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Sample records for by-2 tobacco cells

  1. Expression of Plant Receptor Kinases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

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    Shinohara, Hidefumi; Matsubayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Although more than 600 single-transmembrane receptor kinase genes have been found in the Arabidopsis genome, only a few of them have known physiological functions, and even fewer plant receptor kinases have known specific ligands. Ligand-binding analysis must be operated using the functionally expressed receptor form. However, the relative abundance of native receptor kinase molecules in the plasma membrane is often quite low. Here, we present a method for stable and functional expression of plant receptor kinases in tobacco BY-2 cells that allows preparation of microsomal fractions containing the receptor. This procedure provides a sufficient amount of receptor proteins while maintaining its ligand-binding activities.

  2. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

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    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  3. Silicon does not mitigate cell death in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells subjected to salinity without ethylene emission.

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    Liang, Xiaolei; Wang, Huahua; Hu, Yanfeng; Mao, Lina; Sun, Lili; Dong, Tian; Nan, Wenbin; Bi, Yurong

    2015-02-01

    Silicon induces cell death when ethylene is suppressed in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. There is a crosstalk between Si and ethylene signaling. Silicon (Si) is beneficial for plant growth. It alleviates both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. How Si works in plants is still mysterious. This study investigates the mechanism of Si-induced cell death in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures when ethylene is suppressed. Results showed that K2SiO3 alleviated the damage of NaCl stress. Si treatment rapidly increased ethylene emission and the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes. Treatments with Si + Ag and Si + aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor) reduced the cell growth and increased cell damage. The treatment with Si + Ag induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and ultimately cell death. Some nucleus of BY-2 cells treated with Si + Ag appeared TUNEL positive. The inhibition of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) production reduced the cell death rate induced by Si + Ag treatment. Si eliminated the up-regulation of alternative pathway by Ag. These data suggest that ethylene plays an important role in Si function in plants. Without ethylene, Si not only failed to enhance plant resistance, but also elevated H2O2 generation and further induced cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

  4. Femtosecond Optoinjection of Intact Tobacco BY-2 Cells Using a Reconfigurable Photoporation Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Claire A.; Kalies, Stefan; Cizmár, Tomás; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Torrance, Lesley; Roberts, Alison G.; Gunn-Moore, Frank J.; Dholakia, Kishan

    2013-01-01

    A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of exogenous substances. Here we demonstrate and quantify femtosecond optical injection of membrane impermeable dyes into intact BY-2 tobacco plant cells growing in culture, investigating both optical and biological parameters. Specifically, we show that the long axial extent of a propagation invariant (“diffraction-free”) Bessel beam, which relaxes the requirements for tight focusing on the cell membrane, outperforms a standard Gaussian photoporation beam, achieving up to 70% optoinjection efficiency. Studies on the osmotic effects of culture media show that a hypertonic extracellular medium was found to be necessary to reduce turgor pressure and facilitate molecular entry into the cells. PMID:24244456

  5. Femtosecond optoinjection of intact tobacco BY-2 cells using a reconfigurable photoporation platform.

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    Claire A Mitchell

    Full Text Available A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of exogenous substances. Here we demonstrate and quantify femtosecond optical injection of membrane impermeable dyes into intact BY-2 tobacco plant cells growing in culture, investigating both optical and biological parameters. Specifically, we show that the long axial extent of a propagation invariant ("diffraction-free" Bessel beam, which relaxes the requirements for tight focusing on the cell membrane, outperforms a standard Gaussian photoporation beam, achieving up to 70% optoinjection efficiency. Studies on the osmotic effects of culture media show that a hypertonic extracellular medium was found to be necessary to reduce turgor pressure and facilitate molecular entry into the cells.

  6. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture.

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    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-20

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis - total protein content, thiols - reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  7. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles, electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases or imaging (contrast agents. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis — total protein content, thiols — reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension

  8. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis—total protein content, thiols—reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  9. Arabinogalactan Proteins Are Involved in Salt-Adaptation and Vesicle Trafficking in Tobacco by-2 Cell Cultures

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    Enrique Olmos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse family of glycoproteins that are commonly found in most plant species. However, little is known about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of their function. AGPs are involved in different biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, tissue development and somatic embryogenesis. AGPs are also involved in abiotic stress response such as salinity modulating cell wall expansion. In this study, we describe how salt-adaptation in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures induces important changes in arabinogalactan proteins distribution and contents. Using the immuno-dot blot technique with different anti-AGP antibodies (JIM13, JIM15, and others, we observed that AGPs were highly accumulated in the culture medium of salt-adapted tobacco cells, probably due to the action of phospholipases. We located these AGP epitopes using immunogold labeling in the cytoplasm associated to the endoplasmic reticulum, the golgi apparatus, and vesicles, plasma membrane and tonoplast. Our results show that salt-adaptation induced a significant reduction of the cytoplasm, plasma membrane and tonoplast content of these epitopes. Yariv reagent was added to the control and salt-adapted tobacco cell cultures, leading to cell death induction in control cells but not in salt-adapted cells. Ultrastructural and immunogold labeling revealed that cell death induced by Yariv reagent in control cells was due to the interaction of Yariv reagent with the AGPs linked to the plasma membranes. Finally, we propose a new function of AGPs as a possible sodium carrier through the mechanism of vesicle trafficking from the apoplast to the vacuoles in salt-adapted tobacco BY-2 cells. This mechanism may contribute to sodium homeostasis during salt-adaptation to high saline concentrations.

  10. Involvement of DNA methylation in the control of cell growth during heat stress in tobacco BY-2 cells.

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    Centomani, Isabella; Sgobba, Alessandra; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Dipierro, Nunzio; Paradiso, Annalisa; De Gara, Laura; Dipierro, Silvio; Viggiano, Luigi; de Pinto, Maria Concetta

    2015-11-01

    The alteration of growth patterns, through the adjustment of cell division and expansion, is a characteristic response of plants to environmental stress. In order to study this response in more depth, the effect of heat stress on growth was investigated in tobacco BY-2 cells. The results indicate that heat stress inhibited cell division, by slowing cell cycle progression. Cells were stopped in the pre-mitotic phases, as shown by the increased expression of CycD3-1 and by the decrease in the NtCycA13, NtCyc29 and CDKB1-1 transcripts. The decrease in cell length and the reduced expression of Nt-EXPA5 indicated that cell expansion was also inhibited. Since DNA methylation plays a key role in controlling gene expression, the possibility that the altered expression of genes involved in the control of cell growth, observed during heat stress, could be due to changes in the methylation state of their promoters was investigated. The results show that the altered expression of CycD3-1 and Nt-EXPA5 was consistent with changes in the methylation state of the upstream region of these genes. These results suggest that DNA methylation, controlling the expression of genes involved in plant development, contributes to growth alteration occurring in response to environmental changes.

  11. Microtubule reorganization in tobacco BY-2 cells stably expressing GFP-MBD

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    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    Microtubule organization plays an important role in plant morphogenesis; however, little is known about how microtubule arrays transit from one organized state to another. The use of a genetically incorporated fluorescent marker would allow long-term observation of microtubule behavior in living cells. Here, we have characterized a Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell line that had been stably transformed with a gfp-mbd construct previously demonstrated to label microtubules (J. Marc et al., 1998, Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939). Fluorescence levels were low, but interphase and mitotic microtubule arrays, as well as the transitions between these arrays, could be observed in individual gfp-mbd-transformed cells. By comparing several attributes of transformed and untransformed cells it was concluded that the transgenic cells are not adversely affected by low-level expression of the transgene and that these cells will serve as a useful and accurate model system for observing microtubule reorganization in vivo. Indeed, some initial observations were made that are consistent with the involvement of motor proteins in the transition between the spindle and phragmoplast arrays. Our observations also support the role of the perinuclear region in nucleating microtubules at the end of cell division with a progressive shift of these microtubules and/or nucleating activity to the cortex to form the interphase cortical array.

  12. Cytoskeletal dynamics in interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis analysed through Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells.

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    Buschmann, H; Green, P; Sambade, A; Doonan, J H; Lloyd, C W

    2011-04-01

    Transient transformation with Agrobacterium is a widespread tool allowing rapid expression analyses in plants. However, the available methods generate expression in interphase and do not allow the routine analysis of dividing cells. Here, we present a transient transformation method (termed 'TAMBY2') to enable cell biological studies in interphase and cell division. Agrobacterium-mediated transient gene expression in tobacco BY-2 was analysed by Western blotting and quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Time-lapse microscopy of cytoskeletal markers was employed to monitor cell division. Double-labelling in interphase and mitosis enabled localization studies. We found that the transient transformation efficiency was highest when BY-2/Agrobacterium co-cultivation was performed on solid medium. Transformants produced in this way divided at high frequency. We demonstrated the utility of the method by defining the behaviour of a previously uncharacterized microtubule motor, KinG, throughout the cell cycle. Our analyses demonstrated that TAMBY2 provides a flexible tool for the transient transformation of BY-2 with Agrobacterium. Fluorescence double-labelling showed that KinG localizes to microtubules and to F-actin. In interphase, KinG accumulates on microtubule lagging ends, suggesting a minus-end-directed function in vivo. Time-lapse studies of cell division showed that GFP-KinG strongly labels preprophase band and phragmoplast, but not the metaphase spindle. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Proliferation of the Golgi apparatus in tobacco BY-2 cells during cell proliferation after release from the stationary phase of growth.

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    Abiodun, Moses; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-08-01

    We have recently developed a new method aimed at mass photo-conversion of photo-convertible fluorescence protein (PFP) fluorescence in transformed tobacco BY-2 cells. Using this method we reported recently that the Golgi apparatus is generated by the de novo formation from ER and the division of pre-existing Golgi stacks with similar extents In this work we report that the proliferation of the Golgi apparatus in tobacco cells that enter the growing cycle from the non-dividing cycle is quite similar to that in rapidly growing cells and that de novo formation from the ER and division of pre-existing stacks seems to contribute almost equally to the proliferation.

  14. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space.

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    Sieberer, Björn J; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W

    2009-11-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March-April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton, the results suggest a role for the cell wall, or its production machinery, in structuring the microtubule cytoskeleton.

  15. Transcriptome-wide analysis of jasmonate-treated BY-2 cells reveals new transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation in tobacco.

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    Yang, Yuping; Yan, Pengcheng; Yi, Che; Li, Wenzheng; Chai, Yuhui; Fei, Lingling; Gao, Ping; Zhao, Heping; Wang, Yingdian; Timko, Michael P; Wang, Bingwu; Han, Shengcheng

    2017-08-01

    Jasmonates (JAs) are well-known regulators of stress, defence, and secondary metabolism in plants, with JA perception triggering extensive transcriptional reprogramming, including both activation and/or repression of entire metabolic pathways. We performed RNA sequencing based transcriptomic profiling of tobacco BY-2 cells before and after treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to identify novel transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation. A total of 107,140 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly, and at least 33,213 transcripts (31%) encode proteins, in which 3419 transcription factors (TFs) were identified, representing 72 gene families, as well as 840 transcriptional regulators (TRs) distributed among 19 gene families. After MeJA treatment BY-2 cells, 7260 differentially expressed transcripts were characterised, which include 4443 MeJA-upregulated and 2817 MeJA-downregulated genes. Of these, 227 TFs/TRs in 36 families were specifically upregulated, and 102 TFs/TRs in 38 families were downregulated in MeJA-treated BY-2 cells. We further showed that the expression of 12 ethylene response factors and four basic helix-loop-helix factors increased at the transcriptional level after MeJA treatment in BY-2 cells and displayed specific expression patterns in nic mutants with or without MeJA treatments. Our data provide a catalogue of transcripts of tobacco BY-2 cells and benefit future study of JA-modulated regulation of secondary metabolism in tobacco. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Calcium- and Nitric Oxide-Dependent Nuclear Accumulation of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Response to Long Chain Bases in Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

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    Testard, Ambroise; Da Silva, Daniel; Ormancey, Mélanie; Pichereaux, Carole; Pouzet, Cécile; Jauneau, Alain; Grat, Sabine; Robe, Eugénie; Brière, Christian; Cotelle, Valérie; Mazars, Christian; Thuleau, Patrice

    2016-10-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0, DHS), one of the most abundant free sphingoid long chain bases (LCBs) in plants, is known to induce a calcium-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in plants. In addition, in tobacco BY-2 cells, it has been shown that DHS triggers a rapid production of H 2 O 2 and nitric oxide (NO). Recently, in analogy to what is known in the animal field, plant cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC), a ubiquitous enzyme involved in glycolysis, has been suggested to fulfill other functions associated with its oxidative post-translational modifications such as S-nitrosylation on cysteine residues. In particular, in mammals, stress signals inducing NO production promote S-nitrosylation of GAPC and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus where the protein participates in the establishment of apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the behavior of GAPC in tobacco BY-2 cells treated with DHS. We found that upon DHS treatment, an S-nitrosylated form of GAPC accumulated in the nucleus. This accumulation was dependent on NO production. Two genes encoding GAPCs, namely Nt(BY-2)GAPC1 and Nt(BY-2)GAPC2, were cloned. Transient overexpression of Nt(BY-2)GAPC-green fluorescent protein (GFP) chimeric constructs indicated that both proteins localized in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus. Mutating into serine the two cysteine residues thought to be S-nitrosylated in response to DHS did not modify the localization of the proteins, suggesting that S-nitrosylation of GAPCs was probably not necessary for their nuclear relocalization. Interestingly, using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments, we showed that Nt(BY-2)GAPCs interact with nucleic acids in the nucleus. When GAPCs were mutated on their cysteine residues, their interaction with nucleic acids was abolished, suggesting a role for GAPCs in the protection of nucleic acids against oxidative stress. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on

  17. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells.

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    Hartmann, Michael; Hemmerlin, Andrea; Gas-Pascual, Elisabet; Gerber, Esther; Tritsch, Denis; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL). By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1), shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  18. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space

    OpenAIRE

    Sieberer, B.; Kieft, H.; Franssen-Verheijen, M.A.W.; Emons, A.M.C.; Vos, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant?s final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do gr...

  19. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieberer, B.; Kieft, H.; Franssen-Verheijen, M.A.W.; Emons, A.M.C.; Vos, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant’s final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g.

  20. Evidence that proliferation of golgi apparatus depends on both de novo generation from the endoplasmic reticulum and formation from pre-existing stacks during the growth of tobacco BY-2 cells.

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    Abiodun, Moses Olabiyi; Matsuoka, Ken

    2013-04-01

    In higher plants, the numbers of cytoplasmic-distributed Golgi stacks differ based on function, age and cell type. It has not been clarified how the numbers are controlled, whether all the Golgi apparatus in a cell function equally and whether the increase in Golgi number is a result of the de novo formation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or fission of pre-existing stacks. A tobacco prolyl 4-hydroxylase (NtP4H1.1), which is a cis-Golgi-localizing type II membrane protein, was tagged with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein, mKikGR (monomeric Kikume green red), and expressed in tobacco bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells. Transformed cells were exposed to purple light to convert the fluorescence from green to red. A time-course analysis after the conversion revealed a progressive increase in green puncta and a decrease in the red puncta. From 3 to 6 h, we observed red, yellow and green fluorescent puncta corresponding to pre-existing Golgi; Golgi containing both pre-existing and newly synthesized protein; and newly synthesized Golgi. Analysis of the number and fluorescence of Golgi at different phases of the cell cycle suggested that an increase in Golgi number with both division and de novo synthesis occurred concomitantly with DNA replication. Investigation with different inhibitors suggested that the formation of new Golgi and the generation of Golgi containing both pre-existing and newly synthesized protein are mediated by different machineries. These results and modeling based on quantified results indicate that the Golgi apparatuses in tobacco BY-2 cells are not uniform and suggest that both de novo synthesis from the ER and Golgi division contribute almost equally to the increase in proliferating cells.

  1. Establishment of a tobacco BY2 cell line devoid of plant-specific xylose and fucose as a platform for the production of biotherapeutic proteins.

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    Hanania, Uri; Ariel, Tami; Tekoah, Yoram; Fux, Liat; Sheva, Maor; Gubbay, Yehuda; Weiss, Mara; Oz, Dina; Azulay, Yaniv; Turbovski, Albina; Forster, Yehava; Shaaltiel, Yoseph

    2017-09-01

    Plant-produced glycoproteins contain N-linked glycans with plant-specific residues of β(1,2)-xylose and core α(1,3)-fucose, which do not exist in mammalian-derived proteins. Although our experience with two enzymes that are used for enzyme replacement therapy does not indicate that the plant sugar residues have deleterious effects, we made a conscious decision to eliminate these moieties from plant-expressed proteins. We knocked out the β(1,2)-xylosyltranferase (XylT) and the α(1,3)-fucosyltransferase (FucT) genes, using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, in Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow 2 (BY2) cell suspension. In total, we knocked out 14 loci. The knocked-out lines were stable, viable and exhibited a typical BY2 growing rate. Glycan analysis of the endogenous proteins of these lines exhibited N-linked glycans lacking β(1,2)-xylose and/or α(1,3)-fucose. The knocked-out lines were further transformed successfully with recombinant DNaseI. The expression level and the activity of the recombinant protein were similar to that of the protein produced in the wild-type BY2 cells. The recombinant DNaseI was shown to be totally free from any xylose and/or fucose residues. The glyco-engineered BY2 lines provide a valuable platform for producing potent biopharmaceutical products. Furthermore, these results demonstrate the power of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for multiplex gene editing in BY2 cells. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Plastidial 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway Provides the Isoprenyl Moiety for Protein Geranylgeranylation in Tobacco BY-2 Cells[C][W

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    Gerber, Esther; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hartmann, Michael; Heintz, Dimitri; Hartmann, Marie-Andrée; Mutterer, Jérôme; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Boronat, Albert; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rohmer, Michel; Crowell, Dring N.; Bach, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation are important posttranslational modifications in eukaryotic cells. We visualized in transformed Nicotiana tabacum Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells the geranylgeranylation and plasma membrane localization of GFP-BD-CVIL, which consists of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the C-terminal polybasic domain (BD) and CVIL isoprenylation motif from the Oryza sativa calmodulin, CaM61. Treatment with fosmidomycin (Fos) or oxoclomazone (OC), inhibitors of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, caused mislocalization of the protein to the nucleus, whereas treatment with mevinolin, an inhibitor of the cytosolic mevalonate pathway, did not. The nuclear localization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of MEP pathway inhibitors was completely reversed by all-trans-geranylgeraniol (GGol). Furthermore, 1-deoxy-d-xylulose (DX) reversed the effects of OC, but not Fos, consistent with the hypothesis that OC blocks 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis, whereas Fos inhibits its conversion to 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate. By contrast, GGol and DX did not rescue the nuclear mislocalization of GFP-BD-CVIL in the presence of a protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 inhibitor. Thus, the MEP pathway has an essential role in geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) biosynthesis and protein geranylgeranylation in BY-2 cells. GFP-BD-CVIL is a versatile tool for identifying pharmaceuticals and herbicides that interfere either with GGPP biosynthesis or with protein geranylgeranylation. PMID:19136647

  3. Wide-range high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals morphological and distributional changes of endomembrane compartments during log to stationary transition of growth phase in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyooka, Kiminori; Sato, Mayuko; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Higaki, Takumi; Sawaki, Fumie; Wakazaki, Mayumi; Goto, Yumi; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Nagata, Noriko; Matsuoka, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Rapid growth of plant cells by cell division and expansion requires an endomembrane trafficking system. The endomembrane compartments, such as the Golgi stacks, endosome and vesicles, are important in the synthesis and trafficking of cell wall materials during cell elongation. However, changes in the morphology, distribution and number of these compartments during the different stages of cell proliferation and differentiation have not yet been clarified. In this study, we examined these changes at the ultrastructural level in tobacco Bright yellow 2 (BY-2) cells during the log and stationary phases of growth. We analyzed images of the BY-2 cells prepared by the high-pressure freezing/freeze substitution technique with the aid of an auto-acquisition transmission electron microscope system. We quantified the distribution of secretory and endosomal compartments in longitudinal sections of whole cells by using wide-range gigapixel-class images obtained by merging thousands of transmission electron micrographs. During the log phase, all Golgi stacks were composed of several thick cisternae. Approximately 20 vesicle clusters (VCs), including the trans-Golgi network and secretory vesicle cluster, were observed throughout the cell. In the stationary-phase cells, Golgi stacks were thin with small cisternae, and only a few VCs were observed. Nearly the same number of multivesicular body and small high-density vesicles were observed in both the stationary and log phases. Results from electron microscopy and live fluorescence imaging indicate that the morphology and distribution of secretory-related compartments dramatically change when cells transition from log to stationary phases of growth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Plant isoprenoid biosynthesis via the MEP pathway: in vivo IPP/DMAPP ratio produced by (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsch, Denis; Hemmerlin, Andréa; Bach, Thomas J; Rohmer, Michel

    2010-01-04

    Feeding tobacco BY-2 cells with [2-(13)C,4-(2)H]deoxyxylulose revealed from the (13)C labeling that the plastid isoprenoids, synthesized via the MEP pathway, are essentially derived from the labeled precursor. The ca. 15% (2)H retention observed in all isoprene units corresponds to the isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP)/dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) ratio (85:15) directly produced by the hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate reductase, the last enzyme of the MEP pathway. (2)H retention characterizes the isoprene units derived from the DMAPP branch, whereas (2)H loss represents the signature of the IPP branch. Taking into account the enantioselectivity of the reactions catalyzed by the (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase, the IPP isomerase and the trans-prenyl transferase, a single biogenetic scheme allows to interpret all labeling patterns observed in bacteria or plants upon incubation with (2)H labeled deoxyxylulose.

  5. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  6. Comparison of tobacco-containing and tobacco-free waterpipe products: effects on human alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Alan; Eissenberg, Thomas; Rammah, Mayassa; Salman, Rola; Jaroudi, Ezzat; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, a class of products marketed as "tobacco-free" alternatives for the "health conscious user" has become widely available for waterpipe (hookah, narghile, or shisha) smoking. Their adoption may be in part driven by regulations banning tobacco smoking in public places and by an increasing awareness of the hazards of waterpipe tobacco smoking. Although these products are presented in advertising as a "healthier" choice, very little is known about their health effects. In this study, we compared the effects of smoke generated with tobacco-free and conventional tobacco-derived products on human alveolar cells. Smoke was generated with a smoking machine that precisely mimicked the puffing behavior of 15 experienced waterpipe smokers when they used conventional waterpipe tobacco products of their choice and flavor-matched tobacco-free products. Human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) were treated with particulate matter sampled from the smoke, and the effects on cell cycle, proliferation, and doubling time were measured during the subsequent 72hr. We found that smoke from both types of waterpipe products markedly reduced cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1, and increased cell doubling time. There were no significant differences across product in any measure. Tobacco-free and tobacco-based waterpipe products exert substantial and similar deleterious effects on human lung cells. This study adds to the nascent evidence base indicating that except for exposure to nicotine and its derivatives, use of tobacco-free waterpipe products does not present a reduced health risk relative to the use of conventional tobacco-based products.

  7. In vitro effect of smokeless tobacco on gingival epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Beklen

    2017-05-01

    Epithelial cells are the first line of defense against pathogens in the oral cavity. The results suggest that smokeless tobacco not only inhibits the growth of epithelial cells but also induce the generation of inflammatory cytokines which leads to smokeless tobacco-exacerbated disease.

  8. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  9. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2af

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hartmann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  10. Expression of GLUT-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Neha; Kumari Maurya, Malti; Kar, Meenakshi; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Sagar, Mala; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    GLUTs are a family of proteins that mediate glucose transport through the membrane, expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. GLUT-1 positivity in malignant cells indicates increased proliferative activity, energy requirements, aggressive behaviour and poor radiation response. To observe the expression of GLUT-1 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users and to correlate the expression with histopathological grading and pathological staging. 50 cases (25 tobacco and 25 non-tobacco) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, selected during period of August 2014 to July 2015. Histopathological grading, TNM and staging were done. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using standard protocol for paraffin embedded sections. Analysis was performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0). Significant association of GLUT-1 expression was found with history of tobacco (p GLUT-1 expression in stage II, stage III and stage IV was found as compared to stage I. GLUT-1 immunoexpression also shows progressive switch from membranous to cytoplasmic to combined location correlating with histopathologic grade and pTNM stage. GLUT-1 expression correlates significantly with histological grade and pTNM staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It also significantly correlates with tobacco addiction. Thus, GLUT-1 expression may serve as a biomarker for patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments in fixed BY-2 suspension cells using an optimised whole mount immunolabelling protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Wedzony, M.; Dubas, E.; Kieft, H.; Lammeren, van A.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Excellent visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments was obtained in fixed tobacco BY-2 suspension cells after optimising a protocol for whole mount immunolabelling. The procedure is based on modification of fixation, cell wall digestion, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, post fixation,

  12. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for effective siRNA delivery to tobacco BY-2 protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verchot Jeanmarie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS is a mechanism harnessed by plant biologists to knock down gene expression. siRNAs contribute to PTGS that are synthesized from mRNAs or viral RNAs and function to guide cellular endoribonucleases to target mRNAs for degradation. Plant biologists have employed electroporation to deliver artificial siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study gene expression mechanisms at the single cell level. One drawback of electroporation is the extensive loss of viable protoplasts that occurs as a result of the transfection technology. Results We employed fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs to deliver siRNAs and knockdown a target gene in plant protoplasts. CPNs are non toxic to protoplasts, having little impact on viability over a 72 h period. Microscopy and flow cytometry reveal that CPNs can penetrate protoplasts within 2 h of delivery. Cellular uptake of CPNs/siRNA complexes were easily monitored using epifluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrate that CPNs can deliver siRNAs targeting specific genes in the cellulose biosynthesis pathway (NtCesA-1a and NtCesA-1b. Conclusions While prior work showed that NtCesA-1 is a factor involved in cell wall synthesis in whole plants, we demonstrate that the same gene plays an essential role in cell wall regeneration in isolated protoplasts. Cell wall biosynthesis is central to cell elongation, plant growth and development. The experiments presented here shows that NtCesA is also a factor in cell viability. We show that CPNs are valuable vehicles for delivering siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study vital cellular pathways at the single cell level.

  13. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  14. Effects of Tobacco Smoke (TS) on Growth of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-14-1-0347 TITLE: Effects of Tobacco Smoke ( TS ) on growth...0347 Effects of Tobacco Smoke ( TS ) on growth of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...males than in females1. Tobacco smoking ( TS ), obesity, hypertension, and age are established risk factors for ccRCC development1. Despite the well

  15. The relative effect of citral on mitotic microtubules in wheat roots and BY2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimovitsh, D; Rogovoy Stelmakh, O; Altshuler, O; Belausov, E; Abu-Abied, M; Rubin, B; Sadot, E; Dudai, N

    2012-03-01

    The plant volatile monoterpene citral is a highly active compound with suggested allelopathic traits. Seed germination and seedling development are inhibited in the presence of citral, and it disrupts microtubules in both plant and animal cells in interphase. We addressed the following additional questions: can citral interfere with cell division; what is the relative effect of citral on mitotic microtubules compared to interphase cortical microtubules; what is its effect on newly formed cell plates; and how does it affect the association of microtubules with γ-tubulin? In wheat seedlings, citral led to inhibition of root elongation, curvature of newly formed cell walls and deformation of microtubule arrays. Citral's effect on microtubules was both dose- and time-dependent, with mitotic microtubules appearing to be more sensitive to citral than cortical microtubules. Association of γ-tubulin with microtubules was more sensitive to citral than were the microtubules themselves. To reveal the role of disrupted mitotic microtubules in dictating aberrations in cell plates in the presence of citral, we used tobacco BY2 cells expressing GFP-Tua6. Citral disrupted mitotic microtubules, inhibited the cell cycle and increased the frequency of asymmetric cell plates in these cells. The time scale of citral's effect in BY2 cells suggested a direct influence on cell plates during their formation. Taken together, we suggest that at lower concentrations, citral interferes with cell division by disrupting mitotic microtubules and cell plates, and at higher concentrations it inhibits cell elongation by disrupting cortical microtubules. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Tobacco smoking-response genes in blood and buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Minju; Chang, Seong-Sil; Kim, Soo-Young; Park, Jong Y; Chung, Myeon Woo; Yang, Mihi

    2015-01-22

    Tobacco smoking is a well-known cause of various diseases, however, its toxic mechanisms for diseases are not completely understood, yet. Therefore, we performed biological monitoring to find tobacco smoking-responsive mechanisms including oxidative stress in Korean men (N=36). Whole genome microarray analyses were performed with peripheral blood from smokers and age-matched nonsmokers. We also performed qRT-PCR to confirm the microarray results and compared the gene expression of blood to those of buccal cells. To assess the effects of tobacco smoking on oxidative stress, we analyzed urinary levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation marker, and performed PCR-based arrays on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related genes. As results, 34 genes were differently expressed in blood between smokers and nonsmokers (ps1.5-fold change). Particularly, the genes involved in immune responsive pathways, e.g., the Fcγ-receptor mediated phagocytosis and the leukocyte transendothelial migration pathways, were differentially expressed between smokers and nonsmokers. Among the above genes, the ACTG1, involved in the maintenance of actin cytoskeleton, cell migration and cancer metastasis, was highly expressed by smoking in both blood and buccal cells. Concerning oxidative stress, smokers showed high levels of urinary MDA and down-regulation of expressions of antioxidant related genes including TPO, MPO, GPX2, PTGR1, and NUDT1 as compared to nonsmokers (pssmoking-responsive biomarker. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Independent pathways leading to apoptotic cell death, oxidative burst and defence gene expression in response to elicitin in tobacco cell suspension culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasabe, M.; Takeuchi, K.; Kamoun, S.; Ichinose, Y.; Govers, F.; Toyoda, K.; Shiraishi, T.; Yamada, T.

    2000-01-01

    We characterized pharmacologically the hypersensitive cell death of tobacco BY-2 cells that followed treatments with Escherichia coli preparations of INF1, the major secreted elicitin of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. INF1 elicitin treatments resulted in fragmentation and 180 bp

  18. Characterization of xylan in the early stages of secondary cell wall formation in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Matsuoka, Keita; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakano, Yoshimi; Ohtani, Misato; Demura, Taku; Iwai, Hiroaki; Satoh, Shinobu

    2017-11-15

    The major polysaccharides present in the primary and secondary walls surrounding plant cells have been well characterized. However, our knowledge of the early stages of secondary wall formation is limited. To address this, cell walls were isolated from differentiating xylem vessel elements of tobacco bright yellow-2 (BY-2) cells induced by VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7 (VND7). The walls of induced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells consisted of cellulose, pectic polysaccharides, hemicelluloses, and lignin, and contained more xylan and cellulose compared with non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced VND7-VP16-GR BY-2 cells. A reducing end sequence of xylan containing rhamnose and galaturonic acid- residues is present in the walls of induced, uninduced, and non-transformed BY-2 cells. Glucuronic acid residues in xylan from walls of induced cells are O-methylated, while those of xylan in non-transformed BY-2 and uninduced cells are not. Our results show that xylan changes in chemical structure and amounts during the early stages of xylem differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M Lynn; Yauk, Carole L

    2011-08-02

    Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response to STS is not linear and that, for both mainstream tobacco smoke and STS, doses that induced significant increases in expanded simple tandem repeat mutations in sperm did not increase the frequencies of micronucleated reticulocytes and erythrocytes in the bone marrow and blood of exposed mice. These data show that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can cause tandem repeat mutations in sperm under conditions that may not induce genetic damage in somatic cells. Although the relationship between noncoding tandem repeat instability and mutations in functional regions of the genome is unclear, our data suggest that paternal exposure to second-hand smoke may have reproductive consequences that go beyond the passive smoker.

  20. Differential cell-specific cytotoxic responses of oral cavity cells to tobacco preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, Gaddamanugu L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    To examine the effects of standardized (reference) tobacco preparations on human oral cavity cells, two oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (101A, 101B) and normal human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC) were treated with cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), smokeless tobacco extracted with complete artificial saliva (ST/CAS), or whole-smoke conditioned media (WS-CM). EC-50 values, as determined by sulforhodamine B assays, varied among the cell types and agents. When normalized to nicotine content, cytotoxicity for WS-CM and TPM was higher compared to that observed with ST/CAS. Nicotine alone had no or only minimal cytotoxicity for all cell types in the applied range. Activation of pro-apoptotic caspase-3 was examined in all cell types at their respective EC-50 doses for the three agents. TPM, but not ST/CAS or WS-CM significantly activated caspase-3 in all three cell types. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) for expression of the early apoptosis marker Annexin V and for nuclear staining by 7-aminoactinomycin (7-AAD) revealed different extents of apoptosis versus non-apoptotic cell death for the three agents. These data characterize differential responses of normal and malignant oral cells after exposure to TPM, ST/CAS, or WS-CM. They assist in understanding differential effects of combustible versus non-combustible tobacco products, and in identifying novel biomarkers for tobacco smoke exposure and effect in the oral cavity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear calcium controls the apoptotic-like cell death induced by d-erythro-sphinganine in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, Christophe; Da Silva, Daniel; Cotelle, Valérie; Thuleau, Patrice; Xiong, Tou Cheu; Jauneau, Alain; Brière, Christian; Graziana, Annick; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Ranjeva, Raoul; Mazars, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Studies performed in animals have highlighted the major role of sphingolipids in regulating the balance between cell proliferation and cell death. Sphingolipids have also been shown to induce cell death in plants via calcium-based signalling pathways but the contribution of free cytosolic and/or nuclear calcium in the overall process has never been evaluated. Here, we show that increase in tobacco BY-2 cells of the endogenous content of Long Chain Bases (LCBs) caused by external application of d-erythro-sphinganine (DHS) is followed by immediate dose-dependent elevations of cellular free calcium concentration within the first minute in the cytosol and 10min later in the nucleus. Cells challenged with DHS enter a death process through apoptotic-like mechanisms. Lanthanum chloride, a general blocker of calcium entry, suppresses the cellular calcium variations and the PCD induced by DHS. Interestingly, dl-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5) and [(+)-dizocilpine] (MK801), two inhibitors of animal and plant ionotropic glutamate receptors, suppress DHS-induced cell death symptoms by selectively inhibiting the variations of nuclear calcium concentration. The selective action of these compounds demonstrates the crucial role of nuclear calcium signature in controlling DHS-induced cell death in tobacco cells. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Melatonin Protects Cultured Tobacco Cells against Lead-Induced Cell Death via Inhibition of Cytochrome c Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kobylińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin was discovered in plants more than two decades ago and, especially in the last decade, it has captured the interests of plant biologists. Beyond its possible participation in photoperiod processes and its role as a direct free radical scavenger as well as an indirect antioxidant, melatonin is also involved in plant defense strategies/reactions. However, the mechanisms that this indoleamine activates to improve plant stress tolerance still require identification and clarification. In the present report, the ability of exogenous melatonin to protect Nicotiana tabacum L. line Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2 suspension cells against the toxic exposure to lead was examined. Studies related to cell proliferation and viability, DNA fragmentation, possible translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol, cell morphology after fluorescence staining and also the in situ accumulation of superoxide radicals measured via the nitro blue tetrazolium reducing test, were conducted. This work establishes a novel finding by correcting the inhibition of release of mitochondrial ctytocrome c in to the cytoplasm with the high accumulation of superoxide radicals. The results show that pretreatment with 200 nm of melatonin protected tobacco cells from DNA damage caused by lead. Melatonin, as an efficacious antioxidant, limited superoxide radical accumulation as well as cytochrome c release thereby, it likely prevents the activation of the cascade of processes leading to cell death. Fluorescence staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide documented that lead-stressed cells additionally treated with melatonin displayed intact nuclei. The results revealed that melatonin at proper dosage could significantly increase BY-2 cell proliferation and protected them against death. It was proved that melatonin could function as an effective priming agent to promote survival of tobacco cells under harmful lead-induced stress conditions.

  3. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  4. Protection of tobacco cells from oxidative copper toxicity by catalytically active metal-binding DNA oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Junichiro; Furukawa, Hiroka; Hiramatsu, Takuya; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano; Tanaka, Kenichiro; Okazaki, Toshihiko; Kawano, Tomonori

    2014-03-01

    The impact of copper ions on the oxidative and calcium signal transductions, leading to cell death in plant cells, have been documented. Copper induces a series of biological and chemical reactions in plant cells including the oxidative burst reflecting the production of reactive oxygen species and the stimulation of calcium channel opening allowing a transient increase in cytosolic calcium concentrations. These early events, completed within a few minutes after the contact with copper, are known to trigger the development of cell death. The effects of DNA fragments with copper-binding motifs as novel plant cell-protecting agents were assessed using cell suspension cultures of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L., cell line BY-2) expressing the aequorin gene. The addition of GC-rich double-stranded DNA fragments, prior to the addition of copper ions, effectively blocked both the copper-induced calcium influx and cell death. In addition, the DNA-Cu complex examined was shown to possess superoxide-scavenging catalytic activity, suggesting that DNA-mediated protection of the cells from copper toxicity is due to the removal of superoxide. Lastly, a possible mechanism of DNA-Cu interaction and future applications of these DNA fragments in the protection of plant roots from metal toxicity or in aid of phyto-remediation processes are discussed.

  5. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products Nagarajappa, Anutosh Ganguly And Usha Goswami* Gene Lab, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India, 403 004. Abstract. DNA damage (determined... on the occurrence of these endpoints of DNA damage in the reproductive cells of a marine invertebrate. In the work reported here, gonad cells of Perna viridis (Indian green mussel) were examined for DNA damage upon exposure to extracts of cigar tobacco. Cigar...

  6. Genetic transformation of tobacco NT1 cells with Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Kristin J; Gonzales, Barbara J; Mason, Hugh S

    2006-01-01

    This protocol is used to produce stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) NT1 cell lines, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA delivery of a binary vector containing a gene encoding hepatitis B surface antigen and a gene encoding the kanamycin selection marker. The NT1 cultures, at the appropriate stage of growth, are inoculated with A. tumefaciens containing the binary vector. A 3-day cocultivation period follows, after which the cultures are rinsed and placed on solid selective medium. Transformed colonies ('calli') appear in approximately 4 weeks; they are subcultured until adequate material is obtained for analysis of antigen production. 'Elite' lines are selected based on antigen expression and growth characteristics. The time required for the procedure from preparation of the plant cell materials to callus development is approximately 5 weeks. Growth of selected calli to sufficient quantities for antigen screening may require 4-6 weeks beyond the initial selection. Creation of the plasmid constructs, transformation of the A. tumefaciens line, and ELISA and Bradford assays to assess protein production require additional time.

  7. Initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA Fragmentation patterns depend on linear energy transfer in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Hase, Yoshihiro; Shikazono, Naoya; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    The ability of ion beams to kill or mutate plant cells is known to depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ions, although the mechanism of damage is poorly understood. In this study, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by a DNA fragment-size analysis in tobacco protoplasts irradiated with high-LET ions. Tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, as a model of single plant cells, were irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions having different LETs and with gamma rays. After irradiation, DNA fragments were separated into sizes between 1600 and 6.6 kbp by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Information on DNA fragmentation was obtained by staining the gels with SYBR Green I. Initial DSB yields were found to depend on LET, and the highest relative biological effectiveness (about 1.6) was obtained at 124 and 241 keV/microm carbon ions. High-LET carbon and neon ions induced short DNA fragments more efficiently than gamma rays. These results partially explain the large biological effects caused by high-LET ions in plants.

  8. Sidestream tobacco smoke is a male germ cell mutagen

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Francesco; Rowan-Carroll, Andrea; Williams, Andrew; Polyzos, Aris; Berndt-Weis, M. Lynn; Yauk, Carole L.

    2011-01-01

    Active cigarette smoking increases oxidative damage, DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks, chromosomal aberrations, and heritable mutations in sperm. However, little is known regarding the effects of second-hand smoke on the male germ line. We show here that short-term exposure to mainstream tobacco smoke or sidestream tobacco smoke (STS), the main component of second-hand smoke, induces mutations at an expanded simple tandem repeat locus (Ms6-hm) in mouse sperm. We further show that the response t...

