy phosphate was adequate. There was also a significant increase in TG and a significant decrease in GSH/GSSG in the C6 glioma cells when cells were exposed to as low as 0.1 mM Cd, which suggested that the cellular redox state was compromised. The HepG2 cells, on the other hand, showed no significant change in both TG and GSH/GSSG level until Cd concentration reached 0.6 m

  19. Direct analysis of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose dry blood spot enrichments by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Margarida; Mendes, Vera M; Lima, Inês S; Martins, Fátima O; Fernandes, Ana B; Macedo, M Paula; Jones, John G; Manadas, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in a triple-quadrupole scan mode was developed and comprehensively validated for the determination of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [U-(13)C6]glucose enrichments from dried blood spots (DBS) without prior derivatization. The method is demonstrated with dried blood spots obtained from rats administered with a primed-constant infusion of [U-(13)C6]glucose and an oral glucose load enriched with [6,6-(2)H2]glucose. The sensitivity is sufficient for analysis of the equivalent to blood and the overall method was accurate and precise for the determination of DBS isotopic enrichments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A Layered Solution Crystal Growth Technique and the Crystal Structure of (C 6H 5C 2H 4NH 3) 2PbCl 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, D. B.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystals of the organic-inorganic perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbCl4 have been grown at room temperature using a layered solution approach. The bottom solution layer, contained within a long straight tube, consists of PbCl2 dissolved in concentrated aqueous HCl. A less dense layer of methanol is carefully placed on top of the HCl/PbCl2 solution using a syringe. Finally, a stoichiometric quantity of C6H5C2H4NH2 (relative to the PbCl2) is added to the top of the column. As the layers slowly diffuse together, well-formed crystals of (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbCl4 appear near the interface between the HCl/PbCl2 and C6H5C2H4NH2 solutions. The thick, plate-like crystals are well suited for X-ray crystallography studies. Room temperature intensity data were refined using a triclinic (Poverline1) cell (a=11.1463(3) Å, b=11.2181(3) Å, c=17.6966(5) Å, α= 99.173(1)°, β=104.634(1)°, γ=89.999(1)°, V=2111.8(1) Å3, Z=4, Rf/Rw=0.031/0.044). The organic-inorganic layered perovskite structure features well-ordered sheets of corner-sharing distorted PbCl6 octahedra separated by bilayers of phenethylammonium cations. Tilting and rotation of the PbCl6 octahedra within the perovskite sheets, coupled with organic cation ordering, leads to the unusual in-sheet 2ap×2ap superstructure, where ap is the lattice constant for the ideal cubic perovskite.

  1. L-DOPA Preloading Increases the Uptake of Borophenylalanine in C6 Glioma Rat Model: A New Strategy to Improve BNCT Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuani, Silvia; Gili, Tommaso; Bozzali, Marco; Russo, Salvatore; Porcari, Paola; Cametti, Cesare; D'Amore, Emanuela; Colasanti, Marco; Venturini, Giorgio; Maraviglia, Bruno; Lazzarino, Giuseppe; Pastore, Francesco S.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a radiotherapeutic modality based on 10 B(n,α) 7 Li reaction, for the treatment of malignant gliomas. One of the main limitations for BNCT effectiveness is the insufficient intake of 10 B nuclei in the tumor cells. This work was aimed at investigating the use of L-DOPA as a putative enhancer for 10 B-drug 4-dihydroxy-borylphenylalanine (BPA) uptake in the C6-glioma model. The investigation was first performed in vitro and then extended to the animal model. Methods and Materials: BPA accumulation in C6-glioma cells was assessed using radiowave dielectric spectroscopy, with and without L-DOPA preloading. Two L-DOPA incubation times (2 and 4 hours) were investigated, and the corresponding effects on BPA accumulation were quantified. C6-glioma cells were also implanted in the brain of 32 rats, and tumor growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. Rats were assigned to two experimental branches: (1) BPA administration; (2) BPA administration after pretreatment with L-DOPA. All animals were sacrificed, and assessments of BPA concentrations in tumor tissue, normal brain, and blood samples were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: L-DOPA preloading induced a massive increase of BPA concentration in C6-glioma cells only after a 4-hour incubation. In the animal model, L-DOPA pretreatment produced a significantly higher accumulation of BPA in tumor tissue but not in normal brain and blood samples. Conclusions: This study suggests the potential use of L-DOPA as enhancer for BPA accumulation in malignant gliomas eligible for BNCT. L-DOPA preloading effect is discussed in terms of membrane transport mechanisms

  2. Comparison of different mass spectrometry techniques in the measurement of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine incorporation into mixed muscle proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabielski, Piotr; Ford, G. Charles; Persson, X. Mai; Jaleel, Abdul; Dewey, Jerry D.; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2013-01-01

    Precise measurement of low enrichment of stable isotope labeled amino-acid tracers in tissue samples is a prerequisite in measuring tissue protein synthesis rates. The challenge of this analysis is augmented when small sample size is a critical factor. Muscle samples from human participants following an 8 hour intravenous infusion of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine and a bolus dose of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine in a mouse were utilized. Liquid Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), Gas Chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) and Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were compared to the Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), to measure mixed muscle protein enrichment of [ring13C6]phenylalanine enrichment. The sample isotope enrichment ranged from 0.0091 to 0.1312 Molar Percent excess (MPE). As compared with GC/C/IRMS, LC/MS/MS, GC/MS/MS and GC/MS showed coefficients of determination of R2 = 0.9962 and R2 = 0.9942, and 0.9217 respectively. However, the precision of measurements (coefficients of variation) for intra-assay are 13.0%, 1.7%, 6.3% and 13.5% and for inter-assay are 9.2%, 3.2%, 10.2% and 25% for GC/C/IRMS, LC/MS/MS, GC/MS/MS and GC/MS respectively. The muscle sample sizes required to obtain these results were 8μg, 0.8μg, 3μg and 3μg for GC/C/IRMS, LC/MS/MS, GC/MS/MS, and GC/MS respectively. We conclude that LC/MS/MS is optimally suited for precise measurements of L-[ring-13C6]phenylalanine tracer enrichment in low abundance and in small quantity samples. PMID:23378099

  3. Pressure effect on crystallization of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with wide supercooled liquid region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. S.; Gerward, Leif

    2000-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the crystallization behavior of metallic glass Fe72P11C6Al5B4Ga2 alloy with a wide supercooled liquid region has been investigated by in situ high-pressure and high-temperature x-ray diffraction measurements using synchrotron radiation. In the pressure range from 0 to 2...... mobility and changes of the Gibbs free energy of various phases with pressure. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  4. Validation of PROBA-V GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 fAPAR Products in a Deciduous Beech Forest Site in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nestola, E.; Sanchez-Zapero, J.; Latorre, C.; Mazzenga, F.; Matteucci, G.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Camacho, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 126. ISSN 2072-4292 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : fAPAR * validation * PROBA-V GEOV1 * MODIS C5 * MODIS C6 * beech forest * up-scaling * GCOS requirements * in-situ comparison and evaluation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2016

  5. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kai-Wei; Huang, Yuan-Li; Wong, Zong-Ruei; Su, Peng-Han; Huang, Bu-Miin; Ju, Tsai-Kai; Yang, Hsi-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nestin expression in C6 glioma cells is induced by FGF-2. •Nestin expression is induced by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. •The FGFR inhibitor SU5402 blocks the FGF-2-induced nestin expression. •The mRNA of FGFR1 and 3 are detected in C6 glioma cells. •Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling pathway is responsibe for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. -- Abstract: Nestin is a 240-kDa intermediate filament protein expressed mainly in neural and myogenic stem cells. Although a substantial number of studies have focused on the expression of nestin during development of the central nervous system, little is known about the factors that induce and regulate its expression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an effective mitogen and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of a subset of nestin-expressing cells, including neural progenitor cells, glial precursor cells, and smooth muscle cells. To assess whether FGF-2 is a potent factor that induces the expression of nestin, C6 glioma cells were used. The results showed that nestin expression was up-regulated by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Our RT-PCR results showed that C6 glioma cells express FGFR1/3, and FGFRs is required for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. Further signaling analysis also revealed that FGF-2-induced nestin expression is mediated through FGFR–MAPK–ERK signaling axis and the transcriptional factor Sp1. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells

  6. Fibroblast growth factor-2 up-regulates the expression of nestin through the Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling axis in C6 glioma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Kai-Wei [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yuan-Li [Department of Biotechnology, College of Health Science, Asia University, Taichung 413, Taiwan (China); Wong, Zong-Ruei; Su, Peng-Han [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Huang, Bu-Miin [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Ju, Tsai-Kai [Instrumentation Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Technology Commons, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Hsi-Yuan, E-mail: hyhy@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-05-17

    Highlights: •Nestin expression in C6 glioma cells is induced by FGF-2. •Nestin expression is induced by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. •The FGFR inhibitor SU5402 blocks the FGF-2-induced nestin expression. •The mRNA of FGFR1 and 3 are detected in C6 glioma cells. •Ras–Raf–ERK–Sp1 signaling pathway is responsibe for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. -- Abstract: Nestin is a 240-kDa intermediate filament protein expressed mainly in neural and myogenic stem cells. Although a substantial number of studies have focused on the expression of nestin during development of the central nervous system, little is known about the factors that induce and regulate its expression. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is an effective mitogen and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of a subset of nestin-expressing cells, including neural progenitor cells, glial precursor cells, and smooth muscle cells. To assess whether FGF-2 is a potent factor that induces the expression of nestin, C6 glioma cells were used. The results showed that nestin expression was up-regulated by FGF-2 via de novo RNA and protein synthesis. Our RT-PCR results showed that C6 glioma cells express FGFR1/3, and FGFRs is required for FGF-2-induced nestin expression. Further signaling analysis also revealed that FGF-2-induced nestin expression is mediated through FGFR–MAPK–ERK signaling axis and the transcriptional factor Sp1. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of nestin in glial system and enable the further studies on the function of nestin in glial cells.

  7. From the Cover: Vulnerability of C6 Astrocytoma Cells After Single-Compound and Joint Exposure to Type I and Type II Pyrethroid Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Delfina M; Berardino, Bruno G; Wolansky, Marcelo J; Kotler, Mónica L

    2017-01-01

    A primary mode-of-action of all pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) is the disruption of the voltage-gated sodium channel electrophysiology in neurons of target pests and nontarget species. The neurological actions of PYRs on non-neuronal cells of the nervous system remain poorly investigated. In the present work, we used C6 astrocytoma cells to study PYR actions (0.1-50 μM) under the hypothesis that glial cells may be targeted by and vulnerable to PYRs. To this end, we characterized the effects of bifenthrin (BF), tefluthrin (TF), α-cypermethrin (α-CYP), and deltamethrin (DM) on the integrity of nuclear, mitochondrial, and lysosomal compartments. In general, 24- to 48-h exposures produced concentration-related impairment of cell viability. In single-compound, 24-h exposure experiments, effective concentration (EC) 15 s 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay) were computed as follows (in μM): BF, 16.1; TF, 37.3; α-CYP, 7.8; DM, 5.0. We found concentration-related damage in several C6-cell subcellular compartments (mitochondria, nuclei, and lysosomes) at ≥ 10 -1 μM levels. Last, we examined a mixture of all PYRs (ie, Σ individual EC 15 ) using MTT assays and subcellular analyses. Our findings indicate that C6 cells are responsive to nM levels of PYRs, suggesting that astroglial susceptibility may contribute to the low-dose neurological effects caused by these insecticides. This research further suggests that C6 cells may provide relevant information as a screening platform for pesticide mixtures targeting nervous system cells by expected and unexpected toxicogenic pathways potentially contributing to clinical neurotoxicity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of C5/C6 Intervertebral Space Distraction Height on Pressure on the Adjacent Intervertebral Disks and Articular Processes and Cervical Vertebrae Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tingsheng; Luo, Chunshan; Ouyang, Beiping; Chen, Qiling; Deng, Zhongliang

    2018-04-25

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to investigate the association between range of motion of the cervical vertebrae and various C5/C6 intervertebral space distraction heights. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cervical vertebrae from 6 fresh adult human cadavers were used to prepare the models. Changes in C4/C5 and C6/C7 intervertebral disk pressures, articular process pressure, and range of motion of the cervical vertebrae before and after the distraction of the C5/C6 intervertebral space at benchmark heights of 100%, 120%, 140%, and 160% were tested under different exercise loads. RESULTS The pressure on the adjacent intervertebral disks was highest with the standing upright position before distraction, varied with different positions of the specimens and distraction heights after distraction, and was closest to that before distraction at a distraction height of 120% (Particular processes was highest with left and right rotations before distraction, varied with different positions of the specimens and distraction heights after distraction, and was lowest under the same exercise load with different positions at a distraction height of 120% (Pdistraction and at a distraction height of 120% after distraction, respectively (Particular processes and range of motion of the cervical vertebrae and is therefore an appropriate intervertebral space distraction height.

  9. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico); Rangel-López, Edgar [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Castillo, Claudia G. [Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Santamaría, Abel [Instituto Nacional de Neurologia y Neurocirugia Manuel Velasco Suárez, Laboratorio de Aminoacidos Excitadores (Mexico); Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Gonzalez, Carmen, E-mail: cgonzalez.uaslp@gmail.com, E-mail: gonzalez.castillocarmen@fcq.uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO{sub 3}) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  10. The adsorption effect of C6H5 on density of states for double wall carbon nanotubes by tight binding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathalian, A.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical approach based on a tight-binding model is developed to study the effects of the adsorption of finite concentrations of C 6 H 5 gas molecules on double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) electronic properties. To obtain proper hopping integrals and random on-site energies for the case of one molecule adsorption, the local density of states for various hopping integrals and random on-site energies are calculated. Since C 6 H 5 molecule is a donor with respect to the carbon nanotubes and their states should appear near the conduction band of the system, effects of various hopping integral deviations and on-site energies for one molecule adsorption are considered to find proper hopping and on-site energies consistent with expected n-type semiconductor. We found that adsorption of C 6 H 5 gas molecules could lead to a (8.0)-(20.0) DWCNT n-type semiconductor. The width of impurity adsorbed gas states in the density of states could be controlled by adsorbed gas concentration.

  11. Phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is associated with the nucleoli and the Golgi complex in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinz, Franz-Josef; Herberg, Natalie; Arnhold, Stefan; Addicks, Klaus; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2007-06-29

    Enzymatic activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is controlled by posttranslational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular localization. For example, N-terminal fatty acid modifications target eNOS to the Golgi complex where it becomes phosphorylated. We show here by immunofluorescence analysis that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is enriched in the perinuclear region of interphase C6 rat glioma cells. Confocal double immunofluorescence microscopy with the Golgi marker protein 58K revealed that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is associated with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, we observed several spots in the nucleus of C6 cells that were positive for phospho-eNOS Ser-1176. Confocal double immunofluorescence analysis with the nucleolus marker protein fibrillarin revealed that within the nucleus phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is exclusively associated with the nucleoli. It is known that in mitotic cells nucleoli are lost during prophase and rebuild during telophase. In agreement with this, we find no nucleoli-like distribution of phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 in metaphase and anaphase C6 glioma cells. Our finding that phospho-eNOS Ser-1176 is selectively associated with the nucleoli points to a so far unknown role for eNOS in interphase glioma cells.

  12. Protective effects of hydroxysaffor yellow A on brain injury in mice irradiated by 300 MeV/n 12C6+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan Lu; Wang Zhenhua; Zhang Hong; Ma Chengjun; Li Guang

    2012-01-01

    Radiation encephalopathy is the main complication of cranial radiotherapy. It can cause necrosis of brain tissue and cognitive dysfunction, to which no ideal prevention method is available until now. Hydroxysaffor yellow A (HSYA) is the main active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine safflower, with protective effects against cerebral ischemic injury. In this work, we investigated the protective effects of HSYA on brain injury in mice irradiated by 300 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beam. The whole head of male Kunming mouse was irradiated to 4.0 Gy after receiving daily intra-peritoneal injection HSYA for 3 d. One month later, the Morris water maze test was used to detect the spatial memory in mice. The Evans blue was used as the tracer to evaluate the permeability of blood-brain barrier. The SOD activity and MDA content in brain tissue were assayed by test kits. The results showed that the 12 C 6+ irradiation significantly impaired the spatial learning and memory in mice, increased the permeability of blood-brain barrier and the MDA content in brain tissue, whereas decreased the SOD activity in brain tissue. The pretreatment with HSYA could improve the spatial memory deficits and inhibit the changes of the blood-brain barrier, the SOD activity and the MDA content in brain tissue in mice. All these demonstrate that HSYA possesses the protective effect against brain injury induced by 12 C 6+ particle therapy. (authors)

  13. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO3) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells.

  14. Comparative effects on rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells cultures after 24-h exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-García, Samuel; Silva-Ramírez, Ana Sonia; Ramirez-Lee, Manuel A.; Rosas-Hernandez, Hector; Rangel-López, Edgar; Castillo, Claudia G.; Santamaría, Abel; Martinez-Castañon, Gabriel A.; Gonzalez, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of 24-h exposure of rat primary astrocytes and C6 rat glioma cells to 7.8 nm AgNPs. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor and current treatments lead to diverse side-effects; for this reason, it is imperative to investigate new approaches, including those alternatives provided by nanotechnology, like nanomaterials (NMs) such as silver nanoparticles. Herein, we found that C6 rat glioma cells, but no primary astrocytes, decreased cell viability after AgNPs treatment; however, both cell types diminished their proliferation. The decrease of glioma C6 cells proliferation was related with necrosis, while in primary astrocytes, the decreased proliferation was associated with the induction of apoptosis. The ionic control (AgNO 3 ) exerted a different profile than AgNPs; the bulk form did not modify the basal effect in each determination, whereas cisplatin, a well-known antitumoral drug used as a comparative control, promoted cytotoxicity in both cell types at specific concentrations. Our findings prompt the need to determine the fine molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the differential biological responses to AgNPs in order to develop new tools or alternatives based on nanotechnology that may contribute to the understanding, impact and use of NMs in specific targets, like glioblastoma cells

  15. Saúde & Segurança Ocupacional: reflexões sobre os riscos potenciais e o manuseio seguro dos nanomateriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Frederico Bernardo Lenz e Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A cada dia a nanotecnologia, que pode ser definida como um campo multidisciplinar da ciência e da tecnologia que trabalha com estruturas de dimensões nanométricas, tipicamente <100 nanômetros (nm, está mais presente no desenvolvimento de novos produtos e processos industriais. A manipulação de partículas nanométricas tem aberto inúmeras oportunidades de desenvolvimento de novos produtos e materiais. Porém, a síntese, manuseio, estocagem, estabilização e a incorporação de materiais com dimensões nanométricas exigem uma nova análise e avaliação dos processos, procedimentos e dispositivos industriais de forma a garantir proteção coletiva e individual ao trabalhador e à sociedade, uma vez que, com o aumento de escala e de volume de produção dos materiais nanoestruturados, uma parcela cada vez maior da cadeia laboral passa a estar exposta aos nanomateriais em suas diversas formas e meios. Neste trabalho é apresentada uma revisão acerca de tópicos relacionados com o desenvolvimento da nanotecnologia abordando questões de riscos e de segurança ocupacional, em especial, os principais aspectos envolvidos quando do manuseio, estocagem, síntese, estabilização e incorporação de nanomateriais, visando à redução, minimização e eliminação dos riscos envolvidos nessas atividades, com o objetivo de garantir de forma plena a integridade física e a saúde do trabalhador.

  16. Potenciais efeitos das mudanças climáticas futuras sobre a distribuiçãode um anuro da Caatinga Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauanny Rodrigues Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, usamos dois tipos de modelagem de distribuição de espécies (correlativo e mecanístico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das mudanças climáticas sob a distribuição geográfica de Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824, espécie inserida principalmente no bioma Caatinga. Avaliamos a predição, levantada por outros autores, de que espécies de anfíbios distribuídos em climas quentes terão suas distribuições espaciais restringidas por aumento da temperatura considerando cenários futuros. Na abordagem correlativa, os resultados mostraram que as distribuições espaciais geradas pelo modelo de distância Euclidiana foram mais conservativas, ou seja, as áreas que apresentaram menor distância do nicho ótimo se restringiram às áreas de distribuição real da espécie (Caatinga e às pequenas regiões que abrangem o bioma Cerrado. A abordagem mecanística apresentou resultados menos conservativos, onde o habitat indicado como adequado para R. granulosa está contido em grande parte da América do Sul, formando uma extensa área contínua. No geral, verificou-se que R. granulosa não sofrerá forte influência climática sobre sua distribuição geográfica no futuro, pelo menos até 2080, provavelmente por apresentar uma fisiologia extremamente tolerante às altas temperaturas e por possuir adaptações para suportar clima quente e seco.

