WorldWideScience

Sample records for c kit molecule

  1. Expression of the C- KIT Molecule in Acute Myeloid Leukemias: Implications of the Immuno phenotypes CD117 and CD15 in the Detection of Minimal Residual Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of the c-kit proto-oncogene (CD117) may be of help for the identification of phenotypic profiles that are absent or present at very low frequencies on normal human blast cells and therefore might be of great value for the detection of leukemic cells displaying such immuno phenotypes in patients in complete remission. Design and methods: Ninety patients with acute myeloid leukemias, diagnosed according to FAB criteria and immunological marker studies, were studied for the dual expression on blast cells of the CD117/CD15 immuno phenotype co expression by direct immunofluorescence assay using dual staining combination flow cytometry. Results: In 69/90 acute myeloid leukemia patients analyzed (77%), blast cells expressed the CD117 antigen. Moreover, in 38 of them (42% of acute myeloid leukemia cases), leukemic blasts co expressed the CD117 and CD15 antigens. There was no significant correlation between the FAB classification and the CD117 and CD15 expression in acute myeloid leukemia cases. Conclusions: These results suggest that immunological methods for the detection of MRD based on the existence of aberrant phenotypes could be used in the majority of AML patients. This phenotype CD117/CD15, present in acute myeloid leukemia cases at a relatively high frequency (42%), represents an aberrant phenotype, because it was not detected on normal human blast cells, suggesting that the use of these combinations of monoclonal antibodies could be of help in detecting residual leukemic blasts among normal blast cells. The use of the CD117 antigen in different monoclonal antibodies combinations may be of great help for the detection of minimal residual disease in a high proportion of acute myeloid leukemia cases, especially in those patients displaying the CD117+/CD15+ immuno phenotype, because cells co expressing both antigens in normal blasts, if present, are at very low frequencies. The simultaneous assessment of two or more markers in single cells has facilitated the

  2. Evaluation of hepatitis C virus kits.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhary, R K; Frenette, S; Mo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies were detected in 85.9% of the samples by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kits. Most EIA-positive samples were reactive (80%) by the RIBA HCV test (Ortho Diagnostics). Samples with optical density values greater than or equal to 2.0 were mostly reactive (87%) by RIBA HCV test, in contrast to those with values less than or equal to 1.0 (6.6%). Samples which were indeterminate by the RIBA HCV test were positive (88.4%) by HCV neutralization EIA (Abbott Labo...

  3. c-Kit signaling determines neointimal hyperplasia in arteriovenous fistulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skartsis, Nikolaos; Martinez, Laisel; Duque, Juan Camilo; Tabbara, Marwan; Velazquez, Omaida C.; Asif, Arif; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H.

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis of arteriovenous (A-V) fistulae secondary to neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) compromises dialysis delivery, which worsens patients' quality of life and increases medical costs associated with the maintenance of vascular accesses. In the present study, we evaluated the role of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit in A-V fistula neointima formation. Initially, c-Kit was found in the neointima and adventitia of human brachiobasilic fistulae, whereas it was barely detectable in control veins harvested at the time of access creation. Using the rat A-V fistula model to study venous vascular remodeling, we analyzed the spatial and temporal pattern of c-Kit expression in the fistula wall. Interestingly, c-Kit immunoreactivity increased with time after anastomosis, which concurred with the accumulation of cells in the venous intima. In addition, c-Kit expression in A-V fistulae was positively altered by chronic kidney failure conditions. Both blockade of c-Kit with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) and inhibition of stem cell factor production with a specific short hairpin RNA prevented NIH in the outflow vein of experimental fistulae. In agreement with these data, impaired c-Kit activity compromised the development of NIH in A-V fistulae created in c-KitW/Wv mutant mice. These results suggest that targeting of the c-Kit signaling pathway may be an effective approach to prevent postoperative NIH in A-V fistulae. PMID:25186298

  4. The structural insights of stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit interaction with tyrosine phosphatase-2 (Shp-2: An in silico analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutta Gangenahalli U

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell factor (SCF receptor c-Kit is recognized as a key signaling molecule, which transduces signals for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of stem cells. Binding of SCF to its receptor triggers transactivation, leading to the recruitment of kinases and phosphatases to the docking platforms of c-Kit catalytic domain. Tyrosine phosphatase-1 (Shp-1 deactivates/attenuates 'Kit' kinase activity. Whereas, Asp816Val mutation in the Kit activation loop transforms kinase domain to a constitutively activated state (switch off-to-on state, in a ligand-independent manner. This phenomenon completely abrogates negative regulation of Shp-1. To predict the possible molecular basis of interaction between c-Kit and Shp-1, we have performed an in silico protein-protein docking study between crystal structure of activated c-Kit (phosphorylated c-Kit and full length crystal structure of Shp-2, a close structural counterpart of Shp-1. Findings Study revealed a stretch of conserved amino acids (Lys818 to Ser821 in the Kit activation domain, which makes decisive H-bonds with N-sh2 and phosphotyrosine binding pocket residues of the phosphatase. These H-bonds may impose an inhibitory steric hindrance to the catalytic domain of c-Kit, there by blocking further interaction of the activation loop molecules with incoming kinases. We have also predicted a phosphotyrosine binding pocket in SH2 domains of Shp-1, which is found to be predominantly closer to a catalytic groove like structure in c-Kit kinase domain. Conclusions This study predicts that crucial hydrogen bonding between N-sh2 domain of Shp-1 and Kit activation loop can modulate the negative regulation of c-Kit kinase by Shp-1. Thus, this finding is expected to play a significant role in designing suitable gain-of-function c-Kit mutants for inducing conditional proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells.

  5. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs

  6. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiupel Matti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. Methods In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. Results No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. Conclusion In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs.

  7. Discovery of amido-benzisoxazoles as potent c-Kit inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Roxanne K.; Rumfelt, Shannon; Chen, Ning; Zhang, Dawei; Tasker, Andrew S.; Bürli, Roland; Hungate, Randall; Yu, Violeta; Nguyen, Yen; Whittington, Douglas A.; Meagher, Kristin L.; Plant, Matthew; Tudor, Yanyan; Schrag, Michael; Xu, Yang; Ng, Gordon Y.; Hu, Essa (Amgen)

    2010-01-12

    Deregulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit is associated with an increasing number of human diseases, including certain cancers and mast cell diseases. Interference of c-Kit signaling with multi-kinase inhibitors has been shown clinically to successfully treat gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Targeted therapy of c-Kit activity may provide therapeutic advantages against off-target effects for non-oncology applications. A new structural class of c-Kit inhibitors is described, including in vitro c-Kit potency, kinase selectivity, and the observed binding mode.

  8. Expression of c-kit receptor and its autophosphorylation in immature rat type A spermatogonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dym, M; Jia, M C; Dirami, G; Price, J M; Rabin, S J; Mocchetti, I; Ravindranath, N

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and activation of the c-kit receptor, a specific receptor for kit ligand (stem cell factor, steel factor), in rat type A spermatogonia. Testes were obtained from 9-day-old rats, decapsulated, and then subjected to sequential enzymatic digestion. The mixture of testicular cell types was then separated by sedimentation velocity at unit gravity. The isolated type A spermatogonia were characterized by light and electron microscopy. They exhibited spherical nuclei containing several nucleoli and associated chromatin clumps and organelles generally in a perinuclear location similar to that found in the in vivo 9-day-old testis. The synthesis of the c-kit receptor by the spermatogonia was established by hybridization of total RNA with a specific cDNA for mouse c-kit receptor. Two mRNA transcripts migrating at 4.8 kb and 12 kb were observed. Localization of the c-kit receptor in the isolated cells was determined by immunocytochemistry using an antibody to c-kit protein. Specific staining for c-kit receptor was observed in the cytoplasm of the isolated type A spermatogonia. Furthermore, the presence of the c-kit receptor protein in the spermatogonia was confirmed by Western blot analysis using the same antibody. The antibody recognized the c-kit receptor at approximately 160 kDa. In an attempt to determine whether this receptor has a functional significance, we examined the effect of kit ligand on the phosphorylation of the c-kit receptor. The c-kit receptor appeared to be constitutively autophosphorylated on tyrosine at low basal levels, and upon stimulation with kit ligand, the amount of phosphorylated protein increased significantly. These observations indicate that kit ligand induces autophosphorylation of the c-kit receptor, which may lead to the activation of other cellular target proteins responsible for spermatogonial proliferation and/or differentiation. PMID:7536046

  9. Prolonged expression of the c-kit receptor in germ cells of intersex fetal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N; Müller, Jørn;

    1996-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor Kit encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene are crucial for the development and migration of primordial germ cells in rodents. The expression of Kit has been examined immunohistochemically in gonads obtained from five specimens of fetal tissues with intersex co...

  10. Receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) inhibitors: a potential therapeutic target in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour Babaei, Maryam; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Saleem, Mohammad; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Ahmadipour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    c-Kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in intracellular signaling, and the mutated form of c-Kit plays a crucial role in occurrence of some cancers. The function of c-Kit has led to the concept that inhibiting c-Kit kinase activity can be a target for cancer therapy. The promising results of inhibition of c-Kit for treatment of cancers have been observed in some cancers such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor, acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, and other tumors, and these results have encouraged attempts toward improvement of using c-Kit as a capable target for cancer therapy. This paper presents the findings of previous studies regarding c-Kit as a receptor tyrosine kinase and an oncogene, as well as its gene targets and signaling pathways in normal and cancer cells. The c-Kit gene location, protein structure, and the role of c-Kit in normal cell have been discussed. Comprehending the molecular mechanism underlying c-Kit-mediated tumorogenesis is consequently essential and may lead to the identification of future novel drug targets. The potential mechanisms by which c-Kit induces cellular transformation have been described. This study aims to elucidate the function of c-Kit for future cancer therapy. In addition, it has c-Kit inhibitor drug properties and their functions have been listed in tables and demonstrated in schematic pictures. This review also has collected previous studies that targeted c-Kit as a novel strategy for cancer therapy. This paper further emphasizes the advantages of this approach, as well as the limitations that must be addressed in the future. Finally, although c-Kit is an attractive target for cancer therapy, based on the outcomes of treatment of patients with c-Kit inhibitors, it is unlikely that Kit inhibitors alone can lead to cure. It seems that c-Kit mutations alone are not sufficient for tumorogenesis, but do play a crucial role in cancer occurrence. PMID:27536065

  11. In silico exploration of c-KIT inhibitors by pharmaco-informatics methodology: pharmacophore modeling, 3D QSAR, docking studies, and virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Prashant; Bari, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    c-KIT is a component of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor family, classified as type-III receptor tyrosine kinase. c-KIT has been reported to be involved in, small cell lung cancer, other malignant human cancers, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases associated with mast cells. Available c-KIT inhibitors suffer from tribulations of growing resistance or cardiac toxicity. A combined in silico pharmacophore and structure-based virtual screening was performed to identify novel potential c-KIT inhibitors. In the present study, five molecules from the ZINC database were retrieved as new potential c-KIT inhibitors, using Schrödinger's Maestro 9.0 molecular modeling suite. An atom-featured 3D QSAR model was built using previously reported c-KIT inhibitors containing the indolin-2-one scaffold. The developed 3D QSAR model ADHRR.24 was found to be significant (R2 = 0.9378, Q2 = 0.7832) and instituted to be sufficiently robust with good predictive accuracy, as confirmed through external validation approaches, Y-randomization and GH approach [GH score 0.84 and Enrichment factor (E) 4.964]. The present QSAR model was further validated for the OECD principle 3, in that the applicability domain was calculated using a "standardization approach." Molecular docking of the QSAR dataset molecules and final ZINC hits were performed on the c-KIT receptor (PDB ID: 3G0E). Docking interactions were in agreement with the developed 3D QSAR model. Model ADHRR.24 was explored for ligand-based virtual screening followed by in silico ADME prediction studies. Five molecules from the ZINC database were obtained as potential c-KIT inhibitors with high in -silico predicted activity and strong key binding interactions with the c-KIT receptor. PMID:26416560

  12. Identification of c-Kit gene mutations in patients with polycythemia vera

    OpenAIRE

    Fontalba, A. (A.); Real, P.J. (Pedro J.); Fernandez-Luna, J.L. (J.L.); Aguirre, X.; Prosper, F; Richard, C.

    2006-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate has recently been reported to have clinical activity in the treatment of polycythemia vera (PV), suggesting the involvement of one of the kinases targeted by this inhibitor, including c-Kit and PDGFR. Activating c-Kit mutations have been identified in patients with mastocytosis and other myeloid disorders such as acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, we wanted to analyze the presence of mutations of c-Kit in polycythemia vera patients. We found that 7 out of 20 patients car...

  13. Immunohistochemical Study of c-KIT (CD117) Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain subtypes of Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are diagnostically challenging owing to their overlapping histopathological features. Recently, c-KIT (CD117) has come into focus as a potential diagnostic marker of some renal tumors. c-KIT also provides a potentially suitable for targeted tumor therapy. The present study was designed to investigate the expression of c-KIT in RCCs in order to evaluate its diagnostic usefulness as a phenotypic marker and to establish the basis for a new possible therapeutic modality. Material and Methods: The present work was conducted on 49 patients with RCC: Clear cell RCC (CRCC): 30 cases (61.22%); chromophobe RCC (ChRCC): 9 cases (18.37%); papillary RCC (PRCC), type I: 5 cases (10.20%); and carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CdRCC): 5 cases (10.20%). The expression of c-KIT was assessed using immunohistochemistry. The diagnostic performance of c-KIT expression was evaluated using ROC curve analysis. Results: Overall, 11 (22.5%) cases of RCC showed c-KIT expression: 2 (6.7%) CRCC, 7 (77.8%) ChRCC, and 2 (40.0%) CdRCC. Among the study group, ChRCC had the highest frequency (p=.001) and staining score (p=.001) for c-KIT. In addition, only ChRCC showed membranous pattern of c-KIT staining, while other tumors showed cytoplasmic staining (p=.013). c-KIT showed a sensitivity of 77.78% and a specificity of 95% for the diagnosis of ChRCC. The relation between c-KIT expression and clinico pathological parameters was not significant. High grade tumors had a statistically significant higher total score of c-KIT expression (p=.023). Conclusions: c-KIT is frequently and significantly expressed in chromophobe RCC suggesting that it might play a role in its pathogenesis. Immunohistochemical detection of c-KIT expression could be used to aid histological diagnosis of chromophobe RCC with a high sensitivity and specificity. The substantial c-Kit immunoreactivity in chromophobe RCC may be of clinical importance especially in the field of

  14. Prolonged expression of the c-kit receptor in germ cells of intersex fetal testes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N; Müller, Jørn;

    1996-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor Kit encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene are crucial for the development and migration of primordial germ cells in rodents. The expression of Kit has been examined immunohistochemically in gonads obtained from five specimens of fetal tissues with intersex...... conditions which included 45,X/46,XY mosaicism; androgen insensitivity syndrome; and 46,XY/iso(p)Y mosaicism. Individuals with such disorders of sexual differentiation and Y-chromosome material carry a very high risk of developing testicular neoplasms. Fetal testicular germ cells of the intersex subjects...... expressed Kit at a later developmental age than controls, in which no Kit protein was detectable beyond the 15th week of gestation. This finding may indicate a disturbance of the chronology of germ cell development, or it may suggest a change of the regulation of c-kit expression in subjects with disorders...

  15. Canine and human gastrointestinal stromal tumors display similar mutations in c-KIT exon 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are common mesenchymal neoplasms in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and dogs. Little is known about the pathogenesis of these tumors. This study evaluated the role of c-KIT in canine GISTs; specifically, we investigated activating mutations in exons 8, 9, 11, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of platelet-derived growth factor receptor, alpha polypeptide (PDGFRA), all of which have been implicated in human GISTs. Seventeen canine GISTs all confirmed to be positive for KIT immunostaining were studied. Exons 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA, were amplified from DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. Of these seventeen cases, six amplicons of exon 11 of c-KIT showed aberrant bands on gel electrophoresis. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed heterozygous in-frame deletions in six cases. The mutations include two different but overlapping six base pair deletions. Exons 8, 9, 13, and 17 of c-KIT and exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA had no abnormalities detected by electrophoresis and sequencing did not reveal any mutations, other than synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in exon 11 of c-KIT and exons 12 and 14 of PDGFRA. The deletion mutations detected in canine GISTs are similar to those previously found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors in our laboratory as well as to those reported in human GISTs. Interestingly, none of the other c-KIT or PDGFRA exons showed any abnormalities in our cases. This finding underlines the critical importance of c-KIT in the pathophysiology of canine GISTs. The expression of KIT and the identification of these activating mutations in c-KIT implicate KIT in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Our results indicate that mutations in c-KIT may be of prognostic significance and that targeting KIT may be a rational approach to treatment of these malignant tumors. This study further

  16. Human CD117 (cKit+ innate lymphoid cells have a discrete transcriptional profile at homeostasis and are expanded during filarial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Boyd

    Full Text Available Since innate lymphoid cells (ILCs have been found to play a role in the immune response to helminth parasites in rodents, we sought to determine their role in human helminth infection. By developing multicolor flow cytometry-based methods to identify and enumerate circulating ILCs and their subsets, we were able to identify a subset of cKit+ ILCs defined as Lineage (Lin-/CD45+/cKit+/CD127+ that were significantly expanded in the filarial-infected individuals (p=0.0473 as were those cKit+ ILCs that produced IL-13. Additionally, the frequency of these cKit+ ILCs correlated with the frequency of IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells; p=0.025. To investigate the function of cKit+ ILCs, sorted, highly purified human ILCs were subjected to transcriptional profiling by RNAseq and compared to appropriate control cells. These cKit+ ILCs expressed TLRs, a broad range of cytokines/cytokine receptors and MHC Class II molecules suggesting that these ILCs sense pathogens independent of other cell types. Functional analysis revealed expanded cKit+ ILC-specific transcription and ILC-specific microRNA precursors.

  17. The usefulness of c-Kit in the immunohistochemical assessment of melanocytic lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, L.; Bianco, P.; Difelice, E.; Cabras, S.; Castellanos, M.E.; Atzori, L.; Ferreli, C.; Mulas, P.; Nemolato, S.; Faa, G.

    2011-01-01

    C-Kit (CD117), the receptor for the stem cell factor, a growth factor for melanocyte migration and proliferation, has shown differential immunostaining in various benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The purpose of this study is to compare c-Kit immunostaining in benign nevi and in primary and metastatic malignant melanomas, to determine whether c-Kit can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. c-Kit immunostaining was performed in 60 cases of pigmented lesions, including 39 benign nevi (5 blue nevi, 5 intra-dermal nevi, 3 junctional nevi, 15 cases of primary compound nevus, 11 cases of Spitz nevus), 18 cases of primary malignant melanoma and 3 cases of metastatic melanoma. The vast majority of nevi and melanomas examined in this study were positive for c-Kit, with minimal differences between benign and malignant lesions. C-Kit cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity in the intraepidermal proliferating nevus cells, was detected in benign pigmented lesions as well as in malignant melanoma, increasing with the age of patients (P=0.007) in both groups. The patient’s age at presentation appeared to be the variable able to cluster benign and malignant pigmented lesions. The percentage of c-Kit positive intraepidermal nevus cells was better associated with age despite other variables (P=0.014). The intensity and percentage of c-Kit positivity in the proliferating nevus cells in the dermis was significantly increased in malignant melanocytic lesions (P=0.015 and P=0.008) compared to benign lesions (compound melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, intradermal nevi, blue nevi). Immunostaning for c-Kit in metastatic melanomas was negative. Interestingly in two cases of melanoma occurring on a pre-existent nevus, the melanoma tumor cells showed strong cytoplasmatic and membranous positivity for c-kit, in contrast with the absence of any immunoreactivity in pre-existent intradermal nevus cells. C-Kit does not appear to be a strong immunohistochemical marker for distinguishing

  18. The usefulness of c-Kit in the immunohistochemical assessment of melanocytic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pilloni

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available C-Kit (CD117, the receptor for the stem cell factor, a growth factor for melanocyte migration and proliferation, has shown differential immunostaining in various benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. The purpose of this study is to compare c-Kit immunostaining in benign nevi and in primary and metastatic malignant melanomas, to determine whether c-Kit can aid in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. c-Kit immunostaining was performed in 60 cases of pigmented lesions, including 39 benign nevi (5 blue nevi, 5 intradermal nevi, 3 junctional nevi, 15 cases of primary compound nevus, 11 cases of Spitz nevus, 18 cases of primary malignant melanoma and 3 cases of metastatic melanoma. The vast majority of nevi and melanomas examined in this study were positive for c-Kit, with minimal differences between benign and malignant lesions. C-Kit cytoplasmatic immunoreactivity in the intraepidermal proliferating nevus cells, was detected in benign pigmented lesions as well as in malignant melanoma, increasing with the age of patients (P=0.007 in both groups. The patient’s age at presentation appeared to be the variable able to cluster benign and malignant pigmented lesions. The percentage of c-Kit positive intraepidermal nevus cells was better associated with age despite other variables (P=0.014. The intensity and percentage of c-Kit positivity in the proliferating nevus cells in the dermis was significantly increased in malignant melanocytic lesions (P=0.015 and P=0.008 compared to benign lesions (compound melanocytic nevi, Spitz nevi, intradermal nevi, blue nevi. Immunostaning for c-Kit in metastatic melanomas was negative. Interestingly in two cases of melanoma occurring on a pre-existent nevus, the melanoma tumor cells showed strong cytoplasmatic and membranous positivity for c-kit, in contrast with the absence of any immunoreactivity in pre-existent intradermal nevus cells. C-Kit does not appear to be a strong immunohistochemical marker for

  19. C-peptide comparative radioimmunoassays: a study of three commercial kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) was measured in 18 fasting subjects with three different commercial kits (RIA-mat C-peptide-, Byk-Mallinckrodt; RIA-gnost-hC-peptide, Hoechst-Behring; human C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit, Novo) The subjects were chosen as to cover a wide range of CPR concentrations (five healthy subjects, six obese subjects, three insulin-dependent diabetics, four normal subjects whose plasmas had been kept at - 200C for periods of 16 or 36 months). CPR was measured with the Novo kit in eight other plasmas which were kept over a period of 36 months, with or without aprotinin. Good correlations have been established among the values found with the three kits. However, absolute concentration values for each subject as well as the dispersion of all plasma C-peptide values varied as a function of the kit used because of antibody specificity differences and because of the various separation methods. The normal range proposed changes with each kit and the blood CPR of a subject can be a normal, reduced or increased one, depending on the kit used. After several months of storage, plasma CPR degradation is observed with the three kits. A protease-inhibitor is necessary in order to avoid this C-peptide degradation due to the apparent existence of a plasma proteolytic enzyme

  20. Expression of Epidermal c-Kit+ of Vitiligo Lesions Is Related to Responses to Excimer Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Oun Jae; Han, Ji Su; Lee, Sang Hyung; Park, Chan-Sik; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival and growth of melanocytes are controlled by the binding of stem cell factor to its cell surface receptor c-kit+ (CD117). We have observed that c-kit+ melanocytes existed in some lesions of vitiligo, while Melan A+ cells were absent. Objective To verify possible relation between c-kit+ expression and treatment response in non-segmental vitiligo lesions Methods Skin biopsies were done from the center of the 47 lesions from the 47 patients with non-segmental vitiligo. Expression of c-kit+ and Melan A, and amounts of melanin in the epidermis were assessed in each lesion, and treatment responses to excimer laser were evaluated. Results Thirty-five of the 47 lesions (74.5%) had c-kit+ phenotypes. There was significant difference of c-kit staining value between good responders in 3 months of excimer laser treatment (average of 24 sessions) and the others. Conclusion c-Kit expression in vitiliginous epidermis may be related to better treatment responses to excimer laser. PMID:27489428

  1. Deletion of the c-kit protooncogene in the human developmental defect piebald trait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, R.A.; Stastny, V.; Zneimer, S. (Univ. of Texas, Dallas (United States)); Saltman, D.L. (Genelabs, Inc., Redwood City, CA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The protooncogene c-kit is critical for development of hematopoietic stem cells, germ cells, and melanoblasts in the mouse. Homozygous mutations of this gene in the mouse cause anemia, infertility, and albinism, whereas heterozygous mutant mice usually exhibit only a white forehead blaze and depigmentation of the ventral body, tail, and feet. The heterozygous mouse phenotype is very similar to human piebald trait, which is characterized by a congenital white hair forelock and ventral and extremity depigmentation. To investigate the possibility that alterations in the human c-kit gene may be a cause of piebald trait, DNA from seven unrelated affected individuals was examined by Southern blot analysis. One subject, although cytogenetically normal, has a heterozygous deletion of the c-kit protooncogene. This deletion encompasses the entire coding region for c-kit and also involves the closely linked gene for platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha}. These findings provide molecular evidence mapping piebald trait to the c-kit locus on chromosome 4. Although the authors cannot exclude the involvement of other closely linked genes, the demonstration of a genomic c-kit deletion in one subject with piebald trait and the marked concordance of the human and mouse phenotypes provide strong evidence for the role of c-kit in the development of human melanocytes and in the pathogenesis of piebald trait.

  2. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lei [Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Wujin People’s Hospital-South Division, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Changzhou (China); Wu, Zhong [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang [Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Wujin People’s Hospital-South Division, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Changzhou (China); Wang, Jianguang, E-mail: jianguangwang@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Zhu, Jianguo, E-mail: gehujianguo68@163.com [Department of Orthopedics, Changzhou Wujin People’s Hospital-South Division, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Changzhou (China)

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  3. Structural basis for c-KIT inhibition by the suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Pike, Ashley C W; Vesterlund, Mattias;

    2011-01-01

    The c-KIT receptor tyrosine kinase mediates the cellular response to stem cell factor (SCF). Whereas c-KIT activity is important for the proliferation of hematopoietic cells, melanocytes and germ cells, uncontrolled c-KIT activity contributes to the growth of diverse human tumors. Suppressor of...

  4. Epigenetic regulation of cardiac progenitor cells marker c-kit by stromal cell derived factor-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongpu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs have been proven suitable for stem cell therapy after myocardial infarction, especially c-kit(+CPCs. CPCs marker c-kit and its ligand, the stem cell factor (SCF, are linked as c-kit/SCF axis, which is associated with the functions of proliferation and differentiation. In our previous study, we found that stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α could enhance the expression of c-kit. However, the mechanism is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: CPCs were isolated from adult mouse hearts, c-kit(+ and c-kit(- CPCs were separated by magnetic beads. The cells were cultured with SDF-1α and CXCR4-selective antagonist AMD3100, and c-kit expression was measured by qPCR and Western blotting. Results showed that SDF-1α could enhance c-kit expression of c-kit(+CPCs, made c-kit(-CPCs expressing c-kit, and AMD3100 could inhibit the function of SDF-1α. After the intervention of SDF-1α and AMD3100, proliferation and migration of CPCs were measured by CCK-8 and transwell assay. Results showed that SDF-1α could enhance the proliferation and migration of both c-kit(+ and c-kit(- CPCs, and AMD3100 could inhibit these functions. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT mRNA were measured by qPCR, DNMT activity was measured using the DNMT activity assay kit, and DNA methylation was analyzed using Sequenom's MassARRAY platform, after the CPCs were cultured with SDF-1α. The results showed that SDF-1α stimulation inhibited the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3β, which are critical for the maintenance of regional DNA methylation. Global DNMT activity was also inhibited by SDF-1α. Lastly, SDF-1α treatment led to significant demethylation in both c-kit(+ and c-kit(- CPCs. CONCLUSIONS: SDF-1α combined with CXCR4 could up-regulate c-kit expression of c-kit(+CPCs and make c-kit(-CPCs expressing c-kit, which result in the CPCs proliferation and migration ability improvement, through the inhibition of DNMT1 and DNMT3β expression and global DNMT

  5. Nox2 and Nox4 influence neonatal c-kit+ cardiac precursor cell status and differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nadworny, Alyson S.; Guruju, Mallik R.; Poor, Daniel; Doran, Robert M.; Sharma, Ram V.; Kotlikoff, Michael I.; Davisson, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    Redox status has emerged as critical in modulating stemness and lineage commitment in several precursor cell types. However, a role for redox genes, specifically NADPH oxidases (Nox), in cardiac precursor cells (CPCs) has not been established. We tested whether CPCs marked by type III receptor tyrosine kinase c-kit (c-kit+) exhibit a unique NADPH oxidase signature that confers precursor status and whether alterations in this profile are functionally linked to changes in lineage specification....

  6. Activating and dominant inactivating c-KIT catalytic domain mutations in distinct clinical forms of human mastocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Longley, B. Jack; Metcalfe, Dean D.; Tharp, Michael; Wang, Xiaomei; Tyrrell, Lynda; Lu, Shu-Zhuang; Heitjan, David; Ma, Yongsheng

    1999-01-01

    Human mastocytosis is characterized by increased mast cells. It usually occurs as a sporadic disease that is often transient and limited in children and persistent or progressive in adults. The c-KIT protooncogene encodes KIT, a tyrosine kinase that is the receptor for mast cell growth factor. Because mutated KIT can transform cells, we examined c-KIT in skin lesions of 22 patients with sporadic mastocytosis and 3 patients with familial mastocytosis. All patients w...

  7. Lin-c-kit+ BM-derived stem cells repair Infarcted Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazuddin S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Bone marrow contains different types of stem cells capable of differentiating into cardiomyocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that bone marrow contains a lin-c-kit+ progenitor cell pool with the ability to home to the infarcted region and improve the cardiac function. BM-derived stem cells (BMSCs from Green fluorescent protein (GFP expressing transgenic mice C57BL/6 (n = 6 were isolated by c-kit labeled Microbeads. Lin-c-kit+ BMSCs co-cultured with rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were able to express cardiac marker and form intercellular connections with rat myocytes. Myocardial infarction was produced in the experimental animals C57BL/6 Wild type (n = 10 by permanent ligation of the Left anterior descending (LAD artery. BMSCs enriched for c-kit were transplanted in the border zone area of the infarction. Cardiac function analyzed by Millar’s Apparatus after 4 weeks of transplantation showed improvement. BMSCs were able to form intercellular connections and new blood vessel formation as determined by Connexin 43 and CD31 respectively. Lin-c-kit+ BMSCs were able to align with the host myocardium, participate in angiogenesis and thus improve the cardiac function.

  8. C-MORE Science Kits: Putting Technology in the Hands of K-12 Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, K.; Weersing, K.; Daniels, C.; Puniwai, N.; Matsuzaki, J.; Bruno, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a NSF Science and Technology Center based at the University of Hawaii. The C-MORE education and outreach program offers a variety of resources and professional development opportunities for science educators, including online resources, participation in oceanography research cruises, teacher-training workshops, mini-grants to incorporate microbial oceanography-related content and activities into their classroom and, most recently, C- MORE science kits. C-MORE science kits provide hands-on classroom, field, and laboratory activities related to microbial oceanography for K-12 students. Each kit comes with complete materials and instructions, and is available free of charge to Hawaii's public school teachers. Several kits are available nationwide. C-MORE science kits cover a range of topics and technologies and are targeted at various grade levels. Here is a sampling of some available kits: 1) Marine Murder Mystery: The Case of the Missing Zooxanthellae. Students learn about the effect of climate change and other environmental threats on coral reef destruction through a murder-mystery experience. Participants also learn how to use DNA to identify a suspect. Grades levels: 3-8. 2) Statistical sampling. Students learn basic statistics through an exercise in random sampling, with applications to microbial oceanography. The laptops provided with this kit enable students to enter, analyze, and graph their data using EXCEL. Grades levels: 6-12. 3) Chlorophyll Lab. A research-quality fluorometer is used to measure the chlorophyll content in marine and freshwater systems. This enables students to compare biomass concentrations in samples collected from various locations. Grades levels: 9-12. 4) Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD). Students predict how certain variables (e.g., temperature, pressure, chlorophyll, oxygen) vary with depth. A CTD, attached to a laptop computer, is deployed into deep water

  9. Synthesis and Evaluation of Quinazolone Derivatives as a New Class of c-KIT G-Quadruplex Binding Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Chen-Xi; Yan, Jin-Wu; Hou, Jin-Qiang; Chen, Shuo-Bin; Ou, Tian-Miao; Gu, Lian-Quan; Huang, Zhi-Shu; Tan, Jia-Heng

    2013-10-10

    The c-KIT G-quadruplex structures are a novel class of attractive targets for the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Herein, a series of new quinazolone derivatives with the expansion of unfused aromatic ring system were designed and synthesized. Subsequent biophysical studies demonstrated that the derivatives with adaptive scaffold could effectively bind to and stabilize c-KIT G-quadruplexes with good selectivity against duplex DNA. More importantly, these ligands further inhibited the transcription and expression of c-KIT gene and exhibited significant cytotoxicity on the GIST cell line HGC-27. Overall, these quinazolone derivatives represent a new class of promising c-KIT G-quadruplex ligands. The experimental results have also reinforced the idea of inhibition of c-KIT expression through targeting c-KIT G-quadruplex DNA. PMID:24900584

  10. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    OpenAIRE

    Marian Danilewicz; Andrzej Kulig; Monika Dzieniecka; Anna Małgorzata Piaseczna-Piotrowska; Andrzej Chilarski

    2011-01-01

    We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like) in the walls of the urinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either the trigonum (Group A) or the corpus (Group B), was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117). Histological morphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysis system. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their m...

  11. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Małgorzata Piaseczna-Piotrowska; Monika Dzieniecka; Andrzej Kulig; Marian Danilewicz; Andrzej Chilarski

    2011-01-01

    We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like) in the walls of theurinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either thetrigonum (Group A) or the corpus (Group B), was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117). Histologicalmorphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysissystem. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their morph...

  12. Evaluation of c-kit protein (CD117 expression in common salivary gland neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanshah Salehinejad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC is a malignant salivary gland neoplasm with poor long-term prognosis. Differentiating between AdCC and other salivary gland neoplasms can be a diagnostic challenge, particularly in examining tissues obtained from small incisional biopsies. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate c-kit expression in four common benign and malignant salivary gland neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemical techniques were used to analyze the level of c-kit expression in normal salivary gland (n = 10 and four different types of salivary gland tumors: Pleomorphic adenoma (PA (n = 17, AdCC (n = 9, polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA (n = 4 and mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC (n = 6. Samples were immunostained using monoclonal antibody against c-kit. Results: The immunoreactivity for c-kit was found in all cases of AdCC, PLGA and MEC and majority of PAs. Positive reactivity was observed in more than 50% of the tumor cells of AdCC and less than 50% in PLGA. PA did not show strong immunostaining and c-kit was predominantly localized to the cell membrane. Furthermore, the difference in the expression of c-kit between the benign and malignant neoplasms was not statistically significant. Conclusions: CD117 expression itself cannot be used as a marker in differential diagnosis of salivary gland neoplasms. However, the percentage of the CD117 immunoreactive cells and the staining intensities appeared to be important factors in distinguishing AdCC from PLGA and PA.

  13. The stem cell factor/c-kit receptor pathway enhances proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okada Yuji

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transmembrane protein c-kit is a receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT and KIT is expressed in solid tumors and hematological malignancies such as gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, small-cell lung cancer and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML. KIT plays a critical role in cell proliferation and differentiation and represents a logical therapeutic target in GIST and CML. In pancreatic cancer, c-kit expression has been observed by immunohistochemical techniques. In this study, we examined the influence of c-kit expression on proliferation and invasion using five pancreatic cancer cell lines. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imatinib mesylate on stem cell factor (SCF-induced proliferation and invasion was evaluated. Finally, we also analyzed KIT and SCF expression in pancreatic cancer tissues using immunohistochemistry and correlated the results with clinical features. Results RT-PCR revealed that two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and SW1990, expressed c-kit mRNA. By Western blot analysis, c-kit protein was also present in those lines. In KIT-positive pancreatic cancer cell lines, proliferation and invasion were significantly enhanced by addition of SCF. In contrast, SCF did not enhance proliferation and invasion in the three KIT-negative lines (BxPC-3, Capan-2 and MIA PaCa-2. 5 μM imatinib mesylate significantly inhibited SCF-enhanced proliferation to the same extent compared with the control. Similarly, SCF-enhanced invasive ability was significantly inhibited by 5 μM imatinib mesylate. KIT was expressed in 16 of 42 clinical specimens by immunohistochemistry, and KIT expression was significantly related to venous system invasion. Furthermore, patients expressing both KIT and SCF had a somewhat lower survival. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the SCF-KIT pathway enhanced the proliferation and invasiveness in KIT-positive pancreatic cancer cell lines and that the enhanced proliferation and invasion were

  14. Restoration of spermatogenesis after transplantation of c-Kit positive testicular cells in the fowl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefil, P.; Bakst, M.R.; Yan, H.; Hejnar, Jiří; Kalina, J.; Mucksová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 9 (2010), s. 1670-1676. ISSN 0093-691X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/07/1171 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chicken * transplantation * c-Kit receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2010

  15. Fundamental studies on the development of C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the development of the C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit which is usable in the pancreatic function test with satisfactory results. The C-peptide antiserum was prepared by immunizing rabbits with synthetic human connecting peptide. The antiserum revealed no cross reaction with any C-peptides other than human C-peptide, porcine insulin and gastrointestinal hormone, and showed high specificity to human C-peptide. We adopted the double antibody method in B,F separation, and chose 40C, 48 hrs. for 1st. incubation and 40C, 24 hrs. for 2nd. incubation. On this kit, the assay range was 0.5 ng/ml-30 ng/ml, the recovery rate was 98.4%-107.8% in the recovery test, the coefficient of variance was 6.2% in the intra assay and was 7.6% in the inter assay. We think this kit is sufficiently usable to assay C-peptide in blood. (auth.)

  16. Controlled contact to a C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neel, N.; Kröger, J.; Limot, L.; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads

    2007-01-01

    The tip of a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope is approached towards a C-60 molecule adsorbed at a pentagon-hexagon bond on Cu(100) to form a tip-molecule contact. The conductance rapidly increases to approximate to 0.25 conductance quanta in the transition region from tunneling to...

  17. Production of 14C-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. 14C-labeled gas was produced significantly faster by N. gonorrhoeae than by N. cinerea. Additional studies suggested that the 14C-labeled gas produced by N. cinerea was carbon dioxide. N. cinerea strains were similar to Branhamella catarrhalis strains because both species failed to produce detectable acid from glucose, maltose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose in cysteine-tryptic agar media. However, in contrast to N. cinerea strains, B. catarrhalis strains did not metabolize glucose in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits

  18. Intratumoral CD3+ T-Lymphocytes Immunoexpression and Its Association with c-Kit, Angiogenesis, and Overall Survival in Malignant Canine Mammary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study 80 malignant CMT were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of CD3, c-kit, VEGF, and CD31, together with clinicopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness. CD3+ T-cells and c-kit overexpression revealed a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.503, P < 0.0001; r = 0.284, P = 0.023 for CD3 and c-kit, resp. and CD31 (r = 0.654, P < 0.0001; r = 0.365, P = 0.003 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.. A significant association (P = 0.039 and a positive correlation (r = 0.263, P = 0.039 between CD3 and c-kit were also observed. High CD3/VEGF, c-kit/VEGF, and CD3/c-kit tumors were associated with elevated grade of malignancy (P < 0.0001 for all groups, presence of intravascular emboli (P < 0.0001 for CD3/VEGF and CD3/c-kit; P = 0.002 for c-kit/VEGF, and presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001 for all groups. Tumors with high CD3/VEGF (P = 0.006, c-kit/VEGF (P < 0.0001, and CD3/c-kit (P = 0.002 were associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly high c-kit/VEGF tumors retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent prognostic factor.

  19. Intratumoral CD3+ T-lymphocytes immunoexpression and its association with c-Kit, angiogenesis, and overall survival in malignant canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Isabel; Pires, Isabel; Dias, Marlene; Prada, Justina; Gregório, Hugo; Lobo, Luis; Queiroga, Felisbina

    2015-01-01

    In this study 80 malignant CMT were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of CD3, c-kit, VEGF, and CD31, together with clinicopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness. CD3+ T-cells and c-kit overexpression revealed a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.503, P < 0.0001; r = 0.284, P = 0.023 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.) and CD31 (r = 0.654, P < 0.0001; r = 0.365, P = 0.003 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.). A significant association (P = 0.039) and a positive correlation (r = 0.263, P = 0.039) between CD3 and c-kit were also observed. High CD3/VEGF, c-kit/VEGF, and CD3/c-kit tumors were associated with elevated grade of malignancy (P < 0.0001 for all groups), presence of intravascular emboli (P < 0.0001 for CD3/VEGF and CD3/c-kit; P = 0.002 for c-kit/VEGF), and presence of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.0001 for all groups). Tumors with high CD3/VEGF (P = 0.006), c-kit/VEGF (P < 0.0001), and CD3/c-kit (P = 0.002) were associated with poor prognosis. Interestingly high c-kit/VEGF tumors retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent prognostic factor. PMID:26346272

  20. Production of 14C-labeled gas in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits by Neisseria cinerea.

    OpenAIRE

    Boyce, J M; Mitchell, E B; Knapp, J S; Buttke, T M

    1985-01-01

    Six strains of Neisseria cinerea were tested in BACTEC Neisseria Differentiation kits (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.), and all yielded positive glucose growth indices and negative maltose and fructose growth indices. These results were similar to those achieved with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. However, most of the N. cinerea isolates tested yielded 3-h glucose growth indices that were lower than those obtained with gonococci. 14C-labeled gas was produced significantly faster (P less tha...

  1. Expression of the c-kit protein product in carcinoma-in-situ and invasive testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Skakkebaek, N E

    1994-01-01

    , CIS and overtly invasive human male germ cell tumours were analysed immunohistochemically for expression of the c-kit proto-oncogene protein product. Testicular tissue samples from 36 patients with various types of testicular germ cell neoplasia and 19 control specimens were stained using an indirect...... addition, we propose that the c-kit protein product is a new marker for carcinoma-in-situ of the testis....

  2. Possible Prognostic and Therapeutic Significance of c-Kit Expression, Mast Cell Count and Microvessel Density in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Marech

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most frequent renal tumor and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Tumor angiogenesis is known to play a crucial role in the etiopathogenesis of RCC and over the last few years an even deeper knowledge of its contribution in metastatic RCC development has led to the development of numerous molecular targeting agents (such as sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, tivozanib, and dovitinib. The above agents are principally directed against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR members and also against c-Kit receptor (c-KitR. The role of c-kitR inhibition on clear cell RCC (ccRCC, the main RCC subtype, is less well established. Whether c-kitR activation through its ligand, stem cell factor (SCF contributes significantly to the effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs treatment remains to be established. It is important to underscore that the c-KitR is expressed on mast cells (MCs and cancer cells. After an examination of the c-KitR/SCF pathway, we review here the principal studies that have evaluated c-Kit expression in RCC. Moreover, we summarize some investigations that have observed the distribution of MCs in primary renal cancer and in adjacent normal tissue with appropriate histological immunohistochemical techniques. We also focus on few studies that have evaluated the correlation between RCC proliferation, MC count and microvessel density (MVD, as hallmarks of tumor angiogenesis. Thus, the aim of this review of the literature is to clarify if c-KitR expression, MC count and MVD could have prognostic significance and the possible predictive therapeutic implications in RCC.

  3. Interstitial cells of Cajal in the human fetal small bowel as shown by c-kit immunohistochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Wester, T.; Eriksson, L; Olsson, Y; L. Olsen

    1999-01-01

    Background—Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) express the tyrosine kinase receptor c-kit, which is required for their development and spontaneous pacemaker activity in the bowel. From murine models it has been proposed that ICCs do not develop until after birth, but more recent findings indicate that c-kit is expressed early in the embryonic period. The temporal development of ICCs in the human gut remains unknown. 
Aim—To investigate ICCs in the human fetal small bowel u...

  4. Embryonic and foetal Islet-1 positive cells in human hearts are also positive to c-Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Serradifalco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During embryogenesis, the mammalian heart develops from a primitive heart tube originating from two bilateral primary heart fields located in the lateral plate mesoderm. Cells belongings to the pre-cardiac mesoderm will differentiate into early cardiac progenitors, which express early transcription factors which are also common to the Isl-1 positive cardiac progenitor cells isolated from the developing pharyngeal mesoderm and the foetal and post-natal mice hearts. A second population of cardiac progenitor cells positive to c-Kit has been abundantly isolated from adult hearts. Until now, these two populations have been considered two different sets of progenitor cells present in the heart in different stages of an individual life. In the present study we collected embryonic, foetal and infant hearts, and we tested the hypotheses that c-Kit positive cells, usually isolated from the adult heart, are also present in the intra-uterine life and persist in the adult heart after birth, and that foetal Isl-1 positive cells are also positive to c-Kit. Using immunohistochemistry we studied the temporal distribution of Isl-1 positive and c-Kit/CD105 double positive cells, and by immunofluorescence and confocal analysis we studied the co-localization of c-Kit and Isl-1 positive cells. The results indicated that cardiomyocytes and interstitial cells were positive for c-Kit from the 9th to the 19th gestational week, that cells positive for both c-Kit and CD105 appeared in the interstitium at the 17th gestational week and persisted in the postnatal age, and that the Isl-1 positive cells were a subset of the c-Kit positive population.

  5. CY8CKIT-001 PSoC Development Kit-kehitysalusta

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha

    2013-01-01

    CY8CKIT-001 PSoC Development Kit on Cypress Semiconductorsin valmistama kehitysalusta, jonka tarkoituksena on ollut toimia prototyyppialustana PSoC-arkkitehtuuria käyttävien sovellusten suunnitteluun ja testaukseen. Kehitysalustalla olevia monipuolisia liityntöjä hyödyntämällä voidaan toteuttaa erilaisia sulautettujen järjestelmien harjoitustöitä. Työn päämääränä oli kehitysalustan ominaisuuksien ja käyttökohteiden kartoittamisen lisäksi asennus- ja käyttöönotto-ohjeistuksen laatiminen. O...

  6. NPM1, FLT3, and c-KIT mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia in Russian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsenko, Yuliya; Kalennik, Olga; Maschan, Mikhail; Kalinina, Irina; Maschan, Alexey; Nasedkina, Tatyana

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated frequencies of NPM1, FLT3, c-KIT mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Russia and assessed prognostic relevance of the mutations. RNA and DNA were extracted from bone marrow samples of 186 (106 male and 80 female) pediatric patients younger than 17 year with de novo AML. Mutations and chromosomal rearrangements were detected by sequencing of a corresponding gene. NPM1 mutations were found in 5.2%, FLT3 mutations in 12.1%, c-KIT mutations in 3.7% of the patients. NPM1 mutations were associated with the absence of chromosomal aberrations (P=0.007) and FLT3/ITD (P=0.018). New data on incidence of c-KIT mutations in various AML subtypes as well as new variations of c-KIT mutations in the exon 8 are presented. The results are compared to previously published studies on NPM1, FLT3, c-KIT mutations in various populations. No statistically significant differences in survival rates between groups with or without of FLT3, NPM1, c-KIT mutations were found (P>0.05). Meanwhile, 4-year overall survival rates were higher in patients having NPM1 mutations comparing with NPM1/WT patients (100% vs. 50%) and in patients having FLT3 mutations comparing with FLT3/WT patients (70% vs. 50%). The data presented contribute to knowledge on incidence and prognostic significance of the mutations in pediatric AML. PMID:23511494

  7. Lack of c-kit receptor promotes mammary tumors in N-nitrosomethylurea-treated Ws/Ws rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Nikoletta

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background c-kit is expressed in various cell types during development and it has been linked to the promotion of cellular migration, proliferation and/or survival of melanoblasts, hematopoietic progenitors and primordial germ cells. Several reports have proposed a role for the c-kit gene on carcinogenesis. Gain-of-function mutations are associated with diseases such as mastocytosis and gastrointestinal stromal tumors among others. However, very little is known about pathologies associated with loss-of-function mutations. Regarding breast cancer, c-kit protein and mRNA are highly expressed in normal breast but their expression decreases or is absent in the presence of breast cancer. We studied the role of c-kit in mammary carcinogenesis in the Ws/Ws rats carrying spontaneous lack-of-function mutation in the c-kit gene. Fifty day-old virgin female Ws/Ws rats and their wild type counterparts were injected with either 50 mg/kg body weight of the chemical carcinogen N-nitrosomethylurea or with vehicle. The animals were followed-up for 6 months. Fisher 344 rats were used as positive controls for tumor development. Results Eleven weeks after treatment, palpable tumors were detected in the Ws/Ws rats. The tumor incidence was 80% in Ws/Ws rats, while no tumors were observed in the wild type rats (p = 0.006. Our data show that the lack of c-kit is permissive for the development of mammary tumor in Ws/Ws rats treated with carcinogen. Conclusion We conclude that the lack of c-kit may contribute to an imbalanced homeostatic state in the mammary gland either by affecting signaling between stroma and epithelium, or through the lack of mast cells.

  8. Transport properties of individual C60-molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Géranton, G.; Seiler, C.; Bagrets, A.; Venkataraman, L.; Evers, F.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical and thermal transport properties of C60 molecules are investigated with density-functional-theory based calculations. These calculations suggest that the optimum contact geometry for an electrode terminated with a single-Au atom is through binding to one or two C-atoms of C60 with a tendency to promote the sp2-hybridization into an sp3-type one. Transport in these junctions is primarily through an unoccupied molecular orbital that is partly hybridized with the Au, which results in ...

  9. CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells have hematopoietic properties in the mouse aorta-gonad-mesonephros region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobuhisa, Ikuo, E-mail: nobuhisa.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Yamasaki, Shoutarou [Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Ramadan, Ahmed [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan); Taga, Tetsuya, E-mail: taga.scr@mri.tmd.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Regulation, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Department of Cell Fate Modulation, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics/Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-0811 (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells first arise from the aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region in a mouse embryo. We have previously reported that in cultures of the dispersed AGM region, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup +} cells possess the ability to reconstitute multilineage hematopoietic cells, but investigations are needed to show that this is not a cultured artifact and to clarify when and how this population is present. Based on the expression profile of CD45 and c-Kit in freshly dissociated AGM cells from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) to E12.5 and aorta cells in the AGM from E13.5 to E15.5, we defined six cell populations (CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup -}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup low}, CD45{sup -}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high}, CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup high}, and CD45{sup high}c-Kit{sup very} {sup low}). Among these six populations, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells were most able to form hematopoietic cell colonies, but their ability decreased after E11.5 and was undetectable at E13.5 and later. The CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells showed multipotency in vitro. We demonstrated further enrichment of hematopoietic activity in the Hoechst dye-effluxing side population among the CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells. Here, we determined that CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells arise from the lateral plate mesoderm using embryonic stem cell-derived differentiation system. In conclusion, CD45{sup low}c-Kit{sup high} cells are the major hematopoietic cells of mouse AGM.

  10. Endogenous resident c-Kit cardiac stem cells increase in mice with an exercise-induced, physiologically hypertrophied heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferreira Leite

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity evokes well-known adaptations in the cardiovascular system. Although exercise training induces cardiac remodeling, whether multipotent stem cells play a functional role in the hypertrophic process remains unknown. To evaluate this possibility, C57BL/6 mice were subjected to swimming training aimed at achieving cardiac hypertrophy, which was morphologically and electrocardiographically characterized. Subsequently, c-Kit+Lin− and Sca-1+Lin− cardiac stem cells (CSCs were quantified using flow cytometry while cardiac muscle-derived stromal cells (CMSCs, also known as cardiac-derived mesenchymal stem cells were assessed using in vitro colony-forming unit fibroblast assay (CFU-F. Only the number of c-Kit+Lin− cells increased in the hypertrophied heart. To investigate a possible extracardiac origin of these cells, a parabiotic eGFP transgenic/wild-type mouse model was used. The parabiotic pairs were subjected to swimming, and the wild-type heart in particular was tested for eGFP+ stem cells. The results revealed a negligible number of extracardiac stem cells in the heart, allowing us to infer a cardiac origin for the increased amount of detected c-Kit+ cells. In conclusion, the number of resident Sca-1+Lin− cells and CMSCs was not changed, whereas the number of c-Kit+Lin− cells was increased during physiological cardiac hypertrophy. These c-Kit+Lin− CSCs may contribute to the physiological cardiac remodeling that result from exercise training.

  11. Identification of a point mutation in the catalytic domain of the protooncogene c-kit in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients who have mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagata, H; Worobec, A S; C. K. Oh; Chowdhury, B. A.; Tannenbaum, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Metcalfe, D D

    1995-01-01

    Both stem cells and mast cells express c-kit and proliferate after exposure to c-kit ligand. Mutations in c-kit may enhance or interfere with the ability of c-kit receptor to initiate the intracellular pathways resulting in cell proliferation. These observations suggested to us that mastocytosis might in some patients result from mutations in c-kit. cDNA synthesized from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with indolent mastocytosis, mastocytosis with an associated hematologic diso...