  9. Tobacco smoking alters the number of oral epithelial cells with apoptotic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michcik, Adam; Cichorek, Miroslawa; Daca, Agnieszka; Chomik, Piotr; Wojcik, Slawomir; Zawrocki, Anton; Wlodarkiewicz, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a global problem associated with the occurrence of many systemic diseases and tumors. Oral cavity tumors are common tobacco-related cancers, and of all the anatomical structures that are exposed to the effects of smoking, the oral cavity remains the least-explored area. Changes that occur in the biology of oral epithelial keratinocytes under the influence of the components of tobacco smoke often go unnoticed, if they are asymptomatic. The proper functioning of the oral epithelium is determined by the proliferation and differentiation of the cells in keratinization - the process of programmed cell death, which extends through to the mechanisms of apoptosis. Due to incomplete knowledge of the impact of tobacco smoke on the biology of keratinocytes, an evaluation of the cell cycle was conducted and the apoptosis of oral epithelial keratinocytes was analyzed. The study involved 77 patients divided into four groups according to their intensity of smoking, ranging from 0 to 27 pack-years. There were no differences in the cell count between nonsmokers and smokers in the proper cell-cycle phases. The percentage of proliferating cells in the oral epithelium is about 11%. A reduction in the number of early-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/propidium iodide negative) and an increase in the number of late-apoptotic cells (caspase positive/annexin V positive/propidium iodide positive) were observed to occur with increasing pack-years. The present study demonstrates that smoking does not affect the oral keratinocyte cell cycle, but does modify the number of cells with early and late apoptotic features. An intensification of the impact of tobacco smoke components on the biology of the oral keratinocytes is clearly noticeable at approximately 6 pack-years. This indicates that the biology of the first organ exposed to tobacco smoke - the oral epithelium - is altered by tobacco smoking.

  10. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  11. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  12. Transient expression of P-type ATPases in tobacco epidermal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedas, Lisbeth Rosager; Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression in tobacco cells is a convenient method for several purposes such as analysis of protein-protein interactions and the subcellular localization of plant proteins. A suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells carrying the plasmid of interest is injected into the intracellula...

  13. Conjugation of the mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in tobacco suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Andreas A; Kohn, Beate N; Pfeiffer, Erika; Wefers, Daniel; Metzler, Manfred; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-05-20

    The mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether (AME) carry three and two phenolic hydroxyl groups, respectively, which makes them candidates for the formation of conjugated metabolites in plants. Such conjugates may escape routine methods of analysis and have therefore been termed masked or, more recently, modified mycotoxins. We report now that AOH and AME are extensively conjugated in suspension cultures of tobacco BY-2 cells. Five conjugates of AOH were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy as β-D-glucopyranosides (attached in AOH 3- or 9-position) as well as their 6'-malonyl derivatives, and as a gentiobiose conjugate. For AME, conjugation resulted in the d-glucopyranoside (mostly attached in the AME 3-position) and its 6'- and 4'-malonyl derivatives. Pronounced differences were noted for the quantitative pattern of AOH and AME conjugates as well as for their phytotoxicity. Our in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that masked mycotoxins of AOH and AME can be formed in plant cells.

  14. Effect of Alcohol and Tobacco Smoke on Long-Term Memory and Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Rosane; Schneider, Ricardo; Quinteros, Dayane; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Bandiera, Solange; Thiesen, Flavia Valadão; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Fernandes, Marilda da Cruz; Wieczorek, Marina Godinho

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol is frequently used in combination with tobacco and few studies explore interactions between these two drugs of abuse. Here, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol administration and concomitant exposure to tobacco smoke on long-term memory and on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of rats. Forty male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups and treated with alcohol (2g/kg by gavage) and/or exposed to tobacco smoke (from six cigarettes, by inhalation) twice a day (at 9:00 AM and 2:00 PM) for 30 days. Long-term memory was evaluated in the inhibitory avoidance test and hippocampal cell proliferation was analyzed for bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that alcohol, tobacco smoke, or their combination improved the long-term memory evaluated by the memory index in rats. Moreover, alcohol and tobacco coadministration decreased bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells by 60% when compared to the control group, while alcohol treatment decreased labeled cells by 40%. The tobacco group showed a nonsignificant 26% decrease in labeled cells compared to the control group. Chronic alcohol and tobacco coadministration improves the long-term memory in rats in the inhibitory avoidance test. However, coadministration decreases the cell proliferation in the hippocampus of rats, suggesting a deleterious effect by the combined use of these drugs of abuse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Combusted but not smokeless tobacco products cause DNA damage in oral cavity cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong; Prasad, G L; Zacharias, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate genomic DNA damage in human oral cavity cells after exposure to different tobacco product preparations (TPPs). The oral carcinoma cell line 101A, gingival epithelial cells HGEC, and gingival fibroblasts HGF were exposed to TPM (total particulate matter from 3R4F cigarettes), ST/CAS (2S3 smokeless tobacco extract in complete artificial saliva), and NIC (nicotine). Treatments were for 24 h using TPM at its EC-50 doses, ST/CAS and NIC at doses with equi-nicotine units, and high doses for ST/CAS and NIC. Comet assays showed that TPM, but not ST/CAS or NIC, caused substantial DNA breaks in cells; only the high ST/CAS dose caused weak DNA damage. These results were confirmed by immunofluorescence for γ-H2AX protein. These data revealed that the combusted TPP caused substantial DNA damage in all cell types, whereas the two non-combusted TPPs exerted no or only minimal DNA damage. They support epidemiologic evidence on the relative risk associated with consumption of non-combusted versus combusted tobacco products, and help to understand potential genotoxic effects of such products on oral cavity cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition of cell proliferation, cell expansion and differentiation by the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereterbide, A; Hernould, M; Castera, S; Mouras, A

    2001-11-01

    Plant development depends upon the control of growth, organization and differentiation of cells derived from shoot and root meristems. Among the genes involved in flower organ determination, the cadastral gene SUPERMAN controls the boundary between whorls 3 and 4 and the growth of the adaxial outer ovule integument by down-regulating cell divisions. To determine the precise function of this gene we overexpressed ectopically the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. SUPERMAN gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype. Histologically and cytologically detailed analyses showed that dwarfism is correlated with a reduction in cell number, which is in agreement with the SUPERMAN function in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, a reduction in cell expansion and an impairment of cell differentiation were observed in tobacco organs. These traits were observed in differentiated vegetative and floral organs but not in meristem structures. A potential effect of the SUPERMAN transcription factor in the control of gibberellin biosynthesis is discussed.

  17. Impact of tobacco smoke on upper airway dendritic cell accumulation and regulation by sinonasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jennifer K; O'Connell, Brendan P; Pasquini, Whitney; Mulligan, Ryan M; Smith, Sarah; Soler, Zachary M; Atkinson, Carl; Schlosser, Rodney J

    2017-08-01

    In these studies we examined the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and active smoking on sinonasal dendritic cell (DC) subsets in controls or patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In subsequent in-vitro investigations, we examined the influence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on human sinonasal epithelial cells' (HSNECs) ability to regulate DC functions. Sinonasal tissue, blood, and hair were collected from patients undergoing sinus surgery. Smoking status and ETS exposure were determined by hair nicotine. DC subsets were examined by flow cytometric analysis. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) were treated with conditioned medium from non-smoked-exposed HSNECs (NS-HSNECs) or cigarette-smoke-extract-exposed HSNECs (CSE-HSNECs) to assess the impact of CSE exposure on HSNEC regulation of moDC functions. Control subjects who were active smokers displayed increased sinonasal moDC and myeloid dendritic 1 (mDC1) cells and reduced mDC2 cells, whereas, in CRSwNP patients, only moDC and mDC2 cells were altered. ETS was found to increase only moDCs in the CRSwNP patients. In vitro, CSE stimulated HSNEC secretion of the moDC regulatory products chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20, prostaglandin E2 , and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. CSE exposure also promoted HSNECs to stimulate monocyte and moDC migration. moDCs treated with CSE-HSNEC media stimulated an increase in antigen uptake and expression of CD80 and CD86. Last, CSE-HSNEC-treated moDCs secreted increased levels of interleukin-10, interferon-γ, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Active smoking, and to a lesser degree ETS, alters the sinonasal composition of DCs. A potential mechanism to account for this is that cigarette smoke stimulates HSNECs to induce moDC migration, maturation, and activation. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  18. Xylanse-Induced cell death events in detached tobacco leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yordanova, Z.P.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Woltering, E.J.; Batchvarova, R.B.; Yakimova, E.T.

    2009-01-01

    Plant-pathogen interactions are associated with plant defense mechanism known as hypersensitive response (HR), which is a form of programmed cell death (PCD). In the present work we have tested the potency of chemicals, proven as PCD inhibitors in other systems, to prevent the spread of cell death

  19. Hemicellulose biosynthesis and degradation in tobacco cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural fibres have a wide range of technological applications, such as in paper and textile industries. The basic properties and the quality of plant fibres are determined by the composition of the plant cell wall. Characteristic for fibres are thick secondary cell walls, which consist of cellulose

  20. Tobacco and e-cigarette products initiate Kupffer cell inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, David A; Hom, Sarah; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Kupffer cells are liver resident macrophages that are responsible for screening and clearing blood of pathogens and foreign particles. It has recently been shown that Kupffer cells interact with platelets, through an adhesion based mechanism, to aid in pathogen clearance and then these platelets re-enter the general systemic circulation. Thus, a mechanism has been identified that relates liver inflammation to possible changes in the systemic circulation. However, the role that Kupffer cells play in cardiovascular disease initiation/progression has not been elucidated. Thus, our objective was to determine whether or not Kupffer cells are responsive to a classical cardiovascular risk factor and if these changes can be transmitted into the general systemic circulation. If Kupffer cells initiate inflammatory responses after exposure to classical cardiovascular risk factors, then this provides a potential alternative/synergistic pathway for cardiovascular disease initiation. We aimed to elucidate the prevalence of this potential pathway. We hypothesized that Kupffer cells would initiate a robust inflammatory response after exposure to tobacco cigarette or e-cigarette products and that the inflammatory response would have the potential to antagonize other salient cells for cardiovascular disease progression. To test this, Kupffer cells were incubated with tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts or pure nicotine. Complement deposition onto Kupffer cells, Kupffer cell complement receptor expression, oxidative stress production, cytokine release and viability and density were assessed after the exposure. We observed a robust inflammatory response, oxidative stress production and cytokine release after Kupffer cells were exposed to tobacco or e-cigarette extracts. We also observed a marginal decrease in cell viability coupled with a significant decrease in cell density. In general, this was not a function of the extract formulation (e.g. tobacco vs. e

  1. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  2. A role for fibroblasts in mediating the effects of tobacco-induced epithelial cell growth and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppe, Jean-Philippe; Boysen, Megan; Sun, Chung Ho; Wong, Brian J F; Kang, Mo K; Park, No-Hee; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith; Krtolica, Ana

    2008-07-01

    Cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco extracts contain multiple carcinogenic compounds, but little is known about the mechanisms by which tumors develop and progress upon chronic exposure to carcinogens such as those present in tobacco products. Here, we examine the effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on human oral fibroblasts. We show that smokeless tobacco extracts elevated the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen, oxidative DNA damage, and DNA double-strand breaks in a dose-dependent manner. Extended exposure to extracts induced fibroblasts to undergo a senescence-like growth arrest, with striking accompanying changes in the secretory phenotype. Using cocultures of smokeless tobacco extracts-exposed fibroblasts and immortalized but nontumorigenic keratinocytes, we further show that factors secreted by extracts-modified fibroblasts increase the proliferation and invasiveness of partially transformed epithelial cells, but not their normal counterparts. In addition, smokeless tobacco extracts-exposed fibroblasts caused partially transformed keratinocytes to lose the expression of E-cadherin and ZO-1, as well as involucrin, changes that are indicative of compromised epithelial function and commonly associated with malignant progression. Together, our results suggest that fibroblasts may contribute to tumorigenesis indirectly by increasing epithelial cell aggressiveness. Thus, tobacco may not only initiate mutagenic changes in epithelial cells but also promote the growth and invasion of mutant cells by creating a procarcinogenic stromal environment.

  3. Power loss analysis of n-PASHA cells validated by 2D simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Gutjahr, A.; Burgers, A.R.; Saynova, D.S.; Cesar, I.; Romijn, I.G.

    2013-10-15

    To reach >21% efficiency for the n-Pasha (passivated all sides H-pattern) cell of ECN, reliable power-loss analyses are essential. A power-loss analysis is presented that is based on experimental data but validated and completed by 2D simulations. The analysis is used to identify the key factors that will contribute most to achieving >21% efficiency.

  4. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Shamim Khan; Balasundari Shreedhar; Mala Kamboj

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each...

  5. Dramatic secretion of recombinant protein expressed in tobacco cells with a designer glycopeptide tag is highly impacted by medium composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Dolan, Maureen; Wu, Di; Phillips, Gregory C; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    Cell growth medium composition has profound impacts on the O -glycosylation of a "designer" arabinogalactan protein-based module; full glycosylation is essential in directing efficient extracellular secretion of the tagged recombinant protein. Expression of recombinant proteins in plant cells as fusion with a de novo designed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptide (HypGP) tag, termed HypGP engineering technology, resulted in dramatically increased secreted protein yields. This is due to the function of the HypGP tag as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of conjoined proteins into culture media. To optimize the cell culture to achieve the best secreted protein yields, the medium effects on the cell growth and protein secretion were investigated using as a model system the tobacco BY-2 cell expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fused with a (SP)32 tag (32 tandem repeats of "Ser-Pro" motif). The (SP)32 tag was found to undergo two-stage Hyp-O-glycosylation in plant cells with the dramatic secretion of the conjoined EGFP correlating with the triggering of the second-stage glycosylation. The BY-2 cell culture in SH medium generated a high secreted protein yield (125 mg/L) with a low cell biomass accumulation (~7.5 gDW/L). In contrast, very low secreted protein yields (~1.5 mg/L) with a high cell biomass accumulation (13.5 gDW/L) were obtained in MS medium. The macronutrients, specifically, the nitrogen supply greatly impacted the glycosylation of the (SP)32 tag and subsequent protein secretion. Modified MS medium with reduced nitrogen levels boosted the secreted EGFP yields to 168 mg/L. This study demonstrates the profound impacts of medium composition on the secreted yields of a HypGP-tagged protein, and provides a basis for medium design to achieve the highest productivity of the HypGP engineering technology.

  6. Differential responses to high- and low-dose ultraviolet-B stress in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya eTakahashi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV-B irradiation leads to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, and cell death. To evaluate the UV-B stress–induced changes in plant cells, we developed a model system based on tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2 cells. Both low-dose UV-B (low UV-B: 740 J m−2 and high-dose UV-B (high UV-B: 2960 J m−2 inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death; these effects were more pronounced at high UV-B. Flow cytometry showed cell cycle arrest within 1 day after UV-B irradiation; neither low- nor high-UV-B–irradiated cells entered mitosis within 12 h. Cell cycle progression was gradually restored in low-UV-B–irradiated cells but not in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. UV-A irradiation, which activates cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD photolyase, reduced inhibition of cell proliferation by low but not high UV-B and suppressed high-UV-B–induced cell death. UV-B induced CPD formation in a dose-dependent manner. The amounts of CPDs decreased gradually within 3 days in low-UV-B–irradiated cells, but remained elevated after 3 days in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Low UV-B slightly increased the number of DNA single-strand breaks detected by the comet assay at 1 day after irradiation, and then decreased at 2 and 3 days after irradiation. High UV-B increased DNA fragmentation detected by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay 1 and 3 days after irradiation. Caffeine, an inhibitor of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR checkpoint kinases, reduced the rate of cell death in high-UV-B–irradiated cells. Our data suggest that low-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks inhibit DNA replication and proliferation of BY-2 cells, whereas larger contents of high-UV-B–induced CPDs and/or DNA strand-breaks lead to cell death.

  7. Evaluation of cytomorphometric changes in tobacco users and diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti; Namala, Srilekha

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers) in the age group of 25-75 years. Oral mucosal smears obtained by using a cytobrush were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and using 20X objective in trinocular Olympus model BX53 with Jenoptik scientific grade-dedicated microphotographic camera images were taken. With ProgRes version 8.0 image analysis software, 20 cells with defined borders were evaluated from each slide. Finally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Minitab and Excel software were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. The mean value of the cell area for groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 2838 ± 275.2, 2762.1 ± 511.4, 2861.9 ± 512.9, 2643.8 ± 333.3, and 3064.3 ± 362.7, respectively, the nuclear area (NA) was 83.88 ± 9.86, 106.19 ± 13.45, 95.11 ± 14.24, 85.55 ± 21.11, and 80.83 ± 13.45, respectively, and nuclear-to-cellular (N:C) ratio was 0.0297, 0.03924, 0.0337, 0.03257, and 0.02678, respectively. Thus, our study elucidates that cytomorphology gauges the effect of tobacco on the oral mucosa and possibly establishes a link between premalignant and malignant transformations even before a lesion is visibly noted.

  8. Interleukin-16-producing NK cells and T-cells in the blood of tobacco smokers with and without COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anders Andersson,1,* Carina Malmhäll,2,* Birgitta Houltz,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Margareta Sjöstrand,2 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Anders Lindén,3 Apostolos Bossios2 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Krefting Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Unit for Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke causes local inflammation in the airways that involves not only innate immune cells, including NK cells, but also adaptive immune cells such as cytotoxic (CD8+ and helper (CD4+ T-cells. We have previously demonstrated that long-term tobacco smoking increases extracellular concentration of the CD4+-recruiting cytokine interleukin (IL-16 locally in the airways. Here, we hypothesized that tobacco smoking alters IL-16 biology at the systemic level and that this effect involves oxygen free radicals (OFR.Methods: We quantified extracellular IL-16 protein (ELISA and intracellular IL-16 in NK cells, T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes (flow cytometry in blood samples from long-term tobacco smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in never-smokers. NK cells from healthy blood donors were stimulated with water-soluble tobacco smoke components (cigarette smoke extract with or without an OFR scavenger (glutathione in vitro and followed by quantification of IL-16 protein.Results: The extracellular concentrations of IL-16 protein in blood did not display any substantial differences between groups. Notably, intracellular IL-16 protein was detected in all types of blood leukocytes. All long-term smokers displayed

  9. Arabidopsis and Tobacco superman regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana superman (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation.

  10. Estrogen receptor activation by tobacco smoke condensate in hormonal therapy-resistant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshifumi; Shinagawa, Yuri; Asari, Yosuke; Suzuki, Kanae; Takanobu, Junko; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoke and breast cancer incidence has been studied for many years, but the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy has not been previously reported. We investigated the effect of smoking on hormonal therapy by performing in vitro experiments. We first prepared tobacco smoke condensate (TSC) and examined its effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activity. The ER activity was analyzed using MCF-7-E10 cells into which the estrogen-responsive element (ERE)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene had been stably introduced (GFP assay) and performing an ERE-luciferase assay. TSC significantly activated ERs, and upregulated its endogenous target genes. This activation was inhibited by fulvestrant but more weakly by tamoxifen. These results suggest that the activation mechanism may be different from that for estrogen. Furthermore, using E10 estrogen depletion-resistant cells (EDR cells) established as a hormonal therapy-resistant model showing estrogen-independent ER activity, ER activation and induction of ER target genes were significantly higher following TSC treatment than by estradiol (E2). These responses were much higher than those of the parental E10 cells. In addition, the phosphorylation status of signaling factors (ERK1/2, Akt) and ER in the E10-EDR cells treated with TSC increased. The gene expression profile induced by estrogenic effects of TSC was characterized by microarray analysis. The findings suggested that TSC activates ER by both ligand-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Although TSC constituents will be metabolized in vivo, breast cancer tissues might be exposed for a long period along with hormonal therapy. Tobacco smoke may have a possibility to interfere with hormonal therapy for breast cancer, which may have important implications for the management of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of cytogenic damage in the form of micronuclei in oral epithelial cells in patients using smokeless and smoked form of tobacco and non-tobacco users and its relevance for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motgi, Anagha A; Chavan, Mahesh S; Diwan, Nikhil N; Chowdhery, Asha; Channe, Pallavi P; Shete, Mrinal V

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of cytological damages may help in reduction of morbidity and mortality in patients with oral cancer. (1) The primary aim of this study is to assess the cytogenic damage in the form of micronuclei (MN) in patients with smokeless and smoked tobacco using habit. (2) The secondary aim of this study is to compare the MN score in patients using tobacco and patients with no tobacco habit. (3) To find out incidence of MN according to duration and frequency of tobacco usage. This is a clinical study. A total of 100 patients each with the habit of smokeless tobacco (SLT) chewing, smoked tobacco usage and with no habit were included in the study. Epithelial cell smears were prepared and slides were stained with Papanicolaou stain. Scoring of at least 1000 cells was done and a MN frequency score was assigned for exfoliated oral mucosal cells. Analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used. The difference between the total number of cells with MN was not appreciable between the smokeless and smoked tobacco groups, though the total number of MN was higher in subjects using SLT. Total number of cells with MN and the total number of MN were significantly lower in non-tobacco users when compared with tobacco users. There was very weak positive correlation between the total number of MN as per the duration and frequency of the tobacco habit. The use of smokeless and smoked tobacco are associated with cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. SLT seems to cause more damaging effects than the smoked form.

  12. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. Aim: To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Materials and Methods: Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions. PMID:26811574

  13. Responses of Cultured Tobacco Cells to Cryptogein, a Proteinaceous Elicitor from Phytophthora cryptogea1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Jean-Pierre; Milat, Marie-Louise; Ricci, Pierre

    1991-01-01

    In culture, the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthora cryptogea secretes a protein which elicits hypersensitive-like necroses and protects tobacco plants against invasion by the pathogen Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae. This protein, named cryptogein, has been purified and its amino acid sequence determined. In this work, we studied the effect of cryptogein on tobacco cell suspension cultures. Cryptogein was lethal at about 0.10 micromolar. When added at sublethal doses, it elicited the production of ethylene and phytoalexins. It also induced a rapid increase in pH and conductivity of the extracellular medium without affecting the integrity of the plasma membrane. Cryptogein reduced the fusicoccin-induced acidification of the extracellular medium. The concentration which inhibited the fusicoccin response by 50% was 0.8 nanomolar, while 1 micromolar erythrosine B, an ATPase inhibitor, was needed to produce the same inhibition. However, cryptogein did not inhibit the activity of a purified plasma membrane ATPase. Results of binding studies with whole cells suggested the presence of elicitor-binding sites with a high affinity for cryptogein. The involvement of the plasma membrane during the initial interaction between elicitor and cells is discussed. PMID:16668010

  14. Increased of Langerhans Cells in Smokeless Tobacco-Associated Oral Mucosal Lesions

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    and Eacute;rica Dorigatti de and Aacute;vila

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the changes in the number of Langerhans Cells (LC observed in the epithelium of smokeless tobacco (SLT-induced lesions. Methods: Microscopic sections from biopsies carried out in the buccal mucosa of twenty patients, who were chronic users of smokeless tobacco (SLT, were utilized. For the control group, twenty non-SLT users of SLT with normal mucosa were selected. The sections were studied with routine coloring and were immunostained for S-100, CD1a, Ki-67 and p63. These data were statistically analyzed by the Student's t-test to investigate the differences in the expression of immune markers in normal mucosa and in SLT-induced leukoplakia lesions. Results: There was a significant difference in the immunolabeling of all markers between normal mucosa and SLT-induced lesions (p<0.001. The leukoplakia lesions in chronic SLT users demonstrated a significant increase in the number of Langerhans cells and in the absence of epithelial dysplasia. Conclusion: The increase in the number of these cells represents the initial stage of leukoplakia. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(2.000: 85-93

  15. Crown gall transformation of tobacco callus cells by cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, A.; Manzara, T.; Lurquin, P.F.

    1984-09-17

    Incubation of cells from squashed tobacco callus tissue with virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens leads to the production of cells displaying a crown gall phenotype. In vitro crown gall transformation of dicotyledonous plant cells has been demonstrated after cocultivation of cell-wall regenerating mesophyll protoplasts with Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells. In addition, it has been shown that protoplasts freshly isolated from suspension cultures, when treated with A. tumefaciens spheroplasts and a fusogen, also generated cells displaying a typical crown gall phenotype, i.e., phytohormone-independent growth and opine synthesis. Subsequently, both techniques were used to transfer and express foreign genes in plant cells via A. tumefaciens T-DNA integration. For practical purposes, it would be advantageous to be able to perform crown gall transformation of plant cells in tissue culture. The authors report here for the first time the production of Nicotiana tabacum crown gall cells after cocultivation of callus tissue with A. tumefaciens A136 cells. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  16. Exposure to ethanol and tobacco smoke in relation to level of PCNA antigen expression in pancreatic and hepatic rat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Ewa; Dylik, Anna; Kulza, Maksymilian; Florek, Ewa; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Previous results proved that simultaneous effect of tobacco smoke constituents and alcohol consumption may change toxicity of these substances and have a greater effect on hepatic and pancreatic disease and cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatocyte and pancreatic cells regeneration after tobacco and/or ethanol treatment. In the study, four groups of rats were used - alcohol non-addicted and addicted male and female rats. The animals from each group were exposed to tobacco smoke, to ethanol or tobacco smoke and ethanol. After the exposure, pancreas and liver were collected at two time-points--5 and 24 h. Biochemical methods were used to measure concentration of ethanol and cotinine in blood and plasma. Additionally, proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index (PCNA-LI), an S-phase marker was assessed by immunohistochemical staining and morphometric method. Our experimental results showed that the exposure of rats to tobacco smoke does not have influence on ethanol concentration in blood of non-addicted (male, female) and addicted (male and female) animals. The results also proved that alcohol addiction did not influence nicotine metabolism in all animals exposed to tobacco smoke. Morphological studies of tissues display significant damage in liver of addicted males, including fatty degradation, fibrosis and slight inflammatory infiltrate. Immunohistochemical studies revealed at first, significant increase of PCNA-LI and, thus, increased cell proliferation activity and damage in tissues were observed in hepatic and pancreatic cells of addicted males when compared with non-addicted males. Secondly, comparison between addicted males and addicted females revealed that PCNA-LI in females is significantly lower, both in hepatic and pancreatic tissues. And finally, animals exposed only to ethanol and to tobacco smoke plus ethanol were characterized by higher percentage of PCNA positive cells in relation to animals exposed only to tobacco smoke

  17. Gene inactivation by CRISPR-Cas9 in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells

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    Sébastien eMercx

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant suspension cells are interesting hosts for the heterologous production of pharmacological proteins such as antibodies. They have the advantage to facilitate the containment and the application of good manufacturing practices (GMPs. Furthermore, antibodies can be secreted to the extracellular medium, which makes the purification steps much simpler. However, improvements are still to be made regarding the quality and the production yield. For instance, the inactivation of proteases and the humanization of glycosylation are both important targets which require either gene silencing or gene inactivation. To this purpose, CRISPR-Cas9 is a very promising technique which has been used recently in a series of plant species, but not yet in plant suspension cells. Here, we sought to use the CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene inactivation in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells. We transformed a transgenic line expressing a red fluorescent protein (mCherry with a binary vector containing genes coding for Cas9 and three guide RNAs targeting mCherry restriction sites, as well as a bialaphos-resistant (bar gene for selection. To demonstrate gene inactivation in the transgenic lines, the mCherry gene was PCR-amplified and analyzed by electrophoresis. Seven out of 20 transformants displayed a shortened fragment, indicating that a deletion occurred between two target sites. We also analyzed the transformants by restriction fragment length polymorphism and observed that the three targeted restriction sites were hit. DNA sequencing of the PCR fragments confirmed either deletion between two target sites or single nucleotide deletion. We therefore conclude that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used in N. tabacum BY2 cells.

  18. Evaluation of cytomorphometric changes in tobacco users and diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma individuals

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    Urmila Udayashankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers in the age group of 25-75 years. Oral mucosal smears obtained by using a cytobrush were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain and using 20X objective in trinocular Olympus model BX53 with Jenoptik scientific grade-dedicated microphotographic camera images were taken. With ProgRes version 8.0 image analysis software, 20 cells with defined borders were evaluated from each slide. Finally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Minitab and Excel software were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Results: The mean value of the cell area for groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 2838 ± 275.2, 2762.1 ± 511.4, 2861.9 ± 512.9, 2643.8 ± 333.3, and 3064.3 ± 362.7, respectively, the nuclear area (NA was 83.88 ± 9.86, 106.19 ± 13.45, 95.11 ± 14.24, 85.55 ± 21.11, and 80.83 ± 13.45, respectively, and nuclear-to-cellular (N:C ratio was 0.0297, 0.03924, 0.0337, 0.03257, and 0.02678, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, our study elucidates that cytomorphology gauges the effect of tobacco on the oral mucosa and possibly establishes a link between premalignant and malignant transformations even before a lesion is visibly noted.

  19. Biotechnological production of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator protein (reteplase) from transplastomic tobacco cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Diego; Abdoli-Nasab, Maryam; Jalali-Javaran, Mokhtar; Bru-Martínez, Roque; Cusidó, Rosa M; Corchete, Purificación; Palazon, Javier

    2017-09-01

    Transplastomic plants are a system of choice for the mass production of biopharmaceuticals due to the polyploidy of the plastid genome and the low risk of pollen-mediated outcrossing because of maternal inheritance. However, as field-grown plants, they can suffer contamination by agrochemicals and fertilizers, as well as fluctuations in yield due to climatic changes and infections. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a protein used to treat heart attacks, converts plasminogen into plasmine, which digests fibrin and induces the dissolution of fibrin clots. Recently, we obtained transplastomic tobacco plants carrying the K2S gene encoding truncated human tPA (reteplase) with improved biological activity, and confirmed the presence of the target protein in the transgenic plant leaves. Considering the advantages of plant cell cultures for biopharmaceutical production, we established a cell line derived from the K2S tobacco plants. The active form of reteplase was quantified in cultures grown in light or darkness, with production 3-fold higher in light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression, intracellular targeting and purification of HIV Nef variants in tobacco cells

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    Baschieri Selene

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants may represent excellent alternatives to classical heterologous protein expression systems, especially for the production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccine components. Modern vaccines are becoming increasingly complex, with the incorporation of multiple antigens. Approaches towards developing an HIV vaccine appear to confirm this, with a combination of candidate antigens. Among these, HIV-Nef is considered a promising target for vaccine development because immune responses directed against this viral protein could help to control the initial steps of viral infection and to reduce viral loads and spreading. Two isoforms of Nef protein can be found in cells: a full-length N-terminal myristoylated form (p27, 27 kDa and a truncated form (p25, 25 kDa. Here we report the expression and purification of HIV Nef from transgenic tobacco. Results We designed constructs to direct the expression of p25 and p27 Nef to either the cytosol or the secretory pathway. We tested these constructs by transient expression in tobacco protoplasts. Cytosolic Nef polypeptides are correctly synthesised and are stable. The same is not true for Nef polypeptides targeted to the secretory pathway by virtue of a signal peptide. We therefore generated transgenic plants expressing cytosolic, full length or truncated Nef. Expression levels were variable, but in some lines they averaged 0.7% of total soluble proteins. Hexahistidine-tagged Nef was easily purified from transgenic tissue in a one-step procedure. Conclusion We have shown that transient expression can help to rapidly determine the best cellular compartment for accumulation of a recombinant protein. We have successfully expressed HIV Nef polypeptides in the cytosol of transgenic tobacco plants. The proteins can easily be purified from transgenic tissue.

  1. Optimization of BY-2 cell suspension culture medium for the production of a human antibody using a combination of fractional factorial designs and the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Grömping, Ulrike; Lipperts, Anja; Raven, Nicole; Fischer, Rainer; Schillberg, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    We have developed a strategy for the optimization of plant cell suspension culture media using a combination of fractional factorial designs (FFDs) and response surface methodology (RSM). This sequential approach was applied to transformed tobacco BY-2 cells secreting a human antibody (M12) into the culture medium, in an effort to maximize yields. We found that the nutrients KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂ and the hormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) had the most significant impact on antibody accumulation. The factorial screening revealed strong interactions within the nutrients group (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and CaCl₂) and also individually between 2,4-D and three other components (KNO₃, NH₄NO₃ and BAP). The RSM design resulted in a fivefold increase in the antibody concentration after 5 days and a twofold reduction in the packed cell volume (PCV). Longer cultivation in the optimized medium led to the further accumulation of antibody M12 in the culture medium (up to 107 μg/mL, day 10). Because the packed cell volume was reduced in the optimized medium, this enhanced the overall yield by 20-fold (day 7) and 31-fold (day 10) compared to the conventional MS medium. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cardiac development in zebrafish and human embryonic stem cells is inhibited by exposure to tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

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    Nathan J Palpant

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking is a risk factor for low birth weight and other adverse developmental outcomes.We sought to determine the impact of standard tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo.Zebrafish (Danio rerio were used to assess developmental effects in vivo and cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs was used as a model for in vitro cardiac development.In zebrafish, exposure to both types of cigarettes results in broad, dose-dependent developmental defects coupled with severe heart malformation, pericardial edema and reduced heart function. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than e-cigarettes at comparable nicotine concentrations. During cardiac differentiation of hESCs, tobacco smoke exposure results in a delayed transition through mesoderm. Both types of cigarettes decrease expression of cardiac transcription factors in cardiac progenitor cells, suggesting a persistent delay in differentiation. In definitive human cardiomyocytes, both e-cigarette- and tobacco cigarette-treated samples showed reduced expression of sarcomeric genes such as MLC2v and MYL6. Furthermore, tobacco cigarette-treated samples had delayed onset of beating and showed low levels and aberrant localization of N-cadherin, reduced myofilament content with significantly reduced sarcomere length, and increased expression of the immature cardiac marker smooth muscle alpha-actin.These data indicate a negative effect of both tobacco cigarettes and e-cigarettes on heart development in vitro and in vivo. Tobacco cigarettes are more toxic than E-cigarettes and exhibit a broader spectrum of cardiac developmental defects.

  3. Analysis of Guard Cell Viability and Action in Senescing Leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), Tree Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, R; Yera, R; Ortega, K; Tallman, G

    1985-09-01

    In an attempt to determine whether low epidermal conductances to water vapor diffusion of senescing leaves were caused by internal changes in guard cells or by factors external to guard cells, stomatal behavior was examined in intact senescing and nonsenescing leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, grown in the field or in an environmental chamber. Conductances of senescing leaves were 5 to 10% of the maximum conductances of nonsenescing leaves of the same plant, yet guard cell duplexes isolated from epidermal peels of senescing leaves developed full turgor in the light in solutions containing KCl, and sodium cobaltinitrite staining showed that K(+) accumulated as turgor developed. Ninety-five per cent of the guard cells isolated from senescing leaves concentrated neutral red and excluded trypan blue. Intercellular leaf CO(2) concentrations of senescing and nonsenescing leaves of chamber-grown plants were not significantly different (about 240 microliters per liter), but the potassium contents of adaxial and abaxial epidermes of senescing leaves taken from plants grown in the field were less than half those of nonsenescing leaves. We conclude that guard cells do not undergo the orderly senescence process that characteristically takes place in mesophyll tissue during whole-leaf senescence and that the reduced conductances of senescing leaves are produced by factors external to guard cells.

  4. Changes in cell wall properties coincide with overexpression of extensin fusion proteins in suspension cultured tobacco cells.

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    Li Tan

    Full Text Available Extensins are one subfamily of the cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins, containing characteristic SerHyp4 glycosylation motifs and intermolecular cross-linking motifs such as the TyrXaaTyr sequence. Extensins are believed to form a cross-linked network in the plant cell wall through the tyrosine-derivatives isodityrosine, pulcherosine, and di-isodityrosine. Overexpression of three synthetic genes encoding different elastin-arabinogalactan protein-extensin hybrids in tobacco suspension cultured cells yielded novel cross-linking glycoproteins that shared features of the extensins, arabinogalactan proteins and elastin. The cell wall properties of the three transgenic cell lines were all changed, but in different ways. One transgenic cell line showed decreased cellulose crystallinity and increased wall xyloglucan content; the second transgenic cell line contained dramatically increased hydration capacity and notably increased cell wall biomass, increased di-isodityrosine, and increased protein content; the third transgenic cell line displayed wall phenotypes similar to wild type cells, except changed xyloglucan epitope extractability. These data indicate that overexpression of modified extensins may be a route to engineer plants for bioenergy and biomaterial production.

  5. Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid

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    Mhlongo, MI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available , vol. 37(1): 205-209 Metabolomic fingerprinting of primed tobacco cells provide the first evidence for the biological origin of cis-chlorogenic acid Mhlongo MI Piater LA Steenkamp PA Madala NE Dubery IA ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest...

  6. Ectopic expression of a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor in guard cells confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Fen; Liang, Ke; Yin, Dong-Mei; Ni, Di-An; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-12-01

    There are several hypotheses that explain stomatal behavior. These include the concept of osmoregulation mediated by potassium and its counterions malate and chlorine and the more recent starch-sugar hypothesis. We have previously reported that the activity of the sucrose cleavage enzyme, vacuolar invertase (VIN), is significantly higher in guard cells than in other leaf epidermal cells and its activity is correlated with stomatal aperture. Here, we examined whether VIN indeed controls stomatal movement under normal and drought conditions by transforming Arabidopsis with a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor homolog (Nt-inhh) under the control of an abscisic acid-sensitive and guard cell-specific promoter (AtRab18). The data obtained showed that guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis plants had lower VIN activity, stomatal aperture and conductance than that of wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic plants also displayed higher drought tolerance than wild-type plants. The data indicate that VIN is a promising target for manipulating stomatal function to increase drought tolerance.

  7. Characterization of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris lipopolysaccharide substructures essential for elicitation of an oxidative burst in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Sebastian G; Meyer, Andreas; Holst, Otto; Pühler, Alfred; Niehaus, Karsten

    2005-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria are essential for perception of pathogens by animals and plants. To identify the LPS substructure or substructures recognized by plants, we isolated water-phase (w)LPS from different Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris mutants and analyzed their sugar content and ability to elicit an oxidative burst in tobacco cell cultures. The different wLPS species are characterized by lacking repetitive subunits of the O-antigen, the complete O-antigen, or even most of the core region. Because loss of lipid A would be lethal to bacteria, pure lipid A was obtained from X. campestris pv. campestris wild-type wLPS by chemical hydrolysis. The elicitation experiments with tobacco cell cultures revealed that LPS detection is dependent on the bioavailability of the amphiphilic wLPS, which can form micelles in an aqueous environment. By adding deoxycholate to prevent micelle formation, all of the tested wLPS species showed elicitation capability, whereas the lipid A alone was not able to trigger an oxidative burst or calcium transients in tobacco cell cultures. These results suggest that the LPS substructure recognized by tobacco cells is localized in the inner core region of the LPS, consisting of glucose, galacturonic acid, and 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acids. Although lipid A alone seems to be insufficient to induce an oxidative burst in tobacco cell cultures, it cannot be ruled out that lipid A or the glucosamine backbone may be important in combination with the inner core structures.

  8. Engineered tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease active in the secretory pathway of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaratto, Francesca; López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R; Petris, Gianluca

    2015-10-20

    Tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is a unique endopeptidase with stringent substrate specificity. TEVp has been widely used as a purified protein for in vitro applications, but also as a biological tool directly expressing it in living cells. To adapt the protease to diverse applications, several TEVp mutants with different stability and enzymatic properties have been reported. Herein we describe the development of a novel engineered TEVp mutant designed to be active in the secretory pathway. While wild type TEVp targeted to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells is synthetized as an N-glycosylated and catalytically inactive enzyme, a TEVp mutant with selected mutations at two verified N-glycosylation sites and at an exposed cysteine was highly efficient. This mutant was very active in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells and can be used as a biotechnological tool to cleave proteins within the secretory pathway. As an immediate practical application we report the expression of a complete functional monoclonal antibody expressed from a single polypeptide, which was cleaved by our TEVp mutant into the two antibody chains and secreted as an assembled and functional molecule. In addition, we show active TEVp mutants lacking auto-cleavage activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Sucrose concentration in the growth medium affects the cell wall composition of tobacco pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Giovanni; Faleri, Claudia; Cresti, Mauro; Cai, Giampiero

    2014-09-01

    The cell wall of pollen tubes is organized in both spatial and temporal order to allow the pollen tube to grow according to external conditions. The deposition of methyl-esterified and acid pectins in addition to callose/cellulose occurs according to a series of temporally succeeding events. In this work, we attempted to determine how the composition of the external growth medium (in terms of osmolarity) could affect the deposition of cell wall components. Pollen tubes of tobacco were grown in a hypotonic medium and then analyzed for the distribution of pectins and callose/cellulose [as well as for the distribution of the enzyme callose synthase (CALS)]. The data indicate that pollen tubes grown in a hypotonic medium show changes of the initial growth rate followed by modification of the deposition of acid pectins and, to a lesser extent, of CALS. These observations indicate that, under the osmolarity determined by the growth medium, pollen tubes adapt their cell wall to the changing conditions of growth.