  17. Como Lo Hago Yo: Myelomeningocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazareff, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Fortificación con ádico fólico es efectiva, pero aún falta conciencia en los jóvenes. La legalidad del aborto aumenta la importancia de la consulta prenatal. Realizo la cirugía bajo microcoscopio por razones didácticas. Irrigación continua para reducir la temperatura del tejido. Trato a la plaqueta como tejido viable. No suturo la plaqueta. No cierro músculo. ATB por una semana después de cirugía. Hidrocefalia: Válvula en todos los casos de ventriculomegalia. Médula anclada: Desanclar una sola vez. Chiari II: Revisar la válvula. Incluir en el seguimiento rendimiento escolar, puede indicar obstrucción de la válvula o médula anclada. PMID:24791217

  18. O VAGABONDING COMO ESTRATÉGIA PEDAGÓGICA PARA A "DESCONSTRUÇÃO FENOMENOLÓGICA" EM PROGRAMAS EXPERIENCIAIS DE EDUCAÇÃO AMBIENTAL1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cae Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo central destacar o valor potencial do "vagabonding" como estratégia pedagógica em programas de aprendizagem experiencial de educação ambiental, sustentando-se na importância da "desconstrução/reconstrução fenomenológica" em processos educativos críticos. A proposta do "vagabonding" ("lazer vagabundo" é fundamentada por vivências perceptivas/sensoriais com o ambiente que permitam a construção de relações espaço-temporais que causem certo "desconforto" e "estranheza", assim como o distanciamento de objetivos centrados no "desempenho" (performance. Tal proposta se justifica pela consideração de que esse tipo de vivência pode criar espaços com potenciais aberturas para discutir diferentes aspectos estéticos, éticos e políticos que envolvem as relações ser humano (sociedade / mundo (natureza. Assim, enquanto vivência sociocultural "alternativa", o "vagabonding" teria como principal contribuição a potencial incorporação de uma concepção fenomenológica de tempo e de espaço que possibilite a "desconstrução/reconstrução"de conceitos/ideias socialmente "naturalizados", um importante passo ao encontro dos objetivos das teorias críticas/pós-críticas de educação.

  19. The Variations and Trends of MODIS C5 & C6 Products’ Errors in the Recent Decade over the Background and Urban Areas of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With ten-year (2004–2013 ground-based observations of Beijing Forest (BJF and Beijing City (BJC sites in North China, we validated the high-quality MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Collection 5 (C5 and Collection 6 (C6 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD products’ precision and discussed the sensors degradation issues. The annual mean AOD and Angstrom exponent (α were 0.20 ± 0.02 and 0.83 ± 0.15 in the background over the past ten years, and they were 0.59 ± 0.07 and 1.13 ± 0.08 in the urban, respectively. Ground-based AOD had both slightly declining trends, with variations of 0.023 and 0.057 over the past decade in the background and urban, respectively. There were large differences among the eight kinds of MODIS AOD products (Terra vs. Aqua, C5 vs. C6, DT (Deep Target vs. DB (Deep Blue, and DTDB in the background and urban areas, but all the products’ monthly errors had larger variations in the spring and summer, and smaller ones in the autumn and winter. In the background, more than 62% of DT matchups for C5 and C6 products were within NASA’s expected error (EE envelope. In the urban, 69%~72% of C6 DB retrievals were falling within EE envelope. The new dataset named C6 DTDB had better performance in the background, whereas it overestimated by 37%~41% in the urban caused by surface reflectivity estimation error. The range of monthly average error varied from −0.21 to 0.28 in the background and from −0.63 to 0.48 in the urban. From the background to the urban areas, the retrieval errors of Terra and Aqua had slightly increased by 0.0023~0.0158 and 0.0011~0.0124 per year, respectively, which implied that the two MODIS instruments had degraded slowly.

  20. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  1. El investigador como educador musical y como divulgador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Pajares, Javier

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La presente ponencia trataba de plantear en la Mesa redonda "Investigación aplicada a la educación musical" una serie de problemas que surgen no tanto a quienes se dedican profesionalmente a la educación musical, sino a quienes, dedicados a la investigación y al estudio de temas relacionados con la historia de la música desde perspectivas diversas, tienen finalmente que transmitirlos a una audiencia determinada, ya sea otros colegas, alumnos de universidad, u otros públicos en los que se centra el concepto "divulgación" aludido en el título.Se incide particularmente en los problemas de la educación musical universitaria para no especialistas y en la divulgación científica aplicada a la música, un campo casi yermo sobre el que hay mucho que reflexionar: desde las nuevas posibilidades para la explicación de la música que ofrecen soportes nuevos como el CD-Rom, hasta las tradicionales formas de relación con un público melómano a través de notas a programas y críticas de conciertos.

  2. Potenciais evocados auditivos: estudo com indivíduos portadores de lúpus eritematoso sistêmico A study of auditory evoked potentials in systemic lupus erythematosus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra dos Santos da Mata Rezende

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico (LES é uma doença inflamatória crônica sistêmica, de etiologia desconhecida, multifatorial, caracterizada imunologicamente pela presença de múltiplos auto-anticorpos, sendo as manifestações clínicas bastante polimórficas. Essa doença pode comprometer múltiplos órgãos e sistemas. Os comprometimentos mais comuns são: articular, cutâneo, vascular, renal, neurológico, cardíaco, gastrointestinal, hematológico, ocular e auditivo. OBJETIVO: Investigar a função auditiva central de indivíduos com Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado estudo de série, no qual foram avaliados 60 indivíduos do sexo feminino, com idades entre 21 a 46 anos, sendo 30 no grupo controle e 30 no grupo pesquisa. Os participantes foram submetidos a Anamnese, Avaliação Audiológica (Audiometria Tonal, Logoaudiometria e Medidas de Imitância Acústica, e pesquisa dos Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Curta (PEATE, Média (PEAML e Longa Latências (PEALL. Os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os dois grupos avaliados, em nenhuma das avaliações realizadas. CONCLUSÕES: Não há diferença nos Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Curta (PEATE, Média (PEAML e Longa Latência (P300 entre os indivíduos dos grupos controle e pesquisa.Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multifactorial chronic systemic inflammatory disease, of unknown origin, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies and polymorphic clinical manifestations. This disease may involve multiple organs and systems. The most common findings are articular, cutaneous, vascular, renal, neurological, cardiac, gastrointestinal, hematological, ocular, and auditory abnormalities. AIM: To investigate the central auditory function of subjects diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A time-series study was made of sixty

  3. Relationship between HCO_3"- concentration to weight of C_6H_6 of environmental isotop "1"4C analysis and its relationship with sampling in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satrio; Rasi Prasetio

    2016-01-01

    It has been done the groundwater sampling process of deep aquifer in Jakarta and surrounding areas for the analysis of environmental isotope "1"4C. Groundwater sampling was preceded by calculating the concentration of HCO_3"- (bicarbonate ion) through titration in the field. The number of repetitions of sampling is determined by the concentration data of HCO_3"- which obtained. The Repetition of this sampling will determine the acquisition of a solution of C_6H_6 (benzene) during the synthesis process benzene. In the field, the sampling is done by extracting of 60 liters of water to precipitate BaCO_3. The sampling process is repeated based on data from the bicarbonate ion concentration. The purpose of this study to determine the relationship between the concentration of HCO_3"- to the weights C_6H_6 which obtained in the analysis of environmental isotope "1"4C and evaluate the number of repetitions of the sampling that should be done. Based on the analysis of titration in the field, shows that concentration HCO_3"- ranged between 180 - 600 ppm with the acquisition of benzene between 1.84 to 4.5 grams. There is a strong relationship between the concentration of HCO_3"- and C_6H_6 weights obtained in the process of synthesis of benzene with a correlation of about 0.900. This correlation can be improved by measuring the concentration of HCO_3"- in advance in the laboratory tend to be more accurate than in the field. (author)

  4. Double-differential cross section for ionization of H2O molecules by 4-MeV/u C6 + and Si13 + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shamik; Biswas, S.; Monti, J. M.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2017-11-01

    Double-differential cross section (DDCS) for electrons ejected in collisions of fast C6 + and Si13 + projectiles, with a H2O vapor target, were measured. The electrons were detected over an energy range of 1-600 eV and an angular range of 20∘-160∘. The obtained DDCS spectra, for both the ions, were compared with the CDW-EIS model. Occasional reference has been made to the DDCS data for the case of 3.75-MeV/u O8 + colliding on the same molecule for an overall comparison. A reasonable agreement with theoretical results was seen for the case of C6 + and O8 + projectiles. However, between C6 + and O8 + projectiles, the deviation from theory is larger for the case of the carbon projectile. Substantial deviation starts to show up for the case of the Si13 + projectile. By numerical integration of the DDCS data, the single-differential cross section (SDCS) and total cross section (TCS) were obtained and compared with theoretical models. The present TCS data along with the other available data for p , He , and C ions were plotted together. A clear and gradual deviation from the Bethe-Born predicted q2 scaling was observed, where q is the projectile charge state. From all the data we find TCS varies as qn where n = 1.7 ± 0.1. The provided data set will be valuable in order to help model the radiation damage in hadron therapy, particularly in the Bragg peak region.

  5. Thermodynamic study of binary mixture of x1[C6mim][BF4] + x21-propanol: Measurements and molecular modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kermanpour, F.; Sharifi, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Densities and viscosities for binary mixture of {x 1 [C 6 mim][BF 4 ] + x 2 1-propanol} were measured at different temperatures. ► The excess molar functions were calculated from the obtained experimental data. ► These data were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation and PFP model to obtain the coefficients and standard deviations. - Abstract: Densities, ρ, and viscosities, η, of pure 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazoliumtetrafluoro borate ([C 6 mim][BF 4 ]) and 1-propanol, and their binary mixture {x 1 [C 6 mim][BF 4 ] + x 2 1-propanol} were measured at atmospheric pressure and in the temperature range of 293.15–333.15 K. The excess molar volumes, V m E , thermal expansion coefficients, α, and their excess values, α E , isothermal coefficient of excess molar enthalpy, (∂H m E /∂p) T,x and excess viscosities, η E , were calculated from the experimental values of densities and viscosities. The excess molar volumes of the binary mixture are negative over the entire mole fraction range and increase with increasing temperature. Excess viscosities are negative over the entire mole fraction range of the mixture and decrease with increasing temperature. The obtained excess molar volumes and excess viscosities were correlated with the Redlich–Kister equation. The experimental results have also been used to examine the applicability of Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory in predicting the excess molar volume of the binary mixture. It is indicated that agreement between excess molar volumes calculated via PFP theory and the experimental results is good in all temperatures.

  6. Quadriplegia recovery after hemi-section and transplant model of spinal cord at the level of C5 and C6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar-Alatorre, W E; Segura-Torres, J E; Rosales-Corral, S A; Jiménez-Avila, J M; Huerta-Viera, M

    2011-03-10

    A spinal cord hemi-section with a homologous transplant of medullar tissue at the level of C5-C6 and preservation of the anterior spinal artery was used to evaluate the histological characteristics such as quantity and quality of axons, myelin index and blood vessels after quadriplegia recovery. Vascular changes after spinal injury results in severe endothelial damage, axonal edema, neuronal necrosis and demyelinization as well as cysts and infarction. Preservation of the anterior spinal artery has demonstrated clinical recuperation; therefore, in addition to the lesion we included a homologous transplant to visualize changes at a cellular level. Two groups of dogs (hemi-section and transplant) went through a traumatic spinal cord hemi-section of 50% at the level of C5-C6. The transplant group formed by animals which simultaneously had 4 mm of spinal cord removed and the equal amount substituted from a donor animal at the level of C5-C6 corresponding to the half right side; both preserving the anterior spinal artery. Histological evaluation of all groups took place at days 3 (acute) and 28 (chronic) post-operation. Changes of degeneration and axonal regeneration were found in the hemi-section and transplant groups at acute and chronic time, as well as same quadriplegia recovery at chronic time in the hemi-section and transplant groups which closely related to mechanisms which participate in regeneration and functional recuperation due to the preservation of the anterior spinal artery and presence of new blood vessels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of hyperglycemia on glucose production and utilization in humans. Measurement with [3H]-2-, [3H]-3-, and [14C]-6-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.M.; Firth, R.G.; Rizza, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Studies with tritiated isotopes of glucose have demonstrated that hyperglycemia per se stimulates glucose utilization and suppresses glucose production in humans. These conclusions rely on the assumption that tritiated glucose provides an accurate measure of glucose turnover. However, if in the presence of hyperglycemia the isotope either loses its label during futile cycling or retains its label during cycling through glycogen, then this assumption is not valid. To examine this question, glucose utilization and glucose production rates were measured in nine normal subjects with a simultaneous infusion of [ 3 H]-2-glucose, an isotope that may undergo futile cycling but does not cycle through glycogen; [ 14 C]-6-glucose, an isotope that may cycle through glycogen but does not futile cycle; and [ 3 H]-3-glucose, an isotope that can both undergo futile cycling and cycle through glycogen. In the postabsorptive state at plasma glucose concentration of 95 mg X dl-1, glucose turnover determined with [ 14 C]-6-glucose (2.3 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1) was greater than that determined with [3 3 H]glucose (2.1 +/- 0.1 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.002) and slightly less than that determined with [ 3 H]-2-glucose (2.7 +/- 0.2 mg X kg-1 X min-1, P = 0.08). Plasma glucose was then raised from 95 to 135 to 175 mg X dl-1 while insulin secretion was inhibited, and circulating insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone concentrations were maintained constant by infusion of these hormones and somatostatin. Glucose production and utilization rates determined with [ 14 C]-6-glucose continued to be less than those determined with [ 3 H]-2-glucose and greater than those seen with [ 3 H]-3-glucose

  8. Coarsening of (Fe, Cr)23C6 carbide phase on the tempering of 14Kh17N2 chromium-nickel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psarev, V.I.

    2002-01-01

    Paper lists the results of computer analysis of distribution according to sizes (Fe, Cr) 23 C 6 microparticles resulting from 14Kh17N2 steel tempering under 700 Deg C. Data were obtained at the maximum beneficial magnification of a light microscope. The mentioned curves of distribution densities are characterized by more reliable run from most permissible sizes of dispersed particles. Application of general rules of distributions and of previously elaborated procedure to identify experimental histograms with theoretical distributions enables to derive valuable information on dynamics of coarsening of a disperse phase in this case, as well [ru

  9. Characterization of a distonic isomer C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 of methyl benzoate radical cation by associative ion-molecule reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechamps, Noémie; Flammang, Robert; Gerbaux, Pascal; Nam, Pham-Cam; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2006-03-01

    The C6H5C+(OH)OCH2 radical cation, formally a distonic isomer of ionized methyl benzoate, has been prepared by dissociative ionization of neopentyl benzoate, as earlier suggested by Audier et al. [H.E. Audier, A. Milliet, G. Sozzi, S. Hammerum, Org. Mass. Spectrom. 25 (1990) 44]. Its distonic character has now been firmly established by its high reactivity towards neutral methyl isocyanide (ionized methylene transfer) producing N-methyl ketenimine ions. Other mass spectrometric experiments and ab initio quantum chemical calculations also concur with each other pointing toward the existence of a stable distonic radical cation.

  10. Stepwise Ti-Cl, Ti-CH3, and Ti-C6H5 bond dissociation enthalpies in bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)titanium complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, Alberto R.; Salema, Margarida S.; Martinho Simões, Jose A.; Pattiasina, Johannes W.; Teuben, Jan H.

    1988-01-01

    Reaction-solution calorimetric studies involving the complexes Ti[η5-C5(CH3)5]2(CH3)2, Ti[η5-C5(CH3)5]2(CH3), Ti[η5-C5(CH3)5]2(C6H5), Ti[η5-C5(CH3)5]2Cl2, and Ti[η5-C5(CH3)5]2Cl, have enabled derivation of titanium-carbon and titanium-chlorine stepwise bond dissociation enthalpies in these species.

  11. Synthesis of dihydropyrimidin-2-one/thione library and cytotoxic activity against the human U138-MG and Rat C6 glioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canto, Romulo F.S.; Eifler-Lima, Vera Lucia; Bernardi, Andressa; Battastini, Ana Maria O.; Russowsky, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Two series of 4-aryl-3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-(thio)ones including monastrol (1a), have been synthesized by an environment-friendly methodology based on the combined use of citric acid or oxalic acid and TEOF (triethylorthoformate). The library was evaluated as inhibitor of cell proliferation on two glioma cell lines (human-U138-MG and Rat-C6). The compounds derived from thiourea 1f and 1d were more cytotoxic than monastrol. The compound derived from urea 2d showed the highest cytotoxic activity among the analyzed compounds. (author)

  12. Stimulation of nuclear receptor REV-ERBs regulates tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules in C6 astroglial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Norimitsu, E-mail: mnori@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Tomori, Mizuki; Zhang, Fang Fang; Saeki, Munenori; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-08

    Under physiological conditions, astrocytes maintain homeostasis in the CNS. Following inflammation and injury to the CNS, however, activated astrocytes produce neurotoxic molecules such as cytokines and chemokines, amplifying the initial molecular-cellular events evoked by inflammation and injury. Nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ (REV-ERBs) are crucial in the regulation of inflammation- and metabolism-related gene transcription. The current study sought to elucidate a role of REV-ERBs in rat C6 astroglial cells on the expression of inflammatory molecules following stimulation with the neuroinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Stimulation of C6 cells with TNF (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the mRNA expression of CCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9, but not fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and MMP-2. Treatment with either REV-ERB agonists GSK4112 or SR9009 significantly blocked TNF-induced upregulation of CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA, but not IL-6 mRNA and iNOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment with RGFP966, a selective histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibitor, potently reversed the inhibitory effects of GSK4112 on TNF-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA, but not CCL2 mRNA. Expression of Rev-erbs mRNA in C6 astroglial cells, primary cultured rat cortical and spinal astrocytes was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, the findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect, downregulating of MMP-9 and CCL2 transcription, of astroglial REV-ERBs activation through HDAC3-dependent and HDAC3-independent mechanisms. - Highlights: • Rev-erbα mRNA and Rev-erbβ mRNA are expressed in C6 astroglial cells. • TNF increases the expression of CCL2, IL-6, MMP-9 and iNOS mRNA. • REV-ERB activation inhibits CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA expression. • HDAC3 activity is involved in the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB on MMP-9 induction.

  13. Optical spectroscopy of two-dimensional layered (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-NH(3))(2)-PbI(4) perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthron, K; Lauret, J-S; Doyennette, L; Lanty, G; Al Choueiry, A; Zhang, S J; Brehier, A; Largeau, L; Mauguin, O; Bloch, J; Deleporte, E

    2010-03-15

    We report on optical spectroscopy (photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation) on two-dimensional self-organized layers of (C(6)H(5)C(2)H(4)-NH(3))(2)-PbI(4) perovskite. Temperature and excitation power dependance of the optical spectra gives a new insight into the excitonic and the phononic properties of this hybrid organic/inorganic semiconductor. In particular, exciton-phonon interaction is found to be more than one order of magnitude higher than in GaAs QWs. As a result, photoluminescence emission lines have to be interpreted in the framework of a polaron model.

  14. Stimulation of nuclear receptor REV-ERBs regulates tumor necrosis factor-induced expression of proinflammatory molecules in C6 astroglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Norimitsu; Tomori, Mizuki; Zhang, Fang Fang; Saeki, Munenori; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, astrocytes maintain homeostasis in the CNS. Following inflammation and injury to the CNS, however, activated astrocytes produce neurotoxic molecules such as cytokines and chemokines, amplifying the initial molecular-cellular events evoked by inflammation and injury. Nuclear receptors REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ (REV-ERBs) are crucial in the regulation of inflammation- and metabolism-related gene transcription. The current study sought to elucidate a role of REV-ERBs in rat C6 astroglial cells on the expression of inflammatory molecules following stimulation with the neuroinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Stimulation of C6 cells with TNF (10 ng/ml) significantly increased the mRNA expression of CCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9, but not fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and MMP-2. Treatment with either REV-ERB agonists GSK4112 or SR9009 significantly blocked TNF-induced upregulation of CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA, but not IL-6 mRNA and iNOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, treatment with RGFP966, a selective histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) inhibitor, potently reversed the inhibitory effects of GSK4112 on TNF-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA, but not CCL2 mRNA. Expression of Rev-erbs mRNA in C6 astroglial cells, primary cultured rat cortical and spinal astrocytes was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Together, the findings demonstrate an anti-inflammatory effect, downregulating of MMP-9 and CCL2 transcription, of astroglial REV-ERBs activation through HDAC3-dependent and HDAC3-independent mechanisms. - Highlights: • Rev-erbα mRNA and Rev-erbβ mRNA are expressed in C6 astroglial cells. • TNF increases the expression of CCL2, IL-6, MMP-9 and iNOS mRNA. • REV-ERB activation inhibits CCL2 mRNA and MMP-9 mRNA expression. • HDAC3 activity is involved in the inhibitory effect of REV-ERB on MMP-9 induction.