  12. Expression of stem cell factor and its receptor c-Kit during the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuroglu, Tümen; Ramadori, Pierluigi; Dudás, József; Malik, Ihtzaz; Hammerich, Kristoff; Füzesi, László; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2009-05-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, constitute an important signal transduction system with proliferative and anti-apoptotic functions. Besides regulating hemopoietic stem cell proliferation and liver regeneration, it has been implicated in the regulation of human malignancies. However, the cellular expression of the SCF-c-Kit gene system in the liver during cholangiocarcinogenesis has not been studied to date. The protein- and mRNA-expression levels of SCF and c-Kit genes were examined in normal rat liver, in isolated normal rat liver cells and in a thioacetamide-induced rat model of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (CC). Immunohistochemical analysis of the normal liver showed that SCF is expressed in the wall of the hepatic artery and in some cells, which were located along the sinusoids, although it was absent from hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. The mRNA analysis of isolated normal liver cell populations revealed a co-expression of SCF- and c-Kit-mRNA in sinusoidal endothelial cells and in Kupffer cells, whereas passaged and cultured liver myofibroblasts (MFs) expressed only SCF. Low levels of the SCF- and c-Kit-mRNA expression could be detected in isolated hepatocytes of the normal liver. Immunohistochemical analysis of the CC tissue showed SCF positivity in proliferating biliary cells (CK-19(+)), in macrophages (ED-1(+)) and in MFs (alpha-smooth-muscle-actin, alpha-SMA(+)) of the tumoral microenvironment. c-Kit-positivity could be detected on hepatocytes of the regenerating nodules and on the proliferating bile ducts of CC. Compared with the normal liver tissue, SCF-mRNA from the CC tissue was upregulated up to 20-fold, whereas c-Kit-mRNA was upregulated up to fivefold. These data indicate that several cell populations may become able to express SCF and/or c-Kit during cholangiocarcinogenesis. Therefore, the SCF-c-Kit system may contribute to tumor development, for instance, by inducing proliferation of hepatocytes and of biliary cells

  13. [Detection of NPM1, FLT3 and C-KIT mutations in acute myeloid leukemia and their prognostic analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Lyu, Xiao-Dong; Mi, Rui-Hua; Ding, Jing; Chen, Lin; Wang, Qian; Yin, Qing-Song; Hu, Jie-Ying; Fan, Rui-Hua; Wei, Xu-Dong

    2013-06-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the frequencies and prognostic significance of the nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation, the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutation and c-KIT mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to explore their relevance to clinical characteristics, cytogenetics and survival. Genomic DNA from 78 newly diagnosed AML from August 2010 to October 2012 was screened by PCR and sequencing or capillary electrophoresis (CE) for NPM1, FLT3 and c-KIT mutations. The results showed that the incidence of NPM1 mutation was 14.1% in AML patients and 26.7% in normal karyotype AML patients. NPM1 mutant cases were significantly associated with old age (P 0.05). The prevalences of FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations were 11.5% (9/78) and 3.8% (3/78) respectively, and no one patient has both of the two mutations. Patients with FLT3-ITD mutation had higher white blood cell counts and percentage of in bone marrow blasts (P 0.05). No statistic analysis was performed due to the cases of less FLT3-TKD mutation. C-KIT mutation accounts for 7.7% (6/78). Patients with C-KIT mutation had a higher percentage in abnormal karyotype (P 0.05). It is concluded that the detection of NPM1, FLT3 and C-KIT mutations may contribute to guiding treatment and evaluating prognosis of patients with AML. PMID:23815906

  14. Aberrant expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in mucinous and nonmucinous colorectal carcinomas and relation to clinicopathologic features and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Abd Al-Rahman Mohammad; Mohamed, Mie Ali

    2015-10-01

    c-KIT and DOG-1 are 2 highly expressed proteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Few studies had investigated c-KIT, but not DOG-1, expression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). This study aims to investigate expressions of c-KIT and DOG-1 in colorectal mucinous carcinoma and nonmucinous carcinoma using manual tissue microarray technique. In this work, we studied tumor tissue specimens from 150 patients with colorectal mucinous (MA) and nonmucinous adenocarcinoma (NMA). High-density manual tissue microarrays were constructed using modified mechanical pencil tip technique, and immunohistochemistry for c-KIT and DOG-1 was done. We found that aberrant c-KIT expression was detected in 12 cases (8%); 6 cases (4%) showed strong expression. Aberrant DOG-1 expression was detected in 15 cases (10%); among them, only 4 cases (2.7%) showed strong expression. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly high expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. Aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions were significantly unrelated but were associated with excessive microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. In conclusion, aberrant c-KIT and DOG-1 expressions in CRC are rare events, either in NMA or MA. Nonmucinous adenocarcinoma showed a significantly higher expression of c-KIT, but not DOG-1, than MA. The expressions of both in CRC are significantly unrelated but are associated with microscopic abscess formation. Neither c-KIT nor DOG-1 expression showed a significant impact on disease-free survival or overall survival. So, c-KIT and DOG-1 immunostaining is not a cost-effective method of identifying patients with CRC who may benefit from treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:26272691

  15. c-Kit-mediated functional positioning of stem cells to their niches is essential for maintenance and regeneration of adult hematopoiesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Kimura

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs through interaction with their niches maintain and reconstitute adult hematopoietic cells is unknown. To functionally and genetically track localization of HSPCs with their niches, we employed novel mutant loxPs, lox66 and lox71 and Cre-recombinase technology to conditionally delete c-Kit in adult mice, while simultaneously enabling GFP expression in the c-Kit-deficient cells. Conditional deletion of c-Kit resulted in hematopoietic failure and splenic atrophy both at steady state and after marrow ablation leading to the demise of the treated adult mice. Within the marrow, the c-Kit-expressing GFP(+ cells were positioned to Kit ligand (KL-expressing niche cells. This c-Kit-mediated cellular adhesion was essential for long-term maintenance and expansion of HSPCs. These results lay the foundation for delivering KL within specific niches to maintain and restore hematopoiesis.

  16. Transport properties of individual C60-molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical and thermal transport properties of C60 molecules are investigated with density-functional-theory based calculations. These calculations suggest that the optimum contact geometry for an electrode terminated with a single-Au atom is through binding to one or two C-atoms of C60 with a tendency to promote the  sp2-hybridization into an  sp3-type one. Transport in these junctions is primarily through an unoccupied molecular orbital that is partly hybridized with the Au, which results in splitting the degeneracy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital triplet. The transmission through these junctions, however, cannot be modeled by a single Lorentzian resonance, as our results show evidence of quantum interference between an occupied and an unoccupied orbital. The interference results in a suppression of conductance around the Fermi energy. Our numerical findings are readily analyzed analytically within a simple two-level model

  17. Cell type-specific deficiency of c-kit gene expression in mutant mice of mi/mi genotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Isozaki, K; Tsujimura, T; Nomura, S; Morii, E; Koshimizu, U.; Nishimune, Y; Kitamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The mi locus of mice encodes a novel member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein family of transcription factors (hereafter called mi factor). In addition to microphthalmus, osteopetrosis, and lack of melanocytes, mice of mi/mi genotype are deficient in mast cells. Since the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase plays an important role in the development of mast cells, and since the c-kit expression by cultured mast cells from mi/mi mice is deficient in both mRNA and protein levels, ...

  18. cKit Lineage Hemogenic Endothelium-Derived Cells Contribute to Mesenteric Lymphatic Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Stanczuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathological lymphatic diseases mostly affect vessels in specific tissues, yet little is known about organ-specific regulation of the lymphatic vasculature. Here, we show that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR-3/p110α PI3-kinase signaling pathway is selectively required for the formation of mesenteric lymphatic vasculature. Using genetic lineage tracing, we demonstrate that part of the mesenteric lymphatic vasculature develops from cKit lineage cells of hemogenic endothelial origin through a process we define as lymphvasculogenesis. This is contrary to the current dogma that all mammalian lymphatic vessels form by sprouting from veins. Our results reveal vascular-bed-specific differences in the origin and mechanisms of vessel formation, which may critically underlie organ-specific manifestation of lymphatic dysfunction in disease. The progenitor cells identified in this study may be exploited to restore lymphatic function following cancer surgery, lymphedema, or tissue trauma.

  19. A general aspect on soft-tissue sarcoma and c-kit expression in primitive neuroectodermal tumor and Ewings sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within soft-tissue sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors have been shown to cover a wide spectrum of small round cell sarcomas, including Ewings sarcomas (Es) and primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PET). The role of the stem cell factor/kit pathway has been investigated in different human tumors especially in chronic metallically leukemia and gastrointestinal stromal tumor and an autocrine loop has been assumed in small cell lung carcinoma, and recently in Es and PET. Our aim is to investigate the c-kit expression in Es and PET and also to assessed if c-kit has any role in disease process. We thoroughly searched the archives of the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University Turkey, between 2000 and 2004; and found 14 ES and 14 PNET paraffin embedded tissues. We carried out the detection of the c-kit expression by immunohistochemical staining. The patients median age was 23.7 +/-14.6 (12 male and 16 female). Five were diagnosed as metastatic disease whereas 23 were diagnosed as non-metastatic disease at admission. The mean follow up period was 38.9 +/- 22.3 months. The main localization of the disease was lower extremity (32.1%), and others were as follows: head and neck 25%, thorax and abdomen 14.3%, pelvic and upper extremity 7.1% (11 were localized skeletal and 17 were extraskeletal). According to treatment modalities, 10 were treated with surgery alone, 11 with surgery and chemotherapy, and 7 with surgery, radiation therapy and also with chemotherapy. The primary tumor was lower than 5 cm in its dimension in 21 patients. While in 5 patients, tumor was more than 5 cm but did not exceed 10 cm, it was >10 cm in 2 patients. The c-kit expression was positive in 7 patients both cytoplasmic and membranously, whereas 8 patients were positive cytoplasmically. In 5 PNET patients, c-kit expression were stained immunohistochemically in over 50% and in 3 of ES patients. There was no significant correlation between c-kit expression and gender

  20. Expression and mutation of c-Kit in intracranial germ cell tumors: A single-centre retrospective study of 30 cases in China

    OpenAIRE

    GAO, YU-PING; Jiang, Ji-yao; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Although primary central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors (GCTs) are one of the most treatable types of malignant brain tumor, a subset of patients remain resistant to standard chemotherapy. Gain-of-function mutations of the c-Kit gene, and KIT protein expression, have been observed in a number of GCTs, including testicular seminoma, ovarian dysgerminoma and mediastinal seminoma in various ethnic groups. Although a small number of studies have reported the role of c-Kit in CNS GCTs, few ...

  1. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Danilewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like in the walls of the urinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either the trigonum (Group A or the corpus (Group B, was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117. Histological morphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysis system. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their morphology and counted in the vesical muscle layer in ten adjacent high power fields, each of 0.0479 mm2. The areas of the epithelial and subepithelial layers containing c-kit positive mast cells (rounded body with no dendritic processes were neglected. The results were expressed as the number of ICCs-like cells per mm2. Differences between groups were tested using unpaired Student’s t-test preceded by evaluation of normality and Levene’s test. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. In Group A, the mean number of ICCs-like cells was statistically significantly higher (41.5 cells/mm2 than in Group B (30.4 cells/mm2, p < 0.05. ICCs-like cells were found within the smooth muscle layer of the urinary bladder. There was a different distribution of these cells in particular parts of the bladder, which was probably due to the different roles of the trigonum and the corpus in the bladders of children. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 431–435

  2. c-Kit Expression is Rate-Limiting for Stem Cell Factor-Mediated Disease Progression in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Salivary Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyaporn Phuchareon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the salivary glands in which c-Kit is overexpressed and activated, although the mechanism for this is as yet unclear. We analyzed 27 sporadic ACC tumor specimens to examine the biologic and clinical significance of c-Kit activation. Mutational analysis revealed expression of wild-type c-Kit in all, eliminating gene mutation as a cause of activation. Because stem cell factor (SCF is c-Kit's sole ligand, we analyzed its expression in the tumor cells and their environment. Immunohistochemistry revealed its presence in c-Kit–positive tumor cells, suggesting an activation of autocrine signaling. We observed a significant induction of ERK1/2 in the cells. SCF staining was also found in other types of non-cancerous cells adjacent to tumors within salivary glands, including stromal fibroblasts, neutrophils, peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, vascular endothelial cells, mucous acinar cells, and intercalated ducts. Quantitative PCR showed that the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression distinguished ACCs from normal salivary tissues and was cross-correlated with short-term poor prognosis. Expression levels of SCF and c-Kit were highly correlated in the cases with perineural invasion. These observations suggest that c-Kit is potentially activated by receptor dimerization upon stimulation by SCF in ACC, and that the highest quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression could be a predictor of poor prognosis. Our findings may support an avenue for c-Kit-targeted therapy to improve disease control in ACC patients harboring the top quartile of c-Kit mRNA expression.

  3. C-kit:PDGFRα的表达与卵巢浆液性癌顺铂耐药的临床研究%Expression of C-Kit & PDGFRα and correlation with chemotherapy resistance in ovarian serous carcinomas: a clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunjian Yi; Li Li; Ding Ma

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of C-Kit and PDGFRα and their correlation with chemotherapy resis-tance in ovarian serous carcinoma. Methods: We undertook SP immunohistochemical technique to examine the expression of C-Kit and PDGFRα in 59 cases with ovarian serous carcinomas, using archival paraffin-embedded specimens. Then we observed the correlation with chemotherapy resistance. Results: C-Kit and PDGFRα immunostainings were observed posi-tively expressed in 57.63% and 66.10% cases. C-Kit expression was statistically correlated with the progression of disease after first-line chemotherapy (P 0.05). There were great difference between of C-Kit and PDGFRa expressions in samples of different differentiated and clinical stages of ovarian serous carci-nomas (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: C-Kit is statistically correlated with chemotherapy resistance, while PDGFRα is not correlated.

  4. "String theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells: a new paradigm regarding the nature of these cells that may reconcile apparently discrepant results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Matthew C L; Bolli, Roberto

    2015-03-27

    Although numerous preclinical investigations have consistently demonstrated salubrious effects of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells administered after myocardial infarction, the mechanism of action remains highly controversial. We and others have found little or no evidence that these cells differentiate into mature functional cardiomyocytes, suggesting paracrine effects. In this review, we propose a new paradigm predicated on a comprehensive analysis of the literature, including studies of cardiac development; we have (facetiously) dubbed this conceptual construct "string theory" of c-kit(pos) cardiac cells because it reconciles multifarious and sometimes apparently discrepant results. There is strong evidence that, during development, the c-kit receptor is expressed in different pools of cardiac progenitors (some capable of robust cardiomyogenesis and others with little or no contribution to myocytes). Accordingly, c-kit positivity, in itself, does not define the embryonic origins, lineage capabilities, or differentiation capacities of specific cardiac progenitors. C-kit(pos) cells derived from the first heart field exhibit cardiomyogenic potential during development, but these cells are likely depleted shortly before or after birth. The residual c-kit(pos) cells found in the adult heart are probably of proepicardial origin, possess a mesenchymal phenotype (resembling bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells), and are capable of contributing significantly only to nonmyocytic lineages (fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells). If these 2 populations (first heart field and proepicardium) express different levels of c-kit, the cardiomyogenic potential of first heart field progenitors might be reconciled with recent results of c-kit(pos) cell lineage tracing studies. The concept that c-kit expression in the adult heart identifies epicardium-derived, noncardiomyogenic precursors with a mesenchymal phenotype helps to explain the beneficial effects of c-kit

  5. Withaferin A abolishes the stem cell factor-stimulated pigmentation of human epidermal equivalents by interrupting the auto-phosphorylation of c-KIT in human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazawa, Shuko; Nakajima, Hiroaki; Fukasawa, Katsunori; Imokawa, Genji

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the mechanism(s) underlying the abrogating effect of withaferin A (WFA) on the stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated pigmentation of human epidermal equivalents (HEEs). Increased gene and protein expression levels of tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein1, dopachrome tautomerase, PMEL17, c-KIT and their targeted transcription factor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) were significantly reversed at days 7 and 10, respectively, by treatment with WFA. In WFA-treated normal human melanocytes (NHMs), there was a marked deficiency in the SCF-stimulated series of phosphorylations of c-KIT, Shc, Raf-1, MEK, ERK, MITF and CREB. Treatment with dithiothreitol (DTT) distinctly abolished the suppressive effect of WFA on the SCF-stimulated phosphorylation of c-KIT in NHMs. On the other hand, even after incubation at 4 °C for 2 h with 5 nM SCF, followed by the removal of unbound SCF by washing and then raising the temperature to 37 °C to start the signaling reaction, c-KIT was distinctly phosphorylated to a similar extent by incubation for 15 min with SCF only or with SCF + WFA. These findings indicate that WFA attenuates the SCF-induced activation of c-KIT in NHMs by interrupting the auto-phosphorylation of c-KIT through DTT-suppressible Michael addition thioalkylation reactions without interrupting the binding of SCF to the c-KIT receptor. PMID:25376854

  6. Bone Marrow Suppression by c-Kit Blockade Enhances Tumor Growth of Colorectal Metastases through the Action of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Rupertus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mobilization of c-Kit+ hematopoietic cells (HCs contributes to tumor vascularization. Whereas survival and proliferation of HCs are regulated by binding of the stem cell factor to its receptor c-Kit, migration of HCs is directed by stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1. Therefore, targeting migration of HCs provides a promising new strategy of anti-tumor therapy. Methods. BALB/c mice (=16 were pretreated with an anti-c-Kit antibody followed by implantation of CT26.WT-GFP colorectal cancer cells into dorsal skinfold chambers. Animals (=8 additionally received a neutralizing anti-SDF-1 antibody. Animals (=8 treated with a control antibody served as controls. Investigations were performed using intravital fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Results. Blockade of c-Kit significantly enhanced tumor cell engraftment compared to controls due to stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and invasion without markedly affecting tumor vascularization. C-Kit blockade significantly increased VEGF and CXCR4 expression within the growing tumors. Neutralization of SDF-1 completely antagonized this anti-c-Kit-associated tumor growth by suppression of tumor neovascularization, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and reduction of muscular infiltration. Conclusion. Our study indicates that bone marrow suppression via anti-c-Kit pretreatment enhances tumor cell engraftment of colorectal metastases due to interaction with the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway which is involved in HC-mediated tumor angiogenesis.

  7. Discovery of N-(3-((1-Isonicotinoylpiperidin-4-yl)oxy)-4-methylphenyl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (CHMFL-KIT-110) as a Selective, Potent, and Orally Available Type II c-KIT Kinase Inhibitor for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Feiyang; Wang, Beilei; Zou, Fengming; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Qi, Shuang; Wang, Wenchao; Qi, Ziping; Zhao, Zheng; Hu, Zhenquan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Li; Zhang, Shanchun; Wang, Yuexiang; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-04-28

    c-KIT kinase is a validated drug discovery target for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Clinically used c-KIT kinase inhibitors, i.e., Imatinib and Sunitinib, bear other important targets such as ABL or FLT3 kinases. Here we report our discovery of a more selective c-KIT inhibitor, compound 13 (CHMFL-KIT-110), which completely abolished ABL and FLT3 kinase activity. KinomeScan selectivity profiling (468 kinases) of 13 exhibited a high selectivity (S score (1) = 0.01). 13 displayed great antiproliferative efficacy against GISTs cell lines GIST-T1 and GIST-882 (GI50: 0.021 and 0.043 μM, respectively). In the cellular context, it effectively affected c-KIT-mediated signaling pathways and induced apoptosis as well as cell cycle arrest. In addition, 13 possessed acceptable bioavailability (36%) and effectively suppressed the tumor growth in GIST-T1 cell inoculated xenograft model without apparent toxicity. 13 currently is undergoing extensive preclinical evaluation and might be a potential drug candidate for GISTs. PMID:27077705

  8. A clinicopathological review of 33 patients with vulvar melanoma identifies c-KIT as a prognostic marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A; Nixdorf, Sheri; Valadan, Mehrnaz; Diczbalis, Monica; Olivier, Jake; Otton, Geoff; Fedier, André; Hacker, Neville F; Scurry, James P

    2014-04-01

    Vulvar melanoma is the second most common vulvar cancer. Patients with vulvar melanoma usually present with the disease at a late stage and have a poor prognosis. The prognostic predictors reported in the literature are not unequivocal and the role of lichen sclerosus and c-KIT mutations in the aetiology of vulvar melanoma is unclear. Breslow staging currently seems to be the most adequate predictor of prognosis. We thus performed a clinicopathological and literature review to identify suitable predictors of prognosis and survival and investigated the expression of c-KIT (by immunohistochemistry) in patients with vulvar melanoma (n=33) from the Gynaecological Cancer Centres of the Royal Hospital for Women (Sydney, Australia) and John Hunter Hospital (Newcastle, Australia). Our series of 33 patients fitted the expected clinical profile of older women: delayed presentation, high stage, limited response to treatment and poor prognosis. We identified 3 patients (9.1%) with lichen sclerosus associated with melanoma in situ, although no lichen sclerosus was found in the areas of invasive melanoma. No patient had vulvar nevi. We identified a) Breslow's depth, b) an absence of any of the pathological risk factors, such as satellitosis, in-transit metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and dermal mitosis, c) removal of inguino-femoral lymph nodes, d) lateral margin of >1 cm, and e) c-KIT expression as valuable prognostic predictors for disease-free survival. We conclude that c-KIT expression is, apart from Breslow's depth, another valuable predictor of prognosis and survival. Lichen sclerosus may be associated with vulvar melanoma. PMID:24535703

  9. Decreased SCF/c-kit signaling pathway contributes to loss of interstitial cells of Cajal in gallstone disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Yu-Yan; Ji, Zhen-Ling; ZHAO, GANG; Jiang, Jia-Rui; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jing-Min

    2014-01-01

    Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease, and gallbladder dysmotility is considered as a pivotal pathogenesis. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) serve as pacemakers and mediators of neuromuscular transmission for gastrointestinal motility. Reduction of ICCs has been reported in gallstone diseases. However, there are no reasonable mechanisms for the cholecystolithiasis-associated loss of ICCs in humans. Stem cell factor (SCF) and its ligand c-kit are essential for normal development and surviv...

  10. The clinicopathologic observation, c-KIT gene mutation and clonal status of gastrointestinal stromal tumor in the sacrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is very rare that gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST occurs in the sacrum. Only one case of GIST occuring in the sacral region, with intracranial metastasis, has been reported in the literature. Moreover, only few cases have been published in literature about its clonal origin. Case presentation In this report, we present a rare case of GIST occuring in the sacrum and describe its clinicopathologic features, c-KIT gene mutation and clonal status. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of spindle cells arranged in cords, knitted and whirlpool patterns. Trabecula of bone were found in the lesion. The cytoplasm of tumor cells were abundant, and the nuclei were fusiform. Mitotic figures were rare. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed positive reactivity for CD117 and CD34. On mutation analysis, a c-KIT gene mutation was found in exon 11. The result of clonal analysis demonstrated that the GIST was monoclonal. Conclusion In summary, we showed that tumor material, phenotypically identical with GISTs was found in the sacrum. It is difficult to differentiate GISTs from other spindle cell tumors, hence the need for immunohistochemistry, the examination of c-KIT gene amplification and sequencing.

  11. 14C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent 14C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO2 absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative cheaper and safer) CO2 absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

  12. {sup 14}C urea breath test kit- an evaluation of a compact, cost-effective kit for the detection of H. pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellon, M.S. [Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Dept of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes active chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carbon-14 urea breath testing has been well documented in its ability to detect the presence of H. pylori. The aims of this study were to evaluate and refine the test to substantially reduce costs and improve its simplicity, availability and accuracy. We reviewed the results of 138 patients who underwent {sup 14}C urea breath testing for the detection of H. pylori utilising a kit developed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital. Modifications to the standard technique that were assessed included the relevance of buccal cleansing, single sample v multiple sampling, use of alternative CO{sub 2} absorbers and sampling techniques. In those patients with positive biopsy results, a test sensitivity of 100% was achieved. No buccal cleansing is necessary (45% oral contamination without brushing teeth v 41% with). A single breath sample only at 15 min resulted in 100% sensitivity. Alternative (cheaper and safer) CO{sub 2} absorbers such as KOH can be used. Based on these results, modifications to this well documented test have enabled us to substantially reduce costs, improve simplicity and safety and increase accuracy and availability of the test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

  13. Efficacy of a chairside diagnostic test kit for estimation of C-reactive protein levels in periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarale Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: C-reactive protein [CRP] levels increase to hundreds of mg/mL within hours following infection. Studies have shown that serum CRP levels were elevated in periodontal disease. However, in all the previous studies, CRP levels were measured by using high-sensitivity CRP assay kits with minimal detection limits of 0.1 to 3 mg/L, which was much below the normal value of 10 mg/L. These high-sensitivity CRP assays need a proper laboratory setup, and these methods cannot be used as a routine chair-side test in the dental office. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the serum CRP levels in subjects with periodontal disease by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit with a lower detection limit of 6 mg/L and to compare the CRP levels before and after periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 systemically healthy subjects were selected for the study. Subjects were divided into three groups: group A: healthy controls, group B: gingivitis, group C: periodontitis. Serum levels of CRP were determined by using a latex slide agglutination method with commercially available kit with lower detection limit of 6 mg/L. Results: CRP was negative in all the 15 subjects in groups A and B at baseline, 7th and 30th day. CRP was positive only in 2 subjects in Group C at baseline and 7th day. Conclusion: Estimation of serum CRP by using a rapid chair-side diagnostic test kit is not of any significance in subjects with periodontitis.

  14. Defective bone repair in mast cell deficient mice with c-Kit loss of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, D A; Cheng, L; Sullivan, M B; Wang, M H; Roby, G B; Zayed, N; Gao, C; Henderson, J E; Martineau, P A

    2014-01-01

    KitW-sh mice carry an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding the receptor for stem cell factor, which is expressed at high levels on the surface of haematopoietic precursor cells. The mutation results in mast cell deficiency, a variety of defects in innate immunity and poorly defined abnormalities in bone. The present study was designed to characterise healing of a cortical window defect in skeletally mature KitW-sh mice using high-resolution micro computed tomographic imaging and histological analyses. The cortical bone defect healed completely in all wild type mice but failed to heal in about half of the KitW-sh mice by 12 weeks post-operative. Defective healing was associated with premature and excessive expression of TRAP positive cells embedded in fibrous marrow but with little change in ALP activity. Immuno-histochemical analyses revealed reduced CD34 positive vascular endothelial cells and F4/80 positive macrophages at 1 and 2 weeks post-operative. Impaired bone healing in the KitW-sh mice was therefore attributed to altered catabolic activity, impaired re-vascularisation and compromised replacement of woven with compact bone. PMID:25284141

  15. Defective bone repair in mast cell deficient mice with c-Kit loss of function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA Behrends

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available KitW-sh mice carry an inactivating mutation in the gene encoding the receptor for stem cell factor, which is expressed at high levels on the surface of haematopoietic precursor cells. The mutation results in mast cell deficiency, a variety of defects in innate immunity and poorly defined abnormalities in bone. The present study was designed to characterise healing of a cortical window defect in skeletally mature KitW-sh mice using high-resolution micro computed tomographic imaging and histological analyses. The cortical bone defect healed completely in all wild type mice but failed to heal in about half of the KitW-sh mice by 12 weeks post-operative. Defective healing was associated with premature and excessive expression of TRAP positive cells embedded in fibrous marrow but with little change in ALP activity. Immuno-histochemical analyses revealed reduced CD34 positive vascular endothelial cells and F4/80 positive macrophages at 1 and 2 weeks post-operative. Impaired bone healing in the KitW-sh mice was therefore attributed to altered catabolic activity, impaired re-vascularisation and compromised replacement of woven with compact bone.

  16. Involvement of transcription factor encoded by the mi locus in the expression of c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase in cultured mast cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, T; Morii, E; Nozaki, M; Hashimoto, K; Moriyama, Y; Takebayashi, K; Kondo, T; Kanakura, Y; Kitamura, Y

    1996-08-15

    The mi locus of mice encodes a member of the basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) protein family of transcription factors (hereafter called MITF). Cultured mast cells of mi/mi genotype (mi/mi CMCs) did not normally respond to stem cell factor (SCF), a ligand for the c-kit receptor tyrosine kinase. The poor response of mi/mi CMCs to SCF was attributed to the deficient expression of c-kit both the mRNA and protein levels. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of MITF on the transcription of the c-kit gene. First, we introduced cDNA encoding normal (+) MITF or mutant (mi) MITF into mi/mi CMCs using the retroviral vector. Overexpression of (+)-MITF but not mi-MITF normalized the expression of the c-kit and the poor response of mi/mi CMCs to SCF, indicating the involvement of (+)-MITF in the c-kit gene transactivation. Second, we analyzed the promoter of the c-kit gene. Three CANNTG motifs recognized by bHLH-Zip-type transcription factors were conserved between the mouse and human c-kit promoters. Among these three CANNTG motifs, only the CACCTG motif (nt -356 to -351) was specifically bound by (+)-MITF. When the luciferase gene under the control of the c-kit promoter was contransfected into NIH/3T3 fibroblasts with cDNA encoding (+)-MITF or mi-MITF, the luciferase activity significantly increased only when (+)-MITF cDNA was cotransfected. The deletion of the promoter region containing the CACCTG motif or the mutation of the CACCTG to CTCCAG abolished the transactivation effect of (+)-MITF, indicating that (+)-MITF transactivated the c-kit gene through the CACCTG motif. When the luciferase gene under the control of the c-kit promoter was introduced into the FMA3 mastocytoma and FEC-P1 myeloid cell lines, remarkable luciferase activity was observed only in FMA3 cells. Thus, the involvement of (+)-MITF in the c-kit transactivation appeared to be specific to the mast cell lineage. PMID:8695840

  17. C3-PRO: Connecting ResearchKit to the Health System Using i2b2 and FHIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Pascal B; Pinyol, Isaac; Natter, Marc D; Mandl, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    A renewed interest by consumer information technology giants in the healthcare domain is focused on transforming smartphones into personal health data storage devices. With the introduction of the open source ResearchKit, Apple provides a framework for researchers to inform and consent research subjects, and to readily collect personal health data and patient reported outcomes (PRO) from distributed populations. However, being research backend agnostic, ResearchKit does not provide data transmission facilities, leaving research apps disconnected from the health system. Personal health data and PROs are of the most value when presented in context along with health system data. Our aim was to build a toolchain that allows easy and secure integration of personal health and PRO data into an open source platform widely adopted across 140 academic medical centers. We present C3-PRO: the Consent, Contact, and Community framework for Patient Reported Outcomes. This open source toolchain connects, in a standards-compliant fashion, any ResearchKit app to the widely-used clinical research infrastructure Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). C3-PRO leverages the emerging health data standard Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). PMID:27031856

  18. C3-PRO: Connecting ResearchKit to the Health System Using i2b2 and FHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, Pascal B.; Pinyol, Isaac; Natter, Marc D.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    A renewed interest by consumer information technology giants in the healthcare domain is focused on transforming smartphones into personal health data storage devices. With the introduction of the open source ResearchKit, Apple provides a framework for researchers to inform and consent research subjects, and to readily collect personal health data and patient reported outcomes (PRO) from distributed populations. However, being research backend agnostic, ResearchKit does not provide data transmission facilities, leaving research apps disconnected from the health system. Personal health data and PROs are of the most value when presented in context along with health system data. Our aim was to build a toolchain that allows easy and secure integration of personal health and PRO data into an open source platform widely adopted across 140 academic medical centers. We present C3-PRO: the Consent, Contact, and Community framework for Patient Reported Outcomes. This open source toolchain connects, in a standards-compliant fashion, any ResearchKit app to the widely-used clinical research infrastructure Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2). C3-PRO leverages the emerging health data standard Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR). PMID:27031856

  19. Expression of Sox10 and c-kit in sinonasal mucosal melanomas arising in the Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong Gang; Kong, Max Xiangtian; Yao, Qian; Wang, Shu Yi; Shibata, Robert; Yee, Herman; Martiniuk, Frank; Wang, Beverly Y

    2012-12-01

    Sinonasal mucosal melanomas (SNMM) of the head and neck regions are rare and aggressive malignancies. Although they can affect patients of any ethnicity, they are more numerous in Chinese patients. The diagnosis and treatment of these tumors can be challenging. Recent studies have reported that Sox10 is a sensitive melanocytic marker for cutaneous melanoma (Nonaka et al. in Am J Surg Pathol 32:1291-1298, 2008). In addition, a CD117 (c-kit) gene mutation has been identified in cutaneous melanomas, indicating that there may be potential therapeutic benefits of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as Imatinib. The purpose of this study was to detect and test the immunohistochemical expression of Sox10 and c-kit in mucosal melanomas (MM) arising in the nasal cavities of Chinese patients. Twenty eight patients with mucosal melanomas of the nasal cavity were treated in two major hospitals in China. All cases had been locally diagnosed as primary SNMM. We confirmed all diagnoses with positive immunohistochemical stains for S100 and HMB-45. Additionally, automated immunohistochemistry was performed using a goat polyclonal Sox10 antibody and a monoclonal c-kit antibody counterstained using a standard avidin-biotin complex method. Immunohistochemical positive expression of Sox10 was defined by nuclear stain; and positivity for c-kit resulted in a distinct membranous staining. The extent of nuclear positivity for Sox10 and membranous stain for c-kit was graded by 4 board certified pathologists as follows: 1+, 1-25 % of positive tumor cells; 2+, 25-50 %; 3+, 50-75 %; and 4+, ≥75 %. Sox10 nuclear expression was found in all cases (100 %), with 4+ staining in 26 out of 28 cases (92.8 %) and 3+ staining in two cases with (7.1 %). The overall positivity for S100 staining was 23 out of 28 (82.1 %), with 1+ staining in 10 cases, 2+ staining in 6 cases, 3+ staining in 7 cases, and no staining in 5 cases. The sensitivity and intensity of Sox10 immunohistochemistry were both

  20. Intratumoral CD3+ T-Lymphocytes Immunoexpression and Its Association with c-Kit, Angiogenesis, and Overall Survival in Malignant Canine Mammary Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Isabel Carvalho; Isabel Pires; Marlene Dias; Justina Prada; Hugo Gregório; Luis Lobo; Felisbina Queiroga

    2015-01-01

    In this study 80 malignant CMT were submitted to immunohistochemical detection of CD3, c-kit, VEGF, and CD31, together with clinicopathological parameters of tumor aggressiveness. CD3+ T-cells and c-kit overexpression revealed a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.503, P < 0.0001; r = 0.284, P = 0.023 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.) and CD31 (r = 0.654, P < 0.0001; r = 0.365, P = 0.003 for CD3 and c-kit, resp.). A significant association (P = 0.039) and a positive correlation (r = 0.263, P = 0.03...

  1. MIBI: preparation and evaluation of lyophilization kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lyophilization kits of MIBI- 99m Tc were obtained by its own synthesis. The quality control showing the high stability of kits was mentioned. the bio-distribution, evaluated in dogs, was identical to that presented by the radiopharmaceutical with the import kit. The obtained results, allowing the prepare of lyophilization kits for medical use were also presented. (C.G.C.)

  2. Lack of structural rearrangement in c-kit and stem cell factor genes in Hong Kong Chinese patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chui, CH; Leung, PHM; Lau, FY; Wan, TSK; Cheng, G.; Chan, LC

    1998-01-01

    Stem cell factor is a haemopoietic growth factor that interacts with the c-kit--encoded transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor during signal transduction in haemopoietic progenitor stem cells. We have screened 127 Chinese patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia for structural rearrangements in the stem cell factor and c-kit genes using Southern blot analysis. No structural rearrangements were detected in any of the bone marrow samples that were tested. It seems that...

  3. Comparison of the MUREX C. albicans, Albicans-Sure, and BactiCard Candida test kits with the germ tube test for presumptive identification of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Crist, A E; Dietz, T J; Kampschroer, K.

    1996-01-01

    The MUREX C. albicans (MC)(Murex Diagnostics), Albicans-Sure (AS) (Clinical Standards Laboratories), and BactiCard Candida (BC) (Remel) test kits were compared with the germ tube (GT) test for the rapid, presumptive identification of Candida albicans. All three test kits detect the enzymes L-proline aminopeptidase and beta-galactosaminidase in yeast cells grown on culture media and are based on the principle that C. albicans produces both enzymes whereas other yeasts produce only one or neith...

  4. Prevalence of c-KIT Mutations in Gonadoblastoma and Dysgerminomas of Patients with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) and Ovarian Dysgerminomas

    OpenAIRE

    Remko Hersmus; Hans Stoop; Gert Jan van de Geijn; Ronak Eini; Katharina Biermann; J Wolter Oosterhuis; Catharina Dhooge; Schneider, Dominik T; Meijssen, Isabelle C; Dinjens, Winand N. M.; Hendrikus Jan Dubbink; Drop, Stenvert L.S.; Looijenga, Leendert H.J.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractActivating c-KIT mutations (exons 11 and 17) are found in 10-40% of testicular seminomas, the majority being missense point mutations (codon 816). Malignant ovarian dysgerminomas represent ~3% of all ovarian cancers in Western countries, resembling testicular seminomas, regarding chromosomal aberrations and c-KIT mutations. DSD patients with specific Y-sequences have an increased risk for Type II Germ Cell Tumor/Cancer, with gonadoblastoma as precursor progressing to dysgerminoma....

  5. A prism carbon molecule C$_20$

    OpenAIRE

    OHNO, Koichi; Satoh, Hiroko; Iwamoto, Takeaki

    2015-01-01

    A new carbon family with a prism structure has been found by quantum chemical calculations. The prism-$C_20$ has a $D_10h$ structure with double-layered decagonal rings connected each other by ten vertical CC bonds. The CC bond lengths are 0.144 nm on the decagonal rings and 0.148 nm on the side faces. The diameter of the ring is 0.465 nm. The $prism-C_20$ is expected to be stable, since the lowest energy barrier from it was estimated to be 158.0 kJ mol$^−1$.

  6. Quantum Theory for Large Molecules $C_{60}$ Diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Ba, Nuo; Wu, Yi-Heng; Tang, Hou-Li; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Si-Qi

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction phenomena of large molecules have been studied in many experiments, and these experiments are described by many theoretical works. In this paper, we study $C_{60}$ molecules single and double-slit diffraction with quantum theory approach, and we pay close attention to the $C_{60}$ diffraction experiment carried out by A.Zeilinger et.at in 1999. In double-slit diffraction, we consider the decoherence effect, and find the theoretical results are good agreement with experimental data.

  7. Single C59N molecule as a molecular rectifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin; Zeng, Changgan; Cheng, Xin; Wang, Kedong; Wang, Guanwu; Yang, Jinlong; Hou, J G; Zhu, Qingshi

    2005-07-22

    We report a new kind of experimental realization of a molecular rectifier, which is based on a single azafullerene C59N molecule in a double-barrier tunnel junction via the single electron tunneling effect. An obvious rectifying effect is observed. The positive onset voltage is about 0.5-0.7 V, while the negative onset voltage is about 1.6-1.8 V. Theoretical analyses show that the half-occupied molecular orbital of the C59N molecule and the asymmetric shift of the molecular Fermi level when the molecule is charged are responsible for the molecular rectification. PMID:16090819

  8. Spin-dependent rectification in the C59N molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahvash Arabi Darehdor; Nasser Shahtahmasebi

    2013-02-01

    Coherent spin-dependent electron transport is investigated in three conditions: (1) a C60 molecule is connected to two ferromagnetic (FM) electrodes symmetrically, (2) a C59N molecule is connected to two FM electrodes symmetrically and (3) a C59N molecule is connected to two FM electrodes asymmetrically. This work is based on a single-band tight-binding model Hamiltonian and the Green’s function approach with the Landauer–Buttiker formalism. Electrodes used in this study are semi-infinite FM electrodes with finite cross-section. Obvious rectification effect is observed in the C59 N molecule which is connected to the FM electrodes asymmetrically. This effect is more in the P alignment of FM electrodes than in AP alignment of FM electrodes. This study indicates that the rectification behaviour is due to the asymmetry in molecule and junctions. Also in this investigation tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) is calculated for these molecules. Asymmetry is observed in TMR of C59N which is coupled to the electrodes asymmetrically due to asymmetric junctions, but TMR of C60 is symmetric.

  9. Induction of mast cell proliferation, maturation, and heparin synthesis by the rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, M.; Takeishi, Takashi; Geissler, E.N. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Thompson, H.; Metcalfe, D.D. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Langley, K.E.; Zsebo, K.M.; Galli, S.J. (Amgen, Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA (United States))

    1991-07-15

    The authors investigated the effects of a newly recognized multifunctional growth factor, the c-kit ligand stem cell factor (SCF), on mouse mast cell proliferation and phenotype. Recombinant rat SCF{sup 164} (rrSCF{sup 164}) induced the development of large numbers of dermal mast cells in normal mice in vivo. Many of these mast cells had features of connective tissue-type mast cells (CTMC), in that they were reactive both with the heparin-binding fluorescent dye berberine sulfate and with safranin. In vitro, rrSCF{sup 164} induced the proliferation of cloned interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent mouse mast cells and primary populations of IL-3-dependent, bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells (BMCMC), which represent immature mast cells, and purified peritoneal mast cells, which represent a type of mature CTMC> BMCMC maintained in rrSCF{sup 164} not only proliferated but also matured. These findings identify SCF as a single cytokine that can induce immature, IL-3-dependent mast cells to mature and to acquire multiple characteristics of CTMC. These findings also directly demonstrate that SCF can regulate the development of a cellular lineage expressing c-kit through effects on both proliferation and maturation.

  10. Digoxin radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was made with an objective of research in methodology on self-production of digoxin radioimmunoassay kit. The development had been done successfully in the second antibody liquid phase technique with 10 times cheaper in price. The assay showed good precision and reproducibility with 93.6% of the recovery result. Additionally, the anti-digoxin serum composed in this kit was very highly specific to digoxin i.e. only 0.7% cross-reactivity to digitoxin. The stability study showed that the shelf-life of the kit was up to 2 months at 40C storage. Therefore, the kit appeared suitable for routine clinical diagnosis of serum digoxin

  11. Stem Cell Factor Gene Transfer Promotes Cardiac Repair After Myocardial Infarction via In Situ Recruitment and Expansion of c-kit+ Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniz-Galende, Elisa; Chen, Jiqiu; Chemaly, Elie; Liang, Lifan; Hulot, Jean-Sebastien; McCollum, LaTronya; Arias, Teresa; Fuster, Valentin; Zsebo, Krisztina M.; Hajjar, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is growing evidence that the myocardium responds to injury by recruiting c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells to the damage tissue. Even though the ability of exogenously introducing c-kit+ cells to injured myocardium has been established, the capability of recruiting these cells through modulation of local signaling pathways by gene transfer has not been tested. Objective To determine whether stem cell factor gene transfer mediates cardiac regeneration in a rat myocardial infarction model, through survival and recruitment of c-kit+ progenitors and cell-cycle activation in cardiomyocytes, and explore the mechanisms involved. Methods and Results Infarct size, cardiac function, cardiac progenitor cells recruitment, fibrosis, and cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation were measured at different time points in controls (n=10) and upon stem cell factor gene transfer (n=13) after myocardial infarction. We found a regenerative response because of stem cell factor overexpression characterized by an enhancement in cardiac hemodynamic function: an improvement in survival; a reduction in fibrosis, infarct size and apoptosis; an increase in cardiac c-kit+ progenitor cells recruitment to the injured area; an increase in cardiomyocyte cell-cycle activation; and Wnt/β-catenin pathway induction. Conclusions Stem cell factor gene transfer induces c-kit+ stem/progenitor cell expansion in situ and cardiomyocyte proliferation, which may represent a new therapeutic strategy to reverse adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction. PMID:22931954

  12. Involvement of Phospholipase Cγ1 in Mouse Egg Activation Induced by a Truncated Form of the C-kit Tyrosine Kinase Present in Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Sette, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Geremia, Raffaele; Rossi, Pellegrino

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection of a truncated form of the c-kit tyrosine kinase present in mouse spermatozoa (tr-kit) activates mouse eggs parthenogenetically, and tr-kit– induced egg activation is inhibited by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) (Sette, C., A. Bevilacqua, A. Bianchini, F. Mangia, R. Geremia, and P. Rossi. 1997. Development [Camb.]. 124:2267–2274). Co-injection of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the src-homology (SH) domains of the γ1 isoform o...

  13. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. (University of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  14. A G-rich sequence within the c-kit oncogene promoter forms a parallel G-quadruplex having asymmetric G-tetrad dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2009-09-23

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  15. Immunohistochemical determination of HER-2/neu overexpression in malignant melanoma reveals no prognostic value, while c-Kit (CD117 overexpression exhibits potential therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HER-2/neu and c-kit (CD117 onco-protein are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapy in solid tumors, but data on their role in malignant melanoma is currently limited. We studied the prevalence of overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit in 202 patients with malignant melanoma to evaluate a possible prognostic value of these molecular targets in malignant melanoma. Methods Overexpression of HER-2/neu and c-Kit was evaluated using immunohistochemical assays in 202 archival tissue specimens. Results Between 1991 and 2001, 202 subjects (109 males; 54% and 93 females; 46% with malignant melanoma were studied with a mean age of 57 years (age range: 15–101 years. The most common histologic type was amelanotic melanoma (n = 62; 30.7% followed by superficial spreading melanoma (n = 54; 26.7%. The depth of penetration of melanoma (Breslow thickness, pT Stage ranged from 0.4 mm (stage pT1 to 8.0 mm (stage pT4A. Mean thickness was 2.6 mm (stage pT3A. The ECOG performance scores ranged from 0 to 3. Only 2 patients (0.9% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression, whereas 46 (22.8% revealed c-Kit overexpression. Multivariate analysis performed did not show a significant difference in survival between c-Kit positive and negative groups (p = 0.36. Interestingly, not only was c-Kit more likely to be overexpressed in the superficial spreading type, a preliminary association between the presence or absence of c-Kit overexpression and the existence of another second primary tumor was also observed. Conclusions The results of our large study indicate that the HER-2/neu onco-protein neither has a role in melanogenesis nor is a potential target for clinical trials with monoclonal antibody therapy. This indicates there is no role for its testing in patients with malignant melanoma. Although c-Kit, expressed preferentially in the superficial spreading type, may not have prognostic value, it does have significant therapeutic implications as a

  16. Cutaneous mastocytosis with a mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit in a young laboratory beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuki; Kashiwagi, Emi; Masuno, Koichi; Fujisawa, Kae; Tsuchiya, Noriko; Matsushima, Shuuichi; Torii, Mikinori; Takasu, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous mastocytosis, which resembles a subset of urticaria pigmentosa in humans, is rare in dogs. We herein report unrepresentative neoplastic proliferation of mast cells in ventral skin removed routinely from a nine-month-old female laboratory beagle dog at necropsy. A histological examination revealed diffuse extensive cellular infiltration from the superficial to deep dermis in most parts of the skin around the fourth and fifth mammary papilla without nodule formation. Tumor cells were fairly monomorphic, well-differentiated mast cells with round nuclei of small distinct nucleoli and moderate to abundant, slightly eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm. A perivascular arrangement of mast cells was noted at the margin of the lesions. Infiltration of eosinophils and degeneration of collagen were not observed in the dermis. Cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed based on these features. A sequence analysis of lesions revealed the deletion of Gln555 to Ile570 within the juxtamembrane domain of c-kit (exon 11). PMID:26989302

  17. Structure and dynamics of C60 molecules on Au(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Heekeun [Penn State University; Schwarze, A [Penn State University; Diehl, R D [Penn State University; Pussi, K [Lappeenranta University of Technology; Colombier, A [Universite de Lorraine; Gaudry, E. [Universite de Lorraine; Ledieu, J [Universite de Lorraine; McGuirk, G M [Universite de Lorraine; Serkovic Loli, L N [Universite de Lorraine; Fournee, V [Universite de Lorraine; Wang, Lin-Lin [Ames Laboratory; Schull, G [Universite de Strasbourg; Berndt, R [Christian-Albrechts-Universitt zu Kiel

    2014-06-01

    Earlier studies of C60 adsorption on Au(111) reported many interesting and complex features. We have performed coordinated low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density functional theory studies to elucidate some of the details of the monolayer commensurate (2√3 × 2√3)R30° phase. We have identified the adsorption geometries of the two states that image as dim and bright in STM. These consist of a C60 molecule with a hexagon side down in a vacancy (hex-vac) and a C60 molecule with a carbon-carbon 6:6 bond down on a top site (6:6-top), respectively. We have studied the detailed geometries of these states and find that there is little distortion of the C60 molecules, but there is a rearrangement of the substrate near the C60 molecules. The two types of molecules differ in height, by about 0.7 Å, which accounts for most of the difference in their contrast in the STM images. The monolayer displays dynamical behavior, in which the molecules flip from bright to dim, and vice versa. We interpret this flipping as the result of the diffusion of vacancies in the surface layers of the substrate. Our measurements of the dynamics of this flipping from one state to the other indicate that the activation energy is 0.66 ± 0.03 eV for flips that involve nearest-neighbor C60 molecules, and 0.93 ± 0.03 for more distant flips. Based on calculated activation energies for vacancies diffusing in Au, we interpret these to be a result of surface vacancy diffusion and bulk vacancy diffusion. These results are compared to the similar system of Ag(111)-(2√3 × 2√3)R30°-C60. In both systems, the formation of the commensurate C60 monolayer produces a large number of vacancies in the top substrate layer that are highly mobile, effectively melting the interfacial metal layer at temperatures well below their normal melting temperatures.

  18. Utilization of a biochemical kit for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP in the saliva of periodontal disease individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaila Baroni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontal disease (PD is a chronic inflammatory process that occurs in response to infection from bacteria in dental plaque. PD affects and destroys the periodontal tissues causing teeth loss. It is also associated to systemic diseases. C-reactive protein (CRP is a protein produced by the liver and released into the blood during the acute phase of inflammation. Therefore, CRP is very used as a marker for inflammation process. Studies on the presence of CRP in the saliva of the subjects with PD do not exist. Objective: The aim of this study was to test a biochemical kit for CRP detection in blood plasma to monitor CRP in saliva of PD subjects. Material and methods: Saliva was collected from 40 individuals, both sexes, from 20-45 years-old, divided into two groups: Test Group – PD subjects (TG; n = 20 and Control Group (CG n = 20, without PD. The following salivary parameters were analysed: buffer capacity (BC, salivary flow (SF, pH, urea, total proteins, and CRP. Results: pH, SF and BC values were considered normal in both groups. The urea concentration was higher in TG (27.4 mg/dl ± 10.03 than CG (22.9 mg/dl ± 8.3. However, the concentration of total proteins was higher in CG (201.2 ± 100 mg/dl than TG (155.0 ± 95 mg/dl. CRP was detected in 11 PD subjects and in eight subjects without PD. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the two groups in relation to SF, pH and BC. However, in PD subjects’ saliva, urea values increased and total proteins decreased. The biochemical kit detected CRP in subjects’ saliva of both groups.

  19. MONOCYTE ADHESION MOLECULES EXPRESSION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS C AND LIVER CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E.I. El-Bassiouni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Chronic viral hepatitis is histologically characterized by predominantly periportal infiltration of mononuclear cells, including monocytes/macrophages. Intralobular infiltration of these inflammatory cells is an ominous sign of deterioration and a criterion for disease activity. We aimed to study the expression of monocytes adhesion molecules and their endothelial ligands in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC and liver cirrhosis (LC. The influence of cytokines and chemokine on monocyte adhesion was also taken into account. Material and Methods: The current study included 30 cases of CHC, 30 cases of LC and 15 normal healthy controls. Flow cytometric quantification of CD11a, CD11b and CD49d monocyte surface antigen expression was performed. Circulating sE-selectin, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, TNF-α, IL-1 and MCP-1 were measured by ELISA kits. Results: The expression of CD11b, CD49d, and the serum level of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, TNF-α showed progressive increase from non-cirrhotic to cirrhotic patients. correlation was found between monocyte adhesion molecules CD11a, CD11b and CD49d and each of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 Conclusions: These findings suggest that the modulation of monocyte-subset recruitment into the liver via adhesion molecules or cytokines/cytokine receptors may represent promising approaches for therapeutic interventions in human liver fibrosis. Measurement of serum soluble adhesion molecules may be useful for monitoring progression of liver inflammation and fibrosis during CHC.

  20. Regulation of ferritin mRNA translation in primary erythroblasts: exogenous c-Kit plus EpoR signaling mimics v-ErbA oncoprotein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulits, W; Schranzhofer, M; Deiner, E M; Beug, H; Müllner, E W

    2000-08-28

    In general, translation efficiency of ferritin mRNAs is modulated by variations in iron supply. In primary avian erythroblasts undergoing short-term proliferation, however, ferritin heavy chain (ferH) mRNA is repressed at all iron levels. Yet, expression of v-ErbA oncoprotein is sufficient to reinduce ferH mRNA utilization at physiological iron concentrations. Since overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Kit and erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) stimulates long-term proliferation of primary erythroblasts like v-ErbA, we analyzed the impact of cooperation between c-Kit and EpoR on the regulation of iron storage. Whereas endogenous c-Kit in combination with exogenous EpoR had no significant effect, ectopic overexpression of both receptors abolished translational repression of ferH mRNA upon iron administration. Thus, high-intensity signaling through c-Kit plus EpoR pathways mimics the v-ErbA-mediated regulatory phenotype. PMID:10964660

  1. Prevalence of c-KIT Mutations in Gonadoblastoma and Dysgerminomas of Patients with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) and Ovarian Dysgerminomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hersmus (Remko); J.A. Stoop (Hans); G.J.M. van de Geijn (Gert-Jan); R. Eini (Ronak); K. Biermann (Katharina); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); C. DHooge (Catharina); D.T. Schneider (Dominik); I.C. Meijssen (Isabelle); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); H.J. Dubbink (Erik Jan); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractActivating c-KIT mutations (exons 11 and 17) are found in 10-40% of testicular seminomas, the majority being missense point mutations (codon 816). Malignant ovarian dysgerminomas represent ~3% of all ovarian cancers in Western countries, resembling testicular seminomas, regarding chromos

  2. The nano-science of C60 molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available   Over the past few years, nano-science and its associated nano-technology have emerged into prominence in research instiutions across the world. They have brought about new scientific and engineering paradigms, allowing for the manipulation of single atoms and molecules, designing and fabricating new materials, atom-by-atom, and devices that operate on significantly reduced time and length scales. One important area of research in nano-science and nano-technology is carbon-based physics in the form of fullerene physics. The C60 molecule, and other cage-like fullerenes, together with carbon nanotubes provide objects that can be combined to generate three-dimensional functional structures for use in the anticipated nano-technology of future. The unique properties of C60 can also be exploited in designing nano-phase thin films with applications in nanoscopic device technology and processes such as nano-lithography. This requires a deep understanding of the highly complex process of adsorption of this molecule on a variety of substrates. We review the field of nano-scale nucleation and growth of C60 molecules on some of the technologically important substrates. In addition to experimental results, the results of a set of highly accurate computational simulations are also reported.