  10. Micronucleus Investigation in Buccal Mucosal Cells of Young Waterpipe Tobacco Smokers in Tehran

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    Sepideh Arbabi Bidgoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe Tobacco Smoke(WTS is an unhealthy life style that may increase the risk of genotoxic responses and chronic diseases such as cancer. Micronucleus test is a successful and reliable method which is used for screening of genetotoxic responses of whole body and also for screening those people who had already exposed to genotoxic compounds. In this study, specific questionnaires were designed and used for studying the role of shisha smoking on the extent of genotoxic responses and cases were looked for MNs with this biomonitoring method. The study population was 20 young adults (12men and 8 women who born and lived in Tehran and had continuously smoked shisha more than 2 times weekly for more than 2 years . The associations between all recorded background, environmental and nutritional factors and increased incidence of Micronucleus in buccal cells of all cases were considered by statistical methods. In order to count Micronucleus levels, buccal cells were collected from buccal mucosa of these people with small-headed toothbrush and was placed the head of tooth brush into buccal cell buffer, slides were prepared and cells were stained with Schiff’s reagent and light green .Finally 1000 differentiated cells were recorded by optical microscope in each slide and the mean level of MN was determined for each volunteer . All steps were performed according to the buccal micronucleus cytome (BMCyt assay protocol. Increased incidence of Micronucleus was associated with the extent of shisha smoking per week (p=0.021, alcohol consumption ( p=0.021 and BMI ( p=0.027. The other effective factor in the occurrence of Micronucleus was gender/sex ( p=0.011 but nutritional factors didn’t change the level of Micronucleus in our cases. The relationship between other background and environmental factors were not significant too. It seems that long term consumption of shisha in both genders could increase the risk of genetic toxicity and occurrence of

  11. Tobacco smoke control of mucin production in lung cells requires oxygen radicals AP-1 and JNK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensch, Erin; Gallup, Marianne; Sucher, Anatol; Li, Daizong; Gebremichael, Assefa; Lemjabbar, Hassan; Mengistab, Aklilu; Dasari, Vijay; Hotchkiss, Jon; Harkema, Jack; Basbaum, Carol

    2004-09-10

    In smokers' lungs, excessive mucus clogs small airways, impairing respiration and promoting recurrent infection. A breakthrough in understanding this pathology was the realization that smoke could directly stimulate mucin synthesis in lung epithelial cells and that this phenomenon was dependent on the cell surface receptor for epidermal growth factor, EGFR. Distal steps in the smoke-triggered pathway have not yet been determined. We report here that the predominant airway mucin (MUC5AC) undergoes transcriptional up-regulation in response to tobacco smoke; this is mediated by an AP-1-containing response element, which binds JunD and Fra-2. These transcription factors require phosphorylation by upstream kinases JNK and ERK, respectively. Whereas ERK activation results from the upstream activation of EGFR, JNK activation is chiefly EGFR-independent. Our experiments demonstrated that smoke activates JNK via a Src-dependent, EGFR-independent signaling cascade initiated by smoke-induced reactive oxygen species. Taken together with our earlier results, these data indicate that the induction of mucin by smoke is the combined effect of mutually independent, reactive oxygen species activation of both EGFR and JNK.

  12. Silver(I Ions Ultrasensitive Detection at Carbon Electrodes―Analysis of Waters, Tobacco Cells and Fish Tissues

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    Sona Krizkova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We used carbon paste electrodes and a standard potentiostat to detect silver ions. The detection limit (3 Signal/Noise ratio was estimated as 0.5 μM. A standard electrochemical instrument microanalysis of silver(I ions was suggested. As a working electrode a carbon tip (1 mL or carbon pencil was used. Limits of detection estimated by dilution of a standard were 1 (carbon tip or 10 nM (carbon pencil. Further we employed flow injection analysis coupled with carbon tip to detect silver(I ions released in various beverages and mineral waters. During first, second and third week the amount of silver(I ions releasing into water samples was under the detection limit of the technique used for their quantification. At the end of a thirteen weeks long experiment the content of silver(I ions was several times higher compared to the beginning of release detected in the third week and was on the order of tens of nanomoles. In subsequent experiments the influence of silver(I ions (0, 5 and 10 μM on a plant model system (tobacco BY-2 cells during a fourday exposition was investigated. Silver(I ions were highly toxic to the cells, which was revealed by a double staining viability assay. Moreover we investigated the effect of silver(I ions (0, 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.5 μM on guppies (Poecilia reticulata. Content of Ag(I increased with increasing time of the treatment and applied concentrations in fish tissues. It can be concluded that a carbon tip or carbon pencil coupled with a miniaturized potentiostat can be used for detection of silver(I ions in environmental samples and thus represents a small, portable, low cost and easy-to-use instrument for such purposes.

  13. Affinity Purification and Characterization of Functional Tubulin from Cell Suspension Cultures of Arabidopsis and Tobacco1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Seiichi; Noguchi, Masahiro; Demura, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules assemble into several distinct arrays that play important roles in cell division and cell morphogenesis. To decipher the mechanisms that regulate the dynamics and organization of this versatile cytoskeletal component, it is essential to establish in vitro assays that use functional tubulin. Although plant tubulin has been purified previously from protoplasts by reversible taxol-induced polymerization, a simple and efficient purification method has yet to be developed. Here, we used a Tumor Overexpressed Gene (TOG) column, in which the tubulin-binding domains of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) TOG homolog are immobilized on resin, to isolate functional plant tubulin. We found that several hundred micrograms of pure tubulin can readily be purified from cell suspension cultures of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The tubulin purified by the TOG column showed high assembly competence, partly because of low levels of polymerization-inhibitory phosphorylation of α-tubulin. Compared with porcine brain tubulin, Arabidopsis tubulin is highly dynamic in vitro at both the plus and minus ends, exhibiting faster shrinkage rates and more frequent catastrophe events, and exhibits frequent spontaneous nucleation. Furthermore, our study shows that an internal histidine tag in α-tubulin can be used to prepare particular isotypes and specifically engineered versions of α-tubulin. In contrast to previous studies of plant tubulin, our mass spectrometry and immunoblot analyses failed to detect posttranslational modification of the isolated Arabidopsis tubulin or detected only low levels of posttranslational modification. This novel technology can be used to prepare assembly-competent, highly dynamic pure tubulin from plant cell cultures. PMID:26747285

  14. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sameera Shamim; Shreedhar, Balasundari; Kamboj, Mala

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to correlate epithelial surface pattern changes of oral exfoliated cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers and also to compare them with patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and healthy individuals. In this cross-sectional study, a total of fifty persons were included in the study, out of which thirty formed the study group (15 each tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers) and twenty formed the control group (ten each of OSCC patients - positive control and ten normal buccal mucosa - negative control). Their oral exfoliated cells were scraped, fixed, and studied under scanning electron microscope (SEM). The statistical analysis was determined using ANOVA, Tukey honestly significant difference, Chi-square test, and statistical SPASS software, P characteristics observed by scanning electron microscopy between OSCC, tobacco smokers, betel nut chewers compared to normal oral mucosa have been tabulated. In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  15. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco-related diseases burden fragile healthcare systems and hinder productivity. Tobacco is ... relatively recent innovation of flavouring the tobacco. IDRC partners at the American. University of ... Tobacco and Taxes: A winning strategy, IDRC 2006 http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-94887-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html. JA. C. O. B. K.

  16. Uptake of auxotrophic cells of a heterocyst-forming cyanbacterium by tobacco protoplasts, and the fate of their associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, J.C.; Malmberg, R.L.; Wolk, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    Auxotrophic cells of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis Kutz. were introduced into protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum L. in an attempt to engineer a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiosis. Conditions were established to maximize uptake of the cyanobacteria by use of polyethylene glycol. Culture of the novel association was not successful: tobacco protoplasts with Anabaena inside did not appear to divide. Most of the protoplasts expelled the cyanobacteria and simultaneously disintegrated. The reasons for the incompatibility are not known.

  17. In vitro cytokinin binding to a particulate fraction of tobacco cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussman, M.R.; Kende, H.

    1978-01-01

    At least two types of cytokinin-binding sites are present in a particulate fraction of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cells that sediments at 80,000 x g. The major binding component has a low affinity towards cytokinins, is resistant to heating at 100/sup 0/C, and is not specific for biologically active cytokinin analogues. The second site occurs in much lower frequency, is heat labile, shows high affinity towards cytokinins, and is specific for biologically active analogs of the hormone. The testing for binding specificity was mainly performed with a series of halogenated benzyladenine derivatives having a wide range of biological activities. The low-affinity binding site shows some of the same features as talcum powder, a non-biological material which binds cytokinins in a non-specific fashion. The properties of the high-affinity binding site are consistent with the expected characteristics of a cytokinin receptor. However, the role of the observed high-affinity binding site with regard to the biological action of cytokinins is not yet known.

  18. [Effects of local induction of ipt-gene in roots on cytokinins content in leaf cells tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vysotskaia, L B; Akhiiarova, G P; Sharapova, G V; Dedova, M A; Veselov, S Iu; Zaĭtsev, D Iu; Kudoiarova, G P

    2014-01-01

    Identification of cytokinins in differentiated leaf cells has received little attention. We have carried out immunohistochemical localization of cytokinins in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants in which the level of increased due to induced in their roots the expression of ipt-gene controlling cytokinin synthesis. Immuno-labeling of cytokinins with the help of antibodies raised against zeatin riboside was characteristic of mesophyll cells. The label was localized in cytoplasm adjacent to cell walls and was absent in vacuoles. Immunohistochemical staining also revealed the presence of cytokinins in guard cells. Induction of cytokinin synthesis enhanced the immunohistochemical staining of both mesophyll cells and guard cells, which was accompanied by elevated stomatal conductance. The possibility of a direct effect of cytokinins on stomatal conductance and their indirect influence through photosynthesis in the mesophyll cells is discussed.

  19. [Observation of cells tolerant of tobacco mosaic virus in virus-induced local lesions in Datura stramonium L. leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reunov, A V; Lega, S N; Nagorskaia, V P; Lapshina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Ultrastructural examination of tobacco mosaic virus-induced local lesions developing in leaves of Datura stramonium plants demonstrated that, in the central area of the lesions, the cell response to viral invasion was not uniform. Most cells exhibited an acute hypersensitive reaction and underwent rapid and complete necrosis. However, some cells, despite considerable virus accumulation and immediate contact with completely collapsed cells, maintained a certain degree of structural integrity. Analysis performed showed that the proportion of collapsed and uncollapsed cells in the lesion centre 3 to 5 days after infection did not change essentially. These data suggest that the absence of hypersensitive response in some cells in the lesion centre is not due to an early stage of infection but is likely caused by cell tolerance of the virus.

  20. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D; Brumós, Javier; Rosales, Miguel A; Cubero-Font, Paloma; Talón, Manuel; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2016-02-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl(-) when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinations containing the same cationic balance: Cl(-)-based (CL), nitrate-based (N), and sulphate+phosphate-based (SP) treatments. Under non-saline conditions (up to 5 mM Cl(-)) and no water limitation, Cl(-) specifically stimulated higher leaf cell size and led to a moderate increase of plant fresh and dry biomass mainly due to higher shoot expansion. When applied in the 1-5 mM range, Cl(-) played specific roles in regulating leaf osmotic potential and turgor, allowing plants to improve leaf water balance parameters. In addition, Cl(-) also altered water relations at the whole-plant level through reduction of plant transpiration. This was a consequence of a lower stomatal conductance, which resulted in lower water loss and greater photosynthetic and integrated water-use efficiency. In contrast to Cl(-), these effects were not observed for essential anionic macronutrients such as nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate. We propose that the abundant uptake and accumulation of Cl(-) responds to adaptive functions improving water homeostasis in higher plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Sustained activation of sphingomyelin synthase by 2-hydroxyoleic acid induces sphingolipidosis in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Laura; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lehneis, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Alonso-Sande, María; Bestard-Escalas, Joan; Lopez, Daniel H; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Busquets, Xavier; Escribá, Pablo V; Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn

    2013-05-01

    The mechanism of action of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA), a potent antitumor drug, involves the rapid and specific activation of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), leading to a 4-fold increase in SM mass in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated the source of the ceramides required to sustain this dramatic increase in SM. Through radioactive and fluorescent labeling, we demonstrated that sphingolipid metabolism was altered by a 24 h exposure to 2OHOA, and we observed a consistent increase in the number of lysosomes and the presence of unidentified storage materials in treated cells. Mass spectroscopy revealed that different sphingolipid classes accumulated in human glioma U118 cells after exposure to 2OHOA, demonstrating a specific effect on C16-, C20-, and C22-containing sphingolipids. Based on these findings, we propose that the demand for ceramides required to sustain the SMS activation (ca. 200-fold higher than the basal level) profoundly modifies both sphingolipid and phospholipid metabolism. As the treatment is prolonged, tumor cells fail to adequately metabolize sphingolipids, leading to a situation resembling sphingolipidosis, whereby cell viability is compromised.

  2. Sustained activation of sphingomyelin synthase by 2-hydroxyoleic acid induces sphingolipidosis in tumor cells1[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Laura; Liebisch, Gerhard; Lehneis, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Alonso-Sande, María; Bestard-Escalas, Joan; Lopez, Daniel H.; García-Verdugo, José Manuel; Soriano-Navarro, Mario; Busquets, Xavier; Escribá, Pablo V.; Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of action of 2-hydroxyoleic acid (2OHOA), a potent antitumor drug, involves the rapid and specific activation of sphingomyelin synthase (SMS), leading to a 4-fold increase in SM mass in tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated the source of the ceramides required to sustain this dramatic increase in SM. Through radioactive and fluorescent labeling, we demonstrated that sphingolipid metabolism was altered by a 24 h exposure to 2OHOA, and we observed a consistent increase in the number of lysosomes and the presence of unidentified storage materials in treated cells. Mass spectroscopy revealed that different sphingolipid classes accumulated in human glioma U118 cells after exposure to 2OHOA, demonstrating a specific effect on C16-, C20-, and C22-containing sphingolipids. Based on these findings, we propose that the demand for ceramides required to sustain the SMS activation (ca. 200-fold higher than the basal level) profoundly modifies both sphingolipid and phospholipid metabolism. As the treatment is prolonged, tumor cells fail to adequately metabolize sphingolipids, leading to a situation resembling sphingolipidosis, whereby cell viability is compromised. PMID:23471028

  3. One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; De Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-01-01

    Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells. PMID:28569749

  4. One-Year stable perovskite solar cells by 2D/3D interface engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grancini, G.; Roldán-Carmona, C.; Zimmermann, I.; Mosconi, E.; Lee, X.; Martineau, D.; Narbey, S.; Oswald, F.; de Angelis, F.; Graetzel, M.; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2017-06-01

    Despite the impressive photovoltaic performances with power conversion efficiency beyond 22%, perovskite solar cells are poorly stable under operation, failing by far the market requirements. Various technological approaches have been proposed to overcome the instability problem, which, while delivering appreciable incremental improvements, are still far from a market-proof solution. Here we show one-year stable perovskite devices by engineering an ultra-stable 2D/3D (HOOC(CH2)4NH3)2PbI4/CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite junction. The 2D/3D forms an exceptional gradually-organized multi-dimensional interface that yields up to 12.9% efficiency in a carbon-based architecture, and 14.6% in standard mesoporous solar cells. To demonstrate the up-scale potential of our technology, we fabricate 10 × 10 cm2 solar modules by a fully printable industrial-scale process, delivering 11.2% efficiency stable for >10,000 h with zero loss in performances measured under controlled standard conditions. This innovative stable and low-cost architecture will enable the timely commercialization of perovskite solar cells.

  5. Calcium release induced by 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone and its copper complex contributes to tumor cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Wang, Jiangang; Li, Cuiping; Zhou, Sufeng; Yang, Yun; Zhou, Pingxin; Lu, Chengbiao; Li, Changzheng

    2017-03-01

    Thiosemicarbazones display significant antitumor activity and their copper complexes also exhibit enhanced biological activities in most situations, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Therefore, investigation of the mechanism involved in the change upon chelation is required to extend our understanding of the effects of thiosemicarbazones. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (PCT) and its copper complex (PCT-Cu) on cell proliferation was investigated. The copper chelate exhibited a 3- to 10-fold increase in antitumor activity (with an IC50 thiosemicarbazones along with their antitumor mechanism.

  6. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  7. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ... role in other cancers, heart disease and stroke. Smokeless tobacco contains more nicotine than cigarettes. Nicotine is a ...

  8. Suppression of cell expansion by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic petunia and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kater, M M; Franken, J; van Aelst, A; Angenent, G C

    2000-08-01

    Molecular and genetic analyses have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene SUPERMAN (SUP) has at least two functions in Arabidopsis flower development. SUP is necessary to control the correct distribution of cells with either a stamen or carpel fate, and is essential for proper outgrowth of the ovule outer integument. Both these functions indicate a role for SUP in cell proliferation. To study the function of the Arabidopsis SUP gene in more detail, we over-expressed the SUP gene in petunia and tobacco in a tissue-specific manner. The petunia FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN 1 (FBP1) gene promoter was used to restrict the expression of SUP to petals and stamens. The development of petals and stamens was severely affected in both petunia and tobacco plants over-expressing SUP. Petals remained small and did not unfold, resulting in closed flowers. Stamen filaments were thin and very short. Detailed analysis of these floral organs from the petunia transformants showed that cell expansion was dramatically reduced without affecting cell division. These results reveal a novel activity for SUP as a regulator of cell expansion.

  9. Testosterone attenuates morpho-functional alterations by 2-methoxyestradiol exposure and induces differentiation in C6 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Paolo; Chisu, Valentina

    2011-06-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME) is a cytotoxic drug that interacts with tubulin and alters microtubule dynamics. It has been reported that testosterone (T) has a neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress and induces differentiation in mouse C1300 neuroblastoma cells. Here, we investigated the ability of T to attenuate the cytotoxic effects of 2ME and to induce cell differentiation in an immortalized rat glial cell line, known as C6. C6 cells were exposed for 5 days to 5 µM 2ME, 50 nM T, or both. We evaluated the morphological changes, growth rate, vitality, catalase activity, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in control and treated C6 cells. Western blot analyses were used to quantify expression of tyrosinated tubulin (Tyr-Tub), acetylated tubulin (Acet-Tub), total α-tubulin (TOT-Tub), and GFAP. After 2ME exposure, the cells displayed a globular, shrunken shape, and retraction or absence of cytoplasmic processes; moreover, 2ME treatment significantly decreased cell growth, cell viability, catalase activity, and expression of both Tyr-Tub and Acet-Tub. However, when T was added, the cells exhibited a glial-like shape, elongated cell processes, and enhanced cell growth, cell vitality, catalase activity, and GFAP immunoreactivity. Densitometric values of Tyr-Tub, Acet-Tub, and GFAP increased significantly when T was present, while Tot-Tub values were unaltered. These results indicate that, in C6 cells, T: (i) attenuated the morpho-functional changes caused by 2ME exposure; (ii) induced glial differentiation; and (iii) exerted a direct action on the microtubule system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Evaluation of buffers toxicity in tobacco cells: Homopiperazine-1,4-bis (2-ethanesulfonic acid) is a suitable buffer for plant cells studies at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgo, Lucélia

    2017-06-01

    Low pH is an important environmental stressor of plant root cells. Understanding the mechanisms of stress and tolerance to acidity is critical; however, there is no widely accepted pH buffer for studies of plant cells at low pH. Such a buffer might also benefit studies of Al toxicity, in which buffering at low pH is also important. The challenge is to find a buffer with minimal cellular effects. We examined the cytotoxicity and possible metabolic disturbances of four buffers that have adequate pK a values and potential use for studies in the pH range of 4.0-5.0. These were homopipes (homopiperazine-1,4-bis (2-ethanesulfonic acid); pK a1 4.4), 3,3-dimethylglutaric acid (pK a1 3.73), β-alanine (pK a1 3.70) and potassium biphthalate (pK a1 2.95; pK a2 5.41). First, tobacco BY-2 cells were grown in a rich medium containing 10 mM of each buffer or MES (2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic acid) as a control, with the pH initially adjusted to 5.7. β-alanine was clearly toxic and dimethylgluturate and biphthalate were found to be cytostatic, in which no culture growth occurred but cell viability was either unaffected or decreased only after 5 days. Only homopipes allowed normal culture growth and cell viability. Homopipes (10 mM) was then tested in cell cultures with an initial pH of 4.3 ± 0.17 in minimal medium to examine whether its undissociated species (H 2 A) displayed any cellular effects and no cytotoxic effects were observed. It is possible to conclude that among tested buffers, homopipes is the most suitable for studies at low pH, and may be especially useful for aluminum toxicity experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. In planta expression of A. cellulolyticus Cel5A endocellulase reduces cell wall recalcitrance in tobacco and maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaylock Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The glycoside hydrolase family 5 endocellulase, E1 (Cel5A, from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was transformed into both Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays with expression targeted to the cell wall under a constitutive promoter. Here we explore the possibility that in planta expression of endocellulases will allow these enzymes to access their substrates during cell wall construction, rendering cellulose more amenable to pretreatment and enzyme digestion. Tobacco and maize plants were healthy and developed normally compared with the wild type (WT. After thermochemical pretreatment and enzyme digestion, transformed plants were clearly more digestible than WT, requiring lower pretreatment severity to achieve comparable conversion levels. Furthermore, the decreased recalcitrance was not due to post-pretreatment residual E1 activity and could not be reproduced by the addition of exogenous E1 to the biomass prior to pretreatment, indicating that the expression of E1 during cell wall construction altered the inherent recalcitrance of the cell wall.

  12. The combined effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, tobacco products, and ethanol on normal resting blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederblad, Lena; Thunberg, Ulf; Engström, Mats; Castro, Juan; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco and ethanol consumption are crucial factors in the development of various diseases including cancer. In this investigation, we evaluated the combined effects of a number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), with ethanol and tobacco products on healthy individuals. Pure nicotine, cigarette smoke extract, and Swedish snuff (snus) extract were used. The effects were examined by means of in vitro cell cycle progression and cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors. After 3 days, in vitro, resting PBMCs entered the S and G2 stage in the presence of 100 µM nicotine. The PBMCs only proceeded to S stage, in the presence of 0.2% ethanol. The nicotine- and ethanol-induced normal cell cycle progression correlated to a number of SNPs in the IL12RB2, Rad 52, XRCC2, P53, CCND3, and ABCA1 genes. Certain SNPs in Caspases 8, IL12RB2, Rad 52, MMP2, and MDM2 genes appeared to significantly influence the effects of EtOH-, snus-, and snus + EtOH-induced cell death. Importantly, the highest degree of cell death was observed in the presence of smoke + EtOH. The amount of cell death under this treatment condition also correlated to specific SNPs, located in the MDM2, ABCA1, or GASC1 genes. Cigarette smoke in combination with ethanol strongly induced massive cell death. Long-term exposure to smoke and ethanol could provoke chronic inflammation, and this could be the initiation of disease including the development of cancer at various sites.

  13. Dynamics of tobacco DNA topoisomerases II in cell cycle regulation: to manage topological constrains during replication, transcription and mitotic chromosome condensation and segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Badri Nath; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Panditi, Varakumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2017-08-01

    The topoisomerase II expression varies as a function of cell proliferation. Maximal topoisomerase II expression was tightly coupled to S phase and G2/M phase via both transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Investigation in meiosis using pollen mother cells also revealed that it is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, it seems to diffuse out once meiotic chromosomal condensation is completed. Synchronized tobacco BY-2 cell cultures were used to study the role of topoisomerase II in various stages of the cell cycle. Topoisomerase II transcript accumulation was observed during the S- and G2/M- phase of cell cycle. This biphasic expression pattern indicates the active requirement of topoisomerase II during these stages of the cell cycle. Through immuno-localization of topoisomerase II was observed diffusely throughout the nucleoplasm in interphase nuclei, whereas, the nucleolus region exhibited a more prominent immuno-positive staining that correlated with rRNA transcription, as shown by propidium iodide staining and BrUTP incorporation. The immuno-staining analysis also showed that topoisomerase II is the major component of mitotic chromosomes and remain attached to the chromosomes during cell division. The inhibition of topoisomerase II activity using specific inhibitors revealed quite dramatic effect on condensation of chromatin and chromosome individualization from prophase to metaphase transition. Partially condensed chromosomes were not arranged on metaphase plate and chromosomal perturbations were observed when advance to anaphase, suggesting the importance of topoisomerase II activity for proper chromosome condensation and segregation during mitosis. Contrary, topoisomerase II is not the major component of meiotic chromosomes, even though mitosis and meiosis share many processes, including the DNA replication, chromosome condensation and precisely regulated partitioning of chromosomes into daughter cells. Even if topoisomerase II is

  14. Use of cell phones and computers for health promotion and tobacco cessation by American Indian college students in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jo Ann W; Nelson, Lonnie A; Young, Sara L; Buchwald, Dedra; Roll, John

    2017-01-01

    Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men and women reporting current smoking. The literature on the availability and use of cell phones and computers, or the acceptability of use in health promotion among AIs and ANs, is scant. The authors report findings from a survey of AI students regarding their cell phone and computer access and use. The survey was conducted to inform the development and implementation of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention modeled on a program developed and used in Australia. A 22-item paper and pencil survey was administered to students at tribal colleges in rural Montana. The survey questions included cell phone ownership and access to service, use of cell phones and computers for health information, demographics, tobacco use habits, and interest in an intervention study. The study was reviewed and determined exempt by the institutional review boards at the tribal colleges and the lead research university. The study was conducted by researchers at the tribal colleges. Survey respondents received $10 when the survey was completed and returned. Data analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Among 153 AI respondents, the mean age was 29 years, range was 18-64 years. Overall, 40% reported smoking cigarettes with a mean age of 16 years at initiation. A total of 131 participants (86%) had cell phones and, of those, 122 (93%) had unlimited text messaging. A total of 104 (68%) had smart phones (with internet access), although 40% of those with smart phones reported that

  15. Differential Signaling and Sugar Exchanges in Response to Avirulent Pathogen- and Symbiont-Derived Molecules in Tobacco Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Pfister

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants interact with microbes whose ultimate aim is to exploit plant carbohydrates for their reproduction. Plant–microbe interactions (PMIs are classified according to the nature of their trophic exchanges: while mutualistic microbes trade nutrients with plants, pathogens unilaterally divert carbohydrates. The early responses following microbe recognition and the subsequent control of plant sugar distribution are still poorly understood. To further decipher PMI functionality, we used tobacco cells treated with microbial molecules mimicking pathogenic or mutualistic PMIs, namely cryptogein, a defense elicitor, and chitotetrasaccharide (CO4, which is secreted by mycorrhizal fungi. CO4 was perceived by tobacco cells and triggered widespread transient signaling components such as a sharp cytosolic Ca2+ elevation, NtrbohD-dependent H2O2 production, and MAP kinase activation. These CO4-induced events differed from those induced by cryptogein, i.e., sustained events leading to cell death. Furthermore, cryptogein treatment inhibited glucose and sucrose uptake but not fructose uptake, and promoted the expression of NtSUT and NtSWEET sugar transporters, whereas CO4 had no effect on sugar uptake and only a slight effect on NtSWEET2B expression. Our results suggest that microbial molecules induce different signaling responses that reflect microbial lifestyle and the subsequent outcome of the interaction.

  16. Comparative transcriptional profiling analysis of the two daughter cells from tobacco zygote reveals the transcriptome differences in the apical and basal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Tian-Xiang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In angiosperm, after the first asymmetric zygotic cell division, the apical and basal daughter cells follow distinct development pathways. Global transcriptome analysis of these two cells is essential in understanding their developmental differences. However, because of the difficulty to isolate the in vivo apical and basal cells of two-celled proembryo from ovule and ovary in higher plants, the transcriptome analysis of them hasn't been reported. Results In this study, we developed a procedure for isolating the in vivo apical and basal cells of the two-celled proembryo from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, and then performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of the two cells by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH combined with macroarray screening. After sequencing, we identified 797 differentially expressed ESTs corresponding to 299 unigenes. Library sequence analysis successfully identified tobacco homologies of genes involved in embryogenesis and seed development. By quantitative real-time PCR, we validated the differential expression of 40 genes, with 6 transcripts of them specifically expressed in the apical or basal cell. Expression analysis also revealed some transcripts displayed cell specific activation in one of the daughter cells after zygote division. These differential expressions were further validated by in situ hybridization (ISH. Tissue expression pattern analysis also revealed some potential roles of these candidate genes in development. Conclusions The results show that some differential or specific transcripts in the apical and basal cells of two-celled proembryo were successfully isolated, and the identification of these transcripts reveals that these two daughter cells possess distinct transcriptional profiles after zygote division. Further functional work on these differentially or specifically expressed genes will promote the elucidation of molecular mechanism controlling early embryogenesis.

  17. Ethanol and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, NNK, contribute to signaling in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askari, Minoo D F; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Cekanova, Maria; Schuller, Hildegard M

    2006-07-01

    Smoking is a well-documented risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The tobacco-specific nitrosamine, NNK (4-[methylnitrosamino]-1-[3-pyridyl]-1-butanone), significantly induces pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas in laboratory rodents. Recent observations suggest that ethanol enhances the tumorigenic effects of smoking. Ethanol consumption is associated with the development of chronic pancreatitis, also considered a predisposing factor for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Because the precise role of ethanol in pancreatic carcinogenesis is not known, this study sought to elucidate the cumulative effects of ethanol and NNK on particular signal transduction pathways that might play a role in cell proliferation in immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. The HPDE6-c7 cells are developed from pancreatic duct epithelial cells, which are the putative cells of origin of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cell proliferation assays, Western blot, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate assays were used to demonstrate the effects of ethanol and NNK treatments on these cells. Ethanol cotreatments enhanced the NNK-induced proliferation of these cells. This response was inhibited by the adenylyl cyclase, protein kinase A, mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42/p44), and epidermal growth factor receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cotreatments of NNK and ethanol also increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation, cAMP response element-binding family of proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, and protein kinase A activation. These findings suggest a potential role for these pathways contributing to the development of smoking- and alcohol-related pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  18. Timing of the G1/S transition in tobacco pollen vegetative cells as a primary step towards androgenesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyo, Masaharu; Nagano, Ai; Yamaji, Naoki; Hashimoto, Yuhki

    2014-09-01

    Mid-bicellular pollen vegetative cells in tobacco escape from G1 arrest and proceed to the G1/S transition towards androgenesis within 1 day under glutamine starvation conditions in vitro. In the Nicotiana tabacum pollen culture system, immature pollen grains at the mid-bicellular stage can mature in the presence of glutamine; however, if glutamine is absent, they deviate from their native cell fate in a few days. The glutamine-starved pollen grains cannot undergo maturation, even when supplied with glutamine later. Instead, they undergo cell division towards androgenesis slowly within 10 days in a medium containing appropriate nutrients. During the culture period, they ought to escape from G1 arrest to proceed into S phase as the primary step towards androgenesis. However, this event has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we demonstrated that the pollen vegetative cells proceeded to the G1/S transition within approximately 15-36 h after the start of culture. These results were obtained by analyzing transgenic pollen possessing a fusion gene encoding nuclear-localizing GFP under the control of an E2F motif-containing promoter isolated from a gene encoding one of DNA replication licensing factors. Observations using a 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine DNA labeling and detection technique uncovered that the G1/S transition was soon followed by S phase. These hallmarks of vegetative cells undergoing dedifferentiation give us new insights into upstream events causing the G1/S transition and also provide a novel strategy to increase the frequency of the androgenic response in tobacco and other species, including recalcitrants.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of tobacco pollen transcriptome unveils common pathways in polar cell expansion and underlying heterochronic shift during spermatogenesis

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    Hafidh Said

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many flowering plants produce bicellular pollen. The two cells of the pollen grain are destined for separate fates in the male gametophyte, which provides a unique opportunity to study genetic interactions that govern guided single-cell polar expansion of the growing pollen tube and the coordinated control of germ cell division and sperm cell fate specification. We applied the Agilent 44 K tobacco gene chip to conduct the first transcriptomic analysis of the tobacco male gametophyte. In addition, we performed a comparative study of the Arabidopsis root-hair trichoblast transcriptome to evaluate genetic factors and common pathways involved in polarized cell-tip expansion. Results Progression of pollen grains from freshly dehisced anthers to pollen tubes 4 h after germination is accompanied with > 5,161 (14.9% gametophyte-specific expressed probes active in at least one of the developmental stages. In contrast, > 18,821 (54.4% probes were preferentially expressed in the sporophyte. Our comparative approach identified a subset of 104 pollen tube-expressed genes that overlap with root-hair trichoblasts. Reverse genetic analysis of selected candidates demonstrated that Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (CSD1, a WD-40 containing protein (BP130384, and Replication factor C1 (NtRFC1 are among the central regulators of pollen-tube tip growth. Extension of our analysis beyond the second haploid mitosis enabled identification of an opposing-dynamic accumulation of core regulators of cell proliferation and cell fate determinants in accordance with the progression of the germ cell cycle. Conclusions The current study provides a foundation to isolate conserved regulators of cell tip expansion and those that are unique for pollen tube growth to the female gametophyte. A transcriptomic data set is presented as a benchmark for future functional studies using developing pollen as a model. Our results demonstrated previously unknown functions of

  20. Smokeless tobacco extract (STE-induced toxicity in mammalian cells is mediated by the disruption of cellular microtubule network: a key mechanism of cytotoxicity.

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    Amlan Das

    Full Text Available Smokeless tobacco usage is a growing public health problem worldwide. The molecular mechanism(s underlying smokeless tobacco associated tissue damage remain largely unidentified. In the present study we have tried to explore the effects of aqueous extract of smokeless tobacco (STE on tubulin-microtubule, the major cytoskeleton protein that maintains cells morphology and participates in cell division. Exposure to STE resulted in dose-dependent cytotoxicity in a variety of mammalian transformed cell lines such as human lung epithelial cells A549, human liver epithelial cells HepG2, and mouse squamous epithelial cells SCC7, [corrected] as well as non-tumorogenic human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMC. Cellular morphology of STE-treated cells was altered and the associated disruption of microtubule network indicates that STE targets tubulin-microtubule system in both cell lines. Furthermore it was also observed that STE-treatment resulted in the selective degradation of cellular tubulin, whereas actin remains unaltered. In vitro, polymerization of purified tubulin was inhibited by STE with the IC50 value∼150 µg/ml and this is associated with the loss of reactive cysteine residues of tubulin. Application of thiol-based antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC significantly abrogates STE-mediated microtubule damage and associated cytotoxicity in both A549 and HepG2 cells. These results suggest that microtubule damage is one of the key mechanisms of STE-induced cytotoxity in mammalian cells.

  1. Overexpression of poplar xylem sucrose synthase in tobacco leads to a thickened cell wall and increased height.

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    Zhigang Wei

    Full Text Available Sucrose synthase (SuSy is considered the first key enzyme for secondary growth because it is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose and fructose. Although SuSy enzymes preferentially functions in the direction of sucrose cleavage at most cellular condition, they also catalyze the synthetic reaction. We isolated a gene that encodes a SuSy from Populus simonii×Populus nigra and named it PsnSuSy2 because it shares high similarity to SuSy2 in Populus trichocarpa. RT-PCR revealed that PsnSuSy2 was highly expressed in xylem, but lowly expressed in young leaves. To characterize its functions in secondary growth, multiple tobacco overexpression transgenic lines of PnsSuSy2 were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The PsnSuSy2 expression levels and altered wood properties in stem segments from the different transgenic lines were carefully characterized. The results demonstrated that the levels of PsnSuSy2 enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars, fructose and glucose increased significantly, while the sucrose level decreased significantly. Consequently, the cellulose content and fiber length increased, whereas the lignin content decreased, suggesting that PsnSuSy2 plays a significant role in cleaving sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose to facilitate cellulose biosynthesis and that promotion of cellulose biosynthesis suppresses lignin biosynthesis. Additionally, the noticeable increase in the lodging resistance in transgenic tobacco stem suggested that the cell wall characteristics were altered by PsnSuSy2 overexpression. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the cell wall morphology of stem, and surprisingly, we found that the secondary cell wall was significantly thicker in transgenic tobacco. However, the thickened secondary cell wall did not negatively affect the height of the plants because the PsnSuSy2- overexpressing lines

  2. Analysis of Guard Cell Viability and Action in Senescing Leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), Tree Tobacco 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, Richard; Yera, Ramon; Ortega, Kim; Tallman, Gary

    1985-01-01

    In an attempt to determine whether low epidermal conductances to water vapor diffusion of senescing leaves were caused by internal changes in guard cells or by factors external to guard cells, stomatal behavior was examined in intact senescing and nonsenescing leaves of Nicotiana glauca (Graham), tree tobacco, grown in the field or in an environmental chamber. Conductances of senescing leaves were 5 to 10% of the maximum conductances of nonsenescing leaves of the same plant, yet guard cell duplexes isolated from epidermal peels of senescing leaves developed full turgor in the light in solutions containing KCl, and sodium cobaltinitrite staining showed that K+ accumulated as turgor developed. Ninety-five per cent of the guard cells isolated from senescing leaves concentrated neutral red and excluded trypan blue. Intercellular leaf CO2 concentrations of senescing and nonsenescing leaves of chamber-grown plants were not significantly different (about 240 microliters per liter), but the potassium contents of adaxial and abaxial epidermes of senescing leaves taken from plants grown in the field were less than half those of nonsenescing leaves. We conclude that guard cells do not undergo the orderly senescence process that characteristically takes place in mesophyll tissue during whole-leaf senescence and that the reduced conductances of senescing leaves are produced by factors external to guard cells. PMID:16664404

  3. Epitope tagging of legume root nodule extensin modifies protein structure and crosslinking in cell walls of transformed tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gucciardo, Sébastien; Rathbun, Elizabeth A; Shanks, Michael; Jenkyns, Susan; Mak, Lora; Durrant, Marcus C; Brewin, Nicholas J

    2005-01-01

    Root nodule extensins (RNEs) are highly glycosylated plant glycoproteins localized in the extracellular matrix of legume tissues and in the lumen of Rhizobium-induced infection threads. In pea and other legumes, a family of genes encode glycoproteins of different overall length but with the same basic composition. The predicted polypeptide sequence reveals repeating and alternating motifs characteristic of extensins and arabinogalactan proteins. In order to monitor the behavior of individual RNE gene products in the plant extracellular matrix, the coding sequence of PsRNE1 from Pisum sativum was expressed in insect cells and in tobacco leaves. RNE products extracted from tobacco tissues were of high molecular weight (in excess of 80 kDa), indicating extensive glycosylation similar to that in pea tissues. Epitope-tagged derivatives of PsRNE1 could be localized in cell walls. However, the introduction of epitope tags at the C-terminus of RNE altered the behavior of RNE in the extracellular matrix, apparently preventing intermolecular crosslinking of RNE molecules and their covalent association with other cell wall components. These observations are discussed in the light of a computational model for the RNE glycoprotein that is consistent with an extended rod-like structure. It is proposed that RNE can undergo three classes of tyrosine-based crosslinking. Intramolecular crosslinking of vicinal Tyr residues is rod stiffening, end-to-end linkage is rod lengthening, and side-to-side intermolecular crosslinking is rod bundling. The control of these interconversions could have important implications for the biomechanics of infection thread growth.

  4. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-06-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 microM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death.

  5. Potent antiproliferative cembrenoids accumulate in tobacco upon infection with Rhodococcus fascians and trigger unusual microtubule dynamics in human glioblastoma cells.