  15. Public Health Assessment of potential hazards in private drinking water wells in the industrial park of Casares (Málaga Evaluación de riesgos potenciales asociados a las captaciones de aguas de consumo que abastecen al polígono industrial de Casares (Málaga Avaliação dos riscos potenciais associados às captações de água de consumo que abastecem o parque industrial de Casares (Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Martín-Olmedo

    2012-08-01

    ência para as Substâncias Tóxicas e Registo de Doenças (ATSDR, EUA como ferramenta de Saúde Pública na priorização e sistematização do processo de gestão de riscos relacionados com a exposição a substâncias químicas. Neste estudo foram avaliados em concreto os riscos potenciais que poderiam afectar as captações (poços que abastecem o Parque Industrial de Casares (Málaga (PIC, situado nas proximidades da estação de transformação de Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos (PT-RSU da Costa do Sol e de um aterro selado. O estudo exaustivo da área incluiu a análise das características geomorfológicas, condições climáticas e atividades económicas presentes e passadas na zona, tendo permitido identificar os caminhos de exposição mais prováveis e a identificação e caracterização dos perigos mais relevantes que poderiam afectar a água das captações em estudo. A metodologia da ASTDR foi complementada com a utilização de modelos para a estimação do perigo de contaminação de aquíferos (modelo SIG e com uma pesquisa em bases de dados internacionais para identificação de perigos químicos. Como resultado do estudo identificou-se a existência de dois aquíferos distintos que abastecem os 4 poços do PIC, o que levou a uma análise diferenciada dos riscos potenciais. Desta forma, foi descartada a atividade agrícola como fonte de perigos mas não as atividades de criação de gado. Em relação à PT-RSU é necessário aumentar a frequência de controlo de parâmetros microbiológicos e químicos como o tetracloroeteno, outros compostos orgânicos voláteis e metais pesados (As, Pb, Hg. A importante carga de coliformes totais encontrada em todos os poços torna necessário investigar possíveis infiltrações a partir da rede de saneamento das povoações vizinhas.

  16. Structure of X-ray photoelectron spectra of low-energy and core electrons of Ln(C6H4OCH3COO-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the results of an X-ray photo electron spectroscopy of lanthanide ortho-metoxybenzoates Ln(C6H4OCH3COO-3, where Ln represents lanthanides La through Lu except for Pm and C6H4OCH3COO- - residuum of ortho-metoxybenzoic acid. The core and outer electron X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectra in the binding energy range of 0-1250 eV were shown to exhibit a complex, fine structure. The said structure was established due to the outer (0-15 eV binding energy and inner (15-50 eV binding energy valence molecular orbital from the filled Ln5p and O2s atomic shells multiple splitting, many-body perturbation, dynamic effect, etc. The mechanisms of such a fine structure formation were shown to manifest different probabilities in the spectrum of a certain electronic shell. There fore, the fine X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectral structure resulting from a certain mechanism can be interpreted and its quantitative parameters related to the physical and chemical properties of the studied com pounds (degree of delocalization and participation of Ln4f electrons in the chemical bond, electronic configuration and oxidation states, density of uncoupled electrons on paramagnetic ions, degree of participation of the low binding energy filled electronic shells of lanthanide and ligands information of the outer and in nervalence molecular orbitals, lanthanide close environment structure in amorphous materials, etc.

  17. Microstructural Characteristics and m23c6 Precipitate Behavior of the Course-Grained Heat-Affected Zone of T23 Steel without Post-Weld Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Hyeong Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The microstructural characteristics of a simulated heat-affected zone (HAZ in SA213-T23 (2.25Cr-1.6W steel used for boiler tubes employed in thermal power plants were investigated using nital, alkaline sodium picrate, and Murakami’s etchants. In order to investigate the microstructure formation process of the HAZ in the welding process, simulated HAZ specimens were fabricated at intervals of 100 °C for peak temperatures between 950 and 1350 °C, and the microstructural features and precipitate behavior at various peak temperatures were observed. The alkaline-sodium-picrate-etched microstructures exhibited a black dot or band, which was not observed in the natal-etched microstructure. As the temperature increased from 950 to 1350 °C, the black dot and band became wider and thicker. Experimental analyses using an electron probe micro-analyzer, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy revealed the appearance of austenite in the black dot region at a peak temperature of 950 °C; its amount increased up to a peak temperature of 1050 °C and thereafter decreased as the peak temperature further increased. The amount of M23C6 decreased with an increase in peak temperature. Based on these results, we investigated the behaviors of austenite and M23C6 as functions of the peak temperature.

  18. Radioimmunotherapy targeting the extra domain B of fibronectin in C6 rat gliomas: a preliminary study about the therapeutic efficacy of iodine-131-labeled SIP(L19)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaeth, Nicolas; Wyss, Matthias T.; Pahnke, Jens; Biollaz, Gregoire; Trachsel, Eveline; Drandarov, Konstantin; Treyer, Valerie; Weber, Bruno; Neri, Dario; Buck, Alfred

    2006-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment protocols, patients suffering from glioblastoma multiforme still experience poor outcome. Therefore, new adjuvant therapeutic options such as radioimmunotherapy (RIT) have been studied and have resulted in significant survival benefit. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel radioimmunotherapeutic approach targeting the extra domain B (EDB) of fibronectin, a marker of angiogenesis, in glioma-bearing rats. Methods: C6 gliomas were induced intracerebrally in Wistar rats. Ten to 11 days later, 220-360 MBq of iodine-131-labeled anti-EDB SIP(L19) ('small immunoprotein') was administered intravenously into nine animals, yielding a radiation dose of 13-21 Gy. Another nine rats served as controls. Then the following parameters were compared: median survival time, tumor size and histology. Results: Histological examination of the tumors revealed typical glioblastoma characteristics. Eleven of 18 rats developed a tumor size bigger than 150 mm 3 . When these animals were used for survival analysis, median survival did significantly differ between groups [22 days (therapy; n=7) vs. 16 days (control; n=4); P 131 I-SIP(L19)-RIT showed promising potential in treating C6 gliomas, warranting further studies. However, larger trials with preferentially higher doses are needed to confirm this finding and, potentially, to further increase the efficacy of this treatment

  19. Synthetic virus seeds for improved vaccine safety: Genetic reconstruction of poliovirus seeds for a PER.C6 cell based inactivated poliovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Barbara P; Edo-Matas, Diana; Papic, Natasa; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Custers, Jerome H H V

    2015-10-13

    Safety of vaccines can be compromised by contamination with adventitious agents. One potential source of adventitious agents is a vaccine seed, typically derived from historic clinical isolates with poorly defined origins. Here we generated synthetic poliovirus seeds derived from chemically synthesized DNA plasmids encoding the sequence of wild-type poliovirus strains used in marketed inactivated poliovirus vaccines. The synthetic strains were phenotypically identical to wild-type polioviruses as shown by equivalent infectious titers in culture supernatant and antigenic content, even when infection cultures are scaled up to 10-25L bioreactors. Moreover, the synthetic seeds were genetically stable upon extended passaging on the PER.C6 cell culture platform. Use of synthetic seeds produced on the serum-free PER.C6 cell platform ensures a perfectly documented seed history and maximum control over starting materials. It provides an opportunity to maximize vaccine safety which increases the prospect of a vaccine end product that is free from adventitious agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. M23C6 carbides and Cr2N nitrides in aged duplex stainless steel: A SEM, TEM and FIB tomography investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetz, J-Y; Douillard, T; Cazottes, S; Verdu, C; Kléber, X

    2016-05-01

    The precipitation evolution during ageing of a 2101 lean duplex stainless steel was investigated, revealing that the precipitate type and morphology depends on the nature of the grain boundary. Triangular M23C6 carbides precipitate only at γ/δ interfaces and rod-like Cr2N nitrides precipitate at both γ/δ and δ/δ interfaces. After 15min of ageing, the M23C6 size no longer evolves, whereas that of the Cr2N continues to evolve. For Cr2N, the morphology is maintained at γ/δ interfaces, whereas percolation occurs to form a continuous layer at δ/δ interfaces. By combining 2D and 3D characterisation at the nanoscale using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, a complete description of the precipitation evolution was obtained, including the composition, crystallographic structure, orientation relationship with the matrix phases, location, morphology, size and volume fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cascades in model steels: The effect of cementite (Fe3C) and Cr23C6 particles on short-term crystal damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, K. O. E.

    2015-06-01

    Ferritic stainless steel can be modeled as an iron matrix containing precipitates of cementite (Fe3C) and Cr23C6. When used in nuclear power production the steels in the vicinity of the core start to accumulate damage due to neutrons. The role of the afore-mentioned carbides in this process is not well understood. In order to clarify the situation bulk cascades created by primary recoils in model steels have been carried out in the present work. Investigated configurations consisted of bulk ferrite containing spherical particles (diameter of 4 nm) of either (1) Fe3C or (2) Cr23C6. Primary recoils were initiated at different distances from the inclusions, with recoil energies varying between 100 eV and 1 keV. Results for the number of point defects such as vacancies and antisites are presented. These findings indicate that defects are also remaining when cascades are started outside the carbide inclusions. The work uses a recently developed Abell-Brenner-Tersoff potential for the Fe-Cr-C system.

  2. Thermochemistry analyses for transformation of C6 glucose compound into C9, C12 and C15 alkanes using density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anand Mohan; Kishore, Nanda

    2017-02-01

    The hydrolysis of cellulose fraction of biomass yields C6 glucose which further can be transformed into long-chain hydrocarbons by C-C coupling. In this study, C6 glucose is transformed into three chain alkanes, namely, C9, C12 and C15 using C-C coupling reactions under the gas and aqueous phase milieus. The geometry optimisation and vibrational frequency calculations are carried out at well-known hybrid-GGA functional, B3LYP with the basis set of 6-31+g(d,p) under the density functional theory framework. The single point energetics are calculated at M05-2X/6-311+g(3df,2p) level of theory. All thermochemical properties are calculated over a wide range of temperature between 300 and 900 K at an interval of 100 K. The thermochemistry suggested that the aqueous phase behaviour is suitable for the hydrolysis of sugar into long-chain alkanes compared to gas-phase environment. The hydrodeoxygenation reactions under each reaction pathway are found as most favourable reactions in both phases; however, aqueous phase dominates over gas phase in all discussed thermodynamic parameters.

  3. Local spin dynamics at low temperature in the slowly relaxing molecular chain [Dy(hfac)3{NIT(C6H4OPh)}]: A μ+ spin relaxation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Paolo; Corti, Maurizio; Mariani, Manuel; Orsini, Francesco; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Lago, Jorge; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-05-01

    The spin dynamics of the molecular magnetic chain [Dy(hfac)3{NIT(C6H4OPh)}] were investigated by means of the Muon Spin Relaxation (μ+SR) technique. This system consists of a magnetic lattice of alternating Dy(III) ions and radical spins, and exhibits single-chain-magnet behavior. The magnetic properties of [Dy(hfac)3{NIT(C6H4OPh)}] have been studied by measuring the magnetization vs. temperature at different applied magnetic fields (H = 5, 3500, and 16500 Oe) and by performing μ+SR experiments vs. temperature in zero field and in a longitudinal applied magnetic field H = 3500 Oe. The muon asymmetry P(t) was fitted by the sum of three components, two stretched-exponential decays with fast and intermediate relaxation times, and a third slow exponential decay. The temperature dependence of the spin dynamics has been determined by analyzing the muon longitudinal relaxation rate λinterm(T), associated with the intermediate relaxing component. The experimental λinterm(T) data were fitted with a corrected phenomenological Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound law by using a distribution of thermally activated correlation times, which average to τ = τ0 exp(Δ/kBT), corresponding to a distribution of energy barriers Δ. The correlation times can be associated with the spin freezing that occurs when the system condenses in the ground state.

  4. Local spin dynamics at low temperature in the slowly relaxing molecular chain [Dy(hfac)3(NIT(C6H4OPh))]: A μ+ spin relaxation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arosio, Paolo; Orsini, Francesco; Corti, Maurizio; Mariani, Manuel; Bogani, Lapo; Caneschi, Andrea; Lago, Jorge; Lascialfari, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The spin dynamics of the molecular magnetic chain [Dy(hfac) 3 (NIT(C 6 H 4 OPh))] were investigated by means of the Muon Spin Relaxation (μ + SR) technique. This system consists of a magnetic lattice of alternating Dy(III) ions and radical spins, and exhibits single-chain-magnet behavior. The magnetic properties of [Dy(hfac) 3 (NIT(C 6 H 4 OPh))] have been studied by measuring the magnetization vs. temperature at different applied magnetic fields (H = 5, 3500, and 16500 Oe) and by performing μ + SR experiments vs. temperature in zero field and in a longitudinal applied magnetic field H = 3500 Oe. The muon asymmetry P(t) was fitted by the sum of three components, two stretched-exponential decays with fast and intermediate relaxation times, and a third slow exponential decay. The temperature dependence of the spin dynamics has been determined by analyzing the muon longitudinal relaxation rate λ interm (T), associated with the intermediate relaxing component. The experimental λ interm (T) data were fitted with a corrected phenomenological Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound law by using a distribution of thermally activated correlation times, which average to τ = τ 0 exp(Δ/k B T), corresponding to a distribution of energy barriers Δ. The correlation times can be associated with the spin freezing that occurs when the system condenses in the ground state

  5. Water extract from the leaves of Withania somnifera protect RA differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian ginseng, against glutamate induced toxicity in the retinoic acid differentiated rat glioma (C6 and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32 cells. The neuroprotective activity of the Ashwagandha leaves derived water extract (ASH-WEX was evaluated. Cell viability and the expression of glial and neuronal cell differentiation markers was examined in glutamate challenged differentiated cells with and without the presence of ASH-WEX. We demonstrate that RA-differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells, when exposed to glutamate, undergo loss of neural network and cell death that was accompanied by increase in the stress protein HSP70. ASH-WEX pre-treatment inhibited glutamate-induced cell death and was able to revert glutamate-induced changes in HSP70 to a large extent. Furthermore, the analysis on the neuronal plasticity marker NCAM (Neural cell adhesion molecule and its polysialylated form, PSA-NCAM revealed that ASH-WEX has therapeutic potential for prevention of neurodegeneration associated with glutamate-induced excitotoxicty.

  6. O site educativo de português como língua materna: um olhar da lingüística aplicada crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noadia Íris da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento da rede mundial de computadores tem contribuído para o surgimento de novas formas de socialização do conhecimento favorecendo a educação a distância, fenômeno ao qual se vincula uma grande procura de cursos de português. Nesse cenário, o site educativo tem se transformado num importante recurso de ensino/aprendizagem, sendo procurado por usuários pelos mais diferentes motivos. Esse movimento, todavia, não tem recebido a devida atenção da academia no sentido de estudar os objetivos, a qualidade e os ganhos potenciais que são oferecidos aos alunos/internautas em tais espaços pedagógicos. Neste estudo, visamos a analisar sites de ensino de português quanto aos propósitos perseguidos, suas concepções de língua e gramática através da realização de uma pesquisa empírica com três desses sites. Nosso corpus é composto pela apreciação dos conteúdos veiculados e a descrição das aulas e atividades propostas nos sites. Nossos resultados apontam para a existência de contradições entre os conteúdos declarados e os efetivamente abordados, além de uma tendência redutora de conceber a língua como um código e a gramática como um conjunto de regras de uso da norma culta. Assim, chamamos a atenção do leitor para a cautela necessária ao adotar sites como recurso para o ensino/aprendizagem de língua.

  7. La lengua inglesa como neolengua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando BELTRÁN LLAVADOR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo examina algunos usos y abusos de la lengua inglesa en la actualidad en el contexto de la globalización. Se define la neolengua, se ofrecen similitudes de la misma en el lenguaje publicitario en España, se trazan sus orígenes y se apuntan algunos antecedentes en la historia de la literatura inglesa, al tiempo que se ilustran ejemplos de variantes contemporáneas de la misma bajo la denominación de «nukespeak», especialmente abundantes en el discurso de los conflictos bélicos. La lengua inglesa está indisociablemente unida a complejos factores de orden económico, tecnológico y cultural que afectan a su misma morfología. Por otra parte, la presencia ubicua de la lengua inglesa, como idioma global, opera sobre las estructuras de sentimiento, pensamiento y acción de los ciudadanos en todo el mundo. Para los profesionales de la enseñanza del idioma inglés, ello comporta la obligación de discernir y resistir sus efectos potencialmente perversos al tiempo que siguen promoviendo sus valiosos beneficios culturales.ABSTRACT: Contemporary uses and abuses of the English language are examined in the context of complex issues and globalization trends. The term «newspeak» is defined, similitudes of it are found today in the language of advertising in Spain, its origins are traced back and antecedents are located in the history of English literature, while the presence of new modalities of the Orwellian reductionist language, such as «nukespeak», is illustrated within the language of warfare. The English language is inextricably bound up with economical, technological and cultural factors which affect its very morphology just as much as the pervasive influence of English as a global language affects the structures of feeling, thought and action of citizens all over the world, which poses an obligation on the part of EFL teachers to discern and resist its ill effects while they promote its still highly valuable cultural

  8. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  9. PET imaging of brain with the β-amyloid probe, [11C]6-OH-BTA-1, in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Ye, Daniel; Cohen, Robert M.; Ichise, Masanori; Liow, Jeih-San; Cai, Lisheng; Musachio, John L.; Hong, Jinsoo; Crescenzo, Mathew; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Zoghbi, Sami; Vines, Douglass C.; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Jacobowitz, David; Seidel, Jurgen; Green, Michael V.; Katada, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of [ 11 C]6-OH-BTA-1 and positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET imaging was performed with the NIH ATLAS small animal scanner in six elderly transgenic mice (Tg2576; age 22.0±1.8 months; 23.6±2.6 g) overexpressing a mutated form of human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) known to result in the production of Aβ plaques, and in six elderly wild-type litter mates (age 21.8±1.6 months; 29.5±4.7 g). Dynamic PET scans were performed for 30 min in each mouse under 1% isoflurane inhalation anesthesia after a bolus injection of 13-46 MBq of [ 11 C]6-OH-BTA-1. PET data were reconstructed with 3D OSEM. On the coronal PET image, irregular regions of interest (ROIs) were placed on frontal cortex (FR), parietal cortex (PA), striatum (ST), thalamus (TH), pons (PO), and cerebellum (CE), guided by a mouse stereotaxic atlas. Time-activity curves (TACs) (expressed as percent injected dose per gram normalized to body weight: % ID-kg/g) were obtained for FR, PA, ST, TH, PO, and CE. ROI-to-CE radioactivity ratios were also calculated. Following PET scans, sections of mouse brain prepared from anesthetized and fixative-perfused mice were stained with thioflavin-S. TACs for [ 11 C]6-OH-BTA-1 in all ROIs peaked early (at 30-55 s), with radioactivity washing out quickly thereafter in both transgenic and wild-type mice. Peak uptake in all regions was significantly lower in transgenic mice than in wild-type mice. During the later part of the washout phase (12-30 min), the mean FR/CE and PA/CE ratios were higher in transgenic than in wild-type mice (1.06±0.04 vs 0.98±0.07, p=0.04; 1.06±0.09 vs 0.93±0.08 p=0.02) while ST/CE, TH/CE, and PO/CE ratios were not. Ex vivo staining revealed widespread Aβ plaques in cortex, but not in cerebellum of transgenic mice or in any brain regions of wild-type mice. Marked reductions in brain uptake of this

  10. Paradoxical effect of aspirin on the growth of C6 rat glioma and on time of development of ENU-induced tumors of the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, O; Guevara, P; Reyes, S; Palencia, G; Rivera, E; Sotelo, J

    2001-11-01

    Administration of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), an inhibitor of the synthesis of prostaglandins and thrombzoxanes, decreases the incidence of colorectal cancer and other neoplasms and inhibits in vitro some tumor growth. We studied the effect of various doses of ASA on the growth of C6 glioma implanted in rats as well as the effect of chronic administration of ASA on time of development and incidence of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) induced by prenatal exposure to ethylnitrosourea (ENU). In a controlled study, various doses of ASA, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg per day, were administered to Wistar rats in whom a subcutaneous C6 glioma had been transplanted. Changes in tumor size, histologic characteristics, mitotic index, cell proliferation, and vascular density were studied. In a parallel experiment, we administered ASA (70 mg/kg per day) to rats who were prenatally exposed to ENU; treatment started on day 50 of age, and continued until the end of the experiment at day 400. The time of tumor development as well as incidence, localization, and histological diagnosis were compared with matched controls. A paradoxical effect of ASA administration was observed on the dynamics of cell proliferation of C6 glioma. When high ASA doses were administered (200 or 400 mg/kg per day), tumor volume, cell proliferation, vascular density, and mitotic index increased. In contrast, when low doses were administered (12.5 or 25 mg/kg per day) the tumor size diminished. In the second experiment, localization and incidence of CNS tumors induced by ENU were similar in animals treated with ASA and in controls; however, in rats treated with ASA the time of tumor development was shortened. The growth-promoting effects of high doses of ASA found in the present study in both transplanted and chemically-induced brain tumors, might be due to the blockage of autocrine inhibitory factors dependent on the cyclooxygenase pathway or by increased vascular permeability and

  11. Structural phase transition causing anomalous photoluminescence behavior in perovskite (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Mlayah, A.; Lusson, A.; Bouchez, G.; Boukheddaden, K.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Optical and structural properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-type (C 6 H 11 NH 3 ) 2 [PbI 4 ] (abbreviated as C 6 PbI 4 ) were investigated using optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and x-ray diffraction measurements. Room temperature, optical absorption measurements, performed on spin-coated films of C 6 PbI 4 , revealed two absorption bands at 2.44 and 3.21 eV. Upon 325 nm (3.815 eV) laser irradiation, strong green PL emission peaks were observed at 2.41 eV (P1) and 2.24 eV (P2) and assigned to free and localized excitons, respectively. The exciton binding energy was estimated at 356 meV. At low temperature, two additional emission bands were detected at 2.366 eV (P3) and a large band (LB) at 1.97 eV. The former appeared only below 40 K and the latter emerged below 130 K. The thermal dependence of the PL spectra revealed an abnormal behavior accompanied by singularities in the peak positions and intensities at 40 and 130 K. X-ray diffraction studies performed on powder and single crystals as a function of temperature evidenced significant changes of the interlayer spacing at 50 K and ∼138 K. Around 138 K, a commensurate to incommensurate structural phase transition occurred on cooling. It involves a symmetry breaking leading to a distortion of the PbI 6 octahedron. The resulting incommensurate spatial modulation of the Pb–I distances (and Pb–I–Pb angles) causes a spatial modulation of the band gap, which is at the origin of the emergence of the LB below ∼130 K and the anomalous behavior of the position of P1 below 130 K. The change of the interlayer spacing in the 40-50 K range may in turn be related to the significant decrease of the intensity of P2 and the maximum emission of the LB. These results underline the intricate character of the structural and the PL properties of the hybrid perovskites; understanding such properties should benefit to the design of optoelectronic devices with targeted properties

  12. Structural phase transition causing anomalous photoluminescence behavior in perovskite (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangui, A.; Pillet, S.; Mlayah, A.; Lusson, A.; Bouchez, G.; Triki, S.; Abid, Y.; Boukheddaden, K.