  3. The nano-science of C60 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, nano-science and its associated nano-technology have emerged into prominence in research institutions across the world. They have brought about new scientific and engineering paradigms, allowing for the manipulation of single atoms and molecules, designing and fabricating new materials, atom-by-atom, and devices that operate on significantly reduced time and length scales. One important area of research in nano-science and nano technology is carbon-based physics in the form of fullerene physics. The C60 molecule, and other cage-like fullerenes, together with carbon nano tubes provide objects that can be combined to generate three-dimensional functional structures for use in the anticipated nano-technology of future. The unique properties of C60 can also be exploited in designing nano-phase thin films with applications in nano-scope device technology and processes such as nano-lithography. This requires a deep understanding of the highly complex process of adsorption of this molecule on a variety of substrates. We review the field of nano-scale nucleation and growth of C60 molecules on some of the technologically important substrates. In addition to experimental results, the results of a set of highly accurate computational simulations are also reported

  4. Prevalence of c-KIT mutations in gonadoblastoma and dysgerminomas of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD and ovarian dysgerminomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Hersmus

    Full Text Available Activating c-KIT mutations (exons 11 and 17 are found in 10-40% of testicular seminomas, the majority being missense point mutations (codon 816. Malignant ovarian dysgerminomas represent ~3% of all ovarian cancers in Western countries, resembling testicular seminomas, regarding chromosomal aberrations and c-KIT mutations. DSD patients with specific Y-sequences have an increased risk for Type II Germ Cell Tumor/Cancer, with gonadoblastoma as precursor progressing to dysgerminoma. Here we present analysis of c-KIT exon 8, 9, 11, 13 and 17, and PDGFRA exon 12, 14 and 18 by conventional sequencing together with mutational analysis of c-KIT codon 816 by a sensitive and specific LightCycler melting curve analysis, confirmed by sequencing. The results are combined with data on TSPY and OCT3/4 expression in a series of 16 DSD patients presenting with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma and 15 patients presenting pure ovarian dysgerminomas without DSD. c-KIT codon 816 mutations were detected in five out of the total of 31 cases (all found in pure ovarian dysgerminomas. A synonymous SNP (rs 5578615 was detected in two patients, one DSD patient (with bilateral disease and one patient with dysgerminoma. Next to these, three codon N822K mutations were detected in the group of 15 pure ovarian dysgerminomas. In total activating c-KIT mutations were found in 53% of ovarian dysgerminomas without DSD. In the group of 16 DSD cases a N505I and D820E mutation was found in a single tumor of a patient with gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. No PDGFRA mutations were found. Positive OCT3/4 staining was present in all gonadoblastomas and dysgerminomas investigated, TSPY expression was only seen in the gonadoblastoma/dysgerminoma lesions of the 16 DSD patients. This data supports the existence of two distinct but parallel pathways in the development of dysgerminoma, in which mutational status of c-KIT might parallel the presence of TSPY.

  5. Successful treatment of c-kit-positive metastatic Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) with a combination of curcumin plus imatinib: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, M; Sahinbas, H; Atahan, S; Demiray, H; Selcuk, D; Yildirim, I; Atayoglu, A T

    2016-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an aggressive malignant neoplasm of the secretory glands. Conventional chemotherapy has poor effectiveness against metastatic ACC. Thus, a novel effective therapy is needed against metastatic ACC. A majority of ACCs (up to 94%) express c-kit. Imatinib is monoclonal antibody with specific activity against c-kit but has not been found to be effective in treating patients with ACC in which c-kit is overexpressed and activated. The NF-κB and mTOR pathways have been shown that ubiquitously and concurrently activated, indicating that the inhibition of these pathways may represent a novel treatment approach for patients with ACC. Curcumin has been shown to inhibit NF-κB and NF-κB-related pathways. 43-year-old patient was diagnosed ACC from submandibular salivary gland. After complete resection of tumor adjuvant radiotherapy was initiated. Seven years later multiple lung metastases were detected and ACC was confirmed by re-biopsy. First-line chemotherapy failed. NF-κB and c-kit were overexpressed in the metastatic specimens. Therefore, we treated the patient with metastatic chemoresistant ACC with imatinib 400mg/day and intravenous curcumin 225mg/m(2) twice a week plus oral bioavailable curcumin Arantal(®) 2×84mg/day. At 24 months, we observed near complete anatomic and complete metabolic response. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with a c-kit-positive ACC that is successfully treated with the combination of imatinib and curcumin in an integrative approach. PMID:27515884

  6. Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-met and c-kit and their ligands, hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and stem cell factor, in SCLC cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Nakamura, T; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    We examined a panel of 25 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and nude mouse xenografts for expression of the proto-oncogenes c-met and c-kit, and for expression of the corresponding ligands, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (also known as scatter factor (SF)), and stem cell factor (SCF......), respectively. Expression of mRNA was detected by Northern blotting, and c-met and c-kit protein expression was detected by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. c-met and c-kit mRNA was expressed in 22 of the examined cell lines or xenografts, and coexpression of the two proto-oncogenes was observed in 20...

  7. Isotope analysis of carbon by C2 molecule spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on inert gas mixture (He, Ne, Ar) with carbon-containing components (CO, CO2, CH4) under conditions of variation of mixture pressure in discharge tube, of carbon-containing components contents and the rate of gas flow through the discharge tube. The use of C2 molecule spectrum enabled to develope the spectroscopic techniques for determination of carbon isotope ratio. The method is universal with respect to molecular form of carbon-containing substance

  8. Podocalyxin-like protein 1 is a relevant marker for human c-kit(pos) cardiac stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscoso, Isabel; Tejados, Naiara; Barreiro, Olga; Sepúlveda, Pilar; Izarra, Alberto; Calvo, Enrique; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Salcedo, Juan Manuel; Sádaba, Rafael; Díez-Juan, Antonio; Trigueros, César; Bernad, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) from adult myocardium offer an alternative cell therapy approach for ischaemic heart disease. Improved clinical performance of CPCs in clinical trials requires a comprehensive definition of their biology and specific interactions with the environment. In this work we characterize specific human CPC surface markers and study some of their related functions. c-kit(pos) human CPCs (hCPCs) were characterized for cell surface marker expression, pluripotency, early and late cardiac differentiation markers and therapeutic activity in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The results indicate that hCPCs are a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population, with a similar immunoregulatory capacity. A partial hCPC membrane proteome was analysed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and 36 proteins were identified. Several, including CD26, myoferlin and podocalyxin-like protein 1 (PODXL), have been previously described in other stem-cell systems. Suppression and overexpression analysis demonstrated that PODXL regulates hCPC activation, migration and differentiation; it also modulates their local immunoregulatory capacity. Therefore, hCPCs are a resident cardiac population that shares many features with hMSCs, including their capacity for local immunoregulation. Expression of PODXL appears to favour the immature state of hCPCs, while its downregulation facilitates their differentiation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23897803

  9. Steered molecular dynamics simulations reveal the likelier dissociation pathway of imatinib from its targeting kinases c-Kit and Abl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jun Yang

    Full Text Available Development of small molecular kinase inhibitors has recently been the central focus in drug discovery. And type II kinase inhibitors that target inactive conformation of kinases have attracted particular attention since their potency and selectivity are thought to be easier to achieve compared with their counterpart type I inhibitors that target active conformation of kinases. Although mechanisms underlying the interactions between type II inhibitors and their targeting kinases have been widely studied, there are still some challenging problems, for example, how type II inhibitors associate with or dissociate from their targeting kinases. In this investigation, steered molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to explore the possible dissociation pathways of typical type II inhibitor imatinib from its targeting protein kinases c-Kit and Abl. The simulation results indicate that the most favorable pathway for imatinib dissociation corresponds to the ATP-channel rather than the relatively wider allosteric-pocket-channel, which is mainly due to the different van der Waals interaction that the ligand suffers during dissociation. Nevertheless, the direct reason comes from the fact that the residues composing the ATP-channel are more flexible than that forming the allosteric-pocket-channel. The present investigation suggests that a bulky hydrophobic head is unfavorable, but a large polar tail is allowed for a potent type II inhibitor. The information obtained here can be used to direct the discovery of type II kinase inhibitors.

  10. TGFBIp regulates differentiation of EPC (CD133(+) C-kit(+) Lin(-) cells) to EC through activation of the Notch signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Choi, Yeon Jeong; Kim, Eung Kweon

    2015-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the circulatory system have been suggested to maintain vascular homeostasis and contribute to adult vascular regeneration and repair. These processes require that EPCs recognize the extracellular matrix (ECM), migrate, differentiate, and undergo tube morphogenesis. The ECM plays a critical role by providing biochemical and biophysical cues that regulate cellular behavior. Here, we tested the importance of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) in regulation of the differentiation and angiogenic potential of human cord blood-derived EPCs (CD133(+) C-kit(+) Lin(-) cells). EPCs displayed increased endothelial differentiation when plated on TGFBIp compared to fibronectin. EPCs also exhibited increased adhesion and migration upon TGFBIp stimulation. Moreover, TGFBIp induced phosphorylation of the intracellular signaling molecules SRC, FAK, AKT, JNK, and ERK in EPCs. Using integrin-neutralizing antibodies, we showed that the effects of TGFBIp on EPCs are mediated by integrins α4 and α5. Furthermore, TGFBIp increased the adhesion, migration, and tube formation of CD34(+) mouse bone marrow stem cells in vitro. Gene expression analysis of EPCs plated on TGFBIp revealed that EPCs stimulated by TGFBIp exhibit increased expression of Notch ligands, such as delta-like 1 (DLL1) and Jagged1 (JAG1), through nuclear factor-kappa B signaling activation. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that locally generated TGFBIp at either wounds or tumor sites may contribute to differentiation and angiogenic function of EPCs by augmenting the recruitment of EPCs and regulating the expression of endothelial genes DLL1 and JAG1. PMID:25786978

  11. A V530I Mutation in c-KIT Exon 10 Is Associated to Imatinib Response in Extraabdominal Aggressive Fibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis (AF or desmoid tumor is a rare condition, characterized by deep tissue invasion by a monoclonal fibroblastic neoplasm, developed from musculoaponeurotic structures. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but negative margins can hardly been achieved in large tumors, and can lead to major functional disability. AF medical therapy includes nonsteroids anti-inflammatory drugs, tamoxifen, with inconsistent results. Several reports of imatinib efficacy in AF appear in the literature. Here, we describe for the first time a V530I KIT exon 10 mutant that was associated to a dramatic imatinib response in an extraabdominal aggressive fibromatosis. The previously discovered V530I substitution was characterized in the core binding factor AML, but had never been reported in any other condition, so far. In this paper, we discuss the KIT exon 10 mutations or polymorphisms that have been described in a variety of KIT-related conditions, including acute myelogenous leukemia, mastocytosis, and aggressive fibromatosis.

  12. MAST CELLS, MAST/STEM CELL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (C-KIT/CD117 AND IGE MAY BE INTEGRAL TO THE PATHOGENESIS OF ENDEMIC PEMPHIGUS FOLIACEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Roselino

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pemphigus foliaceus (PF is endemic in some South American countries, especially in Colombia and Brazil; in Brazil, it is also known as fogo selvagem (FS. We aimed to study the presence of mast cells and the expression of the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit/CD117 in PF skin biopsies, as well as the role of IgE in the disease pathogenesis. Methods: Forty-four skin biopsies from patients affected by endemic PF (EPF (30 patients from El Bagre, Colombia, and 14 from the northeastern region of São Paulo State, Brazil, 48 control biopsies from Colombian and Brazilian endemic areas, and additional control biopsies from none endemic areas in Colombia and the USA non were studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed to evaluate skin biopsies with anti-mast cell tryptase (MCT, anti-c-kit and anti-IgE antibodies. We also searched for serum IgE in 30 EPF and 30 non-atopic controls from the El Bagre region via ELISA. In our El Bagre patients and controls, we also searched for IgE in skin samples by direct immunofluorescence. Results: In 100% of the EPF biopsies, MCT, c-kit and IgE were identified with stronger expression relative to control biopsies, especially in the inflammatory infiltrates around upper dermal blood vessels and dermal eccrine glands. IgE staining was positive along the BMZ in some EPF skin samples. The DIF results confirmed a linear deposition of IgE at the BMZ. Increased IgE serum levels were also noted in PF patients relative to controls.. Conclusions: In patients with EPF, the observed increased expression of MCT, c-kit and IgE in lesional skin, associated with higher serum IgE levels may indicate possible IgE participation in the antigenic response.

  13. Detection of c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val in microdissected bone marrow infiltrates in a case of systemic mastocytosis associated with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sotlar, K; Marafioti, T; Griesser, H; Theil, J.; Aepinus, C; Jaussi, R; Stein, H.; Valent, P; Horny, H-P

    2000-01-01

    Background/Aims—The occurrence of myeloid leukaemia in patients with systemic mastocytosis is a well recognised phenomenon. However, the pathophysiological basis of such a coevolution has not been clarified. Recent data have shown that the c-kit mutation Asp 816 to Val is detectable in neoplastic mast cells in most patients with systemic mastocytosis, including those who have associated haematological disorders. The aim of this study was to study clonal disease evolution by analysing bone mar...

  14. [Study of a role of the expression of a transmembranous CD117/C-Kit receptor in the progression of uveal melanomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anurova, O A; Likhvantseva, V G; Vereshchagina, M V

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied the expression of the protooncogen receptor involved in the regulation of major cell cycle processes in uveal melanoma. The studies performed by a highly sensitive immunohistochemical technique. The findings have allowed the authors to state that the membranous CD117/C-Kit receptor plays an important role in the progression of uveal melanomas. It is suggested that the use of the new drug Glivec is promising in treating uveal melanoma. PMID:18078058

  15. P53, K-RAS, β-CATENIN, C-KIT and BAK mutations in the lung cancer of Chinese and Japanese patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen Chinese (Beijing) and 24 Japanese (Osaka) lung cancer cases were analyzed for mutations of p53, K-ras, β-catenin, c-kit and bak genes by PCR-SSCP analysis followed by direct sequencing. Significantly higher mutation frequency of p53 gene, one of key genes for radiation sensitivity, was found in Chinese cases (11/17; 64.7 %) than Japanese cases (8/24; 33.3 %) (p< O.O5). Fourteen of the 16 mutations found in the Chinese cases were transitions at exon 4,5 and intron 4. In the Japanese cases, of the total of 11 mutations, 5 were transitions and 5 were transversions and one was deletion. Six β-catenin mutations were found in 6 Chinese cases (35.3 % ) at codon 53 and 58, and 4 were found in 3 Japanese cases (12.5 %). C-kit mutations were detected in 5 Chinese cases (29.4 %), while no mutations were found in Japanese cases (p< O.O5). No K-ras mutation was found in both Chinese and Japanese cases. For the first time, we report on bak mutation in human lung cancer in Chinese (2/17; 11.8% ) and Japanese cases (2/24; 8.3% ). C-kit and bak genes are also definitive factors to radiosensitivity. These data thus suggest that there were apparent differences in frequency and/or mutational types of p53, β-catenin and c-kit? genes between Chinese and Japanese cases. The differences can be attributed to factors such as lifestyles including smoking and racial and/or environmental factors, and also to the prediction of the response to radiotherapy. (author)

  16. The nano-science of C sub 6 0 molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Rafii-Tabar, H

    2002-01-01

    Over the past few years, nano-science and its associated nano-technology have emerged into prominence in research institutions across the world. They have brought about new scientific and engineering paradigms, allowing for the manipulation of single atoms and molecules, designing and fabricating new materials, atom-by-atom, and devices that operate on significantly reduced time and length scales. One important area of research in nano-science and nano technology is carbon-based physics in the form of fullerene physics. The C sub 6 0 molecule, and other cage-like fullerenes, together with carbon nano tubes provide objects that can be combined to generate three-dimensional functional structures for use in the anticipated nano-technology of future. The unique properties of C sub 6 0 can also be exploited in designing nano-phase thin films with applications in nano-scope device technology and processes such as nano-lithography. This requires a deep understanding of the highly complex process of adsorption of thi...

  17. Electronic and vibrational properties of the C60 molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the electronic and vibrational properties of the C60 molecule by means of simplified models where only a few parameters are adjusted to experimental data. For the electronic part we use an independent electron model with a central Morse potential corrected by splitting the spherical degeneracy by properly including the icosahedral symmetry given rise to the LUMO and HOMO states. The vibrational spectra is obtained by solving the corresponding secular equation using a Born-Mayer type potential with two parameters adjusted to Raman and IR spectra . The results of our model are compared with some of the best ab initio calculations, phenomenological models and experimental data. We found in general a good agreement for the vibrational spectrum particularly for the high frequency part. Since in our model contains only two parameters we are not able to reproduce accurately the whole spectra. The main contribution of this model is its simplicity to extract most of the gross features of the C60 molecule without cumbersome computation. (Author)

  18. The PI3-kinase isoform p110δ is essential for cell transformation induced by the D816V mutant of c-Kit in a lipid-kinase-independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, J.; Mohlin, S.; Lundby, A.; Kazi, J.U.; Hellman, U.; Påhlman, S.; Olsen, J.V.; Rönnstrand, L.

    2013-01-01

    isoform p110δ in c-Kit/D816V-expressing Ba/F3 cells led to reduced cell transformation both in vitro and in vivo without affecting the overall PI3-kinase activity. This suggests that p110δ has a lipid-kinase-independent role in c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell transformation. We furthermore demonstrate that p110......δ is phosphorylated at residues Y524 and S1039 and that phosphorylation requires an intact binding site for PI3-kinase in c-Kit/D816V. Overexpression of p110δ carrying the Y523F and S1038A mutations significantly reduced c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell survival and proliferation. Taken together, our...... results demonstrate an important lipid-kinase-independent role of p110δ in c-Kit/D816V-mediated cell transformation. This furthermore suggests that p110δ could be a potential diagnostic factor and selective therapeutic target for c-Kit/D816V-expressing malignancies.Oncogene advance online publication, 11...

  19. A novel small molecule inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J Baldick

    Full Text Available Small molecule inhibitors of hepatitis C virus (HCV are being developed to complement or replace treatments with pegylated interferons and ribavirin, which have poor response rates and significant side effects. Resistance to these inhibitors emerges rapidly in the clinic, suggesting that successful therapy will involve combination therapy with multiple inhibitors of different targets. The entry process of HCV into hepatocytes represents another series of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, involving viral structural proteins that have not been extensively explored due to experimental limitations. To discover HCV entry inhibitors, we utilized HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp incorporating E1-E2 envelope proteins from a genotype 1b clinical isolate. Screening of a small molecule library identified a potent HCV-specific triazine inhibitor, EI-1. A series of HCVpp with E1-E2 sequences from various HCV isolates was used to show activity against all genotype 1a and 1b HCVpp tested, with median EC50 values of 0.134 and 0.027 µM, respectively. Time-of-addition experiments demonstrated a block in HCVpp entry, downstream of initial attachment to the cell surface, and prior to or concomitant with bafilomycin inhibition of endosomal acidification. EI-1 was equally active against cell-culture adapted HCV (HCVcc, blocking both cell-free entry and cell-to-cell transmission of virus. HCVcc with high-level resistance to EI-1 was selected by sequential passage in the presence of inhibitor, and resistance was shown to be conferred by changes to residue 719 in the carboxy-terminal transmembrane anchor region of E2, implicating this envelope protein in EI-1 susceptibility. Combinations of EI-1 with interferon, or inhibitors of NS3 or NS5A, resulted in additive to synergistic activity. These results suggest that inhibitors of HCV entry could be added to replication inhibitors and interferons already in development.

  20. Electronic structure and electrical transport characteristics of C60, 2C60 and 4C60 fullerene molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Haijun; MU Xiancai

    2007-01-01

    The extended Hückel method and the Green's function method were used to calculate the electronic struc-ture and electrical transport of Au electrode-C60,2C60 or 4C60 fullerene-Au electrode systems.Furthermore,their electronic structure and electrical transport characteristics were com-pared and analyzed.The results show that (I) owing to the contact with the Au electrodes,the C60,2C60 and 4C60 mole-cules change in their electronic structures ignificantly,and their energy gaps between LUMO and HOMO are narrow;(ii) the bonding between C60,2C60 or 4C60 fullerene and Au electrodes is partially covalent and partially electrovalent;and (iii) the conductance of the three fullerenes conforms to the order of C60>2C60>4C60.

  1. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  2. Levitation Kits Demonstrate Superconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthy, Ward

    1987-01-01

    Describes the "Project 1-2-3" levitation kit used to demonstrate superconductivity. Summarizes the materials included in the kit. Discusses the effect demonstrated and gives details on how to obtain kits. Gives an overview of the documentation that is included. (CW)

  3. Hindered rotation of a copper phthalocyanine molecule on C60 : Experiments and molecular mechanics calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fendrich, M.; Wagner, Th.; Stöhr, M.; Möller, R.

    2006-01-01

    If copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules are deposited on a Au(111) surface covered with a monolayer of C60, the molecules are found to adsorb individually onto the close-packed layer of C60. As the adsorption site of the CuPc is not symmetric with respect to the underlying C60 layer, the CuPc mole

  4. Junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C) regulates polarized neutrophil transendothelial cell migration in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodfin, Abigail; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; Beyrau, Martina; Colom, Bartomeu; Caille, Dorothée; Diapouli, Frantzeska-Maria; Nash, Gerard B; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Albelda, Steven M.; Rainger, G Ed; Meda, Paolo; Imhof, Beat A.; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophil migration into inflamed tissues is a fundamental component of innate immunity. A decisive step in this process is the polarised migration of blood neutrophils through endothelial cells (ECs) lining the venular lumen (transendothelial cell migration; TEM) in a luminal to abluminal direction. Using real-time confocal imaging we report that neutrophils can exhibit disrupted polarised TEM (“hesitant” and “reverse”) in vivo. These events were noted in inflammation following ischemia-reperfusion injury, characterised by reduced expression of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) from EC junctions, and were enhanced by EC JAM-C blockade or genetic deletion. The results identify JAM-C as a key regulator of polarised neutrophil TEM in vivo and suggest that reverse TEM neutrophils can contribute to dissemination of systemic inflammation. PMID:21706006

  5. Density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations of C70O3 doped with light molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Trajectories arced by hydrogen atoms inside a C70 molecule during the course of MD simulations at 298 K 2H2@C70. Highlights: • Light molecules such as AHn move inside C70 between planes of d-type carbon atoms. • Two H2 molecules inside C70 modify the relative stability of the C70O3 isomers. • A light molecule does not modify the mechanism of the ozone ring opening in C70O3. - Abstract: We demonstrate that light molecules such as H2, N2, H2O, NH3, BH3, CH4, and HCl can move freely inside C70 in the space roughly defined between planes of d-type carbon atoms. Contrary to that, two H2 molecules, when inserted into C70, do not cross the equatorial plane of the fullerene. The enthalpy of the ozone ring opening in C70O3 monoozonide doped with light molecules depends little on the identity of the guest. Surprisingly, two H2 molecules inside the cage modify the relative stability of the C70O3 isomer series by some 3.5 kcal mol−1

  6. Effect of calcitonin gene related peptide regulated nuclear factor kappa B signal transduction on c-kit+ cardiac stem cells in hypoxia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-ping LONG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP on the apoptosis of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells in hypoxia. Methods Ischemia and hypoxia models of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells were reproduced in vitro. The models were divided into hypoxia+CGRP group, hypoxia+CGRP8-37 (antagonist of CGRP group, hypoxia control group, normal oxygen group, and hypoxia+BAY11-7082 [antagonist of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB] group. NF-κB translocation after hypoxia was detected by immunofluorescence, and NF-κB channel proteins were determined with Western blotting. The NF-κB translocation and the expression of NF-κB channel proteins after CGRP intervention were detected, and the cell apoptosis rate after intervention was determined with flow cytometry in each group. Results Under hypoxia the NF-κB signal pathway was activated, and nuclear translocation occurred in NF-κBP65 (red fluorescence. Compared with hypoxia control group, the expressions of NF-κB related proteins such as P-I-κB, NF-κBP65 and NF-κBP50 decreased obviously (P<0.05. Compared with the hypoxia+CGRP group, the expressions of NF-κB related proteins increased significantly (P<0.05 as mentioned above in hypoxia+CGRP8-37 group. Both the early and late apoptotic rates declined in hypoxia+CGRP group compared with that of hypoxia control group (P<0.05, however, the early apoptotic rate increased markedly in hypoxia+CGRP8-37 group as compared with that of hypoxia+CGRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion Under hypoxia, CGRP may regulate the NF-κB signal pathway, and at the same time suppress the apoptosis of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.10.03

  7. Calculation of images of oriented C_60 molecules using molecular orbital theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hands, Ian D; Dunn, Janette L; Bates, Colin A.

    2010-01-01

    Using Hückel molecular-orbital theory, images are created to represent the electron distributions expected for a C60 molecule adsorbed on a substrate. Three different orientations of the C60 molecule on the substrate are considered. The effect of the interaction of the molecule with the substrate is treated purely from the basis of symmetry using group theoretical methods. The resulting electron distributions are then used to generate idealized images which represent how the molec...

  8. Formation of a "Cluster Molecule" (C20)2 and its thermal stability

    OpenAIRE

    Podlivaev, A. I.; Openov, L. A.

    2006-01-01

    The possible formation of a "cluster molecule" (C20)2 from two single C20 fullerenes is studied by the tight-binding method. Several (C20)2 isomers in which C20 fullerenes are bound by strong covalent forces and retain their identity are found; actually, these C20 fullerenes play the role of "atoms" in the "cluster molecule". The so-called open-[2+2] isomer has a minimum energy. Its formation path and thermal stability at T = 2000 - 4000 K are analyzed in detail. This isomer loses its molecul...

  9. Direct observation of hindered eccentric rotation of an individual molecule : Cu-phthalocyanine on C60

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stöhr, Meike; Wagner, T; Gabriel, M; Weyers, B; Moller, R

    2002-01-01

    Individual Cu-phthalocyanine molecules have been investigated by scanning tunnel microscopy on a closed packed film of C-60 at various temperatures. The molecules are found to bind asymmetrically to one C-60. While they remain in one position at low temperature, they can hop between six equivalent p

  10. Development of a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay kit for detecting C-peptide%C-肽时间分辨荧光免疫分析试剂盒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠民; 张婷; 冯健明; 郑贵星

    2009-01-01

    目的 研制血清C-肽的时间分辨荧光免疫分析(TRFIA)试剂盒.方法 采用双抗体夹心法建立C-肽TRFIA试剂盒,并进行方法学评价.结果 C-肽可测量范围为0.4~20 ng/mL;分析敏感性为0.23 ng/mL;分析批内、批间精密度分别为7.99%、11.97%;C-肽回收率为99.57%;与胰岛素和胰岛素原无交叉反应.稳定性试验表明,试剂可以贮存在4 ℃稳定9个月,37 ℃稳定7 d;该试剂盒测试200份正常人血清样本,其参考范围为0.358~3.590 ng/mL;收集122份血清样本,用该试剂盒与国外其他方法的同类试剂盒同时检测,其相关系数为0.943 2,线性方程为Y=0.985 4X+0.506 3.结论 C-肽TRFIA试剂盒各项指标均达到临床检测要求,适合临床推广使用.%Objective To develop a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay(TRFIA) kit for detection of C-peptide in serum. Methods Two anti-C-peptide monoclonal antibodies were used to develop the sandwich TRFIA kit for detection of C-peptide in serum and its methodology was evaluated. Results The detection range of C-peptide was 0.4-20 ng/mL.The analytical sensitivity was 0.23 ng/mL. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.99% and 11.97% respectively. The recovery rate was 99.57%. There was no cross-reactivity with insulin and proinsulin. The TRFIA C-peptide reagents could be stored at 4 ℃ for 9 months and at 37 ℃ for 7 days. The reference value for TRFIA C-peptide kit in healthy subjects(200 cases) was 0.358-3.590 ng/mL. The correlation coefficient of blood samples detection results(122 cases) between this TRFIA kit and commercially available electrochemiluminescense immunoassay C-peptide kits was 0.943 2. The linear equation was Y=0.985 4X+0.506 3. Conclusions The developed TRFIA C-peptide kit is valuable for clinical application with good sensitivity, precision, accuracy, specificity and stability.

  11. STM study of C60F18 high dipole moment molecules on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Chumakov, R. G.; Menshikov, K. A.; Lagoute, J.; Chacon, C.; Girard, Y.; Rousset, S.; Repain, V.; Lebedev, A. M.; Sukhanov, L. P.; Svechnikov, N. Yu.; Stankevich, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of C60F18 molecules deposited on Au(111) are reported and compared to C60 molecules both at liquid helium temperature and room temperature (RT). Whereas adsorption and electronic properties of C60F18 single molecules were studied at low temperature (LT), self-assemblies were investigated at RT. In both cases, the fluorine atoms of the C60F18 molecules are pointed towards the surface. Individual C60F18 molecules on Au(111) have a HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.9 eV. The self-assembled islands exhibit a close-packed hexagonal lattice with amorphous borders. The comparison with C60 molecules clearly demonstrates the influence of the C60F18 electric dipole moment (EDM) on the electronic properties of single molecules and on the thermodynamics of self-assembled islands. Besides, the apparent height value of a separate molecule increases in a self-assembly environment as a result of a depolarization phenomenon.

  12. Effect of doping of N and B atoms on thermoelectric properties of C60 molecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mojtaba Yaghobi; Fazel Ardeshir Larijani

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the doping effect on the thermoelectric properties of the C60 molecule (fullerene) was studied by considering inelastic electron–phonon interactions. It is seen that the maximum value of thermal conductance (max) with respect to the molecules are max(C59N) < max(C60) < max(C59B). Also, the oscillatory behaviour of thermal conductance is dramatically dependent on the type of molecules. The values of figure of merit (ZT) against energy and with respect to the type of molecules are between 0.25 × 10−5 and 0.194 × 10−3 and effect of the type of molecules is small on the minimum value of ZT.

  13. Thermochemical study of the molecule BaC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The enthalpy of the reaction Ba(g)+2C(graph.) = BaC2(g) has been determined by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry over a barium alloy with noble metals contained in a graphite cell. The value ΔH/sup circle-open/0 = 252.5 +- 11.5kJ mol-1 has been obtained from second- and third-law evaluations of the equilibrium vapor in the temperature range 1778--2286 K. This reaction enthalpy has been combined with ancillary literature data to derive the following thermodynamic properties in kJ mol-1 of gaseous BaC2: the atomization energy, Δ/sub at/H/sup circle-open/0 , 1180.9 +- 12.2; the standard heat of formation, Δ/sub f/H/sup circle-open/298 , 437.1 +- 14.2; the enthalpy of sublimation of BaC2(s), Δ/sub sub/H/sup circle-open/298 , 511.2 +- 17.1; and the bond dissociation energy, D/sup circle-open/0 (Ba--C2), 581.7 +- 14.8. The results are discussed with regard to their possible significance in reactor technology

  14. Nanoelectromechanical switch operating by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danilov, Andrey V.; Hedegård, Per; Golubev, Dimitrii S.; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Kubatkin, Sergey E.

    2008-01-01

    We present a solid state single molecule electronic device where switching between two states with different conductance happens predominantly by tunneling of an entire C-60 molecule. This conclusion is based on a novel statistical analysis of similar to 10(5) switching events. The analysis yield...

  15. Amyloid precursor protein cooperates with c-KIT mutation/overexpression to regulate cell apoptosis in AML1-ETO-positive leukemia via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guopan; Yin, Changxin; Jiang, Ling; Zheng, Zhongxin; Wang, Zhixiang; Wang, Chunli; Zhou, Hongsheng; Jiang, Xuejie; Liu, Qifa; Meng, Fanyi

    2016-09-01

    It has been reported that amyloid precursor protein (APP) promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in various types of solid cancers. In our previous study, we showed that APP is highly expressed and regulates leukemia cell migration in AML1‑ETO-positive (AE) leukemia. Whether APP is involved in the regulation of AE leukemia cell proliferation or apoptosis is unclear. In the present study we focused on the correlation of APP with c-KIT mutation/overexpression and cell proliferation and apoptosis in AE leukemia. APP and c-KIT expression detected by quantitative real-time (qPCR) method, and c-KIT mutations screened using PCR in bone marrow cells from 65 patients with AE leukemia before their first chemotherapy, were simultaneously assessed. Furthermore, the Kasumi-1 cell line was chosen as the cell model, and the APP gene was knocked down using siRNA technology. The correlation of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis and c-Kit expression with APP expression levels, as well as the regulation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway by APP were analyzed in the Kasumi-1 cell line. The results showed that peripheral white blood cell counts (P=0.008) and bone marrow cellularity (P=0.031), but not bone marrow blasts, were correlated with APP expression. Moreover, the patients with APP high expression had a significantly higher incidence of c-KIT mutations (Ptype and negative control cells, cell apoptosis, both early (P0.05). Moreover, the knockdown of APP markedly decreased c-KIT expression at both the transcription (as evidenced by qPCR analysis) and translation (as confirmed by CD117 assay and western blot analysis) levels, as well as p-AKT and its downstream targets including NF-κB, p53 and Bcl-2. In conclusion, APP may cooperate with c-KIT mutation/overexpression in the regulation of cell apoptosis but not proliferation in AE leukemia via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. PMID:27460334

  16. Temperature dependence of I-V characteristics of C60 molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Ketabi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Making use of a generalized Green’s function technique and Landauer formalism, the temperature depended current-voltage (I-V characteristics of C60 molecule, sandwiched between two metallic electrodes are numerically investigated. In addition, the influence of the electron-phonon coupling strength on the electronic properties of the molecule is studied. The I-V characteristics of the molecule are determined in two temperature limits, T=3K and T=300K. Our results indicate that the molecule primarily acts as a semiconductor in lower temperatures but moves toward becoming an ohmic-like conductor when the temperature increased to the higher magnitudes.

  17. The Indonesia Kit. A Study Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Elaine; Gage, Susan

    This document is designed for Canadians interested in the South Pacific island chain nation of Indonesia. The kit includes information, photographs, and illustrations concerning Indonesia, West Papua (Irian Jaya), and East Timor. There are discussions of Indonesia's environment, its transmigration program, development refugees, and ties with…

  18. Fluorescence and phosphorescence from individual C$_{60}$ molecules excited by local electron tunneling

    OpenAIRE

    Ćavar, Elizabeta; Blüm, Marie-Christine; Pivetta, Marina; Patthey, François; Chergui, Majed; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter

    2005-01-01

    Using the highly localized current of electrons tunneling through a double barrier Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) junction, we excite luminescence from a selected C$_{60}$ molecule in the surface layer of fullerene nanocrystals grown on an ultrathin NaCl film on Au(111). In the observed luminescence fluorescence and phosphorescence spectra, pure electronic as well as vibronically induced transitions of an individual C$_{60}$ molecule are identified, leading to unambiguous chemical recogn...

  19. Determination of the Ground Vibrational State Parameters of the C2D4 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomchenko, A. L.; Zhang, F.; Gromova, O. V.; Buttersack, T.

    2016-07-01

    The object of the study is the C2D4 molecule, as it is important to know its properties to address numerous problems of molecular physics. The analysis of high-resolution spectra of the deuterated ethylene molecule was made in the range of 600-1200 cm-1, specifically bands ν7 and ν12. The results obtained were used to determine high-accurate values of the vibrational-rotational levels of the ground vibrational state of the C2D4 molecule.

  20. Doubly-charged Negative Ion of C60 Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Msezane, A Z

    2016-01-01

    Within the Dirac- and Lorentz-bubble potential models an electronic structure of the doubly-charged negative ion has been studied by a variational method. It is shown that even in the first approximation of this method when a trial wave function of the two electrons is represented as a product of one-electron functions the total energy of the system is negative, a manifestation of the existence of a stable state of the doubly-charged negative ion in these models. The second electron affinity of C60 according to estimation is about 1 eV. The photodetachment cross sections of this ion have been calculated as well. Near threshold behavior of cross section is found to exhibit peculiar and interesting behavior. The first cross section accompanied by the transformation of the doubly-charged negative ion into a singly-charged one is exponentially small near the process threshold. The second cross section corresponds to the photodetachment of a singly-charged ion; it increases at the threshold as a power function of ...

  1. Electron ionization of superfluid helium nanodroplets doped with C60 and small molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium droplets were co-doped with C60 and ammonia, water or carbon dioxide and the resulting cluster size distributions of the produced cationic complexes are presented. Mass spectra obtained by electron ionization were recorded with high mass resolution of m/Δm ∼ 6000 (FWHM). Series of C60(H2O)n+, C60(NH3)n+ and C60(CO2)n+ complexes for n up to 20 molecules attached to the C60 were observed among other cations. For C60-water cluster ions, the resulting size distribution revealed magic numbers for n=4 and n=7 water molecules attached to the fullerene. Ionic C60-ammonia complexes showed an enhanced stability in the cluster size distribution for n=4 ammonia molecules attached as well. However, no intensity anomalies were observed for larger n. For the nonpolar carbon dioxide, no magic numbers were found in the cluster size distribution of C60(CO2)n+. These findings suggest that single carbon dioxide molecules are homogeneously distributed on the C60; in contrast to ammonia and water, where clusters are attached to the fullerene. In addition, dehydrogenation and protonation reactions of water and ammonia clusters on C60 were observed in the present study.

  2. Alopecia in IL-10-deficient Mouse Pups is c-Kit-Dependent and Can Be Triggered by Iron Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Vanderford, Deborah A.; Greer, Paula K.; Sharp, Julie M; Chichlowski, Maciej; Rouse, D. Clayburn; Selim, M. Angelica; Hale, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Hair loss (alopecia) can result from a variety of metabolic, endocrine, immunologic, and environmental causes. This investigation was undertaken to determine the mechanisms underlying the sporadic development of alopecia in litters from C57BL/6 interleukin-10-deficient (Il10−/−) mice. All pups in affected litters demonstrated alopecia by postnatal days 17–19, with hair loss from their trunks but not from their head, base of tail, or feet. Histopathology revealed distorted hair follicles conta...

  3. HER-2/neu and CD117 (c-kit overexpression in patients with pesticide exposure and extensive stage small cell lung carcinoma (ESSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potti Anil

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of detection of HER-2/neu and CD117 (c-kit overexpression in small cell lung cancer (SCLC has varied widely; between 5–35% and 21–70% respectively. Methods To evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and HER-2/neu and CD117 overexpression in extensive stage SCLC (ESSCLC, we identified patients with ESSCLC and assessed pesticide exposure using a predetermined questionnaire. An exposure index (hours/day × days/year × years ≥ 2400 hours was considered as 'exposed.' HER-2/neu overexpression was evaluated on archival tissue using the DAKO Hercep test, and CD117 testing was performed using immunohistochemistry (A4052 polyclonal antibody. Results 193 ESSCLC patients were identified. Pesticide exposure data could be obtained on 174 patients (84 females and 109 males with a mean age of 68.5 years. 53/174 (30.4% revealed HER-2/neu overexpression. 54/174 (31.03% specimens showed CD117 overexpression by IHC. On multivariate analysis, HER-2/neu overexpression was associated with diminished survival (p neu overexpression and 47/121 (38.8% patients without overexpression had exposure to pesticides (odds ratio: 5.38; p Conclusion Pesticide exposure affects HER-2/neu but not CD117 overexpression. Future studies are needed to determine specific pesticide(s/pesticide components that are responsible for HER-2/neu overexpression in ESSCLC, and to validate our findings in other solid tumors that overexpress HER-2/neu.

  4. STM study on one-dimensional cluster formation processes of Y rate at C82 and C60 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we have studied cluster formation processes of fullerene molecules adsorbed on the Cu(111) 1 x 1 surface. We used two endohedral metallofullerenes; Y rate at C82 and Gd rate at C82, and pristine C60. All adsorbed molecules are observed at step edges of the surface, and thus their processes can be treated with a model of one-dimensional cluster formation. When small amounts of molecules are deposited on the surface, we found that the dimer is most abundant among the clusters of Y rate at C82 while monomers are dominant in the cases of Gd rate at C82 and C60. Since Y rate at C82 has an electronic spin while the others do not, we speculated that the preferred dimer formation of Y rate at C82 is owing to an interaction of the spin. Interaction energies among fullerene molecules were estimated based on a statistical analysis of the STM data. (orig.)

  5. All-electron ab initio investigation of the electronic states of the PdC molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl A.

    2001-01-01

    The electronic structure of transition metal containing molecules are extremely complicated and extensive calculations are required for reliable descriptions. In spite of this the results can often be interpreted in simple terms. The electronic structure of PdC is consistent with the molecular...... orbital diagram, as shown. Corrections for relativistic effects are shown to be extremely important for PdC....

  6. All electron ab initio investigations of the electronic states of the FeC molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1999-01-01

    and the relativistic mass-velocity correction have been determined in perturbation calculations. The electronic structure of the FeC molecule is interpreted as antiferromagnetic couplings of the localized angular momenta of the ions Fe+ and C resulting in a triple bond in the valence bond sense. The...

  7. Identification of the STAT5B-RARα fusion transcript in an acute promyelocytic leukemia patient without FLT3, NPM1, c-Kit and C/EBPα mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Chun; Zhang, Su-Jiang; Chen, Li-Juan; Miao, Kou-Rong; Zhang, Jian-Fu; Wu, Yu-Jie; Qiu, Hai-Rong; Li, Jian-Yong

    2011-05-01

    T(15;17) is the most common chromosomal aberration in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), leading to the formation of PML-RARα fusion gene. In a small subset of patients with APL, the RARα gene is fused with different partners. Here, we report a rare APL case with STAT5B-RARα fusion transcript. Cytomorphologic and immunophenotypic analyses showed typical features of APL. However, cytogenetic analysis showed normal karyotype, and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed PML-RARα negative. Quantitative RT-PCR also showed PML-RARα negative but STAT5B-RARα positive and sequencing analysis confirmed the result. Molecular markers including FLT3, NPM1, c-Kit and C/EBPα mutation were all negative. To our knowledge, this is the first APL patient with STAT5B-RARα in Chinese population and the fifth patient around the world according to published paper. PMID:21447089

  8. Production of sestamibi kit for nuclear imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the research projects undertaken during the implementation of the IAEA Technical Assistance Cooperation Program in our department was inhouse production of sestamibi (MIBI) kit to be labelled with Tc99m pertechnetate for myocardial studies and for malignant tumor imaging. 100 mg raw materials of sestamibi was supplied by IAEA and the kit was prepared based on Janoki recipe. Using 6 mg MIBI, 192 mg glycine, 3.6 mg stannous chloride, 62.4 mg Na sub 4 Po sub 4 and 24 mg cysteine we have prepared 24 vials of MIBI kit under sterile condition and stored in the freezer at -70 degree C. The sterility of the kit was confirmed by microbiological test using cultured method. The stability test was done by labelling the kit with Tc-99m pertechnetate at day 1, 3, 7, 30 and 60 days after kit preparation. Using two system butanone and saline with ITLC the labelling efficiency of Tc-99m (MIBI) was found to be more than 90% in each case. The labelling efficiency was found to maintain at 90% up to 24 hours post reconstitution at room temperature. Biodistribution study was carried out by administering Tc-99m (MIBI) to mice intravenously at the dosage of IOO μ Ci per 20 gm body weight. The mice were sacrificed at 3 hours and 24 hours after the dose administration. Blood, heart, lung, intestine, kidney and stomach samples were obtained, weighed and measured for radioactivity using gamma well counter. The data showed that after 3 hours about 60% of the injected dose accumulated in the intestine which was in agreement with IAEA standard. At 24 hours the amount in the heart still remained about 25% of the 3 hour uptake. In house production of MIBI kit is easy, fast and cost effective. The data suggested that the quality of our kit was good enough to be used for further animal research and clinical trials

  9. Expressão dos genes Braf e C-Kit e sua correlação com fatores prognósticos em melanomas cutâneos

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Juliana Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: Dados clinicos e histologicos de melanomas cutaneos primarios fornecem informacoes prognosticas uteis, porem o curso clinico de determinada lesao e imprevisivel. Fatores adicionais para prever sua evolucao sao necessarios e tecnicas de biologia molecular permitem a identificacao de marcadores moleculares que podem ter valor prognostico em melanomas. O presente estudo avaliou mutacoes BRAF e c-Kit em 96 especimens cirurgicos de melanomas cutaneos primarios e 15 lesoes metastaticas corr...

  10. Algebraic theory of endohedrally confined diatomic molecules: application to H$_2$@C$_{60}$

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A simple and yet powerful approach for modeling the structure of endohedrally confined diatomic molecules is introduced. The theory, based on a $u(4)\\oplus u(3)$ dynamical algebra, combines the vibron model with an isotropic three dimensional oscillator. The first describes the internal roto-vibrations degrees of freedom of the molecule, while the second takes into account the confined molecule center-of-mass degrees of freedom. A resulting subalgebra chain is connected to the underlying physics and the model is applied to the prototypical case of H$_2$ caged in a fullerene molecule. The spectrum of the supramolecular complex H$_2$@C$_{60}$ is described with a few parameters and predictions for not yet detected levels are made. Our fits suggest that the quantum numbers of a few lines should be reassigned to obtain better agreement with data.

  11. Long noncoding RNA H19 mediates melatonin inhibition of premature senescence of c-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells by promoting miR-675.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Benzhi; Ma, Wenya; Bi, Chongwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lai; Han, Zhenbo; Huang, Qi; Ding, Fengzhi; Li, Yuan; Yan, Gege; Pan, Zhenwei; Yang, Baofeng; Lu, Yanjie

    2016-08-01

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted by the pineal gland, possesses multiple biological activities such as antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-ischemia. C-kit(+) cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) have emerged as a promising tool for the treatment of heart diseases. However, the senescence of CPCs due to pathological stimuli leads to the decline of CPCs' functions and regenerative potential. This study was conducted to demonstrate whether melatonin antagonizes the senescence of CPCs in response to oxidative stress. Here, we found that the melatonin treatment markedly inhibited the senescent characteristics of CPCs after exposed to sublethal concentration of H2 O2 , including the increase in senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal)-positive CPCs, senescence-associated heterochromatin loci (SAHF), secretory IL-6 level, and the upregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. Senescence-associated proliferation reduction was also attenuated by melatonin in CPCs. Luzindole, the melatonin membrane receptor blocker, may block the melatonin-mediated suppression of premature senescence in CPCs. Interestingly, we found that long noncoding RNA H19 and its derived miR-675 were downregulated by H2 O2 in CPCs, but melatonin treatment could counter this alteration. Furthermore, knockdown of H19 or miR-675 blocked antisenescence actions of melatonin on H2 O2 -treated CPCs. It was further verified that H19-derived miR-675 targeted at the 3'UTR of USP10, which resulted in the downregulation of p53 and p21 proteins. In summary, melatonin antagonized premature senescence of CPCs via H19/miR-675/USP10 pathway, which provides new insights into pharmacological actions and potential applications of melatonin on the senescence of CPCs. PMID:27062045

  12. The closo-Si12C12 molecule from cluster to crystal: A theoretical prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaofeng F.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2016-03-01

    The structure of closo-Si12C12 is unique among stable SinCm isomers (n, m > 4) because of its high symmetry, π-π stacking of C6 rings and unsaturated silicon atoms at symmetrical peripheral positions. Dimerization potential surfaces reveal various dimerization reactions that form between two closo-Si12C12 molecules through Si-Si bonds at unsaturated Si atoms. As a result the closo-Si12C12 molecule is capable of polymerization to form stable 1D polymer chains, 2D crystal layers, and 3D crystals. 2D crystal structures formed by side-side polymerization satisfy eight Si valences on each monomer without large distortion of the monomer structure. 3D crystals are formed by stacking 2D structures in the Z direction, preserving registry of C6 rings in monomer moiety.

  13. Interaction of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gC with mammalian cell surface molecules.

    OpenAIRE

    Tal-Singer, R; Peng, C.; Ponce de Leon, M; Abrams, W R; Banfield, B W; Tufaro, F; Cohen, G H; Eisenberg, R J

    1995-01-01

    The entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into mammalian cells is a multistep process beginning with an attachment step involving glycoproteins gC and gB. A second step requires the interaction of glycoprotein gD with a cell surface molecule. We explored the interaction between gC and the cell surface by using purified proteins in the absence of detergent. Truncated forms of gC and gD, gC1(457t), gC2(426t), and gD1(306t), lacking the transmembrane and carboxyl regions were expressed in the bacu...

  14. Electrodynamical Forbiddance of the Strong Quadrupole Light-Molecule Interaction and Its Experimental Manifestation in Fullerene C60

    CERN Document Server

    Chelibanov, V P

    2016-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the forbidden lines, which must be present in the SERS, TERS and SEIRA spectra of molecules with sufficiently high symmetry, associated with a strong quadrupole light-molecule interaction, are absent in the fullerene C60. This result is an experimental manifestation of an electrodynamical forbiddance of the strong quadrupole light-molecule interaction, which must be not only in molecules with cubic symmetry groups, but in the fullerene C60 also.

  15. 49 CFR 173.161 - Chemical kits and first aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical kits and first aid kits. 173.161 Section... Class 7 § 173.161 Chemical kits and first aid kits. (a) Chemical kits and First aid kits must conform to... 10 kg. (b) Chemical kits and First aid kits are excepted from the specification...

  16. Formation of tilted smectic-C liquid crystal phase in polar Gay-Berne molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We perform molecular dynamics simulation for a system of Gay-Berne molecules having two terminal dipole moments to generate tilted smectic-C liquid crystal phase. We investigate the effect of dipolar orientation with respect to the long molecular axis on phase behaviour. The study indicates that larger dipolar angle can give rise to greater tilt in molecular organization within a layer

  17. Nanoscale charge transport in cytochrome c3/DNA network: Comparative studies between redox-active molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Harumasa; Che, Dock-Chil; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Masayuki; Higuchi, Yoshiki; Matsumoto, Takuya

    2015-09-01

    The redox-active molecule of a cytochrome c3/DNA network exhibits nonlinear current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a threshold bias voltage at low temperature and zero-bias conductance at room temperature. I-V curves for the cytochrome c3/DNA network are well matched with the Coulomb blockade network model. Comparative studies of the Mn12 cluster, cytochrome c, and cytochrome c3, which have a wide variety of redox potentials, indicate no difference in charge transport, which suggests that the conduction mechanism is not directly related to the redox states. The charge transport mechanism has been discussed in terms of the newly-formed electronic energy states near the Fermi level, induced by the ionic interaction between redox-active molecules with the DNA network.

  18. Mutation D816V alters the internal structure and dynamics of c-KIT receptor cytoplasmic region: implications for dimerization and activation mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Laine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK KIT plays a crucial role in the transmission of cellular signals through phosphorylation events that are associated with a switching of the protein conformation between inactive and active states. D816V KIT mutation is associated with various pathologies including mastocytosis and cancers. D816V-mutated KIT is constitutively active, and resistant to treatment with the anti-cancer drug Imatinib. To elucidate the activating molecular mechanism of this mutation, we applied a multi-approach procedure combining molecular dynamics (MD simulations, normal modes analysis (NMA and binding site prediction. Multiple 50-ns MD simulations of wild-type KIT and its mutant D816V were recorded using the inactive auto-inhibited structure of the protein, characteristic of type III RTKs. Computed free energy differences enabled us to quantify the impact of D816V on protein stability in the inactive state. We evidenced a local structural alteration of the activation loop (A-loop upon mutation, and a long-range structural re-organization of the juxta-membrane region (JMR followed by a weakening of the interaction network with the kinase domain. A thorough normal mode analysis of several MD conformations led to a plausible molecular rationale to propose that JMR is able to depart its auto-inhibitory position more easily in the mutant than in wild-type KIT and is thus able to promote kinase mutant dimerization without the need for extra-cellular ligand binding. Pocket detection at the surface of NMA-displaced conformations finally revealed that detachment of JMR from the kinase domain in the mutant was sufficient to open an access to the catalytic and substrate binding sites.

  19. Experimental energy levels and partition function of the $^{12}$C$_2$ molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Szabo, Istvan; Csaszar, Attila G.; Bernath, Peter F.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The carbon dimer, the $^{12}$C$_2$ molecule, is ubiquitous in astronomical environments. Experimental-quality rovibronic energy levels are reported for $^{12}$C$_2$, based on rovibronic transitions measured for and among its singlet, triplet, and quintet electronic states, reported in 42 publications. The determination utilizes the Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels (MARVEL) technique. The 23,343 transitions measured experimentally and validated within this study determine 5...