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    Aminata P Nacoulma

    Full Text Available AIMS: Though plant metabolic changes are known to occur during interactions with bacteria, these were rarely challenged for pharmacologically active compounds suitable for further drug development. Here, the occurrence of specific chemicals with antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines was evidenced in hyperplasia (leafy galls induced when plants interact with particular phytopathogens, such as the Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. METHODS: We examined leafy galls fraction F3.1.1 on cell proliferation, cell division and cytoskeletal disorganization of human cancer cell lines using time-lapse videomicroscopy imaging, combined with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. We determined the F3.1.1-fraction composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The leafy galls induced on tobacco by R. fascians yielded fraction F3.1.1 which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with an IC50 of 4.5 µg/mL, F.3.1.1 was shown to increase cell division duration, cause nuclear morphological deformations and cell enlargement, and, at higher concentrations, karyokinesis defects leading to polyploidization and apoptosis. F3.1.1 consisted of a mixture of isomers belonging to the cembrenoids. The cellular defects induced by F3.1.1 were caused by a peculiar cytoskeletal disorganization, with the occurrence of fragmented tubulin and strongly organized microtubule aggregates within the same cell. Colchicine, paclitaxel, and cembrene also affected U373 cell proliferation and karyokinesis, but the induced microtubule rearrangement was very different from that provoked by F3.1.1. Altogether our data indicate that the cembrenoid isomers in F3.1.1 have a unique mode of action and are able to simultaneously modulate microtubule polymerization and stability.

  6. Promiscuous, non-catalytic, tandem carbohydrate-binding modules modulate the cell-wall structure and development of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olawole, O.; Jacobsen, E.; Timmers, J.F.P.; Gilbert, H.J.; Blake, W.; Knox, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vincken, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We have compared heterologous expression of two types of carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in tobacco cell walls. These are the promiscuous CBM29 modules (a tandem CBM29-1-2 and its single derivative CBM29-2), derived from a non-catalytic protein1, NCP1, of the Piromyces equi cellulase/hemicellulase

  7. GSTM1 null polymorphism prevalence in tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in South Indian population: A polymerase chain reaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Renu; Iyengar, Asha R; Nagesh, K S; Patil, Seema; Subhash, B V

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco abuse is a well-known risk factor for potentially malignant disorders as well as oral squamous cell carcinoma. Factors that influence tobacco-exposed individuals developing a malignancy may include the combination of total tobacco exposure and genetic susceptibility. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null polymorphism in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in South Indian population. This case-control study was conducted in hospital setting on South Indian population. About 280 subjects with history of tobacco use, oral leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Three milliliter of blood was collected and transported under cold cycle and taken for evaluation of GSTM1 null polymorphism using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. On comparing the prevalence of GSTM1 null polymorphism among the group with subjects with habits and no oral lesions, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma, it was observed that there was a statistically significant association between GSTM1 null polymorphism and the different groups (P leukoplakia and thereby increases the susceptibility of lesion to undergo malignant changes.

  8. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Lerouge, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy- l -fucose induces defects in root cell elongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Marie [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Lehner, Arnaud [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Bardor, Muriel [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Burel, Carole [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Vauzeilles, Boris [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay (ICMMO) UMR CNRS 8182, Université de Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay France; Institut de Chimie des Substances Naturelles (ICSN) UPR CNRS 2301, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette France; Click4Tag, Zone Luminy Biotech, Case 922, 163 Avenue de Luminy 13009 Marseille France; Lerouxel, Olivier [Centre de Recherches sur les Macromolécules Végétales (CERMAV) - CNRS BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 France; Anderson, Charles T. [Department of Biology and Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation, Pennsylvania State University, University Park Pennsylvania USA; Mollet, Jean-Claude [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France; Lerouge, Patrice [Laboratoire Glycobiologie et Matrice Extracellulaire Végétale, EA 4358, IRIB, VASI, Normandie Université, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan France

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism.

  10. The signal peptide-like segment of hpaXm is required for its association to the cell wall in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available Harpins, encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity genes of Gram-negative plant pathogens, are elicitors of hypersensitive response (HR. HpaXm is a novel harpin-like protein described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum-a synonym of X. campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith 1901-1978. A putative signal peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15 of hpaXm was predicted in the nitroxyl-terminal (N-terminalby SignalP (SignalP 3.0 server. Here, we explored the function of the N-terminal leader peptide like segment of hpaXm using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc.. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing the full-length hpaXm and the signal peptide-like segment-deleted mutant hpaXmΔLP were developed using transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The target genes were confirmed integrated into the tobacco genomes and expressed normally. Using immune colloidal-gold detection technique, hpaXm protein was found to be transferred to the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, as well as the cell wall. However, the deletion mutant hpaXmΔLP expressed in transgenic tobacco was found unable to cross the membrane to reach the cell wall. Additionally, soluble proteins extracted from plants transformed with hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were bio-active. Defensive micro-HR induced by the transgene expression of hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were observed on transgenic tobacco leaves. Disease resistance bioassays to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV showed that tobacco plants transformed with hpaXm and with hpaXmΔLP exhibited enhanced resistance to TMV. In summary, the N-terminal signal peptide-like segment (1-45 bp in hpaXm sequence is not necessary for transgene expression, bioactivity of hpaXm and resistance to TMV in transgenic tobacco, but is required for the protein to be translocated to the cell wall.

  11. The signal peptide-like segment of hpaXm is required for its association to the cell wall in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Miao, Weiguo; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Shujian

    2017-01-01

    Harpins, encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes of Gram-negative plant pathogens, are elicitors of hypersensitive response (HR). HpaXm is a novel harpin-like protein described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum-a synonym of X. campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith 1901-1978). A putative signal peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15) of hpaXm was predicted in the nitroxyl-terminal (N-terminal)by SignalP (SignalP 3.0 server). Here, we explored the function of the N-terminal leader peptide like segment of hpaXm using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc.). Transgenic tobacco lines expressing the full-length hpaXm and the signal peptide-like segment-deleted mutant hpaXmΔLP were developed using transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The target genes were confirmed integrated into the tobacco genomes and expressed normally. Using immune colloidal-gold detection technique, hpaXm protein was found to be transferred to the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, as well as the cell wall. However, the deletion mutant hpaXmΔLP expressed in transgenic tobacco was found unable to cross the membrane to reach the cell wall. Additionally, soluble proteins extracted from plants transformed with hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were bio-active. Defensive micro-HR induced by the transgene expression of hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were observed on transgenic tobacco leaves. Disease resistance bioassays to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) showed that tobacco plants transformed with hpaXm and with hpaXmΔLP exhibited enhanced resistance to TMV. In summary, the N-terminal signal peptide-like segment (1-45 bp) in hpaXm sequence is not necessary for transgene expression, bioactivity of hpaXm and resistance to TMV in transgenic tobacco, but is required for the protein to be translocated to the cell wall.

  12. A multidirectional non-cell autonomous control and a genetic interaction restricting tobacco etch virus susceptibility in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gopalan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses constitute a major class of pathogens that infect a variety of hosts. Understanding the intricacies of signaling during host-virus interactions should aid in designing disease prevention strategies and in understanding mechanistic aspects of host and pathogen signaling machinery.An Arabidopsis mutant, B149, impaired in susceptibility to Tobacco etch virus (TEV, a positive strand RNA virus of picoRNA family, was identified using a high-throughput genetic screen and a counterselection scheme. The defects include initiation of infection foci, rate of cell-to-cell movement and long distance movement.The defect in infectivity is conferred by a recessive locus. Molecular genetic analysis and complementation analysis with three alleles of a previously published mutant lsp1 (loss of susceptibility to potyviruses indicate a genetic interaction conferring haploinsufficiency between the B149 locus and certain alleles of lsp1 resulting in impaired host susceptibility. The pattern of restriction of TEV foci on leaves at or near the boundaries of certain cell types and leaf boundaries suggest dysregulation of a multidirectional non-cell autonomous regulatory mechanism. Understanding the nature of this multidirectional signal and the molecular genetic mechanism conferring it should potentially reveal a novel arsenal in the cellular machinery.

  13. Do tobacco stimulate the production of nitric oxide by up regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in cancer: Immunohistochemical determination of inducible nitric oxide synthesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma - A comparative study in tobacco habituers and non-habituers

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    B Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate the enhanced expression in OSCC of tobacco habituers when compared to OSCC of tobacco non-habituers indicating the effect of tobacco on nitric oxide. Carcinogenic chemical compounds in Tobacco induce nitric oxide production by iNOS, by its tumor-promoting effects which may enhance the process of carcinogenesis.

  14. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Miao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in

  15. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer On This Page What is smokeless tobacco? Are there harmful chemicals in smokeless tobacco? Does ...

  16. Tobacco and estrogen metabolic polymorphisms and risk of non-small cell lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Michele L; Yoo, Wonsuk; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Prysak, Geoffrey M; Santer, Susan K; Claeys, Gina B; Van Dyke, Alison L; Land, Susan J; Schwartz, Ann G

    2009-04-01

    To explore the potential role for estrogen in lung cancer susceptibility, candidate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in tobacco and estrogen metabolism genes were evaluated. Population-based cases (n = 504) included women aged 18-74, diagnosed with NSCLC in metropolitan Detroit between November 2001 and October 2005. Population-based controls (n = 527) were identified through random digit dialing and matched on race and age. Eleven SNPs in 10 different genes were examined in relation to risk: CYP1A1 Msp1, CYP1A1 Ile462Val, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP17, CYP19A1, XRCC1 Gln399Arg, COMT Val158Met, NQO1 Pro187Ser, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 Ile105Val. Lung cancer risk associated with individual SNPs was seen for GSTP1 [A allele; odds ratio (OR) = 1.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-3.27] and XRCC1 (A/A genotype; OR = 1.68; 95% CI, 1.01-2.79) in white women and CYP1B1 (G allele; OR = 11.1; 95% CI, 1.18-104) in black women smokers. White women smokers carrying two risk genotypes at the following loci were at increased risk of lung cancer compared with individuals not carrying risk alleles at these loci: CYP17 and GSTM1, COMT and GSTM1, CYP17 and GSTT1, XRCC1 and GSTP1, CYP1B1 and XRCC1 and COMT and XRCC1. The most parsimonious model of lung cancer risk in white smoking women included age, family history of lung cancer, history of chronic lung disease, pack-years, body mass index, XRCC1 A/A genotype, GSTM1 null and COMT A/G or G/G genotype. These findings support the need for continued study of estrogen in relation to lung cancer risk. Polymorphisms in the tobacco metabolism, estrogen metabolism and DNA repair pathways will be useful in developing more predictive models of individual risk.

  17. Sucrose Synthase Is Associated with the Cell Wall of Tobacco Pollen Tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persia, D.; Cai, G.; Casino, C.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Cresti, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus; EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in plant cells, providing carbon for respiration and for the synthesis of cell wall polymers and starch. Since Sus is important for plant cell growth, insights into its structure, localization, and features are useful for

  18. Aluminium reduces sugar uptake in tobacco cell cultures: a potential cause of inhibited elongation but not of toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Basset, Refat; Ozuka, Shotaro; Demiral, Tijen; Furuichi, Takuya; Sawatani, Ikuo; Baskin, Tobias I.; Matsumoto, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Aluminium is well known to inhibit plant elongation, but the role in this inhibition played by water relations remains unclear. To investigate this, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) suspension-cultured cells (line SL) was used, treating them with aluminium (50 μM) in a medium containing calcium, sucrose, and MES (pH 5.0). Over an 18 h treatment period, aluminium inhibited the increase in fresh weight almost completely and decreased cellular osmolality and internal soluble sugar content substantially; however, aluminium did not affect the concentrations of major inorganic ions. In aluminium-treated cultures, fresh weight, soluble sugar content, and osmolality decreased over the first 6 h and remained constant thereafter, contrasting with their continued increases in the untreated cultures. The rate of sucrose uptake, measured by radio-tracer, was reduced by approximately 60% within 3 h of treatment. Aluminium also inhibited glucose uptake. In an aluminium-tolerant cell line (ALT301) isogenic to SL, all of the above-mentioned changes in water relations occurred and tolerance emerged only after 6 h and appeared to involve the suppression of reactive oxygen species. Further separating the effects of aluminium on elongation and cell survival, sucrose starvation for 18 h inhibited elongation and caused similar changes in cellular osmolality but stimulated the production of neither reactive oxygen species nor callose and did not cause cell death. We propose that the inhibition of sucrose uptake is a mechanism whereby aluminium inhibits elongation, but does not account for the induction of cell death. PMID:20219776

  19. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Tobacco Use and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DON'T START SAY IT - SHARE IT Home > Health Effects > Tobacco Use and Pregnancy HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Tobacco Use and Fertility Tobacco ...

  1. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunctions are early events in narciclasine-induced programmed cell death in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongxia; Wan, Qi; Wang, Huahua; Na, Xiaofan; Wang, Xiaomin; Bi, Yurong

    2012-01-01

    Narciclasine (NCS) is a plant growth inhibitor isolated from the secreted mucilage of Narcissus tazetta bulbs. It is a commonly used anticancer agent in animal systems. In this study, we provide evidence to show that NCS also acts as an agent in inducing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cell cultures. NCS treatment induces typical PCD-associated morphological and biochemical changes, namely cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear DNA degradation. To investigate possible signaling events, we analyzed the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the function of mitochondria during PCD induced by NCS. A biphasic behavior burst of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was detected in TBY-2 cells treated with NCS, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) loss occurred after a slight increase. Pre-incubation with antioxidant catalase (CAT) and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) not only significantly decreased the H(2)O(2) production but also effectively retarded the decrease of MTP and reduced the percentage of cells undergoing PCD after NCS treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that NCS induces PCD in plant cells; the oxidative stress (accumulation of H(2)O(2)) and the MTP loss play important roles during NCS-induced PCD. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  2. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.

  3. [Protective effect of mouse 2.5s nerve growth factor on PC12 cells from injury induced by 2, 5-hexanedione].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ling-cong; Xia, La-ju; Meng, Xiang-ping; Liu, Li; Gao, Xing-hua; Yang, Guo-cheng

    2006-03-01

    To explore whether the nerve growth factor has protective effects on PC12 cells from injury induced by 2, 5-hexanedione. With PC12 cells as the model of neurons, different concentrations of NGF were added into the culture of PC12 cells. Then cell viability was tested with MTT. The DNA fragment was observed with agarose gel electrophoresis. The apoptosis ratio was tested with flow cytometry (FACS). The p53 protein was detected with western blot. The differences among the groups were compared. Cell viabilities were increased with the increase of the concentrations of NGF (P nutritional effects on PC12 cells, and protect them from injury induced by 2, 5 HD. Moreover, it might also have anti-apoptosis effect to some extent.

  4. Promoter activity associated with the intergenic regions of banana bunchy top virus DNA-1 to -6 in transgenic tobacco and banana cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, B; Beetham, P R; Becker, D K; Harding, R M; Dale, J L

    1998-10-01

    Promoter regions associated with each of the six ssDNA components of banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) have been characterized. DNA segments incorporating the intergenic regions of BBTV DNA-1 to -6 were isolated and fused to the uidA (beta-glucuronidase) reporter gene to assess promoter activity. In tobacco cell suspensions, the BBTV DNA-2 and -6 promoters generated levels of GUS expression 2-fold greater and similar to the 800 bp CaMV 35S promoter, respectively. Deletion analysis of the BBTV DNA-6 promoter suggested all the necessary promoter elements required for strong expression were located within 239 nucleotides upstream of the translational start codon. In transgenic tobacco plants, the BBTV-derived promoters generally provided a weak, tissue-specific GUS expression pattern restricted to phloem-associated cells. However, in callus derived from tobacco leaf tissue, GUS expression directed by the BBTV DNA-6 promoter was strong and, in some lines, comparable to the CaMV 35S promoter. Detectable promoter activity associated with the BBTV promoters in banana embryogenic cells was only observed using a sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Promoters derived from BBTV DNA-4 and -5 generated the highest levels of transient activity, which were greater than that of the maize ubi-1 promoter. In transgenic banana plants, the activity of the BBTV DNA-6 promoter was restricted to the phloem of leaves and roots, stomata and root meristems.

  5. ATM activation accompanies histone H2AX phosphorylation in A549 cells upon exposure to tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traganos Frank

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to DNA damage or structural alterations of chromatin, histone H2AX may be phosphorylated on Ser139 by phosphoinositide 3-kinase related protein kinases (PIKKs such as ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, ATM-and Rad-3 related (ATR kinase, or by DNA dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs. When DNA damage primarily involves formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, H2AX is preferentially phosphorylated by ATM rather than by the other PIKKs. We have recently reported that brief exposure of human pulmonary adenocarcinoma A549 cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE to cigarette smoke (CS induced phosphorylation of H2AX. Results We report here that H2AX phosphorylation in A549 cells induced by CS was accompanied by activation of ATM, as revealed by ATM phosphorylation on Ser1981 (ATM-S1981P detected immunocytochemically and by Western blotting. No cell cycle-phase specific differences in kinetics of ATM activation and H2AX phosphorylation were observed. When cells were exposed to CS from cigarettes with different tobacco and filter combinations, the expression levels of ATM-S1981P correlated well with the increase in expression of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX (R = 0.89. In addition, we note that while CS-induced γH2AX expression was localized within discrete foci, the activated ATM was distributed throughout the nucleoplasm. Conclusion These data implicate ATM as the PIKK that phosphorylates H2AX in response to DNA damage caused by CS. Based on current understanding of ATM activation, expression and localization, these data would suggest that, in addition to inducing potentially carcinogenic DSB lesions, CS may also trigger other types of DNA lesions and cause chromatin alterations. As checkpoint kinase (Chk 1, Chk2 and the p53 tumor suppressor gene are known to be phosphorylated by ATM, the present data indicate that exposure to CS may lead to their phosphorylation, with the downstream consequences

  6. Biotransformation of isonitrosoacetophenone (2-keto-2-phenyl-acetaldoxime) in tobacco cell suspensions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madala, NE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana tabacum cell suspensions, 2g wet wt/ml, rapidly took up 1 mM isonitrosoacetophenone (INAP), a plant-derived stress metabolite with anti-oxidative and anti-fungal properties, producing 40-hexopyranosyloxy-30-methoxyisonitrosoacetophenone...

  7. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Sharma, Shivani; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2017-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Viruses are the causative agents of approximately 10-15% of all cancers worldwide (Cancers, 6, 2014 and 2155). The tumorigenic roles of Epstein-Barr virus in oral cancer are unclear. Literature search results are conflicting and dependent on various factors such as geographical/regional variations, sociocultural lifestyles, dietary habits, chewing/smoking tobacco habit. This study is the first original observation about frequency of Epstein-Barr virus among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients to elucidate its involvement in oral carcinogenesis and to know whether this can be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator. A total number of 75 tobacco chewer subjects aged between 23 and 76 years with histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (25), oral squamous cell carcinoma (25), and age-matched healthy controls (25) formed the study group. Immunohistochemical expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 was assessed among cases and healthy controls. Out of the total 75 subjects, six subjects (8%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus antigen and 69 subjects (92%) negative. The antigen positivity was observed among two cases of moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma, two cases of leukoplakia, and two healthy controls. No significant association between Epstein-Barr virus positivity was observed among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients. This can be partially explained by the methodology employed, by the patient population analyzed and different habits in various geographical regions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Promiscuous, non-catalytic, tandem carbohydrate-binding modules modulate the cell-wall structure and development of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obembe, Olawole O.; Jacobsen, Evert; Timmers, Jaap; Gilbert, Harry; Blake, Anthony W.; Knox, J. Paul; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2007-01-01

    We have compared heterologous expression of two types of carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in tobacco cell walls. These are the promiscuous CBM29 modules (a tandem CBM29-1-2 and its single derivative CBM29-2), derived from a non-catalytic protein1, NCP1, of the Piromyces equi cellulase/hemicellulase complex, and the less promiscuous tandem CBM2b-1-2 from the Cellulomonas fimi xylanase 11A. CBM-labelling studies revealed that CBM29-1-2 binds indiscriminately to every tissue of the wild-type tobacco stem whereas binding of CBM2b-1-2 was restricted to vascular tissue. The promiscuous CBM29-1-2 had much more pronounced effects on transgenic tobacco plants than the less promiscuous CBM2b-1-2. Reduced stem elongation and prolonged juvenility, resulting in delayed flower development, were observed in transformants expressing CBM29-1-2 whereas such growth phenotypes were not observed for CBM2b-1-2 plants. Histological examination and electron microscopy revealed layers of collapsed cortical cells in the stems of CBM29-1-2 plants whereas cellular deformation in the stem cortical cells of CBM2b-1-2 transformants was less severe. Altered cell expansion was also observed in most parts of the CBM29-1-2 stem whereas for the CBM2b-1-2 stem this was observed in the xylem cells only. The cellulose content of the transgenic plants was not altered. These results support the hypothesis that CBMs can modify cell wall structure leading to modulation of wall loosening and plant growth. PMID:17622484

  9. Heterologous expression of plant cell wall glycosyltransferases in Pichia, pea and tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent Larsen; Damager, Iben; Faber, Kirsten

    The plant cell wall (CW) consists of numerous complex and uniqe carbohydrate polymer structures. Although the structure (sugar composition) of the various plant CW components are known in some detail, functional characterisation of of the more than 300 glycosyltransferases (GTs), that are believed...... to participate in plant CW biosynthesis, has been achieved in only a few cases. We have previously reported the characterisation of two highly homologous plant-specific membrane-bound GTs, which when expressed as secreted tagged soluble proteins in the baculo virus system, catalysed the transfer of xylose from...... UDP-xylose on to the monosaccharide sugar fucose. Partly based on these data, the two genes were proposed to function in the biosynthesis of pectic rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and designated RhamnoGalacturonan XylosylTransferase 1 and -2 (RGXT1 and -2), accordingly (Egelund et al. 2006, The Plant...

  10. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  11. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per

  12. Human papillomavirus (HPV) status of non-tobacco related squamous cell carcinomas of the lateral tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, JS; Ma, X-J; Bui, S; Luo, Y; Li, R; Koch, WM; Westra, WH

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important cause of some head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), but its role in cancer of the lateral tongue is debatable. Suspicion of HPV causation is heightened when these lateral tongue carcinomas arise in patients that are young and/or have never smoked. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of transcriptionally active high risk HPV in these tumors, with a particular emphasis on non-smoking patients who are often presumed to have HPV-positive tumors. Methods We evaluated 78 HNSCCs of the lateral tongue for the presence of HPV using p16 immunohistochemistry and an RNA in situ hybridization assay targeting HPV E6/E7 mRNA. The study population was enriched for patients without traditional risk factors such as smoking and drinking. Results P16 overexpression was detected in 9 (11.5%) of 78 cases, but HPV E6/E7 mRNA transcripts were detected in only 1 (1.3%) case (positive predictive value of p16 staining for the presence of transcriptionally active HPV = 0.12). HPV mRNA transcripts were not detected in any patient under 40 (n = 11), or in patients who had never smoked (n=44), had quit smoking (n=15), and/or were only light consumers of alcohol (n = 57). Conclusions HPV is not detected in the vast majority of lateral tongue carcinomas. In light of the observation that HPV plays little if any role in the development of these cancers, routine HPV testing is unwarranted , even for patients without traditional risk factors. P16 staining is not a reliable marker for the presence of transcriptionally active HPV at this particular anatomic site. PMID:24485566

  13. Left ventricular myocardial performance assessed by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with sickle cell crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Shantanu P; Jaju, Rahul; Nugurwar, Abhijeet; Caracciolo, Giuseppe; Sengupta, Partho P

    2012-01-01

    The status of left ventricle in sickle cell anemia presenting in sickle crisis and follow up has been minimally studied in past. To determine the left ventricular (LV) myocardial performance in these patients, we performed the study to assess two dimensional strains imaging which allowed a rapid and an accurate analysis of global and regional LV myocardial performance in longitudinal, radial, and circumferential directions. In this prospective study, 2-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) images of the LV were obtained in 52 subjects which included 32 patients (23 ± 8yrs, 16 male) with homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA) in sickle cell crisis and 20 healthy controls (23 ± 5 yrs, 11 male) using apical 4-chamber and parasternal short-axis at the basal, mid, and apical levels. Of these 32 patients, 2DE was performed again in 18 patients in follow up (8 months ± 5 days). Longitudinal, circumferential and radial strains (LS, CS and RS respectively) were quantified and compared in an 18-segment model using a novel speckle tracking system (2D Cardiac Performance Analysis, TomTec Imaging System, Munich, Germany). There was no significant difference in LV ejection fraction between both the groups (59.32 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 7.9; p-value > 0.05). In comparison with normal controls and follow up of sickle cell patients, peak LS was significantly attenuated in the subendocardial and subepicardial regions during sickle cell crisis (p crisis showed significantly higher radial strain parameters than controls (p crisis have reduced longitudinal shortening. LV myocardial performance remains unaltered due to relatively preserved circumferential shortening and increased radial thickening. Copyright © 2012 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... tobacco that are known to cause cancer. HEALTH RISKS OF SMOKING OR USING SMOKELESS TOBACCO Knowing the ...

  15. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadoon Nivia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  16. Production by Tobacco Transplastomic Plants of Recombinant Fungal and Bacterial Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes to Be Used for Cellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Longoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels from renewable plant biomass are gaining momentum due to climate change related to atmospheric CO2 increase. However, the production cost of enzymes required for cellulosic biomass saccharification is a major limiting step in this process. Low-cost production of large amounts of recombinant enzymes by transgenic plants was proposed as an alternative to the conventional microbial based fermentation. A number of studies have shown that chloroplast-based gene expression offers several advantages over nuclear transformation due to efficient transcription and translation systems and high copy number of the transgene. In this study, we expressed in tobacco chloroplasts microbial genes encoding five cellulases and a polygalacturonase. Leaf extracts containing the recombinant enzymes showed the ability to degrade various cell-wall components under different conditions, singly and in combinations. In addition, our group also tested a previously described thermostable xylanase in combination with a cellulase and a polygalacturonase to study the cumulative effect on the depolymerization of a complex plant substrate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using transplastomic tobacco leaf extracts to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into reducing sugars, fulfilling a major prerequisite of large scale availability of a variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes for biofuel industry.

  17. Production by Tobacco Transplastomic Plants of Recombinant Fungal and Bacterial Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes to Be Used for Cellulosic Biomass Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Paolo; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Doria, Enrico; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Cella, Rino

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels from renewable plant biomass are gaining momentum due to climate change related to atmospheric CO2 increase. However, the production cost of enzymes required for cellulosic biomass saccharification is a major limiting step in this process. Low-cost production of large amounts of recombinant enzymes by transgenic plants was proposed as an alternative to the conventional microbial based fermentation. A number of studies have shown that chloroplast-based gene expression offers several advantages over nuclear transformation due to efficient transcription and translation systems and high copy number of the transgene. In this study, we expressed in tobacco chloroplasts microbial genes encoding five cellulases and a polygalacturonase. Leaf extracts containing the recombinant enzymes showed the ability to degrade various cell-wall components under different conditions, singly and in combinations. In addition, our group also tested a previously described thermostable xylanase in combination with a cellulase and a polygalacturonase to study the cumulative effect on the depolymerization of a complex plant substrate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using transplastomic tobacco leaf extracts to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into reducing sugars, fulfilling a major prerequisite of large scale availability of a variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes for biofuel industry.

  18. The impact of tobacco additives on cigarette smoke toxicity: a critical appraisal of tobacco industry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Oliveira, Ana Cecilia Amado Xavier de

    2017-09-21

    Cigarette production involves a number of substances and materials other than just tobacco, paper and a filter. Tobacco additives include flavorings, enhancers, humectants, sugars, and ammonium compounds. Although companies maintain that tobacco additives do not enhance smoke toxicity and do not make cigarettes more attractive or addictive, these claims are questioned by independent researchers. This study reviewed the studies on the effects of tobacco additives on smoke chemistry and toxicity. Tobacco additives lead to higher levels of formaldehyde and minor changes in other smoke analytes. Toxicological studies (bacterial mutagenicity and mammalian cytoxicity tests, rat 90 days inhalation studies and bone-marrow cell micronucleus assays) found that tobacco additives did not enhance smoke toxicity. Rodent assays, however, poorly predicted carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke, and were clearly underpowered to disclose small albeit toxicologically relevant differences between test (with tobacco additives) and control (without tobacco additives) cigarettes. This literature review led to the conclusion that the impact of tobacco additives on tobacco smoke harmfulness remains unclear.

  19. Tobacco smoking differently influences cell types of the innate and adaptive immune system-indications from CpG site methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Mario; Fink, Beate; Thürmann, Loreen; Eszlinger, Markus; Herberth, Gunda; Lehmann, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke is worldwide one of the main preventable lifestyle inhalative pollutants causing severe adverse health effects. Epidemiological studies revealed association of tobacco smoking with epigenetic changes at single CpGs in blood. However, the biological relevance of the often only marginal methylation changes remains unclear. Comparing genome-wide changes in CpG methylation of three recently reported epidemiological datasets, two obtained on whole blood and one on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), it becomes evident that the majority of methylation changes (86.7 and 93.3 %) in whole blood account for changes in granulocytes. Analyzing, in more detail, seven highly significant reported smoking-induced methylation changes at single CpGs in different blood cell types of healthy volunteers (n = 32), we confirmatively found a strong cell-type specificity. Two CpGs in GFI1 and F2RL3 were significantly hypomethylated in granulocytes (-11.3 %, p = 0.001; -8.7 %, p = 0.001, respectively) but not in PBMCs of smokers while two CpGs in CPOX and GPR15 were found to be hypomethylated in PBMC (-4.3 %, p = 0.003; -4.2 %, P = 0.009, respectively) and their subtypes of GPR15 non-expressing (-3.2 %, p = 0.027; -2.5 %, p = 0.032, respectively) and smoking-evoked GPR15 expressing T cells (-15.8 %, p smoking behavior at individual level and could therefore serve as valuable biomarkers indicating a disturbed homeostasis in smokers. In contrast to the reported long-term persistent methylation changes in adult smokers after cessation, the hypomethylation at cg05575921 in prenatally tobacco smoke-exposed children (n = 13) from our LINA cohort was less stable and disappeared already within 2 years after birth. Studying cell type-specific methylation changes provides helpful information regarding the biological relevance of epigenetic modifications. Here, we could show that smoking differently affects both cells of the innate and

  20. Myofibroblast presence in apparently normal mucosa adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with chronic tobacco/areca nut use: evidence for field cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Punnya V; Patil, Prakash V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema; Babji, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Myofibroblasts are primary cellular components of activated tumor stroma, associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, their role in field cancerization has not been addressed. This study aims to evaluate the presence of myofibroblasts in patient-matched histologically normal mucosa adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNMAOSCC) and OSCC tissues. Fifty patient-matched tissues of OSCC and HNMAOSCC associated with chronic areca nut/tobacco use were subjected to immunohistochemistry using α-SMA for detection of myofibroblasts. Normal oral mucosa (n = 15) were stained as controls. The number of α-SMA stained myofibroblasts in OSCC and HNMAOSCC were significantly increased as compared to that of the normal controls (p cancerization and their potential use as a field effect marker.

  1. Production of a functional human acid maltase in tobacco seeds: biochemical analysis, uptake by human GSDII cells, and in vivo studies in GAA knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Frank; Reggi, Serena; Tchou-Wong, Kam-Meng; Rom, William N; Busconi, Matteo; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-10-01

    Genetic deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) results in glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) or Pompe's disease. To investigate whether we could generate a functional recombinant human GAA enzyme (tobrhGAA) in tobacco seeds for future enzyme replacement therapy, we subcloned the human GAA cDNA into the plant expression plasmid-pBI101 under the control of the soybean β-conglycinin seed-specific promoter and biochemically analyzed the tobrhGAA. Tobacco seeds contain the metabolic machinery that is more compatible with mammalian glycosylation-phosphorylation and processing. We found the tobrhGAA to be enzymatically active was readily taken up by GSDII fibroblasts and in white blood cells from whole blood to reverse the defect. The tobrhGAA corrected the enzyme defect in tissues at 7 days after a single dose following intraperitoneal (IP) administration in GAA knockout (GAA(-/-)) mice. Additionally, we could purify the tobrhGAA since it bound tightly to the matrix of Sephadex G100 and can be eluted by competition with maltose. These data demonstrate indirectly that the tobrhGAA is fully functional, predominantly proteolytically cleaved and contains the minimal phosphorylation and mannose-6-phosphate residues essential for biological activity.

  2. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Pregnancy Text Size: A A A Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Can smokeless tobacco affect my ... smokeless tobacco use cause other health problems? Can smokeless tobacco affect my oral health? It may cause tooth ...

  3. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  4. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  5. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Until recently, the Chinese tobacco industry has been run as a state-owned monopoly. It is reported, however, that two mainland tobacco firms have begun making Marlboro cigarettes under license from Philip Morris International. The combination of low-cost Marlboro cigarettes and Western marketing practices is likely to ...

  7. Signal Factors Secreted by 2D and Spheroid Mesenchymal Stem Cells and by Cocultures of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived Microvesicles and Retinal Photoreceptor Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Mao, Mao; Zhou, Liang; Zhang, Lusi; Jiang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    We aim to identify levels of signal factors secreted by MSCs cultured in 2D monolayers (2D-MSCs), spheroids (spheroids MSCs), and cocultures of microvesicles (MVs) derived from 2D-MSCs or spheroid MSCs and retinal photoreceptor neurons. We seeded 2D-MSCs, spheroid MSCs, and cells derived from spheroids MSCs at equal numbers. MVs isolated from all 3 culture conditions were incubated with 661W cells. Levels of 51 signal factors in conditioned medium from those cultured conditions were quantified with bead-based assay. We found that IL-8, IL-6, and GROα were the top three most abundant signal factors. Moreover, compared to 2D-MSCs, levels of 11 cytokines and IL-2Rα were significantly increased in conditioned medium from spheroid MSCs. Finally, to test if enhanced expression of these factors reflects altered immunomodulating activities, we assessed the effect of 2D-MSC-MVs and 3D-MSC-MVs on CD14+ cell chemoattraction. Compared to 2D-MSC-MVs, 3D-MSC-MVs significantly decreased the chemotactic index of CD14+ cells. Our results suggest that spheroid culture conditions improve the ability of MSCs to selectively secrete signal factors. Moreover, 3D-MSC-MVs also possessed an enhanced capability to promote signal factors secretion compared to 2D-MSC-MVs and may possess enhanced immunomodulating activities and might be a better regenerative therapy for retinal degenerative diseases.

  8. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, adults, and athletes DON’T use tobacco. Make friends, develop athletic skills, control weight, be independent, be cool … play sports. Don’t waste (burn) money on tobacco. Spend ...

  9. Tobacco, Nicotine, and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Migraineurs variably attribute the cause of their headache to tobacco exposure, whereas tobacco is often stated to cause headache-related disability worldwide. Given tobacco's physiological and emotional addictiveness and migraine's substantial economic impact, improved functionality can be difficult for those with migraine exposed to tobacco products. Environmental tobacco exposure in indoor spaces and workplaces is associated with exacerbation of headache. Avoidance of headache triggers is included in most comprehensive migraine treatment programs, yet tobacco awareness, avoidance, or coping is rarely emphasized as part of that regimen. The aims of this study were to examine the various types of tobacco products to which headache sufferers are exposed and the known basic mechanisms by which tobacco (nicotine) exposure promotes headache pain, and to review the extensive literature on tobacco related to headache with a detailed descriptive narrative providing the basis for conclusions regarding association of noncluster headache-related tobacco exposure. Tobacco-related recommendations are offered. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched without yearly restriction through the date of submission (May 2015), using the MeSH terms "tobacco," "tobacco products," "smoking," "tobacco use," "headache," and "headache disorders." The selection of articles was not limited to English studies or to humans. Articles were excluded when "headache" and "tobacco" were not both mentioned with data provided. Case series were included. Bibliographies of all articles were screened for additional relevant articles. Although migraineurs worldwide report tobacco smoke among triggers, it is rarely among the highest in frequency, and biases abound with predominantly noncontrolled retrospective data. Prospective population-based diary data are extremely limited, and no controlled trials exist to confirm a cause and effect for headache of any type. Although some studies are

  10. Biological impact of cigarette smoke compared to an aerosol produced from a prototypic modified risk tobacco product on normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, U; Gonzalez Suarez, I; Xiang, Y; Dossin, E; Guy, P A; Mathis, C; Marescotti, D; Goedertier, D; Martin, F; Peitsch, M C; Hoeng, J

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking causes serious and fatal diseases. The best way for smokers to avoid health risks is to quit smoking. Using modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) may be an alternative to reduce the harm caused for those who are unwilling to quit smoking, but little is known about the toxic effects of MRTPs, nor were the molecular mechanisms of toxicity investigated in detail. The toxicity of an MRTP and the potential molecular mechanisms involved were investigated in high-content screening tests and whole genome transcriptomics analyses using human bronchial epithelial cells. The prototypic (p)MRTP that was tested had less impact than reference cigarette 3R4F on the cellular oxidative stress response and cell death pathways. Higher pMRTP aerosol extract concentrations had impact on pathways associated with the detoxification of xenobiotics and the reduction of oxidative damage. A pMRTP aerosol concentration up to 18 times higher than the 3R4F caused similar perturbation effects in biological networks and led to the perturbation of networks related to cell stress, and proliferation biology. These results may further facilitate the development of a systems toxicology-based impact assessment for use in future risk assessments in line with the 21st century toxicology paradigm, as shown here for an MRTP. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Sugar uptake analysis of suspension Arabidopsis, tobacco, and rice cells in various media using an FT-IR/ATR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehara, Ken-ichiro; Kameoka, Takaharu; Hashimoto, Atsushi

    2012-10-01

    The kinetic behavior of the sugar uptake phenomena of a suspension of Arabidopsis cells was investigated by mid-infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform infrared spectrometers and attenuated total reflection techniques. The kinetic behavior of the cell growth was also studied and the growth and the sugar uptake behaviors were discussed for three typical plant cells (Arabidopsis, TBY-2, and rice cells). The cell growth rate and the lag period were influenced by not only the types of the plant cells, but also the sugar species used as the carbon source. The characteristics of the sugar uptake behavior were clarified based on the difference in the three types of plant cells. The cell growth and the sugar uptake progressed at approximately the same time in the TBY-2 cells. In the rice cells, the sugar uptake rate was relatively lower than that of the others. On the other hand, the sugar uptake of the Arabidopsis cells started before the cell growth. Furthermore, glucose as the carbon source of the Arabidopsis cell cultivation seems to significantly influence the sugar metabolism. Glucose had a significant influence on the sugar metabolism of the other sugar under the conditions for the mixture of glucose and the other sugar. The characteristics of the sugar uptake phenomena based on the cell growth stage was typical for each plant cell except for some sugars, such as galactose and trehalose, and the behavior of the total sugar uptake had not changed. These results suggested that the cell growth and the sugar uptake in the plant cell cultivation processes may be controlled by the combined supply of the sugar species as the carbon source. The detailed data for plant cell cultivation using each sugar obtained in this study would be useful for bioscience research and for cultivation process control using various sugars, for example, purified or sugar mixtures formed from biomass materials.

  12. Nitric oxide enhances osmoregulation of tobacco ( Nicotiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further study indicated that SNP treatments led to relatively lower cell solute potential and higher water potential, which was beneficial for maintaining cell pressure potential under PEG stress. These results indicate that NO could improve the tolerance of tobacco cells to osmotic stress by enhancing their osmoregulation ...