    2015-12-01

    Optical and structural properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite-type (C6H11NH3)2[PbI4] (abbreviated as C6PbI4) were investigated using optical absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and x-ray diffraction measurements. Room temperature, optical absorption measurements, performed on spin-coated films of C6PbI4, revealed two absorption bands at 2.44 and 3.21 eV. Upon 325 nm (3.815 eV) laser irradiation, strong green PL emission peaks were observed at 2.41 eV (P1) and 2.24 eV (P2) and assigned to free and localized excitons, respectively. The exciton binding energy was estimated at 356 meV. At low temperature, two additional emission bands were detected at 2.366 eV (P3) and a large band (LB) at 1.97 eV. The former appeared only below 40 K and the latter emerged below 130 K. The thermal dependence of the PL spectra revealed an abnormal behavior accompanied by singularities in the peak positions and intensities at 40 and 130 K. X-ray diffraction studies performed on powder and single crystals as a function of temperature evidenced significant changes of the interlayer spacing at 50 K and ˜138 K. Around 138 K, a commensurate to incommensurate structural phase transition occurred on cooling. It involves a symmetry breaking leading to a distortion of the PbI6 octahedron. The resulting incommensurate spatial modulation of the Pb-I distances (and Pb-I-Pb angles) causes a spatial modulation of the band gap, which is at the origin of the emergence of the LB below ˜130 K and the anomalous behavior of the position of P1 below 130 K. The change of the interlayer spacing in the 40-50 K range may in turn be related to the significant decrease of the intensity of P2 and the maximum emission of the LB. These results underline the intricate character of the structural and the PL properties of the hybrid perovskites; understanding such properties should benefit to the design of optoelectronic devices with targeted properties.

  13. Estratégias de Aprendizagem em Curso Corporativo a Distância: como Estudam os Trabalhadores?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Zerbini

    Full Text Available Resumo A presente pesquisa objetiva verificar as evidências de validade da Escala de Estratégias de Aprendizagem (EEA aplicada em um curso a distância em ambiente corporativo. Pretende ainda verificar quais são as estratégias de aprendizagem mais utilizadas pelos trabalhadores em ambiente virtual de estudo no contexto de trabalho. O curso avaliado abrange venda de produtos bancários oferecido por um banco de grande porte aos seus funcionários. A EEA foi aplicada em 541 participantes. Foram realizadas análises de componentes principais, fatoriais, consistência interna e descritivas. Os resultados indicaram uma escala de cinco fatores: Controle da Emoção, 4 itens (α = 0,91, Repetição e Organização, 6 itens (α = 0,83, Controle da Motivação, 4 itens (α = 0,97, Elaboração, 3 itens (α = 0,89, Monitoramento da Compreensão, 6 itens (α = 0,91. Busca de Ajuda Interpessoal e Busca de Ajuda ao Material Didático não figuraram como potenciais fatores – já que o desenho do curso avaliado não apresenta material didático, tampouco oferece tutoria ativa aos participantes. A maior ocorrência de médias altas concentra-se nos itens do fator Elaboração eControle da Emoção. Esse fato pode ser explicado pelos indivíduos estarem acostumados a utilizar as estratégias de elaboração e de controle da emoção ao longo da vida, em seus estudos individuais em diferentes situações educacionais.

  14. Conceptual Design of Object Oriented Program (OOP) for Pilot Code of Two-Fluid, Three-field Model with C++ 6.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Bub Dong; Lee, Young Jin

    2006-01-01

    Engineering software for design purpose in nuclear industries have been developed since early 1970s, and well established in 1980s. The most popular and common language for the software development has been FORTRAN series, until the more sophisticated GUI and software coupling is needed. The advanced computer language, such as C++, C has been developed to help the programming for the easy GUI need and reuse of well developed routines, with adopting the objective oriented program. A recent trend of programming becomes objective-oriented since the results are often more intuitive and easier to maintain than procedure program. The main motivation of this work is to capture objective oriented concepts for conventional safety analysis programs which consist of many functions and procedure oriented structures. In this work, the new objective programming with C++ 6.0 language has been tried for the PILOT code written in FORTRAN language, and conceptual OOP design of the system safety analysis code has been done

  15. K-3 vitamininin sıçan glioma (C6) ve insan glioblastomamultiforme hücre çoğalmasına invitro etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Öztopçu, Pınar; Kabadere, Selda; Uyar, Ruhi

    2005-01-01

    Amaç: Glioblastoma multiforme beyin dokusu içerisine hızla yayılan ve onu yıkıma ugratan, sinir sisteminde görülme sıklıgı yüksek oldukça tehlikeli bir tümör çesididir. K-3 vitamininin çesitli kanser hücre dizileri üzerinde hücre çogalmasını baskılayıcı etkisi oldugu bildirilmektedir. Çalısmamızda K-3 vitamininin, sıçan glioma (C6) ve insan glioblastoma multiforme hücrelerinin çogalması üzerindeki baskılayıcı etkilerini karsılastırarak belirlemeyi amaçladık. Yöntem: K-3 vitamin...

  16. Theoretical studies of the optical and EPR spectra for VO^{2+} in Na_3C_6H_5O_7·2H_2O single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.-Y. Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the perturbation formulas for a d^1 configuration ion in a tetragonal crystal field, the three optical absorption bands and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR parameters (g factors g_i and hyperfine structure constants A_i for i = || and ⊥, respectively of VO^{2+} in Na_3C_6H_5O_7·2H_2O (TSCD single crystals were studied using the perturbation theory method. By simulating the calculated optical and EPR spectra to the observed values, local structure parameters and negative signs of the hyperfine structure constants A_i of the octahedral (VO_6^{8-} cluster in TSCD single crystal can be obtained.

  17. Fracture-dislocation at C6-C7 level with Quadriplegia after Traditional Massage in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilash, Kak; Mohd, Qmq; Ahmad, Zah; Towil, Basir

    2017-07-01

    Ankylosing spinal disorders (ASD) tend to result in fractures and/or dislocations after minor trauma because of the altered biomechanical properties. The relative risk of traumatic vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis has been estimated as three times higher than in the general population. These spine traumas, which are located at cervical level in 81% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, are complicated by neurological lesions in 65% of patients, due to the high inherent instability of these fractures. Traditional massage is an ancient practice in many parts of Asia. It has many benefits that are currently recognized world-wide. However, it can be dangerous and even lethal if practised without adequate knowledge and skill. We report a case of C6-C7 fracture-dislocation with complete neurology and neurogenic shock in a middle aged man with undiagnosed ankylosing spondylitis.

  18. Fracture-dislocation at C6-C7 level with Quadriplegia after Traditional Massage in a Patient with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abilash KAK

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spinal disorders (ASD tend to result in fractures and/or dislocations after minor trauma because of the altered biomechanical properties. The relative risk of traumatic vertebral fractures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis has been estimated as three times higher than in the general population. These spine traumas, which are located at cervical level in 81% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, are complicated by neurological lesions in 65% of patients, due to the high inherent instability of these fractures. Traditional massage is an ancient practice in many parts of Asia. It has many benefits that are currently recognized world-wide. However, it can be dangerous and even lethal if practised without adequate knowledge and skill. We report a case of C6-C7 fracture-dislocation with complete neurology and neurogenic shock in a middle aged man with undiagnosed ankylosing spondylitis.

  19. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of (C6D11ND3)CuBr3 and (Zn1-xMnx)3As2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, G.C. de.

    1989-08-01

    The investigations described concern the crystallographic and magnetic properties of the quasi one-dimensional (1d) ferromagnetic system (C 6 D 11 ND 3 )CuBr 3 (or CHAB) and the II-V type diluted magnetic semiconductor (Zn 1 - x Mn x ) 3 As 2 (or ZMA). Both compounds have been studied with various neutron scattering techniques. The crystallographic properties of CHAB and ZMA have been investigated by neutron diffraction. These diffraction experiments were carried out at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten, Netherlands. For the investigation of the static and dynamic magnetic properties of CHAB neutron scattering experiments were performed in Petten as well as other European reactor institutes. These investigations comprise a study of the 3d long-rate order and the 1d correlations of the magnetic moments, and a study of the behaviour of the linear spin-wave excitations

  20. Optimization of a divided wall column for the separation of C4-C6 normal paraffin mixture using Box-Behnken design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangal Vikas K.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simulation of a divided wall column (DWC was carried out to study the product quality and energy efficiency as a function of reflux rate, liquid spilt and vapour split for the separation of C4-C6 normal paraffin ternary mixture. Rigorous simulation of the DWC was carried out using Multifrac model of ASPEN Plus software. Box-Behnken design (BBD was used for the optimization of parameters and to evaluate the effects and interaction of the process parameters such as reflux rate (r, liquid split (l and vapour split (v. It was found that the number of simulation runs reduced significantly for the optimization of DWC by BBD. Optimization by BBD under response surface methodology (RSM vividly underscores interactions between variables and their effects. The predictions agree well with the results of the rigorous simulation.

  1. Study of the optical properties of deposited thin films on glass of HMDSO(C6H18Si2O) plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.

    2007-06-01

    Deposition of amorphous silicone like (Si:Ox:Cy:Hz) thin films in a remote RF hollow cathode discharge plasma using HMDSO (C 6 H 1 8Si 2 O) as monomer and Ar as feed gas, has been investigated for films optical constants as a function of RF power (100-300 W) and precursor flow rate (1-10 sccm), using different substrates: Quartz, BK7, and Glass. The optical constants (refractive index, extinction coefficient and dielectric constant) have been obtained by reflection/transmission measurements in the range 300-700 nm. The optical energy-band gap Eg and the optical-absorption tail E have been estimated from optical absorption spectra. The results were interpreted using plasma diagnostic by optical emission spectroscopy.(author)

  2. Biomass pre-treatment for co-production of high-concentration C5- and C6-carbohydrates and their derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A.; Martin Alonso, David; Luterbacher, Jeremy Scott

    2016-06-07

    Described is a method of processing biomass to separate it into a liquid fraction enriched in solubilized C5-sugar-containing oligomers and C-5 sugar monomers and a solid fraction enriched in substantially insoluble cellulose and C6-sugar-containing oligomers. The method includes the steps of reacting biomass with a solvent system comprising water, at least one lactone, or at least one furan, or at least one cyclic ether, and at least one acid, for a time and at a temperature to yield the liquid and solid fractions. The liquid and solid fractions may then be separated. Gamma-valeroloactone is a preferred lactone for use in the solvent system. Tetrahydrofuran is a preferred furan species for use in the solvent system.

  3. Conjugated oestrogen during the menstrual cycle measured by a direct radioimmunoassay with an antiserum prepared against oestradiol-17-glucosiduronate-(C-6)-BSA conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, H.; Otsubo, K.; Yasuda, J.; Kitawaki, J.; Okada, H. (Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto); Ohkubo, T.; Nambara, T. (Pharmaceutical Institute, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan)

    1984-01-01

    Early morning and 24 h urine samples and serum were collected daily throughout the menstrual cycle in women. Urinary oestradiol-17-glucosiduronate (E/sub 2/-17G) was measured with a direct radioimmunoassay whose antiserum has been prepared against E/sub 2/-17-G-(C-6)-bovine serum albumin conjugate and was very specific. On the average, E/sub 2/-17-G in early morning and 24 h urine samples showed a prominent peak one day before the peak of urinary LH. The time relationship between these urinary E/sub 2/-17-G and serum E/sub 2/ levels and peaks was also investigated.

  4. (C6H13N)2BiI5: A One-Dimensional Lead-Free Perovskite-Derivative Photoconductive Light Absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weichuan; Tao, Kewen; Ji, Chengmin; Sun, Zhihua; Han, Shiguo; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhenyue; Luo, Junhua

    2018-04-16

    Lead-free organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have recently attracted intense interest as environmentally friendly, low-cost, chemically stable light absorbers. Here, we reported a new one-dimensional (1D) zigzag chainlike light-absorbing hybrid material of (C 6 H 13 N) 2 BiI 5 , in which the corner-sharing octahedral bismuth halide chains are surrounded by organic cations of tetramethylpiperidinium. This unique zigzag 1D hybrid perovskite-derivative material shows a narrow direct band gap of 2.02 eV and long-lived photoluminescence, which is encouraging for optoelectronic applications. Importantly, it behaves as a typical semiconducting material and displays obvious photoresponse in the visible-light range. This work opens a potential pathway for the further application of 1D lead-free hybrids.

  5. Irreversible blockade of the high and low affinity (3H) naloxone binding sites by C-6 derivatives of morphinane-6-ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krizsan, D.; Varga, E.; Benyhe, S.; Szucs, M.; Borsodi, A.; Hosztafi, S.

    1991-01-01

    C-6 derivatives-hydrazones, phenylhydrazones, dinitrophenylhydrazones, oximes and semicarbazones - of morphinane-6-ones were synthesized and their binding characteristics were studied on rat brain membranes. The dihydromorphinone and oxymorphone derivatives compete for the ( 3 H)naloxone binding sites with high affinity, while the dihydrocodeinone and oxycodone derivatives are less potent. The affinity of the new compounds is decreased for the delta sites as compared to the parent ligands. The ligands bearing bulky substituents also bind with low affinity to the kappa sites. The modification decreased the Na + -index of compounds indicating their mixed agonist-antagonist character. The dihydromorphinone derivatives are all capable to block irreversibly the high affinity binding site of ( 3 H)naloxone, whereas the dihydrocodeinone derivatives block irreversibly the low affinity site. A possible mechanism for the inhibition is suggested

  6. Antioxidant effects of betulin on porcine chondrocyte behavior in gelatin/C6S/C4S/HA modified tricopolymer scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Lin, Feng-Huei; Sadhasivam, S.; Savitha, S.

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant effects of betulin on porcine chondrocytes cultured in gelatin/C6S/C4S/HA modified tricopolymer scaffold for a period of 4 weeks was investigated. The porous structure of the scaffold and cell attachment was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biochemical measures of necrosis, cell proliferation, sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) content and extracellular matrix related gene expressions were quantitatively evaluated. The cell proliferation data showed good cellular viability in tricopolymer scaffold and increased optical density for total DNA demonstrated that the cells continued to proliferate inside the scaffold. The sGAG production indicated chondrogenic differentiation. Chondrocytes treated with betulin expressed transcripts encoding type II collagen, aggrecan, and decorin. To conclude, the substantiated results supported cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix proteins and down-regulation of matrix metalloproteases and cytokine, in betulin treated scaffolds.

  7. A novel inorganic-organic compound: Synthesis and structural characterization of tin(II) phenylbis(phosphonate), Sn2(PO3C6H4PO3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, Ayyappan; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Clearfield, Abraham

    2005-01-01

    A novel tin(II) phenylbis(phosphonate) compound has been synthesized hydrothermally and its structure has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure is monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c (no. 14), a=4.8094(4), b=16.2871(13), c=6.9107(6)A; β=106.292(6) o , V=519.59(7)A 3 , Z=2. The three-dimensional structure consists of 3-coordinated tin and 4-coordinated phosphorus double layers separated (pillared) by phenyl rings. These phenyl rings are placed 4.8A apart along the a-axis in the structure resulting in lower surface area (∼14m 2 /g). The porosity has been increased by replacing phenyl groups by methyl groups (∼31m 2 /g)

  8. Antioxidant effects of betulin on porcine chondrocyte behavior in gelatin/C6S/C4S/HA modified tricopolymer scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Lin, Feng-Huei [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sadhasivam, S., E-mail: rahulsbio@yahoo.co.in [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Savitha, S. [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-05-10

    The antioxidant effects of betulin on porcine chondrocytes cultured in gelatin/C6S/C4S/HA modified tricopolymer scaffold for a period of 4 weeks was investigated. The porous structure of the scaffold and cell attachment was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biochemical measures of necrosis, cell proliferation, sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG) content and extracellular matrix related gene expressions were quantitatively evaluated. The cell proliferation data showed good cellular viability in tricopolymer scaffold and increased optical density for total DNA demonstrated that the cells continued to proliferate inside the scaffold. The sGAG production indicated chondrogenic differentiation. Chondrocytes treated with betulin expressed transcripts encoding type II collagen, aggrecan, and decorin. To conclude, the substantiated results supported cell proliferation, production of extracellular matrix proteins and down-regulation of matrix metalloproteases and cytokine, in betulin treated scaffolds.

  9. Protective Effect of DHT on Apoptosis Induced by U18666A via PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in C6 Glial Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kai; Wu, Junfeng; Zhang, Jianfeng; Bo, Jimei; Hong, Zhen; Zu, Hengbing

    2016-07-01

    Various useful animal models, such as Alzheimer's disease and Niemann-Pick disease, were provided by U18666A. However, the pathogenesis of U18666A-induced diseases, including U18666A-mediated apoptosis, remains incompletely elucidated, and therapeutic strategies are still limited. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) has been reported to contribute to the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Our study investigated the neuroprotective activity of DHT in U18666A-related diseases. Apoptosis of C6 cells was detected by Hoechst 33258 fluorescent staining and flow cytometry with annexin V-FITC/PI dual staining. Cell viability was assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8. Expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Akt, seladin-1, Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspase-3, was determined using Western blot. Our results demonstrated that the apoptotic rate of C6 cells significantly increased after U18666A addition, but was remarkably reduced after DHT treatment. Pretreatment with DHT attenuated U18666A-induced cell viability loss. PI3K inhibitor LY294002 could suppress DHT anti-apoptotic effect. Furthermore, we discovered that U18666A could significantly downregulate seladin-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but no significant change was observed in Bcl-xL, Bax, and P-Akt protein expressions. Compared with U18666A-treated group, the expression of P-Akt, seladin-1, and Bcl-xL significantly increased, and the expression of Bax and caspase-3 remarkably reduced after DHT treatment. However, in the presence of LY294002, the effect of DHT was reversed. In conclusion, we found that seladin-1 may take part in U18666A-induced apoptosis. DHT may inhibit U18666A-induced apoptosis by regulating downstream apoptosis-related proteins including seladin-1, caspase-3, Bcl-xL, and Bax through activation of the PI3K/Akt signal pathway.