  20. Australian Dreamings. [Multimedia Kit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Julee; Johnson, Pat

    This multimedia kit includes 3 video programs with over 50 images in both live footage and still images; introduction to the art and culture of Australia's Aboriginal people, a presentation and discussion of artwork including ancient rock painting, Gagudju and Kunwiniku X-ray style bark painting, and Papunga dot painting; 2 studio activities…

  1. ISS Expedition 15 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 15 from 04/2007-10/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. ISS Expedition 38 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 38 from 09/2013-03/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  3. ISS Expedition 03 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 03 from 08/2001-12/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  4. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. ISS Expedition 42 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 42 from 09/2014-03/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  6. ISS Expedition 43 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 43 from 11/2014-06/2015. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  7. ISS Expedition 40 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 40 from 03/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. ISS Expedition 01 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 01 from 10/2000-03/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. ISS Expedition 33 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 33 from 07/2012-11/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. ISS Expedition 32 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 32 from 05/2012-09/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  11. ISS Expedition 06 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 06 from 11/2002-05/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  12. ISS Expedition 23 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 23 from 12/2009-09/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  13. ISS Expedition 37 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 37 from 05/2013-11/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  14. ISS Expedition 28 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 28 from 04/2011-11/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. ISS Expedition 17 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 17 from 04/2008-10/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  16. ISS Expedition 07 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 07 from 04/2003-10/2003. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  17. ISS Expedition 13 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 13 from 03/2006-09/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  18. ISS Expedition 19 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 19 from 03/2009-05/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  19. ISS Expedition 14 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 14 from 09/2006-04/2007. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. ISS Expedition 39 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 39 from 11/2013-05/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  1. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  2. ISS Expedition 34 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 34 from 12/2012-03/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  3. ISS Expedition 35 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 35 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  4. ISS Expedition 02 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 02 from 03/2001-08/2001. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. ISS Expedition 09 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 09 from 04/2004-10/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  6. ISS Expedition 41 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 41 from 05/2014-11/2014. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  7. ISS Expedition 31 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 31 from 12/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  8. ISS Expedition 25 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 25 from 06/2010-03/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  9. ISS Expedition 26 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 26 from 10/2010-05/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  10. ISS Expedition 05 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 05 from 06/2002-12/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  11. ISS Expedition 20 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 20 from 05/2009-10/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  12. ISS Expedition 11 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 11 from 04/2005-10/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  13. ISS Expedition 36 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 36 from 03/2013-09/2013. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  14. ISS Expedition 18 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 18 from 10/2008-04/2009. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. ISS Expedition 10 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 10 from 10/2004-04/2005. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  16. ISS Expedition 30 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 30 from 11/2011-07/2012. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  17. ISS Expedition 12 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 12 from 10/2005-04/2006. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  18. ISS Expedition 24 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 24 from 04/2010-11/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  19. ISS Expedition 27 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 27 from 12/2010-09/2011. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  20. ISS Expedition 04 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 04 from 12/2001-06/2002. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  1. Effect of surface temperature on the concentration of C60/C70 molecules in dc arc discharge fullerene generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of C60, C70 and higher fullerenes was carried out at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) using dc arc discharge technique. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-vis spectroscopy are employed to characterize the fullerenes. The toluene extracted fullerene solutions of the raw soot collected from four different regions (A-D) of dc arc discharge fullerene generator were compared with pure C60 toluene solution. Due to poor solubility of C60 in HPLC grade methanol, different fractions of methanol as a mobile phase with toluene were tried. The mobile phase composition of 80:20 methanol:toluene was found an optimal ratio to achieve the best separation factor of 1.246 between C60 and C70 fullerenes. Quantitative concentration is calculated from the HPLC and UV-vis spectra. The molarity of C60 carbon molecules for all the regions is calculated from the HPLC spectra by comparing the spectra of known molar solution of C60. The maximum concentration of C70 is found to be 21% in the region B that is nearer the arc zone and at a higher temperature than other regions. Both the techniques confirm the presence of C60, C70 and higher fullerenes in all the four regions with variation in concentration of C60 and C70. UV-vis spectra of the region C show the additional absorption bands at 285 and 305 nm

  2. Evaluation of C-Reactive Protein, Endothelin-1, Adhesion Molecule(s), and Lipids as Inflammatory Markers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study compared lipids, the product of lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA), the acute phase reactant high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), endothelin-1 (ET-1), P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) between healthy controls, subjects with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects who did not perform coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as well as type 2 DM subjects who performed ...

  3. Liver lipid molecules induce PEPCK-C gene transcription and attenuate insulin action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) plays key roles in gluconeogenesis, glyceroneogenesis, and cataplerosis. Experiments were designed to examine the effects of endogenous lipid molecules from rat livers on the expression of PEPCK-C gene in primary rat hepatocytes. The lipid extracts prepared from livers of Zucker fatty, lean, and Wistar rats induced the expression levels of PEPCK-C transcripts. Insulin-mediated reduction of PEPCK-C gene expression was attenuated by the same treatment. The lipid extracts induced the relative luciferase activity of reporter gene constructs that contain a 2.2-kb 5' promoter fragment of PEPCK-C gene, but not the construct that contains only the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of its mRNA. The estimated half life of PEPCK-C transcripts in the presence of the lipid extract is the same as that in the absence of it. My results demonstrate for the first time that endogenous lipid molecules induce PEPCK-C gene transcription and attenuate insulin action in liver

  4. Evaluation of Novel Multiplex Antibody Kit for Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1/2 and Hepatitis C Virus Using Sol-Gel Based Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Gyu Yun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microarrays enable high-throughput screening (HTS of disease-related molecules, including important signaling proteins/peptides and small molecules that are in low abundance. In this study, we developed a multiplex blood bank screening platform, referred to as the Hi3-1 assay, for simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1/2 (HIV 1/2 and hepatitis C virus (HCV. Methods. The Hi3-1 assay was tested using four panels (Panel 1, n=4,581 patient samples; Panel 2, n=15 seroconversion samples; Panel 3, n=4 performance samples; and Panel 4, n=251 purchased positive control samples, and the results were collected by the Department of Laboratory Medicine, Korea University Medical College, Republic of Korea. The present study compares the sensitivity of the multiplex detection platform for both HIV and HCV using a sol-gel based microarray, which was based on a reference test (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo and Architect anti-HCV assays, in Korean patients. Results. The sensitivity of the multiplex detection platform for both HIV and HCV was 100%, and the specificity was 99.96% for HIV and 99.76% for HCV, which is equivalent to that of the reference test. Conclusion. We have successfully applied a novel screening technology to multiplex HIV and HCV diagnoses in a blood bank screening test.

  5. Monte Carlo application tool-kit (MCATK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo Application tool-kit (MCATK) is a C++ component-based software library designed to build specialized applications and to provide new functionality for existing general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport codes such as MCNP. We will describe MCATK and its capabilities along with presenting some verification and validations results. (authors)

  6. Studies on organic solar cells based on small-molecules : tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene and fullerene C70

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Lorente, Sergi

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with the research on organic solar cells based on small-molecules semiconductors. In particular, organic solar cells of this thesis have been used tetraphenyldibenzoperiflanthene as donor material and fullerene C70 as acceptor material. In the first part of this thesis, we focus on the influence of the density of states of the donor layer on the characteristic parameters of solar cells. Further, organic solar cells with p-i-n structure are presented, where the intrinsic lay...

  7. An NMR study of the occupation of C60 interstitial sites by oxygen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 13C NMR of FCC C60 under magic angle spinning (MAS) conditions yields linewidths on the order of 1 Hz at fields of 4.7 T. The spectrum consists of a primary resonance at 143.7 ppm and a minor peak shifted 0.7 ppm downfield. The intensity of the minor resonance relative to the primary resonance was found to vary from 0.6 to 5.5 % depending on the sample history. The downfield shift obeys Curie's law and is attributed to the Fermi contact coupling interaction between paramagnetic oxygen molecules and all 60 carbon atoms of rapidly rotating adjacent C60 molecules. Exposure of the sample to 1 kbar oxygen for 1 3/4 hours resulted in a spectrum of 7 evenly spaced resonances corresponding to 0 to 6 of the adjacent octahedral interstitial sites being filled with oxygen molecules. At ambient pressure, the oxygen diffused out of the lattice on time scales ranging from hours to days

  8. Kit receptor dimerization is driven by bivalent binding of stem cell factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, M A; Pinchasi, D; Zhou, M; Lax, I; Schlessinger, J

    1997-03-01

    Most growth factors and cytokines activate their receptors by inducing dimerization upon binding. We have studied binding of the dimeric cytokine stem cell factor (SCF) to the extracellular domain of its receptor Kit, which is a receptor tyrosine kinase similar to the receptors for platelet-derived growth factor and colony-stimulating factor-1. Calorimetric studies show that one SCF dimer binds simultaneously to two molecules of the Kit extracellular domain. Gel filtration and other methods show that this results in Kit dimerization. It has been proposed that SCF-induced Kit dimerization proceeds via a conformational change that exposes a key receptor dimerization site in the fourth of the five immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains in Kit. We show that a form of Kit containing just the first three Ig domains (Kit-123) binds to SCF with precisely the same thermodynamic parameters as does Kit-12345. Analytical ultracentrifugation, light scattering, and gel filtration show that Kit-123 dimerizes upon SCF binding in a manner indistinguishable from that seen with Kit-12345. These data argue that the fourth Ig-like domain of Kit is not required for SCF-induced receptor dimerization and provide additional support for a model in which bivalent binding of the SCF dimer provides the driving force for Kit dimerization. PMID:9045650

  9. Gate-tunable large negative tunnel magnetoresistance in Ni-C60-Ni single molecule transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Hamada, Ikutaro; Sakata, Shuichi; Umeno, Akinori; Tsukada, Masaru; Hirakawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-02-13

    We have fabricated single C(60) molecule transistors with ferromagnetic Ni leads (FM-SMTs) by using an electrical break junction method and investigated their magnetotransport. The FM-SMTs exhibited clear gate-dependent hysteretic tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) and the TMR values reached as high as -80%. The polarity of the TMR was found to be always negative over the entire bias range studied here. Density functional theory calculations show that hybridization between the Ni substrate states and the C(60) molecular orbitals generates an antiferromagnetic configuration in the local density of states near the Fermi level, which gives a reasonable explanation for the observed negative TMR. PMID:23327475

  10. STM study of morphology and electron transport features in cytochrome c and nanocluster molecule monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomutov, G B; Belovolova, L V; Gubin, S P; Khanin, V V; Obydenov, A Yu; Sergeev-Cherenkov, A N; Soldatov, E S; Trifonov, A S

    2002-01-01

    The morphology and electron tunneling through single cytochrome c and nanocluster Pt(5)(CO)(7)[P(C(6)H(5))](4) molecules organized as monolayer Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films on graphite substrate have been studied experimentally using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy techniques with sub-nanometer spatial resolution in a double barrier tunnel junction configuration STM tip-monomolecular film-conducting substrate at ambient conditions. STM images of the films revealed globular structures with characteristic diameters (approximately 3.5 nm for the protein molecule and approximately 1.2 nm for the nanocluster). The spectroscopic study by recording the tunneling current-bias voltage (I-V) curves revealed tunneling I-V characteristics with features as steps of different width and heights that are dependent on the STM tip position over the molecule in the monolayer, giving evidence for sequential discrete electron-tunneling effects with the combination of the single electron Coulomb-charging energy and the electronic energy level separation (molecular spectrum) in such immobilized metalloprotein and nanocluster structures that can be of interest for the development of bioelectronic and hybrid functional nanosystems. PMID:11786369

  11. Development of kits for serum PSA monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid phase two-site immunoradiometric assays were developed for total PSA and free PSA in human serum using the matched pairs of monoclonal antibodies for PSA, supplied by University of Alberta, Canada. In the case of total PSA, the capture MAb was immobilised on both magnetic particles as well as polypropylene tubes. The IRMAs developed using these were very similar and comparable in their performances. The optimised assays involved two-step incubations (0.5x0.5 h for magnetic particles and 2x2 h for coated tube) at ambient temperature, had the working range of 0 to 200 ng/mL PSA and sensitivity of 0.38 ng/mL (magnetic particles method) and 0.05 ng/mL (coated tubes method). The assay exhibited good inter and intra assay precision, recovery and accuracy. The patient sample values analysed by the in-house kits and CIS bio international kit show good correlation with correlation coefficient of r=0.9693 and CIS kit value = 0.80 x OAEP kit value + 0.8034 (n=83) for magnetic particle based method and r=0.9853, CIS kit value = 1.10 x OAEP kit value - 0.4795 (n=63) for coated tubes method. In the case of free-PSA, the assay was optimised using polypropylene tubes as the solid phase. The assay involved a single step overnight incubation at ambient temperature and exhibited good sensitivity (0.06 ng/mL), and precision (8.24-12.04% for inter assay and 4.41-7.73% for intraassay% C.V.). The developed f-PSA assay shows promising results, but needs further clinical assessment. (author)

  12. Detection of a new circumstellar carbon chain molecule, C4Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new interstellar carbon chain molecule, C4Si, has been detected in the envelope of the evolved star IRC + 10216. This molecule is the carrier of six unidentified lines which had been detected during the molecular line survey at Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The identification was made through astronomical detections followed by quantum chemical calculations and laboratory spectroscopic experiments. The rotational constant and the centrifugal distortion constant were B(0) = 1533.77206(146) MHz and D(0) = 0.00005827(35) MHz, respectively, where the numbers in parentheses represent one standard deviation in units of the last significant digits. The rotation temperature and the column density were 15 + or - 2 K and (7 + or - 1) x 10 to the 12th/sq cm, respectively, assuming a source size of 25 arcsec. 16 refs

  13. How Many [2+2] Four-Membered Rings Are Formed on a C60 Molecule when Photopolymerization Is Saturated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The saturation number of the [2+2] four-membered cross-link between adjacent C60 molecules in a photopolymerized C60 film has been determined using the intensity of the C1s shake-up satellite, which originates from the π-π* transition of π electrons of C60 , by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that six [2+2] rings were formed on a C60 molecule when polymerization was saturated. A possible configuration of the C60 polymer was postulated on the basis of the saturation number and the structure of a pristine C60 film. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Classical complement pathway activation by antipneumococcal antibodies leads to covalent binding of C3b to antibody molecules.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, E J; Berger, M.; Joiner, K A; Frank, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    We have examined whether or not a physical relationship exists between antipneumococcal antibodies (Ab) and C3b when Ab activate the classical complement pathway on the surface of pneumococci (Pn). After sensitization with 125I-labeled Ab, Pn were sequentially incubated with purified C1, C4, C2, and biotinylated C3. Ab molecules were then eluted from Pn, and C3b-associated molecules were purified on avidin-Sepharose. Both 125I-labeled immunoglobulin G (IgG) and [125I]IgM bound to C3b; the ass...

  15. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-12

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  16. Windows 7 resource kit

    CERN Document Server

    Northrup, Tony; Honeycutt, Jerry; Wilson, Ed

    2009-01-01

    In-depth and comprehensive, this RESOURCE KIT delivers the information you need to administer your Windows 7 system. You get authoritative technical guidance from those who know the technology best-Microsoft Most Valuable Professionals (MVPs) and the Windows 7 product team-along with essential scripts and resources. In addition, "Direct from the Source" sidebars offer deep insights and troubleshooting tips from the Windows 7 team. Get expert guidance on how to: Use Microsoft Deployment Toolkit best practices and tools. Plan user-state migration and test application compatibility.

  17. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.;

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying this...

  18. Optics learning through affordable kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Anusha N.; Shaji, Chitra; Sharan, Alok

    2014-10-01

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  19. Optics learning through affordable kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit

  20. Optics learning through affordable kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P, Anusha N, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Shaji, Chitra, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: anushnp@gmail.com, E-mail: chitrashaji@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    An affordable kit which helps to understand some of the optical phenomena qualitatively and quantitatively is presented in this paper. It supplements optics taught in classes. The kit consists of equipments which are available in the market at nominal cost such as laser pointer, lenses, glass plates, razor blades, coins, ball bearing etc. Experiments which come under wave optics (interference and diffraction) and ray optics (reflection and refraction) are explained using this kit.

  1. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  2. A Bima Array Survey of Molecules in Comets Linear (C/2002 T7) and Neat (C/2001 Q4)

    CERN Document Server

    Remijan, A J; Blake, G A; De Pater, I; Dickel, H R; Forster, J R; Friedel, D N; Hogerheijde, M R; Kraybill, C; Looney, L W; Palmer, P; Snyder, L E; Wright, M C H; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Palmer, Patrick; Pater, Imke de; Remijan, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an interferometric search for large molecules, including methanol, methyl cyanide, ethyl cyanide, ethanol, and methyl formate in comets LINEAR (C/2002 T7) and NEAT (C/2001 Q4) with the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland Association (BIMA) array. In addition, we also searched for transitions of the simpler molecules CS, SiO, HNC, HN13C and 13CO . We detected transitions of methanol and CS around Comet LINEAR and one transition of methanol around Comet NEAT within a synthesized beam of ~20''. We calculated the total column density and production rate of each molecular species using the variable temperature and outflow velocity (VTOV) model described by Friedel et al.(2005).Considering the molecular production rate ratios with respect to water, Comet T7 LINEAR is more similar to Comet Hale-Bopp while Comet Q4 NEAT is more similar to Comet Hyakutake. It is unclear, however, due to such a small sample size, whether there is a clear distinction between a Hale-Bopp and Hyakutake class of comet or whether comets h...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of new electron-withdrawing moiety thieno[2,3-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione-based molecules for small molecule solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Lei; Pan, Hongbin; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod;

    2013-01-01

    –π–donor–π–acceptor type end-capped with thieno[2,3-c]pyrrole-4,6-dione (TPD) units for small molecule solar cells have been prepared through coupling of dithienosilole and TPD units bridged with thienylene and bithienylene. They are soluble in common organic solvents and show an interesting absorption. These small...

  4. Neutrophil transmigration under shear flow conditions in vitro is junctional adhesion molecule-C independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Monica; Bradfield, Paul F; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Fish, Richard J; Alcaide, Pilar; Yang, Lin; Newton, Gail; Lamont, Deanna; Sehrawat, Seema; Mayadas, Tanya; Liang, Tony W; Parkos, Charles A; Imhof, Beat A; Luscinskas, Francis W

    2007-05-01

    Endothelial cell junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C has been proposed to regulate neutrophil migration. In the current study, we used function-blocking mAbs against human JAM-C to determine its role in human leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial cell migration under flow conditions. JAM-C surface expression in HUVEC was uniformly low, and treatment with inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or LPS did not increase its surface expression as assessed by FACS analysis. By immunofluorescence microscopy, JAM-C staining showed sparse localization to cell-cell junctions on resting or cytokine-activated HUVEC. Surprisingly, staining of detergent-permeabilized HUVEC revealed a large intracellular pool of JAM-C that showed little colocalization with von Willebrand factor. Adhesion studies in an in vitro flow model showed that functional blocking JAM-C mAb alone had no inhibitory effect on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion or transmigration, whereas mAb to ICAM-1 significantly reduced transmigration. Interestingly, JAM-C-blocking mAbs synergized with a combination of PECAM-1, ICAM-1, and CD99-blocking mAbs to inhibit PMN transmigration. Overexpression of JAM-C by infection with a lentivirus JAM-C GFP fusion protein did not increase adhesion or extent of transmigration of PMN or evoke a role for JAM-C in transendothelial migration. These data suggest that JAM-C has a minimal role, if any, in PMN transmigration in this model and that ICAM-1 is the preferred endothelial-expressed ligand for PMN beta(2) integrins during transendothelial migration. PMID:17442972

  5. Time-dependent study of single-molecule SERS signal from yeast cytochrome c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Ines; Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore

    2006-08-01

    A study of cytochrome c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae adsorbed on silver colloids at very low concentration is carried out by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Spectra acquired at different times exhibit dramatic fluctuations in both line frequency and intensity indicating that single molecule detection is approached. The intensity fluctuations are investigated by means of a second order time correlation analysis. Such an approach has allowed us to put into evidence the presence of two distinct dynamical phenomena. The results are discussed in connection with diffusion processes to which the protein undergoes with respect to the surface of the Ag nanoclusters and with a modulation of the enhancement of the Raman signal.

  6. Search for an interstellar Si2C molecule: A theoretical prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suresh Chandra

    2004-09-01

    We suggest that Si2C molecule may be identified in astronomical objects through its transitions 414 → 505, 515 → 606, 212 → 303, 313 → 404, and 111 → 202 at 15.9, 5.1, 33.6, 24.9, and 42.3 GHz in absorption even against the cosmic 2.7 K background, in a region having low temperature. The absorption phenomenon is found rather large in the first two transitions. Dependence of results on the set of molecular parameters is discussed.

  7. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 121 - First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits A... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Pt. 121, App. A Appendix A to Part 121—First Aid Kits and Emergency Medical Kits Approved first-aid kits, at least one approved emergency medical kit,...

  8. What's In Your Emergency Kit?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-04

    An emergency kit can help you survive during a disaster. This podcast discusses supplies to include in your kit.  Created: 12/4/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 12/20/2012.

  9. Positron scattering by molecules: implementation of the C-tilde-functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we present a formulation called the C-Functional to study collisions of low-energy positron by molecules. This formalism is based on the Schwinger Multichannel Method for positrons which although being a quite general method (it is applicable to polyatomic molecules and include polarization and multichannel coupling) is limited to the use of trial wavefunctions consisting only of square integrable basis functions (Gaussian Cartesian Function). In principle this is not a problem, considering that the Schwinger type of methods require a good description of the scattering wavefunction only in the region where the potential is non-zero. However, there exist some situations (long range potentials) where the SMC has consequences. The C-functional (CF) consists in writing the wavefunctions as a sum of a plane-wave plus a combination of trial functions (where the combination is variationally determined). The basic difference between the 2 cases (SMC and CF) is the presence in the CF amplitude of the First (FBA) and Second Born terms. Aiming the preservation of important features of the SMG, we have developed general codes (applicable to polyatomic targets) to evaluate these terms. To illustrate the CF method we show elastic cross sections ti He and H2. (author)

  10. Electronic and vibrational properties of the C{sub 60} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Marroquin, F.; Giraldo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Apartade aereo 67904, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia); Calles, A. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Castro, J.J. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. Apartado Postal 14740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    We have studied the electronic and vibrational properties of the C{sub 60} molecule by means of simplified models where only a few parameters are adjusted to experimental data. For the electronic part we use an independent electron model with a central Morse potential corrected by splitting the spherical degeneracy by properly including the icosahedral symmetry given rise to the LUMO and HOMO states. The vibrational spectra is obtained by solving the corresponding secular equation using a Born-Mayer type potential with two parameters adjusted to Raman and IR spectra . The results of our model are compared with some of the best ab initio calculations, phenomenological models and experimental data. We found in general a good agreement for the vibrational spectrum particularly for the high frequency part. Since in our model contains only two parameters we are not able to reproduce accurately the whole spectra. The main contribution of this model is its simplicity to extract most of the gross features of the C{sub 60} molecule without cumbersome computation. (Author)

  11. Switchable zero-bias anomaly in individual C60 molecules contacted with tunable aluminum electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the observation of strong resonances at zero bias in the differential conductance through Al-C60-Al junctions with tunable electrode distance, measured above T = 10 K. The conductance value at resonance ranges from a few percent up to eighty percent of the quantum of conductance. The resonances may disappear or reoccur completely and discontinuously upon very small changes of the electrode distance. However, once they are formed they are very robust with respect to changes of the electrode distance. We discuss similarities and differences to the common theories of the Kondo screening of a spontaneous spin polarization of the C60 molecule. We deduce Kondo temperatures in the range from 35 to 160 K and demonstrate that the temperature dependence is in agreement with the scaling behavior of the Kondo effect in the temperature range of our experiment.

  12. Hole polarons in poly(G)-poly(C) and poly(A)-poly(T) DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The polaron might play an important role in the process of charge migration through duplex DNA stack. In the present work, we investigate properties of hole polarons in DNA molecules containing identical base pairs, such as poly(G)-poly(C) and poly(A)-poly(T), An extended tight-binding model (extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model), which involves the effect of an electric field in the direction of DNA stack, will be introduced. The transfer integral and electron-phonon coupling parameters in this model are obtained according to ab initio calculation for different base pair dimers. Calculations reveal that the polaron in poly(A)-poly(T) has a wider shape and a higher mobility under a specific electric field than that in poly(G)-poly(C) DNA stack.

  13. Hole polarons in poly(G)-poly(C) and poly(A)-poly(T) DNA molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Peng; WU Jian; ZHANG GuiQing; LIU ChengBu

    2008-01-01

    The polaron might play an important role in the process of charge migration through duplex DNA stack. In the present work, we investigate properties of hole polarons in DNA molecules containing identical base pairs, such as poly(G)-poly(C) and poly(A)-poly(T), An extended Ught-binding model (extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model), which involves the effect of an electric field in the direction of DNA stack, will be introduced. The transfer integral and electron-phonon coupling parameters in this model are obtained according to ab initio calculation for different base pair dimers. Calculations reveal that the polaron in poly(A)-poly(T) has a wider shape and a higher mobility under a specific electric field than that in poly(G)-poly(C) DNA stack.

  14. Experimental energy levels and partition function of the $^{12}$C$_2$ molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Csaszar, Attila G; Bernath, Peter F; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The carbon dimer, the $^{12}$C$_2$ molecule, is ubiquitous in astronomical environments. Experimental-quality rovibronic energy levels are reported for $^{12}$C$_2$, based on rovibronic transitions measured for and among its singlet, triplet, and quintet electronic states, reported in 42 publications. The determination utilizes the Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels (MARVEL) technique. The 23,343 transitions measured experimentally and validated within this study determine 5,699 rovibronic energy levels, 1,325, 4,309, and 65 levels for the singlet, triplet, and quintet states investigated, respectively. The MARVEL analysis provides rovibronic energies for six singlet, six triplet, and two quintet electronic states. For example, the lowest measurable energy level of the \\astate\\ state, corresponding to the $J=2$ total angular momentum quantum number and the $F_1$ spin-multiplet component, is 603.817(5) \\cm. This well-determined energy difference should facilitate observations of singlet--trip...

  15. Radiology seminars using teaching kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinco-radiological seminars are an effective method of teaching medical students. However, in busy departments it is often difficult to provide enough radiologists for small group instruction. This can be facilitated by the use of prepared teaching kits. Each kit contains a set of duplicated films and a syllabus which gives a short clinical history for each patient and a series of questions to be used to direct the discussion. Each diagnostic problem is chosen to demonstrate core material. We have been using these teaching kits for organ system teaching in the preclerkship year. Teaching kits offer several advantages. They make it easier to recruit seminar leaders through efficient use of their time. The use of duplicated films and a syllabus ensures that all students cover the same material. The syllabus can be used to generate examination questions for reinforcement of important concepts. The kits are also available to students to review alone and can be readily updated as required

  16. Cosmic Light EDU kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2015-08-01

    In 2015 we celebrate the International Year of Light, a great opportunity to promote awareness about the importance of light coming from the Cosmos and what messages it is bringing to mankind. In parallel a unique moment to attract the attention of stakeholders on the dangers of light pollution and its impact in our lives and our pursuit of more knowledge. In this presentation I want to present one of the conrnerstones of IYL2015, a partnership between the Galileo Teacher Training Program, Universe Awareness and Globe at Night, the Cosmic Light EDU kit. The aim of this project is to assemble a core set of tools and resources representing our basic knowledge pilars about the Universe and simple means to preserve our night sky.

  17. Costimulatory molecule programmed death-1 in the cytotoxic response during chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Ramón Larrubia; Selma Benito-Martínez; Joaquín Miquel; Miryam Calvino; Eduardo Sanz-de-Villalobos; Trinidad Parra-Cid

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8~+ T cells play an important role in the resolution of HCV infection. Nevertheless, during chronic hepatitis C these cells lack their effector functions and fail to control the virus.HCV has developed several mechanisms to escape immune control. One of these strategies is the upregulation of negative co-stimulatory molecules such us programmed death-1 (PD-1). This molecule is upregulated on intrahepatic and peripheral HCV-specific cytotoxic T cells during acute and chronic phases of the disease, whereas PD-1 expression is low in resolved infection. PD-1 expressing HCV-specific CD8~+ T cells are exhausted with impairment of several effector mechanisms, such as: type-1 cytokine production, expansion ability after antigen encounter and cytotoxic ability. However, PD-1 associated exhaustion can be restored by blocking the interaction between PD-1 and its ligand (PD-L1). After this blockade, HCV-specific CD8~+ T cells reacquire their functionality. Nevertheless,functional restoration depends on PD-1 expression level.High PD-1-expressing intrahepatic HCV-specific CD8~+ T cells do not restore their effector abilities after PD-1/ PD-L1 blockade. The mechanisms by which HCV is able to induce PD-1 up-regulation to escape immune control are unknown. Persistent TCR stimulation by a high level of HCV antigens could favour early PD-1 induction, but the interaction between HCV core protein and gC1q receptor could also participate in this process. The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway modulation could be a therapeutic strategy, in conjunction with the regulation of others co-stimulatory pathways, in order to restore immune response against HCV to succeed in clearing the infection.

  18. SMALL CARBONACEOUS MOLECULES, ETHYLENE OXIDE (c-C2H4O) AND CYCLOPROPENYLIDENE (c-C3H2): SOURCES OF THE UNIDENTIFIED INFRARED BANDS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We suggest that small carbonaceous molecules (SCMs) may be the sources of the unidentified infrared bands (UIRs) and the underlying continuum. We show that the IR spectroscopy of ethylene oxide (EO, c-C2H4O) and cyclopropenylidene (CP, c-C3H2) closely correlates with the major UIR bands at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 μm, the often seen strong bands at 12.7 and 16.4 μm, as well as many minor features. The differences in band locations and shapes between laboratory EO absorption spectra and astrophysical UIR emission spectra are attributed to vibrational anharmonicity, Fermi resonance splitting of nearly degenerate vibration levels, and rotational envelope narrowing due to the low temperatures in space. The excitation mechanism is absorption of UV radiation, primarily Lyα, by SCMs. Photon trapping for this very optically thick transition enhances the absorption by several orders of magnitude. Our abundance analysis for NGC 7027 reveals that the SCM abundance, relative to H2, is ∼3 x 10-9 which compares well to radio measurements of the CP abundance range of ∼10-9-10-7. The origin of the UIR continuum is discussed in terms of emission from vibrationally and rotationally hot SCM UV photodissociation products and UV excitation of rotationally hot SCM species. Radio lines of CP have been seen in numerous astronomical objects, most displaying the UIR bands. EO is also seen, but in fewer objects, none displaying the UIR bands. We theorize that in UIR objects, EO is formed on, and primarily resides on, carbonaceous grains, precluding radio detection of rotational lines. We suggest laboratory experiments, astronomical observations, and theoretical investigations to further evaluate the SCM mechanism for the UIR bands and continuum.

  19. The Instanton Molecule Liquid and "Sticky Molasses" Above T_c

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, G E; Rho, M; Shuryak, E

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to explore the evolution in the structure of the quark-antiquark bound states in going down in the chirally restored phase from the so-called "zero binding points" T_zb to the QCD critical temperature T_c at which the Nambu-Goldstone and Wigner-Weyl modes meet. In doing this, we adopt the idea recently introduced by Shuryak and Zahed for charmed $\\bar c c$, light-quark $\\bar q q$ mesons $\\pi, \\sigma, \\rho, A_1$ and gluons that at T_zb, the quark-antiquark scattering length goes through infinity at which conformal invariance is restored, thereby transforming the matter into a near perfect fluid behaving hydrodynamically, as found at RHIC. We show that the binding of these states is accomplished by the combination of (i) the color Coulomb interaction, (ii) the relativistic effects, and (iii) the interaction induced by the instanton-anti-instanton molecules. The spin-spin forces turned out to be small. While near T_zb all mesons are large-size nonrelativistic objects bound by C...

  20. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  1. Coupling of Surface and Volume Dipole Oscillations in C-60 Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Brack, M; Murthy, M V N

    2007-01-01

    We first give a short review of the ``local-current approximation'' (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C$_{60}$ molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode (``surface plasmon'') with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a ``volume plasmon''.

  2. Specific features of the glass transition in C60 fullerite saturated with carbon monoxide molecules: Photoluminescence studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, P. V.; Zoryansky, V. N.; Stetsenko, Yu. E.; Danchuk, V. V.

    2016-02-01

    Low temperature (20-230 K) spectral-luminescence studies were conducted on C60 fullerite saturated with carbon monoxide in a physisorption regime. Substantial changes in the photoluminescence characteristics of C60-CO solutions with different impurity concentrations were found already for short intercalation times. Strong dependence of the CO solubility on the saturation temperature was revealed by analyzing the contribution of "deep X-traps" to the luminescence. Furthermore, it was found that filling of the octahedral voids by CO molecules occurs with a lower gradient of the impurity distribution into the bulk C60 crystals as compared with N2. The temperature dependences of the integral emission intensity for the samples with different concentrations of carbon monoxide were studied. For the first time, using the spectral-luminescence method, it was revealed that CO molecules, in contrast to H2 and N2, exhibit a significant effect on the formation of the orientational glass and the rotational dynamics of C60 molecules. Within the model of the transfer of electronic excitation in C60 crystals, the effect of polar CO molecules on the reorientation of C60 molecules and the change in the nature of their rotation in concentrated C60-CO solutions, leading to the observed strong shift of the temperatures of orientational Tc and glass Tg transitions to lower temperatures accompanied by "blurring" of the transition boundaries, were explained.

  3. Peculiarities of glass forming of the fullerite C60 saturated by the carbon monooxide molecules: photoluminescence studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low temperature (20-230 K) studies were carried out by the spectral-luminescent method of the fullerite C60 saturated by carbon monooxide in the phys-sorption mode. Significant changes of the photoluminescent characteristics of the solutions C60-CO with different concentration of the impurity were found even at small times of intercalation. Strong dependence of CO solubility on the saturation temperature was registered by analyzing the contribution to the luminescence of the ''deep X-traps'', and filling of octahedral voids by CO molecules occurs with smaller gradient of the impurity distribution in depth of C60 crystals in comparison with N2. Temperature dependences of the radiation integral intensity of the samples with different concentration of the carbon monooxide were studied. It was found for the first time that CO molecules have significant influence on the process of orientation glass formation and on the rotational dynamics of the C60 molecules in contrast to H2 and N2. In the framework of the model of electron excitations transfer in C60 crystals, there was explained the influence of the polar CO molecule on the processes of the C60 molecules reorientations and changes of their rotations type in the concentrated C60-CO solutions, which leads to observed strong temperature shift of the orientation Tc and glass Tg transitions to the region of low temperatures, which is accompanied by ''blurring'' of their boundaries.

  4. The Mechatronics Control Kit for Education and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Spong, Mark W.; Block, Dan; Åström, Karl Johan

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the use of the Mechatronics Control Kit from Mechatronic Systems, Inc. for control education and research. The Mechatronics Control Kit can be configured with several distinct plants, including a simple DC motor, an inertia wheel pendulum and a Pendubot. The digital electronics are fully integrated and include a Texas Instruments DSP development system, the TMS320C6711 DSK Board (a DSP board with parallel port interface), a PWM output/optical encoder input data acquisition daughter...

  5. Effect of C–O Bonding on the Stability and Energetics of High-Energy Nitrogen-Carbon Molecules N10C2 and N16C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Strout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecules consisting of nitrogen have been the subject of much attention due to their potential as high-energy materials. Complex molecules consisting entirely of nitrogen can be subject to rapid decomposition, and therefore other atoms are incorporated into the structure to enhance stability. Previous studies have explored the incorporation of carbon atoms into otherwise all-nitrogen cages molecules. The current study involves two such cages, N10C2 and N16C2, whose structures are derived from N12 and N18, respectively. The N10C2 and N16C2 cages in this study are modified by bonding groups O3 and CO3 to determine the effect on the relative energies between the isomers and on the thermodynamic energy release properties. Energetic trends for N10C2 and N16C2 are calculated and discussed.

  6. Symmetry breaking and structural distortions in charged XH4 (X=C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the ground-state structures of neutral and charged XH4(X=C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) molecules using the first-principles electronic structure methods. The structure of positively charged molecules for X=Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb is characterized by a severe distortion from tetrahedral structure and an unusual H-H bond while the negatively charged molecules get distorted by pushing two hydrogen atoms away from each other. However, CH4+ and CH4- are exceptions to this behavior. We provide an insight into the symmetry breaking mechanism and unusual H-H bonding using simple electrostatic arguments based on the unequal charge distribution on H atoms. Those charged molecules having unequal charge distribution on H atoms get distorted due to different electrostatic forces between the atoms. We show that the directionality and occupation of the highest occupied molecular orbital play an important role in creating charge asymmetry in these molecules

  7. Multiple bonds to gold: a theoretical investigation of XAuC (X = F, Cl, Br, I) molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structures and spectroscopic properties are reported for the linear XAuC (X = F, Cl, Br, I) series of molecules and their related diatomic species at a high level of accuracy. The singles and doubles coupled cluster method including a perturbational correction for connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), with systematic sequences of new correlation consistent basis sets have been employed. Scalar relativistic effects have been accurately included by making use of relativistic effective core potentials. Extrapolation to the complete basis set limit has been used with accurate treatments of core-valence correlation and spin-orbit effects in order to accurately predict spectroscopic properties, as well as dissociation and atomization energies at 0 K of AuC, AuC+, AuF, AuCl, AuBr, AuI, and the XAuC molecules. The Au-C bond length in the FAuC molecule is predicted to be nearly identical to that calculated for AuC+, which makes it the shortest known for a neutral gold molecule. The Au-C and Au-F (0 K) bond dissociation energies in FAuC are predicted to be 92.5 and 93.1 kcal/mol, respectively, also making them some of the strongest known bonds to gold

  8. The prevalence and clinical profiles of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, NPM1, C-KIT, DNMT3A, and CEBPA mutations in a cohort of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Haimei; Zhou, Juan; Ye, Yuanxin; Hu, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengqiao; Zhang, Jingya; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Peng, Wu; Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xingbo; Lu, Xiaojun; Ying, Binwu

    2016-06-01

    While a substantial amount of data on gene mutations related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) prognosis from western and other populations have been reported, these studies largely describe one or two genes. Additionally, in southwest China, only insufficient data exist regarding FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, NPM1, C-KIT, DNMT3A, and CEBPA mutations have been widely used in clinical settings. Therefore, a comprehensive study about these mutations of clinical importance in the prognosis of AML in western China is necessary. In a cohort of 255 patients with de novo AML, we retrospectively analyzed the prevalence of the six gene mutations, and then we assessed the results in conjunction with clinical characteristics and treatment responses. As for the frequencies of these mutations, the NPM1 mutation occurred most frequently (17.7 %; 42/237), followed by the CEBPA mutation (15.0 %; 19/127) and the FLT3-ITD mutation (10.2 %; 25/244). The frequencies of the FLT3-TKD, DNMT3A, and C-KIT mutations were 3.7 % (9/234), 4.0 % (9/225) and 4.2 % (10/238), respectively. These mutations were closely related to clinical characteristics including FAB classification, gender and age, hemogram, blasts (%), fusion genes, and immunophenotypes. Additionally, a higher complete remission (CR) rate was found in NPM1-mutated patients. The occurrence of these mutations is variable among different countries and regions worldwide, which may provide clues to the etiology of AML. Besides, we identified new clinical characteristics that advance our understanding of these mutations and further clarify the involvement of these mutations in the development of leukemia. PMID:26676635

  9. Modeling astronomically observed interstellar infrared spectra by ionized carbon pentagon-hexagon molecules (c9h7) n+

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Modeling a promising carrier of the astronomically observed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), infrared (IR) spectra of ionized molecules (C9H7) n+ were calculated based on density functional theory (DFT). In a previous study, it was found that void induced coronene C23H12++ could reproduce observed spectra from 3 to 15 micron, which has carbon two pentagons connected with five hexagons. In this paper, we tried to test the simplest model, that is, one pentagon connected with one hexagon, which is indene like molecule (C9H7) n+ (n=0 to 4). DFT based harmonic frequency analysis resulted that observed spectrum could be almost reproduced by a suitable sum of ionized C9H7n+ molecules. Typical example is C9H7++. Calculated peaks were 3.2, 7.4, 7.6, 8.4, and 12.7 micron, whereas observed one 3.3, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6 and 12.7 micron. By a combination of different degree of ionized molecules, we can expect to reproduce total spectrum. For a comparison, hexagon-hexagon molecule naphthalene (C10H8) n+ was studied. Unfortu...

  10. Electronic states and nature of bonding in the molecule MoC by all electron ab initio calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1997-01-01

    vibrational frequency as 997 cm(-1). The chemical bond in the (3) Sigma(-) electronic ground state has triple bond character due to the formation of delocalized bonding rr and a orbitals. The chemical bond in the MoC molecule is polar with charge transfer from Mo to C, giving rise to a dipole moment of 6.15 D......In the present work all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent-held (CASSCF) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations have been carried out to determine the low-lying electronic states of the molecule MoC. The relativistic corrections for the one electron...

  11. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Limulus Clotting Factor C is a multi-domain serine protease that triggers horseshoe crab hemolymph clotting in the presence of trace amounts of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Here we describe and functionally characterize an homologous molecule, designated as IrFC, from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus. Tick Factor C consists of an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain, four complement control protein (sushi) modules, an LCCL domain, a truncated C-lectin domain and a C-terminal trypsin-type domain. Developmental expression profiling by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the irfc mRNA is expressed in all stages including eggs. In tissues dissected from adult I. ricinus females, the irfc mRNA is present mainly in tick hemocytes and accordingly, indirect immunofluorescence microscopy localized IrFC intracellularly, in tick hemocytes. Irfc mRNA levels were markedly increased upon injection of sterile saline, or different microbes, demonstrating that the irfc gene transcription occurs in response to injury. This indicates a possible role of IrFC in hemolymph clotting and/or wound healing, although these defense mechanisms have not been yet definitely demonstrated in ticks. RNAi silencing of irfc expression resulted in a significant reduction in phagocytic activity of tick hemocytes against the Gram-negative bacteria Chryseobacterium indologenes and Escherichia coli, but not against the yeast, Candida albicans. This result suggests that IrFC plays a role in the tick primordial complement system and as such possibly mediates transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:24924263

  12. Accurate NMR determination of C-H or N-H distances for unlabeled molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Y; Malon, M; Potrzebowski, M J; Paluch, P; Amoureux, J P

    2016-02-01

    Cross-Polarization with Variable Contact-time (CP-VC) is very efficient at ultra-fast MAS (νR ≥ 60 kHz) to measure accurately the dipolar interactions corresponding to C-H or N-H short distances, which are very useful for resonance assignment and for analysis of dynamics. Here, we demonstrate the CP-VC experiment with (1)H detection. In the case of C-H distances, we compare the CP-VC signals with direct ((13)C) and indirect ((1)H) detection and find that the latter allows a S/N gain of ca. 2.5, which means a gain of ca. 6 in experimental time. The main powerful characteristics of CP-VC methods are related to the ultra-fast spinning speed and to the fact that most of the time only the value of the dipolar peak separation has to be used to obtain the information. As a result, CP-VC methods are: (i) easy to set up and to use, and robust with respect to (ii) rf-inhomogeneity thus allowing the use of full rotor samples, (iii) rf mismatch, and (iv) offsets and chemical shift anisotropies. It must be noted that the CP-VC 2D method with indirect (1)H detection requires the proton resolution and is thus mainly applicable to small or perdeuterated molecules. We also show that an analysis of the dynamics can even be performed, with a reasonable experimental time, on unlabeled samples with (13)C or even (15)N natural abundance. PMID:26169913

  13. Resonant heating and substrate-mediated cooling of a single C60 molecule in a tunnel junction

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, Gunnar; Franke, Katharina J.; Pascual, Jose Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    We study the influence of different metallic substrates on the electron induced heating and heat dissipation of single C60 molecules in the junction of a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The electron current passing through the molecule produces a large amount of heat due to electron-phonon coupling, eventually leading to thermal decomposition of the fullerene cage. The power for decomposition varies with electron energy and reflects the resonance structure participating in the ...

  14. Respiratory complexes III and IV can each bind two molecules of cytochrome c at low ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Guerra-Castellano, Alejandra; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio

    2015-02-13

    The transient interactions of respiratory cytochrome c with complexes III and IV is herein investigated by using heterologous proteins, namely human cytochrome c, the soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1 and bovine cytochrome c oxidase. The binding molecular mechanisms of the resulting cross-complexes have been analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Isothermal Titration Calorimetry. Our data reveal that the two cytochrome c-involving adducts possess a 2:1 stoichiometry - that is, two cytochrome c molecules per adduct - at low ionic strength. We conclude that such extra binding sites at the surfaces of complexes III and IV can facilitate the turnover and sliding of cytochrome c molecules and, therefore, the electron transfer within respiratory supercomplexes. PMID:25595453

  15. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres. III. Gaseous C-H-O-N Chemistry with 9 Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We present novel, analytical, equilibrium-chemistry formulae for the abundances of molecules in hot exoplanetary atmospheres that include the carbon, oxygen and nitrogen networks. Our hydrogen-dominated solutions involve acetylene (C$_2$H$_2$), ammonia (NH$_3$), carbon dioxide (CO$_2$), carbon monoxide (CO), ethylene (C$_2$H$_4$), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), methane (CH$_4$), molecular nitrogen (N$_2$) and water (H$_2$O). By considering only the gaseous phase, we prove that the mixing ratio of carbon monoxide is governed by a decic equation (polynomial equation of degree 10). We validate our solutions against numerical calculations of equilibrium chemistry that perform Gibbs free energy minimization and demonstrate that they are accurate for temperatures from 500--3000 K. In hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, the ratio of abundances of HCN to CH$_4$ is nearly constant across a wide range of carbon-to-oxygen ratios, which makes it a robust diagnostic of the metallicity in the gas phase. Our validated formulae allow f...

  16. Late development of homoeothermy in mink (Mustela vison) kits - a strategy for maximum survival rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauson, A-H; Chwalibog, André; Tygesen, M P

    and after the experiments and evaporative water losses (EWL) were calculated. When exposed to L temperature, single kits responded with a very low HE until 29 days of age, and groups of kits until 14 days of age. It was not until they reached an age of approximately 6 weeks that single kits showed a...... in groups. Evaporative water losses was higher among single than among groups of kits and slightly lower but more variable for animals at L than at H temperature. It was concluded that mink kits develop functional homoeothermy at an age of close to 6 weeks and that the failure of very young kits to...... heat production (HE) by means of indirect calorimetry lasting 3 h were performed on neonatal kits and kits from 1 to 54 days of age. Both single kits and groups of 4-5 huddling kits were kept at 15 degrees C (L) or 30 degrees C (H) [from 35 days onwards at 25 degrees C (H)]. Animals were weighed before...

  17. Fundamental studies of three radioimmunoassay kits measuring prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of prostatic cancer. Fundamental studies of measurement of PAP concentration by radioimmunoassay were performed and values determined by three commercially available kits were compared, those are, PAP EIKEN RIA Kit (E kit), RIA Quant P.A.P. (M kit) and GammaDab PAP RIA Kit (C kit). Upper limits of normal PAP concentration were 3 ng/ml by E and M kits and 2 ng/ml by C kits, respectively. The reproducibility and the recovery studies of three kits were satisfactory. However, dilution curve of some patients was not strait. PAP concentration of 27 patients measured by three kits were correlated well to each other, but the discrepancy of values was noticed in high PAP concentrations. PAP concentration measured by RIA is more reliable than that by enzyme immunoassay. When keeping serum samples, the effect of time, temperature and freeze and thawing on PAP values was obvious. It is recommended that serum is separated at 40C as soon as possible after collecting blood and kept frozen until use. (author)

  18. The Supertree Tool Kit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large phylogenies are crucial for many areas of biological research. One method of creating such large phylogenies is the supertree method, but creating supertrees containing thousands of taxa, and hence providing a comprehensive phylogeny, requires hundred or even thousands of source input trees. Managing and processing these data in a systematic and error-free manner is challenging and will become even more so as supertrees contain ever increasing numbers of taxa. Protocols for processing input source phylogenies have been proposed to ensure data quality, but no robust software implementations of these protocols as yet exist. Findings The aim of the Supertree Tool Kit (STK is to aid in the collection, storage and processing of input source trees for use in supertree analysis. It is therefore invaluable when creating supertrees containing thousands of taxa and hundreds of source trees. The STK is a Perl module with executable scripts to carry out various steps in the processing protocols. In order to aid processing we have added meta-data, via XML, to each tree which contains information such as the bibliographic source information for the tree and how the data were derived, for instance the character data used to carry out the original analysis. These data are essential parts of previously proposed protocols. Conclusions The STK is a bioinformatics tool designed to make it easier to process source phylogenies for inclusion in supertree analysis from hundreds or thousands of input source trees, whilst reducing potential errors and enabling easy sharing of such datasets. It has been successfully used to create the largest known supertree to date containing over 5000 taxa from over 700 source phylogenies.

  19. Experimental Energy Levels and Partition Function of the 12C2 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtenbacher, Tibor; Szabó, István; Császár, Attila G.; Bernath, Peter F.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    The carbon dimer, the 12C2 molecule, is ubiquitous in astronomical environments. Experimental-quality rovibronic energy levels are reported for 12C2, based on rovibronic transitions measured for and among its singlet, triplet, and quintet electronic states, reported in 42 publications. The determination utilizes the Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels (MARVEL) technique. The 23,343 transitions measured experimentally and validated within this study determine 5699 rovibronic energy levels, 1325, 4309, and 65 levels for the singlet, triplet, and quintet states investigated, respectively. The MARVEL analysis provides rovibronic energies for six singlet, six triplet, and two quintet electronic states. For example, the lowest measurable energy level of the {{a}}{}3{{{\\Pi }}}{{u}} state, corresponding to the J = 2 total angular momentum quantum number and the F 1 spin-multiplet component, is 603.817(5) cm‑1. This well-determined energy difference should facilitate observations of singlet–triplet intercombination lines, which are thought to occur in the interstellar medium and comets. The large number of highly accurate and clearly labeled transitions that can be derived by combining MARVEL energy levels with computed temperature-dependent intensities should help a number of astrophysical observations as well as corresponding laboratory measurements. The experimental rovibronic energy levels, augmented, where needed, with ab initio variational ones based on empirically adjusted and spin–orbit coupled potential energy curves obtained using the Duo code, are used to obtain a highly accurate partition function, and related thermodynamic data, for 12C2 up to 4000 K.

  20. Molecular recognition of PTCDI–C{sub 8} molecules on the Si(1 1 0)–(16 × 2) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lament, Katarzyna, E-mail: lament@ifd.uni.wroc.pl; Kamiński, Wojciech; Mazur, Piotr; Zuber, Stefan; Ciszewski, Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Mechanisms of PTCDI–C{sub 8} adsorption and thin films growth on Si(1 1 0)–(16 × 2) have been studied using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, and density functional theory. Oxygen atoms of the PTCDI–C{sub 8} molecule interact with the substrate increasing substantially the adsorption energy. Adsorbed molecules do not form long-range ordered structures on the surface but local chain-like arrangements. A good agreement between the calculated isosurfaces of electronic charge density and the scanning tunneling microscopy images of the filled electron states of clean and adsorbate-covered surfaces allows to recognize the PTCDI–C{sub 8} molecules adsorbed on Si(1 1 0)–(16 × 2).

  1. Jahn-Teller effects in molecules on surfaces with specific application to C_60

    OpenAIRE

    Hands, Ian D; Dunn, Janette L; Rawlinson, Catherine S.A.; Bates, Colin A.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is capable of imaging molecules adsorbed onto surfaces with su±cient resolution as to permit intramolecular features to be discerned. Therefore, imaging molecules subject to the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect could, in principle, yield valuable information about the vibronic coupling responsible for the JT effect. However, such an application is not without its complications. For example, the JT effect causes subtle, dynamic distortions of the molecule; but...

  2. Developmentally regulated expression by Trypanosoma cruzi of molecules that accelerate the decay of complement C3 convertases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors recently showed that culture-derived metacyclic trypomastigotes (CMT), but not epimastigotes (Epi), of the Miranda 99 strain of Trypanosoma cruzi evade lysis by the human alternative complement pathway because of inefficient binding of factor B to complement component C3b on the parasite surface. These results suggested that CMT and tissue-culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT), which also activate the alternative pathway poorly, might produce a molecule capable of interfering with factor B binding to C3b. They now demonstrate that CMT and TCT lysates, as well as molecules spontaneously shed from CMT and TCT but not Epi, accelerate decay of 125I-labeled factor Bb from the alternative-pathway C3 convertase (C3bBb) assembled on zymosan or Epi and also accelerate decay of the classical-pathway C3 convertase (C4b2a) on sheep erythrocytes. Parasites metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine spontaneously shed a limited number of radioactive components, ranging in molecular mass from 86 to 155 kDa for trypomastigotes and 25 to 80 kDa for Epi. Decay-accelerating activity within supernatants is inactivated by papain and is coeluted with 35S-containing polypeptides on FPLC anion-exchange chromatography, suggesting that the active constituents are protein molecules. Molecules with decay-accelerating activity may explain the developmentally regulated resistance to complement-mediated lysis in infective and vertebrate stages for T. cruzi life cycle

  3. Small molecule inhibition of hepatitis C virus E2 binding to CD81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causal agent of chronic liver infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma infecting more than 170 million people. CD81 is a receptor for HCV envelope glycoprotein E2. Although the binding of HCV-E2 with CD81 is well documented the role of this interaction in the viral life cycle remains unclear. Host specificity and mutagenesis studies suggest that the helix D region of CD81 mediates binding to HCV-E2. Structural analysis of CD81 has enabled the synthesis of small molecules designed to mimic the space and hydrophobic features of the solvent-exposed face on helix D. Utilizing a novel bis-imidazole scaffold a series of over 100 compounds has been synthesized. Seven related, imidazole-based compounds were identified that inhibit binding of HCV-E2 to CD81. The inhibitory compounds have no short-term effect on cellular expression of CD81 or other tetraspanins, do not disrupt CD81 associations with other cell surface proteins, and bind reversibly to HCV-E2. These results provide an important proof of concept that CD81-based mimics can disrupt binding of HCV-E2 to CD81

  4. Early Wearables Kit (Volume 1, Kits for Cultural History series)

    OpenAIRE

    Jentery Sayers; Belojevic, Nina; Chan, Tiffany; Clouston, Nicole; Goertz, Katherine; Macpherson, Shaun; Morgan, Danielle; Murawski, Victoria; Sayers, Jentery; Maker Lab in the Humanities

    2015-01-01

    This repository contains files for the "Early Wearables Kit" made by the Maker Lab in the Humanities (MLab) at the University of Victoria (http://maker.uvic.ca/). The Wearables Kit prompts people to reverse engineer and reassemble an electro-mobile skull stick-pin intended for cravats, designed by Gustave Trouvé, built by Auguste-Germain Cadet-Picard, and exhibited at the Exposition universelle in Paris in 1867. Powered by a 1.5-volt zinc-carbon battery located in t...