  13. Cell wall biochemical alterations during Agrobacterium-mediated expression of haemagglutinin-based influenza virus-like vaccine particles in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Mauff, François; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne; Bardor, Muriel; Berard, Caroline; Doucet, Alain; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Vezina, Louis-Philippe; Driouich, Azeddine; Couture, Manon M-J; Lerouge, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs) have been shown to induce a safe and potent immune response through both humoral and cellular responses. They represent promising novel influenza vaccines. Plant-based biotechnology allows for the large-scale production of VLPs of biopharmaceutical interest using different model organisms, including Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Through this platform, influenza VLPs bud from the plasma membrane and accumulate between the membrane and the plant cell wall. To design and optimize efficient production processes, a better understanding of the plant cell wall composition of infiltrated tobacco leaves is a major interest for the plant biotechnology industry. In this study, we have investigated the alteration of the biochemical composition of the cell walls of N. benthamiana leaves subjected to abiotic and biotic stresses induced by the Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation and the resulting high expression levels of influenza VLPs. Results show that abiotic stress due to vacuum infiltration without Agrobacterium did not induce any detectable modification of the leaf cell wall when compared to non infiltrated leaves. In contrast, various chemical changes of the leaf cell wall were observed post-Agrobacterium infiltration. Indeed, Agrobacterium infection induced deposition of callose and lignin, modified the pectin methylesterification and increased both arabinosylation of RG-I side chains and the expression of arabinogalactan proteins. Moreover, these modifications were slightly greater in plants expressing haemagglutinin-based VLP than in plants infiltrated with the Agrobacterium strain containing only the p19 suppressor of silencing. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Multiple elements of the S2-RNase promoter from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) are required for cell type-specific expression in transgenic potato and tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ficker, M.; Kirch, H.H.; Eijlander, R.; Jacobsen, E.; Thompson, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    A functional analysis of the promoter of the S2-RNase gene from potato was performed in transgenic potato and tobacco plants, using a deletion series of S2-RNase promoter GUS fusions. A detailed histochemical and quantitative analysis of the transgenic tobacco plants revealed that S2 promoter

  15. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  16. Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study regarding Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farshadpour, F.; Konings, S.; Speel, E.J.; Hordijk, G.J.; Koole, R.A.; Blokland, M. van; Slootweg, P.J.; Kummer, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine the role of HPV in the pathogenesis and outcome of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in lifelong nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. A case-case analysis was performed to compare the presence of HPV-DNA in tumor cells of 16 nonsmoking and nondrinking with 16 matched

  17. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  19. Molecular modeling of major tobacco alkaloids in mainstream cigarette smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Kurgat, Caren; Kibet, Joshua; Cheplogoi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Consensus of opinion in literature regarding tobacco research has shown that cigarette smoke can cause irreparable damage to the genetic material, cell injury, and general respiratory landscape. The alkaloid family of tobacco has been implicated is a series of ailments including addiction, mental illnesses, psychological disorders, and cancer. Accordingly, this contribution describes the mechanistic degradation of major tobacco alkaloids including the widely studied nicotine and tw...

  20. Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Dominika; Szymański, Jędrzej; Patalas-Krawczyk, Paulina; Michalska, Bernadeta; Wojtala, Aleksandra; Prill, Monika; Partyka, Małgorzata; Drabik, Karolina; Walczak, Jarosław; Sewer, Alain; Johne, Stephanie; Luettich, Karsta; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; Duszyński, Jerzy; Szczepanowska, Joanna; van der Toorn, Marco; Wieckowski, Mariusz R

    2018-02-12

    Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by cigarette smoke is involved in the oxidative stress-induced pathology of airway diseases. Reducing the levels of harmful and potentially harmful constituents by heating rather than combusting tobacco may reduce mitochondrial changes that contribute to oxidative stress and cell damage. We evaluated mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells following 1- and 12-week exposures to total particulate matter (TPM) from the aerosol of a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2), in comparison with TPM from the 3R4F reference cigarette. After 1-week exposure, 3R4F TPM had a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates compared to TPM from THS2.2. Alterations in oxidative phosphorylation were accompanied by increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and increased levels of oxidatively damaged proteins in cells exposed to 7.5 μg/mL of 3R4F TPM or 150 μg/mL of THS2.2 TPM, while cytosolic levels of reactive oxygen species were not affected. In contrast, the 12-week exposure indicated adaptation of BEAS-2B cells to long-term stress. Altogether, the findings indicate that 3R4F TPM has a stronger effect on oxidative phosphorylation, gene expression and proteins involved in oxidative stress than TPM from the candidate modified-risk tobacco product THS2.2. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Assessment of cellular and serum proteome from tongue squamous cell carcinoma patient lacking addictive proclivities for tobacco, betel nut and alcohol: Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowal, Sapna; Naqvi, Samar Husain; Monga, Seema; Jain, Swatantra Kumar; Wajid, Saima

    2017-12-13

    The intriguing molecular pathways involved in oral carcinogenesis are still ambiguous. The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks as the most common type constituting more than 90% of the globally diagnosed oral cancers cases. The elevation in the OSCC incidence rate during past ten years has an alarming impression on human healthcare. The major challenges associated with OSCC include delayed diagnosis, high metastatic rates, and low five-year survival rates. The present work foundations on reverse genetic strategy and involves the identification of genes showing expressional variability in an OSCC case lacking addictive proclivities for tobacco, betel nut and/or alcohol, major etiologies. The expression modulations in the identified genes were analyzed in sixteen patients comprising oral pre-cancer and cancer histo-pathologies. The genes: SCCA1 and KRT1 were found to down regulate while DNAJC13, GIPC2, MRPL17, IG -Vreg, SSFA2, and UPF0415 upregulated in the oral pre-cancer and cancer pathologies, implicating the genes as crucial players in oral carcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyclonal antibodies for specific detection of tobacco host cell proteins can be efficiently generated following RuBisCO depletion and the removal of endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arfi, Zulfaquar Ahmad; Hellwig, Stephan; Drossard, Jürgen; Fischer, Rainer; Buyel, Johannes Felix

    2016-03-01

    The production of biopharmaceutical proteins in plants requires efficient downstream processing steps that remove impurities such as host cell proteins (HCPs) and adventitious endotoxins produced by bacteria during transient expression. We therefore strived to develop effective routines for endotoxin removal from plant extracts and the subsequent use of the extracts to generate antibodies detecting a broad set of HCPs. At first, we depleted the superabundant protein ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) for which PEG precipitation achieved the best results, preventing a dominant immune reaction against this protein. We found that a mixture of sera from rabbits immunized with pre-depleted or post-depleted extracts detected more HCPs than the individual sera used alone. We also developed a powerful endotoxin removal procedure using Polymyxin B for extracts from wild type plants or a combination of fiber-flow filtration and EndoTrap Blue for tobacco plants infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The antibodies we generated will be useful for quality and performance assessment in future process development and the methods we present can easily be transferred to other expression systems rendering them useful in the field of plant molecular farming. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  4. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... friends, family, and coworkers to quit using tobacco. Teach children and adolescents about the health risks of tobacco ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: English (US) Español ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  5. Tobacco Cessation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labani Satyanarayana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the most common cause of non-communicable disease related morbidity and mortality worldwide despite being preventable. Almost fifty percent or more than seven million tobacco users get killed each year and about 13 percent of them are non-smokers being exposed to second hand smoke (1. According to the recent National family health survey (NFHS-4 study for the year 2015-16, there were 38.9% men who use any kind of tobacco in urban while 48% in rural areas of India. On the other hand, 4.4% of women in urban and 8.1% in rural use any kind of tobacco. Prevalence of tobacco use in the ages of 13-15 among boys was 19% and girls 8.3 % according to global youth tobacco survey of 2009. The tobacco dependence was considered as disease by the international classification of diseases (ICD 10. Proportion of tobacco related cancers in comparison to all other cancers were reported to be as high as 25% in men and 18% in women (2.

  6. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  7. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  8. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  9. Suppression of cell expansion by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic petunia an tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kater, M.M.; Franken, J.; Aelst, van A.; Angenent, G.C.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular and genetic analyses have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene SUPERMAN (SUP) has at least two functions in Arabidopsis flower development. SUP is necessary to control the correct distribution of cells with either a stamen or carpel fate, and is essential for proper outgrowth of the

  10. Ultrastructural analysis of oral exfoliated epithelial cells of tobacco smokers and betel nut chewers: A scanning electron microscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameera Shamim Khan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In normal oral mucosa, cell surface morphology depends on the state of keratinization of the tissue. Thus, it could prove helpful in detecting any carcinomatous change at its incipient stage and also give an insight into the ultra-structural details of cellular differentiations in epithelial tissues.

  11. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  12. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality. Book cover Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming. Directeur(s) : Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours, and Daniel Buckles. Maison(s) d'édition : Anthem Press, IDRC. 10 septembre 2014. ISBN : 9781783082933. 250 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552505823.

  13. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming : Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming : Separating Myth from Reality. Couverture du livre Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming. Editor(s):. Wardie Leppan, Natacha Lecours et Daniel Buckles. Publisher(s):. Anthem Press, CRDI. September 10, 2014. ISBN: 9781783082933. 250 pages. e-ISBN: 9781552505823.

  14. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  15. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco consumed. Surveys will be carried out at six months and one, two ... Tabagisme, tabagisme passif, maladies chroniques et pauvreté en Chine. La mondialisation de l'industrie du tabac ...

  16. Tobacco Use among ARV Treated HIV Infected Rural South Africans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco use remains one of the major cardiovascular risk factors and its use in antiretroviral (ARV) treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected people may lead to activation of immune cells and rendering them ... Keywords: Tobacco Use, Cardiovascular Disease, Antiretroviral, Human Immunodeficiency Virus ...

  17. Similar, but different: structurally related azelaic acid and hexanoic acid trigger differential metabolomic and transcriptomic responses in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djami-Tchatchou, Arnaud T; Ncube, Efficient N; Steenkamp, Paul A; Dubery, Ian A

    2017-11-29

    Plants respond to various stress stimuli by activating an enhanced broad-spectrum defensive ability. The development of novel resistance inducers represents an attractive, alternative crop protection strategy. In this regard, hexanoic acid (Hxa, a chemical elicitor) and azelaic acid (Aza, a natural signaling compound) have been proposed as inducers of plant defense, by means of a priming mechanism. Here, we investigated both the mode of action and the complementarity of Aza and Hxa as priming agents in Nicotiana tabacum cells in support of enhanced defense. Metabolomic analyses identified signatory biomarkers involved in the establishment of a pre-conditioned state following Aza and Hxa treatment. Both inducers affected the metabolomes in a similar manner and generated common biomarkers: caffeoylputrescine glycoside, cis-5-caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylglycoside, feruloyl-3-methoxytyramine glycoside and feruloyl-3-methoxytyramine conjugate. Subsequently, quantitative real time-PCR was used to investigate the expression of inducible defense response genes: phenylalanine ammonia lyase, hydroxycinnamoyl CoA quinate transferase and hydroxycinnamoyl transferase to monitor activation of the early phenylpropanoid pathway and chlorogenic acids metabolism, while ethylene response element-binding protein, small sar1 GTPase, heat shock protein 90, RAR1, SGT1, non-expressor of PR genes 1 and thioredoxin were analyzed to report on signal transduction events. Pathogenesis-related protein 1a and defensin were quantified to investigate the activation of defenses regulated by salicylic acid and jasmonic acid respectively. The qPCR results revealed differential expression kinetics and, in general (except for NPR1, Thionin and PR1a), the relative gene expression ratios observed in the Hxa-treated cells were significantly greater than the expression observed in the cells treated with Aza. The results indicate that Aza and Hxa have a similar priming effect through activation of genes

  18. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  19. Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study regarding Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Farshadpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the role of HPV in the pathogenesis and outcome of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in lifelong nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. A case-case analysis was performed to compare the presence of HPV-DNA in tumor cells of 16 nonsmoking and nondrinking with 16 matched smoking and drinking patients (matching criteria: age at incidence, gender, tumor sublocation, tumor stage. HPV was detected using 2 PCR tests, FISH analysis, and p16INK4A immunostaining. Nonsmoking and nondrinking patients had more HPV-positive tumors than smoking and drinking patients (n=12; 75% versus n=2; 13%; P<0.001. All HPV-positive tumors showed p16INK4A overexpression, and 1 HPV-negative tumor had p16INK4A overexpression, (P<0.001. Overall survival and disease-specific survival were higher for HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative cases (P=0.027, P=0.039, resp.. In conclusion, HPV is strongly associated with OSCC of nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. Specific diagnostic and therapeutic actions should be considered for these patients to achieve a better prognosis.

  20. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cycle Glossary of Terms FAQ Infographics Shareable Media Subscription Services Publication Catalog Get Email Updates To receive ... 770-488-5493. Fact Sheets Adult Data Cessation Economics Fast Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco ...

  1. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigar use have generally declined, sharp increases in e-cigarette and hookah tobacco use among teens in previous ... dangers of using electronic nicotine delivery systems, like e-cigarettes. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the same highly ...

  2. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  3. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarette, emphasizing its cool and refreshing taste. In reality, menthol reduces the harshness of cigarette smoke, which ... the use of non-cigarette smoked tobacco products increased dramatically. The largest increases were in use of ...

  4. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  5. Price and consumption of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Saxena, Puneet; Meena, Hardayal; Mangal, Daya Krishan

    2012-07-01

    It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%). Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  6. Tobacco and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance (with and without glucose intolerance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state. Tobacco use is associated with various core components of metabolic syndrome. It has been found to play a causal role in various pathways leading on to development this condition, the current article discusses various facets of this association.

  7. The p53 tumour suppressor gene and the tobacco industry: research, debate, and conflict of interest

    OpenAIRE

    Bitton, A; Neuman, M D; Barnoya, J; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    Mutations in the p53 tumour suppressor gene lead to uncontrolled cell division and are found in over 50% of all human tumours, including 60% of lung cancers. Research published in 1996 by Denissenko and colleagues demonstrated patterned in-vitro mutagenic effects on p53 of benzo[a]pyrene, a carcinogen present in tobacco smoke. We investigated the tobacco industry's response to p53 research linking smoking to cancer. We searched online tobacco document archives, including the Legacy Tobacco Do...

  8. Scaled-up manufacturing of recombinant antibodies produced by plant cells in a 200-L orbitally-shaken disposable bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, N.; Rasche, F.; Kuehn, C.; Anderlei, T.; Klöckner, W.; Schuster, F.; Henquet, M.G.L.; Bosch, H.J.; Büchs, J.; Fischer, R.; Schillberg, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells have emerged as a promising platform for the manufacture of biopharmaceutical proteins, offering efficient protein secretion, favourable growth characteristics and cultivation in containment under a controlled environment. The cultivation of BY-2 cells in disposable bioreactors is

  9. Neural precursor cell proliferation is disrupted through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latchney, Sarah E; Lioy, Daniel T; Henry, Ellen C; Gasiewicz, Thomas A; Strathmann, Frederick G; Mayer-Pröschel, Margot; Opanashuk, Lisa A

    2011-02-01

    Neurogenesis involves the proliferation of multipotent neuroepithelial stem cells followed by differentiation into lineage-restricted neural precursor cells (NPCs) during the embryonic period. Interestingly, these progenitor cells express robust levels of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates expression of genes important for growth regulation, and xenobiotic metabolism. Upon binding 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a pervasive environmental contaminant and potent AhR ligand, AhR, is activated and disrupts gene expression patterns to produce cellular toxicity. Because of its widespread distribution in the brain during critical proliferative phases of neurogenesis, it is conceivable that AhR participates in NPC expansion. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that AhR activation by TCDD disrupts signaling events that regulate NPC proliferation. The C17.2 NPC line served as a model system to (1) assess whether NPCs are targets for TCDD-induced neurotoxicity and (2) characterize the effects of TCDD on NPC proliferation. We demonstrated that C17.2 NPCs express an intact AhR signaling pathway that becomes transcriptionally active after TCDD exposure. (3)H-thymidine and alamar blue reduction assays indicated that TCDD suppresses NPC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner without the loss of cell viability. Cell cycle distribution analysis by flow cytometry revealed that TCDD-induced growth arrest results from an impaired G1 to S cell cycle transition. Moreover, TCDD exposure altered p27( kip1) and cyclin D1 cell cycle regulatory protein expression levels consistent with a G1 phase arrest. Initial studies in primary NPCs isolated from the ventral forebrain of embryonic mice demonstrated that TCDD reduced cell proliferation through a G1 phase arrest, corroborating our findings in the C17.2 cell line. Together, these observations suggest that the inappropriate or sustained activation of Ah

  10. Receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-03-01

    The negative health consequences of tobacco use are well documented. Some research finds women receiving abortions are at increased risk of subsequent tobacco use. This literature has methodological problems, most importantly, inappropriate comparison groups. This study uses data from the Turnaway Study, a longitudinal study of women who all sought, but did not all receive, abortions at 30 facilities across the United States. Participants included women presenting just before an abortion facility's gestational age limit who received abortions (Near Limit Abortion Group, n = 452), just after the gestational limit who were denied abortions (Turnaways, n = 231), and who received first trimester abortions (First Trimester Abortion Group, n = 273). This study examined the association between receiving versus being denied an abortion and subsequent tobacco use over 2-years. Trajectories of tobacco use over 2 years were compared using multivariate mixed effects regression. Women receiving abortion maintained their level of tobacco use over 2 years. Women denied abortion initially had lower levels of tobacco use than women receiving abortion, but increased their tobacco use from 1 week through 12-18 months post-abortion seeking and then decreased their use by 2 years post-abortion seeking. Baseline parity modified these associations. Receiving an abortion was not associated with an increase in tobacco use over time. Overall, women who carry unwanted pregnancies to term appear to demonstrate similar cessation and resumption patterns to other pregnant women.

  11. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  12. An endgame for tobacco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E

    2013-05-01

    Since its origins in the 1960s, tobacco control has achieved remarkable success against the scourge of tobacco-produced disease and death. Yet tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, remains the world's leading cause of preventable premature death and is likely to do so for decades to come. Evidence-based policies seem incapable of substantially hastening the demise of smoking. Slowness in the decline of smoking in developed nations, and increasing smoking in many low- and middle-income countries has sparked interest in novel, even radical 'endgame' strategies to eliminate the toll of tobacco. This paper identifies the principal endgame proposals and, with the other papers in this volume, has the goal of expanding and deepening the endgame conversation by engaging the broader tobacco control community. While we struggle today with often widely divergent perspectives and beliefs about what is possible and how it might be achieved, we all share the same vision of the final words to this story: 'The end'.

  13. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative ...

  14. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has taken steps to control tobacco use. Its 2004 proclamation aims to curb consumption, as do higher tax rates on cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, in spite of these measures, tobacco consumption is increasing. Enforcement of the proclamation is weak, and cheap, smuggled cigarettes and other ...

  15. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Tobacco use in many Latin American countries is high among boys, girls, men, and women. However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates between lower- and higher-income groups in middle-income countries such ...

  16. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  17. Periodic acid‑Schiff staining method for function detection of liver cells is affected by 2% horse serum in induction medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hui; Ma, Wenjun; Cui, Jiejie; Gong, Mengjia; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; He, Tongchuan; Bi, Yang; He, Yun

    2017-12-01

    Developing a thorough understanding of experimental methods of hepatic differentiation in hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) should expand the knowledge of hepatocyte induction in vitro and may help to develop cell transplantation therapies for the clinical usage of HPCs in liver diseases. A previous induction method effectively induced differentiation and metabolic abilities in HPCs. Periodic acid‑Schiff (PAS) staining is used to identify glycogen synthesis and hepatocyte function; however, this method failed to detect induced hepatocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the possible factors affecting the previous confusing results of PAS staining. Removal of single induction factors, including dexamethasone, hepatic growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 4 from the induction media did not restore PAS staining, whereas replacement of 2% horse serum (HS) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) significantly increased the number of PAS positive cells. Following 12 days of basal induction, replacing the induction medium with media containing 10% FBS for 12‑72 h significantly improved PAS staining, but did not influence indocyanine green uptake. Furthermore, incubation in induction medium with 10% FBS following 12 days of normal induction did not affect the expression of hepatic markers and mature function of HPCs. Therefore, the present study suggested that 2% HS in the induction medium did not affect the hepatic function of induced cells, but did affect glycogen storage, whereas replacement of medium with 10% FBS in advance of PAS staining may restore the failure of PAS staining in low serum concentrations of induced hepatocytes.

  18. BeTobaccoFree.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ... Proposes New Tobacco Regulations Proposed new rule would cover cigars, e-cigarettes, pipe tobacco and other retail products not currently ...

  19. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Convenience Stores Not Your Grandfather's Cigar Global Marlboro Campaign YOUTH INITIATIVES Kick Butts Day Taking Down Tobacco ... Advocacy Incubator draws on lessons from tobacco control campaigns in over 50 countries to provide training and ...

  20. TOBACCO SMOKING AND LUNG DISEASES: EFFICIENCY OF TREATMENT APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Nikitin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents data on the significant increase of tobacco smoking prevalence and its harmful effect on the development and course of chronic respiratory diseases: tuberculosis, pneumonia, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Negative consequences of tobacco smoking are caused by chronic intoxication of the host by the components of tobacco smoke providing impact on various organs and cells of the host, thus causing a big variety of diseases. Both active and passive smoking deteriorates their course and increase the risk of exacerbation, hinders taking control over the disease and interferes with adequate response to drugs.Current approaches to treatment of tobacco addiction have been presented. There are several ways to overcome nicotine addiction – drug therapy and the other forms of therapy. Integrated approach to tobacco smoking management allows achieving success in 30% of cases within short period of time with continuous and quality remissions. 

  1. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  2. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the influence of the tobacco industry's direct and indirect activities on policy-makers, researchers, funding agencies, and opinion leaders. Appraisal of the perceived economic value of the tobacco industry to national economies and those whose livelihoods include income from tobacco production, marketing, or ...

  3. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  4. Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity from a Plasma Membrane Fraction of Acer pseudoplatanus Cells by 2,2,2-Trichloroethyl 3,4-Dichlorocarbanilate 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Jean-Pierre; de Cherade, Xavier; Bergon, Michel; Calmon, Jean-Pierre; Scalla, René

    1986-01-01

    2,2,2-Trichloroethyl 3,4-dichlorocarbanilate (SW26) is toxic for Acer pseudoplatanus cell cultures. It inhibited the cellular proton extrusion and depolarized the plasmalemma. In vitro, it inhibited the plasma membrane ATPase. SW 26 was also inhibitory to membrane ATPases of other origins—plant (maize shoot), fungus (Schizosaccharomyces pombe), and animal (dog kidney)—with about the same efficiency (7.5 micromolar < I50 < 22 micromolar). It did not inhibit the oligomycin-sensitive ATPase from purified plant mitochondria, nor molybdate-sensitive soluble phosphatases. SW26 was more specific for plasma membrane ATPases than diethylstilbestrol or vanadate. A Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis showed that inhibition kinetics were purely noncompetitive (Ki = 14.7 micromolar) below 20 micromolar. Above this concentration, the inhibition pattern was not consistent with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and a Hill plot representation revealed a positive cooperativity. PMID:16664702

  5. Tobacco Harm to Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014. 18 See, e.g., Tonetti, MS, “Cigarette Smoking and Periodontal Disease: Etiology and Management of Disease,” Annals of Periodontology , ... Burgan, SW, “The Role of Tobacco Use in Periodontal Diseases: A Literature ... Krall, EA, “Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Tooth Loss,” Journal of Dental ...

  6. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and Omax (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and Omax, and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  8. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  9. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  10. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Gerard Hastings

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61% and absence of a coherent strategy (39%.

  11. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  12. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  14. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  15. Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2014-06-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development.

  16. PsAP2 an AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonal; Phukan, Ujjal J; Tripathi, Vineeta; Singh, Dhananjay K; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses . Real time transcript expression analysis showed constitutive upregulation of tobacco Alternative oxidase1a and Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in PsAP2 overexpressing tobacco plants. Further, PsAP2 showed interaction with NtAOX1a promoter in vitro, it also specifically activated the NtAOX1a promoter in yeast and tobacco BY2 cells. The silencing of PsAP2 using VIGS lead to significant reduction in the AOX1 level in P. somniferum. Taken together PsAP2 can directly bind and transcriptionally activate NtAOX1a and its overexpression in tobacco imparted increased tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stress.

  17. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  18. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  19. Tobacco and nicotine product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch R

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions.

  20. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  1. Health warnings on tobacco products - worldwide, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-22

    Many countries require that tobacco product packaging includes health warnings about the risks associated with tobacco use. Health warnings on tobacco product packages are effective in highlighting the perception of health risk, supporting the intention to quit tobacco use, discouraging the intention to begin tobacco use, and increasing cessation rates. Prominent displays of health warnings increase their effectiveness; larger warnings, with pictures, are more likely to be noticed, better communicate health risks, provoke greater emotional response, and further motivate tobacco users to quit. This report assesses the current status of tobacco packaging health warning requirements worldwide. Governments could further discourage tobacco use by requiring prominent health warnings on tobacco packaging.

  2. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  3. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risako Shirane

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs' efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness.TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy.There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small

  4. Tobacco industry manipulation of tobacco excise and tobacco advertising policies in the Czech Republic: an analysis of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and that large (rather than small, incremental

  5. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part contains...

  6. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  7. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  8. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  9. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient.

  10. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    high stability.1,3,5 Porphyrin reagents have therefore received increasing attention and are widely applied for the simulta- neous determination of metal ions.9–19. The determination of trace amounts of lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel, cobalt and tin in tobacco and tobacco additives is important because of the biological ...

  11. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  12. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There are also strong indications that the tobacco industry sees Eritrea as a strategic gateway to east and northeast Africa. The industry may be planning to develop Eritrea as a distribution hub for its products. This will make the country even more vulnerable. This project will assess the impact of tobacco taxation, smuggling, ...

  13. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  14. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  15. Snuffing Out Smokeless Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Susan; Martin, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Major League Baseball's ban on players using tobacco during minor league games may provide physicians with a timely excuse to discuss smokeless tobacco with young patients. Chewing and dipping remain a significant health problem, especially among young men, many of whom view it as a secret ingredient in sports success. (SM)

  16. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  17. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D L; Carol, J; Balbach, E D; McGee, S

    1999-01-01

    To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of second-hand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal. Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview. 54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry. Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use. The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.

  18. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  19. Tobacco industry use of flavourings to promote smokeless tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; Ling, Pamela M

    2016-11-01

    While fruit, candy and alcohol characterising flavours are not allowed in cigarettes in the USA, other flavoured tobacco products such as smokeless tobacco (ST) continue to be sold. We investigated tobacco manufacturers' use of flavoured additives in ST products, the target audience(s) for flavoured products, and marketing strategies promoting products by emphasising their flavour. Qualitative analysis of internal tobacco industry documents triangulated with data from national newspaper articles, trade press and internet. Internally, flavoured products have been consistently associated with young and inexperienced tobacco users. Internal studies confirmed that candy-like sweeter milder flavours (eg, mint, fruit) could increase appeal to starters by evoking a perception of mildness, blinding the strong tobacco taste and unpleasant mouth feel; or by modifying nicotine delivery by affecting product pH. Similar to cigarettes, flavoured ST is likely to encourage novices to start using tobacco, and regulations limiting or eliminating flavours in cigarettes should be extended to include flavoured ST products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Biotransformation enzyme-dependent formation of micronucleus and multinuclei in cell line V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1 by 2-nitropropane and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong; Gao, Hai; Liu, Yungang

    2011-11-27

    V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1, a V79-derived cell line co-expressing both human CYP2E1 and SULT1A1, has been constructed and efficiently used in detection of the mutagenic activities of a number of promutagens. 2-Nitropropane (2-NP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), both being hepatocarcinogenic to animals but inactive in standard genotoxicity assays in vitro, are activated to mutagenic metabolites by human SULT1A1 and CYP2E1, respectively. Nevertheless, little is known about the chromosomal effects of these two carcinogens. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2-NP and NDMA on frequencies of micronucleated (F(mi)) and multinucleated cells (F(mu)) in V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1 cells. The results showed induction of both F(mi) and F(mu) by 2-NP and NDMA individually, and this effect was completely suppressed by relatively specific inhibitor of SULT1A1 and CYP2E1, i.e., pentachlorophenol and 1-aminobenzotriazole, respectively. The F(mu)/F(mi) ratio in 2-NP groups was significantly higher than NDMA groups, probably indicating an aneugenic activity of 2-NP based on proposed F(mu)/F(mi) ratio as a simple index to discriminate aneugens from clastogens. The present study has established biotransformation enzyme-dependent formation of multinuclei and micronuclei induced by 2-NP and NDMA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  2. Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jiaping [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Yang, Suping; Seng, Seyha, E-mail: sseng@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem worldwide. Tobacco-related cancers cause millions of deaths annually. Although several tobacco agents play a role in the development of tumors, the potent effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are unique. Metabolically activated NNK and NNN induce deleterious mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppression genes by forming DNA adducts, which could be considered as tumor initiation. Meanwhile, the binding of NNK and NNN to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor promotes tumor growth by enhancing and deregulating cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion, thereby creating a microenvironment for tumor growth. These two unique aspects of NNK and NNN synergistically induce cancers in tobacco-exposed individuals. This review will discuss various types of tobacco products and tobacco-related cancers, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which nitrosamines, such as NNK and NNN, induce cancer.

  3. Cyclin D1 Gene Expression in Oral Mucosa of Tobacco Chewers”–An Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Basnaker, Maharudrappa; SP, Srikala; BNVS, Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expression of cyclin D1 in normal oral mucosa of both non tobacco habituated and tobacco habituated individuals histologically and also compare and correlate cyclin D1 expression with histopathologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  4. Proinflammatory effects of tobacco smoke xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Milnerowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke capability of stimulating local and systemic inflammation is considered to be a pathogenetic mechanism leading to the development of pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. The study was aimed at reviewing information concerning the pathomechanisms for the pro-inflammatory effect of tobacco smoke components, which lead to initiating cascade processes resulting in tissue damage. A retained lungs macrophages contributing to the development of local inflammatory response by the release of cytokines, proteases and radicals were shown. Cytokine release induced by tobacco smoke with intracellular signaling pathways, mainly NF-κB activation, is associated with this. Developing inflammatory process as a driving mechanism for further oxidants production was shown, which caused the intensification of inflammatory response. Tobacco smoke components stimulating cyclooxygenase-2 expression and an increase in prostaglandins and acute phase proteins synthesis were demonstrated. It was shown that most of the changes induced by smoking is reversible, but the level of some inflammatory mediators remains still high even when the damaging agent is removed. It is believed that aldehydes present in the environment that are components of the smoke can make a covalent bond with nucleophilic amino groups of lysine, arginine or histidine in proteins. They can cause radicals formation and weaken an intracellular antioxidant mechanisms. The glutathione depletion leading to change in cells redox status was demonstrated. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms impairments and intensification of neutrophils myeloperoxidase release causing vascular homeostasis disruption were shown. Myeloperoxidase can cause proteins oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Lipids peroxidation and increased acute phase proteins level associated with smoking, may exert a direct effect promoting the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases and play a role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and

  5. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  6. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  7. Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam EWN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants 12, bringing about unwanted biological effects 3. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

  8. Tobacco control in Nigeria- policy recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku Israel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Major strides towards national tobacco control have been made since Nigeria became signatory to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC in June 2004. The Nigerian senate passed a bill on March 15, 2011 which is expected to be signed into law shortly, to regulate and control production, manufacture, sale, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco or tobacco products. This paper highlights how the proposed tobacco control law provides a unique opportunity to domesticate the WHO FCTC, expand on smokeless tobacco regulation and develop a science base to improve tobacco control measures in Nigeria.

  9. Tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" and state tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, S A; Fox, B J; Glantz, S A

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the perceived effect of tobacco industry allegations of "illegal lobbying" by public health professionals on policy interventions for tobacco control. Structured interviews were conducted with state health department project managers in all 17 National Cancer Institute-funded American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST) states. Documentation and media records related to ASSIST from the National Cancer Institute, health advocates, and the tobacco industry were analyzed. The tobacco industry filed formal complaints of illegal lobbying activities against 4 ASSIST states. These complaints had a temporary chilling effect on tobacco control policy interventions in those states. ASSIST states not targeted by the tobacco industry developed an increased awareness of the industry's tactics and worked to prepare for such allegations to minimize disruption of their activities. Some self-reported self-censorship in policy activity occurred in 11 of the 17 states (65%). Public health professionals need to educate themselves and the public about the laws that regulate lobbying activities and develop their strategies, including their policy activities, accordingly.

  10. Public Policy and Youth Smokeless Tobacco Use

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J.; Michael Grossman; John A. Tauras

    1996-01-01

    While much is known about the effects of prices and tobacco control policies on cigarette smoking, relatively little is known about their impact on smokeless tobacco use. This paper addresses these issues using data on smokeless tobacco use by adolescent males taken from the 1992, 1993, and 1994 Monitoring the Future Surveys. Site-specific smokeless tobacco tax data and several measures of limits on youth access to tobacco products are added to the survey data. Ordered probit methods are used...

  11. 27 CFR 40.25 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 40.25 Section 40.25 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25 Smokeless tobacco tax rates. Smokeless tobacco products...

  12. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  13. Betel Quid with Tobacco (Gutka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cycle Glossary of Terms FAQ Infographics Shareable Media Subscription Services Publication Catalog Get Email Updates To receive ... 770-488-5493. Fact Sheets Adult Data Cessation Economics Fast Facts Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Tobacco ...

  14. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  15. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  16. Resources for Smokeless Tobacco Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflin, Molly; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Pamphlets, posters, films, videotapes, slide/tape programs, models, teaching guides and packets, booklets, and other resources for smokeless tobacco education are listed. Many of the resources are from nonprofit agencies and are free or minimal cost. (CB)

  17. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  18. Alamethicin permeabilizes the plasma membrane and mitochondria but not the tonoplast in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) suspension cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matic, S.; Geisler, D.A.; Møller, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    remained intact, as indicated by an unaffected tonoplast proton gradient. Low-flux permeabilization of plasma membranes and mitochondria at moderate AlaM concentrations was reversible and did not affect cell vigour. Higher AlaM concentrations induced cell death. After the addition of catalase that removes...

  19. Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Houezec, Jacques; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco smoking, sustained by nicotine dependence, is a chronic relapsing disorder, which in many cases results in lifelong cigarette use and consequent death of one out of two lifelong smokers from a disease caused by their smoking. Most toxicity due to cigarette smoking is related to the burning process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that use of non-combustible, less toxic, nicotine-containing products as a substitute for cigarette smoking would reduce the death toll arising from tobacco use. Available options include medicinal nicotine and smokeless tobacco products. The potential role of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in a harm reduction strategy is currently severely restricted by strict regulations on dose, safety and potential addictiveness. As a result, NRT products are designed to provide much less nicotine, and deliver it to the brain more slowly, than cigarettes, which are widely accessible and poorly regulated. Smokeless tobacco (snus) has proved to be an acceptable reduced hazard alternative to smoking in Sweden, but supply of snus is illegal elsewhere in the European Union. To increase accessibility and reach more smokers, barriers to the use of NRT use need to be removed and more effective NRTs need urgently to be developed. Smokeless tobacco could also play an important role in harm reduction, but current European Union regulations and concerns over exploitation by tobacco companies currently preclude wider use. To improve public health there is an urgent need for an appropriate regulatory framework and regulatory authority at the European level, controlling both tobacco and nicotine products to ensure that the least harmful products are the most accessible. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Tobacco and the movie industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's voluntary restrictions and its agreement with the state attorneys general prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. Extensive research provides strong and consistent evidence that smoking in the movies promotes smoking. This article summarizes the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others) and proposes several solutions to reduce adolescent exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking.

  1. The Irish tobacco industry position on price increases on tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Fenton

    2012-09-01

    To examine what the tobacco industry in Ireland says to government on tobacco price, and what it does. The annual government budgetary and tobacco trade, tax/price increases on cigarettes (2000-2010) and pre-budget submissions from the tobacco industry were analysed. Price increased from €4.77 in 2000 to €8.55 at the end of 2010, 64.0% of the increase was government imposed and 36.0% was imposed by the tobacco trade. The tobacco industry consistently urged government not to increase taxes as this would increase smuggling and contraband tobacco products. However, the tobacco industry increased price every year. There is significant disparity in what the tobacco industry says to government and how it behaves with respect to tobacco price. It is important that tobacco control advocates have access to such data and underscores the importance of strong guidelines for Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  2. Global challenges in tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schotte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented achievements in global tobacco control. These include the entry into force of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and 179 states, as well as the European Union, becoming Parties to the Treaty,leading to an increased global cognizance of the negative health and economic impact of tobacco use. Governments around the world continue to adopt and implement effective tobacco control strategies and financial contributions from major philanthropies have increased the levels of financial support for tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries. The UN high-level summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs in 2011 and the 2015 adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, in which NCDs and acceleration of implementation of WHO FCTC are included as specific targets, represent an increased global recognition of the need to address tobacco use prevalence as a key element of NCD interventions...

  3. Chronic exposure to chewing tobacco selects for overexpression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase in normal oral keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjappa, Vishalakshi; Renuse, Santosh; Sathe, Gajanan J; Raja, Remya; Syed, Nazia; Radhakrishnan, Aneesha; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Patil, Arun; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael; Somani, Babu L; Nair, Bipin; Kundu, Gopal C; Prasad, T Keshava; Califano, Joseph A; Gowda, Harsha; Sidransky, David; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Chewing tobacco is a common practice in certain socio-economic sections of southern Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent and has been well associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The molecular mechanisms of chewing tobacco which leads to malignancy remains unclear. In large majority of studies, short-term exposure to tobacco has been evaluated. From a biological perspective, however, long-term (chronic) exposure to tobacco mimics the pathogenesis of oral cancer more closely. We developed a cell line model to investigate the chronic effects of chewing tobacco. Chronic exposure to tobacco resulted in higher cellular proliferation and invasive ability of the normal oral keratinocytes (OKF6/TERT1). We carried out quantitative proteomic analysis of OKF6/TERT1 cells chronically treated with chewing tobacco compared to the untreated cells. We identified a total of 3,636 proteins among which expression of 408 proteins were found to be significantly altered. Among the overexpressed proteins, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was found to be 2.6-fold overexpressed in the tobacco treated cells. Silencing/inhibition of SCD using its specific siRNA or inhibitor led to a decrease in cellular proliferation, invasion and colony forming ability of not only the tobacco treated cells but also in a panel of head and neck cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to chewing tobacco induced carcinogenesis in non-malignant oral epithelial cells and SCD plays an essential role in this process. The current study provides evidence that SCD can act as a potential therapeutic target in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, especially in patients who are users of tobacco.

  4. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  5. Tobacco companies' use of developing countries' economic reliance on tobacco to lobby against global tobacco control: the case of Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Mamudu, Hadii M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-10-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC.

  6. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  7. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    OpenAIRE

    Geneviéve Plamondon; Emmanuel Guindon; Guillermo Paraje

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 0...

  8. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  9. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  10. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Monika; Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2012-09-01

    Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12-16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere.

  11. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaing, N N; Sein, T; Sein, A A; Than Htike, M M; Tun, A; Shein, N N N

    2012-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in various forms is highly prevalent in Myanmar. The aim of this paper is to study the socio-cultural background of SLT use and products of SLT in Myanmar and the prevalence of SLT based on surveys and from other published data bases. Information was obtained from the literature review and through search on PubMed and Google. The use of SLT is deep rooted in Myanmar culture, and there is also wide-spread belief that it is not as dangerous as smoking. SLT use is growing in Myanmar. About 9.8% of the 13-15-year-old school children and 20.8% adults use SLT; it is many-fold higher among men. The use of SLT is prevalent using many different types of tobacco and forms of its use in Myanmar. The socio-cultural acceptance and the myths were compounded by the lack of specific SLT control component in the National Tobacco Control Legislation adopted needs to be addressed as a priority through intensified community awareness programs, public education programs, and advocacy campaigns. Effective enforcement of the law and amendment to include specific components of SLT in the provisions of the law is highly recommended. The prevalence of SLT is high among school children and adults (especially in men) in Myanmar. Betel quid and tobacco is a common form of SLT use. Although control of smoking and consumption of tobacco product law exists, its implementation is weak.

  12. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  13. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  14. Socioeconomic implications of tobacco use in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Rijo M; Mamudu, Hadii M; Liber, Alex C

    2012-10-01

    Country-level evidence from Africa on the prevalence of tobacco use and the role played by both demographic and socioeconomic factors, as influences on the use of tobacco products, is sparse. This paper analyzes the determinants of tobacco use in Ghana and explores the association between tobacco use and poverty in the country. Data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of households (n = 12,323), were used to generate descriptive statistics and characterize tobacco use in the country. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relationships between tobacco use and age, place of residence, region, education status, wealth, marital status, alcohol use, and whether the person has children. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for tobacco users and nonusers on the likelihood of their purchase of selected commodities indicative of living standards. Tobacco use was significantly higher among those living in poverty stricken regions, those with less education, lower levels of wealth, parents, and alcohol users. Tobacco use was significantly higher among men (7%) than women (0.4%), and it increased to a peak age of 41.4 years before it declined. Using tobacco was also associated with a lower likelihood of purchasing health insurance. Tobacco use is inextricably related to poverty in Ghana. Policies should be formulated to target populations and regions with higher tobacco prevalence to combat both poverty and tobacco use simultaneously.