  10. A two-step synthetic strategy to obtain a water-soluble derivative of curcumin with improved antioxidant capacity and in vitro cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros, José M; Belmont-Bernal, Fernando; Pérez-González, Alma Teresa; Pérez-Padrón, Mario Israel; Guevara-Salazar, Patricia; González-Herrera, Irma Gabriela; Guadarrama, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    A novel water-soluble derivative of curcumin (Cur-[G-2]-OH) was designed and synthesized from accessible raw materials in only two steps with an overall yield of 80%. The modification of curcumin phenol groups with second-generation polyester dendrons (dendronization) as a strategy to achieve an optimal hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance allows the complete water solubilization of the new curcumin derivative (5mg/ml) at room temperature. The therapeutic potential of Cur-[G-2]-OH was investigated in terms of antioxidant capacity, intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity in both rat glioblastoma cells and normal human dermal fibroblasts. Although the phenolic groups of curcumin were locked by dendronization, Cur-[G-2]-OH exhibited antioxidant capacity in water that was even higher than curcumin in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). This compound showed a steady cellular uptake contrasted with curcumin, which has a saturation capture at high concentrations. Combined with improved stability, this property seems to allow the intracellular accumulation of Cur-[G-2]-OH. Furthermore, the new compound exhibited increased cytotoxicity in rat C6 glioma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas in normal human fibroblasts, its IC 50 value was >600μM versus the IC 50 of curcumin found between 100 and 200μM. Surprisingly, Cur-[G-2]-OH drives cell death of C6 cells by a different mechanism of apoptosis triggered by curcumin. Together, these results suggest that curcumin dendronization could promote molecular and cellular mechanisms that are different from those induced by curcumin, presumably due to structural factors and not only for improved water solubility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Novel simultaneous-Saccharification-Fermentation Strategy for Efficient Co-fermentation of C5 and C6 Sugars Using Native, Non-GMO Yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varanasi, Sasidhar [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Relue, Patricia [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Economic bioethanol production is critically dependent upon the ability to convert both the hexose (C6) and pentose (C5) sugars resulting from cellulose and hemicellulose. C5 sugars are not readily fermentable by native Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) are designed to ferment xylose, but their stability, ethanol yield, environmental impact, and survival under conditions of industrial fermentation are unproven. In this project, we developed a novel approach for efficient fermentation of both C5 and C6 sugars using native S. Cerevisiae by exploiting its ability to produce ethanol from xylulose - the keto-isomer of xylose. While the isomerization of xylose to xylulose can be accomplished via commercially (and cheaply) available Xylose Isomerase (XI) (Sweetzyme™), this conversion has an extremely unfavorable equilibrium (xylose:xylose is about 5:1). To address this, we developed two alternate strategies. In the first, the two enzymes XI and urease are coimmobilized on solid support particles to enable complete isomerization of xylose to xylulose under pH conditions suitable for fermentation, in a simultaneous-isomerization-fermentation (SIF) mode. The ability of our technology to conduct isomerization of xylose under pH conditions suitable for both saccharification and fermentation opens the possibility of SSF with native yeasts for the first time. Herein, we performed specific research tasks for implementation of our technology in several modes of operation, including simultaneous-isomerization-and-fermentation (SIF), simultaneous-saccharification-and-isomerization (SSI) followed by fermentation, and SSF mode with the biomass feedstock poplar. The projected economics of our process are very favorable in comparison to the costs associated with engineering, licensing and propagating GMOs. This novel fermentation technology is readily accessible to rural farming economies for implementation in cellulosic ethanol production facilities.

  12. Identification of valid endogenous control genes for determining gene expression in C6 glioma cell line treated with conditioned medium from adipose-derived stem cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, I C; de Campos, R P; Bertoni, A P S; Wink, M R

    2015-10-01

    There is growing evidence that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be important players in the tumor microenvironment. They can affect the glioma progression through the modulation of different genes. This modulation can be evaluated through a very useful model, treating the tumor cells with MSC-conditioned medium. However, for an accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is a prerequisite. We performed a systematic review in an attempt to find a reference gene to use when analyzing gene expression in C6 glioma cells lines. Considering that we were not able to find a reference gene originated by an appropriate validation, in this study we evaluated candidate genes to be used as reference gene in C6 cells under different treatments with adipose-derived stem cells conditioned medium (CM-ADSCs). β-actin (ACTB); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase I (HPRT-1); TATA box binding protein (TBP) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The mean Cq, the maximum fold change (MFC) and NormFinder software were used for reference gene evaluation and selection. The GAPDH and ACTB genes have been the most widely used reference genes to normalize among the different investigated genes in our review, however, controversially these genes underwent a substantial variability among the genes evaluated in the present work. Individually, TBP gene was more stable when compared with other genes analyzed and the combination of TBP and HPRT-1 was even more stable. These results evidence the importance of appropriate validation of reference genes before performing qPCR experiments. Besides, our data will contribute with researchers that work analyzing the role of ADSCs in glioma microenvironment through gene expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Changes of Dendritic Cells in C6 Glioma-Bearing Rats That Underwent Combined Argon-Helium Cryotherapy and IL-12 Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Cui, Yao; Li, Xiqing; Guo, Yanwu; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Jiadong; Xu, Jian; Han, Shuangyin; Shi, Xiwen

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore changes in tumor tissues of glioma-bearing rats that underwent argon-helium cryoablation as well as changes in antitumor immunity before and after combined interleukin 12 treatment. Two hundred sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into a blank control group, intravenous injection interleukin-12 group, cryotherapy group, and cryotherapy + intravenous injection group. C6 glioma cells proliferated in vitro were implanted subcutaneously on the backs of rats to establish C6 glioma-bearing animal models. Each group underwent the corresponding treatments, and morphological changes in tumor tissues were examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. CD11c staining was examined using immunohistochemistry, and differences in dendritic cells and T-cell subsets before and after treatment were analyzed using flow cytometry. The control group showed no statistical changes in terms of tumor tissue morphology and cellular immunity, cryotherapy group, and cryotherapy + intravenous injection group, among which the count for the cryotherapy + intravenous injection group was significantly higher than those of all other groups. In the argon-helium cryotherapy group, tumor cells were damaged and dendritic cell markers were positive. The number of CD11c+ and CD86+ cells increased significantly after the operation as did the cytokine interferon-γ level (P < .01), suggesting a shift toward Th1-type immunity. Combined treatment of argon-helium cryoablation and interleukin 12 for gliomas not only effectively injured tumor tissues but also boosted immune function and increased antitumor ability. Therefore, this approach is a promising treatment measure for brain gliomas. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. NCI calculations for understanding a physical phase transition in (C6H14N2)[Mn(H2O)6](SeO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naïli, Houcine; François, Michel; Norquist, Alexander J.; Rekik, Walid

    2017-12-01

    An organically templated manganese selenate, (C6H14N2)[Mn(H2O)6](SeO4)2, has been synthesized by slow evaporation and crystallographically characterized. The title compound crystallizes at room temperature in the monoclinic centrosymmetric space group P21/n, with the following unit cell parameters: a = 7.2373(4) Å; b = 12.5600(7) Å; c = 10.1945(7) Å; β = 91.155(4)°, V = 926.50(10) Å3and Z = 2. Its crystal structure is built of manganese(II) cations coordinated by six water molecules in octahedral geometry, disordered dabcodiium cations and selenate anions, resulting in an extensive hydrogen-bonding network. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement indicated that the precursor undergoes a reversible phase transition at about 216 and 218 K during the cooling and heating processes respectively. Below this temperature the title compound is noncentrosymmetric with space group P21 and lattice parameters a = 7.2033(8) Å; b = 12.4981(13) Å; c = 10.0888(11) Å; β = 91.281(2)°, V = 908.04(17) Å3 and Z = 2. The disorder-order transformation of the C atoms of (C6H14N2)2+ cation may drive the structural phase transition. The low temperature phase obtained by breaking symmetry presents a fully ordered structure. The noncovalent interaction (NCI) method was used not only to locate, quantify, and visualize intermolecular interactions in the high and low temperature phases but also to confirm the phase transition detected by DSC measurement. The thermal decomposition of this new compound proceeds through four stages giving rise to the manganese oxide as final product at 850 °C.

  15. La sabidur?a como competencia gerencial

    OpenAIRE

    Pinzon-Barrios, Ana-Maria; Cort?s Zapata, Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Aunque el concepto de sabidur?a ha sido ampliamente estudiado por expertos de ?reas como la filosof?a, la religi?n y la psicolog?a, a?n enfrenta limitaciones en cuanto a su definici?n y evaluaci?n. Por esto, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo, formular una definici?n del concepto de sabidur?a que permita realizar una propuesta de evaluaci?n del concepto como competencia en los gerentes. Para esto, se realiz? un an?lisis documental de tipo cualitativo. De esta manera, se analizaron divers...

  16. Los ritmos como terapia para la impulsividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Triviño

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigaciones recientes muestran que el uso de patrones rítmicos facilita la respuesta óptima en el tiempo, por lo que el entrenamiento mediante ritmos podría proponerse como terapia novedosa ante problemas como la impulsividad. Esto podría beneficiar a pacientes con daño prefrontal o personas con trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH, que suelen mostrar conductas impulsivas, así como dificultad para estimar el paso del tiempo.

  17. La transparencia como objetivo del desarrollo sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Juan José Gilli

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene por propósito precisar el significado de la transparencia en la gestión pública como una exigencia de carácter ético relacionada con la información que los agentes deben dar en el ámbito sus funciones, reconociendo al ciudadano como el dueño de la información que producen y guardan. La transparencia tiene un especial valor como herramienta para combatir la corrupción y, de esa forma, contribuir a la meta de lograr instituciones inclusivas y efectivas para el desarrol...

  18. La universidad como organización

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Aurelio Ordoñez Burbano

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo versa sobre la unviersidad como organización y tiene como objetivo hacer una reflexión sobre la misión de la universidad colombiana en el marco de diversos entornos. Como punto de partida, se propone una precisión sobre la misión de la universidad moderna y la investigación, a diferencia de la universidad colonial y decimonónica limitada a la divulgación de conocimientos preexistentes.

  19. Carolee Schneemann. El cine como autobiografía, la artista como actriz, el cuerpo como pincel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Barbaño González-Moreno

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la relación de cine y mujer a partir de la obra fílmica de Carolee Schneemann, principalmente de su obra autobiográfica Fuses (1964-1966. Desde ella, se plantea el papel de la artista como productora, directora y protagonista principal de todas sus obras. Reflexionamos así sobre el rol del creador-director como actor que derivaría en la consecución de una obra cinematográfica de tintes necesariamente autobiográficos. Asumiendo la visión vanguardista del cine como diario personal/Entendido el cine como diario personal, Schneemann va a explorar en su obra diferentes aspectos de la identidad y la sexualidad de la mujer en un cine artístico, alternativo y de tendencia política feminista. Entendido/Asumido su cine como elemento plástico, la artista explorará de forma paralela la experimentación matérica y física a través de los cuerpos filmados así como de la propia materialidad de la película, excluyendo toda posibilidad narrativa, dramática e ilusoria de proyección del espectador en el espacio cinematográfico y el espacio privado del creador.

  20. El videojuego como material educativo: La Odisea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Mainer Blanco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se basa en la función educativa que pueden cumplir los videojuegos, un campo que consideramos inexplorado por tres motivos principalmente: su reciente incorporación, su impopularidad educativa (el rechazo el videojuego como herramienta de aprendizaje y considerado, por el contrario, como una distracción, y la incompleta incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías de información y comunicación (TIC en el ámbito familiar y educativo. En una segunda parte, se ha realizado una aplicación práctica tomando como referencia la gran obra universal “La Odisea”, cuya intención es mostrar la utilidad del videojuego como complemento educativo.

  1. El Derecho como argumentación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atienza, Manuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Not available

    Frente a las concepciones del Derecho como norma, como hecho o como valor (que caracterizan, respectivamente, al norrnativismo, al realismo jurídico y al iusnaturalismo, se propone aquí un cuarto enfoque que consiste en ver el Derecho como argumentación (y que cohra especial relevancia en las sociedades democráticas. Sin embargo, no hay una única forma de entender la argumentación jurídica. Aunque conectadas entre sí, en el trabajo se distinguen tres concepciones: la formal, la material y la pragmática o dialéctica; muchas cuestiones que se plantean en el ámbito de la teoría de la argumentación jurídica pueden resolverse -o aclararse- teniendo en cuenta esa triple perspectiva.

  2. La sangre como espectáculo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Buitrón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor asevera que cuando la información es concebida y tratada como una mercancía y no como un bien social, la avidez por el lucro la degenera en productos abyectos donde la sangre es espectáculo que sirve para exacerbar el morbo social, incrementar las ventas y los ingresos publicitarios. Señala que lamentablemente en el Ecuador este tipo de periodismo es una plaga muy bien vendida.

  3. Activation of endogenous p53 by combined p19Arf gene transfer and nutlin-3 drug treatment modalities in the murine cell lines B16 and C6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanatta Daniela B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactivation of p53 by either gene transfer or pharmacologic approaches may compensate for loss of p19Arf or excess mdm2 expression, common events in melanoma and glioma. In our previous work, we constructed the pCLPG retroviral vector where transgene expression is controlled by p53 through a p53-responsive promoter. The use of this vector to introduce p19Arf into tumor cells that harbor p53wt should yield viral expression of p19Arf which, in turn, would activate the endogenous p53 and result in enhanced vector expression and tumor suppression. Since nutlin-3 can activate p53 by blocking its interaction with mdm2, we explored the possibility that the combination of p19Arf gene transfer and nutlin-3 drug treatment may provide an additive benefit in stimulating p53 function. Methods B16 (mouse melanoma and C6 (rat glioma cell lines, which harbor p53wt, were transduced with pCLPGp19 and these were additionally treated with nutlin-3 or the DNA damaging agent, doxorubicin. Viral expression was confirmed by Western, Northern and immunofluorescence assays. p53 function was assessed by reporter gene activity provided by a p53-responsive construct. Alterations in proliferation and viability were measured by colony formation, growth curve, cell cycle and MTT assays. In an animal model, B16 cells were treated with the pCLPGp19 virus and/or drugs before subcutaneous injection in C57BL/6 mice, observation of tumor progression and histopathologic analyses. Results Here we show that the functional activation of endogenous p53wt in B16 was particularly challenging, but accomplished when combined gene transfer and drug treatments were applied, resulting in increased transactivation by p53, marked cell cycle alteration and reduced viability in culture. In an animal model, B16 cells treated with both p19Arf and nutlin-3 yielded increased necrosis and decreased BrdU marking. In comparison, C6 cells were quite susceptible to either treatment, yet

  4. Thermoluminescence properties of Al2O3:Tb nanoparticles irradiated by gamma rays and 85 MeV C6+ ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah, Numan; Alharbi, Najlaa D.; Habib, Sami S.; Lochab, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions beam is recently recognized as an ideal cancer treatment modality, because of its excellent local tumor control. These ions have a high relative biological effectiveness resulting from high linear energy transfer (LET) and their sharp Bragg peak. However, the dose of those energetic ions needs to be measured with great precision using a proper dosimeter. Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is a highly luminescent phosphor widely used for radiation dosimetry using thermoluminesence (TL) technique. In this work nanoparticles of this material activated by different elements like Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays irradiation. Tb doped sample is found to be the most sensitive sample, which could be selected for exposure to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 –10 13 ions/cm 2 . The obtained result shows that C ion beam irradiated sample has a simple glow curve structure with a prominent glow peak at around 230 °C. This glow curve has a dosimetric peak better than those induced by gamma rays. This glow peak exhibits a linear response in the range 10 9 –10 11 ions/cm 2 , corresponding to the equivalent absorbed doses 0.285–28.5 kGy. The absorbed doses, penetration depths and main energy loss were calculated using TRIM code based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The wide linear response of Al 2 O 3 :Tb nanoparticles along with the low fading makes this low cost nanomaterial a good candidate for C ion beam dosimetry. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles of Al 2 O 3 doped with Eu, Tb, Dy, Cu and Ag were synthesised. • They were evaluated for their TL response to gamma rays and C ion beam irradiation. • Tb doped sample is the most sensitive sample to gamma rays. • Al 2 O 3 :Tb was exposed to 85 MeV C 6+ ion beam in the fluence range 10 9 -10 13 ions/cm 2 . • The glow peak induced by C ions has a linear response in the range 10 9 -10 11 ions/cm 2

  5. Activation of endogenous p53 by combined p19Arf gene transfer and nutlin-3 drug treatment modalities in the murine cell lines B16 and C6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, Christian A; Silva Soares, Rafael B da; Carvalho, Anna Carolina V de; Zanatta, Daniela B; Bajgelman, Marcio C; Fratini, Paula; Costanzi-Strauss, Eugenia; Strauss, Bryan E

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of p53 by either gene transfer or pharmacologic approaches may compensate for loss of p19Arf or excess mdm2 expression, common events in melanoma and glioma. In our previous work, we constructed the pCLPG retroviral vector where transgene expression is controlled by p53 through a p53-responsive promoter. The use of this vector to introduce p19Arf into tumor cells that harbor p53wt should yield viral expression of p19Arf which, in turn, would activate the endogenous p53 and result in enhanced vector expression and tumor suppression. Since nutlin-3 can activate p53 by blocking its interaction with mdm2, we explored the possibility that the combination of p19Arf gene transfer and nutlin-3 drug treatment may provide an additive benefit in stimulating p53 function. B16 (mouse melanoma) and C6 (rat glioma) cell lines, which harbor p53wt, were transduced with pCLPGp19 and these were additionally treated with nutlin-3 or the DNA damaging agent, doxorubicin. Viral expression was confirmed by Western, Northern and immunofluorescence assays. p53 function was assessed by reporter gene activity provided by a p53-responsive construct. Alterations in proliferation and viability were measured by colony formation, growth curve, cell cycle and MTT assays. In an animal model, B16 cells were treated with the pCLPGp19 virus and/or drugs before subcutaneous injection in C57BL/6 mice, observation of tumor progression and histopathologic analyses. Here we show that the functional activation of endogenous p53wt in B16 was particularly challenging, but accomplished when combined gene transfer and drug treatments were applied, resulting in increased transactivation by p53, marked cell cycle alteration and reduced viability in culture. In an animal model, B16 cells treated with both p19Arf and nutlin-3 yielded increased necrosis and decreased BrdU marking. In comparison, C6 cells were quite susceptible to either treatment, yet p53 was further activated by the combination of p19

  6. The HCM-linked W792R mutation in cardiac myosin-binding protein C reduces C6 FnIII domain stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smelter, Dan F; de Lange, Willem J; Cai, Wenxuan; Ge, Ying; Ralphe, J Carter

    2018-06-01

    Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is a functional sarcomeric protein that regulates contractility in response to contractile demand, and many mutations in cMyBP-C lead to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). To gain insight into the effects of disease-causing cMyBP-C missense mutations on contractile function, we expressed the pathogenic W792R mutation (substitution of a highly conserved tryptophan residue by an arginine residue at position 792) in mouse cardiomyocytes lacking endogenous cMyBP-C and studied the functional effects using three-dimensional engineered cardiac tissue constructs (mECTs). Based on complete conservation of tryptophan at this location in fibronectin type II (FnIII) domains, we hypothesized that the W792R mutation affects folding of the C6 FnIII domain, destabilizing the mutant protein. Adenoviral transduction of wild-type (WT) and W792R cDNA achieved equivalent mRNA transcript abundance, but not equivalent protein levels, with W792R compared with WT controls. mECTs expressing W792R demonstrated abnormal contractile kinetics compared with WT mECTs that were nearly identical to cMyBP-C-deficient mECTs. We studied whether common pathways of protein degradation were responsible for the rapid degradation of W792R cMyBP-C. Inhibition of both ubiquitin-proteasome and lysosomal degradation pathways failed to increase full-length mutant protein abundance to WT equivalence, suggesting rapid cytosolic degradation. Bacterial expression of WT and W792R protein fragments demonstrated decreased mutant stability with altered thermal denaturation and increased susceptibility to trypsin digestion. These data suggest that the W792R mutation destabilizes the C6 FnIII domain of cMyBP-C, resulting in decreased full-length protein expression. This study highlights the vulnerability of FnIII-like domains to mutations that alter domain stability and further indicates that missense mutations in cMyBP-C can cause disease through a mechanism of

  7. Las leyendas regionales como intangibles territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloy Martos Núñez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo examina el concepto de leyenda como intangible territorial en diversas escalas, desde la local a la regional o nacional, y su relación con la construcción de mitos étnicos y la emergencia de tradiciones translocales. Para ello, se revisan la metodología de los estudios corográficos y las nociones de ecotipo y de paisaje cultural, así como la etnografía de los territorios simbólicos a la luz de conceptos como el clásico «témenos» y modernos como el «mytho-moteur» (Abadal, 1958. Se aplican estudios de casos que evidencian cómo es el Imaginario, en interacción con factores geohistóricos del lugar, el que a menudo acota y perimetrea un territorio a través de cauces como la fabulación legendaria y los ritos paralitúgicos, como procesiones o peregrinaciones. La conclusión es que las leyendas y los arquetipos de origen étnico y genealógico reescriben tradiciones que crean identidades y se pueden proyectar en ámbitos diferentes de la vida política o recreativa, con perfiles igualmente diferentes.