  5. Profile of radiopharmaceutical single vial dried-kit of ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technetium-99m (99mTc-ciprofloxacin) is used in nuclear medicine to diagnose infection by imaging method. This radiopharmaceutical is available in the dried-kit which is packed in a single vial and the preparation of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was performed by adding 99mTc radionuclide into the dried-kit. The aim of this research was to know the profile of single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceutical of ciprofloxacin. The preparation of the dried-kit using lyophilized method has been carried out. The radiochemical purity of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin was determined by double chromatography system using Whatman I/methyl ethyl ketone and ITLC-SG with ethanol - water - ammonia (2:5:1) as a mobile phase. The stability test on 99mTc-ciprofloxacin, in-vitro stability in plasma and the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit were performed by determining their radiochemical purity. Studies on the effect of volume on Na99mTcO4 solution to the 99mTc-ciprofloxacin radiochemical purity, and sterility test of the dried-kit had also been carried out. The lyophilized process has made the single vial dried-kit radiopharmaceuticals sterile and vacuum. The result showed that 99mTc-ciprofloxacin contained 92.07 ± 1.39% of radiochemical purity, which was stable for 30 minutes either at room temperature (26 ± 1°C ) or at 4 ± 1°C in storage. In-vitro stability test of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in plasma indicated that more than 90% of the radiochemical purity was still stable until 5 hours of storage. Utilization of Na99mTcO4 volume was more than 1.6 mL on the labelling of ciprofloxacin dried-kit gave less than 90 % of radiochemical purity. Studies on the stability of ciprofloxacin dried-kit showed that the kit remained stable with the radiochemical purity more than 90 % after 17 weeks of storage 4 ± 2°C . (author)

  6. Inhibition of Ovarian KIT Phosphorylation by the Ovotoxicant 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide in Rats1

    OpenAIRE

    Mark-Kappeler, Connie J.; Sen, Nivedita; Lukefahr, Ashley; McKee, Laurel; Sipes, I. Glenn; Konhilas, John; Hoyer, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro exposure of Postnatal Day 4 (PND4) rat ovaries to the occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) destroys specifically primordial and primary follicles via acceleration of atresia. Because oocyte-expressed c-kit (KIT) plays a critical role in follicle survival and activation, a direct interaction of VCD with KIT as its mechanism of ovotoxicity was investigated. PND4 rat ovaries were cultured with and without VCD (30 μM) for 2 days. When assessed by Western analysi...

  7. Inefficient assembly limits transport and cell surface expression of HLA-Cw4 molecules in C1R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemmour, J

    1996-12-01

    HLA-C antigens are expressed to the cell surface at roughly 10% the level of HLA-B or -A, and their serological definition remains persistently difficult. To characterize the factors limiting surface expression, the processes of assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-Cw4 molecules were investigated in the C1R cell line. When appropriate peptides were added to cultured cells or in cell lysates significant amounts of conformed HLA-C molecules that associate with beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2 m) are detected, but are indeed not sufficient to restore expression to the level observed for HLA-A or -B molecules. Furthermore, a precursor/product relationship exists between the free class I heavy chain and the mature conformation of HLA-Cw4 molecules. Thus, HLA-C assembly promotes the conversion of HC-10-reactive molecules (weakly-beta 2m-associated non-ligand associated free HC form) into the beta 2m-associated class I molecules recognized by W6/32. To further investigate the factors that regulate cell surface expression, intracellular transport of HLA-Cw4 was studied in pulse chase analysis. In contrast to some HLA-A and B, maturation of HLA-Cw4 heavy chains and their export to the medial and trans-Golgi compartments are quite inefficient. After 4 h of chase period, roughly half of the pulse-labeled HLA-Cw4 molecules have transited to the medial-Golgi and acquired complex oligosaccharides characteristic of mature form. In addition, treatment with gamma-interferon does not appear to improve maturation of HLA-Cw4 heavy chains, suggesting that increased supply of peptides does not influence intracellular transport. Moreover, only a small fraction in the pool of HLA-Cw4 molecules was subsequently transported through the trans-Golgi network, as indicated by their acquisition of sialic acids. Taken together these studies show that HLA-Cw4 molecules are inefficiently transported through the Golgi apparatus and presumably retained in the endoplasmic reticulum or cis

  8. Interaction of protons with the C60 molecule: calculation of deposited energies and electronic stopping cross sections (v≤5 au)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy deposited by a proton in a C60 molecule is calculated over a broad collision velocity range from 0.1 to 5 au, using the free-electron gas model of Lindhard and Winther (1964 Mat. Fys. Medd. K Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. 34) and the C60 electron density distribution calculated by Puska and Nieminen. The energy lost by the proton is maximum near 1.8 au collision velocity in contrast with the saturation found in the low-velocity regime, in the 0.25-0.5 au velocity range, by Kunert and Schmidt. From the impact parameter dependence we deduce the distributions of deposited energies, the averaged energy losses and the C60 electronic stopping cross sections. It is found that the C60 molecule behaves as a carbon foil giving very similar absolute stopping cross sections per atom. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  9. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Kit gene in Chinese indigenous horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoyuan; Mao, Chunchun; Chen, Ningbo; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao; Dang, Ruihua

    2016-02-01

    Kit gene is a genetic determinant of horse white coat color which has been a highly valued trait in horses for at least 2,000 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Kit are of importance due to their strong associations with melanoblast survival during embryonic development. In this study, a mutation analysis of all 21 Kit exons in 14 Chinese domestic horse breeds revealed six SNPs (g.91214T>G, g.143245T>G, g.164297C>T, g.170189C>T, g.171356C>G, and g.171471G>A), which located in 5'-UTR region, intron 6, exon 15, exon 20, intron 20, and exon 21 of the equine Kit gene, respectively. Subsequently, these six SNPs loci were genotyped in 632 Chinese horses by PCR-RFLP or direct sequencing. The six SNPs together defined 18 haplotypes, demonstrating abundant haplotype diversities in Chinese horses. All the mutant alleles and haplotypes were shared among different breeds. But fewer mutations were detected in horses from China than that from abroad, indicating that Chinese horses belong to a more ancient genetic pool. This study will provide fundamental genetic information for evaluating the genetic diversity of Kit gene in Chinese indigenous horse breeds. PMID:27348891

  10. Nucleic acid detection kits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  11. Identification of OprF as a Complement Component C3 Binding Acceptor Molecule on the Surface of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Meenu; Ressler, Adam; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Wozniak, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile opportunistic pathogen that can cause devastating persistent infections. Complement is a highly conserved pathway of the innate immune system, and its role in the first line of defense against pathogens is widely appreciated. One of the earliest events in the complement cascade is the conversion of C3 to C3a and C3b, the latter typically binds to one or more acceptor molecules on the pathogen surface. We previously demonstrated that complement C3b binding...

  12. Active Parenting Now: Program Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkin, Michael H.

    Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…

  13. Natural Gas Energy Educational Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    Prepared by energy experts and educators to introduce middle school and high school students to natural gas and its role in our society, this kit is designed to be incorporated into existing science and social studies curricula. The materials and activities focus on the origin, discovery, production, delivery, and use of natural gas. The role of…

  14. ISS Expedition 21/22 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 21/22 from 10/2009-03/2010. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  15. Cell adhesion molecules and hyaluronic acid as markers of inflammation, fibrosis and response to antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Granot

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cell adhesion molecules (intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and hyaluronic acid, markers of inflammation and fibrosis were monitored in hepatitis C patients to determine whether changes in plasma levels, during antiviral treatment, can predict long-term response to therapy.

  16. Ab initio study of the spectroscopy and thermochemistry of the C 2N and CN 2 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jan M. L.; Taylor, Peter R.; François, J. P.; Gijbels, R.

    1994-08-01

    Several structures and electronic states of the C 2N and CN 2 molecules have been studied using complete active space SCF (CASSCF), multireference configuration interaction (MRCI), and coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) methods. Both molecules are very stable. Our best computed total atomization energies Σ De are 288.6±2 kcal/mol for CN 2, and 294.1±2 kcal/mol for C 2N. The CNC and CCN structures for C 2N are nearly isoenergetic. CNN( 3Π) lies about 30 kcal/mol above NCN( 3Π g), but has a high barrier towards interconversion and is therefore observed experimentally. Computed harmonic frequencies for CNN are sensitive to the correlation treatment: they are reproduced well using multireference methods as well as the CCSD(T) method. High spin contamination has a detrimental effect on computed harmonic frequencies at the CCSD(T) level.

  17. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1 assay. Crossing threshold (C T values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  18. Open trial of topical tacalcitol [1 alpha 24(OH)2D3] and solar irradiation for vitiligo vulgaris: upregulation of c-Kit mRNA by cultured melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Ichiro; Ashida, Miwa; Maeda, Aki; Eishi, Kumiko; Murota, Hiroyuki; Bae, Sang Jae

    2003-01-01

    Vitiligo vulgaris is a common skin disease, however some cases show poor clinical responses to topical steroid ointment or PUVA therapy. Such regimens are generally avoided in the treatment of facial lesions or in pediatric cases because of the undesirable side effects. To confirm the excellent response to combination therapy with topical vitamin D3 ointment and solar irradiation for vitiligo achieved in the initial patients, we conducted an open trial on other patients, most of whom had poor clinical responses to the prior therapies. Fifteen patients (9 men and 6 women) with vitiligo vulgaris were enrolled in this study. Each patient was instructed to sunbathe for 30 minutes within 1 hour after topical application of the tacalcitol [1 alpha 24(OH)(2)D(3)] ointment or cream to the skin lesions every day. Six of 15 patients showed a fair and excellent clinical response to the combination therapy (more than 30% clearance of the vitiligo). The clinical effect was more apparent in patients with a history of less than 5 years of vitiligo (4 of 6 cases) in contrast to those with a history of more than 5 years (2 of 9 cases). In vitro experiments revealed that tacalcitol upregulated the expression of c-Kit mRNA by melanocytes irradiated with linear polarized infrared, UVA or short period solar irradiation. These results suggest that combination therapy with topical vitamin D(3) ointment and solar irradiation can be used as an alternate therapy for vitiligo vulgaris. PMID:12948918

  19. Rotation dynamics of C{sub 60} molecules in a monolayer fullerene film on the WO{sub 2}/W(110) surface near the rotational phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozhko, S. I., E-mail: bozhko@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Levchenko, E. A. [Astrakhan’ State University (Russian Federation); Semenov, V. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation); Bulatov, M. F. [State Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry (Russian Federation); Shvets, I. V. [Trinity College Dublin, Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), School of Physics (Ireland)

    2015-05-15

    The rotation dynamics of C{sub 60} molecules in monolayer fullerene films grown on the WO{sub 2}/W(110) surface is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. The formation of molecule clusters, which have a high libron vibration amplitude, is detected near the rotational phase transition temperature. The energy parameters that determine a change in the molecule orientation, namely, the energy difference between the nearest minima of the C{sub 60} molecule energy (30 meV) as a function of the molecule orientation and the potential barrier between them (610 meV), are determined. The results are discussed in terms of the mean-field approximation.

  20. Rotation dynamics of C60 molecules in a monolayer fullerene film on the WO2/W(110) surface near the rotational phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rotation dynamics of C60 molecules in monolayer fullerene films grown on the WO2/W(110) surface is studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. The formation of molecule clusters, which have a high libron vibration amplitude, is detected near the rotational phase transition temperature. The energy parameters that determine a change in the molecule orientation, namely, the energy difference between the nearest minima of the C60 molecule energy (30 meV) as a function of the molecule orientation and the potential barrier between them (610 meV), are determined. The results are discussed in terms of the mean-field approximation

  1. Clinical comparison of indigenous /sup 99/Tc-m radiopharmaceuticals kits with Amersham diagnostic kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate appropriateness of the indigenous (Pinscan) cold kits was judged by performing clinical studies with them and comparing results with Amersham's diagnostic kits (Amerscan). The scans obtained by indigenous kits was as good as those of Amershams's. This proves that the indigenous kits are of acceptable quality and be used for routine clinical studies. (author)

  2. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Odília Fernandes Diniz

    2005-10-01

    -99m Ceftizoxima (99mTc-CFT, com estabilidade e atividade biológica preservadas, capaz de identificar um foco séptico (E.coli em um modelo experimental de infecção em ratos. A preparação do kit de CFT baseou-se em uma mistura de soluções contendo o antibiótico ceftizoxima (2,5mg/mL e o agente redutor ditionito de sódio (6,0mg/mL que foram submetidos a um processo de liofilização. Após a liofilização, o kit foi reconstituído with 1,0 mL de solução de pertecnetato de sódio (Na99mTcO4 -, contendo uma atividade de 370 MBq. Em seguida, a solução foi incubada, por 10 min, em banho fervente (1000C e, posteriormente, foi resfriada em água corrente por 5 min. A eficiência de marcação foi da ordem de 92% permanecendo estável por 6 horas e o kit permaneceu estável por 2 meses. A atividade biológica do 99mTc-CFT foi avaliada por difusão em ágar impregnado com E.coli e S. aureus. Foram utilizados 07 ratos Wistar, pesando entre 200 a 250 g, para o desenvolvimento do foco séptico. Após 24 horas da indução do foco infeccioso (E.coli, os animais foram anestesiados e 0,1 mL da 99mTc-CFT (37 MBq foi injetado na veia da cauda dos animais. As imagens de 1, 2 e 6 horas após a injeção foram adquiridas em uma gama câmara e as regiões de interesse (ROIS foram calculadas. Os valores obtidos dos diâmetros dos halos de inibição para 99mTc-CFT foram 27,16±0,23 e 27,17±0,20 para S. aureus e E.coli, respectivamente, sendo que para CFT não marcada foram 30,4±0,33 e 29,43±0,26, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos da biodistribuição da 99mTc-CFT nos animais com focos infecciosos mostraram uma relação alvo/não alvo de 1,97±0,31, 2,10±0,42 e 2,01±0,42 para os tempos de 1, 2 e 6 horas, respectivamente. As imagens obtidas mostraram nítida captação do antibiótico marcado (99mTc-CFT pelo foco infeccioso ao longo do experimento. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho atestam a viabilidade de produção de um kit da ceftizoxima marcada com 99m tecn

  3. Production of $Y(4260)$ as a hadronic molecule state of $\\bar{D}D_1 +c.c.$ in $e^+e^-$ annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Wen; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the $Y(4260)$ production in $e^+e^-$ annihilations and probe its structure as the $\\bar{D}D_1+c.c.$ hadronic molecule state. By introducing a compact $c\\bar{c}$ component into the wavefunction in addition to the long-ranged molecular one, we show that the compositeness relation can still provide a reasonable constraint on the wavefunction renormalization parameter. This study confirms the earlier work that the $Y(4260)$ contains predominantly a $\\bar{D}D_1+c.c.$ molecular component, and its decays into the $\\bar{D}D^*\\pi+c.c.$ channel should have a nontrivial lineshape. It provides a natural explanation for the production of $Y(4260)$ in $e^+e^-$ annihilations in the same framework. It also allows us to predict the $Y(4260)$ leptonic decay width of which the upper limit is about 500 eV.

  4. Biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule: characterization of polypeptide C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, O; Albrechtsen, M; Dahlin, J; Linnemann, D; Lyles, J M; Møller, C J; Bock, E

    1985-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) was studied in primary cultures of rat cerebral glial cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and skeletal muscle cells. The three cell types produced different N-CAM polypeptide patterns. Glial cells synthesized a 135,000 Mr polypeptide B...

  5. Preparation of imaging kits locally using indium-113 as a suitable short-lived generator product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study forty patients are selected to do brain , lung , bone , liver and spleen imaging. Patients were selected carefully in the bases of the imaging history disorders. Kits prepared and kept frozen in (- 20 degree C) eluent the generator and indium 113 products were added to each kit and imaging sorted out using gamma camera and analysed statistically

  6. Tracking Site-specific C-C Coupling of Formaldehyde Molecules on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ke; Xia, Yaobiao; Tang, Miru; Wang, Zhitao; Jan, Bryan; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Ge, Qingfeng; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Park, Kenneth T.; Zhang, Zhenrong

    2015-06-25

    Direct imaging of site-specific reactions of individual mole-cules as a function of temperature is a long-sought goal in molecular science. Here, we report the direct visualization of molecular coupling of formaldehyde on reduced rutile TiO2(110) surfaces as we track the same set of molecules when the temperature is increased from 75 to 170 K using scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Our recent study showed that formaldehyde preferably adsorbs on bridging-bonded oxygen (Ob) vacancy (VO) defect site. Herein, images from the same area as the temperature is increased show that VO-bound formaldehyde couples with Ti-bound formaldehyde forming a diolate intermediate. Exposure of formaldehyde at room temperature leads to diolate as the majority species on the surface and no VO-bound formaldehyde is observed. The diolate species are the key reaction intermediates in the formation of ethylene reported in previous ensemble-averaged studies.

  7. Tyrosine phosphorylation within the amino-terminal domain of pp60c-src molecules associated with polyoma virus middle-sized tumor antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Yonemoto, W; Jarvis-Morar, M; Brugge, J S; Bolen, J B; Israel, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the in vitro phosphorylation of cellular src protein (pp60c-src) molecules associated with the polyoma virus middle-sized tumor antigen in polyoma virus-transformed cells. These pp60c-src molecules possessed an enhanced tyrosyl kinase activity, migrated aberrantly on NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gels, and contained a novel site of tyrosine phosphorylation within the amino-terminal region of the molecule. The pp60c-src molecules not associated with the middle-sized tumor antigen we...

  8. Photo-electrochemical Oxidation of Organic C1 Molecules over WO3 Films in Aqueous Electrolyte: Competition Between Water Oxidation and C1 Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Robert; Zambrzycki, Christian; Jusys, Zenonas; Behm, R Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    To better understand organic-molecule-assisted photo-electrochemical water splitting, photo-electrochemistry and on-line mass spectrometry measurements are used to investigate the photo-electrochemical oxidation of the C1 molecules methanol, formaldehyde, and formic acid over WO3 film anodes in aqueous solution and its competition with O2 evolution from water oxidation O2 (+) and CO2 (+) ion currents show that water oxidation is strongly suppressed by the organic species. Photo-electro-oxidation of formic acid is dominated by formation of CO2 , whereas incomplete oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol prevails, with the selectivity for CO2 formation increasing with increasing potential and light intensity. The mechanistic implications for the photo-electro-oxidation of the organic molecules and its competition with water oxidation, which could be derived from this novel approach, are discussed. PMID:26382643

  9. Conditions to obtain precise and true measurements of the intramolecular 13C distribution in organic molecules by isotopic 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the trueness and precision criteria of isotopic 13C NMR spectrometry. • Use of bi-labelled [1,2-13C2]acetic acid to determine the performance of the instrumental response. • Inter-calibration of the 13C intramolecular composition of acetic acid using the technique GC-Py–irm-MS. - Abstract: Intramolecular 13C composition gives access to new information on the (bio) synthetic history of a given molecule. Isotopic 13C NMR spectrometry provides a general tool for measuring the position-specific 13C content. As an emerging technique, some aspects of its performance are not yet fully delineated. This paper reports on (i) the conditions required to obtain satisfactory trueness and precision for the determination of the internal 13C distribution, and (ii) an approach to determining the “absolute” position-specific 13C content. In relation to (i), a precision of <1% can be obtained whatever the molecule on any spectrometer, once quantitative conditions are met, in particular appropriate proton decoupling efficiency. This performance is a prerequisite to the measurement of isotope fractionation either on the transformed or residual compound when a chemical reaction or process is being studied. The study of the trueness has revealed that the response of the spectrometer depends on the 13C frequency range of the studied molecule, i.e. the chemical shift range. The “absolute value” and, therefore, the trueness of the 13C NMR measurements has been assessed on acetic acid and by comparison to the results obtained on the fragments from COOH and CH3 by isotopic mass spectrometry coupled to a pyrolysis device (GC-Py–irm-MS), this technique being the reference method for acetic acid. Of the two NMR spectrometers used in this work, one gave values that corresponded to those obtained by GC-Py–irm-MS (thus, the “true” value) while the other showed a bias, which was dependent to the range covered by the resonance frequencies of the

  10. Conditions to obtain precise and true measurements of the intramolecular {sup 13}C distribution in organic molecules by isotopic {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayle, Kevin [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Gilbert, Alexis [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth–Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Julien, Maxime [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Yamada, Keita [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Silvestre, Virginie; Robins, Richard J.; Akoka, Serge [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Yoshida, Naohiro [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Earth–Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Remaud, Gérald S., E-mail: gerald.remaud@univ-nantes.fr [EBSI Team, Interdisciplinary Chemistry: Synthesis, Analysis, Modelling (CEISAM), University of Nantes-CNRS UMR 6230, 2 Rue de la Houssinière, BP 92208, F-44322, Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Evaluation of the trueness and precision criteria of isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry. • Use of bi-labelled [1,2-{sup 13}C{sub 2}]acetic acid to determine the performance of the instrumental response. • Inter-calibration of the {sup 13}C intramolecular composition of acetic acid using the technique GC-Py–irm-MS. - Abstract: Intramolecular {sup 13}C composition gives access to new information on the (bio) synthetic history of a given molecule. Isotopic {sup 13}C NMR spectrometry provides a general tool for measuring the position-specific {sup 13}C content. As an emerging technique, some aspects of its performance are not yet fully delineated. This paper reports on (i) the conditions required to obtain satisfactory trueness and precision for the determination of the internal {sup 13}C distribution, and (ii) an approach to determining the “absolute” position-specific {sup 13}C content. In relation to (i), a precision of <1% can be obtained whatever the molecule on any spectrometer, once quantitative conditions are met, in particular appropriate proton decoupling efficiency. This performance is a prerequisite to the measurement of isotope fractionation either on the transformed or residual compound when a chemical reaction or process is being studied. The study of the trueness has revealed that the response of the spectrometer depends on the {sup 13}C frequency range of the studied molecule, i.e. the chemical shift range. The “absolute value” and, therefore, the trueness of the {sup 13}C NMR measurements has been assessed on acetic acid and by comparison to the results obtained on the fragments from COOH and CH{sub 3} by isotopic mass spectrometry coupled to a pyrolysis device (GC-Py–irm-MS), this technique being the reference method for acetic acid. Of the two NMR spectrometers used in this work, one gave values that corresponded to those obtained by GC-Py–irm-MS (thus, the “true” value) while the other showed a bias, which was

  11. RestKit for iOS standard guide

    CERN Document Server

    Kalapun, Taras

    2013-01-01

    A step-by-step, example-based guide to learning how you can link your apps and web services using RestKit.This book is for iOS developers of all levels who are interested in boosting their productivity by utilizing third party libraries and who have a willingness to learn how to build RESTful apps using the RestKit framework. A basic knowledge of Objective-C is required as well as a simple understanding of how to use CoreData.

  12. A comparative study on the performances of small molecule organic solar cells based on CuPc/C{sub 60} and CuPc/C{sub 70}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xi [School of Internet of Things Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Li, Wenjia; Wu, Jiaqi [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Ji, Jingjia; Shi, Zhengrong [Suntech Power Co. Ltd., Wuxi 214028 (China); Jiangsu (Suntech) Institute for Photovoltaic Technology, Wuxi 214028 (China); Li, Guohua [School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Jiangsu (Suntech) Institute for Photovoltaic Technology, Wuxi 214028 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Small molecule organic solar cells based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and fullerene were fabricated using C{sub 60} and C{sub 70} as acceptors, respectively. The results showed that photovoltaic performances of the cells using C{sub 70}-acceptor were better than that of C{sub 60}-acceptor. The mechanisms of enhancement were systemically discussed on the energy level difference of the heterojunction, light absorption of the materials and quantum current distribution in the two kinds of fullerene molecules. The degradation of these two kinds of cells exposed in the air without encapsulation was also studied. It was found that the cells using C{sub 70} as an acceptor showed a better stability. This is because C{sub 60} can be easily destroyed by oxygen than C{sub 70}. Thus, using C{sub 70} as an acceptor not only can increase the photovoltaic characteristics, but it also can dramatically improve the stability of the cells. (author)

  13. Redox active molecules cytochrome c and vitamin C enhance heme-enzyme peroxidations by serving as non-specific agents for redox relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► At low concentrations, cytochrome c/vitamin C do not catalyze peroxidations. ► But low levels of cytochrome c/vitamin C enhance diverse heme peroxidase activities. ► Enhancement positively correlates to the concentration of peroxide in reaction. ► Reducible additives serve as non-specific agents for redox relay in the system. ► Insight into electron transfer processes in routine and oxidative-stress states. -- Abstract: We report that incorporation of very low concentrations of redox protein cytochrome c and redox active small molecule vitamin C impacted the outcome of one-electron oxidations mediated by structurally distinct plant/fungal heme peroxidases. Evidence suggests that cytochrome c and vitamin C function as a redox relay for diffusible reduced oxygen species in the reaction system, without invoking specific or affinity-based molecular interactions for electron transfers. The findings provide novel perspectives to understanding – (1) the promiscuous role of cytochrome b5 in the metabolism mediated by liver microsomal xenobiotic metabolizing systems and (2) the roles of antioxidant molecules in affording relief from oxidative stress.

  14. Interaction of HmC1q with leech microglial cells: involvement of C1qBP-related molecule in the induction of cell chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahtouh Muriel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In invertebrates, the medicinal leech is considered to be an interesting and appropriate model to study neuroimmune mechanisms. Indeed, this non-vertebrate animal can restore normal function of its central nervous system (CNS after injury. Microglia accumulation at the damage site has been shown to be required for axon sprouting and for efficient regeneration. We characterized HmC1q as a novel chemotactic factor for leech microglial cell recruitment. In mammals, a C1q-binding protein (C1qBP alias gC1qR, which interacts with the globular head of C1q, has been reported to participate in C1q-mediated chemotaxis of blood immune cells. In this study, we evaluated the chemotactic activities of a recombinant form of HmC1q and its interaction with a newly characterized leech C1qBP that acts as its potential ligand. Methods Recombinant HmC1q (rHmC1q was produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Chemotaxis assays were performed to investigate rHmC1q-dependent microglia migration. The involvement of a C1qBP-related molecule in this chemotaxis mechanism was assessed by flow cytometry and with affinity purification experiments. The cellular localization of C1qBP mRNA and protein in leech was investigated using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Results rHmC1q-stimulated microglia migrate in a dose-dependent manner. This rHmC1q-induced chemotaxis was reduced when cells were preincubated with either anti-HmC1q or anti-human C1qBP antibodies. A C1qBP-related molecule was characterized in leech microglia. Conclusions A previous study showed that recruitment of microglia is observed after HmC1q release at the cut end of axons. Here, we demonstrate that rHmC1q-dependent chemotaxis might be driven via a HmC1q-binding protein located on the microglial cell surface. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the interaction between C1q and C1qBP in microglial activation leading to nerve repair in the medicinal

  15. The FOT tool kit concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Flight operations and the preparation for it has become increasingly complex as mission complexities increase. Further, the mission model dictates that a significant increase in flight operations activities is upon us. Finally, there is a need for process improvement and economy in the operations arena. It is therefore time that we recognize flight operations as a complex process requiring a defined, structured, and life cycle approach vitally linked to space segment, ground segment, and science operations processes. With this recognition, an FOT Tool Kit consisting of six major components designed to provide tools to guide flight operations activities throughout the mission life cycle was developed. The major components of the FOT Tool Kit and the concepts behind the flight operations life cycle process as developed at NASA's GSFC for GSFC-based missions are addressed. The Tool Kit is therefore intended to increase productivity, quality, cost, and schedule performance of the flight operations tasks through the use of documented, structured methodologies; knowledge of past lessons learned and upcoming new technology; and through reuse and sharing of key products and special application programs made possible through the development of standardized key products and special program directories.

  16. CERN’s FMC Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Cattin, M; Serrano, J; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the renovation of controls and data acquisition electronics for accelerators the BE-CO-HT section at CERN has designed a kit based on carriers and mezzanines following the VITA FPGAMezzanine Card (FMC) standard. Carriers exist in VME64x and PCIe form factors, with a PXIe carrier underway. Mezzanines include an Analog to Digital Converter, a Time to Digital Converter, a fine delay generator and a Digital Input/Output. All of the designs are licensed under the CERN Open Hardware Licence and commercialised by companies. This paper discusses the benefits of this carrier mezzanine strategy and of the Open Hardware based commercial paradigm. It also explains the design of each layer of the FMC kit, from the hardware to the gateware and the Linux device driver. In addition, several tools to help designers developing gateware for mezzanines and new concepts such as the Self-Describing Bus (SDB) and the fmcbus are presented. Lastly, some of the plans for the future of the FMC kit and Open Hardware Re...

  17. Radical-Molecule Reaction C3H + H2O on Amorphous Water Ice: A Promising Route for Interstellar Propynal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-bin; Shao, Chang-bin; Ding, Yi-hong

    2007-11-01

    Intriguing propynal (HCCCHO) has been attracting chemist's attention since 1955. However, to date, no satisfying conclusion concerning its formation mechanism in the interstellar medium (ISM) has been reached, although a variety of gas-reaction models, including ion-molecule, radical-molecule, and molecule-molecule, have been postulated. In this paper, we consider for the first time the gas-grain interaction model that involves heterogeneous reaction at the surface of dust grain or in the icy mantles to account for the propynal's formation. Based on the detailed density functional theory (DFT) and Gaussian-3 potential energy surface studies, we found that although the gaseous process C3H+H2O-->propynal+H must surmount a considerable entrance barrier (around 10 kcal mol-1), amorphous water ice can significantly catalyze the propynal's formation to be barrierless. So, this model should be a more reasonable one for propynal's formation in the low-temperature interstellar space. This result may also represent one rare case of the water-catalyzed reaction associated with a molecular radical in space. Future experimental studies are greatly desired to probe such interesting processes.

  18. Quality evaluation of TSH IRMA kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of TSH (IRMA) kit is estimated by experiment data obtained in 12 months. The essential results contain Bmin/T ≤ 0.3%, Bmax/Bmin > 190, the correlated coefficient of the standard curve ≥0.993 which have been processed by linear regression of IgD-lg(B/Bmax), ABCV ≤ 3.4%. Both CV of the curve slope and intercept are less than 5%. All determined values of QC serum are in reference limitation, the CV and bias of inter and intra are less than 10% and 15% respectively. The sensitivity of the method is 0.046 mIU/L, and the stability which is determined by stored the kit at 4 degree C is normal, except Bmin/T is less higher in two months. The samples are determined by TSH RIA and TSH produced by DPC in order to compare with TSH IRMA and the correlated coefficient of the results are 0.9494 and 0.9868 respectively

  19. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ballet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1 response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2 response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  20. Two human cDNA molecules coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus are highly homologous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, A.; Speer, A.; Billwitz, H. (Zentralinstitut fuer Molekularbiologie, Berlin-Buch (Germany Democratic Republic)); Cross, G.S.; Forrest, S.M.; Davies, K.E. (Univ. of Oxford (England))

    1989-07-11

    Recently the complete sequence of the human fetal cDNA coding for the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) locus was reported and a 3,685 amino acid long, rod-shaped cytoskeletal protein (dystrophin) was predicted as the protein product. Independently, the authors have isolated and sequenced different DMD cDNA molecules from human adult and fetal muscle. The complete 12.5 kb long sequence of all their cDNA clones has now been determined and they report here the nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) differences between the sequences of both groups. The cDNA sequence comprises the whole coding region but lacks the first 110 nt from the 5{prime}-untranslated region and the last 1,417 nt of the 3{prime}-untranslated region. They have found 11 nt differences (approximately 99.9% homology) from which 7 occurred at the aa level.

  1. Electron impact total (elastic + inelastic) cross-sections of C, N and O atoms amd their simple molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total (elastic + inelastic) cross-sections for electron scattering from C, N, O atoms and their simple molecules are studied theoretically. The e--C, N, O atomic calculations are done in the complex optical potential approach. To study the electron scattering from O2, N2, CO, NO, CN, C2 as well as CO2, N2O, NO2 and O3 targets, we have adopted an additivity rule, wherein the molecular cross-section is an incoherent sum of the cross-sections of the constituent atoms. The cross-sections of C, N and O atoms are presented at incident energies Ei = 10-1000 eV, the molecular cross-sections are presented at Ei = 100-1000 eV. The reliability of the additivity rule is discussed against the background of experimental data. (orig.)

  2. Study on muon capture process for gaseous molecules containing C and O atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muonic atom is an atomic system which has a negative muon substituted an electron. When a muon is stopped in a substance, a muonic atom is formed. It is known that muonic atom formation processes are influenced by the chemical environment of muon capturing atom such as molecular structure (chemical effect). However chemical effects still have not been well investigated. In this study, we performed muon irradiation for CO, CO2 and COS molecules, and measured muonic X-rays precisely to investigate the chemical effect on muon capture processes. (author)

  3. Pentaatomic planar tetracoordinate carbon molecules [XCAl(3)](q) [(X,q) = (B,-2), (C,-1), (N,0)] with C-X multiple bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhong-Hua; Shao, Chang-Bin; Gao, Si-Meng; Ding, Yi-Hong

    2010-11-01

    Among the fascinating planar tetracoordinate carbon (ptC) species, pentaatomic molecules belong to the smallest class, well-known as "pptC". It has been generally accepted that the planarity of pptC structure is realized via the "delocalization" of the p(z) lone pair at the central carbon and the ligand-ligand bonding interaction. Although "localization" is as key driving force in organic chemistry as "delocalization", the "localization" concept has not been applied to the design of pptC molecules, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, we apply the "localization" strategy to design computationally a series of new pptC. It is shown that the central carbon atom and one "electronegative" ligand atom X (compared to the Al ligand) effectively form a highly localized C-X multiple bond, converting the lone pair at the central carbon to a two-center two-electron π-bond. At the aug-cc-pVTZ-B3LYP, MP2 and CCSD(T) levels, the designed 18-valence-electron pptC species [XCAl(3)](q); [(X,q) = (B,-2), (C,-1), (N,0)] are found to each possess a stable ptC structure bearing a C-X double bond, indicated by the structural, molecular orbital, Wiberg bonding, potential energy surface and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD) analysis. Moreover, our OVGF calculations showed that the presently disclosed (yet previously unconsidered) pptC structure of [C(2)Al(3)](-) could well account for the observed photoelectron spectrum (previously only ascribed to a close-energy fan-like structure). Therefore, [C(2)Al(3)](-) could be the first pptC that bears the highly localized C-X double bond that has been experimentally generated. Notably, the pptC structure is the respective global minimum point for [BCAl(3)](2-) and [NCAl(3)], and the counterion(s) would further stabilize [BCAl(3)](2-) and [C(2)Al(3)](-). Thus, these newly designed pptC species with interesting bonding structure should be viable for future experimental characterization. The presently applied "localization" approach

  4. Z{sub c} (4025) as the hadronic molecule with hidden charm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jun [Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Nuclear Theory Group, Lanzhou (China); Liu, Xiang; Sun, Zhi-Feng [Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Zhu, Shi-Lin [Peking University, Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-15

    We have studied the loosely bound D{sup *} anti D{sup *} system. Our results indicate that the recently observed charged charmonium-like structure Z{sub c} (4025) can be an ideal D{sup *} anti D{sup *} molecular state. We have also investigated its pionic, dipionic, and radiative decays. We stress that both the scalar isovector molecular partner Z{sub c0} and three isoscalar partners Z{sub c0,c1,c2} should also exist if Z{sub c} (4025) is a D{sup *} anti D{sup *} molecular state in the framework of the one-pion-exchange model. Z{sub c0} can be searched for in the channel e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Y {yields} Z{sub c0}(4025)({pi}{pi}){sub P-wave} where Y can be Y(4260) or any other excited 1{sup -} charmonium or charmonium-like states such as Y(4360), Y(4660), etc. The isoscalar D{sup *} anti D{sup *} molecular states Z{sub c0,c2} with 0{sup +}(0{sup ++}) and 0{sup +}(2{sup ++}) can be searched for in the three pion decay channel e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} Y {yields} Z{sub c0,c2} (3{pi}){sup I=0}{sub P-wave}. The isoscalar molecular state Z{sub c1} with 0{sup -}(1{sup +-}) can be searched for in the channel Z{sub c1}{eta}. Experimental discovery of these partner states will firmly establish the molecular picture. (orig.)

  5. Glycolaldehyde as a Probe Molecule for Biomass Derivatives: Reaction of C-OH and C=O Functional Groups on Monolayer Ni Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Weiting; Barteau, Mark A.; Chen, Jingguang G.

    2011-12-21

    Controlling the activity and selectivity of converting biomass derivatives to syngas (H₂ and CO) is critical for the utilization of biomass feedstocks as renewable sources for chemicals and fuels. One key chemistry in the conversion is the selective bond scission of the C—OH and C=O functionalities, which are present in many biomass derivatives. Because of the high molecular weight and low vapor pressure, it is relatively difficult to perform fundamental surface science studies of C6 sugars, such as glucose and fructose, using ultrahigh vacuum techniques. Glycolaldehyde (HOCH₂CH=O) is the smallest molecule that contains both the C—OH and C=O functional groups, as well as the same C/O ratio as C6 sugars, and thus is selected as a probe molecule in the current study to determine how the presence of the C=O bond affects the reaction mechanism. Using a combination of density functional theory calculations and experimental measurements, our results indicate that the reaction pathway of glycolaldehyde to produce syngas can be enhanced by supporting monolayer Ni on a Pt substrate, which shows higher activity than either of the parent metals. Furthermore, the Pt substrate can be replaced by tungsten monocarbide to achieve similar activity and selectivity, indicating the possibility of using Ni/WC to replace Ni/Pt as active and selective catalysts with higher stability and lower cost.

  6. High resolution LT-STM imaging of PTCDA molecules assembled on an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembling of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules deposited on an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface at sub-monolayer quantities has been investigated at low temperature (77 K) using scanning tunnelling microscopy. Sub-molecular resolution was obtained on PTCDA molecules. The results reveal that individual PTCDA molecules are arranged on the substrate in chains parallel to the [110] crystallographic direction, correlated with characteristic features of the low temperature InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface electronic structure. A structural model for PTCDA molecules adsorbed on InSb is proposed

  7. Coupled channel analysis of molecule picture of $P_{c}(4380)$

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Yuki; Harada, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    We construct a potential obtained by one-pion exchange for the coupled channel $\\Sigma_c^\\ast$$\\bar{D}$-$\\Sigma_c$$\\bar{D}^\\ast$, and solve the coupled Schr\\"{o}dinger equations to determine the binding energy. We find that there exists one or two bound states with the binding energy of several MeV below the threshold of $\\Sigma_c^\\ast$ and $\\bar{D}$, dominantly made from a $\\Sigma_c^\\ast$ baryon and a $\\bar{D}$ meson, with the size of about $1.5$fm for wide parameter region. We also study the pentaquark states including a $b$ quark and/or an anti-$b$ quark. We show that there exist pentaquarks including $c\\bar{b}$, $b\\bar{c}$ and $b\\bar{b}$, all of which lie at about $10$MeV below the corresponding threshold and have size of about $1.5$fm.

  8. The CXC chemokine cCAF stimulates precocious deposition of ECM molecules by wound fibroblasts, accelerating development of granulation tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Qi-Jing

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During wound repair, fibroblasts orchestrate replacement of the provisional matrix formed during clotting with tenascin, cellular fibronectin and collagen III. These, in turn, are critical for migration of endothelial cells, keratinocytes and additional fibroblasts into the wound site. Fibroblasts are also important in the deposition of collagen I during scar formation. The CXC chemokine chicken Chemotactic and Angiogenic Factor (cCAF, is highly expressed by fibroblasts after wounding and during development of the granulation tissue, especially in areas where extracellular matrix (ECM is abundant. We hypothesized that cCAF stimulates fibroblasts to produce these matrix molecules. Results Here we show that this chemokine can stimulate precocious deposition of tenascin, fibronectin and collagen I, but not collagen III. Studies in culture and in vivo show that tenascin stimulation can also be achieved by the N-terminal 15 aas of the protein and occurs at the level of gene expression. In contrast, stimulation of fibronectin and collagen I both require the entire molecule and do not involve changes in gene expression. Fibronectin accumulation appears to be linked to tenascin production, and collagen I to decreased MMP-1 levels. In addition, cCAF is chemotactic for fibroblasts and accelerates their migration. Conclusions These previously unknown functions for chemokines suggest that cCAF, the chicken orthologue of human IL-8, enhances healing by rapidly chemoattracting fibroblasts into the wound site and stimulating them to produce ECM molecules, leading to precocious development of granulation tissue. This acceleration of the repair process may have important application to healing of impaired wounds.

  9. Force and Conductance during contact formation to a C60 molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Hauptmann N.; Mohn F.; Gross L.; Meyer G.; Frederiksen T.; Berndt R.

    2012-01-01

    Force and conductance were simultaneously measured during the formation of Cu-C60 and C60-C60 contacts using a combined cryogenic scanning tunneling and atomic force microscope. The contact geometry was controlled with submolecular resolution. The maximal attractive forces measured for the two types of junctions were found to differ significantly. We show that the previously reported values of the contact conductance correspond to the junction being under maximal tensile stress.

  10. Marshall Space Flight Center Telescience Resource Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Telescience Resource Kit (TReK) is a suite of software applications that can be used to monitor and control assets in space or on the ground. The Telescience Resource Kit was originally developed for the International Space Station program. Since then it has been used to support a variety of NASA programs and projects including the WB-57 Ascent Vehicle Experiment (WAVE) project, the Fast Affordable Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT) project, and the Constellation Program. The Payloads Operations Center (POC), also known as the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), provides the capability for payload users to operate their payloads at their home sites. In this environment, TReK provides local ground support system services and an interface to utilize remote services provided by the POC. TReK provides ground system services for local and remote payload user sites including International Partner sites, Telescience Support Centers, and U.S. Investigator sites in over 40 locations worldwide. General Capabilities: Support for various data interfaces such as User Datagram Protocol, Transmission Control Protocol, and Serial interfaces. Data Services - retrieve, process, record, playback, forward, and display data (ground based data or telemetry data). Command - create, modify, send, and track commands. Command Management - Configure one TReK system to serve as a command server/filter for other TReK systems. Database - databases are used to store telemetry and command definition information. Application Programming Interface (API) - ANSI C interface compatible with commercial products such as Visual C++, Visual Basic, LabVIEW, Borland C++, etc. The TReK API provides a bridge for users to develop software to access and extend TReK services. Environments - development, test, simulations, training, and flight. Includes standalone training simulators.

  11. All-electron ab initio investigations of the electronic states of the NiC molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl. A.

    The low-lying electronic states of NiC are investigated by all-electron ab initio multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculations including relativistic corrections. The electronic structure of NiC is interpreted as perturbed antiferromagnetic couplings of the localized angular...

  12. Photoionization of Xe inside a C+60 cage: a single-molecule electron interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute cross sections are reported for double photoionization accompanied by loss of n C atoms (n = 0, 2, 4, 6) of endohedral Xe@C+60 molecular ions in the photon energy range 60 − 150 eV. The experimental data show clear evidence of confinement resonances arising from interference of outgoing 4d photoelectron waves.

  13. Quantitative analysis of carbon--carbon coupling in the 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of molecules biosynthesized from 13C enriched precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative dependence of the intensities of the various multiplet lines arising from 13C-13C nuclear spin coupling as a function of 13C enrichment is considered. Two cases are distinguished, depending on whether or not the enrichment of the interacting carbons is statistically independent. For statistically independent labeling, the splitting is simply related to the enrichment of the various carbons. For cases in which this condition does not hold, the splitting provides a measure of the correlation in the enrichment of interacting carbons. The quantitative analysis of 13C-13C coupling is shown to provide additional information in biosynthetic experiments in which a correlation in the labeling of the substrates is introduced. In contrast to the information which is obtained by looking for the incorporation of a label into a specific position of a biosynthesized molecule, a quantitative analysis of the correlation in the labeling of the product can give information about the direct incorporation of more complex structural units. Three examples are discussed: the glycolysis of glucose to lactate, the biosynthesis of galactosylglycerol by species of red algae, and the use of doubly labeled acetate to study the biosynthetic incorporation of acetate units into more complex molecules. (U.S.)

  14. A kit for preparation of 188Re sulfide suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 188Re sulfide suspension could be prepared quickly by a kit. The kit consists of three 10 mL vials. All the procedures were carried out in sterility circumstance. Vial A consisted of 1 mL KReO4 and Na2S2O3 (mole ratio 1:70) solution with excipient. Vial B was 5 mol/L HCl solution. Vial C consisted of 1.5 mL PVP and NaOH solution (mole ratio 1000:1). Vial B was sealed, Vial A and C were freeze-dried. Bacterium check, endotoxin check and security check were qualified. Kits were kept at ambient temperature and the Labelling efficiency of 188Re sulfide suspension was more than 98% with 2 months. The particle sizes were 1-5 μm (60.1 +- 12.7)%; 5-10 μm (30.9 +- 8.1)%; > 10 μm (9.0 +- 4.7)%. The radiochemical purity of 188Re sulfide suspension made by the kit was higher than 98% in 5 days with particle sizes 1-5 μm (49.9 +- 14.4%); 5-10 μm (41.1 +- 5.4)%; > 10μm (9.0 +- 3.3)%

  15. Business Plans Kit For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, Colin

    2011-01-01

    An interactive guide to every element of the business planning processAre you an entrepreneur who wants to make it big? A manager grappling with logistics? A small business owner trying to map out a future in shaky economic times? Then look no further! Business Plans Kit For Dummies is a nuts-and-bolts guide to evaluating and invigorating your commercial strategy, no matter how big or small your business.Lay the foundations - identify your long-term goals and brainstorm your business options Develop the skills - sketch out a working model, size up competitors and fire up your marketing machine

  16. The Free Universal Construction Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephensen, Jan Løhmann; Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing economic accessibility of 3D printers, the lessons learned and the logics cultivated on digital Web 2.0 now seems applicable to the world of material things. Released in early 2012 by the artist groups F.A.T. and Sy-lab, the Free Universal Construction Kit is a set of 3D...... drawings that enable everyone with access to a 3D printer to make connectors, “the missing links”, between intellectual property restricted toys like LEGO, Tinkertoys, and Fischertechnik. However, when describing this project as “reverse engineering as a civic activity”, it seems obvious that F...

  17. Synthesis of functional xLayMn/KIT-6 and features in hot coal gas desulphurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hong; Zhang, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhaofei; Liu, Bingsi

    2015-08-28

    To enhance the stability of sorbents during continuous desulphurization-regeneration cycles, KIT-6 with 3D pore channels was used as a support for the sorbents. A series of mesoporous xLayMn/KIT-6 sorbents with different La/Mn atomic ratios were fabricated using a sol-gel method and their desulphurization properties of hot coal gas were investigated at 700-850 °C. 3La97Mn/KIT-6 performed the best at 800 °C with a breakthrough sulphur capacity of 11.56 g sulphur per 100 g sorbent. The eight successive desulphurization (800 °C)-regeneration (600 °C) cycles revealed that 3La97Mn/KIT-6 with endurable regeneration abilities could retain 80% of the initial sulphur capacity. It indicated a better desulphurization performance compared to pure 3La97Mn and 3La97Mn/MCM-41. The fresh and used xLayMn/KIT-6 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, HRTEM, XPS and H2-TPR techniques. The XRD patterns and HRTEM images of fresh and used 3La97Mn/KIT-6 verified that the utilization of KIT-6 effectively suppressed the aggregation of Mn2O3 particles and improved the stability of the sorbent. PMID:26204251

  18. Theoretical investigation of endohedral complexes of Si and Ge with C{sub 60} molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umran, Nibras Mossa, E-mail: nibrasmossa@uokerbala.edu.iq [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Physics, Science College, Kerbala University, Kerbala (Iraq); Kumar, Ranjan [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2014-03-15

    The electronic and magnetic properties of Si and Ge doped C{sub 60} fullerene are investigated with ab initio density functional theory calculations. In endohedral Si{sub n} (n=1–10) and Ge{sub n} (1–9) doped C{sub 60} complexes we have seen that Si and Ge doped complexes are stable up to 9 and 4 atoms, respectively. We have also investigated binding energy and ionization potential of the endohedral fullerene C{sub 60}. Endohedral fullerenes have been found to be more chemically reactive. Mullikan charge analysis shows the presence of the magnetic moment in these systems.

  19. Kit with track detectors aiming at didactic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kit intends to improve the possibilities in performing experiments of Nuclear Physics in Modern Physics Laboratories of Physics Course introducing the solid state nuclear track detectors. In these materials the passage of heavily ionizing nuclear particles creates paths (tracks) that may be revealed and made visible in an optical microscope. By the help of the kit several experiments and/or demonstrations may be performed. The kit contains solid state nuclear track detectors unirradiated and irradiated, irradiated etched and uneteched sheets; an alpha source of 241Am and an instrution text with photomicrographs. To use the kit the laboratory must have an ordinary optical microscope. (author)

  20. Ab initio calculation of the electronic and vibrational properties of metal-organic molecules based on cyclic C{sub 6} intercalated with some group VIII transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmin, Stanislav L.; Duley, Walter W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    The vibrational and electronic properties of a new class of organometallic sandwich molecules, (C{sub 6}){sub n}Me{sub n-1}, based on stacks of cyclic C{sub 6} intercalated with Fe and Ru have been studied using first principles density functional techniques (DFT). Spectral properties as well as the HOMO-LUMO gap energy in molecules containing up to eight C{sub 6} layers have been calculated. The HOMO-LUMO energy gap in these molecules is < 1 eV and decreases significantly in longer molecules. It is shown that infinite chains should have excellent metallic properties. These molecules are promising for nanoelectronic applications, due to their predicted high stability, conductivity, and magnetic properties. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Z_c(3900) as a D\\bar{D}^* Molecule from Pole Counting Rule

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Qin-Rong; Meng, Ce; Tang, Guang-Yi; Zheng, Han-Qing

    2016-01-01

    A careful study on the nature of the Z_c(3900) resonant structure is carried out in this work. By constructing the pertinent effective Lagrangians and considering the important final-state-interaction effects, we first give a unified description to all the relevant experimental data available, including the J/\\psi\\pi and \\pi\\pi invariant mass distributions from the e^+e^-\\to J/\\psi\\pi\\pi process, the h_c\\pi distribution from e^+e^-\\to h_c\\pi\\pi and also the D\\bar{D}^{*} spectrum in the e^+e^-\\to D\\bar{D}^{*}\\pi process. After fitting the unknown parameters to the previous data, we search the pole in the complex energy plane and only find one pole in the nearby energy region in different Riemann sheets. Therefore we conclude that Z_c(3900) is of D\\bar{D}^* molecular nature, according to the pole counting rule method. We emphasize that the conclusion based upon pole counting method is not trivial, since both the D\\bar{D}^{*} contact interactions and the explicit Z_c exchanges are introduced in our analyses and ...

  2. Merkel Cell Carcinoma: Correlation of KIT Expression with Survival and Evaluation of KIT Gene Mutational Status

    OpenAIRE

    Andea, Aleodor A.; Patel, Raj; Ponnazhagan, Selvarangan; Kumar, Sanjay; DeVilliers, Patricia; Jhala, Darshana; Eltoum, Isam E.; Siegal, Gene P.

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is one of the most aggressive primary cutaneous malignancies. Since some Merkel cell carcinomas express the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, we aimed to evaluate the correlation of KIT expression with outcome and the presence of activating mutations in the KIT gene in Merkel cell carcinoma.

  3. Single C59N molecule as a molecular rectifier%C59N单分子整流器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克东; 李斌; 杨金龙; 侯建国

    2006-01-01

    通过将单个C59N分子置于双势垒隧道结中,从而利用单电子隧穿效应和C59N分子的特殊能级结构,我们成功地实现了一种新型的单分子整流器件.实验中这个整流器件的正向导通电压约为0.5-0.7 V,反向击穿电压约为1.6-1.8 V.理论分析表明,中性C59N分子的半占据费米能级以及在不同充电情况下费米能级的不对称移动是形成整流效应的主要原因.其构成原理也决定了该器件具有稳定、易重复的特点.