  15. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  16. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  17. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  18. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  19. Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)

  20. Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral cavity: Part I. Nonmalignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbod, S M; Ahing, S I

    2000-05-01

    The excessive use of tobacco products has been associated with various lesions in the oral cavity. Tobacco-associated lesions include tooth stains, abrasions, smoker's melanosis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and other periodontal conditions, burns and keratotic patches, black hairy tongue, nicotinic stomatitis, palatal erosions, leukoplakia, epithelial dysplasia and squamous-cell carcinoma. A routine intraoral examination by a dental health professional can reveal most of these lesions at an early stage, and early intervention may prevent serious sequelae. Thus, detection of tobacco-associated lesions in conjunction with tobacco-use counselling by dental professionals has become the standard of care. The significance and treatment of nonmalignant tobacco-associated lesions are addressed in the first part of this two-part series. Malignant lesions, basic biopsy principles and prevention and intervention strategies are discussed in the subsequent part.

  1. Willingness of tobacco retailers in Oyo State to participate in tobacco control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma Uchendu

    2018-01-01

    The sale of tobacco products is a profitable venture for retailers. Willingness to participate in tobacco control was high among the retailers. There is a need to raise awareness and co-opt tobacco retailers as change agents in tobacco control efforts.

  2. Prevalence of Tobacco Consumption and Its Contributing Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of tobacco use was 27.1% (n=101). The overall prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use was 22.6% (n=84) and 7.8% (n=29) respectively. The prevalence of current tobacco use was 24.2% (n=90). Among the ever tobacco users, about 3% (n=11) had quit using tobacco. Tobacco consumption was ...

  3. 27 CFR 41.33 - Smokeless tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Smokeless tobacco tax rates. 41.33 Section 41.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.33 Smokeless tobacco tax rates. Smokeless...

  4. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  5. Tobacco Control and Health Promotion Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Spasovski, Mome; Donev, Doncho; Arnikov, Aleksandar; Karadzinski, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    The use of tobacco is considered as one of the main risk factors for numerous chronic diseases, such as: lung diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. 4.9 million deaths per year worldwide are tobacco related, having an increasing trend that will lead to double death toll by 2020. WHO is one of the leading organizations in the world actively involved in the health promotion activities related to tobacco consumption reduction and tobacco control. In this regard WHO prepared the Framework...

  6. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ....usda.gov . Persons with disabilities or who require alternative means for communication (Braille, large... allocated among six statutorily-specified classes of tobacco products: Cigarettes, cigars, snuff, roll-your... cigarettes and cigars, pounds for the other classes) from the published TTB data and multiplied those numbers...

  7. [Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, Geneviève; Guindon, G Emmanuel; Paraje, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime). For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  8. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  9. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative. IDRC and Cancer Research UK are pleased to announce the launch of a new five-year initiative aimed at preventing tobacco-related diseases. View moreIDRC and Cancer Research UK partner on innovative new tobacco control initiative ...

  10. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco consumption during pregnancy. 100. Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology / Volume 34 / Issue 2 / May‑August 2017 tobacco = 8.5%, smoking = 1.0%) in India consumed tobacco in one form or another.[9]. With such low level of antenatal care coverage, there are good chances that some women might ...

  11. African Tobacco Situation Analyses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Existing limited evidence indicates that the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa are in the early stages of the tobacco epidemic. In recent years, however, tobacco consumption in Africa has increased faster than in the developing world as a whole. Between 1995 and 2000, tobacco consumption was estimated to have ...

  12. Young Adolescents, Tobacco Advertising, and Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Yolanda; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Pinilla, Jaime; Calvo, Jose Ramon; Barber, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Background: In adolescents aged 12-14, we measured attitudes to tobacco advertising. Our purpose is to understand the relation of these attitudes to tobacco use and identify the groups most influenced by the advertising. Methods: Survey of adolescents on Gran Canaria Island, Spain, about aspects of family, school, peers, tobacco consumption, and…

  13. From Tobacco to Food Production : Consolidation, Dissemination ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While much of the government's focus is on addressing consumption issues, tobacco production is also a concern and the government has made a commitment to facilitating the transition out of tobacco farming. Indeed, many farmers have recognized the severe ecological, social, economic and health impacts of tobacco ...

  14. Tobacco and taxes: a winning strategy

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Development Challenge: Reduce tobacco use without threatening government revenues. Tobacco consumption is a major global public health threat. Current figures place the global annual tobacco-related death toll at 5 million. That count is expected to double to 10 million annually by 2020, if current trends continue.

  15. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  16. Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Diversification of Smallholder Tobacco Systems to include Groundnut (Malawi). Tobacco is the mainstay of the economy of Malawi, accounting for over 70% of export earnings. Of the 100 000 members of the National Smallholder Farmers' Association of Malawi (NASFAM), 60% rely on tobacco for their sole source of ...

  17. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...

  18. African Tobacco Situational Analysis : Development Grants | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) is partnering with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in the African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA), an initiative to understand the critical determinants for tobacco control in Africa. This grant will allow up to 15 national teams or consortiums whose ...

  19. Join the Campaign against Smokeless Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    The Surgeon General explains the health risks associated with smokeless tobacco use, analyzes the appeal of tobacco chewing to young males, and looks at what various levels of government and parents can do to discourage the use of smokeless tobacco. (MT)

  20. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia J.

    2001-01-01

    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  1. Endotoxins in tobacco smoke: shifting tobacco industry positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-10-01

    In the 1980s, the tobacco industry started a campaign to divert attention away from secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) as a major source of indoor air pollution in workplaces by highlighting the roles of other indoor air pollutants. The industry, working through "third parties," highlighted endotoxins, naturally occurring substances that cause numerous inflammatory reactions in humans, as an alternative explanation to SHS as causing indoor air problems. In 1995, Hasday and colleagues were the first to present findings that cigarette smoke contains significant quantities of endotoxins. This discovery surprised tobacco industry scientists. The 1999 publication of the full Hasday et al. findings received only limited media attention but got the full attention of Philip Morris scientists concerned about a new public health issue and a new basis for regulation of workplace smoking by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which already regulated workplace endotoxin exposures from other sources. Philip Morris undertook an internal endotoxin research project to test the Hasday et al. findings and to determine if endotoxin-free cigarettes were possible. Although experiments were conducted to remove endotoxin from the tobacco, there is no evidence that they were successful. Following confirmation of SHS as an important source of endotoxins, the scientist promoting endotoxins as an important indoor air pollutant for the tobacco industry softened his position on the role of endotoxins as indoor pollutants. The presence of endotoxins in SHS provides an additional mechanism for the adverse effects of SHS that should be researched further, and the risk of exposure should be assessed.

  2. Tobacco Content in Video Games: Categorization of Tobacco Typologies and Gamer Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Susan R; Malone, Ruth E

    2017-11-15

    Tobacco content has been identified in popular video games played by adolescents. To date, there are no established instruments for categorizing tobacco content. We describe development and demonstrate the use of an instrument to categorize types of tobacco content. Interviews were conducted with 61 participants: 20 adolescents (mean age 17.7), and 41 adults (mean age 23.9), who discussed favorite games and recalled tobacco content. All games mentioned were examined for tobacco content by watching movies of game play on YouTube, examining individual game Wiki sites, and reviewing content descriptors provided by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), Common Sense Media and the Internet Movie Database (IMDb). A typology of tobacco content was created and correlated with gamer recall of tobacco content. Participants together mentioned 366 games, of which 152 were unique. Tobacco content was verified in 39.5% (60/152) of games. Six categories of content were identified, including "no tobacco content." Of games containing tobacco, 88% (53/60) contained at least two categories of content. Games with more categories were associated with greater gamer recall of tobacco content. Tobacco content is present in video games and consciously recalled by players, with higher accuracy of recall associated with games featuring multiple types of tobacco content and more engaging, player-active content. Playing video games is now a daily part of most adolescents' lives. Tobacco content is present in many popular games. Currently there are no published instruments to assist in categorizing tobacco content in video games. This study describes a systematic approach to categorizing tobacco content in video games and demonstrates that games featuring more categories of tobacco content are associated with more accurate gamer recall of the presence of tobacco content when compared with games with fewer categories of content. Understanding the extent of such content will be essential

  3. Production of H5N1 influenza virus matrix protein 2 ectodomain protein bodies in tobacco plants and in insect cells as a candidate universal influenza vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandiswa Mbewana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spread of influenza A viruses is partially controlled and prevented by vaccination. The matrix protein 2 ectodomain (M2e is the most conserved sequence in influenza A viruses, and is therefore a good potential target for a vaccine to protect against multiple virus subtypes. We explored the feasibility of a M2e-based universal influenza A vaccine candidate based on the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus, H5N1. A synthetic M2e gene was human and plant codon optimised and fused in-frame with a sequence encoding the N-terminal proline-rich domain (Zera® of the γ-zein protein of maize. Zera®M2e was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and Sf21 baculovirus / insect cell expression systems, and Zera®M2e protein bodies (PBs were successfully produced in both expression systems. The plant-produced Zera®M2e PBs were purified and injected into Balb/c mice. Western blot analysis using insect cell-produced Zera®M2e PBs and multiple tandem M2e sequences (5xM2e fused with the avian influenza H5N1 transmembrane and cytosolic tail (5xM2e_tHA confirmed the presence of M2e-specific antibodies in immunised mice sera. The immunogenicity of the Zera®M2e indicates that our plant-produced protein has potential as an inexpensive universal influenza A vaccine.

  4. Association Between Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and the Occurrence of EGFR Mutations and ALK Rearrangements in Never-smokers With Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer: Analyses From a Prospective Multinational ETS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Ross A; Kubo, Akihito; Ando, Masahiko; Kawaguchi, Tomoya; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2017-09-01

    Molecular studies have demonstrated actionable driver oncogene alterations are more frequent in never-smokers with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The etiology of these driver oncogenes in patients with NSCLC remains unknown, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a potential cause in these cases. We assembled clinical and genetic information for never-smoker patients with NSCLC accrued in Japan, Korea, Singapore, and the United States. To determine an association between cumulative ETS and activating EGFR mutations or ALK rearrangements, the Mantel extension test was used. Multivariate analysis on activating EGFR and ALK gene rearrangements was performed using the generalized linear mixed model with nations as a random effect. From July 2007 to December 2012, 498 never-smokers with pathologically proven NSCLC were registered and tested for the association between ETS and EGFR and ALK status. EGFR mutations were more frequent in the ever-ETS cohort (58.4%) compared with the never-ETS cohort (39.6%), and the incidence of EGFR mutations was significantly associated with the increment of cumulative ETS (cETS) in female never-smokers (P = .033), whereas the incidence of ALK rearrangements was not significantly different between the ever-ETS and never-ETS cohorts. Odds ratio for EGFR mutations for each 10-year increment in cETS was 1.091 and 0.89 for female and male never-smokers (P = .031 and P = .263, respectively). Increased ETS exposure was closely associated with EGFR mutations in female never-smokers with NSCLC in the expanded multinational cohort. However, the association of ETS and ALK rearrangements in never-smokers with NSCLC was not significant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Tobacco Industry Seeks New Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator: The Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Presents four cartoons that take aim at the claims that the tobacco industry makes in its advertising. Focus is on smoking industry advertisements aimed at getting children and youth to buy and smoke cigarettes. They are intended to be shared with students to heighten their awareness of advertising ploys. (SLD)

  6. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  7. Tobacco-free campus initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayabb, Gina; Hoppers, Trevor

    2006-03-01

    College students in the United States face many health risks in what, for most, is their first extended stay away from home. Unhealthy diets, binge drinking, and stress can all contribute to the decreased health status of many 18-24 year olds attending college. Smoking on college campuses, however, is one factor that is not as often included in this list of risky behavior. Smoking and tobacco use is so prevalent that it is often considered the normal thing to do. To counter this belief, and hopefully provide a better way to equip Oklahoma students to lead tobacco-free lifestyles as adults, we have developed a thorough and pointed policy aimed at reducing tobacco use among the 18-24-year-old population. The Oklahoma statute entitled "Smoking in Public Places and Indoor Workplaces Act," Title 63, specifically addresses smoking in educational facilities in Section 1-1523 by giving educational facilities freedom to assign areas permissible for smoking outside buildings and during most activities. Part C of this section states, "Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit educational facilities from having more restrictive policies regarding smoking and the use of other tobacco products in the buildings or on the grounds of the facility." Part C is the premise of the following proposed policy. Outlined in this discussion will be the definition of the problem and basic rationale for such a policy, definition of educational facilities, an outline and communication of policy provisions, suggestions for assistance and cessation, types of enforcement, funding sources, and key players who need to be involved for effective application of this policy. Additionally discussed are the implications and limitations of a restricting policy on tobacco use.

  8. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of tobacco as an etiological agent for oral cancer: Cytomorphometrical analysis of the buccal mucosa in tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Megha; Sircar, Keya; Tandon, Ankita; Chowdhry, Aman; Popli, Deepika Bablani

    2014-11-01

    Histopathological diagnosis of lesions arising from the intake of tobacco is based on subjective evaluation of morphological alterations within the lesional tissue. Oral exfoliative cytology is a non-invasive diagnostic technique for early detection of oral premalignant and malignant lesions. Morphometric techniques have been advocated as objective and reproducible methods of detecting changes before they are visible by routine microscopy and can facilitate differentiation of normal and abnormal epithelium. This study was conducted to assess the morphometric parameters (cell diameter, nuclear diameter and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio [N:C ratio]) in tobacco smokers and chewers and to evaluate the variations, if any. The study was conducted on cytological smears obtained from oral lesions of patients with habit of tobacco smoking (Group B) and tobacco chewing (Group C). Group A comprised of subjects free from oral lesions and not using tobacco in any form. Patients with both the habits were excluded. The smears were stained using Papanicoloaou staining method. For morphometric analysis, Microimage 3.0 image analysis software was employed. The statistical test employed was an analysis of variance and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. The results of this study showed that the cellular diameter was progressively reduced and nuclear diameter progressively increased from Group A to Group B to Group C. The N:C ratio also showed a progressive increase from Group A to Group C. The results confirmed that tobacco chewing and smoking influenced the cytomorphology of normal appearing buccal mucosa and the degree of these changes were found to be greater in chewers as compared to smokers.

  10. Tobacco Industry Influences in the Oklahoma Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, James D; Wagener, Theodore L; Anderson, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    To identify recent tobacco industry influences in the Oklahoma Legislature. Relevant public records were compiled and published online in searchable databases. Activities related to two contested tobacco-related legislative initiatives were analyzed. Analyses of voting behavior controlled for party affiliation. Legislators receiving the largest amounts of campaign contributions and gifts from tobacco lobbyists performed actions necessary to advance tobacco industry objectives. Several significant associations with voting behavior were observed, the strongest of which was between votes on a pro-tobacco industry bill and gifts from tobacco lobbyists. Most lobbyists'gifts were meals. Tobacco industry influence in the Oklahoma Legislature is enhanced through tobacco lobbyists' campaign contributions and gifts. Greater investments are made in legislative leaders, those serving as champions or spokespersons, and others taking key roles in advancing tobacco industry objectives. Exposing such influences may diminish their effects. Given the egregious and uniquely destructive behavior of the tobacco industry, lawmakers could, as an ethical matter of principle, refuse tobacco lobbyists' money and seek to remedy past harms.

  11. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  12. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Approaches to Evaluate Next-Generation Tobacco and Non-Tobacco Products on Human Blood Platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Sherry L; Lannan, Katie L; Loelius, Shannon G; Phipps, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Human blood platelets are major hemostatic regulators in the circulation and important in the mediation of chronic inflammation and immunomodulation. They are key elements that promote cardiovascular pathogenesis that leads to atherosclerosis, thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. New information on tobacco use and platelet dysregulation shows that these highly understudied vascular cells are dysregulated by tobacco smoke. Thus, platelet function studies should be an important consideration for the evaluation of existing and next-generation tobacco and non-tobacco products. Novel in vitro approaches are being sought to investigate these products and their influence on platelet function. Platelets are ideally suited for product assessment, as robust and novel in vitro translational methods are available to assess platelet function. Furthermore, the use of human biological systems has the advantage that risk predictions will better reflect the human condition.

  13. Tobacco related bar promotions: insights from tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, S K; Lavack, A M

    2002-03-01

    To examine the tobacco industry's use of bar promotions, including their target groups, objectives, strategies, techniques, and results. Over 2000 tobacco industry documents available as a result of the Master Settlement Agreement were reviewed on the internet at several key web sites using keyword searches that included "bar", "night", "pub", "party", and "club". The majority of the documents deal with the US market, with a minor emphasis on Canadian and overseas markets. The documents indicate that bar promotions are important for creating and maintaining brand image, and are generally targeted at a young adult audience. Several measures of the success of these promotions are used, including number of individuals exposed to the promotion, number of promotional items given away, and increased sales of a particular brand during and after the promotion. Bar promotions position cigarettes as being part of a glamorous lifestyle that includes attendance at nightclubs and bars, and appear to be highly successful in increasing sales of particular brands.

  14. Symptoms of tobacco dependence among middle and high school tobacco users: results from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J; Corey, Catherine G; Hoffman, Allison C; Schroeder, Megan J; Husten, Corinne G; Caraballo, Ralph S; Backinger, Cathy L

    2014-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that tobacco dependence symptoms can occur soon after smoking onset and with low levels of use. However, limited data are available nationally and among non-cigarette tobacco users. To examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco dependence symptoms among adolescent tobacco users in the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative, school-based survey of U.S. middle and high school students. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of dependence symptoms among current users (i.e., past 30-day use) of cigarettes, cigars, or smokeless tobacco. Analyses were conducted in 2013 using SAS-callable SUDAAN, version 11 to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of tobacco dependence symptoms ranged from 20.8% (95% CI=18.6, 23.1) of current tobacco users reporting wanting to use tobacco within 30 minutes of waking to 41.9% (95% CI=39.3, 44.5) reporting recent strong cravings. Reporting of dependence symptoms was most consistently associated with polytobacco use, higher frequency of use, earlier initiation age, and female gender. A 2-4-fold increase in the odds of symptom reporting was found in adolescents using tobacco products on as few as 3-5 days compared to those who only used it for 1-2 of the past 30 days. A substantial proportion of U.S. adolescent tobacco users, including those with low levels of use, report symptoms of tobacco dependence. These findings demonstrate the need for full implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent both experimentation and progression to regular tobacco use among youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Patterns of youth tobacco and polytobacco usage: The shift to alternative tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Paul T; Naqvi, Syeda Mahrukh H; Plunk, Andrew D; Ji, Ming; Martins, Silvia S

    2017-11-01

    Despite significant declines in youth cigarette smoking, overall tobacco usage remains over 20% as non-cigarette tobacco product usage is increasingly common and polytobacco use (using 1+ tobacco product) remains steady. The present study was designed to identify patterns of youth tobacco use and examine associations with sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. The current analysis uses Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to examine the 6,958 tobacco users (n = 2,738 female) in the National Youth Tobacco Survey (2012 and 2013). We used as indicators past month use of tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, hookah, snus, pipes, bidis, and kreteks) and regressed resulting classes on sociodemographic characteristics and tobacco dependence. Nine classes emerged: cigarette smokers (33.4% of sample, also included small probabilities for use of cigars and e-cigarettes), cigar smokers (16.8%, nearly exclusive), smokeless tobacco users (12.3%, also included small probabilities for cigarettes, cigars, snus), hookah smokers (11.8%), tobacco smokers/chewers (10.7%, variety of primarily traditional tobacco products), tobacco/hookah smokers (7.2%), tobacco/snus/e-cig users (3.3%), e-cigarette users (2.9%,), and polytobacco users (1.7%, high probabilities for all products). Compared to cigarette smokers, tobacco/hookah smokers and hookah smokers were more likely to report Hispanic ethnicity. Polytobacco users were more likely to report dependence (AOR:2.77, 95% CI:[1.49-5.18]), whereas e-cigarette users were less likely (AOR:0.49, 95% CI:[0.24-0.97]). Findings are consistent with other research demonstrating shifts in adolescent tobacco product usage towards non-cigarette tobacco products. Continuous monitoring of these patterns is needed to help predict if this shift will ultimately result in improved public health.

  16. Whose Standard Is It, Anyway? How the Tobacco Industry Determines the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Standards for Tobacco and Tobacco Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stella A. Bialous; Derek Yach

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe the extent of the tobacco industry involvement in establishing international standards for tobacco and tobacco products and the industry influence on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Methods...

  17. Migration of the Fungal Protein Cryptogein within Tobacco Plants 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devergne, Jean-Claude; Bonnet, Philippe; Panabières, Frank; Blein, Jean-Pierre; Ricci, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    Cryptogein (CRY), a protein secreted by Phytophthora cryptogea, causes necrosis on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants at the site of application (the stem or the roots) and also on distant leaves. Autoradiography of plantlets after root absorption of radioiodinated CRY demonstrated a rapid migration of the label to the leaf lamina via the veins. Using an anti-CRY antiserum, a CRY-related antigen was detected in the stem and leaves of CRY-treated plants at a distance from the site of application. This antigen had the same molecular weight as CRY and was detected in the leaves as early as 1 hour after stem treatment, i.e. long before necrosis was detectable. The antigen was also detected in plants inoculated with P. cryptogea. The distant location of the necrosis induced by the fungus or by CRY can be ascribed to the migration of this protein, which is toxic to tobacco cells. It is proposed that CRY, which also elicits defense reactions in tobacco, might contribute to the hypersensitive response of tobacco to P. cryptogea. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4 PMID:16669010

  18. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the...

  19. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactan...

  20. New Insights Into Tobacco-Induced Vascular Disease: Clinical Ramifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, John P

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains more than 4,000 compounds. These include phenols, carbonyls, and nitrosamines that may be irritants and carcinogens; particulate matter such as tars; volatiles and gases such as carbon monoxide; and nicotine. Many of these compounds may contribute to the adverse health effects of tobacco. For example, recent findings have shown that the angiogenic and proliferative effects of nicotine are mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors on the vascular cells. Nicotine-induced activation of vascular cells may contribute to pathological neovascularization in cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and atherosclerosis. This review focuses on how nicotine adversely affects cardiovascular health and highlights intriguing new data about nicotine's potent angiogenic and proliferative properties.

  1. Towards an endgame for tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Matthew J

    2012-11-01

    The reduction in smoking in Australia in the past 30 years has established the conditions in which elimination of smoking should now be considered. This is sometimes referred to as the 'tobacco endgame'. A range of approaches can be considered and any that are implemented would build on current actions such as plain packaging. This article outlines possible public health and policy approaches with the goal of leading to the elimination of smoking, and discusses a potential target date for the elimination of smoking in Australia. The most effective strategy for eliminating smoking in Australia is likely to be one that reverses the tolerable, addictive nature of modern tobacco by the elimination of all additives and by specifying a very low level of true nicotine delivery. Use of an unsatisfying, costly and toxic product would naturally, and rapidly, decline.

  2. Tobacco farmers and diversification: opportunities and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Levine, D W; Howard, G; Hamilton, H

    1996-01-01

    To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of tobacco growers and allotment owners in the southeastern United States. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Tobacco growers (n = 529) and tobacco allotment owners (n = 417) were interviewed by telephone in March 1995. Tobacco growing states in the southeastern US. Attitudes of tobacco growers and tobacco allotment owners towards, and experience with, diversification; and attitudes towards an increase in the federal excise tax on tobacco. Half of the respondents had done something to learn about on-farm alternatives to tobacco, had an interest in trying other on-farm ventures to supplement tobacco income, and found alternatives that were profitable. There was a strong, negative linear trend between age and being interested in or trying alternative enterprises. Structural and economic impediments to diversification were noted by respondents (especially younger respondents), but 73% supported an increase in the federal excise tax on tobacco if the money was used to help farmers overcome these barriers. These data suggest that farmers and health professionals have reason to establish dialogue around diversification and using excise tax increases to fund diversification and to promote health. Tobacco companies have been successful in mobilising farmers against tax increases, but efforts must be made to show farmers that tax increases can be beneficial both to their diversification efforts and to public health. The outcome of this dialogue may well affect the economic infrastructure of thousands of rural communities, the livelihood of tens of thousands of tobacco farmers and their families, and the health of millions of tobacco users.

  3. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somatunga, L C; Sinha, D N; Sumanasekera, P; Galapatti, K; Rinchen, S; Kahandaliyanage, A; Mehta, F R; Nishirani Lanka, J D

    2012-01-01

    To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  4. Introduction to tobacco control supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Admini...

  5. Understanding how perceptions of tobacco constituents and the FDA relate to effective and credible tobacco risk messaging: A national phone survey of U.S. adults, 2014–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella H. Boynton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The passage of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act has necessitated the execution of timely, innovative, and policy-relevant tobacco control research to inform Food and Drug Administration (FDA regulatory and messaging efforts. With recent dramatic changes to tobacco product availability and patterns of use, nationally representative data on tobacco-related perceptions and behaviors are vital, especially for vulnerable populations. Methods The UNC Center for Regulatory Research on Tobacco Communication conducted a telephone survey with a national sample of adults ages 18 and older living in the United States (U.S.. The survey assessed regulatory relevant factors such as tobacco product use, tobacco constituent perceptions, and tobacco regulatory agency credibility. The study oversampled high smoking/low income areas as well as cell phone numbers to ensure adequate representation among smokers and young adults, respectively. Coverage extended to approximately 98 % of U.S. households. Results The final dataset (N = 5,014 generated weighted estimates that were largely comparable to other national demographic and tobacco use estimates. Results revealed that over one quarter of U.S. adults, and over one third of smokers, reported having looked for information about tobacco constituents in cigarette smoke; however, the vast majority was unaware of what constituents might actually be present. Although only a minority of people reported trust in the federal government, two thirds felt that the FDA can effectively regulate tobacco products. Conclusions As the FDA continues their regulatory and messaging activities, they should expand both the breadth and availability of constituent-related information, targeting these efforts to reach all segments of the U.S. population, especially those disproportionately vulnerable to tobacco product use and its associated negative health outcomes.

  6. [Effects of tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping on tobacco yield and rhizosphere soil phosphorus fractions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Biao; Zhang, Xi-zhou; Yang, Xian-bin

    2015-07-01

    A field plot experiment was conducted to investigate the tobacco yield and different forms of soil phosphorus under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping patterns. The results showed that compared with tobacco monoculture, the tobacco yield and proportion of middle/high class of tobacco leaves to total leaves were significantly increased in tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping, and the rhizosphere soil available phosphorus contents were 1.3 and 1.7 times as high as that of tobacco monoculture at mature stage of lower leaf. For the inorganic phosphorus in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil in different treatments, the contents of O-P and Fe-P were the highest, followed by Ca2-P and Al-P, and Ca8-P and Ca10-P were the lowest. Compared with tobacco monoculture and tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the Ca2-P concentration in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation at mature stage of upper leaf, the Ca8-P concentration at mature stage of lower leaf, and the Ca10-P concentration at mature stage of middle leaf were lowest. The Al-P concentrations under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were 1.6 and 1.9 times, and 1.2 and 1.9 times as much as that under tobacco monoculture in rhizosphere soil at mature stages of lower leaf and middle leaf, respectively. The O-P concentrations in rhizosphere soil under tobacco garlic crop rotation and intercropping were significantly lower than that under tobacco monoculture. Compared with tobacco garlic crop intercropping, the tobacco garlic crop rotation could better improve tobacco yield and the proportion of high and middle class leaf by activating O-P, Ca10-P and resistant organic phosphorus in soil.

  7. An overview of the China National Tobacco Corporation and State Tobacco Monopoly Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peisen; Takeuchi, Takeaki; Yano, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    China is facing a serious public health problem in active and passive smokers. Confronted with this, China has taken some measures to control tobacco. However, this information has not been surveyed at academic level. Our aim is to investigate information relating to tobacco controls in China. To find information relating to tobacco control, we reviewed and analysed the China National Tobacco Corporation (CNTC) and State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) mainly by systematic examination of documents made available in the University of California, San Francisco Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and China Tobacco database. Eleven relevant documents met our research purpose, and 18 further relevant documents were found on the CNTC, STMA and Tobacco China database websites. As a result, 29 relevant articles were included in our analysis. We describe the CNTC and STMA's history, structure, and relation to the Chinese Government ministry and to other tobacco companies, and China's tobacco control in detail. The Chinese cigarette market is dominated by a state-owned monopoly, the STMA. Under the protection of the Law of the People's Republic of China on Tobacco Monopoly, the STMA controls all aspects of the tobacco industry. As far as the Chinese tobacco monopoly is concerned, although smoking harms people's health, restraining smoking threatens social stability and government income, which may be more serious problems for any government. China still has a long way to go in creating smoke-free environments.

  8. [Tobacco farming in Italy receives more funds in comparison to tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Gianrocco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Aquilini, Ferruccio; Miligi, Lucia; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the European Union almost 300,000 tons of raw tobacco are produced every year, contributing for 4% of the world production. In Italy, tobacco crop produces around 90,000 tons/year and is concentrated in Veneto, Tuscany, Umbria and Campania Regions. In 1970, Common Market Organisation provided a virtually unlimited support for European tobacco production. After 2004, funds progressively has been cut by half, even though the other half has been given for restructuring or reconversion of tobacco farms through the Rural Development Plan. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends conversion of tobacco crops, although there are no effective measures. Tobacco production requires large quantities of chemicals (pesticides, growth regulators, fertilisers), with significant workers' exposure if applied without personal protective equipments. Pesticides may have genotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal, and carcinogenic effects. Tobacco itself may cause also a disease called "Green tobacco sickness" syndrome, as a consequence of nicotine dermal absorption due to skin exposure to tobacco leaves. In Italy, financial resources for tobacco production and restructuring/conversion to other crops of previously tobacco planted fields are available. On the contrary, anti-smoking media interventions do not receive funds comparatively relevant as those for tobacco production.

  9. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  10. Bad Mouthin': What Smokeless Tobacco Can Do to You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Clearinghouse, Madison.

    This booklet presents, in comic book format, information for children and adolescents on the hazards of using smokeless tobacco. It touches on the use of smokeless tobacco by baseball players, the advertising of smokeless tobacco, and the illegality of selling smokeless tobacco to minors. Health consequences of using smokeless tobacco, including…

  11. A Case of Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Tobacco Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshioka

    2011-01-01

    Discussion: Green tobacco sickness, a type of nicotine poisoning caused by the dermal absorption of nicotine, is a well known occupational illness of tobacco harvesters. Although it is unclear whether the present case could be identified as a subtype of green tobacco sickness, this is the first report of eosinophilic pneumonia occurred in a tobacco harvester which was possibly induced by tobacco leaf exposure.

  12. Preventing lung cancer by treating tobacco dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Hays, J Taylor; McFadden, David D

    2011-12-01

    Tobacco use is a chronic medical disorder. Providing evidence-based treatment of tobacco-dependent patients is a challenge, and a team approach provides an efficient treatment model. Tobacco treatment specialists could expand the collective tobacco treatment expertise in the medical setting. Effective tobacco dependence treatment frequently requires tailoring and intensifying of interventions to meet the needs of the individual patient. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of lung cancer and many other cancers, cardiovascular disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease. Treating tobacco dependence is one of the most cost-effective therapies in medicine and it deserves adequate reimbursement for it to be more widely available. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Behavioral Economics Perspective on Tobacco Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Economic studies of taxation typically estimate external costs of tobacco use to be low and refrain from recommending large tobacco taxes. Behavioral economics suggests that a rational decision-making process by individuals fully aware of tobacco's hazards might still lead to overconsumption through the psychological tendency to favor immediate gratification over future harm. Taxes can serve as a self-control device to help reduce tobacco use and enable successful quit attempts. Whether taxes are appropriately high depends on how excessively people underrate the harm from tobacco use and varies with a country's circumstances. Such taxes are likely to be more equitable for poorer subgroups than traditional economic analysis suggests, which would strengthen the case for increased tobacco taxation globally. PMID:20220113

  14. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  15. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geneviéve Plamondon; Emmanuel Guindon; Guillermo Paraje

    2017-01-01

    .... Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement...

  16. Global teens and tobacco: a review of the globalization of the tobacco epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, Bethany; Lando, Harry; Klein, Jonathan; Winickoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Worldwide, the burden of suffering to children caused by tobacco does not just originate from exposure to tobacco smoke or smoking, but includes exposure to tobacco-friendly media, poverty associated with money spent on tobacco, increased incidence of tobacco-related fires, and the harms related to child labor in tobacco cultivation. Despite global efforts through human rights acts, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the MPOWER report, tobacco use continues to accelerate in most countries. While the efforts that have been taken, such as smoking bans in public, are worthy actions, not enough is being done to protect children and teens. More can be done at the policy level, by individuals, and by health care providers. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco Industry Strategies to Undermine the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. E. Muggli; R. D. Hurt

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate that Philip Morris and British American Tobacco Company attempted to initiate a wide ranging campaign to undermine the success of the 8th World Conference on Tobacco or Health held...

  18. Nursing Education to Reduce Use of Tobacco and Alternative Tobacco Products: Change Is Imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDevanter, Nancy; Katigbak, Carina; Naegle, Madeline; Zhou, Sherry; Sherman, Scott; Weitzman, Michael

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. To assess perceived tobacco educational preparation of undergraduate and graduate nurses in a large urban university. A cross-sectional web-based survey of all nursing students in an urban college of nursing was conducted to assess perceived tobacco educational content, skills, and self-efficacy for cessation counseling with patients who smoke cigarettes and use alternative tobacco products (e.g., hookah and e-cigarettes). Participants reported the most education about health effects of tobacco use (67%), and less than 6% reported education about alternative tobacco products. While the majority of nurses agreed that advising patients to quit is a priority, less than 40% reported receiving sufficient training in cessation counseling. There continues to be a compelling need articulated by leaders in tobacco policy and research over the past decade for a more vigorous response by nurses to the tobacco epidemic.

  19. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Secondhand Smoke/"Light" Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Secondhand Smoke Kills Research shows that even a little secondhand ...

  20. Assessment of the Tobacco Dependence Screener Among Smokeless Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Nasir; Beebe, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Variants of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) are widely used to study dependence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. However, there is a need for a dependence measure which is based on the clinical definition of dependence and is easy to administer. The Tobacco Dependence Screener (TDS), a self-administered 10-item scale, is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and ICD-10 definitions of dependence. It is commonly used as a tobacco dependence screening tool in cigarette smoking studies but it has not been evaluated for dependence in ST users. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the TDS as a measure of tobacco dependence among ST users. Data collected from a community-based sample of exclusive ST users living in Oklahoma (n = 95) was used for this study. TDS was adapted to be used for ST dependence as the references for smoking were changed to ST use. Concurrent validity and reliability of TDS were evaluated. Salivary cotinine concentration was used as a criterion variable. Overall accuracy of the TDS was assessed by receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve and optimal cutoff scores for dependence diagnosis were evaluated. There was no floor or ceiling effect in TDS score (mean = 5.42, SD = 2.61). Concurrent validity of TDS as evaluated by comparing it with FTND-ST was affirmative. Study findings showed significant association between TDS and salivary cotinine concentration. The internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha indicated that TDS had acceptable reliability (α = 0.765). TDS was negatively correlated with time to first chew/dip and positively correlated with frequency (number of chews per day) and years of ST use. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that at an optimal cutoff score of TDS 5+, ST users classified as dependent had significantly higher cotinine concentration and FTND-ST scores. TDS demonstrated acceptable reliability and

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE) for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE), Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE) = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, Ptobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, Ptobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco, are both strong and independent risk factors for oral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed.

  2. Three step derivation of cartilage like tissue from human embryonic stem cells by 2D-3D sequential culture in vitro and further implantation in vivo on alginate/PLGA scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hai Yan; Chen, Gui An; Mao, Gen Hong; Song, Tian Ran; Wang, Yan Xia

    2010-08-01

    In this study a three step culture system, 2D-3D sequential culture in vitro and further implantation in vivo was developed to induce human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cartilage like tissues. Five-day-old embryoid bodies were plated for chondrogenic induction for 27 days (step1), then the cells were suspended in alginate and seeded onto polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds for 3D cultivation for 7 days (step 2) and the cells/alginate/PLGA complexes were further transplanted into nude mice for 8 weeks (step 3). At same time, some of complexes were cultured in vitro up to 8 weeks. At the end of step 1, cells exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and expressed chondrocyte-specific markers, Sox 9 and collagen II. During the following 8 weeks of 3D cultivation in vitro, cells displayed spherical morphology, decreased immunoreactivity to Sox-9 and increased one to collagen II, demonstrated further differentiation to mature chondrocyte. In implanted grafts, not only cells appeared typical chondrocytes shape and markers but also cartilage like tissues were formed. These results indicate that 2D-3D sequential culture in vitro is an efficient protocol to induce hESCs differentiates into chondrocytes, while the three step culture system may be an appropriate procedure to derive cartilage like tissues from hESCs. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Mapping the tobacco retailers in edirne, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlıkaya, Celal; Ince, Hüseyin; Ozkan, Nurcan

    2012-12-01

    The youth smoking rate is on the rise in Turkey. Although many marketing bans have been effectively implemented, regulations related to retail tobacco outlets have gone unnoticed and have not been effectively supervised. In this study, we aimed to show the lack of legal regulation related to the high retail tobacco outlet density with displays. In the center of Edirne, the marketing environment, numbers and geographical distribution of retail tobacco outlets were documented and mapped with geographical positions. There were 569 retail tobacco points of sale in 520 stores. We calculated one tobacco retail outlet per 270 people. This retail outlet density rate is above the national average and about four times higher than the density in Istanbul. Products especially attracting children, such as chocolate, sweet candy and chewing gum, were set up near the tobacco stands and were easy for children to recognize and reach. It can be seen on the city map that 47% of retail tobacco outlets are within 100 m of education, health or sport facilities. We concluded that one of the reasons for the increasing prevalence of cigarette use, especially among adolescents in Turkey, is deregulation of the retail tobacco marketing industry as a result of the privatization process of the national tobacco monopoly. Using mapping techniques can be useful in terms of controlling the retail marketing environment.

  4. The tobacco endgame: it's all about behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningfield, Jack E

    2014-11-01

    One of the ten great public health achievements in the 20th century was turning the tide on one of the greatest public health disasters of that century: the tobacco use and related disease epidemic. The premature death and disease caused by tobacco can be considered largely as a side-effect of tobacco use behavior and the disease of addiction. The spread of that disease was fostered by an industry that researched the behavioral and biological basis of tobacco use and addiction and applied its findings and knowledge to develop products and marketing approaches to increase the likelihood that people, especially young people, would try tobacco products and develop persistent use and addiction. Researchers outside of the tobacco industry also investigated the behavioral biology of tobacco use and their research has been critical in turning the tide of the tobacco and disease epidemic. The behavioral factors are considered vital to understand and address by United States Food and Drug Administration and Surgeon General, as well as the World Health Organization in their tobacco control efforts. This commentary discusses key behavioral factors in the rise and fall of the epidemic, as well as some of those increasingly discussed as potential contributors to the endgame. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  6. The economics of tobacco in Lebanon: an estimation of the social costs of tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salti, Nisreen; Chaaban, Jad; Naamani, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Assess the socioeconomic costs of smoking in Lebanon and understand the tobacco market and identify the winners and losers from the Lebanese tobacco trade. We take a close look at the market for tobacco and related markets to identify the main stakeholders and estimate the direct costs and benefits of tobacco. We also estimate lower bounds for the costs of tobacco, in terms of lost productivity, the cost of medical treatment, lost production due to premature death, and environmental damage. The paucity of data means our cost estimates are conservative lower bounds and we explicitly list the effects that we are unable to include. We identify the main actors in the tobacco trade: the Régie (the state-owned monopoly which regulates the tobacco trade), tobacco farmers, international tobacco companies, local distributors, retailers, consumers, and advertising firms. We identify as proximate actors the Ministries of Finance and Health, employers, and patients of smoking-related illnesses. In 2008, tobacco trade in Lebanon led to a total social cost of $326.7 million (1.1% of GDP). Low price tags on imported cigarettes not only increase smoking prevalence, but they also result in a net economic loss. Lebanese policymakers should consider the overall deficit from tobacco trade and implement the guidelines presented in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to at once increase government revenue and reduce government outlays, and save the labor market and the environment substantial costs.