  8. Synthesis and structure of the extended phosphazane ligand [(1,4-C6H4){N(μ-PN(t)Bu)2N(t)Bu}2](4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Raquel; Less, Robert J; García-Rodríguez, Raúl; Bond, Andrew D; Wright, Dominic S

    2016-02-07

    The reaction of the phenylene-bridged precursor (1,4-C6H4)[N(PCl2)2]2 with (t)BuNH2 in the presence of Et3N gives the new ligand precursor (1,4-C6H4)[N(μ-N(t)Bu)2(PNH(t)Bu)2]2, deprotonation of which with Bu2Mg gives the novel tetraanion [(1,4-C6H4){N(μ-N(t)Bu)2(PN(t)Bu)2}2](4-).

  9. The maintenance care of potential organ donors: ethnographic study on the experience of a nursing team Los cuidados de manutención de los potenciales donativos de órganos: estudio etnográfico de la vivencia del equipo de enfermería Os cuidados de manutenção dos potenciais doadores de órgãos: estudo etnográfico sobre a vivência da equipe de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Madalena Del Duqui Lemes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This ethnographic study aimed to understand a nursing team's experience on the maintenance of potential organ donors. Data were collected through ethnographic interview, participative observation and documental analysis and analyzed in thematic, cultural domain and taxonomical terms. The research enabled us to identify the meaning of brain death, revealing the interrelation between the categories (units, nursing team and patient, which constituted this study main theme: "it is not a person". The transplant meaning held by the nursing team is marked by disbelief due to some previous experiences in the Intensive Therapy Unit. Thus, beliefs and values of this subculture interfere or determine a distancing from the patient with a consequent loss in the maintenance of the potential donor and quality of the organs donated.Se trata de un estudio etnográfico que tuvo como objetivo comprender la experiencia del equipo de enfermería en la manutención de los potenciales donadores de órganos. Los datos fueran recolectados a través de encuestas etnográficas, observación participante y análisis documental y sometidos a análisis del dominio, taxonómico y temático. En el proceso de inmersión de los datos recogidos fue identificado el significado de la muerte encefálica, que desveló la interrelación entre las categorías (unidades de terapia intensiva, equipo de enfermería y pacientes, constituyéndose en el principal tema de ese estudio "no es una persona". El significado del transplante atribuido por el equipo de enfermería es marcado por la no creencia, motivada por experiencias anteriores vividas en las unidades de terapia intensiva. Así, las creencias y valores de esa subcultura interfieren o determinan un distanciamiento del paciente y un consecuente prejuicio en la atención adecuada para la manutención del donante y calidad de los órganos donados.Trata-se de estudo etnográfico que teve como objetivo compreender a vivência da equipe

  10. Amitriptyline induces early growth response-1 gene expression via ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in rat C6 glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun Young; Shin, Soon Young; Lee, Young Han

    2007-07-05

    Astrocytes play important roles in guiding the construction of the nervous system, controlling extracellular ions and neurotransmitters, and regulating CNS synaptogenesis. Egr-1 is a transcription factor involved in neuronal differentiation and astrocyte cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated whether the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) amitriptyline induces Egr-1 expression in astrocytes using rat C6 glioma cells as a model. We found that amitriptyline increased the expression of Egr-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The amitriptyline-induced Egr-1 expression was mediated through serum response elements (SREs) in the Egr-1 promoter. SREs were activated by the Ets-domain transcription factor Elk-1 through the ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways. The inhibition of the ERK and JNK MAP kinase signals attenuated amitriptyline-induced transactivation of Gal4-Elk-1 and Egr-1 promoter activity. Our findings suggest that the induction of Egr-1 expression in astrocytes may be required to attain the therapeutic effects of antidepressant drugs.

  11. GEANT4 simulation of the neutron background of the C$_6$D$_6$ set-up for capture studies at n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Žugec, P.; Bosnar, D.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Barbagallo, M.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Brugger, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M.A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Duran, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Ganesan, S.; García, A.R.; Giubrone, G.; Gómez-Hornillos, M.B.; Gonçalves, I.F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heinitz, S.; Jenkins, D.G.; Jericha, E.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Karadimos, D.; Kivel, N.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kroll, J.; Langer, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L.S.; Lo Meo, S.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martìnez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.F.; Mastromarco, M.; Meaze, M.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P.M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondalaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego, A.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J.L.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Versaci, R.; Vermeulen, M.J.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wright, T.

    2014-05-09

    The neutron sensitivity of the C$_6$D$_6$ detector setup used at n_TOF for capture measurements has been studied by means of detailed GEANT4 simulations. A realistic software replica of the entire n_TOF experimental hall, including the neutron beam line, sample, detector supports and the walls of the experimental area has been implemented in the simulations. The simulations have been analyzed in the same manner as experimental data, in particular by applying the Pulse Height Weighting Technique. The simulations have been validated against a measurement of the neutron background performed with a $^\\mathrm{nat}$C sample, showing an excellent agreement above 1 keV. At lower energies, an additional component in the measured $^\\mathrm{nat}$C yield has been discovered, which prevents the use of $^\\mathrm{nat}$C data for neutron background estimates at neutron energies below a few hundred eV. The origin and time structure of the neutron background have been derived from the simulations. Examples of the neutron backg...

  12. Properties of the fullerene C_6_0-containing PN Lin49 in the SMC; Explanations of strong near-IR excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Kemper, Francisca; Leal-Ferreira, Marcelo L.; Aleman, Isabel; Ochsendorf, Bram; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Cami, Jan; Peeters, Els

    2016-01-01

    We performed a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the fullerene C_6o-containing planetary nebula (PN) Lin49 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Lin49 is a C-rich and metal- deficient PN (Z∼⃒0.0006) and its nebular abundances are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.25M_☉ stars with the metallicity Z = 0.001 of Fishlock et al. (2014, [1]). By stellar absorption fitting with TLUSTY, we derived stellar abundances, effective temperature, and surface gravity. We constructed the photo-ionization model with CLOUDY in order to investigate physical conditions of Lin49. The model with the 0.005-0.1 μm radius graphite and a constant hydrogen density shell could not fit the ∼⃒1-5 μm SED owing to the strong near-IR excess. We propose that the near-IR excess indicates (1) the presence of extremely small carbon molecules or (2) the presence of high-density structure surrounding the central star. (paper)

  13. (C6H16N2)Zn3(HPO3)4H2O: a new layered zinc phosphite templated by diprotonated trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Yu Jihong; Li Yi; Du Yu; Xu Ruren; Ye Ling

    2003-01-01

    Employing trans-1,4-diaminocyclohexane (trans-1,4-DACH) as a template, a new two-dimensional layered zinc phosphite (C 6 H 16 N 2 )Zn 3 (HPO 3 ) 4 H 2 O (1) has been prepared hydrothermally. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /n with a=10.458(2) A, b=14.720(3) A, c=13.079(3) A, β=97.93(3) deg. , V=1994.1(7) A 3 , Z=4, R 1 =0.0349 (I>2σ(I)) and wR 2 =0.0605 (all data). The inorganic layer is built up by alternation of ZnO 4 tetrahedra and HPO 3 pseudo pyramids forming a 4.6.8-net. The sheet is featured by a series of capped six-membered rings. The diprotonated trans-1,4-DACH molecules reside in the interlayer region and interact with the inorganic network through H-bonds

  14. Improvement of survival in C6 rat glioma model by a sustained drug release from localized PLGA microspheres in a thermoreversible hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Daiki; Hashizawa, Kosuke; Imai, Yoshihiro; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Okada, Hiroaki

    2012-05-10

    A local drug delivery system based on sustained drug release is an attractive approach to treat brain tumors. We have developed a novel device using drug-incorporated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres embedded in thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP) formulation (drug/PLGA/TGP formulation). TGP forms a gel at body temperature but sol at room temperature. Therefore, when this formulation is injected into the brain tumor, the PLGA microspheres in TGP gel are localized at the injection site and do not diffuse throughout the brain tissue; eventually, sustained drug release from PLGA microspheres is achieved at the target site. In this study, two chemotherapeutic drugs (camptothecin (CPT) or vincristine (VCR)) were incorporated into PLGA microspheres to prepare drug/PLGA/TGP formulations. VCR/PLGA microspheres exhibited the higher encapsulation efficiency than CPT/PLGA microspheres (70.1% versus 30.1%). In addition, VCR/PLGA microspheres showed a higher sustained release profile than CPT/PLGA microspheres (54.5% versus 72.5% release, at 28 days). Therapeutic effect (mean survival) was evaluated in the C6 rat glioma model (control group, 18 days; CPT/PLGA/TGP treatment group, 24 days; VCR/PLGA/TGP treatment group, 33 days). In particular, the VCR/PLGA/TGP formulation produced long-term survivors (>60 days). Therefore, this formulation can be therapeutically effective formulation for the glioma therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Single-electron-capture processes in collisions of He2+, Liq+ (q=1,2,3), C6+, and O8+ ions with helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, R.; Purkait, M.; Mandal, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Cross sections for single-electron capture in collisions of He 2+ , Li q+ (q = 1,2,3), C 6+ , and O 8+ ions with helium atoms at incident energy ranging from 50 to 5000 keV/amu have been calculated in the framework of four-body boundary-corrected continuum intermediate state (BCCIS-4B) approximation in both prior and post forms. In this formalism, distortion in the final channel related to the Coulomb continuum states of the projectile ion and the active electron in the field of residual target ion are included. In all cases, total single-electron-capture cross sections have been calculated by summing over all contributions up to n = 3 shells and subshells, respectively. It has been observed that the contribution of the capture cross section into the excited states is significant for asymmetric collision (Z P >Z T ) and is insignificant for symmetric collision. Numerical results for the total cross sections show good agreement with the available experimental findings, particularly in the post form. Post-prior discrepancy has been found to be within 30% except for Li + + He interactions below 150 keV/amu.

  16. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested.

  17. Alterations of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Regional Perfusion in Tumor Development: MRI Insights from a Rat C6 Glioma Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhndorf, Monika; Moussavi, Amir; Kramann, Nadine; Will, Olga; Hattermann, Kirsten; Stadelmann, Christine; Jansen, Olav; Boretius, Susann

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenetic medications play an important role in progression and therapy of glioblastoma. In this context, in vivo characterization of the blood-brain-barrier and tumor vascularization may be important for individual prognosis and therapy optimization. We analyzed perfusion and capillary permeability of C6-gliomas in rats at different stages of tumor-growth by contrast enhanced MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI at 7 Tesla. The analyses included maps of relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) and signal recovery derived from DSC data over a time period of up to 35 days after tumor cell injections. In all rats tumor progression was accompanied by temporal and spatial changes in CBV and capillary permeability. A leakage of the blood-brain barrier (slow contrast enhancement) was observed as soon as the tumor became detectable on T2-weighted images. Interestingly, areas of strong capillary permeability (fast signal enhancement) were predominantly localized in the center of the tumor. In contrast, the tumor rim was dominated by an increased CBV and showed the highest vessel density compared to the tumor center and the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by histology. Substantial regional differences in the tumor highlight the importance of parameter maps in contrast or in addition to region-of-interest analyses. The data vividly illustrate how MRI including contrast-enhanced and DSC-MRI may contribute to a better understanding of tumor development.

  18. "Anomalous" excitation in hydrogen-bonded molecular crystals - a Raman scattering study of specifically deuterated acetanilide (C 6D 5-CONH-CD 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvajol, J. L.; De Nunzio, G.; Almairac, R.; Moret, J.; Barthés, M.; Bataillon, Place E.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of experimental and theoretical works about crystalline Acetanilide has been the "anomalous" temperature-dependent ir absorption and Raman peaks at about 1650 cm -1 and the multiband structure in the N-H stretch region. A lively discussion about the assignment of these "anomalous" bands has arisen and is still in progress. The present Raman experiments should be placed in this context as an attempt to identify the molecular degrees of freedom which originate the "anomalous" bands. In this aim Raman experiments have been performed on specifically deuterated Acetanilide [C 6D 5-CONH-CD 3] single crystal in the low-frequency (phonon) and C=O stretching regions. On cooling a distinct band at about 1495 cm -1 increases in intensity. We assign this peak to the equivalent of the 1650 cm -1 band in Acetanilide. The temperature dependence of this Raman line was studied. The results are discussed in the light of the models proposed to explain the anomalous behaviour of the 1650 cm -1 Raman line in Acetanilide.

  19. Human C6orf211 Encodes Armt1, a Protein Carboxyl Methyltransferase that Targets PCNA and Is Linked to the DNA Damage Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jefferson P. Perry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence supports the presence of an L-glutamyl methyltransferase(s in eukaryotic cells, but this enzyme class has been defined only in certain prokaryotic species. Here, we characterize the human C6orf211 gene product as “acidic residue methyltransferase-1” (Armt1, an enzyme that specifically targets proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA in breast cancer cells, predominately methylating glutamate side chains. Armt1 homologs share structural similarities with the SAM-dependent methyltransferases, and negative regulation of activity by automethylation indicates a means for cellular control. Notably, shRNA-based knockdown of Armt1 expression in two breast cancer cell lines altered survival in response to genotoxic stress. Increased sensitivity to UV, adriamycin, and MMS was observed in SK-Br-3 cells, while in contrast, increased resistance to these agents was observed in MCF7 cells. Together, these results lay the foundation for defining the mechanism by which this post-translational modification operates in the DNA damage response (DDR.

  20. Density effects on high-n molecular Rydberg states: CH3I and C6H6 in H2 and Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaf, U.; Felps, W.S.; Rupnik, K.; McGlynn, S.P.; Ascarelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The absorption spectra of high-n Rydberg states of methyl iodide and benzene perturbed by varying number densities of hydrogen or argon, range 0.9x10 20 --10.5x10 20 cm -3 for H 2 and 0.6x10 20 --7.5x10 20 cm -3 for Ar, have been investigated. The high-n molecular states of both absorbers were found to shift linearly with the number density of atomic Ar and molecular H 2 scatterers. The Fermi formula modified by the Alekseev--Sobel'man polarization term provides an excellent fit of the shift data. The electron scattering lengths obtained are: 0.93 a 0 for H 2 and -1.63 a 0 for Ar using the CH 3 I absorber; and 0.99 a 0 for H 2 and -1.57 a 0 for Ar using the C 6 H 6 absorber. The electron scattering lengths for H 2 and Ar agree with the results of an empirical model that correlates scattering lengths and the polarizabilities α(spherical) for inert atoms and α 2 (nonspherical) for H 2 molecule

  1. Salinity stress effects on [14C-1]- and [14C-6]-glucose metabolism of a salt-tolerant and salt-susceptible variety of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaraj, S.; Thorpe, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of salt (sodium sulfate) on carbohydrate metabolism was studied in a salt-tolerant (Kharchia-65) variety and a salt-susceptible (Fielder) variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by comparing their responses under control and stress conditions. Leaf segments of Kharchia-65 showed increased activity through both the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the glycolytic pathway of glucose oxidation, with the former being comparatively more active in response to salt. In Fielder, there was an increase in PPP activity at the expense of glycolytic pathway activity. Label from glucose was found in the lipid, neutral sugar, amino acid, organic acid, and phosphate ester fractions in all treatments. On the basis of the label distribution patterns, it appears that Fielder leaves incubated with [ 14 C-6]-glucose were not able to utilize glucose efficiently under saline conditions. This finding was further supported by decreased label incorporation into all the fractions, especially the amino acid and organic acid fractions. Adenosine phosphate and reduced pyridine nucleotide concentrations were consistent with these observations. We conclude therefore that the salt-tolerant variety had an enhanced metabolic activity compared with the salt-susceptible variety, which contributed to its ability to overcome the adverse effects of salt. (author)

  2. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: ngtthuy02@yahoo.com [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morita, Kouichi [Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  3. Intracellular labeling and quantification process by magnetic resonance imaging using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles in rat C6 glioma cell line; Marcacao intracelular e processo de quantificacao por imagem por ressonancia magnetica utilizando nanoparticulas magneticas de oxido de ferro em celulas da linhagem C6 de glioma de rato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamani, Javier Bustamante; Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Rossan, Fabiana; Silveira, Paulo Henrique; Cardenas, Walter Humberto; Gamarra, Lionel Fernel, E-mail: javierbm@einstein.br [Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miyaki, Liza Aya Mabuchi [Faculdade de Enfermagem, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaro Junior, Edson [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem e Instituto do Cerebro - InCe, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein - HIAE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: To assess intracellular labeling and quantification by magnetic resonance imaging using iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coated with biocompatible materials in rat C6 glioma cells in vitro. These methods will provide direction for future trials of tumor induction in vivo as well as possible magnetic hyperthermia applications. Methods: Aminosilane, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol, and starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles were used in the qualitative assessment of C6 cell labeling via light microscopy. The influence of the transfection agent poly-L-lysine on cellular uptake was examined. The quantification process was performed by relaxometry analysis in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted phantom images. Results: Light microscopy revealed that the aminosilane-coated magnetic nanoparticles alone or complexed with poly-L-lysine showed higher cellular uptake than did the uncoated magnetic particles. The relaxactivities of the aminosilane-coated magnetic nanoparticles with a hydrodynamic diameter of 50nm to a 3-T field were r{sub 1}=(6.1 +- 0.3) x10{sup -5} ms{sup -1}mL/{mu}g, r{sub 2}=(5.3 +- 0.1) x 10{sup -4} ms{sup -1}mL/{mu}g, with a ratio of r{sub 2} / r{sub 1}{approx_equal} 9. The iron uptake in the cells was calculated by analyzing the relaxation rates (R{sub 1}and R{sub 2}) using a mathematical relationship. Conclusions: C6 glioma cells have a high uptake efficiency for aminosilane-coated magnetic nanoparticles complexed with the transfection agent poly-L-lysine. The large ratio r{sub 2} / r{sub 1}{approx_equal} 9 indicates that these magnetic nanoparticles are ideal for quantification by magnetic resonance imaging with T{sub 2}-weighted imaging techniques. (author)

  4. ETNOBOTÂNICA COMO FERRAMENTA PARA IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE INDICAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS E MARCAS COLETIVASEM COMUNIDADE DA REGIÃO SERRANA DO RIO DE JANEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odara Horta Boscolo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A Etnobotânica estuda as sociedades humanas e suas interações culturais e simbólicas com as plantas. Indicação Geográfica (IG é um tipo de proteção que reflete o esforço coletivo de defesa e gestão dos direitos de propriedade intelectual. Marca Coletiva (MC é utilizada para identificar produtos ou serviços provindos de membros de uma determinada entidade. As IG e as MC podem ser usadas ​​como ferramentas estratégicas para diferenciar e proteger os ativos intangíveis por meio de produtos de propriedade intelectual gerados por comunidades locais no mercado, agregando valor a sua cultura e meio ambiente, oferecendo ao consumidor um sinal distintivo da sua tipicidade. A pesquisa etnobotânica foi realizada em uma comunidade rural no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi sugerida a possibilidade de proteção da Indicação Geográfica "Rio Bonito de Cima de Friburgo" para o inhame, seus métodos de produção e uma MC para a Oficina das Ervas. Estas proposições auxiliam na manutenção e criação de postos de trabalho como uma possibilidade de compartilhar os benefícios econômicos para toda a cadeia produtiva e indiretamente estimular outras atividades rentáveis, como o ecoturismo. Assim, etnobotânica destaca-se como uma ferramenta de pesquisa para indicar potenciais produtos e serviços que podem ser protegidos com IG ou MC e representa mais uma oportunidade de um retorno à comunidade pelo estudo realizado.