  4. Kit formulated asialoglycoprotein receptor targeting tracer based on copolymer for liver SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Specific targeting of galactose-carrying molecule to ASGP-R in normal hepatocytes has been demonstrated before. In this study, galactosyl polystyrene was synthesized from controllable ratio of functional monomers and radio-labelled with 99mTc by formulated kit for SPECT imaging of hepatic function. Methods: p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54) was synthesized by free-radical copolymerization initiated by AIBN, purified by dialysis, lyophilized to kit with Tricine and TPPTS as co-ligands for 99mTc labeling. Radiotracer 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was prepared and evaluated by in vitro stability, in vivo metabolism, ex vivo biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging in normal KM mice. MicroSPECT/CT and microMRI imaging were also performed in C57BL/b6 mice with xenograft hepatic carcinoma for hepatic function evaluation. Results: 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) was obtained in high radio chemical purity (RCP) (> 99%) by using instant kit without further purification and excellent in vitro and in vivo stability. The result of biodistribution showed that liver had high uptake (90.49 ± 10.68 ID%/g) at 30 min after injection and was blocked significantly by cold copolymer. MicroSPECT imaging in normal KM mice at 1 h and 4 h after injection showed good liver retention and targeting properties. Significant defect of activity was observed in the tumor site which was confirmed by MRI imaging. Conclusion: 99mTc-p(VLA-co-VNI)(46:54)(Tricine)(TPPTS) with lower ratio of targeting moiety has no observable effect on the specific binding affinity and liver uptake. This makes it possible to introduce more imaging units for multi-modality imaging. Furthermore, the instant kit preparation of 99mTc-labeling provides great potential for the evaluation of hepatocyte function in clinical application

  5. Quick synthesis of highly aligned or randomly oriented nanofibrous structures composed of C60 molecules via self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Shunji; Fukuda, Takahiro; Maekawa, Toru

    2013-06-01

    Assemblies, which are composed of nanoparticles such as nanofibres, have been intensively studied in recent years. This has particularly been the case in the field of biomedicine, where the aim is to develop efficient methodologies for capturing and separating target biomolecules and cells and/or encouraging bio-chemical reactions, utilizing the extremely high surface area to volume ratio of assemblies. There is an urgent need for the development of a quick synthesis method of forming nanofibrous structures on the surface of biomedical microchips and devices for the investigation of the interactions between biomolecules/cells and the nanostructures. Here, we produce nanofibrous structures composed of C60 molecules, which are aligned in one direction or randomly oriented, by dissolving C60 molecules and sulphur in benzene and evaporating a droplet of the solution on a glass substrate under appropriate conditions. The synthesis time is as short as 30 s. Sulphur is extracted and nanofibres are crystallized by leaving them in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  6. Preferential adsorption of C60 molecules to step edges of the Si(110)-16 × 2 single domain surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Si(110) surface has a quite unique one-dimensional (1-D) stable structure with 16 × 2 reconstruction. Since the perfectly straight rows extend over micrometers, the 16 × 2 structure can be a superior template for 1-D nanostructures. However, controlled nanostructures using the Si(110)-16 × 2 template has not been fabricated yet. In this study, we have investigated the adsorption of C60 molecules on the Si(110)-16 × 2 surface at various surface temperatures, and found that the C60 preferable adsorption sites are substantially changed, depending on the surface temperature. The obtained results indicate that the organic 1-D nanostructure can be fabricated on the Si(110)-16 × 2 surface by controlling the surface temperature.

  7. Pathologic changes and expressions of SCF and c-kit in contralateral testes in rat model of unilateral cryptorchidism%单侧隐睾大鼠对侧睾丸组织中SCF/c-kit基因表达变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐明; 郑新民; 李世文; 丁协刚; 周克文; 汪聪

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究单侧隐睾大鼠对侧睾丸病理变化及SCF/c-kit基因表达,探讨单侧隐睾致对侧睾丸损害的机制.方法 30只SD大鼠随机分为对照组和实验组,实验组复制单侧(左侧)腹腔隐睾模型.3个月后分别取两组右侧睾丸组织进行real-time RT-PCR、Western blot及免疫组化检测干细胞生长因子(SCF)和其受体c-kit基因及其蛋白表达变化,TUNEL法检测细胞凋亡.结果 所有动物均存活,与对照组相比实验组对侧睾丸明显缩小,光镜下观察其曲细精管发生退化,生精上皮变薄,管腔较空,生殖细胞明显减少,细胞凋亡增加.两组凋亡指数分别为14.4±0.63和4.45±0.37,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).荧光实时定量PT-PCR检测SCF、c-kit基因mRNA含量,实验组对侧睾丸明显降低,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).Western blot检测SCF及c-kit蛋白表达含量,实验组对侧睾丸同样明显降低,两组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).免疫组化染色显示各级生精细胞膜均有c-kit表达,SCF主要表达于支持细胞膜表面,但实验组两者的表达均较对照组减弱.相关性检验SCF与AI相关系数r=-0.941,P<0.01;c-kit与AI相关系数r=-0.908,P<0.01;SCF与c-kit相关系数r=0.956,P<0.01,均有统计学意义.结论 单侧隐睾可致对侧睾丸SCF/c-kit基因表达减弱,生精细胞凋亡增加引起不育.%Objective To investigate the pathologic changes and expressions of SCF and c-kit in the contralateral testes in rat model of unilateral cryptorchidism. Methods Thirty male SD rats were maintained under controlled temperature and constant photoperiodic conditions with access to food and water. The rats were randomly assaigned to the control group and the experimental unilateral cryptorchidism group. The left testis of the rats in the unilateral cryptorchidism group was placed into the abdominal cavity. The control group rats were subjected to sham surgery. Three months later, the rats were

  8. Labeling of complex molecules with 18F, 13N, and 11C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective during the period covered by this report was to develop a broad spectrum of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived cyclotron positron emitters, 11C, 13N and 18F. The goals of the program during the last year were: (1) to complete the modular automated system for important precursor production - formaldehyde, methyliodide, cyanide; (2) to perform animal studies with the 18F-glucose analogues 2FDG and 3FDG and measure the constants for both agents in different animals; and (3) to initiate the development of new fatty acid analogues for the myocardial imaging and metabolism. As part of a collaboration with other groups seeking new agents for myocardium and brain, 9-/sup 123m/Te-telluriumheptadecanoic acid as a myocardial imaging agent was studied. This compound could be used for designing new fatty acid analogues labeled with 11C and 18F that stay in the myocardium because of metabolic inhibition

  9. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase in Plant Signaling: Tale of a Promiscuous Little Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Islas-Flores, Tania; Rahman, Ahasanur; Ullah, Hemayet; Villanueva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades after the first report of the plant homolog of the Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) in cultured tobacco BY2 cells, a significant advancement has been made in the elucidation of its cellular and molecular role. The protein is now implicated in many biological functions including protein translation, multiple hormonal responses, developmental processes, pathogen infection resistance, environmental stress responses, and miRNA production. Such multiple functional roles are co...

  10. C646, a selective small molecule inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase p300, radiosensitizes lung cancer cells by enhancing mitotic catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Chromatin remodeling through histone modifications, including acetylation, plays an important role in the appropriate response to DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Here we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of C646, a selective small molecule inhibitor of p300 histone acetyltransferase, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods: A549, H157 and H460 human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells, and HFL-III human lung fibroblasts were assessed by clonogenic survival assay. Apoptosis and necrosis were assessed by annexin V staining. Senescence was assessed by Senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining. Mitotic catastrophe was assessed by evaluating nuclear morphology with DAPI staining. Cell cycle profiles were analyzed by flow cytometry. Protein expression was analyzed by immunoblotting. Results: C646 sensitized A549, H460 and H157 cells to IR with a dose enhancement ratio at 10% surviving fraction of 1.4, 1.2 and 1.2, respectively. C646 did not radiosensitize HFL-III cells. In A549 cells, but not in HFL-III cells, C646 (i) enhanced mitotic catastrophe but not apoptosis, necrosis, or senescence after IR; (ii) increased the hyperploid cell population after IR; and (iii) suppressed the phosphorylation of CHK1 after IR. Conclusions: C646 radiosensitizes NSCLC cells by enhancing mitotic catastrophe through the abrogation of G2 checkpoint maintenance

  11. Role of alveolar type II cells and of surfactant-associated protein C mRNA levels in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress in mink kits infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Viuff, B; Aasted, B; Alexandersen, S.

    1994-01-01

    Neonatal mink kits infected with Aleutian mink disease parvovirus (ADV) develop an acute interstitial pneumonia with clinical symptoms and pathological lesions that resemble those seen in preterm human infants with respiratory distress syndrome and in human adults with adult respiratory distress syndrome. We have previously suggested that ADV replicates in the alveolar type II epithelial cells of the lung. By using double in situ hybridization, with the simultaneous use of a probe to detect A...

  12. KIT mutation analysis in mast cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arock, M; Sotlar, K; Akin, C;

    2015-01-01

    Although acquired mutations in KIT are commonly detected in various categories of mastocytosis, the methodologies applied to detect and quantify the mutant type and allele burden in various cells and tissues are poorly defined. We here propose a consensus on methodologies used to detect KIT mutat...

  13. Preparation of kits for 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication details preparation under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) of thirteen widely used 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals and their quality assurance practices. The objective of this document is to present to those who intend to launch a kit preparation programme a set of preparation procedures and other relevant information gathered during kit production over a period of more than a decade, to serve as a good starting point. The manuals and monographs included in the document are based on the experience gained in two major centres. The publication of this material is intended to give a typical example, and not the only possible procedure for preparing the kits. Following the essentials of these kit preparation procedures, it is always possible to make alterations to the composition of the kits. The kits described here concern widely used 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals which do not require a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) camera. These examples of the ''first generation'' of kits are not very intricate to prepare. Although it is advisable to have only one agent for a given intended use, a few agents for each purpose, e.g. EHDP and MDP for bone imagining, have been included in the document so that the reader can have some flexibility in selecting a particular kit. 24 refs, 2 figs

  14. Low-cost indigenous radiopharmaceutical kits manufacturing capability: a successful work accomplished in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Medicine Unit at Black Lion Hospital is the only Nuclear Medicine service giving center in the country. We have been importing Radiopharmaceutical-kits for 10 subsequent years costly, with frequent irregularities, only limited Numbers of kits mainly for Liver, Brain, Thyroid and Kidney imagings. Most of the Nuclear Medicine (NM) diagnostic procedures were not undertaken at our unit, because of unavailability of vital Radiopharmaceutical-kits (Rp-kits) in the country since they were not manufactured in the country. In order to solve this long stranding problem of the country persistent efforts were made. The success in Rp-kits manufacturing indigenously has the advantage of disseminating the NM Technology with in the country also. With the continuous efforts made 7 Aqueous-Rp-kits were manufactured successfully in our unit viza-viz: 1) 99mTc-s-colloid-for Liver imaging. 2) 99mTc-DTPA-for Brain + Renal imaging. 3) 99mTc-MDP-for Bone imaging, 4) 99mTc-Tin (11) pyrophosphate for in-vivo R,B,C, labelling: (For the study of Blood-Pool and Myocardial Infarction), 5) 99mTc-Tin(11) Gluconate for Brain + Kidney Static imaging. 6) 99mTc-Tin(11) Phytate for Liver imaging. 7) 99mTc-TBI for Myocardial perfusion study. Their physico-chemical behaving patterns were studied and the chemical and biological quality control procedures were conducted upon the indigenously produced kits at the National Drug Quality Control center and they were found to be sterile, apyrogenic and non-toxic. The efficiency of the kits was tested in many patients in our unit and found to be effective and reliable. Aqueous kits produced were observed to be as effective and reliable as their lyophilized counterparts with respect to their physico-chemical properties and biospecificity (organ specificity) but possessing short shelf lives unlike lyophilized kits. (author)

  15. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2014), s. 439-447. ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Complement * Innate immunity * Limulus Clotting Factor C * Phagocytosis * RNA interference * Tick Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  16. One-dimensional self-assembly of C{sub 60} molecules on periodically wrinkled graphene sheet: A Monte Carlo approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun-Young [Department of Computer Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Jung, E-mail: hjhwang@cau.ac.kr [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jeong Won, E-mail: jwkang@ut.ac.kr [Department of Computer Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Transportation System Engineering, Graduate School of Transportation, Korea National University of Transportation, Uiwang-si, Gyeonggi-do 437-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-09

    Periodically wrinkled graphene sheet is of interest as a building block to develop nanoelectronic devices. This work presents that periodically wrinkled graphene sheet can be applied to a pattern, to form one-dimensionally well-ordered C{sub 60} molecules, via Monte Carlo simulations using the data obtained from atomistic calculations. Since the valleys of a sinusoidal graphene surface provide energetic ground sites for absorbed C{sub 60} molecules, their motions seeking stable positions lead to one-dimensional self-assembly. The size of the wrinkles, the density of adsorbed C{sub 60} molecules, and the temperature are very important parameters to obtain a one-dimensional C{sub 60} molecules array. We estimate high one-dimensional diffusion coefficients of C{sub 60} molecules on the wrinkled graphene surface. Our results can provide a possible approach to make a quantum information array, based on endohedral fullerenes and a graphene quantum dot array, by transforming C{sub 60} molecules to graphene nanoflakes.

  17. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  18. The Project Manager's Tool Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Project managers are rarely described as being funny. Moreover, a good sense of humor rarely seems to be one of the deciding factors in choosing someone to be a project manager, or something that pops up as a major discussion point at an annual performance review. Perhaps this is because people think you aren't serious about your work if you laugh. I disagree with this assessment, but that's not really my point. As I talk to people either pursuing a career in project management, or broadening their assignment to include project management, I encourage them to consider what tools they need to be successful. I suggest that they consider any strength they have to be part of their Project Management (PM) Tool Kit, and being funny could be one of the tools they need.

  19. Density Functional Calculations of C-NO2 Bond Dissociation Energies for Nitroalkanes Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bond dissociation energies for the removal of nitrogen dioxide group in some nitroalkane energetic materials have been calculated by using the three hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and B3P86 with 6-31g** and 6-311g** basis sets. The computed BDEs have been compared with the available experimental results. It is found that the B3P86 method with 6-31g** and 6-311g** basis sets can obtain satisfactory bond dissociation energies (BDEs), which are in extraordinary agreement with the experimental data. Considering the smaller mean absolute deviation and maximum difference, the reliable B3P86/6-311g** method was recommended to compute the BDEs for the removal of nitrogen dioxide group in the nitroalkane energetic materials. Using the method, the BDEs of 8 other nitroalkane energetic materials have been calculated and the maximum difference from experimental value is 1.76 kcal·mol-1 (for the BDE of tC4H9-NO2), which further proves the reliability of B3P86/6-311g** method. In addition, it is noted that the BDEs of C-NO2 bond change slightly for main chain nitroalkane compounds with the maximum difference of only 3.43 kcal mol-1.

  20. Anisotropic superfluidity of {sup 4}He on a C{sub 36} fullerene molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungjin; Kim, Byeongjoon; Kwon, Yongkyung, E-mail: ykwon@konkuk.ac.kr [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, School of Physics, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-14

    We have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations to study the adsorption of {sup 4}He atoms on two different C{sub 36} isomers with the D{sub 6h} and the D{sub 2d} symmetries. The radial {sup 4}He density distributions reveal layer-by-layer growth with the first layer being located at a distance of ∼5.5 Å from the C{sub 36} molecular center and the second layer at ∼8.3 Å. From the angular density profiles of {sup 4}He, we find different quantum states as the number of {sup 4}He adatoms N varies. For N = 20, we observe commensurate solid structures on both D{sub 6h} and D{sub 2d} isomers, where each of 8 hexagon and 12 pentagon centers of the fullerene surfaces is occupied by a single {sup 4}He atom. The second-layer promotion starts beyond N = 38 on both isomers, where a compressible incommensurate structure is observed on the D{sub 6h} isomer and another commensurate structure on D{sub 2d}. Between N = 20 and N = 38, the {sup 4}He monolayer on D{sub 6h} shows several distinct rings of delocalized {sup 4}He atoms along with strongly anisotropic superfluid responses at low temperatures, while isotropic but weak superfluid responses are observed in the {sup 4}He layer on D{sub 2d}.

  1. Anisotropic superfluidity of 4He on a C36 fullerene molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed path-integral Monte Carlo calculations to study the adsorption of 4He atoms on two different C36 isomers with the D6h and the D2d symmetries. The radial 4He density distributions reveal layer-by-layer growth with the first layer being located at a distance of ∼5.5 Å from the C36 molecular center and the second layer at ∼8.3 Å. From the angular density profiles of 4He, we find different quantum states as the number of 4He adatoms N varies. For N = 20, we observe commensurate solid structures on both D6h and D2d isomers, where each of 8 hexagon and 12 pentagon centers of the fullerene surfaces is occupied by a single 4He atom. The second-layer promotion starts beyond N = 38 on both isomers, where a compressible incommensurate structure is observed on the D6h isomer and another commensurate structure on D2d. Between N = 20 and N = 38, the 4He monolayer on D6h shows several distinct rings of delocalized 4He atoms along with strongly anisotropic superfluid responses at low temperatures, while isotropic but weak superfluid responses are observed in the 4He layer on D2d

  2. 急性髓系白血病患者NPM1、FLT3和C-KIT基因突变的检测及其预后分析%Detection of NPM1, FLT3 and C-KIT Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Their Prognostic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲; 吕晓东; 米瑞华; 丁晶; 陈琳; 王倩; 尹青松; 胡杰英; 范瑞华

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the frequencies and prognostic significance of the nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1) mutation,the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutation and c-KIT mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to explore their relevance to clinical characteristics,cytogenetics and survival.Genomic DNA from 78 newly dignosed AML from August 2010 to October 2012 was screened by PCR and sequencing or capillary electrophoresis (CE) for NPM1,FLT3 and c-KIT mutations.The results showed that the incidence of NPM1 mutation was 14.1% in AML patients and 26.7% in normal karyotype AML patients.NPM1 mutant cases were significantly associated with old age (P < 0.05),high peripheral white cell count and platelet counts(P < 0.05) and low expression of CD34 (P < 0.05),but no statistic difference was found in sex,percentage of bone marrow blasts,Hb,expression of CD117 and HLA-DR,complete remission rate,overall survival and relapse rate(P > 0.05).The prevalences of FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations were 11.5% (9/78) and 3.8% (3/78) respectively,and no one patient has both of the two mutations.Patients with FLT3-ITD mutation had higher white blood cell counts and percentage of in bone marrow blasts (P < 0.05),and lower overall survival(P < 0.05),more relative to normal karytype (P < 0.05),while no statistic difference was found in sex,age,platelet count,Hb level,complete remission rate and relapse rate(P >0.05).No stratistic analysis was performed due to the cases of less FLT3-TKD mutation.C-KIT mutation accounts for 7.7% (6/78).Patients with C-KIT mutation had a higher percentage in abnormal karyotype (P < 0.05),and higher relapse rate (P < 0.05),and lower overall survival,whereas no statistic difference was found in sex,age,percentage of bone marrow blasts,peripheral blood cell count,complete remission rate(P > 0.05).It is concluded that the detection of NPM1,FLT3 and C-KIT mutations may contribute to guiding treatment and evaluating prognosis

  3. Tr-kit-induced resumption of the cell cycle in mouse eggs requires activation of a Src-like kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Sette, Claudio; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Barchi, Marco; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Geremia, Raffaele; Rossi, Pellegrino

    2002-01-01

    Microinjection in mouse eggs of tr-kit, a truncated form of the c-kit tyrosine kinase present in mouse spermatozoa, causes resumption of meiosis through activation of phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1) and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores. We show that the Src-like kinase Fyn phosphorylates Tyr161 in tr-kit and that this residue is essential for tr-kit function. Fyn is localized in the cortex region underneath the plasma membrane in mouse oocytes. Using several approaches, we demonstrate th...

  4. Photon stimulated ion desorption from polyatomic molecules in the VUV:C2H4-graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated photon stimulated ion desorption from C2H4 physisorbed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite using VUV synchrotron radiation in the energy range 13-40 eV. In contrast with gas phase photodissociation measurements, only H+ ions are detected. This result is attributed to the image potential barrier to desorption from the surface and the unequal distribution of kinetic energy amongst the molecular photofragments. The yield of desorbed H+ ions shows a threshold at 20.5 eV and a resonance at 24 eV and appears to be enhanced in the monolayer regime. This behaviour differs significantly from that of the gas phase, and is attributed to selective quenching of excited molecular electronic states on the surface and to chemical reactions between specific molecular dissociated fragments and the substrate. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  5. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase in Plant Signaling: Tale of a Promiscuous Little Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Islas Flores

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two decades after the first report of the plant homologue of the Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1 in cultured tobacco BY2 cells, a significant advancement has been made in the elucidation of its celular and molecular role. The protein is now implicated in many biological functions including protein translation, multiple hormonal responses, developmental processes, pathogen infection resistance, environmental stress responses, and miRNA production. Such multiple functional roles are consistent with the scaffolding nature of the plant RACK1 protein. A significant advance was achieved when the β-propeller structure of the Arabidopsis RACK1A isoform was elucidated, thus revealing that its conserved seven WD repeats also assembled into this typical topology. From its crystal structure, it became apparent that it shares the structural platform for the interaction with ligands identified in other systems such as mammals. Although RACK1 proteins maintain conserved Protein Kinase C binding sites, the lack of a bona fide PKC adds complexity and enigma to the nature of the ligand partners with which RACK1 interacts in plants. Nevertheless, ligands recently identified using the split-ubiquitin based and conventional yeast two-hybrid assays, have revealed that plant RACK1 is involved in several processes that include defense response, drought and salt stress, ribosomal function, cell wall biogenesis, and photosynthesis. The information acquired indicates that, in spite of the high degree of conservation of its structure, the functions of the plant RACK1 homologue appear to be distinct and diverse from those in yeast, mammals, insects, etc. In this review, we take a critical look at the novel information regarding the many functions in which plant RACK1 has been reported to participate, with a special emphasis on the information on its currently identified and missing ligand partners.

  6. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase in Plant Signaling: Tale of a Promiscuous Little Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Flores, Tania; Rahman, Ahasanur; Ullah, Hemayet; Villanueva, Marco A

    2015-01-01

    Two decades after the first report of the plant homolog of the Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) in cultured tobacco BY2 cells, a significant advancement has been made in the elucidation of its cellular and molecular role. The protein is now implicated in many biological functions including protein translation, multiple hormonal responses, developmental processes, pathogen infection resistance, environmental stress responses, and miRNA production. Such multiple functional roles are consistent with the scaffolding nature of the plant RACK1 protein. A significant advance was achieved when the β-propeller structure of the Arabidopsis RACK1A isoform was elucidated, thus revealing that its conserved seven WD repeats also assembled into this typical topology. From its crystal structure, it became apparent that it shares the structural platform for the interaction with ligands identified in other systems such as mammals. Although RACK1 proteins maintain conserved Protein Kinase C binding sites, the lack of a bona fide PKC adds complexity and enigma to the nature of the ligand partners with which RACK1 interacts in plants. Nevertheless, ligands recently identified using the split-ubiquitin based and conventional yeast two-hybrid assays, have revealed that plant RACK1 is involved in several processes that include defense response, drought and salt stress, ribosomal function, cell wall biogenesis, and photosynthesis. The information acquired indicates that, in spite of the high degree of conservation of its structure, the functions of the plant RACK1 homolog appear to be distinct and diverse from those in yeast, mammals, insects, etc. In this review, we take a critical look at the novel information regarding the many functions in which plant RACK1 has been reported to participate, with a special emphasis on the information on its currently identified and missing ligand partners. PMID:26697044

  7. Uncovering the Peptide-Binding Specificities of HLA-C: A General Strategy To Determine the Specificity of Any MHC Class I Molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Harndahl, Mikkel; Stryhn, Anette;

    2014-01-01

    molecules. Assessing the functional significance of these new tools, HLA-C*07:01 transgenic mice were immunized with stable HLA-C*07:01 binders; six of six tested stable peptide binders were immunogenic. Finally, we generated HLA-C tetramers and labeled human CD8(+) T cells and NK cells. These new resources...... should support future research on the biology of HLA-C molecules. The data are deposited at the Immune Epitope Database, and the updated NetMHCpan predictor is available at the Center for Biological Sequence Analysis and the Immune Epitope Database....

  8. CO2 and C2H2 in cold nanodroplets of oxygenated organic molecules and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J. Paul; Balcı, F. Mine; Maşlakcı, Zafer; Uras-Aytemiz, Nevin

    2014-11-01

    Recent demonstrations of subsecond and microsecond timescales for formation of clathrate hydrate nanocrystals hint at future methods of control of environmental and industrial gases such as CO2 and methane. Combined results from cold-chamber and supersonic-nozzle [A. S. Bhabhe, "Experimental study of condensation and freezing in a supersonic nozzle," Ph.D. thesis (Ohio State University, 2012), Chap. 7] experiments indicate extremely rapid encagement of components of all-vapor pre-mixtures. The extreme rates are derived from (a) the all-vapor premixing of the gas-hydrate components and (b) catalytic activity of certain oxygenated organic large-cage guests. Premixing presents no obvious barrier to large-scale conditions of formation. Further, from sequential efforts of the groups of Trout and Buch, a credible defect-based model of the catalysis mechanism exists for guidance. Since the catalyst-generated defects are both mobile and abundant, it is often unnecessary for a high percentage of the cages to be occupied by a molecular catalyst. Droplets represent the liquid phase that bridges the premixed vapor and clathrate hydrate phases but few data exist for the droplets themselves. Here we describe a focused computational and FTIR spectroscopic effort to characterize the aerosol droplets of the all-vapor cold-chamber methodology. Computational data for CO2 and C2H2, hetero-dimerized with each of the organic catalysts and water, closely match spectroscopic redshift patterns in both magnitude and direction. Though vibrational frequency shifts are an order of magnitude greater for the acetylene stretch mode, both CO2 and C2H2 experience redshift values that increase from that for an 80% water-methanol solvent through the solvent series to approximately doubled values for tetrahydrofuran and trimethylene oxide (TMO) droplets. The TMO solvent properties extend to a 50 mol.% solution of CO2, more than an order of magnitude greater than for the water-methanol solvent mixture

  9. The electrocatalytic properties of carbon supported PtRu/C nanoalloys in oxidation of small organic molecules: Comparison with Pt/C catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lović Jelena D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocatalytic activity of carbon supported PtRu/C catalysts, with different composition, toward the electrooxidation of methanol, CO and formic acid were examined in acid and alkaline solution at ambient temperature using thin-film rotating disk electrode (RDE method and compared with activity of Pt/C. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, AFM and STM techniques. XRD pattern revealed that PtRu-1/C catalyst is consisted of two structures e.g. Pt-Ru-fcc and Ru-hcp (the solid solution of Ru in Pt and the small amount of Ru or solid solution of Pt in Ru, as opposed to PtRu-2/C catalyst which is consisted of one structure mostly, Pt-Ru-fcc. According to STM images, PtRu as well as Pt, particles size were between 2 and 6 nm, which is in a good agreement with the mean particles size determined by XRD. To establish the activity and stability of the catalysts potentiodynamic and quasi steady-state measurements were performed. It was found that the activity of Pt and PtRu for CO and methanol oxidation is a strong function of pH of solution. The kinetics are much higher in alkaline than in acid solution and the difference between Pt/C and PtRu/C is much less pronounced in alkaline media. Results presented in this work indicate that activity of PtRu catalysts depends on catalyst composition, e.g. on Pt/Ru atomic ratio, as well as on alloying degree of catalysts. Comparison of CO, methanol and formic acid oxidation on PtRu-2/C, PtRu-1/C and Pt/C catalysts revealed that PtRu-2/C is the most active one. It was shown that the PtRu-2/C catalyst, due to fact that it is consisted of only one phase, with high alloying degree, through the bifunctional mechanism improved by electronic effect, achieve the activity two times higher related to PtRu-1/C in the oxidation of all organic molecules investigated, and about three times higher compared to Pt/C in the oxidation of methanol and CO, and five times higher in formic acid oxidation.

  10. 100G Deployment@(DE-KIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeft, Bruno; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The Steinbuch Centre for Computing (SCC) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) has been involved fairly early in 100GE network technology. Initiated by DFN1 (the German NREN), a first 100GE wide area network testbed over a distance of approx. 450 km was deployed between the national research organizations KIT and FZ-Jülich in 2010. Three years later in 2013. KIT joined the Caltech SuperComputing 2013 (SC132) 100GE "show floor" initiative using the transatlantic ANA-100GE link to transfer LHC data from a storage at DE-KIT (GridKa) in Europe to hard disks at the show floor of SC13 in Denver (USA). The network infrastructure of KIT as well as of the German Tier-1 installation DE-KIT (GridKa). however. is still based on 10Gbps. As highlighted in the contribution "Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities" to CHEP 2012. proactive investment is required at the Tier-1 sites. Bandwidth requirements will grow beyond current capacity and the required upgrades are expected in 2015. In close cooperation with DFN. KIT drives the upgrade from 10GE to 100GE. The process is divided into several phases. due to upgrade costs and differing requirements in different parts of the network infrastructure. The requirements of the different phases as well as the planned topology will be described. Some of the obstacles we discovered during the deployment will be discussed and solutions or workarounds presented.

  11. Screening Mixtures of Small Molecules for Binding to Multiple Sites on the Surface Tetanus Toxin C Fragment by Bioaffinity NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosman, M; Zeller, L; Lightstone, F C; Krishnan, V V; Balhorn, R

    2002-01-01

    The clostridial neurotoxins include the closely related tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) toxins. Botulinum toxin is used to treat severe muscle disorders and as a cosmetic wrinkle reducer. Large quantities of botulinum toxin have also been produced by terrorists for use as a biological weapon. Because there are no known antidotes for these toxins, they thus pose a potential threat to human health whether by an accidental overdose or by a hostile deployment. Thus, the discovery of high specificity and affinity compounds that can inhibit their binding to neural cells can be used as antidotes or in the design of chemical detectors. Using the crystal structure of the C fragment of the tetanus toxin (TetC), which is the cell recognition and cell surface binding domain, and the computational program DOCK, sets of small molecules have been predicted to bind to two different sites located on the surface of this protein. While Site-1 is common to the TeNT and BoNTs, Site-2 is unique to TeNT. Pairs of these molecules from each site can then be linked together synthetically to thereby increase the specificity and affinity for this toxin. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy was used to experimentally screen each compound for binding. Mixtures containing binders were further screened for activity under biologically relevant conditions using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The screening of mixtures of compounds offers increased efficiency and throughput as compared to testing single compounds and can also evaluate how possible structural changes induced by the binding of one ligand can influence the binding of the second ligand. In addition, competitive binding experiments with mixtures containing ligands predicted to bind the same site could identify the best binder for that site. NMR transfer nuclear Overhauser effect (trNOE) confirm that TetC binds doxorubicin but that this molecule is displaced by N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) in a mixture that

  12. Screening Mixtures of Small Molecules for Binding to Multiple Sites on the Surface Tetanus Toxin C Fragment by Bioaffinity NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clostridial neurotoxins include the closely related tetanus (TeNT) and botulinum (BoNT) toxins. Botulinum toxin is used to treat severe muscle disorders and as a cosmetic wrinkle reducer. Large quantities of botulinum toxin have also been produced by terrorists for use as a biological weapon. Because there are no known antidotes for these toxins, they thus pose a potential threat to human health whether by an accidental overdose or by a hostile deployment. Thus, the discovery of high specificity and affinity compounds that can inhibit their binding to neural cells can be used as antidotes or in the design of chemical detectors. Using the crystal structure of the C fragment of the tetanus toxin (TetC), which is the cell recognition and cell surface binding domain, and the computational program DOCK, sets of small molecules have been predicted to bind to two different sites located on the surface of this protein. While Site-1 is common to the TeNT and BoNTs, Site-2 is unique to TeNT. Pairs of these molecules from each site can then be linked together synthetically to thereby increase the specificity and affinity for this toxin. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy was used to experimentally screen each compound for binding. Mixtures containing binders were further screened for activity under biologically relevant conditions using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods. The screening of mixtures of compounds offers increased efficiency and throughput as compared to testing single compounds and can also evaluate how possible structural changes induced by the binding of one ligand can influence the binding of the second ligand. In addition, competitive binding experiments with mixtures containing ligands predicted to bind the same site could identify the best binder for that site. NMR transfer nuclear Overhauser effect (trNOE) confirm that TetC binds doxorubicin but that this molecule is displaced by N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) in a mixture that

  13. Copper phthalocyanine molecules on an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) surface studied by ultra-high-vacuum STM and non-contact AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface ordering of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules deposited onto an InSb(001) c(8 x 2) reconstructed surface has been studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). It was found that at room temperature the CuPc molecules are only weakly bound to the InSb surface and the adjacent molecules and consequently they are relatively mobile at submonolayer coverage. STM images show that at the initial stages of growth molecules are assembled in ordered molecular chains parallel to the surface reconstruction rows, i.e. along the [110] crystallographic direction. Furthermore, adsorption of the molecules at step edges is observed. At coverages below 1 ML molecules diffuse at the surface and form two-dimensional islands, which leads to an additional characteristic (n x 3) LEED pattern indicating one-dimensional ordering within the molecular chains. High-resolution STM imaging at negative sample bias reveals a unique structure of the molecular contrast which may be related to the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the individual CuPc molecules. For CuPc monolayer coverage submolecular resolution is also obtained for nc-AFM imaging. Finally, examples of single molecule manipulation by the STM tip are given

  14. Cyclotron production of molecules labelled with short-lived radioisotopes β+ emitters (15O, 13N, 11C) and their clinical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical use of three short-lived radioisotopes: 15O, 13N and 11C is studied on two complementary aspects. A production and purification system is realized; detection instruments in medical use are studied. The production of labelled molecules with the three radiotracers 15O, 13N, 11C from the target bombardment with charged and accelerated particles was studied

  15. Masitinib (AB1010, a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting KIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Dubreuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stem cell factor receptor, KIT, is a target for the treatment of cancer, mastocytosis, and inflammatory diseases. Here, we characterise the in vitro and in vivo profiles of masitinib (AB1010, a novel phenylaminothiazole-type tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets KIT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro, masitinib had greater activity and selectivity against KIT than imatinib, inhibiting recombinant human wild-type KIT with an half inhibitory concentration (IC(50 of 200+/-40 nM and blocking stem cell factor-induced proliferation and KIT tyrosine phosphorylation with an IC(50 of 150+/-80 nM in Ba/F3 cells expressing human or mouse wild-type KIT. Masitinib also potently inhibited recombinant PDGFR and the intracellular kinase Lyn, and to a lesser extent, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. In contrast, masitinib demonstrated weak inhibition of ABL and c-Fms and was inactive against a variety of other tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases. This highly selective nature of masitinib suggests that it will exhibit a better safety profile than other tyrosine kinase inhibitors; indeed, masitinib-induced cardiotoxicity or genotoxicity has not been observed in animal studies. Molecular modelling and kinetic analysis suggest a different mode of binding than imatinib, and masitinib more strongly inhibited degranulation, cytokine production, and bone marrow mast cell migration than imatinib. Furthermore, masitinib potently inhibited human and murine KIT with activating mutations in the juxtamembrane domain. In vivo, masitinib blocked tumour growth in mice with subcutaneous grafts of Ba/F3 cells expressing a juxtamembrane KIT mutant. CONCLUSIONS: Masitinib is a potent and selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting KIT that is active, orally bioavailable in vivo, and has low toxicity.

  16. A study of the cell adhesions molecules, E-Cadherin and C-CAM, and the intermediate filaments, nestin, in craniofacial and tooth development

    OpenAIRE

    Terling, Catharina

    1998-01-01

    A STUDY OF THE CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, E-CADHERIN AND C-CAM AND THE INTERMEDIATE FILAMENT NESTIN IN CRANIOFACIAL AND TOOTH DEVELOPMENT. Catharina Terling The Department of Basic Oral Sciences, The Center of Oral Biology, Novum Research Park and The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Nobel Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are involved in cell migration, morphogenesis, and cell differentiation within the embryo, and ...

  17. Optimization and Validation of kit of detection Antibiotics on Honey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Codex Alimentarius and the European Commission Directive each food has a maximum residual antibiotic (MRLs) however, for honey is still no limit set. Among the main methods that guarantee the detection of antibiotic residues include the Premi Test which is a qualitative method for the detection of antibiotics in honey, but it remains a non-specific method for this matrix and long enough (three hours of incubation). Through this work, we were able to develop and optimize a new kit called Honey test. This kit is able to detect the presence of antibiotic residues in honey by a bacterial strain radio-resistant called D.ra. The duration of treatment is only 30 minutes, requiring incubation at 37 Degree C and treatment with UV at 366 nm. This work will be the subject of a national patent.

  18. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  19. Development of a PCR Diagnostic Kit for Cryptosporidium andersoni in Dairy Cow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Rong-qiong; LI Guo-qing; XIAO Shu-min; LI Wei-hua

    2007-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonosis caused by the Cryptosporidium species. To develop a PCR diagnostic kit for molecular detection and differential diagnosis of Cryptosporidiurn spp., a portion of ITS-1 sequence of Cryptosporidium. Andersoni was chosen as the target DNA for designing the species-specific primers (ZRQF/ZR). The kit components were determined after the PCR amplification conditions were serially optimized. A series of tests were conducted in the specificity, sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, and stored period of the kit, respectively. The results showed that only C. Andersoni were amplified specific band of about 500 bp, while Cryptosporidium. Parvum, Cryptosporidium. Baileyi, Eimeria sp of dairy cow, Toxoplasma gondii, Eimeria sp of pig, Ascaris suum, Cyclospora sp, and E. Coli could not be amplified. 254 oocysts of C. Andersoni was the lowest number that could be detected using the kit. The kit worked well after being stored at room temperature, 4 and -20℃ for nine months. Fecal specimens, which were collected from a total of 243 calves on four different dairy farms in Guangdong Province, China, and one dairy farm in Henan Province, China, were examined using the kit; the positive rate of the kit was 2-13% higher than that of the routine methods. The results indicated that the kit can detect fecal samples faster, more sensitively, and conveniently, and can provide a useful tool for the identification and differentiation of C. Andersoni from the other Cryptosporidium species; it also has implications for further studies on molecular epidemiology and differential diagnostics of cryptosporidiosis in animals.

  20. Electron stimulated desorption of cations from C sub 6 H sub 6 and C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 2 molecules adsorbed on Pt(1 1 1) and Ar spacer layer

    CERN Document Server

    Kawanowa, H; Hanatani, K; Gotoh, Y; Souda, R

    2003-01-01

    Mechanisms of electron stimulated cation desorption have been investigated for adsorbed C sub 6 H sub 6 and C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 2 molecules on the Pt(1 1 1) surface and the Ar spacer layer formed on it. The ion yields from the molecules adsorbed on the Ar spacer layer are highly enhanced at the smallest coverage and decay steeply with increasing coverage. No such enhancement was observed when they are adsorbed directly on the Pt(1 1 1) substrate. This behavior is explained in terms of the Coulombic repulsion of cations confined in nanoclusters, together with the delocalization of valence holes on the Pt(1 1 1) substrate as well as in the multilayer hydrocarbons. The holes in the C sub 6 H sub 6 molecule are more delocalized than those in the C sub 6 H sub 1 sub 2 molecule due to the overlap of pi orbitals.

  1. Evaluation of new streptococcal latex grouping kit.

    OpenAIRE

    Vicca, A F; Stansfield, R E; Masterton, R G

    1993-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate a new streptococcal latex grouping kit (Shield Diagnostics Ltd) and compare it against an established latex agglutination method (Streptex; Wellcome Diagnostics). METHODS: Two hundred and forty seven strains of streptococci and enterococci were tested with each kit by one operator and according to the manufacturer's instructions. Strains failing to group or giving discordant results were identified to species level. RESULTS: Two discrepant grouping results were observed and ...

  2. c-kit和P13K(P110α)在实验性隐睾精原细胞中的表达%The expressions of C-kit and PDK(P100α)in spermatogonium of experimental cryptorchidism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐修俊; 王达利

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence of temperature on cell proliferation of spermatogonium in early stage of testis exposing to heat. This was reallized by detecting Mrna and the protein expression of c-kit gene and PI3K (PllOa) of spermatogonium and observing the changes of cell cycle on different time point of experimental cryptorchidism. Method SD rats (32) in child-bearing period were the experimental animals and they were divided into experiment groups (24 rats) and control group (8 rats)by the methed of random number table. Abdominal cryptorchidism model was built in experiment groups, and got testicular tissue specimen of 8 rats by the method of random number table at the end of the first to the third weekend.Testis specimens obtained in the control group of non-intervention. SP immunohisto-chemistry were used to observe morphological changes of testicle and each group of sample were used to detect the Mrna and protein expression of c-kit and PI3K (PI 10a) by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot after purifying and enriching spermatogonium by discontinuous Percoll density-gradient centrifuge combining with the differential adhesion method; detect cell cycle of spermatogonium of each group at each time point by flow cytometry. Results The expression of c-kit was mainly located spermatogonium in control group, And a small amount of expression in spermatocytes and spermatids. Germ cells reduced obviously in the experimental group but only the increased c-kit expression of spermatogonium distributed on the basement membrane with monolayer at the third weekend. Experimental groups at each time point and most of the spermatogonia in control group were in the G0/G1 phase, only a little were in S phase and G2 / M phase. There is no significant difference of cell cycle between each experimental groups and control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions Proliferation signal of spermatogonium is strengthened after experimental cryptorchidism

  3. Effect of ferulic acid on the proliferation of, as well as melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity and expressions of c-kit and ERK proteins in keratinocytes%阿魏酸对黑素细胞增殖、黑素合成、酪氨酸酶活性及c-kit、ERK蛋白表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳华; 汤楠; 蔡兰花; 李其林

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨阿魏酸对体外培养的正常人表皮黑素细胞增殖、黑素合成、酪氨酸酶活性及c-kit、ERK蛋白表达的影响.方法 以不同浓度的阿魏酸干预体外培养的正常人表皮黑素细胞,用MTS法分别检测培养24、48、72 h后黑素细胞的增殖活性.用NaOH裂解法检测培养72 h后黑素细胞的黑素合成.用多巴氧化反应法测定培养72 h后黑素细胞酪氨酸酶活性.用Western印迹法测定培养72 h黑素细胞c-kit蛋白及ERK1/2蛋白表达水平.结果 与对照组相比,0.01、0.1、1 mg/ml阿魏酸在作用24、48、72 h后,抑制黑素细胞增殖作用的差异有统计学意义(均P< 0.05),其中1 mg/ml阿魏酸作用72 h抑制黑素细胞活性最高.0.01、0.1、1 mg/ml阿魏酸均能显著影响黑素合成和酪氨酸酶活性,并可降低黑素细胞中c-kit蛋白及ERK1/2蛋白表达水平,与对照组相比,差异有统计学意义(均P< 0.05).结论 阿魏酸可抑制培养的人表皮黑素细胞增殖、黑素合成及酪氨酸酶活性,并可下调黑素细胞c-kit蛋白及ERK蛋白的表达.%Objective To evaluate the in vitro effect of ferulic acid on the proliferation of,as well as melanin synthesis,tyrosinase activity and expressions of c-kit and ERK proteins in cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes.Methods Cultured normal human epidermal melanocytes were treated with various concentrations of ferulic acid for different durations,and those remaining untreated served as the control.Then,3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium,inner salt (MTS) assay was performed to estimate cell proliferative activity at 24,48 and 72 hours,sodium hydroxide solubilization method to quantify melanin content in melanocytes at 72 hours,dopa oxidation assay to evaluate tyrosinase activity at 72 hours,Western blot to measure the expressions of c-kit and ERK1/2 proteins at 72 hours.Results Cellular proliferative activity was significantly

  4. Feasibility of fractionating MIBI cold kits for cost reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recently 99mTc-MIBI become the first 99mTc-labelled myocardial perfusion imaging agent commercially available in Australia. After labelling each vial is sufficient for three to four patient doses. However, it becomes very expensive when only a single patient dose is required (up to $350 per dose). Our goal in this study was to subdivide the MIBI kit into fractions to establish the stability of these split kits. If successful, this would reduce the expense and make the product more cost-effective. After dissolving the Iyophilised ingredients of a MIBI vial with 5 mL of N2-purged normal saline, 1 mL aliquots of the resultant solution were dispensed into N2-filled vials under aseptic conditions. The vials were then stored frozen at -70 deg C. 99mTc-MIBI was prepared by the addition of 2 GBq of 99mTc-pertechnetate in I mL of normal saline to the fractionated kit, followed by heating at 100 deg C for 10 minutes at 0, 2, 4 and 8 weeks post-fractionation. The product was allowed to cool before testing for radiochemical purity (RCP) for up to six hours post-labelling. The RCP of each vial was determined using aluminium oxide coated aluminium TLC strips (Merck) run in 100% ethanol. Over the eight-week evaluation period RCP was maintained at 94.2 + 1.3% over six hours (n = 16), which is greater than the minimum recommended RCP (90%) for patient use. These results show that fractionation of MIBI cold kits and sub-frozen storage under an N2 atmosphere provides a stable and economical multidose product. Using this method the cost of a single patient dose can be reduced considerably from $350, even allowing for the labour involved in the fractionation

  5. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  6. 46 CFR 184.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 184.710 Section 184.710 Shipping COAST... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 184.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit approved under approval series 160.041 or a kit with equivalent...

  7. A novel apoptosis correlated molecule: expression and characterization of protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C(91-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Zhong, Mintao; Lun, Yongzhi; Wang, Xiaoli; Sun, Wenchang; Li, Xingyun; Ning, Anhong; Cao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Huang, Min

    2012-01-01

    An apoptosis correlated molecule-protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C(91-3)-was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C(91-3). According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE) and 5'-Full RACE methods. The full-length gene was inserted into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K. The protein Latcripin-1 was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115 and analyzed by Sodium Dodecylsulfonate Polyacrylate Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot. The Western blot showed that the protein was expressed successfully. The biological function of protein Latcripin-1 on A549 cells was studied with flow cytometry and the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyl-tetrazolium Bromide (MTT) method. The toxic effect of protein Latcripin-1 was detected with the MTT method by co-culturing the characterized protein with chick embryo fibroblasts. The MTT assay results showed that there was a great difference between protein Latcripin-1 groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no toxic effect of the characterized protein on chick embryo fibroblasts. The flow cytometry showed that there was a significant difference between the protein groups of interest and the control group according to apoptosis function (p < 0.05). At the same time, cell ultrastructure observed by transmission electron microscopy supported the results of flow cytometry. The work demonstrates that protein Latcripin-1 can induce apoptosis of human lung cancer cells A549 and brings new insights into and advantages to finding anti-tumor proteins. PMID:22754362

  8. Quality control of radioimmunoassay kits of pituitary hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work describe the quality control procedures carried out on three RIA-Kits by the Isotopes Centre of Cuba, The subject matter of study were ;: were: LH-RIA-Kit, FSH-RIA-Kit and Prolactin- RIA -Kit. The controls have included the characterization of the 125I labelled hormones the specific antibodies, the 2 nd antibodies, the standards curves and the control serum. For the validation of these Kits were used reference standards from the WHO (World Health Organizations) and Kits from CIS company (France) based on the IRMA assays technologies . The results obtained allow us encourage the reliability of RIA-Kits

  9. Clinical usefulness of trypsin radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the clinical use of RIA-gnost trypsin kit, the following results were obtained. 1. Standard curve showed a steep and good curve was shown. 2. Incubation: The condition for the first incubation was set at the room temperature for 10-24 hours and that for the second incubation at the room temperature for 3-5 hours. With these settings, satisfactory results were obtained. 3. Reproducibility and recovery: The C.V. of the reproducibility and the recovery were considered superior, and the values were below 10 % and ±3 %, respectively. 4. Correlation between trypsin and serum elestase-1: An excellent positive correlation (coefficient of correlation r = 0.889) was shown. 5. Serum trypsin concentration of normal and pancreatic diseases: The normal range was from 100 to 500 ng/ml. Acute pancreatitis rose obviously. Diabetes mellitus and chronic pancreatitis was below 500 ng/ml and the pancreatic cancer showed a tendency to scatter in the range of 50-1 250 ng/ml. The above results indicated that serum trypsin can be easily measured with high precision by using this method. Thus the method is considered useful for the diagnosis of pancreatic diseases. (author)

  10. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presence...... of virulence factors could be detected between healthy and diseased kits. By electron microscopy of faecal samples corona-, rota-, and calicivirus were demonstrated among healthy as well as diseased kits....

  11. Studies on 16α-Hydroxylation of Steroid Molecules and Regioselective Binding Mode in Homology-Modeled Cytochrome P450-2C11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamed I.; Yamada, Morio; Fujita, Yukihisa; Maeda, Mitsuko; Akaho, Eiichi

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the 16α-hydroxylation of steroid molecules and regioselective binding mode in homology-modeled cytochrome P450-2C11 to correlate the biological study with the computational molecular modeling. It revealed that there was a positive relationship between the observed inhibitory potencies and the binding free energies. Docking of steroid molecules into this homology-modeled CYP2C11 indicated that 16α-hydroxylation is favored with steroidal molecules possessing the following components, (1) a bent A-B ring configuration (5β-reduced), (2) C-3 α-hydroxyl group, (3) C-17β-acetyl group, and (4) methyl group at both the C-18 and C-19. These respective steroid components requirements were defined as the inhibitory contribution factor. Overall studies of the male rat CYP2C11 metabolism revealed that the above-mentioned steroid components requirements were essential to induce an effective inhibition of [3H]progesterone 16α-hydroxylation. As far as docking of homology-modeled CYP2C11 against investigated steroids is concerned, they are docked at the active site superimposed with flurbiprofen. It was also found that the distance between heme iron and C16α-H was between 4 to 6 Å and that the related angle was in the range of 180 ± 45°.

  12. A New Lyophilized Kit for Rapid Radiofluorination of Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, William J.; D'Souza, Christopher A.; Karacay, Habibe; Sharkey, Robert M.; Goldenberg, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Radiolabeling compounds with positron-emitting radionuclides often involves a time-consuming, customized process. Herein, we report a simple lyophilized kit formulation for labeling peptides with 18F, based on the aluminum-fluoride procedure. The prototype kit contains IMP485, a NODA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4-diacetate)-MPAA (methyl phenylacetic acid)-di-HSG (histamine-succinyl-glycine) hapten-peptide, [NODA-MPAA-D-Lys(HSG)-D-Tyr-D-Lys(HSG)-NH2], used for pretargeting, but we also examined a similar kit formulation for a somatostatin-binding peptide [IMP466, NOTA-D-Phe-Cys-Phe-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys-Throl] bearing a NOTA ligand to determine if the benefits of using a kit can be extended to other AlF-binding peptides. The NODA-MPAA ligand forms a single stable complex with (AlF)2+ in high yields. In order to establish suitable conditions for a facile kit, the formulation was optimized for pH, peptide to Al3+ ratio, bulking agent, radioprotectant, and the buffer. For optimal labeling, the kit was reconstituted with an aqueous solution of 18F− and ethanol (1:1), heated at 100–110 °C for 15 min, and then simply and rapidly purified using one of two equally effective solid-phase extraction (SPE) methods. Al18F-IMP485 was isolated as a single isomer complex, in high yield (45–97%) and high specific activity (up to 223 GBq/μmol), within 20 min. The labeled product was stable in human serum at 37 °C for 4 h and in vivo, urine samples showed the intact product was eliminated. Tumor targeting of the Al18F-IMP485 in nude mice bearing human colon cancer xenografts pretargeted with an anti-CEACAM5 bispecific antibody showed very low uptake (0.06% ± 0.02 ID/g) in bone, further illustrating its stability. At 1 h, pretargeted animals had high Al18F-IMP485 tumor uptake (28.1% ± 4.5 ID/g), with ratios of 9 ± 4, 123 ± 38, 110 ± 43 and 120 ± 108 for kidney, liver, blood and bone, respectively. Tumor uptake remained high at 3 h post-injection, with increased tumor

  13. Basic and clinical investigation of T3 immunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T3 immunoassay kit was investigated basically and clinically. A good result was obtained at the prescribed incubation temperature and for 16 hours of incubation time. Moreover, it was thought to be possible that incubation time could be shortened to 1 - 4 hours at 370C. Specificity of antibody was good. Recovery of added T3 was 100+-5 (S.D.) % on an average and parallel of dilution curve of high T3 serum was also good. Variation coefficient of accuracy of this kit was 1.5 - 2.1 % and that of reproducibility was 1.3 - 6.6 %. Mild hemolysis did not affect measurement value. Serum T3 level in normals, untreated patients with Basedow's disease and patients with primary hypothyroidism was 142+-21 ng/100 ml, 452+-156 ng/100 ml and 67+-17 ng/100 ml, respectively. Serum T3 level in patients with Hashimoto's disease was distributed to a wide extent, but that of patients with goiter and simple goiter ranged within normal range. On the other side, serum T3 level of normal pregnant woman was high and that of patients with anorexia nervosa showed low level. From the above mentioned results, it was concluded that this kit was simple in method and good in sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility and it was also useful for clinical applications. (M. Tsunoda)

  14. Discovery and Characterization of a Cell-Permeable, Small-Molecule c-Abl Kinase Activator that Binds to the Myristoyl Binding Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jingsong; Campobasso, Nino; Biju, Mangatt P.; Fisher, Kelly; Pan, Xiao-Qing; Cottom, Josh; Galbraith, Sarah; Ho, Thau; Zhang, Hong; Hong, Xuan; Ward, Paris; Hofmann, Glenn; Siegfried, Brett; Zappacosta, Francesca; Washio, Yoshiaki; Cao, Ping; Qu, Junya; Bertrand, Sophie; Wang, Da-Yuan; Head, Martha S.; Li, Hu; Moores, Sheri; Lai, Zhihong; Johanson, Kyung; Burton, George; Erickson-Miller, Connie; Simpson, Graham; Tummino, Peter; Copeland, Robert A.; Oliff, Allen (GSKPA)

    2014-10-02

    c-Abl kinase activity is regulated by a unique mechanism involving the formation of an autoinhibited conformation in which the N-terminal myristoyl group binds intramolecularly to the myristoyl binding site on the kinase domain and induces the bending of the {alpha}I helix that creates a docking surface for the SH2 domain. Here, we report a small-molecule c-Abl activator, DPH, that displays potent enzymatic and cellular activity in stimulating c-Abl activation. Structural analyses indicate that DPH binds to the myristoyl binding site and prevents the formation of the bent conformation of the {alpha}I helix through steric hindrance, a mode of action distinct from the previously identified allosteric c-Abl inhibitor, GNF-2, that also binds to the myristoyl binding site. DPH represents the first cell-permeable, small-molecule tool compound for c-Abl activation.