  7. Linking Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2003 and 2006 Data to Tobacco Control Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Gupta, Prakash C.; Reddy, K. Srinath; Prasad, Vinayak M.; Rahman, Khalilur; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: India made 2 important policy statements regarding tobacco control in the past decade. First, the India Tobacco Control Act (ITCA) was signed into law in 2003 with the goal to reduce tobacco consumption and protect citizens from exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Second, in 2005, India ratified the World Health Organization Framework…

  8. Communicating tobacco health risks: How effective are the warning labels on tobacco products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-09-01

    Health hazards of tobacco are well known but only small numbers of tobacco users are fully aware of the harmful effects of tobacco. Warning labels on tobacco products are an effective way of communicating the consequences of tobacco use and bring about behavioural changes like quitting and reducing the tobacco consumption. So the present study was conducted to investigate the awareness and effectiveness of warning labels on tobacco products among health and non-healthcare professional of Barwala, Panchkula. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among 408 subjects who were randomly selected from different professional colleges of Barwala, Panchkula. Data obtained were anlysed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test using SPSS 20.0. Most of study participants has noticed the warnings on tobacco products and most of them believe that they could understand warning labels. More that 70% believe that warnings create awareness about health hazards of tobacco and help in reducing or quitting tobacco. Pictorial warning was found to be better as compared to text warning. Health professionals were able to assess pictorial warnings more correctly as compared to non-healthcare professionals. Warning labels on tobacco packs effectively inform people about adverse health effects of tobacco but the mandated warnings do not serve the desired purpose since they are not properly understood.

  9. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A.; Glantz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  10. Evaluation of micronuclei in tobacco users: A study in Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanta Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aim: The present study aimed to detect micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms from the last 5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy male subjects (25 smokeless tobacco users, 25 smokers, and 25 non-tobacco users were selected for the study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa and fixed with 95% alcohol. All the cytologic smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique. From each slide, ~1000 cells were examined under the 400× magnification and where micronucleated (MN cells were located, they were examined under the 1000× magnification. Result: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers and controls. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between increased micronucleus frequency and tobacco-using habits. So micronucleus assay can be used as a biomarker of genotoxicity.

  11. Cyclin d1 gene expression in oral mucosa of tobacco chewers"-an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnaker, Maharudrappa; Sp, Srikala; Bnvs, Satish

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expression of cyclin D1 in normal oral mucosa of both non tobacco habituated and tobacco habituated individuals histologically and also compare and correlate cyclin D1 expression with histopathologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas. The present study involved 20 cases of tobacco habituated individuals with normal oral mucosal tissue and 20 histopathologically confirmed cases of squamous cells carcinomas. Twelve cases of non tobacco habituated individuals served as control group. Chi-square analysis was used to determine statistical significance. Fifty percent of control cases, 70% of squamous cell carcinoma cases and 80% of tobacco habituated individuals of clinically normal mucosa showed cyclin D1 positivity. Thirteen cases with tobacco chewing habit, with clinically normal mucosa, showed dysplasia, out of which seven were mildly dysplastic and six were moderately dysplastic. A larger percentage of cyclin D1 expression was observed in lower grade dysplasias (53.8%) than higher grade dysplasias (46.1%). However statistical analysis showed no significant association between groups. Chi-square value was normal mucosa indicates that the mutation of cyclin D1 occurs early, even before clinical changes are apparent. This finding appears to be previously unreported. The presence of dysplasia in the same group and cyclin D1 expression in 84.6% of dysplastic cases show that the patients are susceptible for further changes, including progression to higher grades of dysplasia and development of carcinoma. Relatively lower expression of cyclin D1 positivity (70%), in oral cancer patients, when compared with tobacco users with clinically normal mucosa (80%) is indicative of increased traverse of the cell through the cell cycle, which may occur early in tumor progression. Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was detected in all the three study groups.

  12. Cytological Changes in Normal Oral Mucosa of Individuals with Tobacco Habits: A Cytomorphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakurthy, Pavan; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Nandan, Rateesh K; Rao, T Madhusudan; Reddy, D Shyam P; Muddana, Keerthi

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer is one of the six most common cancers in the world, and globally more than 50% of head and neck cancers occur in Asia, remarkably in India. Overall, 200,000 cases of head and neck cancers occur each year in India, among which 80,000 are oral cancers. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a causative role of tobacco use in the evolution of oral potentially malignant and malignant disorders. The aim of the study is to evaluate independently and compare the cytological effects of smoking, tobacco chewing, and smoking in conjunction with tobacco chewing on oral mucosa by cytomorphometric analysis. The study included a total of 120 individuals subdivided into four groups, each group with 30 individuals. Group I was tobacco smokers, group II tobacco chewers, and group III both tobacco smokers and chewers. Group IV comprised 30 individuals without tobacco habit. Smears were prepared from buccal mucosa of both the study and control groups using a cytobrush and stained using Papanicolaou staining. The cells were quantified using image analysis software. The results of the study showed alterations in the nuclear and cellular parameters in the study groups when compared with control groups and were statistically significant (p exfoliative cytology and cytomorphometry aid as a valuable tool to evaluate the effect of tobacco on oral mucosa. Simple noninvasive techniques like exfoliative cytology can be employed as a chairside technique and in mass screening programs for identification of cellular changes in oral mucosa of individuals with tobacco habits. Thereby, it can be used as an early diagnostic tool for identification of potentially cancerous and cancerous lesions.

  13. European Code against Cancer, 4th Edition: Tobacco and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leon, Maria E; Peruga, Armando; McNeill, Ann; Kralikova, Eva; Guha, Neela; Minozzi, Silvia; Espina, Carolina; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    ...). All tobacco products contain a wide range of carcinogens. The main cancer-causing agents in tobacco smoke are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines, aromatic amines, aldehydes, and certain volatile organic compounds...

  14. Preventing Tobacco Use Among Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best: ƒ Make tobacco products less affordable. Restrict tobacco marketing. Ban smoking in public places—such as workplaces, schools, day care centers, hospitals, restaurants, hotels, and parks. Require tobacco companies to label ...

  15. Slowing the Titanic: China's Epic Struggle with Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Emily C A; Zhou, Caicun

    2016-12-01

    women, most of whom do not smoke; (5) corrected for age and sex, lung cancer rates in the Chinese population are as least as high as in Western countries and arguably higher; and (6) a shift over time from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) to adenocarcinoma is occurring in parallel with that noted in Western populations. Looking to the future, measures to control tobacco in China are strengthening but remain relatively weak. The reinforcement of control is hampered by the circumstance that the tobacco industry remains a powerful state-owned monopoly that participates, through its membership of key government bodies, in the processes that oversee the implementation of tobacco control. The conflict between the government's dual responsibilities for both the production and distribution of tobacco and for the implementation of tobacco control carries inherent contradictions and bias. How long the Chinese government chooses to live with these contradictions will determine how quickly the smoking of tobacco will be reduced and how soon the burden of disease that tobacco inflicts on individuals and society as a whole will be eased. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Proteomic analysis of human bladder epithelial cells by 2D blue native SDS-PAGE reveals TCDD-induced alterations of calcium and iron homeostasis possibly mediated by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nisha; Pink, Mario; Petrat, Frank; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schmitz-Spanke, Simone

    2015-01-02

    A proteomic analysis of the interaction among multiprotein complexes involved in 2,3,7,8-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-mediated toxicity in urinary bladder epithelial RT4 cells was performed using two-dimensional blue native SDS-PAGE (2D BN/SDS-PAGE). To enrich the protein complexes, unexposed and TCDD-exposed cells were fractionated. BN/SDS-PAGE of the resulting fractions led to an effective separation of proteins and protein complexes of various origins, including cell membrane, mitochondria, and other intracellular compartments. Major differences between the proteome of control and exposed cells involved the alteration of many calcium-regulated proteins (calmodulin, protein S100-A2, annexin A5, annexin A10, gelsolin isoform b) and iron-regulated proteins (ferritin, heme-binding protein 2, transferrin). On the basis of these findings, the intracellular calcium concentration was determined, revealing a significant increase after 24 h of exposure to TCDD. Moreover, the concentration of the labile iron pool (LIP) was also significantly elevated in TCDD-exposed cells. This increase was strongly inhibited by the calmodulin (CaM) antagonist W-7, which pointed toward a possible interaction between iron and calcium signaling. Because nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly enhanced in TCDD-exposed cells and was also inhibited by W-7, we hypothesize that alterations in calcium and iron homeostasis upon exposure to TCDD may be linked through NO generated by CaM-activated nitric oxide synthase. In our model, we propose that NO produced upon TCDD exposure interacts with the iron centers of iron-regulatory proteins (IRPs) that modulate the alteration of ferritin and transferrin, resulting in an augmented cellular LIP and, hence, increased toxicity.

  17. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States.

  18. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  19. The tobacco epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A

    2007-12-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes and exposure to tobacco smoke pollution, has caused the premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans since 1964. The major diseases caused by tobacco and tobacco smoke include lung cancer, other cancers, coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, pregnancy complications, and respiratory diseases in children. Per capita consumption of various tobacco products has declined substantially since 1950, with current consumption at approximately 3.7 pounds per capita. Whereas approximately two in five adults smoked cigarettes in 1965, approximately one in five did so in 2005. Several factors can influence initiation and cessation, including product factors (e.g., ventilation holes, additives, and flavorings); host factors (intention to use, level of dependence); tobacco company activities (e.g., marketing strategies, efforts to undermine public health activities); and environmental factors (e.g., peer and parental smoking, smoke-free air laws and policies). Efforts to prevent initiation, promote quitting, and protect nonsmokers should reduce exposure to pro-tobacco marketing and increase (1) the price of tobacco products, (2) protection from tobacco smoke pollution, (3) effective mass media strategies, (4) provision of effective cessation support, (5) effective regulation, and (6) litigation that holds the industry responsible for its misdeeds. Adequate implementation of effective tobacco-control strategies and useful scientific advances will help to ensure that per capita consumption decreases to the lowest level possible. The economic benefits of tobacco in our society are replaceable and they pale in comparison to the extent of human life lost.

  20. Tobacco Use and Attachment Style in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mary Heath; Weierbach, Florence; Cao, Yan; Phillips, Ken

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco has been recognized as the number one cause of preventable death in America and results in almost 5.2 million years of potential life lost each year. The use of tobacco products is highly correlated with pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and other forms of chronic illness in America. New tobacco products are trending in the tobacco market such as the water pipe/hookah and e-cigarettes. With e-cigarettes and other newer forms of tobacco on the rise, it is important to look at the underlying factors for using all kinds of tobacco products as a means of prevention. Certain adult attachment styles (secure, preoccupied, dismissing-avoidant, and fearful-avoidant) in emotionally meaningful relationships could be indicators for physical illness, mental illness, and even addiction. This study investigated whether or not there is a relationship between tobacco use and attachment style. Based on a university-wide survey that was sent out at a university in Appalachia with 522 participants, demographic data revealed 68.5% (n = 358) did not currently use tobacco products. Of those who did currently use tobacco products 54.5% (n = 90) were male, 84.8% (n = 140) were undergraduate students, and 66.7% (n = 110) were between the ages of 18-25. For individuals who used tobacco 23.5% (n = 38) were in the secure attachment group, 27.8% (n = 45) were in the dismissing-avoidant attachment group, 30.2% (n = 49) were in the fearful-avoidant attachment group, and 18.5% (n = 30) were in the preoccupied attachment group. Chi Square analysis demonstrated that attachment style was significantly (p tobacco users and non-users revealing that there is a possibility for prevention of smoking initiation through the development of a secure attachment style.

  1. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. The effects of tobacco control policies on retailer sales to minors in the USA, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hongying; Hao, Jianqiang

    2017-02-20

    Under the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act , the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been routinely inspecting tobacco retailers' compliance with under-age sales laws. We seek to identify factors associated with Retail Violation Rate for sale to minors (RVRm). We collected the tobacco retailer inspection data for 2015 from the FDA compliance check database. RVRm was calculated at the census tract level and overlaid with tobacco regulations and youth smoking prevalence at the state level. Multi-level spatial analysis was performed to examine the impacts of tobacco jurisdiction variations, youth smoking rates and neighbourhood social characteristics on RVRm. A total of 136 816 compliance checks involving minors conducted by the FDA in 2015 were analysed. A higher RVRm was associated with higher youth smoking prevalence (aRR=1.04, ptax per pack, the likelihood of retail violations was reduced by 2% (aRR=0.98, p=0.03). For every 10% increase in tobacco prevention spending towards Centers for Disease Control recommended funding targets, the likelihood of retail violations was reduced by 1% (aRR=0.99, p=0.01). RVRm increased in states that enacted stronger smoke-free air policies (aRR=1.08, pcompliance with under-age sales laws. This study provides evidence to support stronger tobacco regulations and control policies in reducing youth access to tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Military line leadership and tobacco control: perspectives of military policy leaders and tobacco control managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Suminski, Richard R; Hoffman, Kevin M; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

    2010-10-01

    Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership view tobacco control as a low priority that has minimal impact on successful mission completion. They also identified cultural factors that perpetuate tobacco use, such as low cost and easy accessibility to tobacco, smoke breaks, and uneven or unknown enforcement of current tobacco policies.

  4. A Tobacco Reconceptualization in Psychiatry (TRIP): Towards the Development of Tobacco-Free Psychiatric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Taryn G.; Weinberger, Andrea H.; Vessicchio, Jennifer C.; Mancuso, Vincenza; Cushing, Sandra J.; Pett, Michael; Kitchen, Kate; Selby, Peter; George, Tony P.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco dependence is the leading cause of death in persons with psychiatric and substance use disorders. This has lead to interest in the development of pharmacological and behavioral treatments for tobacco dependence in this subset of smokers. However, there has been little attention paid to the development of tobacco-free environments in psychiatric institutions despite the creation of smoke-free psychiatric hospitals mandated by the Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Organizations (JCAHO) in 1992. This review article addresses the reasons why tobacco should be excluded from psychiatric and addictions treatment settings, and strategies that can be employed to initiate and maintain tobacco-free psychiatric settings. Finally, questions for further research in this field are delineated. This Tobacco Reconceptualization in Psychiatry (TRIP) is long overdue, given the clear and compelling benefits of tobacco-free environments in psychiatric institutions. PMID:20653636

  5. Japan Tobacco International: To 'be the most successful and respected tobacco company in the world'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Eckhardt, Jappe; Widyati Prastyani, Ade

    2017-03-01

    Japan Tobacco International (JTI) is the international division of Japan Tobacco Incorporated, and the world's third largest transnational tobacco company. Founded in 1999, JTI's rapid growth has been the result of a global business strategy that potentially serves as a model for other Asian tobacco companies. This paper analyses Japan Tobacco Incorporated's global expansion since the 1980s in response to market opening, foreign competition, and declining share of a contracting domestic market. Key features of its global strategy include the on-going central role and investment by the Japanese government, and an expansion agenda based on mergers and acquisitions. The paper also discusses the challenges this global business strategy poses for global tobacco control and public health. This paper is part of the special issue 'The Emergence of Asian Tobacco Companies: Implications for Global Health Governance'.

  6. Effectiveness of Mindfulness Training in Fostering Tobacco ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the impact of mindfulness training in fostering tobacco cessation among undergraduates in a Nigerian university. It also observed the moderating effect of self-efficacy on the causal link between mindfulness training and tobacco cessation. Participants were 57 students randomly assigned to ...

  7. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco consumption among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and determinants of tobacco consumption among pregnant women of three Central Indian Districts. Priti Verma, Pavan Pandey, Avinash Thakur. Abstract. Background: About 6.8% of Indian women consume tobacco and only 21.0% receive 'full' antenatal care. Thus, there are chances that women who consume ...

  8. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf...

  9. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco Control Research Group (TCRG), University of Beirut (AUB), is a multidisciplinary team of professionals from the health sciences, medicine, chemistry and engineering departments. The Group was established in 1999 with IDRC support ...

  10. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Smokeless Tobacco Use among Ontario Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlaf, Edward M.; Smart, Reginald G.

    1988-01-01

    Estimated use and characteristics of users of smokeless tobacco among probability sample of 4,267 Ontario (Canada) teenagers. Results indicated that smokeless tobacco use was not common, varying from one to three percent depending on age and gender, but was more likely to occur among smokers (10% to 32%). Group most prone to use was young smoking…

  12. African Tobacco Control Research Initiative Scoping Exercise ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The African Tobacco Situational Analysis (ATSA) supported by IDRC and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation investigated the critical determinants of success for tobacco control in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. As the initiative evolved an additional goal was added, that of identifying, implementing and enforcing ...

  13. Cutting down tobacco | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco is a crop as addictive to growers in the developing world as it is to any user. For them, dependency is economic rather than physical or psychological – but while ready cash is attractive, farmers are beginning to realize that growing tobacco is threatening the health of their families, their land, and their local ...

  14. The land of 10,000 tobacco products: how Minnesota led the way in regulating tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Michael; Boyle, Raymond G; Moilanen, Molly; St Claire, Ann W; Weisman, Susan R

    2014-02-01

    As state and local governments increase restrictions on cigarette smoking, tobacco manufacturers have shifted to marketing alternative tobacco products. Tobacco control laws need to be updated to reflect this shifting marketplace. With the 2010 enactment of the Tobacco Modernization and Compliance Act, Minnesota addressed regulatory gaps and created a model law for other states. We have detailed the updated definitions of tobacco and tobacco products and identified ways that future laws could be strengthened.

  15. Parental tobacco smoke exposure: Epigenetics and the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epigenetic programming is an important mechanism underlying the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Much of the research in this area has focused on maternal nutrition. Parental smoking has emerged as a prime example of how exposure to environmental toxicants during the preconceptional and in utero periods can have long-term effects on offspring health, and the role of the epigenome in these effects. Maternal smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy result in lower birth weight of offspring, and there is now clear evidence that these offspring are at elevated risk for overweight/obesity, type-2 diabetes, respiratory effects during adolescence and adulthood, and may be programmed for increased risk of nicotine addiction. Epigenetic analyses of placenta, cord blood and offspring buccal cells have consistently revealed altered DNA methylation of genes involved in developmental processes and xenobiotic metabolism, and these epigenetic changes are persistent. Animal studies with cigarette smoke and nicotine support these findings. Paternal preconceptional smoking has been positively related to childhood cancers, potentially linked to changes in the sperm epigenome. Germ cell specification and preimplantation development are periods of widespread erasure and reprogramming of DNA methylation, and as such are likely to be sensitive periods for environmental effects on the epigenome. Exposure to tobacco smoke during gametogenesis and in

  16. Introduction to tobacco control supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ii-Lun; Husten, Corinne G

    2014-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have recently gained significant attention in the marketplace and in the media. However, limited information is available about the worldwide impact of e-cigarettes; most public health officials are calling for more data so they can more fully understand the potential risks and benefits of e-cigarettes in order to inform regulatory action. In the USA, e-cigarettes that are marketed as tobacco products are not currently regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, having a continuum of nicotine-containing products that cross jurisdictional lines within the FDA in the future would create the potential (and the need) for a comprehensive nicotine strategy at the FDA. As part of developing the most appropriate approach to e-cigarette regulation, FDA Center for Tobacco Products scientists have been reviewing the available literature to determine the state of e-cigarette knowledge and have identified research areas that could be addressed. This supplement provides a summary of the current knowledge and research gaps pertaining to e-cigarettes with regards to product design, chemistry and toxicology of e-liquid and aerosol constituents, human factor-based risk factors, abuse liability, clinical pharmacology and human health effects, paediatric issues, and environmental issues.

  17. Ingredients and additives in tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pötschke-Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. Some are naturally present, but many are added during manufacturing or are formed during combustion of the product. Additives are added mainly to influence the tobacco taste or for moisturizing and burning characteristics. They include any colouring agents, adhesives, plasticizers, binders, etc. that are included in the filter, the paper and in tobacco. More than 600 different additives are known, these can account for about 10 up to 25 per cent of the total weight of a cigarette. Additives transform tobacco smoke into an even more complex chemical mixture and further increase the carcinogenic and harmful effects of smoking. The presentation will demonstrate how additives are used to facilitate smoking and contribute to increased addictiveness and how flavouring agents can increase the attractiveness of tobacco products.

  18. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... various players, ranging from petty peddlers to organized criminal networks involved in arms and human trafficking. Tax ... is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of people to the highest standard of health, ...

  19. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  20. Factors related to tobacco use among teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Linnéa; Bjerg, Anders; Bjerg-Bäcklund, Anders; Perzanowski, Matthew; Sundberg, Sigrid; Rönmark, Eva

    2007-03-01

    To examine tobacco use among teenagers, identify factors related to tobacco use, as well as evaluate the outcome of a smoking prevention program. From age 7/8 to 14/15, annual questionnaires about asthma and allergy have been completed in the OLIN paediatric study in Northern Sweden. From 12/13 years, questions about tobacco use, i.e. smoking and snuff, were added. A smoking prevention program was performed during 2 years. Any tobacco use increased from 5.0% at age 12/13 years, to 14.4% at age 14/15. At age 14/15 years, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher among boys than girls (16.7 and 12.0%, respectively). More girls than boys smoked (8.9 and 2.8%, respectively), while use of snuff was more common among the boys (15.6 and 4.2%, respectively). Significant risk factors for smoking were any of the family members currently smoking, OR 6.1 (95% CI 4.0-9.3) and a physician-diagnosed asthma at the age of 14/15 years, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0). A protective factor against tobacco use was participation in sports, OR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4). The prevention program did not result in less tobacco use, although it may have delayed smoking initiation. The patterns of tobacco use differed significantly between boys and girls. Though any tobacco use was more common among boys, girls were more likely to smoke, and boys were more likely to use snuff. Having asthma did not prevent the teenagers from smoking. Since having a smoking family member was the major risk factor for tobacco use, prevention programs should be directed at smoking families in addition to the individuals.

  1. From cigarette smuggling to illicit tobacco trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Raw, Martin

    2012-03-01

    Tax policy is considered the most effective strategy to reduce tobacco consumption and prevalence. Tax avoidance and tax evasion therefore undermine the effectiveness of tax policies and result in less revenue for governments, cheaper prices for smokers and increased tobacco use. Tobacco smuggling and illicit tobacco trade have probably always existed, since tobacco's introduction as a valuable product from the New World, but the nature of the trade has changed. This article clarifies definitions, reviews the key issues related to illicit trade, describes the different ways taxes are circumvented and looks at the size of the problem, its changing nature and its causes. The difficulties of data collection and research are discussed. Finally, we look at the policy options to combat illicit trade and the negotiations for a WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) protocol on illicit tobacco trade. Twenty years ago the main type of illicit trade was large-scale cigarette smuggling of well known cigarette brands. A change occurred as some major international tobacco companies in Europe and the Americas reviewed their export practices due to tax regulations, investigations and lawsuits by the authorities. Other types of illicit trade emerged such as illegal manufacturing, including counterfeiting and the emergence of new cigarette brands, produced in a rather open manner at well known locations, which are only or mainly intended for the illegal market of another country. The global scope and multifaceted nature of the illicit tobacco trade requires a coordinated international response, so a strong protocol to the FCTC is essential. The illicit tobacco trade is a global problem which needs a global solution.

  2. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2008-04-01

    Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as "progressives", "Jurassics" or "conservatives" and "crudos" or "spoiled brats". BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the "progressives" using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with "nationalistic values" in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions.

  3. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC.

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  5. Molecular modeling of major tobacco alkaloids in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurgat, Caren; Kibet, Joshua; Cheplogoi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Consensus of opinion in literature regarding tobacco research has shown that cigarette smoke can cause irreparable damage to the genetic material, cell injury, and general respiratory landscape. The alkaloid family of tobacco has been implicated is a series of ailments including addiction, mental illnesses, psychological disorders, and cancer. Accordingly, this contribution describes the mechanistic degradation of major tobacco alkaloids including the widely studied nicotine and two other alkaloids which have received little attention in literature. The principal focus is to understand their energetics, their environmental fate, and the formation of intermediates considered harmful to tobacco consumers. The intermediate components believed to originate from tobacco alkaloids in mainstream cigarette smoke were determined using as gas-chromatography hyphenated to a mass spectrometer fitted with a mass selective detector (MSD) while the energetics of intermediates were conducted using the density functional theory framework (DFT/B3LYP) using the 6-31G basis set. The density functional theory calculations conducted using B3LYP correlation function established that the scission of the phenyl C-C bond in nicotine and β-nicotyrine, and C-N phenyl bond in 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole were respectively 87.40, 118.24 and 121.38 kcal/mol. The major by-products from the thermal degradation of nicotine, β-nicotyrine and 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole during cigarette smoking are predicted theoretically to be pyridine, 3-methylpyridine, toluene, and benzene. This was found to be consistent with experimental data presented in this work. Clearly, the value of the bond dissociation energy was found to be dependent on the π-π interactions which plays a primary role in stabilizing the phenyl C-C in nicotine and β-nicotyrine and the phenyl C-N linkages in 3,5-dimethyl-1-phenylpyrazole. This investigation has elucidated the energetics for the formation of free radicals and

  6. Smokeless tobacco (paan and gutkha) consumption, prevalence, and contribution to oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha, and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer. PMID:28292008

  7. EXPRESSION OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN-A IN TOBACCO LEADS TO ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms because it can be easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. As bacterial enzymes can be synthesized in tobacco, here we explore the possibility of in planta expression of staphylococcal protein-A(PA which is an antibody, an important group among biopharmaceuticals. In our study we have shown that the tobacco plants harboring PA gene could combat the crown gall infection and also effective in resisting abiotic stress conditions. Transgenic plants when subjected to interact with wild variety of Agrobacterium shows its enhanced capability to resist the gall formation. And when transgenic tobacco plants were grown in presence of 200mM NaCl and/or MG(Methylglyoxal solution, shows their increased tolerance towards salinity stress and high MG stress. So far transgenic tobacco plants are concerned, improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco may also enhance production and commercial use of this protein.

  8. Smokeless tobacco (paan and gutkha) consumption, prevalence, and contribution to oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Kamal; Maqbool, Faheem; Khan, Fazlullah; Bahadar, Haji; Ismail Hassan, Fatima; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco consumption, which is widespread throughout the world, leads to oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), which is a long-lasting and devastating condition of the oral cavity with the potential for malignancy. In this review, we mainly focus on the consumption of smokeless tobacco, such as paan and gutkha, and the role of these substances in the induction of OSMF and ultimately oral cancer. The list of articles to be examined was established using citation discovery tools provided by PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The continuous chewing of paan and swallowing of gutkha trigger progressive fibrosis in submucosal tissue. Generally, OSMF occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially smokeless tobacco and its components, such as betel quid, areca nuts, and slaked lime, which are used in paan and gutkha. The incidence of oral cancer is higher in women than in men in South Asian countries. Human oral epithelium cells experience carcinogenic and genotoxic effects from the slaked lime present in the betel quid, with or without areca nut. Products such as 3-(methylnitrosamino)-proprionitrile, nitrosamines, and nicotine initiate the production of reactive oxygen species in smokeless tobacco, eventually leading to fibroblast, DNA, and RNA damage with carcinogenic effects in the mouth of tobacco consumers. The metabolic activation of nitrosamine in tobacco by cytochrome P450 enzymes may lead to the formation of N-nitrosonornicotine, a major carcinogen, and micronuclei, which are an indicator of genotoxicity. These effects lead to further DNA damage and, eventually, oral cancer.

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Association of Smokeless Tobacco and of Betel Quid without Tobacco with Incidence of Oral Cancer in South Asia and the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhawna; Johnson, Newell W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific. Methods Studies (case control and/or cohort) were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary ORRE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary ORRE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias. Results Meta-analysis of fifteen case–control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls) and four cohort studies (15,342) which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies ORRE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86–9.50, Poral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35–3.40, Poral cancer in these populations. However, studies with better separation of the types of tobacco and the ways in which it is used, and studies with sufficient power to quantify dose-response relationships are still needed. PMID:25411778

  10. Acute effects of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Thakran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.

  11. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, N; Hussain, A K M G; Fong, G T

    2014-12-01

    Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at -0.64 and of higher priced brands at -0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  12. Role of Oxides of Nitrogen in Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Formation in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor TB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is known to contain a class of nitrosamines known as tobacco-specific nitrosamines or TSNA. Nitrosation of naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids is commonly accepted as the mechanism of TSNA formation in tobacco. Because green and freshly harvested tobaccos are virtually free of TSNA, formation and accumulation of TSNA are generally considered to occur during the curing process. Most recent hypotheses have focused on microbial reduction of nitrate to nitrite and other oxides of nitrogen (NOcompounds that react with tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA during curing. This natural microbial process remains the prevalent hypothesis for TSNA formation in burley and other air-cured tobaccos. However, a different mechanism for the formation of TSNA in flue-cured tobacco, independent of microbial activity, is documented in this paper. It is common practice to flue-cure Virginia or blonde tobacco in bulk barns that incorporate forced air ventilation and temperature control. For the last thirty-five years, many modern bulk barns in North America generally have used liquid propane gas (LPG with direct-fired burners that exhaust combustion gases directly into the barn where the tobacco is exposed to those gases. Our studies indicate that LPG combustion by-products in the exhaust stream, namely NO, react with naturally occurring tobacco alkaloids to form TSNA. Heat exchange curing methods preclude exposure of the tobacco to combustion gases and by-products, thereby eliminating this significant source of TSNA formation, without degrading leaf quality or smoking character. Research findings from 1998 and 1999 are presented to demonstrate the role of NOgases in TSNA formation and the significance of direct-fired curing as a primary source of TSNA formation in flue-cured tobacco. Also, data from an extensive barn conversion program in 2000, which resulted in a 94% average reduction in TSNA levels in cured flue-cured leaf, are presented.

  13. Tobacco use, access, and exposure to tobacco in media among middle and high school students--United States, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    Two of the national health objectives for 2010 are to reduce the prevalence of any tobacco use during the preceding month to cigarette use to students (objectives 27-2a and 27-2b). The National Youth Tobacco Survey (NYTS), conducted by CDC in 2004, provided estimates of current use of tobacco products and selected indicators related to tobacco use, including youth exposure to tobacco-related media and access to cigarettes. This report summarizes data from the 2004 NYTS and describes changes in tobacco use and indicators related to tobacco use since 2002. During 2002-2004, middle school students reported decreases in pipe use, seeing actors using tobacco on television or in movies, and seeing advertisements for tobacco products on the Internet. Among high school students, no changes were observed in the use of tobacco or in access to tobacco products; however, seeing actors using tobacco on television or in movies declined slightly, and seeing advertisements for tobacco products on the Internet increased. The lack of substantial decreases in the use of almost all tobacco products among middle and high school students underscores the need to fully implement evidence-based strategies (e.g., increasing the retail price of tobacco products, implementing smoking-prevention media campaigns, and decreasing minors' access as part of comprehensive tobacco-control programs) that are effective in preventing youth tobacco use.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of combustion products from 12 tobacco constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préfontaine, David; Morin, André; Jumarie, Catherine; Porter, Andrew

    2006-05-01

    Twelve chemical components of tobacco leaf, representing 50% of its dry weight, were individually combusted and the bioactivities of their combustion products i.e. total particulate matter (TPM) were assayed using three in vitro tests. These components included carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, polyphenols and carboxylic acids. The mutagenic potencies were assessed with the Salmonella mutagenicity assay (S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100). The induction of chromosomal damage, determined with the micronucleus test (IVMNT), and the neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test (NRU), were conducted on V79 hamster lung fibroblast cells. The Salmonella mutagenicity test and IVMNT were conducted with and without rat liver microsomal S9 fraction. Salmonella mutagenicity data confirmed the mutagenicity of TPM samples obtained from nitrogenous compounds (amino acids and proteins). The IVMNT showed that precursors of phenols in smoke (i.e. polyphenols) exhibited significantly higher levels of toxicity compared to other tobacco components. While S9 activation amplified the Salmonella mutagenicity response to combustion products, it significantly inhibited the toxicity measured with the IVMNT. NRU data demonstrated the increasing cytotoxicity induced following longer exposure time to TPM samples from nitrogenous and phenolic components. This study is the first to characterize the toxicity of the combustion products of major tobacco constituents. Our data suggest different mechanisms of toxicity and underline the relevance of using various bioassays.

  15. Genomic biomarkers of pulmonary exposure to tobacco smoke components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Keith; Balharry, Dominique; BéruBé, Kelly A

    2008-10-01

    Associations between smoking and the development of tobacco-related diseases in humans have historically been assessed by epidemiological studies. These studies are further complicated by the number of chemicals used in tobacco and individual smoking habits. An alternative approach is required to assess the biological responses. Toxicogenomics was carried out to identify early molecular markers for events in pulmonary injury resulting from tobacco smoke components (TSC) exposure. EpiAirway-100 cells were exposed at the air/liquid interface to representative particle (nicotine; cadmium) and vapour phase [formaldehyde (FA) and ethyl carbamate] components of cigarette smoke. Microarray technology was used to compare expression profiles of human genes associated with toxicity and drug resistance, from control and TSC-treated respiratory epithelium (n=5/dose). Using the GEArray 'toxicology and drug resistance' microarray followed by significance analysis of microarray analysis, 42 mRNA transcripts were found to be significantly altered by the TSC exposure. The vapour [ethyl carbamate, FA and particle (nicotine, cadmium)] phase TSC exhibited differential transcriptional responses that could not be attributed to their chemical phase. The transcriptional changes could be classified according to a functional family, where ethyl carbamate, FA and cadmium classified as carcinogens, demonstrated the highest gene homology when compared with the noncarcinogen, nicotine. Analysis of the microarray data and further confirmation (reverse transcriptase-PCR) identified three potential biomarkers for TSC-induced injury. These three genes (CYP7A1, HMOX1 and PTGS1) are highly upregulated and have been linked with mechanistic pathways of disease.

  16. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  17. Tobacco brand preference among Mexican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joshua H; Hall, P Cougar; Page, Randy M; Trinidad, Dennis R; Lindsay, Gordon B

    2012-01-01

    Advertising plays a major role in smoking behavior and forming brand preferences. Additionally, the most advertised tobacco brands have also been the most preferred. Maintaining brand loyalty in Latin America remains a priority for the tobacco industry. The purpose of this study was to explore tobacco brand preference trends from 2003 to 2006, and explore marketing and advertising factors that might be associated with these trends. Data for this study came from Mexican adolescents residing in cities that participated in the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in both 2003 and 2006 and reported smoking either Marlboro or Camel cigarettes in the past 30 days. Respondents reported the brand name of their preferred cigarette during the past 30 days. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine differences by brand preference and exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising, which was assessed using six items. In 2003, most adolescents preferred Marlboro. By 2006, older boys preferred Camel cigarettes to Marlboro, while girls' preference for Camel was similar to their preference for Marlboro. Adolescents that preferred Camel cigarettes in 2003 also reported greater exposure to tobacco marketing and advertising. Findings indicate that there are ongoing shifts in youth brand preference in Mexico, and that these shifts might be related to marketing and advertising practices. There is an ongoing need for monitoring marketing and advertising practices in an effort to protect adolescents from tobacco company exploits.

  18. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  19. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  20. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The implementation of health care aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals

  2. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: Findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Quah, Anne C.K.; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Sinha, Dhirendra N.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. PMID:25455648

  3. Awareness of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use: findings from the Tobacco Control Policy (TCP) India Pilot Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Sansone, Genevieve; Pednekar, Mangesh S; Gupta, Prakash C; Sinha, Dhirendra N

    2014-12-01

    Tobacco companies are utilizing similar strategies to advertise and promote their products in developing countries as they have used successfully for over 50 years in developed countries. The present study describes how adult smokers, smokeless tobacco users, and non-users of tobacco from the Tobacco Control Project (TCP) India Pilot Survey, conducted in 2006, responded to questions regarding their perceptions and observations of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion and beliefs about tobacco use. Analyses found that 74% (n=562) of respondents reported seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising in the last six months, with no differences observed between smokers (74%), smokeless tobacco users (74%), and nonsmokers (73%). More than half of respondents reported seeing pro-tobacco advertising on store windows or inside shops. Overall, this study found that a significant percentage of tobacco users and non-users in India report seeing some form of pro-tobacco advertising and promotion messages. Additional analyses found that smokers were more likely to perceive tobacco use as harmful to their health compared with smokeless tobacco users and non-users (padvertising and promotion of tobacco products in India. Copyright © 2014 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  5. Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

    Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

  6. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS... tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C,” and... contained therein. As an alternative, the shipping cases containing packages of chewing tobacco or snuff may...

  7. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS..., the designation “chewing tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be... product contained therein. As an alternative, the shipping cases containing packages of chewing tobacco or...

  8. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS..., the designation “chewing tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be... product contained therein. As an alternative, the shipping cases containing packages of chewing tobacco or...

  9. Lung Cancer and Tobacco: What Is New?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Sarna, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Tobacco use remains the single most important preventable cause of cancer and is responsible for 80% of all cases of lung cancer. Implementation of tobacco control measures, including preventing initiation and treating dependence, are pivotal to address the lung cancer epidemic. New evidence continues to emerge on the significant positive impact of incorporating tobacco dependence treatment within all lung cancer treatment protocols. Evidence and guidelines on how to implement these strategies exist and present an opportunity for nurses to make a difference in reducing suffering and preventing deaths from lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Altria means tobacco: Philip Morris's identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2003-04-01

    Philip Morris Companies, the world's largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris's plans pose to industry focused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them.

  11. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  12. Chewing tobacco use: perceptions and knowledge in rural adolescent youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Fleck, Margaret Ofe

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were to describe the incidence of chewing tobacco use among rural midwestern adolescents and to describe rural midwestern adolescents' perceptions and knowledge about chewing tobacco use. A Smokeless Tobacco Use Survey was administered to 34 adolescent subjects who attended 5th-8th grades in two rural towns. None of the subjects reported trying chewing tobacco products. However, a group of male subjects who stated they may chew tobacco sometime in the future, performed less well on the test about chewing tobacco facts and perceptions of use, indicating some education needs are warranted. Risk factors and deterrent factors to using chewing tobacco are reported.

  13. Function of the aux and rol genes of the Ri plasmid in plant cell division in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Keiichirou; Hara, Masamitsu; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, Hikaru; Oka, Atsuhiro; Muranaka, Toshiya; Mano, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Auxin-autonomous growth in vitro may be related to the integration and expression of the aux and rol genes from the root-inducing (Ri) plasmid in plant cells infected by agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To elucidate the functions of the aux and rol genes in plant cell division, plant cell lines transformed with the aux1 and aux2 genes or with the rolABCD genes were established using tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 (BY-2) cells. The introduction of the aux1 and aux2 genes enabled the auxin-autonomous growth of BY-2 cells, but the introduction of the rolABCD genes did not affect the auxin requirement of the BY-2 cells. The results clearly show that the aux genes are necessary for auxinautotrophic cell division, and that the rolABCD genes are irrelevant in auxin autotrophy.

  14. The role of the Akt/mTOR pathway in tobacco-carcinogen induced lung tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Regan M.; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2009-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, and 85–90% of lung cancer cases are associated with tobacco use. Tobacco components promote lung tumorigenesis through genotoxic effects, as well as through biochemical modulation of signaling pathways such as the Akt/mTOR pathway that regulate cell proliferation and survival. This review will describe cell surface receptors and other upstream components required for tobacco-carcinogen induced activation of Akt and mTOR. Preclinical studies demonstrate that inhibitors of the Akt/mTOR pathway inhibit tumor formation in mouse models of carcinogen-induced lung tumorigenesis. Some of these inhibitors will be highlighted, and their clinical potential for the treatment and prevention of lung cancer will be discussed. PMID:20028747

  15. Buccal Mucosa Carcinoma: A Comparative Relative Risk Analysis between Tobacco and Non Tobacco Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, Ramasamy; Kalaivani, Amitkumar; Paulraj, Sathish; Sundaresan, Sivapatham

    2017-06-01

    In South India, buccal mucosa carcinoma is common cancer due to widespread use of tobacco in different form. Recently, areca nut (non tobacco) chewing habits have increased among young adults resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Thus, there is need to understand role of aetiology and risk of disease. To analyse relative risk of tobacco users and non tobacco users in buccal mucosa carcinoma. This prospective comparative study was conducted in Regional Cancer Centre, Kanchipuram, between 2013 and 2016. The subjects were divided as tobacco users and non tobacco users in order to evaluate the Relative Risk (RR) in these groups based on demographic and clinical characteristics by Chi-square analysis and Kaplan-Meier (log-rank test) applied for survival difference. All statistics considered at 95 % CI, pusers and 30 (25.7%) non tobacco users. In the study, demographic characteristics of gender [RR=0.365 (0.150-0.886), p=0.023] and age groups {RR=2.026 (0.905-4.996), p=0.04} showed significant difference in both study groups. Similarly, clinical characteristics of TNM (tumour node and metastasis) stage {RR=1.57 (0.338-3.31), p=0.024}, nodal status {RR=2.014 (0.412-4.454), p=0.017}, Grade of tumour {RR=1.293 (0.581-2.878), p=0.015}, perineural invasion {RR=2.601 (0.806-5.32), p=0.012} and extracapsular invasion {RR=1.627 (0.533-2.824), p=0.045} showed significant association. The estimated overall survival was 50%; tobacco users (44%) showed lower survival than non tobacco users (57%) with significant difference (p=0.042, pusers than non tobacco users. Hence, the study concluded that the tobacco consumption in different form is more aggressive than non tobacco consumption.