  5. Efeito de supressão nas vias auditivas: um estudo com os potenciais de média e longa latência Effect of suppression in the auditory pathways: a study with middle and long latency potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Buncana Simões

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito de supressão no Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média e Longa Latência em indivíduos sem alterações auditivas, com presença de emissões otoacústicas (EOA transientes em ambas as orelhas. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 25 indivíduos (50 orelhas de 18 a 30 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, utilizando-se os Potenciais Evocados Auditivos de Média e Longa latência sem e com ruído branco contralateral. Os sujeitos não apresentavam queixa relacionada ao Processamento Auditivo. Foram verificados e comparados os valores numéricos das latências e amplitudes das ondas na avaliação convencional sem ruído e com ruído contralateral. RESULTADOS: a média aritmética da amplitude de resposta na situação com ruído (mascaramento reduziu em todas as posições (C3/A1, C4/A1, C3/A2 e C4/A2, porém estes achados foram estatisticamente significantes nas posições C4/A1, C3/A2 e C4/A2. CONCLUSÃO: a diminuição da amplitude pode ter relação com o número de sinapses realizadas. O efeito de supressão na amplitude pode estar relacionado à ação do sistema eferente que suprime o número de sinapses neuronais.PURPOSE: to evaluate the suppression effect of the Middle Latency Response (MLR and Long Latency Potential on normal hearing individuals. METHODS: twenty-five individuals of both genders between 18 and 30-year old were evaluated (50 ears, with presence of OAE in both ears (thus, excluding any middle ear problem or hearing loss that could compromise the final evaluation. The individuals did not present any complain on the Auditory Processing. We used MLR and P300 with and with no contralateral white noise. The latency and amplitude of the waves were evaluated (with and with no noise and the results were compared. RESULTS: we found reduction in the median amplitude in the situation with noise (masking in all positions (C3/A1, C4/A1, C3/A2 and C4/A2. However, these findings had no statistically significant difference in

  6. Crescimento e absorção de fósforo em plantas de Eucalyptus grandis associadas a fungos micorrízicos em diferentes doses de fósforo e potenciais de água do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Fernandes

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a produção de parte aérea (MS, a absorção (CP e a eficiência de utilização de fósforo (EUP por plantas de Eucalyptus grandis inoculadas com Glomus etunicatum (Ge e, ou, Pisolithus tinctorius (Pt, em diferentes combinações entre doses de P e potenciais hídricos do solo (ψ, utilizando-se técnica de raízes subdivididas em vasos geminados, em casa de vegetação. Um dos vasos do conjunto geminado continha os tratamentos em arranjo fatorial de duas doses de P (P60 e P120, correspondentes a adições de 60 e 120 mg dm-3 de solo, três ψ (-10, -40 e -300 kPa e quatro tratamentos com inóculos fúngicos (não inoculado, Ge, Pt, Ge + Pt. Outro vaso do conjunto continha 4,5 litros de solução nutritiva, sem P. Independentemente da dose de P adicionada, a colonização por Ge foi reduzida com a diminuição do ψ. Quanto à colonização por Pt, observou-se ausência de resposta a ψ em P60 e aumento em P120. A colonização ectomicorrízica foi reduzida quando Pt foi inoculado concomitantemente a Ge. Aumentos do CP, em função do incremento do ψ, foram observados em P60 e P120. No entanto, MS e EUP responderam positivamente à elevação de ψ apenas em P120. A inoculação isolada com Ge não apresentou efeito sobre as plantas, nas combinações entre ψ e P. A colonização por Pt apresentou efeitos diferenciados sobre as plantas, dependendo das condições de ψ e P no solo. Na combinação P60 e -300 kPa, correspondente à situação de menor disponibilidade de P, observou-se efeito deletério da colonização por Pt, isolada ou concomitantemente com Ge, sobre a EUP das plantas. Efeitos positivos da inoculação isolada com Pt sobre o CP foram observados nas combinações entre P120 e ψ de -10 kPa e -40 kPa, embora apenas na segunda situação este maior CP tenha sido acompanhado de incremento da MS.

  7. Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Folic Acid-Targeted Liposomes Co-Loaded with C6 Ceramide and Doxorubicin: In Vitro Evaluation on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Pan, Jiayi; Sarisozen, Can; Luther, Ed; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    Current research in cancer therapy is beginning to shift toward the use of combinational drug treatment regimens. However, the efficient delivery of drug combinations is governed by a number of complex factors in the clinical setting. Therefore, the ability to synchronize the pharmacokinetics of the individual therapeutic agents present in combination not only to allow for simultaneous tumor accumulation but also to allow for a synergistic relationship at the intracellular level could prove to be advantageous. In this work, we report the development of a novel folic acid-targeted liposomal formulation simultaneously co-loaded with C6 ceramide and doxorubicin [FA-(C6+Dox)-LP]. In vitro cytotoxicity assays showed that the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP was able to significantly reduce the IC50 of Dox when compared to that after the treatment with the doxorubicin-loaded liposomes (Dox-LP) as well as the untargeted drug co-loaded (C6+Dox)-LP on HeLa, A2780-ADR, and H69-AR cells. The analysis of the cell cycle distribution showed that while the C6 liposomes (C6-LP) did not cause cell cycle arrest, all the Dox-containing liposomes mediated cell cycle arrest in HeLa cells in the G2 phase at Dox concentrations of 0.3 and 1 μM and in the S phase at the higher concentrations. It was also found that this arrest in the S phase precedes the progression of the cells to apoptosis. The targeted FA-(C6+Dox)-LP were able to significantly enhance the induction of apoptotic events in HeLa cell monolayers as compared to the other treatment groups. Next, using time-lapse phase holographic imaging microscopy, it was found that upon treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP, the HeLa cells underwent rapid progression to apoptosis after 21 h as evidenced by a drastic drop in the average area of the cells after loss of cell membrane integrity. Finally, upon evaluation in a HeLa spheroid cell model, treatment with the FA-(C6+Dox)-LP showed significantly higher levels of cell death compared to those with C6-LP and

  8. Uso de células de Aedes albopictus C6/36 na propagação e classificação de arbovírus das famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Colônias de células de mosquito Aedes albopictus C6/36 foram infectadas com 23 arbovirus, sendo 19 destes existentes no Brasil, pertencentes às famílias Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae e Rhabdoviridae. A Replicação virai foi detectada por imunofluorescência indireta com todos os vírus estudados enquanto que o efeito citopático foi observado durante a infecção por alguns destes. No teste de imunofluorescência indireta utilizou-se fluidos ascíticos imunes de camundongos, específicos para os vírus estudados. A replicação virai caracterizada por grande produção de antígeno recomenda a utilização de células C6/36 na propagação e em tentativas de isolamento desses arbovirus. A técnica de imunofluorescência ofereceu importantes subsídios na classificação e identificação de vírus que replicam nestas células.C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells were infected w ith Brazilian arbovirus from the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae. Replication was obtained with all the studied viruses and cytopathic effect was observed with some. Viral antigen was assayed in C6/36 cell cultures for antigen was assayed in C6/36 cells by an indirect immunofluorescence test using specific mouse immune ascitic fluid. Antigen production was detected in C6/36 cells infected with all the studied viruses. The author recommends the inoculation of C6/36 cell cultures for isolation of virus from the four studied families. The immunofluorescence technique is an important tool for classification and identification of virus growing in C6/36 cells.

  9. The singlet-triplet energy gap in divalent three, five and seven-membered cyclic C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn AND Pb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vessally

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Total energy gaps, ∆Et–s, enthalpy gaps, ∆Ht–s, and Gibbs free energy gaps, ∆Gt–s, between singlet (s and triplet (t states were calculated for three, five and seven-membered cyclic C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb at B3LYP/6-311++G**. The singlet-triplet free energy gaps, ∆Gt–s, for C2H2M (M = C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb are found to be increased in the order: C2H2Si > C2H2C > C2H2Ge > C2H2Sn > C2H2Pb. The ∆Gt–s of C4H4M are found to be increased in the order: C4H4Pb > C4H4Sn > C4H4Ge > C4H4Si > C4H4C. Also, the ∆Gt–s of C6H6M are determined in the order: C6H6Pb > C6H6Ge ≥ C6H6Sn > C6H6Si > C6H6C. The most stable conformers of C2H2M, C4H4M and C6H6M are proposed for both the singlet and triplet states. Nuclear independent chemical shifts (NICS calculations were carried out for determination of aromatic character. The geometrical parameters are calculated and discussed.

  10. Extracting performance of cesium by 25,27-bis (2-propyloxy) calix[4]-26,28-crown-6 (iPr-C[4]C-6) in n-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianchen Wang; Xiaowen Zhu; Chongli Song

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the extraction of cesium (Cs + ) in nitric acid and in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) by iPr-C[4]C-6 was investigate in the dilluent n-octanol. The slope of the extractant dependency equals 1, indicating that the complex has 1:1[Cs + .iPr-C[4]C-6]Cs + to ligand. 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6 in n-octanol (abbreviated to iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol) has a stronger extracting ability to Cs when acidities are between 1.0mol/L and 4.0mol/L. The stripping properties of Cs loading in 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol was studied. Cs loading in iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol can be stripped easily into the aqueous phase because the distribution ratios of Cs are lower than 0.5 when pH is between 2 and 10 in the aqueous phase. On above basis, the better parameters were selected and the cold cascade test for removing Cs from the simulated HLLW was investigated on miniature centrifugal contactors. The results of the test are attractive. The removing ratio of Cs from the simulated HLLW is 99.5% and the stripping ratio of Cs loading in 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol is 99.2%. The results show that 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol is an effective process for removing Cs from HLLW. (author)

  11. Penta-acetyl geniposide-induced apoptosis involving transcription of NGF/p75 via MAPK-mediated AP-1 activation in C6 glioma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.-H.; Huang, C.-N.; Hsu, S.-P.; Wang, C.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated the herbal derivative penta-acetyl geniposide ((Ac) 5 GP) induces C6 glioma cell apoptosis through the critical sphingomyelinase (SMase)/nerve growth factor (NGF)/p75 and its downstream signals. It has been reported mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mediates NGF synthesis induced by SMase activation. In this study, ERK, p38 and JNK are shown to mediate (Ac) 5 GP-induced glioma cell apoptosis and elevation of NGF and p75. Treatment of PD98059 (ERK-specific inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor) decreases the elevation of NGF and p75 mRNA induced by (Ac) 5 GP, indicating possible transcription regulation via MAPKs. The results of nuclear extract blotting and EMSA further confirm (Ac) 5 GP maximally increases AP-1 and NF-κB DNA binding at 6 h. Inhibition of ERK, p38 and JNK block the activation of AP-1 and NF-κB, suggesting these MAPKs are involved in (Ac) 5 GP-induced transcription regulation. We thereby used RT-PCR to analyze cells treated with (Ac) 5 GP, with or without AP-1 or NF-κB inhibitors. AP-1 inhibitor NDGA decreases NGF/p75 and expression of FasL and caspase 3 induced by (Ac) 5 GP, suggesting the importance of AP-1 in mediating NGF/p75 and their downstream apoptotic signals. However, FasL and caspase 3 do not change with the NF-κB inhibitor PDTC; NF-κB might be linked to other cellular events. Overall, we demonstrate that MAPK mediates (Ac) 5 GP-induced activation of AP-1, promoting the transcription of NGF/p75 and downstream apoptotic signals. These results further highlight the potential therapeutic effects of (Ac) 5 GP in chemoprevention or as an anti-tumor agent

  12. ToF-SIMS analysis of a polymer microarray composed of poly(meth)acrylates with C6 derivative pendant groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Andrew L; Scurr, David J

    2016-04-01

    Surface analysis plays a key role in understanding the function of materials, particularly in biological environments. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) provides highly surface sensitive chemical information that can readily be acquired over large areas and has, thus, become an important surface analysis tool. However, the information-rich nature of ToF-SIMS complicates the interpretation and comparison of spectra, particularly in cases where multicomponent samples are being assessed. In this study, a method is presented to assess the chemical variance across 16 poly(meth)acrylates. Materials are selected to contain C 6 pendant groups, and ten replicates of each are printed as a polymer microarray. SIMS spectra are acquired for each material with the most intense and unique ions assessed for each material to identify the predominant and distinctive fragmentation pathways within the materials studied. Differentiating acrylate/methacrylate pairs is readily achieved using secondary ions derived from both the polymer backbone and pendant groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) is performed on the SIMS spectra of the 16 polymers, whereby the resulting principal components are able to distinguish phenyl from benzyl groups, mono-functional from multi-functional monomers and acrylates from methacrylates. The principal components are applied to copolymer series to assess the predictive capabilities of the PCA. Beyond being able to predict the copolymer ratio, in some cases, the SIMS analysis is able to provide insight into the molecular sequence of a copolymer. The insight gained in this study will be beneficial for developing structure-function relationships based upon ToF-SIMS data of polymer libraries. © 2016 The Authors Surface and Interface Analysis Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Analysis of Accuracy of Modis BRDF Product (MCD43 C6) Based on Misr Land Surface Brf Product - a Case Study of the Central Part of Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Chen, S.; Qin, W.; Murefu, M.; Wang, Y.; Yu, Y.; Zhen, Z.

    2018-04-01

    EOS/MODIS land surface Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) product (MCD43), with the latest version C6, is one of the most important operational BRDF products with global coverage. The core sub-product MCD43A1 stores 3 parameters of the RossThick-LiSparseR semi-empirical kernel-driven BRDF model. It is important for confident use of the product to evaluate the accuracy of bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) predicted by MCD43A1 BRDF model (mBRF). A typical region in the central part of Northeast Asia is selected as the study area. The performance of MCD43A1 BRDF model is analyzed in various observation geometries and phenological phases, using Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) land-surface reflectance factor product (MILS_BRF) as the reference data. In addition, MODIS products MCD12Q1 and MOD/MYD10A1 are used to evaluate the impacts of land cover types and snow covers on the model accuracy, respectively. The results show an overall excellent performance of MCD43A1 in representing the anisotropic reflectance of land surface, with root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0262 and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.9537, for all available comparable samples of MILS_BRF and mBRF pairs. The model accuracy varies in different months, which is related to the phenological phases of the study area. The accuracy for pixels labelled as `snow' by MCD43 is obviously low, with RMSE/R of 0.0903/0.8401. Ephemeral snowfall events further decrease the accuracy, with RMSE/R of 0.1001/0.7715. These results provide meaningful information to MCD43 users, especially those, whose study regions are subject to phenological cycles as well as snow cover and change.

  14. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159, el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribuir a la formación de un «realismo total» (Rodríguez Puértolas, 2000, II: 93, al que se une también la asimilación de enseñanzas esenciales como la que representa la narrativa de Cervantes: La novelística de Galdós hunde sus raíces en el mejor Cervantes, como puede verse en su peculiar sentido del humor y de la ironía, en la concepción perspectivista de la realidad y en tantas otras cosas, algunas de ellas en verdad fundamentales. Así el concepto de la Naturaleza y sus relaciones dialécticas con el ser humano; así el Amor como elemento vital y animador del orden cósmico, muy alejado del idealismo vulgar romántico (Ibid., 93.

  15. A Imagem como Ruína

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Volpe

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O dialogismo ente o filme Citizen Kane, de Orson Welles, e o poema “Kubla Khan”, de S.T. Coleridgé, é analisado, sendo evidenciados não só o tema em comum – o mito do Paraíso perdido – como também a similariedade na organização do disurso na justaposição das images, como fragmentos da memória a serem preservados.

  16. Los rincones como contextos significativos de aprendizaje

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Molero, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se pretende hacer un estudio sobre los rincones de trabajo en el aula de Educación Infantil, describiéndolos como modelo de organización del espacio y como estrategia metodológica que aboga por un aprendizaje socioconstructivista. El estudio se completa con la descripción y el análisis de los rincones de un aula específica de un centro escolar, incorporando diversas propuestas de mejora fundamentadas en el previo estudio teórico

  17. PARP-1 como regulador del ciclo celular

    OpenAIRE

    Iglesias Vázquez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    En el presente estudio hemos querido investigar las implicaciones biológicas de la interacción PARP-1/E2F-1 en escenarios en los que el factor de transcripción E2F-1 resulta de gran importancia como son el desarrollo embrionario y la oncogénesis. En este respecto, hemos demostrado que tanto PJ34, inhibidor de la actividad enzimática de PARP, como gosipol, inhibidor de las interacciones proteína-proteína, son capaces de reducir la actividad transcripcional de E2F-1 y la proli...

  18. Dibujo infantil como medio de diagnostico

    OpenAIRE

    González Hernando, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Con este documento se pretende demostrar la importancia que tiene el dibujo infantil en el correcto desarrollo integral de las personas. Se estudia la importancia del dibujo y su valor a la hora de utilizarlo como método de diagnóstico ante determinados aspectos que pueden determinar la vida de una persona. En definitiva lo que se desarrolla en este trabajo de Fin de Grado es el papel que juega el dibujo como herramienta para el seguimiento del desarrollo de los individuos centrándonos ...

  19. La fatiga como estado motivacional subjetivo

    OpenAIRE

    D. Cárdenas; J. Conde-González; J.C. Perales

    2017-01-01

    Actualmente no existe consenso sobre los factores que determinan la aparición de la fatiga. Hay factores que se derivan exclusivamente del esfuerzo físico, otros que dependen del esfuerzo mental que este lleva aparejado, y otros de los resultados de la tarea que se está realizando. Como consecuencia, se han desarrollado diferentes modelos explicativos que pretenden aunar las diferentes razones de su aparición. No obstante, la tendencia actual es entender la fatiga como un estado motivacion...

  20. Quitina y carboximetilquitosana como agentes desintegrantes

    OpenAIRE

    Sol A Fernández Monagas; María D Rodríguez Albadalejo; Ofelia Bilbao Revoredo; Olga M Nieto Acosta

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio comparativo de la quitina y la carboximetilquitosana como agentes desintegrantes, y se evaluó la influencia ejercida por el método empleado en la elaboración de las tabletas sobre la actividad desintegrante de ambos polímeros. La quitina presentó buenas características como agente desintegrante independientemente del método utilizado en la elaboración de las tabletas, mientras que la actividad desintegrante de la carboximetilquitosana fue afectada por el proceso de granu...

  1. Avaliação de potenciais interações medicamentosas em prescrições de pacientes internadas, em hospital público universitário especializado em saúde da mulher, em Campinas-SP

    OpenAIRE

    PRISCILA GAVA MAZZOLA

    2010-01-01

    Interação medicamentosa (IM) é um evento clínico em que os efeitos de um fármaco são alterados pelo uso concomitante ou anterior de outro fármaco, alimento ou bebida. O estudo teve como objetivo identificar IM em prescrições da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e Alojamento Conjunto (AC). Foram avaliadas 36 prescrições da UTI e 271 do AC. As IM foram listadas como graves, moderadas e menores. A base utilizada foi o site Drugs. Identificou-se 105 interações graves, 17...

  2. Heidegger E A Técnica Moderna Como Perigo E Como Salvação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Costa Cordeiro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available O mundo contemporâneo é marcado por uma compreensão de técnica que se ergue como tal a partir de um sentido próprio e autônomo. Este sentido pode ser caracterizado como um logos que se constitui a partir de sua própria natureza e se manifesta como tecnologia no decorrer da história. Compreender esse sentido e assumi-lo como condição de nossa existência no mundo é comprender a técnica como nossa herança e nosso envio. Nesse sentido, compreender a essência da técnica é fundamental para o mundo contemporâneo, assumindo que, nesse processo, consiste o perigo e a salvação da espécie.

  3. Selective Oxidation of a 0.1C-6Mn-2Si Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel During Dew-Point Controlled Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmajidian, Maedeh; McDermid, Joseph R.

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigates the selective oxidation of a 0.1C-6Mn-2Si medium-Mn advanced high-strength steel during austenization annealing heat treatments as a function of process atmosphere oxygen partial pressure and annealing time. It was determined that the surface oxide growth kinetics followed a parabolic rate law with the minimum rate belonging to the lowest oxygen partial pressure atmosphere at a dew point of 223 K (- 50 °C). The chemistry of the surface and subsurface oxides was studied using STEM + EELS on the sample cross sections, and it was found that the surface oxides formed under the 223 K (- 50 °C) dew-point atmosphere consisted of a layered configuration of SiO2, MnSiO3, and MnO, while in the case of the higher pO2 process atmospheres, only MnO was detected at the surface. Consistent with the Wagner calculations, it was shown that the transition to internal oxidation for Mn occurred under the 243 K (- 30 °C) and 278 K (+ 5 °C) dew-point atmospheres. However, the predictions of the external to internal oxidation for Si using the Wagner model did not correlate well with the experimental findings nor did the predictions of the Mataigne et al. model for multi-element alloys. Investigations of the internal oxide network at the grain boundaries revealed a multilayer oxide structure composed of amorphous SiO2 and crystalline MnSiO3, respectively, at the oxide core and outer shell. A mechanism for the formation of the oxide morphologies observed, based on kinetic and thermodynamic factors, was proposed. It is expected that only the fine and nodule-like MnO oxides formed on the surface of the samples annealed under the 278 K (+ 5 °C) dew-point process atmosphere for 60 and 120 seconds are sufficiently thin and of the desired dispersed morphology to promote reactive wetting by the molten galvanizing bath.