  15. Control of Oocyte Reawakening by Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Hatice Duygu; Cuevas, Ileana; Castrillon, Diego H

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, females are born with finite numbers of oocytes stockpiled as primordial follicles. Oocytes are "reawakened" via an ovarian-intrinsic process that initiates their growth. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo3 controls reawakening downstream of PI3K-AKT signaling. However, the identity of the presumptive upstream cell surface receptor controlling the PI3K-AKT-Foxo3 axis has been questioned. Here we show that the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit controls reawakening. Oocyte-specific expression of a novel constitutively-active KitD818V allele resulted in female sterility and ovarian failure due to global oocyte reawakening. To confirm this result, we engineered a novel loss-of-function allele, KitL. Kit inactivation within oocytes also led to premature ovarian failure, albeit via a contrasting phenotype. Despite normal initial complements of primordial follicles, oocytes remained dormant with arrested oocyte maturation. Foxo3 protein localization in the nucleus versus cytoplasm explained both mutant phenotypes. These genetic studies provide formal genetic proof that Kit controls oocyte reawakening, focusing future investigations into the causes of primary ovarian insufficiency and ovarian aging. PMID:27500836

  16. Discovery of a biomarker and lead small molecules to target r(GGGGCC)-associated defects in c9FTD/ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yongjie; Gendron, Tania F; Bauer, Peter O; Chew, Jeannie; Yang, Wang-Yong; Fostvedt, Erik; Jansen-West, Karen; Belzil, Veronique V; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Overstreet, Karen; Oh, Seok-Yoon; Todd, Peter K; Berry, James D; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Boeve, Bradley F; Dickson, Dennis; Floeter, Mary Kay; Traynor, Bryan J; Morelli, Claudia; Ratti, Antonia; Silani, Vincenzo; Rademakers, Rosa; Brown, Robert H; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Boylan, Kevin B; Petrucelli, Leonard; Disney, Matthew D

    2014-09-01

    A repeat expansion in C9ORF72 causes frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9FTD/ALS). RNA of the expanded repeat (r(GGGGCC)exp) forms nuclear foci or undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation, producing "c9RAN proteins." Since neutralizing r(GGGGCC)exp could inhibit these potentially toxic events, we sought to identify small-molecule binders of r(GGGGCC)exp. Chemical and enzymatic probing of r(GGGGCC)8 indicate that it adopts a hairpin structure in equilibrium with a quadruplex structure. Using this model, bioactive small molecules targeting r(GGGGCC)exp were designed and found to significantly inhibit RAN translation and foci formation in cultured cells expressing r(GGGGCC)66 and neurons transdifferentiated from fibroblasts of repeat expansion carriers. Finally, we show that poly(GP) c9RAN proteins are specifically detected in c9ALS patient cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings highlight r(GGGGCC)exp-binding small molecules as a possible c9FTD/ALS therapeutic and suggest that c9RAN proteins could potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to assess efficacy of therapies that target r(GGGGCC)exp. PMID:25132468

  17. Discovery of a Biomarker and Lead Small Molecules to Target r(GGGGCC)-Associated Defects in c9FTD/ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yongjie; Gendron, Tania F.; Bauer, Peter O.; Chew, Jeannie; Yang, Wang-Yong; Fostvedt, Erik; Jansen-West, Karen; Belzil, Veronique V.; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Overstreet, Karen; Oh, Seok-Yoon; Todd, Peter K.; Berry, James D.; Cudkowicz, Merit E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Dickson, Dennis; Floeter, Mary Kay; Traynor, Bryan J.; Morelli, Claudia; Ratti, Antonia; Silani, Vincenzo; Rademakers, Rosa; Brown, Robert H.; Rothstein, Jeffrey D.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Petrucelli, Leonard; Disney, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A repeat expansion in C9ORF72 causes frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9FTD/ALS). RNA of the expanded repeat (r(GGGGCC)exp) forms nuclear foci or undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation producing “c9RAN proteins”. Since neutralizing r(GGGGCC)exp could inhibit these potentially toxic events, we sought to identify small molecule binders of r(GGGGCC)exp. Chemical and enzymatic probing of r(GGGGCC)8 indicate it adopts a hairpin structure in equilibrium with a quadruplex structure. Using this model, bioactive small molecules targeting r(GGGGCC)exp were designed and found to significantly inhibit RAN translation and foci formation in cultured cells expressing r(GGGGCC)66 and neurons trans-differentiated from fibroblasts of repeat expansion carriers. Finally, we show that poly(GP) c9RAN proteins are specifically detected in c9ALS patient cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings highlight r(GGGGCC)exp-binding small molecules as a possible c9FTD/ALS therapeutic, and suggest c9RAN proteins could potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to assess efficacy of therapies that target r(GGGGCC)exp. PMID:25132468

  18. Electron swarm parameters in pure C2H2 and in C2H2-Ar mixtures and electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2010-09-01

    Electron swarm parameters (the drift velocity and the longitudinal diffusion coefficient) were measured in pure C2H2 and also in C2H2-Ar mixtures containing 0.517% and 5.06% acetylene over wide E/N ranges. These swarm parameters were analysed using a Boltzmann equation analysis and a set of electron collision cross sections for the C2H2 molecule was derived so that it was consistent with the present swarm data and published ionization coefficient. The present result suggested the presence of a Ramsauer-Townsend minimum in the elastic momentum transfer cross section at 0.08 eV and prominent threshold and resonance peaks in the ν4/ν5 vibrational excitation cross section. The present cross section set was also confirmed to be consistent with the published experimental total cross section of C2H2.

  19. First realisation of a labelling kit of N.T.P. 15-5 ligand by {sup 99m}Tc in view of a clinical application in cartilage functional imaging; Premiere realisation d'une trousse de marquage du ligand NTP 15-5 par le 99mTc en vue d'une application clinique en imagerie fonctionnelle du cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miot-Noirault, E.; Cachin, F.; Vidal, A.; Auzeloux, P.; Chezal, J.M.; Gaumet, V.; Askienazy, S. [Inserm, EA4231, UMR 990, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Guenu, S. [UFR de pharmacie, laboratoire de chimie analytique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, S. [Laboratoires Cyclopharma, 63 - Saint-Beauzire (France)

    2010-07-01

    We are working on a SPECT tracer for functional imaging of articular cartilage, the {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. This molecule has its application in degenerative diseases of cartilage (arthrosis, arthritis and chondrosarcoma). Excellent reports of cartilage versus tissues fixing ratios are obtained in different animal models as well as human anatomical parts. For clinical application, we present the development of a labelling kit by the technetium of the ligand NTP 15-5. (N.C.)

  20. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  1. Multicentre evaluation of commercial kit methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, J; Declerck, P J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen;

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the analytical performance of different commercial kits for determination of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity we distributed eight selected split samples to 11 European laboratories experienced with haemostasis testing. Three different laboratories were involved in...... the production of data from each of the commercial kits tested. A considerable variation of PAI activity results reported from the laboratories testing the same commercial kits was observed. The range of reported results could in individual samples exceed the median value indicating an interlaboratory...... one of the plasma samples, which was PAI-1 depleted. The laboratories involved in the testing reported for this sample a mean value of 6.1 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  2. FES kinase participates in KIT-ligand induced chemotaxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisset, Edwige, E-mail: Edwige.Voisset@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France); Lopez, Sophie, E-mail: Sophie.Lopez@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France); Chaix, Amandine, E-mail: Amandine.Chaix@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France); Vita, Marina, E-mail: Marina.Vita@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France); George, Coralie, E-mail: Coralie.Georges@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France); Dubreuil, Patrice, E-mail: Patrice.Dubreuil@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France); De Sepulveda, Paulo, E-mail: Sepulveda@inserm.fr [INSERM U891, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille (CRCM) (France); Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille (France); Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix-Marseille II (France)

    2010-02-26

    FES is a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase activated by several membrane receptors, originally identified as a viral oncogene product. We have recently identified FES as a crucial effector of oncogenic KIT mutant receptor. However, FES implication in wild-type KIT receptor function was not addressed. We report here that FES interacts with KIT and is phosphorylated following activation by its ligand SCF. Unlike in the context of oncogenic KIT mutant, FES is not involved in wild-type KIT proliferation signal, or in cell adhesion. Instead, FES is required for SCF-induced chemotaxis. In conclusion, FES kinase is a mediator of wild-type KIT signalling implicated in cell migration.

  3. Study of 99mTc-ECD instant kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the preparation of 99mTc-ECD instant kit, and a comparison of the instant kit with the ligand exchange kit. The radiochemical purity, stability, animal experiment and preliminary clinical trial showed that the instant kit possessed the following advantages: (1) The labelling yield (greater than 95%) and stability of 99mTc-ECD (the liberation of 99mTc 5 hr after preparation was less than 1%) were high; (2) The labelling method was simple, convenient and effective; (3) The quality of brain SPECT images was good. This instant kit is more suitable for the clinic application than the 2-step kit

  4. Athletes' kit: the IOC Athlete Career Programme

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The IOC Athletes' kit is a collection of resources from the IOC Athletes' Commission written exclusively for the athlete. The kit contains lots lof great information, tips and worksheets designed to help the athlete succeed both on and off the field of play. Athletes will find resources and tips on how to make the most of the team of people around them, guidance on the three pillars of the IOC Athlete Career Programme - education, life skills and employment - and information on ethics and med...

  5. Ajoneuvon toteutus Unreal Development Kit -pelimoottorille

    OpenAIRE

    Virkkunen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Tässä toiminnallisessa opinnäytetyössä toteutettiin pelattava ajoneuvo Unreal Development Kit –pelimoottorille. Tavoitteena oli tutkia, mitä työvaiheita ajoneuvon luomisessa reaaliaikaiselle pelimoottorille tarvitaan ja mitä niissä tulee ottaa huomioon. Opinnäytetyön käytönnönosuuden tulos on nelirenkainen ajoneuvo, jonka katolla on ase. Opinnäytetyössä käytetyt ohjelmat olivat 3ds Max 2011 mallinnukseen, Adobe Photoshop CS5 tekstuurien luontiin ja muokkaukseen ja Unreal Development Kit (...

  6. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-05-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.

  7. Sequencing and G-quadruplex folding of the canine proto-oncogene KIT promoter region: might dog be used as a model for human disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Da Ros

    Full Text Available Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2 were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations.

  8. New molecules in IRC+10216: confirmation of C$_5$S and tentative identification of MgCCH, NCCP, and SiH$_3$CN

    CERN Document Server

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Guélin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The C-star envelope IRC+10216 harbors a rich variety of molecules, with more than 80 detected to date. During the course of a $\\lambda$ 3 mm survey of IRC+10216 carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope we have detected various weak lines, with antenna temperatures of a few mK, that we assign to rotational transitions of four new molecules. The observation of three lines of C$_5$S confirms a previous tentative identification of this molecule by Bell et al. (1993) based on a line at 24.0 GHz. We also report the tentative identification of three molecules not yet observed in space: MgCCH, the first metal acetylide detected in space, and NCCP and SiH$_3$CN, the phosphorus and silicon analogs of cyanogen (NCCN) and methyl cyanide (CH$_3$CN). We derive the following column densities: $N$(C$_5$S) = (2-14) $\\times$ 10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$ (depending on the rotational temperature adopted), $N$(MgCCH) = 2 $\\times$ 10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$, $N$(NCCP) = 7 $\\times$ 10$^{11}$ cm$^{-2}$, and $N$(SiH$_3$CN) = 10$^{12}$ cm$^{-2}$. The...

  9. Development and evaluation of a single vial cold kit for infection imaging: Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibiotics have been used in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. They are used as specific infection-imaging agents because of their affinity to bind with bacteria. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin is the most widely used infection-imaging agent. The aim of the present work is to increase the shelf life of an in house developed single vial kit for the preparation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Different methods were used to make the Ciprofloxacin kits. Kits were stored at a temperature of 4 deg. C under nitrogen atmosphere and evaluated for stability by serially estimating the labeling efficiency using instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) following reconstitution with Tc99m pertechnetate at regular intervals of time up to 90 days after their preparation. The data were subjected to Sigmaplotsoftware version 8.0 for shelf-life analysis. The kits were further evaluated for a number of standard quality control parameters. Kits containing sodium chloride-Ciprofloxacin pellets were found to have a shelf life of 7 months and constantly maintaining a labeling efficiency of 95% Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin. Biodistribution studies in balb/c mice showed significant levels in kidney, liver and intestine. Blood clearance studies showed a slow and biphasic clearance in rabbits. Gamma camera imaging of the rabbits bearing S.aureus infectious lesion confirmed the utility and specificity of the reconstituted kit in imaging infection. The final kit, which was recommended for clinical use was found to be stable for nine months with all its characteristics remaining unchanged from those of the freshly prepared Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin during the entire period of observation. (author)

  10. Stability study of human serum albumin freeze dried kits: Non-Irradiated and Gamma-irradiated kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involves the time stability of the human serum albumin (HSA) freeze dried kits and the effect of gamma-irradiation on these kits and their stability. The Sn(II) Cl2 and Sn(II) citrate HSA kits have similar stability, labelling percentage and biological distribution in mice. The data obtained for the gamma-irradiation kits shows that both the Sn(II) Cl2 and Sn(II) citrate kits do show any physical, chemical or biological change of the kit constituents after their irradiation with 2.5 M rad dose

  11. Charge transport in C60-based dumbbell-type molecules: mechanically induced switching between two distinct conductance states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-García, Pavel; La Rosa, Andrea; Kolivoška, Viliam; Bermejo, Daniel; Hong, Wenjing; Yoshida, Koji; Baghernejad, Masoud; Filippone, Salvatore; Broekmann, Peter; Wandlowski, Thomas; Martín, Nazario

    2015-02-18

    Single molecule charge transport characteristics of buckminsterfullerene-capped symmetric fluorene-based dumbbell-type compound 1 were investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy break junction (STM-BJ), current sensing atomic force microscopy break junction (CS-AFM-BJ), and mechanically controlled break junction (MCBJ) techniques, under ambient conditions. We also show that compound 1 is able to form highly organized defect-free surface adlayers, allowing the molecules on the surface to be addressed specifically. Two distinct single molecule conductance states (called high G(H)(1) and low G(L)(1)) were observed, depending on the pressure exerted by the probe on the junction, thus allowing molecule 1 to function as a mechanically driven molecular switch. These two distinct conductance states were attributed to the electron tunneling through the buckminsterfullerene anchoring group and fully extended molecule 1, respectively. The assignment of conductance features to these configurations was further confirmed by control experiments with asymmetrically designed buckminsterfullerene derivative 2 as well as pristine buckminsterfullerene 3, both lacking the G(L) feature. PMID:25651069

  12. Oncoprotein protein kinase antibody kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Michael; Hibi, Masahiko; Lin, Anning

    2008-12-23

    An isolated polypeptide (JNK) characterized by having a molecular weight of 46 kD as determined by reducing SDS-PAGE, having serine and threonine kinase activity, phosphorylating the c-Jun N-terminal activation domain and polynucleotide sequences and method of detection of JNK are provided herein. JNK phosphorylates c-Jun N-terminal activation domain which affects gene expression from AP-1 sites.

  13. Analysis of the High-Resolution Fourier Spectrum of the ν6 Band of the cis-C2h2d2 Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konov, I. A.; Chertavskikh, Yu. V.; Fomchenko, A. L.; Aslapovskaya, Yu. S.; Zhdanovich, S. A.; Sydow, C.

    2016-03-01

    The spectrum of the ν6 band of the cis-ethylene-d2 molecule (cis-C2H2D2) is recorded with a Bruker IFS 125 HR Fourier spectrometer in the range 580-1210 cm-1 with resolution of 0.0021 cm-1. An analysis of the experimental spectrum allows more than 1500 transitions belonging to this band to be assigned that by more than 2.5 times greater than it has been known in the literature so far. The obtained experimental data are then used to determine the model parameters of the molecule (the effective Hamiltonian in the A-reduction and I'- representation). Strong resonance interaction with the band ν4 forbidden in absorption by the symmetry of a molecule is taken into account. 10 parameters of the Hamiltonian obtained by solving inverse spectroscopic problem reproduce 427 initial experimental energies (more than 1500 transitions) with accuracy close to the experimental uncertainty.

  14. Masitinib Antagonizes ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Member 10-Mediated Paclitaxel Resistance: A Preclinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kathawala, Rishil J; Sodani, Kamlesh; Chen, Kang; PATEL, ATISH; Abuznait, Alaa H.; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Sun, Yue-Li; Kaddoumi, Amal; Ashby, Charles R.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Paclitaxel displays clinical activity against a wide variety of solid tumors. However, resistance to paclitaxel significantly attenuates the response to chemotherapy. The ABC transporter subfamily C member 10 (ABCC10), also known as multi-drug resistance protein 7 (MRP7) efflux transporter, is a major mediator of paclitaxel resistance. In this study, we show that masitinib, a small molecule stem-cell growth factor receptor (c-Kit) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, at non-toxic concentrations, signif...

  15. Chemical evolution of the HC3N and N2H+ molecules in dense cores of the Vela C giant molecular cloud complex

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Satoshi; Fujii, Kosuke; Sanhueza, Patricio; Luong, Quang Nguyen; Choi, Minho; Hirota, Tomoya; Mizuno, Norikazu

    2015-01-01

    We have observed the HC3N (J=10-9) and N2H+ (J=1-0) lines toward the Vela C molecular clouds with the Mopra 22 m telescope to study chemical characteristics of dense cores. The intensity distributions of these molecules are similar to each other at an angular resolution of 53", corresponding to 0.19 pc suggesting that these molecules trace the same dense cores. We identified 25 local peaks in the velocity-integrated intensity maps of the HC3N and/or N2H+ emission. Assuming LTE conditions, we calculated the column densities of these molecules and found a tendency that N2H+/HC3N abundance ratio seems to be low in starless regions while it seems to be high in star-forming regions, similar to the tendencies in the NH3/CCS, NH3/HC3N, and N2H+/CCS abundance ratios found in previous studies of dark clouds and the Orion A GMC. We suggest that carbon chain molecules, including HC3N, may trace chemically young molecular gas and N-bearing molecules, such as N2H+, may trace later stages of chemical evolution in the Vela ...

  16. Teen PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to teach teenagers about the effects of overpopulation on the world and on the individual. Information is presented in three related booklets. The first of the three parts of the "Teen Population Awareness Campaign Kit," illustrates overpopulation through profiles of teens living in Shanghai,…

  17. Triloogiasse astub Kits viiuliga / Mart Kivastik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivastik, Mart, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    Autor tutvustab oma uut näidendit maalikunstnik Elmar Kitsest "Kits viiuli ja õngega", mida esitab ühendus R.A.A.A.M Aarne Üksküla lavastuses sel suvel Viinistus. Peaosa mängib Aleksander Eelmaa, kunstnik Pille Jänes

  18. Development of MIBI kit for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99mTc-isonitriles have been shown to be a very promising substitute for Thallium-201 (201TI) for myocardial perfusion imaging. In this study, the lyophilized kit of Methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) was prepared and labeled with 99mTc. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit's stannous content, boiling time during labeling, and the volume of 99mTc used during reconstitution were also investigated. The radiochemical purity (RCP) determination of the labeled product was analyzed by HPLC, solvent-extraction, TLC and ITLC-SG chromatographic methods in various systems. Animal biodistribution study performed in rats indicated the 99mTc-MIBI accumulation in the myocardial is up to 3 hours with little or no redistribution. Toxicity studies performed indicate no clinical signs of abnormality in mice at injected dose equivalent in amount of 100 times the human dose in proportion to body weight. Stability studies of the labeled complex performed at room temperature showed no change in radiochemical purity (> 95%) 6 hours post-preparation. Compatibility and comparative studies were done using both MINT and commercially available MIBI kits and 99mTc generator eluates. From the results obtained the MINT produced MIBI kits were found to be comparable in quality to that of commercials. (author)

  19. Discovery of a Biomarker and Lead Small Molecules to Target r(GGGGCC)-Associated Defects in c9FTD/ALS

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yongjie; Gendron, Tania F.; Bauer, Peter O.; Chew, Jeannie; Yang, Wang-Yong; Fostvedt, Erik; Jansen-West, Karen; Belzil, Veronique V.; Desaro, Pamela; Johnston, Amelia; Overstreet, Karen; Oh, Seok-Yoon; Todd, Peter K.; Berry, James D

    2014-01-01

    A repeat expansion in C9ORF72 causes frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (c9FTD/ALS). RNA of the expanded repeat (r(GGGGCC)exp) forms nuclear foci or undergoes repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation producing “c9RAN proteins”. Since neutralizing r(GGGGCC)exp could inhibit these potentially toxic events, we sought to identify small molecule binders of r(GGGGCC)exp. Chemical and enzymatic probing of r(GGGGCC)8 indicate it adopts a hairpin structure in equilibrium with...

  20. Design and construction of educational kit for electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Nedvěd, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to try to design and construct an electronics educational kit which would strive to meet the highest didactic level. All the kits available on the Czech market were studied for this purpose, including those kits which are no longer produced but are still used in Czech schools. All the kits mentioned above were analyzed and based on the parameters found they were also evaluated. Documents dealing with the methodology and requirements for the development of educational...

  1. ANALYTICAL APPROXIMATIONS FOR KITTING SYSTEMS WITH MULTIPLE INPUTS

    OpenAIRE

    RAM RAMAKRISHNAN; ANANTH KRISHNAMURTHY

    2008-01-01

    This research analyzes a kitting system where multiple components are grouped to form a predefined kit prior to assembly. The kitting system is modeled as a fork/join synchronization station and component supply is assumed to be from fabrication facilities operating under a kanban control policy. Exact analysis of these systems is computationally intensive even under Markovian assumptions. To evaluate the impact of input parameters on kitting system performance, several easily computable boun...

  2. 46 CFR 121.710 - First-aid kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First-aid kits. 121.710 Section 121.710 Shipping COAST... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous § 121.710 First-aid kits. A vessel must carry either a first-aid kit... kits, the contents must be stowed in a suitable, watertight container that is marked “First-Aid Kit”....

  3. Simulation of the soft-landing and adsorption of C60 molecules on a graphite substrate and computation of their scanning-tunnelling-microscopy-like images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A constant-temperature molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to model the soft-landing and adsorption of C60 molecules on a graphite substrate with the C60s treated as soft molecules and released individually towards the substrate. The intra-molecular and intra-planar covalently bonding interactions were modelled by very accurate many-body potentials, and the non-bonding forces were derived from various pairwise potentials. The simulation extended over 1.6 million time steps covering a significant period of 160 picoseconds. The final alignment of the molecules on the surface agrees closely with that observed in an experiment based on scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) on the same system, performed at room temperature and under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions. Using a tungsten tip in a constant-current mode of imaging, we have also computed the STM-like images of one of the adsorbed molecules using a formulation of the STM tunnelling current based on Keldysh's non-equilibrium Green function formalism. Our aim has been to search for tip-induced states, which were speculated, on the basis of another STM-based experiment, performed in air, to form one of the possible origins of the extra features purported to have been observed in that experiment. We have not obtained any such states. (author)

  4. 21 CFR 868.5140 - Anesthesia conduction kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction kit. 868.5140 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5140 Anesthesia conduction kit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction kit is a device used to administer to a patient conduction, regional,...

  5. 21 CFR 878.3925 - Plastic surgery kit and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plastic surgery kit and accessories. 878.3925... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3925 Plastic surgery kit and accessories. (a) Identification. A plastic surgery kit and accessories is a device intended...

  6. Home Pregnancy Test Kits: How Readable Are the Instructions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Carol Ann

    At the conclusion of their study on home pregnancy test kits, Valinas and Perlman (1982) suggested that the instructions accompanying the kits be revised to make them easier to read. A study was undertaken to determine the readability of the printed instructions accompanying five home pregnancy test kits (Daisy II, Answer, Acu-Test, Predictor, and…

  7. Escherichia coli and virus isolated from ''sticky kits''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M.; Scheutz, F.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1996-01-01

    A total of 121 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 3-week-old mink kits were serotyped and examined for virulence factors. 56 strains were isolated from healthy kits while 65 were from ''sticky kits''. Among these, 34 different serotypes were detected. No difference in serotypes or the presenc...

  8. 46 CFR 108.707 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 108.707 Section 108.707 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment § 108.707 First aid kit. Each unit must have a first-aid kit approved by the Mine...

  9. 33 CFR 144.01-30 - First-aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid kit. 144.01-30 Section...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES LIFESAVING APPLIANCES Manned Platforms § 144.01-30 First-aid kit. On each manned platform a first-aid kit approved by the Commandant or the U.S. Bureau of Mines shall...

  10. 46 CFR 169.725 - First aid kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid kit. 169.725 Section 169.725 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.725 First aid kit. Each vessel must carry an approved first aid kit, constructed and fitted in accordance with subpart 160.041 of this chapter....

  11. Mutational profile of KIT and PDGFRA genes in gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Peruvian samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Buleje

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are mesenchymal neoplasms usually caused by somatic mutations in the genes KIT (c-KIT or PDGFRA. Mutation characterization has become an important exam for GIST patients because it is useful in predicting the response to the inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of KIT and PDGFRA mutations in 25 GIST samples collected over two years at two national reference hospitals in Peru. There were 21 samples collected from the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas (INEN, national cancer center and 4 samples collected from Hospital A. Loayza. Methods and materials: In this retrospective study, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequencing of KIT (exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18 genes in 20 FFPE (formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and 5 frozen GIST samples. Results: We report 21 mutations, including deletions, duplications, and missense, no mutations in 2 samples, and 2 samples with no useful DNA for further analysis. Eighty-six percent of these mutations were located in exon 11 of KIT, and 14 % were located in exon 18 of PDGFRA. Conclusions: Our study identified mutations in 21 out of 25 GIST samples from 2 referential national hospitals in Peru, and the mutation proportion follows a global tendency observed from previous studies (i.e., the majority of samples presented KIT mutations followed by a minor percentage of PDGFRA mutations. This study presents the first mutation data of the KIT and PDGFRA genes from Peruvian individuals with GIST.

  12. Photoelectron spectra of F3SiC2H4Si(CH3)3 molecule using monochromatized synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of photoelectron spectra for gas phase F3SiC2H4Si(CH3)3 molecule have been measured using monochromatized undulator radiation and a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer. Valence photoelectron spectrum shows many peaks for ionization from shallow and deep molecular orbitals in the binding energy region of 9-40 eV. A calculation of ionization energies using the outer valence Green's function method indicates energies in agreement with experimental results below 17.5 eV. Spectra for Si L-shell electron emission show chemical shifts of Si atoms induced from different chemical environments around two Si atoms and also exhibit spin-orbit splitting for 2p photoelectrons. Further photoelectron spectra for C K-shell and F K-shell are discussed in comparison with those of related molecules.

  13. HER2-Positive Tumors Imaged Within 1 Hour Using a Site-Specifically 11C-Labeled Sel-Tagged Affibody Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Wållberg, H; Grafström, J; Q. Cheng; Lu, L; Martinsson Ahlzén, HS; Samén, E; Thorell, JO; K. Johansson; Dunås, F; Olofsson, MH; Stone-Elander, S; Arnér, Elias S.J.; Ståhl, S

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, reliable method for distinguishing tumors or metastases that overexpress human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) from those that do not is highly desired for individualizing therapy and predicting prognoses. In vivo imaging methods are available but not yet in clinical practice; new methodologies improving speed, sensitivity, and specificity are required. METHODS: A HER2-binding Affibody molecule, Z(HER2:342), was recombinantly fused with a C-terminal selenocystein...

  14. Preparation of 99Tcm-ciprofloxacin kit and its biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciprofloxacin (CPF) made in China is labelled with 99Tcm and the factors which affects the labelling efficiency are determined. Accordingly, a new CPF cold kit is developed and the biodistribution of 99Tcm-CPF in infected animal is evaluated. Under the optimal conditions of pH 3.0-3.5, CPF contents above 4 mg, SnCl2·2H2O contents over 100 μg, 10 minutes after injection of 99TcmO4-, the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-CPF is above 95% and remained >95% at 6 h after preparation at room temperature. The kit is stored at 0-8 degree C or -18 degree C in refrigerator, the radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-CPF keeps up with over 95% after 3 months. Mice with infectious lesions injected with 99Tcm-CPF show a mean abscess-to-muscle ratio of 4.30 ±0.31 at 4 h post injection. (authors)

  15. Advantage of using a home-made elisa kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection over commercially imported kits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate a home-made ELISA kit for detection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection and comparison of its immunologic criteria with those of foreign commercial kits. Methods: A home-made IgG ELISA kit was developed using soluble antigenic fractions of Hp proteins. Confirmed sera were tested and serological criteria were evaluated through assessment of 199 serum samples. Results: The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity values of home-made kit were 92, 92 and 90.4%, respectively. These immunologic criteria for Trinity kit were 95.2, 95.2 and 95% in comparison with IBL kit (91.3, 92.2 and 88.5%, BIOHIT kit (72.4, 41.6 and 94.1% and HelicoBlot2.1 (94.2, 93.4 and 100%. Kappa agreement assessment demonstrated that two of the imported ELISA kits had fair to moderate agreement with the home-made kit while the other one had a poor agreement value. Conclusions: Apart from comparable values between the home-made kit and the most efficient imported kit (Trinity there was significant cost benefit. Therefore, we recommend the home-made kit as a suitable substitution for detection of Hp infection in the Iranian population.

  16. Void induced molecule c23h12++ could reproduce the infrared spectrum (3 to 20 micron) of interstellar gas and dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Norio

    2014-01-01

    In order to find out a selected number of molecules to reproduce the infrared spectrum of interstellar gas and dust, model coronene molecules with void and charge have been computed using density functional theory. Among them, a single void induced cation C23H12++ have successfully reproduced a wide range spectrum from 3 to 20 micron of typical interstellar gas and dust. Well known astronoically observed emission peaks are 3.3, 6.2, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6, 11.2, 12.7, 13.5 and 14.3 micro meter. Whereas, calculated peaks of C23H12++ were 3.2, 6.4, 7.6, 7.8, 8.6, 11.4, 12.9, 13.5, and 14.4 micron meter. It should be noted that a single kind of molecule could reproduce very well not depending on the decomposition method using many polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) data. Such coincidence suggested that some astronomical chemical evolution may select a particular PAH. Molecular sructure of C23H12++ was dramatically deformed by the Jahn-Teller effect. There is a featured carbon skeleton having two pentagons connected to...

  17. Total Cross Sections for Electron Scattering from the Isoelectronic (Z = 14) Molecules (C2H2, CO, HCN and N2) at 100-5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI De-Heng; ZHU Zun-Lue; SUN Jin-Feng; YANG Xiang-Dong; LIU Yu-Fang; ZHAO Ye

    2004-01-01

    @@ A complex optical model potential correlated by the conception of bonded atom, which considers the overlapping effect of electron clouds between the two atoms in a molecule, is firstly employed to calculate the total cross sections for electron scattering from the isoelectronic (Z = 14) molecules (C2H2, CO, HCN, and N2) at 100-5000eV using the additivity rule at the Hartree-Fock level The difference between the bonded atom and the free one is that the overlapping effect of electron clouds of bonded atoms in molecules is considered. The quantitative molecular total cross section results are compared with the experimental data and with the other calculations wherever available and good agreement is obtained above 100eV. It is shown that the additivity rule along with the complex optical model potential considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds can give the results better than that uncorrelated by it. The correlating calculations are much closer to the experiments than the spherical-complex-optical-potential results in the lower energy region [Phys. Rev. A 45 (1992) 202]. Therefore,considering the overlapping effect of electron clouds in the complex optical potential could be helpful for the better accuracy of the total cross section calculations of electron scattering from molecules.

  18. Identification of EPAC (Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP) bioinformatically as a potential signalling biomarker in Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and its molecular docking by a lead molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Saranya; Pathak, Ravi Kant; Mishra, Vachaspati

    2011-01-01

    The present work delineates the combinatorial approach of firstly, creation of a centralized data-set comprising signalling proteins identified on the basis of altered expression, such as over-expression or repression of a set of signalling protein(s) leading to the cause of the disease, which is based on published reports screened through Pubmed and secondly, in the in silico creation of novel lead (drug) molecules and docking of identified signalling biomarkers using such drugs to investigate possibility of their future application in the model systems eventually. EPAC (Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP) emerges as a signalling biomarker in cases studied presently. Brefeldin, the known inhibitor of EPAC, though the mechanism yet unexplored, has been the molecule used as the pharmacophore for creation of lead drug molecule. Various modifications have been incorporated into the pharmacophore to increase the hydrophobic interactions for increasing the binding efficiency of the generated lead molecule. Side-chain modifications of the pharmacophore and refinement of data through firedock upon docking of EPAC with the modified pharmacophore yielded best results on the bases of atomic contact energy, van der Waal and partial electrostatic interactions as well as additional estimations of the binding free energy. Modifications of CH3 at C15 with COOH and H at C2 with OH in brefeldin showed the best docking results on the basis of protein-drug interaction parameters. The present work provides a clue in rational design of EPAC inhibitors which could be developed as drug lead in combating CVD. PMID:21738308

  19. Preparation and quality control of ECD kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ECD Kit for brain imaging after labeling with technetium 99m was prepared according to an optimum conditions, Each vial contains 1 mg of ECD and 0.155 mg of stannous chloride anhydrous SnCl2, 24 mg of Mannitol and 0.5 mg of Na2Ca EDTA, The prepared kit showed high quality satisfying the requirements of international pharmacopoeias from the points of physical, chemical, radiochemical and biological purities, and its validity for human injection. And the labeling yield exceeded 95 % with average value of about 97.63 ± 0.89% for 2mCi /2ml radioactivity , This study also showed that each vial content can be labeled with maximum activity of 99mTc of about 50 mCi (Authors)

  20. Development of Mode Conversion Waveguides at KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Jianbo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of mode conversion waveguides (launchers for high power gyrotrons has gone through three stages at KIT. Formerly, harmonically deformed launchers have been used in the series gyrotrons developed for the stellarator W7-X. In 2009, a numerical method for the analysis and synthesis of mirror-line launchers was developed at KIT. Such a launcher with adapted mode-converting mirrors for a 2 MW TE34,19-mode, 170GHz coaxial-cavity gyrotron has been designed and tested, and also a mirror-line launcher for the 1MW EU ITER gyrotron has been designed. Recently, based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral theorem, a novel numerical method for the synthesis of hybrid-type gyrotron launchers has been developed. As an example, TE32,9 mode launchers operating at 170GHz that have been designed using the three different methods are being compared.

  1. Kit for instant 99mTc labeling of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin 29-41

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ubiquicidin 29-41 fragment (UBI) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide. An instant kit formulation was developed for the preparation of 99mTc-UBI 29-41 in high radiochemical yield and its use as an infection imaging agent in humans was evaluated. The components were selected to produce a direct 99mTc labeling, presumably to the amine groups of Lys and Arg7. 99mTc-UBI 29-41 obtained from the lyophilized kit showed radiochemical purity of >97% with an average target/non-target ratio of 2.3±0.6 in positive infection sites at 2 hours. Kits were stable at 4 deg C for over 6 months. (author)

  2. Sunitinib in malignant melanoma: a treatment option only for KIT-mutated patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Daniele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Venditti, Olga; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Frezza, Anna Maria; Silletta, Marianna; Guida, Francesco Maria; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Silvestris, Nicola; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    Sunitinib has previously been reported to be potentially effective in the treatment of malignant melanomas expressing c-KIT. Here we report on the case of a 77-year-old gentleman affected by a metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and a metastatic malignant melanoma with liver and lung metastases. Despite the negativity for CD117 and the absence of KIT amplification or mutations in the melanoma specimen, he achieved a partial response both in the lungs and in the liver while on sunitinib (50 mg once/day, 4 weeks on/2 weeks off) for the treatment of kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence of sunitinib activity in KIT wild-type melanoma. Further studies should be performed to confirm these preliminary data. PMID:24295410

  3. Hidden-charm pentaquarks as a meson-baryon molecule with coupled channels for $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Lambda_{\\rm c}$ and $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Sigma^{(\\ast)}_{\\rm c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of two hidden-charm pentaquark states by LHCb collaborations inspires us to investigate the exotic states close to the $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Sigma^{(\\ast)}_{\\rm c}$ thresholds. We study the hadronic molecules being realized as the coupled channel system of $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Lambda_{\\rm c}$ and $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Sigma^{(\\ast)}_{\\rm c}$. The heavy quark spin symmetry manifests the mass degeneracies of $\\bar{D}$ and $\\bar{D}^\\ast$ mesons, and of $\\Sigma_{\\rm c}$ and $\\Sigma^\\ast_{\\rm c}$ baryons. Hence the coupled channels of $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Sigma^{(\\ast)}_{\\rm c}$ are important in the molecules. In addition, we consider the coupling to the $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Lambda_{\\rm c}$ channel whose thresholds are near the $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Sigma^{(\\ast)}_{\\rm c}$ thresholds, and the coupling to the state with larger orbital angular momentum mixed by the tensor force. This full coupled channel analysis of $\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Lambda_{\\rm c}-\\bar{D}^{(\\ast)}\\Sigma^{(\\ast)}_{\\rm c}$ with larger orbital angul...

  4. Sample rotating turntable kit for infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, Joel Del; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2008-03-04

    An infrared spectrometer sample rotating turntable kit has a rotatable sample cup containing the sample. The infrared spectrometer has an infrared spectrometer probe for analyzing the sample and the rotatable sample cup is adapted to receive the infrared spectrometer probe. A reflectance standard is located in the rotatable sample cup. A sleeve is positioned proximate the sample cup and adapted to receive the probe. A rotator rotates the rotatable sample cup. A battery is connected to the rotator.

  5. Validation testing of a portable kit for measuring an active soil carbon fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands exist for information about properties related to soil quality and human-induced soil change, particularly soil C. To help address this need, the USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Laboratory (SSL) developed a portable kit for rapid and relatively accurate assessment of soi...

  6. Calculation of average molecular parameters, functional groups, and a surrogate molecule for heavy fuel oils using 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2016-04-22

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is primarily used as fuel in marine engines and in boilers to generate electricity. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool for structure elucidation and in this study, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy were used for the structural characterization of 2 HFO samples. The NMR data was combined with elemental analysis and average molecular weight to quantify average molecular parameters (AMPs), such as the number of paraffinic carbons, naphthenic carbons, aromatic hydrogens, olefinic hydrogens, etc. in the HFO samples. Recent formulae published in the literature were used for calculating various derived AMPs like aromaticity factor 〖(f〗_a), C/H ratio, average paraffinic chain length (¯n), naphthenic ring number 〖(R〗_N), aromatic ring number〖 (R〗_A), total ring number〖 (R〗_T), aromatic condensation index (φ) and aromatic condensation degree (Ω). These derived AMPs help in understanding the overall structure of the fuel. A total of 19 functional groups were defined to represent the HFO samples, and their respective concentrations were calculated by formulating balance equations that equate the concentration of the functional groups with the concentration of the AMPs. Heteroatoms like sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen were also included in the functional groups. Surrogate molecules were finally constructed to represent the average structure of the molecules present in the HFO samples. This surrogate molecule can be used for property estimation of the HFO samples and also serve as a surrogate to represent the molecular structure for use in kinetic studies.

  7. Development of T3 radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyroxine T4 radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit has already been developed in this laboratory. For an efficient diagnosis of thyroid disease, however, it is well known that the T3 RIA should also be carried out in addition to the T4 RIA. Accordingly, the development of T3 RIA kit was urgently desired to match the T4 kit and to hold a sound domestic supply systems. The high specific activity T3125I about 3,000 μCi/μg T3) could be obtained by radioiodinating T2 with chloramine-T, and the labelled product could be stahilized. In the preparation of T3 free serum, charcoal was eliminated easily from serum by high speed centrifugation, and the resulting T3 free serum was used for the preparation of T3 standard serum solutions. RIA buffer system could be improved with the use of 0.025M barbital buffer, pH 8.2, containing 0.1% BSA, 0.5% bovine aamma globulin and 0.02% merthiolate. Antibody titer was increased threefold by using the 0.025M barbital buffer; the titer was 8,000: 1 in the 0.078M borbital buffer, pH 8.6, containing 0.1% BSA and 0.1% NaN3 while it was 26,000 : 1 in the above described 0.025M barbital buffer. The modified buffer system was also efficient for the use in T4 RIA since it increased the T4 antibody titer twofold. When the same buffer system was used in T3 RIA, no significant difference was observed between the use of HSA and of BSA in so far as 0.5% bovine gamma globulin was added to the buffer, contradicting those in the reference. The resalts indicated that the cost for the preparation of both kits can be saved. Quality guaranteed kits could be prepared by careful control of the assay values in comparing with those of the reference control sera. In consequence, there is not any technical difficulty in routine production. (Author)

  8. Technetium-99m ceftizoxime kit preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to prepare a kit of 99m Tc-ceftizoxime (99m Tc-CFT), with stability and biological activity preserved, able to identify a septic focus (E. coli) in the experimental infection model in rats. The preparation of the CFT kit involved the use of lyophilized solutions containing the antibiotic ceftizoxime and the sodium dithionite reducing agent (6.0 mg/m L). After lyophilization, the kit was reconstituted with 1.0 mL of sodium 99m Tc pertechnetate solution (Na 99m Tc O4-) with an activity of 370 MBq. The solution was boiled for 10 min and filtered through a cellulose ester filter. The labeling efficiency was on the order of 92%, remaining stable for six hours and the kit remained stable for two months. The biological activity of the 99m Tc-CFT was evaluated by diffusion in agar impregnated with E.coli and S. aureus. Seven Wistar rats, weighing from 200 to 250 g, were used for the development of the septic focus. After 24 hours from the induction of the infectious site (E.coli), the animals were anesthetized and 0.1 mL of 99m Tc-CFT (37 MBq) was injected into the tail veins of the animals. The images were obtained with a gamma camera one, two and six hours after injection and the regions of interest (ROIs) were calculated. The diameters of the inhibition halos for 99m Tc-CFT were 27.16 ± 0.23 and 27.17 ± 0.20 for S.aureus and E.coli, respectively, while those for the unlabeled CFT were 30.4 ± 0.33 and 29.43 ± 0.26, respectively. The results for the biodistribution of 99m Tc-CFT in infected animals furnished a ratio of 1.97 ± 0.31, 2.10 ± 0.42 and 2.01 ± 0.42 for cpm-target/cpm-no target for the one, two and six-hour periods, respectively. The images showed a clear uptake of labeled antibiotic (99m Tc-CFT) by the infectious site during the experiment. The results attest to the viability of producing a kit with 99m technetium-labeled ceftizoxime for the investigation of infectious processes. (author)

  9. Ultra-low-temperature reactions of C(3P0) atoms with benzene molecules in helium droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of carbon atoms with benzene has been investigated in liquid helium droplets at T = 0.37 K. We found an addition of the carbon atom to form an initial intermediate complex followed by a ring opening and the formation of a seven-membered ring. In contrast to a previous gas phase study, the reaction is frozen after these steps and the loss of hydrogen does not occur. A calorimetric technique was applied to monitor the energy balance of the reaction. It was found that more than 267 kJ mol−1 were released in this reaction. This estimation is in line with quantum chemical calculations of the formation energy of a seven-membered carbon ring. It is suggested that reactions of this kind could be responsible for the low abundance of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in the interstellar medium. We also found the formation of weakly bonded water-carbon adducts, in which the carbon atom is linked to the oxygen atom of the water molecule with a binding energy of about 33.4 kJ mol−1

  10. Double-slit experiment with a polyatomic molecule: vibrationally resolved C 1s photoelectron spectra of acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the first evidence for double-slit interferences in a polyatomic molecule, which we have observed in the experimental carbon 1s photoelectron spectra of acetylene (or ethyne). The spectra have been measured over the photon energy range of 310-930 eV and show prominent oscillations in the intensity ratios σg(υ)/σu(υ) for the vibrational quantum numbers υ = 0,1 and for the ratios σs(υ 1)/σs(υ = 0) for the symmetry s = g,u. The experimental findings are in very good agreement with ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations and are compatible with the Cohen-Fano mechanism of coherent emission from two equivalent atomic centers. This interpretation is supported by the qualitative predictions of a simple model in which the effect of nuclear recoil is taken into account to the lowest order. Our results confirm the delocalized character of the core hole created in the primary photoionization event and demonstrate that intramolecular core-hole coherence can survive the decoherent influence associated with the asymmetric nuclear degrees of freedom which are characteristic of polyatomic molecules. (paper)

  11. Evaluation of three commercial bovine ELISA kits for detection of antibodies against Alphaherpesviruses in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoccoz Nigel G

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus (family Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a group of viruses genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 among which cervid herpesvirus 2 (CvHV-2 can be of importance in reindeer. These viruses are known to be responsible for different diseases in both wild and domestic animals. Reindeer are a keystone in the indigenous Saami culture and previous studies have reported the presence of antibodies against alphaherpesviruses in semi-domesticated reindeer in northern Norway. Mortality rates, especially in calves, can be very high in some herds and the abortion potential of alphaherpesvirus in reindeer, unlike in bovines, remains unknown. ELISA kits are the most used screening method in domestic ruminants and given the close genetic relationship between viruses within this genus, it might be possible to use such kits to screen cervids for different alphaherpesviruses. We have compared three different commercial ELISA kits in order to validate its use for reindeer and CvHV-2. Methods Three commercial bovine ELISA kits (A, B and C, using either indirect (A or blocking (B and C ELISA techniques to detect antibodies against BoHV-1 were tested with sera from 154 reindeer in order to detect antibodies against CvHV-2. A Spearman's rank-based coefficient of correlation (ρ was calculated. A dilution trial was performed for all kits. A virus neutralization test using both BoHV-1 and CvHV-2 was carried out. Results Seroprevalence was almost the same with all kits (40–41%. Despite a similar qualitative score, quantitatively kits classified samples differently and a strong correlation was only identified between Kits B and C. Blocking kits performed better in both repeatability and in the dilution trial. The virus neutralization results confirmed the ELISA results to a very high degree. Neutralizing titres ranged from 1:2 to 1:256 and from 0 to 1:16 against CvHV-2 and Bo

  12. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and soluble adhesion molecules as possible prognostic markers of the efficacy of antiviral treatment in chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anatol Panasiuk; Danuta Prokopowicz; Bozena Panasiuk

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explain the role of Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and soluble adhesion molecules in chronic hepatitis C during the treatment of interferon alpha (IFNα) 2 b and ribavirin (RBV).METHODS: Concentrations of MCP-1, soluble adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), sPselectin, interleukin (IL) 6, and IL10 in serum were estimated in the group of 40 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with IFNalpha2 b and RBV in 0, 16, 32, 48 wk of the therapy.RESULTS: In chronic hepatitis C, before and during the treatment, the serum levels of MCP-1 and sP-selectin in responders were similar to those of healthy subjects. In nonresponders (NR), MCP-1 increased in the course of IFNα+RBV treatment, differences were statistically significant as compared to responders. MCP-1 correlated statistically with the activity of pedportal inflammation (r = 0.35, P<0.05) but not with staging of liver fibrosis. sICAM-1 positively correlated with inflammatory activity and fibrosis in NR. sP-selectin did not correlate with histological findings in the liver. The MCP-1 correlated with the soluble form of sP-selectin concentrations (r = 6, P<0.001) and with IL-10 level in NR (r = 0.4, P<0.05). There was no correlation observed between the concentration of MCP-1 and sICAM-1, IL-6 during the treatment.CONCLUSION: MCP-1 concentration may be a prognostic marker of the efficacy of IFN+RBV therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  13. Kit formulation for 99mTc-labeling of HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7–14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombesin (BBN) is a tetradecapeptide that binds specifically to gastrin-releasing peptide receptors. Several forms of cancer, including lung, prostate, breast, and colon express receptors for bombesin-like peptides. Radiolabeled BBN analogs with a high affinity for these receptors might be used for scintigraphic imaging. Kit formulations for labeling these molecules are important for routine preparation. A freeze-dried kit for labeling HYNIC-βAla-Bombesin(7–14) with technetium-99m was prepared, and its storage stability was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays. - Highlights: ► Bombesin kit formulations were successfully prepared. ► High radiochemical purity was achieved for KBBN50 and KBBN100 formulations. ► In vitro assays demonstrated high storage stability for KBBN50. ► Biodistribution and scintigraphic images corroborate with in vitro results.

  14. Direct Oxidation of Aliphatic C-H Bonds in Amino-Containing Molecules under Transition-Metal-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Che, Xing; Chen, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Jun; Yan, Jia-Lei; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Hsu, Chao-Ping; Gao, Yi Qin; Shi, Zhang-Jie

    2016-03-18

    By employing a simple, inexpensive, and transition-metal-free oxidation system, secondary C-H bonds in a series of phthaloyl protected primary amines and amino acid derivatives were oxidized to carbonyls with good regioselectivities. This method could also be applied to oxidize tertiary C-H bonds and modify synthetic dipeptides. PMID:26949833

  15. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  16. A Novel Apoptosis Correlated Molecule: Expression and Characterization of Protein Latcripin-1 from Lentinula edodes C91–3

    OpenAIRE

    Min Huang; Wei Zhang; Lei Liu; Jing Cao; Anhong Ning; Yongzhi Lun; Xiaoli Wang; Wenchang Sun; Xingyun Li; Mintao Zhong; Ben Liu

    2012-01-01

    An apoptosis correlated molecule—protein Latcripin-1 of Lentinula edodes C91-3—was expressed and characterized in Pichia pastoris GS115. The total RNA was obtained from Lentinula edodes C91–3. According to the transcriptome, the full-length gene of Latcripin-1 was isolated with 3'-Full Rapid Amplification of cDNA E...

  17. Crystal Structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv AldR (Rv2779c), a Regulator of the ald Gene: DNA BINDING AND IDENTIFICATION OF SMALL MOLECULE INHIBITORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Abhishek; Shree, Sonal; Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Tripathi, Rama Pati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2016-06-01

    Here we report the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis AldR (Rv2779c) showing that the N-terminal DNA-binding domains are swapped, forming a dimer, and four dimers are assembled into an octamer through crystal symmetry. The C-terminal domain is involved in oligomeric interactions that stabilize the oligomer, and it contains the effector-binding sites. The latter sites are 30-60% larger compared with homologs like MtbFFRP (Rv3291c) and can consequently accommodate larger molecules. MtbAldR binds to the region upstream to the ald gene that is highly up-regulated in nutrient-starved tuberculosis models and codes for l-alanine dehydrogenase (MtbAld; Rv2780). Further, the MtbAldR-DNA complex is inhibited upon binding of Ala, Tyr, Trp and Asp to the protein. Studies involving a ligand-binding site G131T mutant show that the mutant forms a DNA complex that cannot be inhibited by adding the amino acids. Comparative studies suggest that binding of the amino acids changes the relative spatial disposition of the DNA-binding domains and thereby disrupt the protein-DNA complex. Finally, we identified small molecules, including a tetrahydroquinoline carbonitrile derivative (S010-0261), that inhibit the MtbAldR-DNA complex. The latter molecules represent the very first inhibitors of a feast/famine regulatory protein from any source and set the stage for exploring MtbAldR as a potential anti-tuberculosis target. PMID:27006398

  18. One-dimensional Chain Topology in [Ag(C6H6NCl)2](ClO4),Generated through Weak Interaction between Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道峰; 曹荣; 梁玉仓; 洪茂椿; 苏伟平

    2001-01-01

    The mononuclear complex [Ag(C6H6NC1)2](C1O4) has been prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c with unit cell parameters: a=15.5314(2), b=8.0247(8),c=15.3701 (2)A. β =118.832(2)°, V=1678.2(3)A3, Z=4, Mr=462.46, Dc=1.830Mg/m3, F(000)=912,μt (MoKa) = 1.694cm-1. The final R and wR are 0.0472 and 0.1272 for 1484 observed reflections with I≥3σ (Ⅰ). The Ag atom is coordinated by two nitrogen atoms of 4-chloromethyl-pyridine in a linear coordination geometry. Each molecule is further linked by the weak interaction between the C1 and Ag atoms to form a one-dimensional chain structure with Ag-C1 distance of 3.240(A).