  16. Tobacco and the Malays: ethnicity, health and the political economy of tobacco in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2017-04-01

    To identify the historical nexus between Malaysia's largest and politically dominant ethnic group and the political economy of tobacco, and to consider the implications of this connection for tobacco control. Primary and secondary documentary sources in both English and Malay were analysed to illuminate key events and decisions, and the discourse of industry and government. Sources included: speeches by Malaysian political and industry actors; tobacco industry reports, press releases and websites; government documents; World Health Organization (WHO) tobacco control literature; and press reports. Malays have the highest smoking prevalence among Malaysia's major ethnic groups. The tobacco industry has consistently been promoted as furthering Malay economic development. Malays play the major role in growing and curing. Government-owned Malay development trusts have been prominent investors in tobacco corporations, which have cultivated linkages with the Malay elite. The religious element of Malay ethnicity has also been significant. All Malays are Muslim, and the National Fatwa Council has declared smoking to be haram (forbidden); however, the Government has declined to implement this ruling. Exaggerated claims for the socio-economic benefits of tobacco production, government investment and close links between tobacco corporations and sections of the Malay elite have created a conflict of interest in public policy, limited the focus on tobacco as a health policy issue among Malays and retarded tobacco control policy. More recently, ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, regional free trade policies reducing the numbers of growers, concerns about smoking from an Islamic viewpoint, and anxieties about the effects of smoking upon youth have increasingly challenged the dominant discourse that tobacco furthers Malay interests. Nevertheless, the industry remains a formidable political and economic presence in Malaysia that is likely to continue to

  17. Local tobacco policy and tobacco outlet density: associations with youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Friend, Karen B

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the associations between local tobacco policy, tobacco outlet density, and youth smoking. A primary focus is on whether local tobacco policy moderates the relation between outlet density and youth smoking. In all, 1,491 youth (51.9% male, mean age = 14.7 years, standard deviation = 1.05) in 50 midsized California cities were surveyed through a computer-assisted telephone interview. Measures of local clean air policy and youth access policy were created based on a review of tobacco policies in these cities. Outlet density was calculated as the number of retail tobacco outlets per 10,000 persons, and city characteristics were obtained from 2000 U.S. Census data. Using multilevel regression analyses and controlling for city characteristics, tobacco outlet density was positively associated with youth smoking. No significant main effects were found for the two tobacco policy types on any of the smoking outcomes after controlling for interactions and covariates. However, statistically significant interactions were found between local clean air policy and tobacco outlet density for ever smoked and past 12-month cigarette smoking. Comparisons of simple slopes indicated that the positive associations between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking behaviors were stronger at the lowest level of local clean air policy compared with the moderate and high levels. Our results suggest that tobacco outlet density is related to youth smoking. In addition, local clean air policy may act as a moderator of relationship between tobacco outlet density and youth smoking, such that density is less important at moderate and high levels of this tobacco policy. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Continued implications of taxing roll-your-own tobacco as pipe tobacco in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Morris, Daniel; Weston, Tara

    2015-06-01

    In 2009, a US$21.95 per pound disparity was created in the Federal excise tax between roll-your-own cigarette tobacco (RYO) and pipe tobacco in the USA. After this disparity was created, pipe tobacco sales increased and RYO sales declined as some manufacturers repackaged roll-your-own tobacco as pipe tobacco and retailers began to offer cigarette rolling machines for consumers to use. A Federal law was passed in 2012 limiting the availability of these machines, however, it was unclear what impact this law had on the sales of roll-your-own tobacco labelled as pipe tobacco. The quantity of RYO sold as pipe tobacco each month was estimated using objective data on Federal excise taxes. From April 2009 through June 2013, 107 million pounds of RYO were sold as pipe tobacco, reducing Federal excise tax collections by US$2.36 billion. The amount of RYO taxed as pipe tobacco climbed steadily and then levelled off following the July 2012 Federal law. The Federal law did not correct the market shift that occurred in pipe and RYO sales beginning in 2009. Even without access to commercial rolling machines, smokers are continuing to take advantage of the tax disparity. Without a solution, states will continue to lose revenue, and smokers who would otherwise quit will continue to have a low-cost alternative product available for purchase. Potential solutions include: (1) US Treasury Department distinguishing between RYO and pipe tobacco based on physical characteristics and (2) changing the Federal excise tax so that RYO and pipe tobacco are taxed at the same rate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Tobacco control law implementation in a middle-income country: Transnational tobacco control network overcoming tobacco industry opposition in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uang, Randy; Crosbie, Eric; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship; and required pictorial health warning labels, ingredients disclosure, and a prohibition on individual cigarette sales. Tobacco companies challenged the implementation through litigation, tested government enforcement of advertising provisions and regulations on ingredients disclosure, and lobbied local governments to deprioritise policy responses to single cigarette sales. A transnational network including international health groups and funders helped strengthen domestic capacity to implement the law by; promoting public awareness of Ley [Law] 1335; training local health department staff on enforcement; facilitating health agencies' sharing of educational strategies; and providing legal defence assistance. This network included vigilant efforts by local health groups, which continuously monitored and alerted the media to noncompliance, engaged government officials and policy-makers on implementation, and raised public awareness. Support from international health NGOs and funders and continuous engagement by local health groups enhanced implementation capacities to counter continued tobacco industry interference and ensure effective tobacco control implementation.

  20. Relationship of Lifetime Exposure to Tobacco, Alcohol and Second Hand Tobacco Smoke with Upper aero-digestive tract cancers in India: a Case-Control Study with a Life-Course Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Bhawna; Kumar, Narinder; Newell W. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADTSCC) are a multifaceted public health problem. Effects of lifestyle risk factors, including tobacco (chewing and smoking), alcohol drinking and exposure to second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) at home and their association with UADT cancers was assessed in a case-control study with a life-course perspective. The study was conducted at two different hospitals in Pune, India. Material and methods: The total sample size (N=48...

  1. Can Tobacco Control Be Transformative? Reducing Gender Inequity and Tobacco Use among Vulnerable Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure. PMID:24402065

  2. Using tobacco-industry marketing research to design more effective tobacco-control campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2002-06-12

    To improve tobacco-control efforts by applying tobacco-industry marketing research and strategies to clinical and public health smoking interventions, we analyzed previously secret tobacco-industry marketing documents. In contrast to public health, the tobacco industry divides markets and defines targets according to consumer attitudes, aspirations, activities, and lifestyles. Tobacco marketing targets smokers of all ages; young adults are particularly important. During the 1980s, cost affected increasing numbers of young and older smokers. During the 1990s, eroding social acceptability of smoking emerged as a major threat, largely from increasing awareness of the dangers of secondhand smoke among nonsmokers and smokers. Physicians and public health professionals should use tobacco-industry psychographic approaches to design more relevant tobacco-control interventions. Efforts to counter tobacco marketing campaigns should include people of all ages, particularly young adults, rather than concentrating on teens and young children. Many young smokers are cost sensitive. Tobacco-control messages emphasizing the dangers of secondhand smoke to smokers and nonsmokers undermine the social acceptability of smoking.

  3. Relationship between Parental Bonding and Tobacco Specific Practices as Predictors of Tobacco Usage in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Doshi, Astha; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Chhajlani, Ashish; Bhosle, Satish; Jain, Sandeep; Shah, Disha

    2017-07-01

    Parents influence their child's conduct and adolescence hostility either directly or indirectly. Similarly children can acquire a particular behaviour by observing and intentionally imitating their parents in order to simply copy them without understanding the positive or negative outcome. To assess and compare the association between parental tobacco usage and parental bonding with participants tobacco usage habits. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 130 adults. Information pertaining to demographics, parental bonding (using parental bonding index) and behavioural habits (e.g., smoking, alcohol) of both participants and their parents was collected with the use of a questionnaire-based interview. Tobacco usage was measured as categorical variable as ever chewer and never chewer. Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, multinomial logistic regression and rotated factor loadings was used to analyse the data. Majority of the participants were males with a mean age of 30.4±8.5 years. Tobacco use was prevalent among less educated males. Parental smokeless tobacco use, paternal alcohol and maternal paan chewing was significantly associated with participants adverse habits. Multinomial logistic regression showed a significant association between parental and participant's tobacco usage. Perceived parental bonding were also significantly associated with participant's tobacco usage habit. Parental bonding measures and tobacco usage was significantly associated with the participant's tobacco use. Hence, interventional and educational efforts to weaken intergenerational influences should target parents. In addition to parents, the smoking behaviour of adults should also be targeted for prevention efforts.

  4. Perspectives of US military commanders on tobacco use and tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Walker S C; Haddock, Christopher K; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Malone, Ruth E; Smith, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-01

    Tobacco use among members of the US military service is unacceptably high, resulting in substantial healthcare and personnel costs. Support of military command is critical to the success of tobacco control policies because line commanders are responsible for implementation and enforcement. This study is the first to examine US military line commanders' perspectives about current tobacco control policies and the impact of tobacco on readiness. We conducted key-informant interviews with 20 officers at the US Army's Command and General Staff College about military tobacco use and tobacco control policy. Participants identified the long-term impact of tobacco use on military members, but were unaware of proximal effects on health and readiness other than lost productivity due to smoke breaks. Officers also discussed nicotine addiction and the logistics of ensuring that an addicted population had access to tobacco. Regarding policy, most knew about regulations governing smoke-free areas and were open to stronger restrictions, but were unaware of current policies governing prevention, intervention and product sales. Findings suggest that strong policy that takes advantage of the hierarchical and disciplined nature of the military, supported by senior line and civilian leadership up to and including the secretaries of the services and the Secretary of Defense, will be critical to substantially diminishing tobacco use by military personnel. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Comparisons of the Composition of Tobacco Smoke and the Smokes from Various Tobacco Substitutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green CR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available By the late 1970s, eight technologies in the design of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette were classified as significant. The eight included: The tobacco blend, the filter tip, filter-tip additives, reconstituted tobacco sheet, paper additives, air dilution via paper porosity, expanded tobacco, and air dilution via filter-tip perforation. In addition to these eight cigarette-design technologies was another proposed technology which involved the incorporation of a substitute for some or all of the tobacco in the cigarette filler. Despite considerable research and development (R&D effort on various tobacco substitutes that indicated the replacements in most instances fulfilled the definition of a ‘less hazardous’ cigarette with regard to the chemical and biological properties of their mainstream smoke, tobacco substitute-containing cigarettes failed to attain consumer acceptability. As a result, several marketed products containing tobacco substitutes had an extremely brief tenure in the marketplace. Outlined herein is a summary of some detailed research conducted on the composition of the mainstream smokes from cigarettes containing either all-substitute filler or fillers comprising various substitute and tobacco mixtures as well as an all-tobacco cigarette.

  6. [Legal framework and strategy of the tobacco industry in relation to tobacco advertising in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J; Cortés Blanco, M; Sarriá Santamera, A

    2000-01-01

    Publicity is legally regulated in Spain, in order to avoid its misuse. Tobacco publicity is also under those regulation, having had the companies operating in this sector to adapt themselves through new strategies. In this work, the legal restrictions existing in Spain regarding publicity are analyzed, together with some of the strategies developed by tobacco companies in order to elude them. In this sense, and despite of the existing legal framework, it should be noticed that tobacco companies are cleverly taking advantage of the existence of legal loopholes in tobacco publicity to promote their products.

  7. Poly-Tobacco Use among High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kowitt, Sarah D.; Tanha Patel; Ranney, Leah M.; Li-Ling Huang; Sutfin, Erin L.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to acc...

  8. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    .23 kg/m(2) (0.33; 0.13) lower body mass index, 0.32 cm (0.74; 0.003) lower waist circumference and 0.45 cm (0.66; 0.24) lower hip circumference. No association was found between tobacco consumption and waist-hip ratio in genetic analysis, or among CHRNA3 genotype and any of the outcome variables......BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  18. Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) : Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    . The Department for International Development (DFID), United Kingdom, is making a grant of up to £1 100 000 to IDRC to cover three years of Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) programming between April 2005 and March ...

  19. Smoke and mirrors: the Canadian tobacco war

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Rob

    1996-01-01

    .... It explains how Canada emerged as a global leader in the public health crusade to regulate the powerful tobacco industry and describes in fascinating detail the bitter campaigns to maintain high...

  20. Tobacco interventions by dentists and dental hygienists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hanioka

    2013-02-01

    Dental researchers and educators around the world should explore new knowledge and exchange experiences to make full use of the unique opportunity of providing dental interventions against tobacco use.

  1. Adolescent Knowledge of Smokeless Tobacco's Health Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    This study compared the knowledge differences related to specific health concerns of middle school students (N=841) who had never tried, who had tried, and who were regular users of smokeless tobacco. (IAH)

  2. Inoculating Students against Using Smokeless Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody Powers; Riggs, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a teaching technique based on a method intended to develop skills among junior and senior high school youth to resist pressure to use smokeless tobacco. This method is referred to as "inoculation" and "resistance training." (IAH)

  3. Strategies and Materials for Smokeless Tobacco Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark G.; Wilson, Katherine Mallender

    1987-01-01

    Instructional materials for teaching about and preventing use of smokeless tobacco are briefly described, including primary prevention sources, secondary prevention sources, films and videotapes, slides and slide-tape sets, and printed materials. (CB)

  4. Patterns of adult tobacco use in Uzbekistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, Gulnoza; Neumark, Yehuda; Baras, Mario; McKee, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of tobacco use in Uzbekistan, a country targeted intensively by the international tobacco industry. A national household survey elicited information about cigarette smoking and nasway use (a form of smokeless tobacco). Prevalence of past-month smoking and nasway use among men (N=1795) was 19.6% and 22.3%, respectively, and 1.6% and 0.5% among women (N=1831). Among men, smoking was independently associated with Uzbek ethnicity, urban residence, age and occupation; nasway use was associated with rural residence, age, being married and occupation. The smoking rate in Uzbekistan remains low relative to neighbouring countries, perhaps due to widespread use of cheaper nasway. These findings establish a baseline for future surveys and highlight the importance of smokeless tobacco in assessing overall consumption.

  5. Economic Study of Global Tobacco Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an interview on Cancer Currents, Dr. Mark Parascandola discusses findings from an economics study showing that, globally, tobacco use burdens economies with more than US $1 trillion annually in health care costs and lost productivity.

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  7. Many Young Americans Using Snuff, Chewing Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... report said. Like cigarettes, all forms of smokeless tobacco contain nicotine, which is highly addictive. The products can cause oral, esophageal and pancreatic cancer, according to SAMHSA. "We need to raise public ...

  8. Smokeless tobacco: challenges, products and, cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, K Vendrell; Jones, Daniel L; Benton, Elain

    2010-06-01

    Tobacco companies continue to develop and aggressively market new products for oral use. Most new products are intended to dissolve in the mouth and swallow rather than spit out the juices. These products effectively circumvent smoke-free policies, decrease tobacco cessation efforts, and create individuals who use both smokeless tobacco (ST) and cigarettes. All ST products contain nicotine, carcinogens, and pose multiple health risks. The cancer and health risks associated with ST use extend well beyond the changes in the oral cavity and the risk of oral cancer. Unlike cigarettes, the contents of ST vary widely by brand and product posing difficulty in the use of the available pharmacotherapy for cessation. Although no uniform guidelines exist for the use of pharmacotherapy for smokeless tobacco cessation, research suggests that use of these drugs is effective. The most important motivator for quitting ST cessation remains in the hands of the dentist.

  9. Chemistry and toxicology of smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhisey, R A

    2012-01-01

    In most parts of the world, tobacco is used for smoking, whereas, in India, tobacco is used for smoking as well as in diverse smokeless forms. Absorption of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals in tobacco and other ingredients added to various products are causally associated with several non-communicable diseases including cancer, especially oral cancer, which is the leading cancer among men and the third most common cancer among women in India. This article highlights the toxicity, mutagenecity and carcinogenic effects of hazardous chemicals present in smokeless tobacco products. This endeavor was based on the extensive review of literature from various sources. The SLT products have influence on cellular metabolism, ability to cause DNA damage, and cancer in experimental animals. It is, therefore, essential to consider the collective role of chemical constituents of SLT products in the causation of adverse effect on human health.

  10. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  11. Reading culture from tobacco advertisements in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmawati, S; Danardono, M; Ng, N; Prabandari, Y; Nichter, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Tobacco advertising in Indonesia is among the most aggressive and innovative in the world, and tobacco advertisements saturate the environment. Tobacco companies are politically and financially powerful in the country because they are one of the largest sources of government revenue. As a result, there are few restrictions on tobacco marketing and advertising. National surveys reveal that 62% of men and 1% to 3% of women are smokers. Over 90% of smokers smoke clove cigarettes (kretek). This paper examines the social and cultural reasons for smoking in Indonesia and discusses how the tobacco industry reads, reproduces and works with culture as a means of selling cigarettes. An analysis is provided of how kretek tobacco companies represent themselves as supporters of Indonesian national identity. This analysis is used to identify strategies to break the chains of positive association that currently support widespread smoking. Between November 2001 and March 2007, tobacco advertisements were collected from a variety of sources, including newspapers and magazines. Frequent photographic documentation was made of adverts on billboards and in magazines. Advertisements were segmented into thematic units to facilitate analysis. In all, 30 interviews were conducted with smokers to explore benefits and risks of smoking, perceptions of advertisements and brand preferences. Focus groups (n = 12) were conducted to explore and pretest counter advertisements. Key themes were identified in tobacco advertisements including control of emotions, smoking to enhance masculinity and smoking as a means to uphold traditional values while simultaneously emphasising modernity and globalisation. Some kretek advertisements are comprised of indirect commentaries inviting the viewer to reflect on the political situation and one's position in society. After identifying key cultural themes in cigarette advertisements, our research group is attempting to engage the tobacco industry on "cultural

  12. US adult tobacco users' absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products, information-seeking behaviors, and (mis)beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Jennifer K; Ferrer, Rebecca A; Margolis, Katherine A; Blake, Kelly D

    2017-08-01

    Harm perceptions about tobacco products may influence initiation, continued use, and cessation efforts. We assessed associations between adult traditional tobacco product use and absolute harm perceptions of traditional and alternative tobacco products. We also described the topics individuals looked for during their last search for information, their beliefs about chemicals in cigarettes/cigarette smoke, and how both relate to harm perceptions. We ran multivariable models with jackknife replicate weights to analyze data from the 2015 administration of the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (N=3376). Compared to never users, individuals reported lower perceived levels of harm for products they use. Among current tobacco users, ethnicity, thinking about chemicals in tobacco, and information-seeking were all factors associated with tobacco product harm perceptions. In the full sample, some respondents reported searching for information about health effects and cessation and held misperceptions about the source of chemicals in tobacco. This study fills a gap in the literature by assessing the absolute harm perceptions of a variety of traditional and alternative tobacco products. Harm perceptions vary among tobacco products, and the relationship among tobacco use, information seeking, thoughts about chemicals in tobacco products, and harm perceptions is complex. Data suggest that some individuals search for information about health effects and cessation and hold misperceptions about chemicals in tobacco products. Future inquiry could seek to understand the mechanisms that contribute to forming harm perceptions and beliefs about chemicals in tobacco products. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Yuko; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-01-24

    Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  14. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Results Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Conclusions Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  15. Ready for a goodbye to tobacco?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Maja; Pisinger, Charlotta; Glümer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess support for a future ban on smoking and for increasing tobacco taxes in Denmark, and to explore if support differed across sex, age, educational attainment, smoking status and intention to quit. METHODS: Data from a 2013 health survey representative of the population aged ≥1...... adds to the growing literature on tobacco endgame and sets a baseline for future assessments of public support....

  16. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  17. Price, Tobacco Control Policies and Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Michael Grossman

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines effectiveness of several tobacco control policies in discouraging cigarette smoking among youths. These policies include increased cigarette excise taxes (which result in higher cigarette prices), restrictions on smoking in public places and at private worksites, and limits on the availability of tobacco products to youths. The data employed in this research are taken from the 1992, 1993, and 1994 surveys of eighth, tenth, and twelfth grade students conducted by the Univer...

  18. Banning tobacco sales and advertisements near educational institutions may reduce students' tobacco use risk: evidence from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Ritesh; Pednekar, Mangesh; Pimple, Sharmila; Gupta, Prakash C; McCarthy, William J; Raute, Lalit J; Patel, Minal; Shastri, Surendra S

    2015-03-01

    India's Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act bans tobacco sales and advertisements within 100 yards of educational institutions. In school-adjacent neighbourhoods in Mumbai, we assessed adherence to these policies and whether tobacco vendor and advertisement densities were associated with students' tobacco use. High school students' tobacco use was measured using a multistage cluster sampling survey (n=1533). Field geographic information systems data were obtained for all tobacco vendors and advertisements within 500 m of schools (n=26). Random-effects multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations of tobacco vendor and advertisement densities with ever tobacco use, current smokeless tobacco use and current tobacco use. There were 1741 tobacco vendors and 424 advertisements within 500 m of schools, with 221 vendors (13%) and 42 advertisements (10%) located within 100 m. School-adjacent tobacco vendor density within 100 m was not associated with the tobacco use outcomes, but tobacco advertisement density within 100 m was associated with all outcomes when comparing highest to lowest density tertiles: ever use (OR: 2.01; 95% CI 1.00 to 4.07), current use (2.23; 1.16, 4.28) and current smokeless tobacco use (2.01; 1.02, 3.98). Tobacco vendor density within 200, 300, 400 and 500 m of schools was associated with current tobacco use and current smokeless tobacco use, but not ever use. The tobacco sales ban near educational institutions could be expanded beyond 100 m. Greater enforcement is needed regarding the current bans, particularly because advertisement density within 100 m of schools was associated with all students' tobacco use outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Structure and Change of Costs for Flue-cured Tobacco Production: A Case Study of Liuyang Tobacco Growing Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, JiaFeng; Chen, Kun; Li, Jianyong; Liu, Liangjiao

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of consulting related information and data, costs for flue-cured tobacco production were surveyed and analyzed with Liuyang tobacco growing areas as an example. Results showed that there is rise and fall in fertilizer cost for flue-cured tobacco production; change in pesticide and agricultural plastic film is little; other costs for flue-cured tobacco production rise rapidly in recent years. Besides, there is certain reduction in labor units per mu for flue-cured tobacco producti...

  20. [The hierarchy of approaches to tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squier, Ch

    2001-01-01

    Tobacco represents the single most preventable cause of disease and death in the world today. Of 260 million male deaths in the developed world between 1950 and 2000, it is estimated that 50 million will be due to smoking. In the oral and craniofacial region tobacco use has been associated with the occurrence of cleft palate, periodontal disease and tooth loss, and a variety of soft tissue lesions including oral cancer. For example, smoking is estimated to account for 92% of cancers of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx. Few studies have examined relative efficiency of the many different approaches to tobacco control but, in general, legislative approaches such as increasing tobacco taxes and prohibiting advertising are most effective and those based on printed educational materials and cessation groups, the least effective. In all cases, advice or intervention by health care professionals ranked among the most effective non-legislative approaches to control. A very wide range of professionally-based interventions have been described, including pharmacologic interventions, behavioral approaches and group counseling. The dental profession has a unique opportunity to influence tobacco use by their patients. Its use is almost always immediately evident to the dentist or dental assistant in terms of odor, staining, poor oral hygiene or obvious oral disease. There is also a tendency for the length of personal contact with the dentist to be greater than with a physician. Guidelines are now available that provide the dental professional with advice on the best approaches to tobacco control with their patients.

  1. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  2. Development of an integrated tobacco endgame strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, various tobacco 'endgame' strategies have been suggested as a means to phase out tobacco consumption. Using country examples, this paper discusses three potential strategies: replacing cigarettes with alternative products (harm reduction), denying tobacco sales to people born after a certain year (the tobacco-free generation proposal), and further implementing measures based on the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) treaty. It is argued that all strategies have potential issues that could be avoided by combining them into an integrated, sequential endgame that, first, using measures recommended in the WHO FCTC, creates a climate that facilitates the phasing out of cigarettes; second, implements a generational phase out of cigarette sales; and third, simultaneously permits the regulated use of alternative nicotine products. Thus, integrating ideas from various endgame strategies will result in a more effective, resilient tobacco endgame policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Perceptions of industry responsibility and tobacco control policy by US tobacco company executives in trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael; Ferrence, Roberta; LeGresley, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Trial testimony from the United States provides a unique opportunity to examine strategies of the American tobacco industry. This paper examines congruence between the arguments for tobacco control policy presented by representatives of the American tobacco industry at trial and the stages of responsibility associated with corporate social responsibility principles in other industries. Trial testimony collected and coded by the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA). All available testimony was gathered from representative senior staff from major tobacco companies: Brown & Williamson, Philip Morris, RJ Reynolds, and Liggett. Transcripts from each witness selected were collected and imported in text format into WinMax, a qualitative data program. The documents were searched for terms relating to tobacco control policies, and relevant terms were extracted. A hand search of the documents was also conducted by reading through the testimony. Inferred responsibility for various tobacco control policies (health information, second-hand smoking, youth smoking) was coded. The level of responsibility for tobacco control policy varied according to the maturity of the issue. For emerging issues, US tobacco company representatives expressed defensiveness while, for more mature issues, such as youth smoking, they showed increased willingness to deal with the issue. This response to social issues is consistent with corporate social responsibility strategies in other industries. While other industries use corporate social responsibility programmes to address social issues to protect their core business product, the fundamental social issue with tobacco is the product itself. As such, the corporate nature of tobacco companies is a structural obstacle to reducing harm caused by tobacco use.

  4. Tobacco taxation: the importance of earmarking the revenue to health care and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Filippidis, Filippos T; Agaku, Israel; Mytaras, Vasileios; Bertic, Monique; Connolly, Gregory N; Tountas, Yannis; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Increases in tobacco taxation are acknowledged to be one of the most effective tobacco control interventions. This study aimed at determining the mediating role of socioeconomical status (SES) and the earmarking of revenue to healthcare and tobacco control, in influencing population support for the adoption of a 2 Euro tobacco tax increase in Greece, amid the challenging economic environment and current austerity measures. Data was collected from two national household surveys, the "Hellas Health III" survey, conducted in October 2010 and the "Hellas Tobacco survey" conducted in September 2012. Data was analyzed from 694 and 1066 respondents aged 18 years or more, respectively. Logistic regression models were fitted to measure the adjusted relationship between socio-economic factors for the former, and support for increased taxation on tobacco products for the latter. In 2012 amidst the Greek financial crisis, population support for a flat two euro tax increase reached 72.1%, if earmarked for health care and tobacco control, a percentage high both among non-smokers (76%) and smokers (64%) alike. On the contrary, when not earmarked, only 43.6% of the population was in support of the equivalent increase. Women were more likely to change their mind and support a flat two-euro increase if the revenue was earmarked for health care and tobacco control (aOR = 1.70; 95% C.I: 1.22-2.38, p = 0.002). Furthermore, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was not associated with SES and income. Despite dire austerity measures in Greece, support for an increase in tobacco taxation was high among both smokers and non-smokers, however, only when specifically earmarked towards health care and tobacco control. This should be taken into account not only in Greece, but within all countries facing social and economic reform.

  5. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnemann, K D; Hoffmann, D

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [14C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  6. Retailers' knowledge of tobacco harm reduction following the introduction of a new brand of smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Karyn K; Rosenberg, Zale; Tenorio, Francis; Phillips, Carl V

    2010-07-29

    Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicotine, for cigarettes. The introduction of a Swedish-style ST product, du Maurier snus (dMS) (Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited), which was marketed as a THR product, provided a unique opportunity to assess retailers' knowledge. This study examined retailers' knowledge of THR and compliance with recommendations regarding tobacco sales to young adults. Male researchers, who may have looked younger than 18 years old, visited 60 stores in Edmonton that sold dMS. The researchers asked the retailers questions about dMS and its health risks relative to those from other tobacco products. They also attempted to purchase dMS to ascertain whether retailers would ask for identification to verify that they were at least 18 years old. Overall, the retailers were only moderately knowledgeable about THR and the differences between dMS and other tobacco products. About half of the retailers correctly indicated that snus is safer than cigarettes; half of whom knew it is safer because it is smoke-free. Fifty percent incorrectly believed that snus causes oral cancer. Less than fifty percent indicated that dMS differs from chewing tobacco because it is in pouches and is used without spitting or chewing (making it more promising for THR). Most (90%) of the retailers asked the researchers for identification when selling dMS. Tobacco retailers are potentially important sources of information about THR, particularly since there are restrictions on the promotion of all tobacco products (regardless of the actual health risks) in Canada. This study found that many retailers in Edmonton do not know the relative health risks of different tobacco products and are therefore unable to pass on accurate information to smokers.

  7. Characteristics of tobacco purchases in urban corner stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawman, Hannah G; Dolatshahi, Jennifer; Mallya, Giridhar; Vander Veur, Stephanie; Coffman, Ryan; Bettigole, Cheryl; Wojtanowski, Alexis; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Foster, Gary D

    2017-08-10

    To examine the prevalence and patterns of tobacco purchases at low-income, urban corner stores. Data on tobacco products and other purchases were collected through direct observation of customers' purchases (n=6369) at 120 urban corner stores in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from April to September 2012. Overall 13% of corner store purchases included tobacco products. The majority (61%) of tobacco purchases did not include any other products, and 5.1% of all purchases from corner stores included a food or beverage and tobacco product. Approximately 24% of tobacco purchases were for lower-cost tobacco products such as cigars and cigarillos, and nearly 5% of tobacco purchases were an illegal purchase of a single, unpackaged tobacco product that is not intended for individual sale (ie, loosies). There was no difference in the average amount spent on food or beverages when purchased with (US$2.55, 95% CI: 2.21 to 2.88) or without (US$2.55, 95% CI: 2.48 to 2.63) tobacco products. In low-income, urban corner store settings, 87% of purchases did not include tobacco; most tobacco purchases did not include the sale of non-tobacco items and spending on non-tobacco items was similar whether or not tobacco was purchased. These findings can help inform retail-level tobacco sales decisions, such as voluntary discontinuation of tobacco products or future public health policies that target tobacco sales. The results challenge prevailing assumptions that tobacco sales are associated with sales of other products in corner stores, such as food and beverages. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco users as determinants of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers: Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhil, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization and Indian Public Health Standards recommend provision of tobacco use screening and cessation help at primary care settings. Evidence shows that brief advice by healthcare provider helps tobacco user quit. It starts with asking the patient about his tobacco use status. The rate of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers is very low and also depends on sociodemographic characteristics of patients along with several other factors. This paper intends to study how sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, residence [rural/urban], education, and occupation) of tobacco users influence the tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers. The study was a secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010. There were 4958 smokers and 7255 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who visited healthcare provider in the past 12 months prior to the survey. The results showed that male smokers were more likely to be screened for smoking by healthcare providers as compared to female smokers. Furthermore, tobacco users in younger age groups were less likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare providers as compared to tobacco users in older age groups. Urban smokeless tobacco users were more likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare provider as compared to rural smokeless tobacco users. Healthcare providers were being biased in tobacco use screening of their patients based on demographic characteristics of patients, i.e., their age, gender, and rural/urban residence. However, the evidence shows that it is very imperative to screen each and every patient for tobacco use habit.

  9. Sociodemographic characteristics of tobacco users as determinants of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers: Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Ruhil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: World Health Organization and Indian Public Health Standards recommend provision of tobacco use screening and cessation help at primary care settings. Evidence shows that brief advice by healthcare provider helps tobacco user quit. It starts with asking the patient about his tobacco use status. The rate of tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers is very low and also depends on sociodemographic characteristics of patients along with several other factors. Objectives: This paper intends to study how sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, residence [rural/urban], education, and occupation of tobacco users influence the tobacco use screening done by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: The study was a secondary data analysis of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey India 2009-2010. There were 4958 smokers and 7255 smokeless tobacco users included in the study who visited healthcare provider in the past 12 months prior to the survey. Results and Discussion: The results showed that male smokers were more likely to be screened for smoking by healthcare providers as compared to female smokers. Furthermore, tobacco users in younger age groups were less likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare providers as compared to tobacco users in older age groups. Urban smokeless tobacco users were more likely to be screened for tobacco use by healthcare provider as compared to rural smokeless tobacco users. Conclusion: Healthcare providers were being biased in tobacco use screening of their patients based on demographic characteristics of patients, i.e., their age, gender, and rural/urban residence. However, the evidence shows that it is very imperative to screen each and every patient for tobacco use habit.

  10. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  11. Metabolic engineering of monoterpende biosysnthesis: two step production of (+)-trans-Isopiperitenol by tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in tobacco was modified by introducing two subsequent enzymatic activities targeted to different cell compartments. A limonene-3-hydroxylase (lim3h) cDNA was isolated from Mentha spicata L. 'Crispa'. This cDNA was used to re-transform a transgenic Nicotiana tabacum'Petit

  12. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.

  13. Pharmacologic agents for tobacco dependence treatment: 2011 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, J Taylor; McFadden, David D; Ebbert, Jon O

    2012-02-01

    Tobacco use remains the most important worldwide cause of preventable death due mainly to cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic lung disease. If the current tobacco pandemic continues for another 20 years, the annual global tobacco-attributable mortality will exceed 8 million. In the US and many European countries, public health and tobacco control efforts combined with effective tobacco dependence treatment using combined behavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy have contributed significantly to steadily declining rates of tobacco use. Subsequent declines in cardiovascular disease and lung cancer death rates are directly attributable to these lower rates of tobacco use. Despite smoking bans, health warnings and effective pharmacotherapy, one in five Americans continue to smoke. Continued research in tobacco dependence treatment has resulted in newer and more effective pharmacotherapy. In this review, we provide a current update of pharmacologic agents for tobacco dependence treatment and a discussion of recent controversy regarding adverse effects of some these medications.

  14. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. 132 documents relevant to the topic were reviewed. TMD efforts were created to advertise cigarettes after advertising restrictions on direct advertising were imposed in 1982. To build public credibility the tobacco companies set up small companies and projected them as entities independent of tobacco. Each brand selected an activity or event such as music, travel, fashion, and sports that best suited its image. RJ Reynolds sponsored music events to advertise its Salem brand while Philip Morris used Marlboro World of Sports since advertising restrictions prevented the use of the Marlboro man in broadcast media. Despite a ban on tobacco advertisements in the mass media, tobacco companies were the top advertisers in the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. The media's dependence on advertising revenue and support from the ruling elite played a part in delaying efforts to ban indirect advertising. Advertising is crucial for the tobacco industry. When faced with an advertising ban they created ways to circumvent it, such as TMDs.

  15. Impact of tobacco tax and price policies on tobacco use in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given China's current low and inefficient cigarette excise tax, and high cigarette affordability, there is room for Chinese policymakers to use tobacco tax and price as a policy tool to tackle the tremendous burden tobacco imposes on Chinese society and to learn how responsive Chinese smokers are to cigarette tax and price ...

  16. [The plain packaging of tobacco products: a new strategy for tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Pino, Juan Miguel; Nerín, Isabel; Lacave-García, Ma Blanca

    There is evidence that global tobacco smoking control policies contribute to decrease the prevalence of smoking among populations, so there is a need to effectively implement different measures in a coordinated way. The plain packaging and labelling of tobacco products is one of the measures proposed by the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. At the moment, leading countries are implementing this tobacco control measure, which involves a plain packaging for all tobacco products, i.e., the absence of any promotional or communication tool in the packaging, except the name of the brand, appearing with a standardised font, size, colour and placing in the pack. Australia was the first country to implement this measure in 2012 and recently other countries are legislating and approving it. In Spain, tobacco legislation (2005 and 2010), was an important advance in tobacco control policies. The introduction of plain packaging in Spain would mean the next step in the development of a global strategy for fighting this significant health problem. The aim of this article is to synthesise in a structured manner the role that the packaging of tobacco products has within marketing and communication strategies, as well as to describe the potential effects that the plain packaging has on some aspects of smoking behaviour, according to current literature. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco control law enforcement and compliance in odisha, India - implications for tobacco control policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panda, B.; Rout, A.; Pati, S.; Chauhan, A.S.; Tripathy, A.; Shrivastava, R.; Bassi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very

  18. Audit of tobacco retail outlets in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ting; Lv, Jun; Liu, Qingmin; Ren, Yanjun; Li, Liming; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of tobacco advertisements and warning messages at points of sale as well as to examine the density of tobacco retail outlets in neighbourhoods and around schools in Hangzhou, China. Tobacco retail outlets (n=1639) in all food and tobacco specialty stores were observed objectively by trained students. Tobacco advertisements and warning messages were assessed with an audit, and stores' addresses were recorded with Global Positioning System coordinates. The distances (1) between all pairs of tobacco retail outlets (2) between each tobacco retail outlet and 15 middle schools were calculated to assess the density of tobacco retail outlets in neighbourhoods and around schools. Among the 1639 tobacco retail outlets, retail outlets, the nearest distances to other tobacco retail outlets were retail outlets within a 100 m radius. Tobacco advertisement in retail outlets is prevalent and the density of tobacco retail outlets is high in Hangzhou, China. Signs indicating 'no sales to minors' and tobacco warning signs are almost non-existent. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of regulations on display of 'no sales to minors' and a new density standard for tobacco retail outlets based on protecting the public's health.

  19. Why Do the Youths in Northeast India Use Tobacco?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laishram Ladusingh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an assessment of the influence of parent’s tobacco use on prospective tobacco use trajectories among young offspring. The study is based on unit level data from District Level Household and Facility Survey-4 (2012-2013 comprising 27,706 youths in 15–24 years’ age group from northeastern states of India and used multilevel regression to identify the potential risk factors of tobacco consumption. The likelihood of using tobacco was found to be 3.4 and 1.14 times more, respectively, for the youths coresiding with mothers who use tobacco and fathers who use tobacco, in comparison to youths staying with parents not taking tobacco. The significant effect of peers on tobacco consumption among youths was also observed. School-going youths had significantly lower risk of tobacco use. The estimated likelihood of a young person from a household to use any tobacco, use smokeless tobacco, and smoke was found to be 28, 12, and 17 percent, respectively. There is an urgent need to extend National Tobacco Control Programme (NTCP to the community level involving civil societies and young and adult generations for spreading awareness about the health hazards of tobacco use, providing support and facilitating quitting tobacco use.

  20. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon; Rimmer, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires nations that have ratified the convention to ban all tobacco advertising and promotion. In the face of these restrictions, tobacco packaging has become the key promotional vehicle for the tobacco industry to interest smokers and potential smokers in tobacco products. This paper reviews available research into the probable impact of mandatory plain packaging and internal tobacco industry statements about the importance of packs as promotional vehicles. It critiques legal objections raised by the industry about plain packaging violating laws and international trade agreements. Searches for available evidence were conducted within the internal tobacco industry documents through the online document archives; tobacco industry trade publications; research literature through the Medline and Business Source Premier databases; and grey literature including government documents, research reports and non-governmental organization papers via the Google internet search engine. Plain packaging of all tobacco products would remove a key remaining means for the industry to promote its products to billions of the world's smokers and future smokers. Governments have required large surface areas of tobacco packs to be used exclusively for health warnings without legal impediment or need to compensate tobacco companies. Requiring plain packaging is consistent with the intention to ban all tobacco promotions. There is no impediment in the FCTC to interpreting tobacco advertising and promotion to include tobacco packs.