  4. La biblioteca como editora de contenidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Arévalo, Julio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características más innovadoras de la biblioteca del siglo 21 tiene que ver con la toma de una postura activa frente a la gestión y generación de contenidos. Con la llegada de la Web 2.0 las bibliotecas no sólo siguen salvaguardando y difundiendo información como han venido realizando a lo largo de su historia, también cada vez con más frecuencia crean nueva información con el objetivo de prestar los mejores servicios a sus ciudadanos, a través de recursos y servicios tales como la elaboración guías de investigación, boletines de alerta y novedades, recursos web, información a través de sus blogs, y como administradores de contenidos a través de repositorios y revistas de acceso abierto. Un paso más allá en esta dinámica tienen que ver con la biblioteca como editora y distribuidora de libros, especialmente en el ámbito local, siendo la impulsora, formadora, dinamizador y difusoras de las obras de los autores de su comunidad.

  5. A rota como memória

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Fraysse

    Full Text Available No contexto de estudo do patrimônio por um ponto de vista comunicacional, este artigo permitiu-nos visualisar um objeto de comunicação por excelência « a estrada » como portador de informação a decifrar e a interpretar um documento, mas também como um repositário da memória coletiva, quer dizer um monumento. Paralelamente, a patrimonialização dos monumentos, dos conjuntos arquiteturais e sobretudo dos itinerários que os religam, dito de outra maneira, da estrada, assim como a sua documentarização (relatos de viagens, guias, bancos de dados participam de uma nova institucionalização da memória integrante também das estradas míticas como o caminho de São Tiago na França ou a famosa estrada 66 nos Estados-Unidos.

  6. La medicina tradicional como medicina ecocultural

    OpenAIRE

    Aparicio Mena, Alfonso Julio

    2005-01-01

    Los sistemas terap??uticos tradicionales responden a las culturas de los pueblos en los que surgen. En ellos, se concibe la naturaleza ??ntimamente ligada a la tradici??n. Salud es, para los miembros de las culturas tradicionales, bienestar como equilibrio entre el ser humano, la naturaleza, las creencias y la sociedad.

  7. Los patrones de asentamiento como recurso patrimonial

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    Antonio Lista Martín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los patrones de asentamiento son las pautas con las que distribuyen los diferentes elementos construidos, como casas, caminos, campos, espacios públicos o fábricas, y son una expresión cultural de la sociedad que los construye. Tanto el tipo de elementos, su número como su distribución, dependen del nivel tecnológico, de la estructura social y de su bagaje cultural. Se puede decir, por tanto, que en los patrones estaría reflejado el conocimiento que la sociedad tenia del medio, así como sus anhelos, prioridades e, incluso, sus malas prácticas. La presente comunicación propone que estos patrones puedan servir de base para el planeamiento territorial actual, no sólo preservando aquello que realmente tenga valor, sino incluso recreándolos o reproduciéndolos a otras escalas siempre que puedan aportar un valor añadido al territorio. El escrito plantea una pregunta: ¿Qué se debe mantener de los patrones tradicionales y qué se puede, o incluso se debe, cambiar?, y para responderla en la primera parte se analizan someramente algunos asentamientos-tipo y en la segunda se indican pautas de actuación que han aparecido como propuestas en planes de ordenación territorial en los últimos años.

  8. EL PERIODISMO CIVICO COMO COMUNICACION POLITICA

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    Ana María Miralles C.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La autora retoma el ejercicio del periodismo cívico como el espacio en el cual la formación de la opinión pública adquiere características de un proyecto político dinámico en el que el ciudadano es el ente fundamental.

  9. Uso das tecnologias de informação e comunicação para pessoas com necessidades educacionais especiais como contribuição para inclusão social, educacional e digital>/b>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Barros de Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Este artigo visa demonstrar um trabalho realizado em um laboratório didático de pesquisa da FCT/Unesp - Presidente Prudente/ Brasil, cujo objetivo é usar as Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC para a inclusão digital e social de pessoas com necessidades especiais. Os alunos com Síndrome de Down e atraso cognitivo, inseridos em um ambiente Construcionista Contextualizado e Significativo (CCS, participam de atividades construídas a partir dos seus interesses e desejos, onde o computador torna-se um potencializador de habilidades, de forma a favorecer a construção do conhecimento. Para tanto, fizemos um estudo de caso de cada aluno, considerando suas dificuldades mentais, vivência social e familiar, e com isto temos a possibilidade de elaborar atividades significativas e que levem em consideração o seu contexto. Logo, o nosso objetivo foi criar possibilidades para que os alunos fossem capazes de explorar suas habilidades e competências independentemente de suas características físicas e/ou mentais, utilizando recursos como a rede Internet para pesquisas e uso de softwares diferenciados. Assim, este trabalho nos proporcionou resultados positivos, como a socialização e desenvolvimento afetivo e cognitivo dos alunos. Nosso trabalho com essas pessoas permitiu o acesso às diversas habilidades, possibilitando que os alunos se descobrissem como membros ativos e participantes da sociedade, por meio de um método capaz de superar padrões de inteligência estabelecidos pela mesma sociedade e proporcionar sua Inclusão Digital e Social, evidenciando seus potenciais e competências, desenvolvidos em um ambiente de aprendizado diferenciado com o uso das TIC. Palavras-chave: Informática Educacional. Educação Especial. Abordagem Construcionista.

  10. Processamento auditivo: comparação entre potenciais evocados auditivos de média latência e testes de padrões temporais Auditory processing: comparision between auditory middle latency response and temporal pattern tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Schochat

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a concordância entre os resultados da avaliação do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência e testes de padrões temporais. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados 155 sujeitos de ambos os sexos, idade entre sete e 16 anos, com audição periférica normal. Os sujeitos foram submetidos aos testes de Padrão de Frequência e Duração e Potenciais Evocados auditivos de Média Latência. RESULTADOS: os sujeitos foram distribuídos em dois grupos: normal ou alterado para o processamento auditivo. O índice de alteração foi em torno de 30%, exceto para Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência que foi pouco menor (17,4%. Os padrões de frequência e duração foram concordantes até 12 anos. A partir dos 13 anos, observou-se maior ocorrência de alteração no padrão de frequência que no padrão de duração. Os padrões de frequência e duração (orelhas direita e esquerda e Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência não foram concordantes. Para 7 e 8 anos a combinação padrão de frequência e duração normal / Média Latência alterado tem maior ocorrência que a combinação padrão de frequência e duração alterada / Média Latência normal. Nas demais idades, ocorreu o contrário. Não houve diferença estatística entre as faixas etárias quanto à distribuição de normal e alterado no padrão de frequência (orelhas direita e esquerda, nem para o Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência, com exceção do padrão de duração para o grupo de 9 e 10 anos. CONCLUSÃO: não houve concordância entre os resultados do Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Média Latência e os testes de padrões temporais aplicados.PURPOSE: to check the concordance between the Middle Latency Response and temporal processing tests. METHODS: 155 normal hearing subjects of both genders (age group range between 7 to 16 years were evaluated with the Pitch and Duration Pattern Tests (behavioral and Middle Latency Response

  11. Periphery-palladated carbosilane dendrimers : Synthesis and reactivity of model organopalladium(II) and (IV) complexes : Crystal structure of [PdMe(C6H4(OCH2Ph)-4)(bpy)] (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Hovestad, N.J.; Hoare, J.L.; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Canty, A.J.; Smeets, W.J.J.; Spek, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    A carbosilane dendrimer with 12 peripheral iodoarene groups, [Si{(CH2)3Si((CH2)3SiMe2(C6H4CH2OC6H4I-4))3}4] (G1-ArI, 9), and the corresponding G0 model compound [Si{(CH2)3SiMe2(C6H4CH2OC6H4I-4)}4] (G0-ArI, 8) have been prepared from [Si{(CH2)3Si((CH2)3SiMe2(C6H4CH2Br))3}4] (G1-Br, 7) and the

  12. Growth models of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface studied by noncontact atomic force microscopy at 78 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan Jun; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kinoshita, Yukinori; Wen, Huanfei; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Sugawara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Zong Min; Nomura, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental study of coexisting p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases on an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) at 78 K. Ball models of the growth processes of coexisting p(2 × 1)/c(6 × 2) phases on a terrace and near a step are proposed. We found that the p(2 × 1) and c(6 × 2) phases are grown from the super Cu atoms on both sides of O–Cu–O rows of an atomic spacing. In this paper, we summarize our investigations of an oxygen-terminated Cu(110) surface by NC-AFM employing O- and Cu-terminated tips. Also, we state several problems and issues for future investigation. (paper)

  13. MEMORIA VISUAL COMO PARTE DEL PROCESO LECTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Gamero-Muñiz, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo indagar la relación entre los movimientos sacádicos, velocidad y comprensión lectora y la memoria visual en alumnos de 2ºESO, con el propósito de contribuir a la labor docente en los apoyos del aprendizaje de una correcta lectura y tomando como fundamentación teórica la importancia de la memoria visual en el proceso lector. Se ha seleccionado una muestra de 24 niños y 21 niñas con edades comprendidas entre 13 y 15 años. Se evaluaron los movimientos sacádico...

  14. La fenomenología como atavismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galán, Iván

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with phenomenology as a result of phenomenological freedom in its possibility of understanding a phenomenon as wild phenomenon. From this perspective, we are enabled to transcend established symbolic systems and to pose the question on the existence of a sense which is immature, not-saturated and imperfect without exception.El artículo pretende mostrar la vigencia de la fenomenología como expresión de la libertad fenomenológica, como posibilidad siempre abierta de acceder al fenómeno en cuanto fenómeno puro, registro arquitectónico en el que, saltando por sobre los sistemas simbólicos instituidos, nos es permitido plantear en toda su radicalidad la pregunta por la existencia de un sentido siempre prematuro, no saturado y jamás clausurable.

  15. O historiador como intelectual mediador da cultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fernandes Borges

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo visa analisar teoricamente a possibilidade de se qualificar o historiador, tomando por base uma tipologia ideal extraída da teoria da história de Jörn Rüsen, como um intelectual mediador, notadamente com base no conceito proposto a partir dos estudos de mediação cultural desenvolvido por Jesús Martín-Barbero e recentemente sistematizado no país por Ângela de Castro Gomes e Patrícia Hansen. Diante disso, articulou-se as hipóteses em três eixos: caracterização do intelectual mediador da cultura como uma categoria de análise compreensiva; instituição de um tipo ideal de historiador nos moldes weberianos e; a subsunção deste àquela.

  16. Phyllanthus muellerianus and C6H15NO3 synergistic effects on 0.5 M H2SO4-immersed steel-reinforced concrete: Implication for clean corrosion-protection of wind energy structures in industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Omotosho, Olugbenga Adeshola; Popoola, Abimbola Patricia Idowu; Loto, Cleophas Akintoye

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 (triethanolamine: TEA) synergistic effects on reinforcing-steel corrosion-inhibition and the compressive-strength of steel-reinforced concrete immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4. This is to assess suitability of the synergistic admixture usage for wind-energy steel-reinforced concrete structures designed for industrial environments. Steel-reinforced concrete specimens were admixed with individual and synergistic designs of Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 admixtures and immersed in the 0.5 M H2SO4. Electrochemical monitoring of corrosion potential, as per ASTM C876-91 R99, and corrosion current were obtained and statistically analysed, as per ASTM G16-95 R04, for modelling noise resistance. Post-immersion compressive-strength testing then followed, as per ASTM C39/C39M-03, for detailing the admixture effect on load-bearing strength of the steel-reinforced concrete specimens. Results showed that while individual Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract concentrations exhibited better inhibition-efficiency performance than C6H15NO3, synergistic additions of C6H15NO3 to Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract improved steel-rebar corrosion-inhibition. Thus, 6 g Phyllanthus muellerianus + 2 g C6H15NO3 synergistically improved inhibition-efficiency to η = 84.17%, from η = 55.28% by the optimal chemical or from η = 74.72% by the optimal plant-extract admixtures. The study also established that improved compressive strength of steel-reinforced concrete with acceptable inhibition of the steel-rebar corrosion could be attained through optimal combination of the Phyllanthus muellerianus leaf-extract and C6H15NO3 admixtures.

  17. La Realidad Aumentada como complemento motivacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazcón, Nicolás Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El acelerado avance de la tecnología permite que las tecnologías emergentes sean accesibles por todos los usuarios. Ejemplos de estas tecnologías son la Realidad Aumentada y la Reconstrucción 3D, que gracias a dispositivos como tabletas o teléfonos inteligentes, pueden utilizarse de manera ubicua. Éstas tienen un enorme potencial en el campo de la educación, ya sea como recurso para entender conceptos complejos, como para motivar el aprendizaje de nuevos contenidos. El desafío de estas tecnologías es integrarlas para que sean accesibles y fáciles de utilizar por los docentes y los alumnos. En este trabajo presentamos una metodología para motivar el aprendizaje tanto en tareas de campo, mediante el uso de la Reconstrucción 3D, como en el ámbito escolar mediante libros aumentados. Por medio de un caso de estudio introducimos la Reconstrucción 3D de elementos fósiles de un sitio paleontológico bonaerense, para luego incorporar estos contenidos generados en un libro aumentado. A partir de la digitalización de huellas y fósiles de sitios paleontológicos, se obtuvieron modelos 3D que se integraron en un ambiente de aprendizaje inmersivo en el aula mediante los libros aumentados. Presentamos las opiniones de docentes de distintas disciplinas, que resaltan las posibilidades de esta metodología para su inclusión en el ámbito educacional regional.

  18. Comportamento temporal da velocidade de condução de potenciais de ação de unidades motoras sob condições de fadiga muscular Comportamiento temporal de la velocidad de conducción de potencias de acción de las unidades motoras sobre condiciones de fatiga muscular Temporal behavior of motor units action potential velocity under muscle fatigue conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Cavalcanti Garcia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga muscular, definida como a incapacidade na manutenção de um nível esperado de força, tem sido amplamente investigada nas áreas clínica e desportiva. Na investigação dos efeitos da fadiga sobre a regulação da contração, a eletromiografia de superfície (SEMG tem sido uma importante ferramenta eletrodiagnóstica, pois diferentes parâmetros de análise podem ser extraídos a partir do sinal de EMG. Dentre estes parâmetros, a velocidade de condução dos potenciais de ação das unidades motoras (VCPAUMs tem sido uma variável importante neste tipo de avaliação, apesar de comumente ser detectada através de técnicas invasivas, mediante eletrodos de arame ou agulha. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a VCPAUM através da SEMG, avaliando o seu comportamento temporal, em contrações isométricas realizadas até a exaustão. Dezoito voluntários (nove homens e nove mulheres; idade de 25,6 ± 6,8 anos, alunos da EEFD/UFRJ, consentiram em participar do estudo. Os sinais de EMG foram colhidos a partir do músculo bíceps braquial direito em três diferentes níveis (25%, 50 e 75% da carga máxima (CM, sendo, então, divididos em três trechos, correspondentes ao tempo total gasto na tarefa, assim denominados: início (T1, meio (T2 e fim (T3. A VCPAUM apresentou redução temporal durante a passagem pelos trechos (p La fatiga muscular, definida como la capacidad del mantenimiento de un nivel esperado de fuerza, viene siendo ampliamente investigada en las áreas tanto clínica como deportiva. La investigación de los efectos de la fatiga sobre la regulación de la contracción, la electromiografía de superficie (SEMG tiene una importancia como herramienta electrodiagnóstica por que los diferentes parámetros de análisis pueden ser extraídos de la señal de la EMG. Dentro de estos parámetros la velocidad de conducción de las potencias de acción de las unidades motoras (VCPAUMs ha sido una variable importante en este

  19. EL CONFLICTO COMO CONSTRUCTOR DE CIUDAD

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    Twiggy Ortegón

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El planteamiento central de este articulo, es el de sugerir una análisis en torno a algunas de las condiciones o mecanismo necesarios para que el conflicto opere como un potenciador de la diferencia y creador de alternativas para la convivencia Se realiza una distinción del concepto, un análisis de contenidos interaccionales en dinámicas de conflicto y su relación con el contexto urbano de Bogotá, enfocándose en ámbitos escolares. En ciudades como Bogotá, las discusiones y acciones que diferentes estamentos han emprendido frente a la manera de concebir y gestionar el conflicto, desembocan en la creación de diferentes organismos como los centros de conciliación, la aplicación de fórmulas y técnicas para la solución de conflictos, el desarrollo de propuestas desde entes administrativos a nivel distrital y las nuevas disposiciones que plantea la Ley 115 sobre Gobierno Escolar y manuales de convivencia.

  20. The Cytoprotective Effects of E-α-(4-Methoxyphenyl-2',3,4,4'-Tetramethoxychalcone (E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC--A Novel and Non-Cytotoxic HO-1 Inducer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai B Kaufmann

    Full Text Available Cell protection against different noxious stimuli like oxidative stress or chemical toxins plays a central role in the treatment of many diseases. The inducible heme oxygenase isoform, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, is known to protect cells against a variety of harmful conditions including apoptosis. Because a number of medium strong electrophiles from a series of α-X-substituted 2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcones (α-X-TMCs, X = H, F, Cl, Br, I, CN, Me, p-NO2-C6H4, Ph, p-OMe-C6H4, NO2, CF3, COOEt, COOH had proven to activate Nrf2 resulting in HO-1 induction and inhibit NF-κB downstream target genes, their protective effect against staurosporine induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS production was investigated. RAW264.7 macrophages treated with 19 different chalcones (15 α-X-TMCs, chalcone, 2'-hydroxychalcone, calythropsin and 2'-hydroxy-3,4,4'-trimethoxychalcone prior to staurosporine treatment were analyzed for apoptosis and ROS production, as well as HO-1 protein expression and enzyme activity. Additionally, Nrf2 and NF-κB activity was assessed. We found that amongst all tested chalcones only E-α-(4-methoxyphenyl-2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcone (E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC demonstrated a distinct, statistically significant antiapoptotic effect in a dose dependent manner, showing no toxic effects, while its double bond isomer Z-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC displayed no significant activity. Also, E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC induced HO-1 protein expression and increased HO-1 activity, whilst inhibition of HO-1 by SnPP-IX abolished its antiapoptotic effect. The only weakly electrophilic chalcone E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC reduced the staurosporine triggered formation of ROS, while inducing the translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus. Furthermore, staurosporine induced NF-κB activity was attenuated following E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC treatment. Overall, E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC demonstrated its effective cytoprotective potential via a non-toxic induction of HO-1 in RAW264

  1. Axial zero-field splitting in mononuclear Co(ii) 2-N substituted N-confused porphyrin: Co(2-NC3H5-21-Y-CH2C6H4CH3-NCTPP)Cl (Y = o, m, p) and Co(2-NC3H5-21-CH2C6H5-NCTPP)Cl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ya-Yuan; Chang, Yu-Chang; Chen, Jyh-Horung; Wang, Shin-Shin; Tung, Jo-Yu

    2016-03-21

    The inner C-benzyl- and C-o-xylyl (or m-xylyl, p-xylyl)-substituted cobalt(ii) complexes of a 2-N-substituted N-confused porphyrin were synthesized from the reaction of 2-NC3H5NCTPPH (1) and CoCl2·6H2O in toluene (or o-xylene, m-xylene, p-xylene). The crystal structures of diamagnetic chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-hydrogen-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')zinc(ii) [Zn(2-NC3H5-21-H-NCTPP)Cl; 3 ] and paramagnetic chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-benzyl-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')cobalt(ii) [Co(2-NC3H5-21-CH2C6H5NCTPP)Cl; 7], and chloro(2-aza-2-allyl-5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21-Y-xylyl-21-carbaporphyrinato-N,N',N'')cobalt(ii) [Co(2-NC3H5-21-Y-CH2C6H4CH3NCTPP)Cl] [Y = o (8), m (9), p (10)] were determined. The coordination sphere around the Zn(2+) (or Co(2+)) ion in 3 (or 7-10) is a distorted tetrahedron (DT). The free energy of activation at the coalescence temperature Tc for the exchange of phenyl ortho protons o-H (26) with o-H (22) in 3 in a CDCl3 solvent is found to be ΔG = 61.4 kJ mol(-1) through (1)H NMR temperature-dependent measurements. The axial zero-field splitting parameter |D| was found to vary from 35.6 cm(-1) in 7 (or 30.7 cm(-1) in 8) to 42.0 cm(-1) in 9 and 46.9 cm(-1) in 10 through paramagnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnitude of |D| can be related to the coordination sphere at the cobalt sites.

  2. Recomendações para o registro/interpretação do mapeamento topográfico do eletrencefalograma e potenciais evocados: Parte II: Correlações clínicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCCAS FRANCISCO J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O EEG digital (DEEG e o quantitativo (QEEG representam métodos recém desenvolvi