  19. Photoisomerisable molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Peris Fajarnes, Eduardo Víctor; Mata Martínez, José Antonio; Márquez Linares, Francisco Manuel; Sabater Picot, María José

    2005-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a molecule comprising at least one carbon-carbon double bond which is substituted by at least one cyclopentadienyl-metal-cyclopentadienyl complex, having the cis/trans isomerisation property, in a reversible manner in response to the absorption of light. Preferably, the rest of the molecule comprises a dendrimer of any generation, advantageously of the polypropylenimine octaamine type. The inventive molecule can be used as a molecular switch and in various differ...

  20. Identification of small-molecule agonists of human relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1) by using a homogenous cell-based cAMP assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Catherine Z; Southall, Noel; Xiao, Jingbo; Marugan, Juan J; Ferrer, Marc; Hu, Xin; Jones, Raisa E; Feng, Shu; Agoulnik, Irina U; Zheng, Wei; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2013-07-01

    The relaxin hormone is involved in a variety of biological functions, including female reproduction and parturition, as well as regulation of cardiovascular, renal, pulmonary, and hepatic functions. It regulates extracellular matrix remodeling, cell invasiveness, proliferation, differentiation, and overall tissue homeostasis. The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) relaxin family receptor 1 (RXFP1) is a cognate relaxin receptor that mainly signals through cyclic AMP second messenger. Although agonists of the receptor could have a wide range of pharmacologic utility, until now there have been no reported small-molecule agonists for relaxin receptors. Here, we report the development of a quantitative high-throughput platform for an RXFP1 agonist screen based on homogenous cell-based HTRF cyclic AMP (cAMP) assay technology. Two small molecules of similar structure were independently identified from a screen of more than 365 677 compounds. Neither compound showed activity in a counterscreen with HEK293T cells transfected with an unrelated GPCR vasopressin 1b receptor. These small-molecule agonists also demonstrated selectivity against the RXFP2 receptor, providing a basis for future medicinal chemistry optimization of selective relaxin receptor agonists. PMID:23212924

  1. Aplysia cell adhesion molecule and a novel protein kinase C activity in the postsynaptic neuron are required for presynaptic growth and initial formation of specific synapses

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jiang-Yuan; Chen, Yang; Bougie, Joanna K; Sossin, Wayne S.; Schacher, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    To explore the role of both Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (ApCAM) and activity of specific protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in the initial formation of sensory neuron synapses with specific postsynaptic targets (L7 but not L11), we examined presynaptic growth, initial synapse formation, and the expression of the presynaptic neuropeptide sensorin following cell-specific reduction of ApCAM or of a novel PKC activity. Synapse formation between sensory neurons and L7 begins by 3 h after plating a...

  2. On spin-rotation contribution to nuclear spin conversion in $C_{3v}$-symmetry molecules Application to $CH_{3}F$

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, K I

    1999-01-01

    The symmetrized contribution of $E$-type spin-rotation interaction to conversion between spin modifications of $E$- and $A_1$-types in molecules with ${\\rm C}_{3{\\rm v}}$-symmetry is considered. Using the high-$J$ descending of collisional broadening for accidental rotational resonances between these spin modifications, it was possible to co-ordinate the theoretical description of the conversion with (updated) experimental data for two carbon-substituted isotopes of fluoromethane. As a result, both $E$% -type spin-rotation constants are obtained. They are roughly one and a half times more than the corresponding constants for (deutero)methane.

  3. An ab initio study of the field-induced position change of a C-60 molecule adsorbed on a gold tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Robert; Kubatkin, Sergey; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    based on such junctions if the mechanism of the process is understood. We present density functional theory based plane wave calculations, where we studied the energetics of the molecule's adsorption under the influence of an external field. Particular emphasis was placed on investigating a possible...... lightning rod effect which might explain the switching between configurations found in experiments. We also analyse our results for the adsorption energetics in terms of an electrostatic expression for the total energy, where the dependence of the polarizability of the junction on the position of the C60...

  4. Markkinointisuunnitelma : Pirttiniemen mökit

    OpenAIRE

    Hynynen, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda tehokas markkinoin-tisuunnitelma toimeksiantona maaseutumatkailuyritykselle Pirttiniemen mökit. Markkinointisuunnitelma toteutettiin toiminnallisena opinnäytetyönä joka koostuu kahdesta osasta. Teoreettisessa osuudessa tutkitaan maaseutumarkkinointia ja siihen liittyviä käsitteitä. Toiminnallinen osuus on Pirttiniemen mökeille tehty produkti eli tuotos, jossa käydään läpi perusteellisesti yrityksen markkinointisuunnitelman laatiminen käsitteellisen ...

  5. Desarrollo del nuevo karat Starter Kit

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Martínez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El proyecto se desarrolla en el marco de un convenio entre la UAB y la empresa UNIT4 en las oficinas de UNIT4 Ibérica en Barberà del Vallès. El objetivo del proyecto es crear una nueva herramienta, denominada karat Starter Kit Reloaded, que sirva de autoformación y demostración de la plataforma de desarrollo propia utilizada en la empresa (karat) reforzando los puntos débiles de la anterior y manteniendo los puntos fuertes de los que ya disponía.

  6. Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Component-based Monte Carlo radiation transport parallel software library. • Designed to build specialized software applications. • Provides new functionality for existing general purpose Monte Carlo transport codes. • Time-independent and time-dependent algorithms with population control. • Algorithm verification and validation results are provided. - Abstract: The Monte Carlo Application ToolKit (MCATK) is a component-based software library designed to build specialized applications and to provide new functionality for existing general purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport codes. We will describe MCATK and its capabilities along with presenting some verification and validations results

  7. 46 CFR 160.061-4 - Kit assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kit assembly. 160.061-4 Section 160.061-4 Shipping COAST... Kit assembly. (a) Preparation of items. The items shall be prepared for packing into the kit as... assembly 1, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23, 24 None. 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 18, 19, 21, 22 Insert in...

  8. IODOBELL in vivo kits for in situ labelling with iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of in vivo kits called IODOBELL was developed in the Institute of Isotopes, Budapest. The production of hepatodecanoic acid for cardiology, iodo-hippuranic acid for kidney diagnostics and a special pharmaceutical, IODOBELL-MIGB for the indication of feochromocitoma and neuroblastoma is reported. The heptadecanoic acid kit is under human examination, the other two are to be tested in the near future. IODOBELL kits contribute to the wider use of 123I in Hungary. (author) 6 refs

  9. Data Center Energy Efficiency Measurement Assessment Kit Guide and Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-26

    A portable and temporary wireless mesh assessment kit can be used to speed up and reduce the costs of a data center energy use assessment and overcome the issues with respect to shutdowns. The assessment kit is comprised of temperature, relative humidity, and pressure sensors. Also included are power meters that can be installed on computer room air conditioners (CRACs) without intrusive interruption of data center operations. The assessment kit produces data required for a detailed energy assessment of the data center.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the flagellar motor ‘brake’ molecule YcgR with c-di-GMP from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flagellar motor ‘brake’ protein YcgR from E. coli was crystallized with c-di-GMP. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group R3:H, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.96, c = 109.61 Å. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), a ubiquitous bacterial second-messenger molecule that participates in many cellular processes, can regulate flagellar motor speed and reduce cell swimming velocity by binding to the PilZ-containing protein YcgR. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of YcgR with c-di-GMP are reported. The crystals diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution and belonged to space group R3:H, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 93.96, c = 109.61 Å. The asymmetric unit appeared to contain one subunit with a Matthews coefficient of 3.21 Å3 Da−1. The results reported here provide a sound basis for solving the crystal structure of YcgR with c-di-GMP and revealing its structure–function relationship based on the three-dimensional structure

  11. Analysis of valence XPS and AES of C, N, O, and F-containing substances by DFT calculations using the model molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We simulate VXPS and UPS of (Li, C, N, O, F)-containing substances by DFT calculations. • To simulate AES of (Li, C, N, O, F)-atoms with our modified method of the kinetic energy. • We clarify electronic states of (Li, C, N, O, F)-containing substances from simulated results. - Abstract: Experimental valence X-ray photoelectron spectra (VXPS) and Auger electron spectra (AES) of (Li, C, N, O, F) elements of four solid substances [graphite, GaN, SiO2, LiF] are analyzed by density-functional theory calculations using the model molecules of the unit cell. For the calculations, we use deMon density functional theory (DFT) program to estimate VXPS, core-electron binding energies, and (Li, C, N, O, F)-KVV AES of the solid substances. In the AES simulations, we evaluate theoretical kinetic energies of the AES with our modified calculation method. The modified kinetic energies correspond to two final-state holes at the ground state and at the transition-state in DFT calculations, respectively. Experimental KVV AES of the (Li, C, N, O) atoms in the substances agree considerably well to simulation of AES obtained with the maximum kinetic energies of the atoms, while, the experimental F KVV AES of LiF is almost in accordance with the spectra from the transition-state kinetic energy calculations

  12. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  13. High-resolution spectroscopy of V854 Cen in decline - absorption and emission lines of C2 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.

    2000-04-01

    High-resolution optical spectra of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star V854 Centauri in the early stages of a decline show, in addition to the features reported for other RCBs in decline, narrow absorption lines from the C2 Phillips system. The low rotational temperature, Trot=1150K, of the C2 ground electronic state suggests the cold gas is associated with the developing shroud of carbon dust. These absorption lines were not seen at a fainter magnitude on the rise from minimum light, nor at maximum light. This is the first detection of cold gas around an RCB star.

  14. StochKit-FF: Efficient Systems Biology on Multicore Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Aldinucci, Marco; Liò, Pietro; Sorathiya, Anil; Torquati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic modelling of biological systems is an informative, and in some cases, very adequate technique, which may however result in being more expensive than other modelling approaches, such as differential equations. We present StochKit-FF, a parallel version of StochKit, a reference toolkit for stochastic simulations. StochKit-FF is based on the FastFlow programming toolkit for multicores and exploits the novel concept of selective memory. We experiment StochKit-FF on a model of HIV infection dynamics, with the aim of extracting information from efficiently run experiments, here in terms of average and variance and, on a longer term, of more structured data.

  15. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Tool Kit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on desensitized optimal filtering techniques and a navigation and sensor fusion tool kit using advanced filtering techniques is proposed. Research focuses...

  16. PEMANFAATAN KIT OPTIK SEBAGAI WAHANA DALAM PENINGKATAN SIKAP ILMIAH SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Wahyudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengkaji bagaimana bentuk kegiatan pemanfaatan kit yang dapat meningkatkan sikap ilmiah siswa, serta sikapsikapilmiah apa saja yang dapat dikembangkan melalui pemanfaatan kit dalam pembelajaran. Penelitian tindakan kelas inidilaksanakan dalam empat siklus dengan memanfaatkan kit optik pada pokok bahasan optika geometri. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa peningkatan sikap ilmiah dapat dilakukan dengan mengembangkan perangkat kegiatan pemanfaatan kitOptik dalam pembelajaran, meliputi: rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP yang berorientasi pada aktivitas belajar siswa,berupa pembiasaan bersikap ilmiah dengan melakukan kerja ilmiah, lembar kerja siswa (LKS yang dirancang dengan pendekataninquiry yang menjadi arah serta panduan bagi siswa dalam bekerja ilmiah. Sikap ilmiah yang dapat dikembangkan dalam penelitianini adalah objektif, kritis, ulet, rendah hati, dapat bekerjasama dengan orang lain dan pandangan positif terhadap kegagalan. This Classroom action research discusses how activities of kit optic utilization can improve students' scientific attitudes and whatscientific attitudes can be developed in their learning. This research is conducted in four cycles that applies kit optic as the maintopic in optical geometry. The result shows that students' scientific attitudes can be improved by implementing specific units ofactivity in kit optic utilization in students' learning. They consist of RPP (The Plan for Teaching Implementation with the orientationof students' learning activities in the forms of developing students' habit of scientific attitude in scientific project and students' paperwork through inquiry approach. This research suggests that kit optic utilization improves students' scientific attitudes of beingobjective, critical, perseverance, modest, cooperative, and optimistic toward failures.Keywords: kit optic, scientific attitudes, optical geometry, scientific attitude

  17. StochKit-FF: Efficient Systems Biology on Multicore Architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Aldinucci, Marco; Bracciali, Andrea; Liò, Pietro; Sorathiya, Anil; Torquati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    The stochastic modelling of biological systems is an informative, and in some cases, very adequate technique, which may however result in being more expensive than other modelling approaches, such as differential equations. We present StochKit-FF, a parallel version of StochKit, a reference toolkit for stochastic simulations. StochKit-FF is based on the FastFlow programming toolkit for multicores and exploits the novel concept of selective memory. We experiment StochKit-FF on a model of HIV i...

  18. A modification potential method of calculating total cross sections of electrons scattering from complex molecules C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 at 100 eV-5000 eV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi De-Heng; Sun Jin-Feng; Zhu Zun-Lue; Liu Yu-Fang; Yang Xiang-Dong

    2006-01-01

    A complex optical model potential modified by incorporating the concept of bonded atom, which takes into consideration the overlapping effect of electron clouds between two atoms in a molecule, is first employed to calculate the total cross sections for electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 using the additivity rule model at Hartree-Fock level over the energy range from 100 eV to 5000 eV. The total cross sections are quantitatively compared with those obtained by experiments wherever available, and they are in good agreement with each other over a wide energy range. It is shown that the modified potential together with the additivity rule model is completely suitable for the calculation of total cross sections of electrons scattering from such complex molecules as C2H6, C2F6, C6H6 and C6F6 above 200 eV-300 eV.

  19. FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan S. Sorini; John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.

    2002-09-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed a new commercial product ready for technology transfer, the Diesel Dog{reg_sign} Portable Soil Test Kit, for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated as ASTM Method D 5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In June 2001, the Diesel Dog technology won an American Chemical Society Regional Industrial Innovations Award. To gain field experience with the new technology, Diesel Dog kits have been used for a variety of site evaluation and cleanup activities. Information gained from these activities has led to improvements in hardware configurations and additional insight into correlating Diesel Dog results with results from laboratory methods. The Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) used Diesel Dog Soil Test Kits to guide cleanups at a variety of sites throughout the state. ENSR, of Acton, Massachusetts, used a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit to evaluate sites in the Virgin Islands and Georgia. ChemTrack and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers successfully used a test kit to guide excavation at an abandoned FAA fuel-contaminated site near Fairbanks, Alaska. Barenco, Inc. is using a Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kit for site evaluations in Canada. A small spill of diesel fuel was cleaned up in Laramie, Wyoming using a Diesel

  20. Combinatorial assembly of small molecules into bivalent antagonists of TrkC or TrkA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Brahimi

    Full Text Available A library of peptidomimetics was assembled combinatorially into dimers on a triazine-based core. The pharmacophore corresponds to β-turns of the neurotrophin polypeptides neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, nerve growth factor (NGF, or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. These are the natural ligands for TrkC, TrkA, and TrkB receptors, respectively. The linker length and the side-chain orientation of each monomer within the bivalent mimics were systematically altered, and the impact of these changes on the function of each ligand was evaluated. While the monovalent peptidomimetics had no detectable binding or bioactivity, four bivalent peptidomimetics (2c, 2d, 2e, 3f are selective TrkC ligands with antagonistic activity, and two bivalent peptidomimetics (1a, 1b are TrkC and TrkA ligands with antagonistic activity. All these bivalent compounds block ligand-dependent receptor activation and cell survival, without affecting neuritogenic differentiation. This work adds to our understanding of how the neurotrophins function through Trk receptors, and demonstrates that peptidomimetics can be designed to selectively disturb specific biological signals, and may be used as pharmacological probes or as therapeutic leads. The concept of altering side-chain, linker length, and sequence orientation of a subunit within a pharmacophore provides an easy modular approach to generate larger libraries with diversified bioactivity.

  1. Nonlinear Optical Properties of XPh4 (X = B-, C, N+, P+): A New Class of Molecules with a Negative Third-Order Polarizability

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2015-06-22

    Organic π-conjugated materials have been widely used for a variety of nonlinear optical (NLO) applications. Molecules with negative real components Re(γ) of the third-order polarizability, which leads to nonlinear refraction in macroscopic systems, have important benefits for several NLO applications. However, few organic systems studied to date have negative Re(γ) in the long wavelength limit, and all inorganic materials show positive nonlinear refraction in this limit. Here, we introduce a new class of molecules of the form X(C6H5)4, where X = B-, C, N+, and P+, that have negative Re(γ). The molecular mechanism for the NLO properties in these systems is very different from those in typical linear conjugated systems: these systems have a band of excited states involving single-electron excitations within the π-system, several of which have significant coupling to the ground state. Thus, Re(γ) cannot be understood in terms of a simplified essential-state model and must be analyzed in the context of the full sum-over-states expression. Although Re(γ) is significantly smaller than that of other commonly-studied NLO chromophores, the introduction of a new molecular architecture offering the potential for a negative Re(γ) introduces new avenues of molecular design for NLO applications.

  2. Transport and fate of labelled molecules after application of 14C-gibberellic acid to the young leaves of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After application of 14C-GA3 to the distal leaflet of young leaves (2.5 cm long) of tomato plants, labelled molecules are exported by the donor leaflet. In the first stage, the transport was basipetal, and preferably took place in the tissues of foliar traces; the tracers moved toward the roots at an average speed greater than 4 cm.h-1. One part of the tracers seemed to accumulate in the elongating internodes, whereas a more important part went into the vessels and then was driven upwards to the leaves by the transpiration stream. A high concentration of tracers was localized in the extremity of some leaflets. The guttated fluid contained labelled molecules having for the most part a Rsub(t) value similar or nearly similar to the Rsub(f) value of GA3 according to the solvent systems. The exportation of 14C, which was at first very low, continued during the development of the donor leaf

  3. A single Tisbnd Osbnd C linkage induces interfacial charge-transfer transitions between TiO2 and a π-conjugated molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Matsumura, Shingo; Hanaya, Minoru

    2016-07-01

    Interfacial charge-transfer (ICT) transitions between wide-band-gap semiconductors such as titanium dioxide (TiO2) and π-conjugated molecules enable the absorption of visible light with colorless organic compounds and also direct photoinduced electron transfers across the interfaces. ICT transitions have been reported to be induced by a double Tisbnd Osbnd C linkage of enediol compounds with two hydroxy groups to TiO2. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a single Tisbnd Osbnd C linkage of phenol with one hydroxy group can induce ICT transitions in the visible region. Our result widely opens up the range of organic compounds available for ICT transitions from diol compounds to mono-hydroxy compounds.

  4. Labeling of complex molecules with 18F, 13N, and 11C. Progress report, March 1, 1981-February 28, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective during the period covered by this report was to develop a broad spectrum of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with short-lived cyclotron produced positron emitters, 11C, 13N and 18F. The progress report of this year will summarize work done in the last three years. The goals of the program during the last three years were: to build and complete the transport system to Nuclear Medicine; to complete the modular automated system for important precursor production: formaldehyde, methyliodide, cyanide; to perform animal studies with the 18F-glucose analogs 2FDG and 3FDG and measure the rate constants and glucose metabolic rates derived from the Sokoloff model for both agents in different animal species; to initiate the development of new fatty acid analogs for myocardial imaging and metabolism; and to develop syntheses for 18F and 11C sugar analogs

  5. Catalytic Z-Selective Cross-Metathesis in Complex Molecule Synthesis: A Convergent Stereoselective Route to Disorazole C1

    OpenAIRE

    Speed, Alexander W. H.; Mann, Tyler J.; O’Brien, Robert V.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2014-01-01

    A convergent diastereo- and enantioselective total synthesis of anticancer and antifungal macrocyclic natural product disorazole C1 is reported. The central feature of the successful route is the application of catalytic Z-selective cross-metathesis (CM). Specifically, we illustrate that catalyst-controlled stereoselective CM can be performed to afford structurally complex Z-alkenyl–B(pin) as well as Z-alkenyl iodide compounds reliably, efficiently, and with high selectivity (pin = pinacolato...

  6. Mineralization of 14C-labelled aromatic pesticide molecules in Egyptian soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineralization of 2,4-D, carbofuran and pirimiphos-methyl in Egyptian soils was studied over a period of 90 days. Laboratory studies under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were conducted using 14C-ring labelled pesticides. Under anaerobic conditions 10-14% of applied ring labelled 2,4-D mineralized during 90 days with no significant variations due to soil type. Under aerobic conditions, 2,4-D mineralized more readily in clay soil to reach 29-34% of applied dose within 90 days. In clay loam soil, 14C-carbofuran and 14C-pirimiphos-methyl mineralized at a rather slow rate to reach 12-14% and 12-13% of applied dose in 90 days, respectively under aerobic conditions. Generally, soils repeatedly treated with pesticides gave a slightly lower percentage of mineralization than control soils. In all studies, the soil extractable pesticide residues decreased with time and the bound residues gradually increased. The highest binding affinity of about 26-29% was observed with 2,4-D in clay soil under aerobic conditions in 90 days. Carbofuran, and pirimiphos-methyl, on the other hand, had lower binding capacity that did not exceed 16% of applied radioactivity. (author)

  7. Complex organic molecules in comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy): detection of ethylene glycol and formamide

    CERN Document Server

    Biver, N; Debout, V; Crovisier, J; Boissier, J; Lis, D C; Russo, N Dello; Moreno, R; Colom, P; Paubert, G; Vervack, R; Weaver, H A

    2014-01-01

    A spectral survey in the 1 mm wavelength range was undertaken in the long-period comets C/2012 F6 (Lemmon) and C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) using the 30 m telescope of the Institut de radioastronomie millim\\'etrique (IRAM) in April and November-December 2013. We report the detection of ethylene glycol (CH$_2$OH)$_2$ (aGg' conformer) and formamide (NH$_2$CHO) in the two comets. The abundances relative to water of ethylene glycol and formamide are 0.2-0.3% and 0.02% in the two comets, similar to the values measured in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp). We also report the detection of HCOOH and CH$_3$CHO in comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), and a search for other complex species (methyl formate, glycolaldehyde).

  8. Isolation of a full-length mouse cDNA clone coding for an immunologically distinct p53 molecule.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, D; Harris, N; Goldfinger, N; Rotter, V

    1985-01-01

    Transfection of a cloned p53 gene into a p53 nonproducer Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cell line, L12, reconstituted p53 expression. The protein expressed in these cells was indistinguishable from that naturally expressed in p53 producer tumor cells. Conversely, p53 protein expressed in L12-derived clones that were established by transfection with a full-length p53 cDNA clone (pM8) exhibited a discrete immunological form. Immunoprecipitation of p53 with a panel of monoclonal anti-...

  9. A Novel Class of Small Molecule Compounds that Inhibit Hepatitis C Virus Infection by Targeting the Prohibitin-CRaf Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of novel drug targets and affordable therapeutic agents remains a high priority in the fight against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Here, we report that the cellular proteins prohibitin 1 (PHB1 and 2 (PHB2 are pan-genotypic HCV entry factors functioning at a post-binding step. While predominantly found in mitochondria, PHBs localize to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes through their transmembrane domains and interact with both EGFR and CRaf. Targeting PHB by rocaglamide (Roc-A, a natural product that binds PHB1 and 2, reduced cell surface PHB1 and 2, disrupted PHB-CRaf interaction, and inhibited HCV entry at low nanomolar concentrations. A structure-activity analysis of 32 synthetic Roc-A analogs indicated that the chiral, racemic version of aglaroxin C, a natural product biosynthetically related to Roc-A, displayed improved potency and therapeutic index against HCV infection. This study reveals a new class of HCV entry inhibitors that target the PHB1/2-CRaf pathway.

  10. Passing Current through Touching Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schull, G.; Frederiksen, Thomas; Brandbyge, Mads;

    2009-01-01

    The charge flow from a single C-60 molecule to another one has been probed. The conformation and electronic states of both molecules on the contacting electrodes have been characterized using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope. While the contact conductance of a single molecule between two...

  11. Nanopore detachment kinetics of poly(A) binding proteins from RNA molecules reveals the critical role of C-terminus interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jianxun; Fabian, Marc; Sonenberg, Nahum; Meller, Amit

    2012-03-21

    The ubiquitous and abundant cytoplasmic poly(A) binding protein (PABP) is a highly conserved multifunctional protein, many copies of which bind to the poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNAs to promote translation initiation. The N-terminus of PABP is responsible for the high binding specificity and affinity to poly(A), whereas the C-terminus is known to stimulate PABP multimerization on poly(A). Here, we use single-molecule nanopore force spectroscopy to directly measure interactions between poly(A) and PABPs. Both electrical and biochemical results show that the C-C domain interaction between two consecutive PABPs promotes cooperative binding. Up to now, investigators have not been able to probe the detailed polarity configuration (i.e., the internal arrangement of two PABPs on a poly(A) streak in which the C-termini face toward or away from each other). Our nanopore force spectroscopy system is able to distinguish the cooperative binding conformation from the noncooperative one. The ∼50% cooperative binding conformation of wild-type PABPs indicates that the C-C domain interaction doubles the cooperative binding probability. Moreover, the longer dissociation time of a cooperatively bound poly(A)/PABP complex as compared with a noncooperatively bound one indicates that the cooperative mode is the most stable conformation for PABPs binding onto the poly(A). However, ∼50% of the poly(A)/PABP complexes exhibit a noncooperative binding conformation, which is in line with previous studies showing that the PABP C-terminal domain also interacts with additional protein cofactors. PMID:22455926

  12. Enumerating molecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visco, Donald Patrick, Jr. (, . Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Roe, Diana C.

    2004-04-01

    This report is a comprehensive review of the field of molecular enumeration from early isomer counting theories to evolutionary algorithms that design molecules in silico. The core of the review is a detail account on how molecules are counted, enumerated, and sampled. The practical applications of molecular enumeration are also reviewed for chemical information, structure elucidation, molecular design, and combinatorial library design purposes. This review is to appear as a chapter in Reviews in Computational Chemistry volume 21 edited by Kenny B. Lipkowitz.

  13. Second-harmonic generation of biological interfaces: probing the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin and imaging membrane potential around GFP molecules at specific sites in neuronal cells of C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; Khatchatouriants, Artium; Treinin, Millet; Chen, Zhongping; Peleg, Gadi; Friedman, Noga; Bouevitch, Oleg; Rothman, Zvi; Loew, Leslie; Sheres, Mordechai

    1999-07-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is applied to problems of probing membrane proteins and functionally imaging around selective sites and at single molecules in biological membranes. The membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has been shown to have large second-harmonic (SH) intensities that are modulated by protein/retinylidene chromophore interactions. The nonlinear optical properties of model compounds, which simulate these protein chromophore interactions in retinal proteins, are studied in this work by surface SHG and by hyper-Rayleigh scattering. Our results indicate that non-conjugated charges and hydrogen bonding effects have a large effect on the molecular hyperpolarizability of the retinal chromophore. However, mbR, the model system studies suggest that polarizable amino acids strongly affect the vertically excited state of the retinylidene chromophore and appear to play the major role in the observed protein enhancement (>50%) of the retinylidene chromophore molecular hyperpolarizability and associated induced dipole. Furthermore, the data provide insights on emulating these interactions for the design of organic nonlinear optical materials. Our studies have also led to the development of dyes with large SH intensities that can be embedded in cell membranes and can functionally image membrane potential. Single molecules of such dyes in selected single molecular regions of a cell membrane have been detected. SHG from green fluorescent protein (GFP) selectively expressed in concert with a specific protein in neuronal cells in a transgenic form of the worm C. elegans is also reported. The membrane potential around the GFP molecules expressed in these cells has been imaged with SHG in live animals.

  14. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Action Kit. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This kit contains materials to assist a school indoor air quality (IAQ) coordinator in conducting a school IAQ program. The kit contains the following: IAQ coordinator's guide; IAQ coordinator forms; IAQ backgrounder; teacher's classroom checklist; administrative staff checklist; health officer/school nurse checklist; ventilation checklist and…

  15. Screening of antibiotics residues and development a new kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the work was to detect antibiotic residues in animal nutriment: chicken, fish, eggs and milk, by methods of screening: First Test and Delvotest. The second part covered the development of a new kit for the detection of antibiotics residues for honey and competitor kit First Test and saving time and money.

  16. Energy Education Incentives: Evaluating the Impact of Consumer Energy Kits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Guin, Autumn; Langham, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the energy and environmental impact of residential energy education efforts is difficult. The E-Conservation residential energy management program uses consumer energy kits to document the impact of energy-efficient improvements. The consumer energy kit provides an incentive for individuals attending energy education workshop, helps…

  17. 14 CFR 1214.604 - Personal Preference Kit (PPK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal Preference Kit (PPK). 1214.604 Section 1214.604 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Mementos Aboard Space Shuttle Flights § 1214.604 Personal Preference Kit (PPK). (a) Purpose. The PPK...

  18. Study of the fragmentation of astrophysical interest molecules (C{sub n}H{sub m}) induced by high velocity collision; Etude de la fragmentation de molecules d'interet astrophysique de type C{sub n}H{sub m} par collision atomique de haute vitesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuna, Th

    2008-07-15

    This work shows the study of atom-molecule collision processes in the high velocity domain (v=4,5 a.u). The molecules concerned by this work are small unsaturated hydrocarbons C{sub 1-4}H and C{sub 3}H{sub 2}. Molecules are accelerated with the Tandem accelerator in Orsay and their fragmentation is analyzed by the 4{pi}, 100% efficient detector, AGAT. Thanks to a shape analysis of the current signal from the silicon detectors in association with the well known grid method, we are able to measure all the fragmentation channels of the incident molecule. These dissociation measurements have been introduced in the modelization of two objects of the interstellar medium in which a lot of hydrocarbon molecules have been observed (TMC1, horse-head nebula). We have extended our branching ratios obtained by high velocity collision to other electronic processes included in the chemical database like photodissociation and dissociative recombination. This procedure is feasible under an assumption of the statistical point of view of the molecular fragmentation. The deviations following our modification are very small in the modelization of TMC1 but significant in the photodissociation region. The first part is dedicated to the description of the experimental setting that has enabled us to study the fragmentation of C{sub n}H{sub m} molecules: the Orsay's Tandem accelerator and the Agat detector. The second part deals with negative ion sources and particularly with the Sahat source that is based on electronic impact and has shown good features for the production of anions and correct stability for its use with accelerators. The third part is dedicated to the experimental results in terms of cross-sections, number of fragments and branching ratios, associated to the various collisional processes. The last part presents an application of our measurement of fragmentation data to astro-chemistry. In this field, the simulation codes of the inter-stellar medium require databases

  19. Lack of Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Disaster Supply Kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heagele, Tara N

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the available evidence in support of the effectiveness of disaster supply kits presently used in household emergency preparedness in the United States. The expectation that people should take responsibility for their own disaster preparedness has largely not taken into account contextual influences on disaster preparedness. The efficiency of current disaster supply kits used during critical postdisaster periods has not been empirically tested. Professional recommendations regarding the composition of disaster supply kits containing at least water, food, first aid, hygiene, and clothing have not been universally defined. This lack of consensus may lead to the assembling of disaster supply kits yielding suboptimal results. The use of disaster supply kits should continue to be nationally recommended, although additional research is needed to demonstrate their beneficial impact on survival and resilience after a disaster. PMID:27077362

  20. Underlying theory of a model for the Renner–Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules: X2Πu electronic state of C2H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, we prove the plausibility of a simple model for the Renner–Teller effect in tetra-atomic molecules with linear equilibrium geometry by ab initio calculations of the electronic energy surfaces and non-adiabatic matrix elements for the X2Πu state of C2H2+. This phenomenon is considered as a combination of the usual Renner–Teller effect, appearing in triatomic species, and a kind of the Jahn–Teller effect, similar to the original one arising in highly symmetric molecules. Only four parameters (plus the spin–orbit constant, if the spin effects are taken into account), which can be extracted from ab initio calculations carried out at five appropriate (planar) molecular geometries, are sufficient for building up the Hamiltonian matrix whose diagonalization results in the complete low-energy (bending) vibronic spectrum. The main result of the present study is the proof that the diabatization scheme, hidden beneath the apparent simplicity of the model, can safely be carried out, at small-amplitude bending vibrations, without cumbersome computation of non-adiabatic matrix elements at large number of molecular geometries

  1. Mining information kit for Aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The opportunities for building relationships between Aboriginal communities and the mining industry were discussed, along with opportunities for communities to build capacity and to participate in the mining cycle. With nearly 1200 Aboriginal communities located within 200 km of minerals and metals activities in Canada, there is potential for significant economic and business growth in the communities. This educational tool informs Aboriginal communities across Canada about all the stages of the mining cycle, from early exploration to mine closure. Its purpose is to help Aboriginal people to better understand mining activities and identify the many opportunities that mining can bring to their communities. The information kit contains 4 modules corresponding to the main stages of the mining cycle. It provides examples of community experiences, positive relationships, and partnerships with mining companies. It also outlines the regulatory process to ensure Aboriginal peoples are well informed of the economic, social and environmental effects, benefits and opportunities in making decisions. refs., tabs., figs.

  2. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Rujoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  3. Genoviz Software Development Kit: Java tool kit for building genomics visualization applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chervitz Stephen A; Blanchard Steven G; Erwin Ed; Blossom Eric; Nicol John W; Helt Gregg A; Harmon Cyrus; Loraine Ann E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Visualization software can expose previously undiscovered patterns in genomic data and advance biological science. Results The Genoviz Software Development Kit (SDK) is an open source, Java-based framework designed for rapid assembly of visualization software applications for genomics. The Genoviz SDK framework provides a mechanism for incorporating adaptive, dynamic zooming into applications, a desirable feature of genome viewers. Visualization capabilities of the Genoviz...

  4. Monomeric C-reactive protein-a key molecule driving development of Alzheimer’s disease associated with brain ischaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, M.; Matou, S.; Zeinolabediny, Y.; Corpas, R.; Weston, R.; Liu, D.; Boras, E.; Di Napoli, M.; Petcu, E.; Sarroca, S.; Popa-Wagner, A.; Love, S.; Font, M. A.; Potempa, L. A.; Al-baradie, R.; Sanfeliu, C.; Revilla, S.; Badimon, L.; Krupinski, J.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases dramatically in patients with ischaemic stroke. Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) appears in the ECM of ischaemic tissue after stroke, associating with microvasculature, neurons and AD-plaques, Aβ, also, being able to dissociate native-CRP into inflammatory, mCRP in vivo. Here, mCRP injected into the hippocampal region of mice was retained within the retrosplenial tract of the dorsal 3rd ventrical and surrounding major vessels. Mice developed behavioural/cognitive deficits within 1 month, concomitant with mCRP staining within abnormal looking neurons expressing p-tau and in beta-amyloid 1-42-plaque positive regions. mCRP co-localised with CD105 in microvessels suggesting angiogenesis. Phospho-arrays/Western blotting identified signalling activation in endothelial cells and neurons through p-IRS-1, p-Tau and p-ERK1/2-which was blocked following pre-incubation with mCRP-antibody. mCRP increased vascular monolayer permeability and gap junctions, increased NCAM expression and produced haemorrhagic angiogenesis in mouse matrigel implants. mCRP induced tau244–372 aggregation and assembly in vitro. IHC study of human AD/stroke patients revealed co-localization of mCRP with Aβ plaques, tau-like fibrils and IRS-1/P-Tau positive neurons and high mCRP-levels spreading from infarcted core regions matched reduced expression of Aβ/Tau. mCRP may be responsible for promoting dementia after ischaemia and mCRP clearance could inform therapeutic avenues to reduce the risk of future dementia. PMID:26335098

  5. Monomeric C-reactive protein--a key molecule driving development of Alzheimer's disease associated with brain ischaemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevin, M; Matou, S; Zeinolabediny, Y; Corpas, R; Weston, R; Liu, D; Boras, E; Di Napoli, M; Petcu, E; Sarroca, S; Popa-Wagner, A; Love, S; Font, M A; Potempa, L A; Al-Baradie, R; Sanfeliu, C; Revilla, S; Badimon, L; Krupinski, J

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) increases dramatically in patients with ischaemic stroke. Monomeric C-reactive protein (mCRP) appears in the ECM of ischaemic tissue after stroke, associating with microvasculature, neurons and AD-plaques, Aβ, also, being able to dissociate native-CRP into inflammatory, mCRP in vivo. Here, mCRP injected into the hippocampal region of mice was retained within the retrosplenial tract of the dorsal 3rd ventrical and surrounding major vessels. Mice developed behavioural/cognitive deficits within 1 month, concomitant with mCRP staining within abnormal looking neurons expressing p-tau and in beta-amyloid 1-42-plaque positive regions. mCRP co-localised with CD105 in microvessels suggesting angiogenesis. Phospho-arrays/Western blotting identified signalling activation in endothelial cells and neurons through p-IRS-1, p-Tau and p-ERK1/2-which was blocked following pre-incubation with mCRP-antibody. mCRP increased vascular monolayer permeability and gap junctions, increased NCAM expression and produced haemorrhagic angiogenesis in mouse matrigel implants. mCRP induced tau244-372 aggregation and assembly in vitro. IHC study of human AD/stroke patients revealed co-localization of mCRP with Aβ plaques, tau-like fibrils and IRS-1/P-Tau positive neurons and high mCRP-levels spreading from infarcted core regions matched reduced expression of Aβ/Tau. mCRP may be responsible for promoting dementia after ischaemia and mCRP clearance could inform therapeutic avenues to reduce the risk of future dementia. PMID:26335098

  6. Neural cell adhesion molecule-stimulated neurite outgrowth depends on activation of protein kinase C and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolkova, K; Novitskaya, V; Pedersen, N;

    2000-01-01

    ), protein kinase C (PKC), and the Ras-mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. This was done using a coculture system consisting of PC12-E2 cells grown on fibroblasts, with or without NCAM expression, allowing NCAM-NCAM interactions resulting in neurite outgrowth. PC12-E2 cells were transiently......The signal transduction pathways associated with neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM)-induced neuritogenesis are only partially characterized. We here demonstrate that NCAM-induced neurite outgrowth depends on activation of p59(fyn), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), phospholipase Cgamma (PLCgamma...... transfected with expression plasmids encoding constitutively active forms of Ras, Raf, MAP kinase kinases MEK1 and 2, dominant negative forms of Ras and Raf, and the FAK-related nonkinase. Alternatively, PC12-E2 cells were submitted to treatment with antibodies to the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor...

  7. Key Roles for MYC, KIT and RET signaling in secondary angiosarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styring, E; Seinen, J; Dominguez-Valentin, M;

    2014-01-01

    of the gene signature to an external data set. RESULTS: In total, 103 genes were significantly deregulated between primary and secondary angiosarcomas. Secondary angiosarcomas showed upregulation of MYC, KIT and RET and downregulation of CDKN2C. Functional annotation analysis identified multiple...... target genes in the receptor protein tyrosine kinase pathway. The results were validated using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Further, the gene signature was applied to an external data set and, herein, distinguished primary from secondary angiosarcomas. CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of MYC, KIT and RET...... and downregulation of CDKN2C characterise secondary angiosarcoma, which implies possibilities for diagnostic application and a mechanistic basis for therapeutic evaluation of RET-kinase-inhibitors in these highly aggressive tumours....

  8. Cocaine-associated retiform purpura: a C5b-9-mediated microangiopathy syndrome associated with enhanced apoptosis and high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Cynthia M; Wang, Xuan

    2013-10-01

    Cocaine-associated retiform purpura is a recently described entity characterized by striking hemorrhagic necrosis involving areas of skin associated with administration of cocaine. Levamisole, an adulterant in cocaine, has been suggested as the main culprit pathogenetically. Four cases of cocaine-associated retiform purpura were encountered in the dermatopathology practice of C. M. Magro. The light microscopic findings were correlated with immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence studies. All 4 cases showed a very striking thrombotic diathesis associated with intravascular macrophage accumulation. Necrotizing vasculitis was noted in 1 case. Striking intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)/CD54 expression in vessel wall along with endothelial expression of caspase 3 and extensive vascular C5b-9 deposition was observed in all biopsies examined. Cocaine-induced retiform purpura is a C5b-9-mediated microvascular injury associated with enhanced apoptosis and prominent vascular expression of ICAM-1, all of which have been shown in prior in vitro and in vivo murine models to be a direct effect of cocaine metabolic products. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody and antiphospholipid antibodies are likely the direct sequelae of the proapoptotic microenvironment. The inflammatory vasculitic lesion could reflect the downstream end point reflective of enhanced ICAM-1 expression and the development of antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody. Levamisole likely works synergistically with cocaine in the propagation of this syndromic complex. PMID:23392134

  9. Clean room for the production of cold kits: two year experience with the production of kits for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new clean room has been designed and constructed at Radiopharmaceuticals Programme, BRIT keeping in view the functional aspects for the production of 'cold' kits for the preparation of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for supply to nuclear medicine centers and is in operation, since October, 2008. This clean room is the first clean room in the country designed exclusively for cold kit production. The clean room was validated and trial batches were produced and quality controlled prior to put it in regular production operation. The clean environment is maintained by separate AHU (air handling unit) located out side the clean room. A technical crew maintain the AHU unit and maintain record of parameters such as humidity, air flow, blower speed, chiller temperature etc. During a typical batch production not more than two persons are present in the formulation room. The formulated solution (filtered through 0.22μ membrane filter) is passed though a pass box between the formulation and dispensing area. The no. of people allowed in the dispensing area which is a critical area of class 100 is restricted to not more than four that too no person is allowed to be in between direct flow of HEPA filtered air and the dispensing table. The number of vials to be dispensed is arranged in trays and 1 ml of the formulated sterile solution is dispensed into each vial and the vials are transferred in to the lyophilization chamber. Sterile vials are introduced into class 100 area and the vials are removed after lyophilization though a pass box. After lyophilization vials are sealed with aluminum caps and stored at 2-10 deg C. Since the commissioning of the new clean room, about 120 batches of 10 different kit products were prepared and 1,20,000 kit vials were supplied to various hospitals for nuclear medicine investigation

  10. Kit transduced signals counteract erythroid maturation by MAPK-dependent modulation of erythropoietin signaling and apoptosis induction in mouse fetal liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, N; Riedt, T; Labbaf, Z; Baßler, K; Gergis, D; Fröhlich, H; Gütgemann, I; Janzen, V; Schorle, H

    2015-05-01

    Signaling by the stem cell factor receptor Kit in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is functionally associated with the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival. Expression of the receptor is downregulated upon terminal differentiation in most lineages, including red blood cell terminal maturation, suggesting that omission of Kit transduced signals is a prerequisite for the differentiation process to occur. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Kit signaling preserves the undifferentiated state of progenitor cells are not yet characterized in detail. In this study, we generated a mouse model for inducible expression of a Kit receptor carrying an activating mutation and studied its effects on fetal liver hematopoiesis. We found that sustained Kit signaling leads to expansion of erythroid precursors and interferes with terminal maturation beyond the erythroblast stage. Primary KIT(D816V) erythroblasts stimulated to differentiate fail to exit cell cycle and show elevated rates of apoptosis because of insufficient induction of survival factors. They further retain expression of progenitor cell associated factors c-Myc, c-Myb and GATA-2 and inefficiently upregulate erythroid transcription factors GATA-1, Klf1 and Tal1. In KIT(D816V) erythroblasts we found constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, elevated expression of the src kinase family member Lyn and impaired Akt activation in response to erythropoietin. We demonstrate that the block in differentiation is partially rescued by MAPK inhibition, and completely rescued by the multikinase inhibitor Dasatinib. These results show that a crosstalk between Kit and erythropoietin receptor signaling cascades exists and that continuous Kit signaling, partly mediated by the MAPK pathway, interferes with this crosstalk. PMID:25323585

  11. Extended molecular dynamics of a c-kit promoter quadruplex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Islam, B.; Stadlbauer, Petr; Krepl, Miroslav; Koča, J.; Neidle, S.; Haider, S.; Šponer, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 18 (2015), s. 8673-8693. ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/11/1822 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : TELOMERIC G-QUADRUPLEX * INTRAMOLECULAR DNA QUADRUPLEXES * GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 9.112, year: 2014

  12. Educational Robot Kits: choices for Education in Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Fornaza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Connected to technological innovations, Educational Robot kits gain prominence for their ability to promote interdisciplinary and team work, motivating students participation during learning activities. However, the insertion of the Robotics in education also brings challenges of diverse natures. The first challenge consists on the choice of the most appropriate robot kit regarding its resources, restrictions and the necessity of pedagogical support to educators. In order to take decisions, technical and educational information are necessary. To contribute to this matter, this work presents and compares three Educational Robot kits to schoolar use.

  13. Enantio-specific C(sp3)-H activation catalyzed by ruthenium nanoparticles: application to isotopic labeling of molecules of biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic labeling with deuterium and tritium is extensively used in chemistry, biology and pharmaceutical research. Numerous methods of labeling by isotopic exchange allow high isotopic enrichments but generally require harsh conditions (high temperatures, acidity). As a consequence, a general, regioselective and smooth labeling method that might be applicable to a wide diversity of substrates remains to develop. In the first part of this thesis, we demonstrated that the use of ruthenium nanoparticles, synthesized by Pr. Bruno Chaudret's team (INSA Toulouse), allowed the mild (2 bar of deuterium gas at 55 C), effective and selective H/D exchange reaction of a large variety of nitrogen-containing compounds, such as pyridines, indoles and primary, secondary and tertiary alkyl amines. The usefulness and the efficiency of this novel methodology was demonstrated by the deuteration of eight nitrogen-containing molecules of biological interest without altering their chemical and stereochemical properties. However, the conservation of the original stereochemistry of an activated chiral C-H center remains a major issue. We studied the reactivity of RuNP(at)PVP on different categories of nitrogen-containing substrates (amines, aminoacids and peptides) in water or in organic solvents. Our results showed that C-H activation of chiral carbons C(sp3) took place efficiently, selectively and, in all cases, with total retention of configuration. The wide range of applications of this procedure was demonstrated by the labeling of three chiral amines, fourteen aminoacids, three aromatic amino esters and four peptides. Moreover, our collaboration with Pr. Romuald Poteau's team (INSA Toulouse) led to the identification of two mechanisms by ab initio simulation in agreement with our experimental results: the σ-bond metathesis mechanism and the oxidative addition mechanism. These two mechanisms imply two vicinal ruthenium atoms leading to the formation an original

  14. The effect of nest box temperature on kit growth rate and survival in the American mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Toke Munk; Malmkvist, Jens

    2015-01-01

    dying and kits growth. Instead parameters concerning litter composition did have significant effects on kit growth and survival. Litters with high number of Totborn and kit AliveD1 affected kit growth and kit viability negatively (increased number of live born kits dying), which indicates that factors...

  15. Detection of parent H2O and CO2 molecules in the 2.5--5 micron spectrum of comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin) observed with AKARI

    CERN Document Server

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Kawakita, Hideyo; Ishiguro, Masateru; Furusho, Reiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ueno, Munetaka; Watanabe, Jun-ichi; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Wada, Takehiko; Ohyama, Youichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Matsuhara, Hideo; Onaka, Takashi; Nakagawa, Takao; Murakami, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Comet C/2007 N3 (Lulin) was observed with the Japanese infrared satellite AKARI in the near-infrared at a post-perihelion heliocentric distance of 1.7 AU. Observations were performed with the spectroscopic (2.5--5.0 micron) and imaging (2.4, 3.2, and 4.1 micron) modes on 2009 March 30 and 31 UT, respectively. AKARI images of the comet exhibit a sunward crescent-like shape coma and a dust tail extended toward the anti-solar direction. The 4.1 micron image (CO/CO2 and dust grains) shows a distribution different from the 2.4 and 3.2 micron images (H2O and dust grains). The observed spectrum shows distinct bands at 2.66 and 4.26 micron, attributed to H2O and CO2, respectively. This is the fifth comet in which CO2 has been directly detected in the near-infrared spectrum. In addition, CO at 4.67 micron and a broad 3.2--3.6 micron emission band from C-H bearing molecules were detected in the AKARI spectrum. The relative abundance ratios CO2/H2O and CO/H2O derived from the molecular production rates are \\sim 4%--5% a...

  16. Theoretical estimates of the anapole magnetizabilities of C4H4X2 cyclic molecules for X=O, S, Se, and Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations have been carried out for C4H4X2 cyclic molecules, with X=O, S, Se, and Te, characterized by the presence of magnetic-field induced toroidal electron currents and associated orbital anapole moments. The orbital anapole induced by a static nonuniform magnetic field B, with uniform curl C=∇×B, is rationalized via a second-rank anapole magnetizability tensor aαβ, defined as minus the second derivative of the second-order interaction energy with respect to the components Cα and Bβ. The average anapole magnetizability a¯ equals −χ¯, the pseudoscalar obtained by spatial averaging of the dipole-quadrupole magnetizability χα,βγ. It has different sign for D and L enantiomeric systems and can therefore be used for chiral discrimination. Therefore, in an isotropic chiral medium, a homogeneous magnetic field induces an electronic anapole Aα, having the same magnitude, but opposite sign, for two enantiomorphs

  17. Theoretical estimates of the anapole magnetizabilities of C4H4X2 cyclic molecules for X=O, S, Se, and Te

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagola, G. I.; Ferraro, M. B.; Provasi, P. F.; Pelloni, S.; Lazzeretti, P.

    2014-09-01

    Calculations have been carried out for C4H4X2 cyclic molecules, with X=O, S, Se, and Te, characterized by the presence of magnetic-field induced toroidal electron currents and associated orbital anapole moments. The orbital anapole induced by a static nonuniform magnetic field B, with uniform curl {{C}}=nabla × {{B}}, is rationalized via a second-rank anapole magnetizability tensor aαβ, defined as minus the second derivative of the second-order interaction energy with respect to the components Cα and Bβ. The average anapole magnetizability overline{a} equals -overline{χ }, the pseudoscalar obtained by spatial averaging of the dipole-quadrupole magnetizability χα,βγ. It has different sign for D and L enantiomeric systems and can therefore be used for chiral discrimination. Therefore, in an isotropic chiral medium, a homogeneous magnetic field induces an electronic anapole A_{α }, having the same magnitude, but opposite sign, for two enantiomorphs.

  18. Porous polymer monoliths functionalized through copolymerization of a C60 fullerene-containing methacrylate monomer for highly efficient separations of small molecules

    KAUST Repository

    Chambers, Stuart D.

    2011-12-15

    Monolithic poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) and poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) capillary columns, which incorporate the new monomer [6,6]-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate ester, have been prepared and their chromatographic performance have been tested for the separation of small molecules in the reversed phase. While addition of the C60-fullerene monomer to the glycidyl methacrylate-based monolith enhanced column efficiency 18-fold, to 85 000 plates/m at a linear velocity of 0.46 mm/s and a retention factor of 2.6, when compared to the parent monolith, the use of butyl methacrylate together with the carbon nanostructured monomer afforded monolithic columns with an efficiency for benzene exceeding 110 000 plates/m at a linear velocity of 0.32 mm/s and a retention factor of 4.2. This high efficiency is unprecedented for separations using porous polymer monoliths operating in an isocratic mode. Optimization of the chromatographic parameters affords near baseline separation of 6 alkylbenzenes in 3 min with an efficiency of 64 000 plates/m. The presence of 1 wt % or more of water in the polymerization mixture has a large effect on both the formation and reproducibility of the monoliths. Other factors such as nitrogen exposure, polymerization conditions, capillary filling method, and sonication parameters were all found to be important in producing highly efficient and reproducible monoliths. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  19. Development of an ELISA kit using monoclonal antibody to Clostridium difficile toxin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Wu Fu; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To establish an ELISA kit using monoclonal antibodiesagainst Clostridium difficile ( C. difficile) toxin A.METHODS: An indirect sandwich ElISA was described using the purified rabbit monospecific antiserum as capturing antibody. After the polystyrene microtitre plates with 96 fiat-bottomed wells were coated with rabbit antiserum, the wells were blocked with 100 g/L BSA in PBS-T. C. difficiletoxin A or culture filtrates were added to each well and then monoclonal antibodies IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate was added as detecting antibody, tetramethylbenzidine was used as substrate and A450 of the stopped reacting product was recorded in an automated plate reader. RESULTS: The tested specimens included culture filtrates of 2 strains of toxigenic C. difficile, 2 strains of non-toxigenic C. difficile, 26 strains of E. coli, 2 strains of S. dysenteriae, 1 strain of Bif infantis, 5 strains of V. cholera, 2 strains ofS. typhi, 7 strains of C. botulinum, 1 strain of toxigenic C. sordllii, and 1 strain of C. butyricum. A total of 47 strains of culture filtrates were all negative except for 2 strains of toxigenic C. difficile. The detective limitation of toxin A was 0.1 ng/mL.CONCLUSION: An ELISA kit with high specificity and excellent sensitivity for the rapid detection of C. difficile toxin A was established. It will be a useful tool for diagnostic test of C. difficile toxin A.

  20. STOCK: Structure mapper and online coarse-graining kit for molecular simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a web toolkit STructure mapper and Online Coarse-graining Kit for setting up coarse-grained molecular simulations. The kit consists of two tools: structure mapping and Boltzmann inversion tools. The aim of the first tool is to define a molecular mapping from high, e.g. all-atom, to low, i.e. coarse-grained, resolution. Using a graphical user interface it generates input files, which are compatible with standard coarse-graining packages, e.g. VOTCA and DLCGMAP. Our second tool generates effective potentials for coarse-grained simulations preserving the structural properties, e.g. radial distribution functions, of the underlying higher resolution model. The required distribution functions can be provided by any simulation package. Simulations are performed on a local machine and only the distributions are uploaded to the server. The applicability of the toolkit is validated by mapping atomistic pentane and polyalanine molecules to a coarse-grained representation. Effective potentials are derived for systems of TIP3P (transferable intermolecular potential 3 point) water molecules and salt solution. The presented coarse-graining web toolkit is available at http://stock.cmm.ki.si