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Sample records for by-2 tobacco cells

  1. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  2. Femtosecond optoinjection of intact tobacco BY-2 cells using a reconfigurable photoporation platform.

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    Claire A Mitchell

    Full Text Available A tightly-focused ultrashort pulsed laser beam incident upon a cell membrane has previously been shown to transiently increase cell membrane permeability while maintaining the viability of the cell, a technique known as photoporation. This permeability can be used to aid the passage of membrane-impermeable biologically-relevant substances such as dyes, proteins and nucleic acids into the cell. Ultrashort-pulsed lasers have proven to be indispensable for photoporating mammalian cells but they have rarely been applied to plant cells due to their larger sizes and rigid and thick cell walls, which significantly hinders the intracellular delivery of exogenous substances. Here we demonstrate and quantify femtosecond optical injection of membrane impermeable dyes into intact BY-2 tobacco plant cells growing in culture, investigating both optical and biological parameters. Specifically, we show that the long axial extent of a propagation invariant ("diffraction-free" Bessel beam, which relaxes the requirements for tight focusing on the cell membrane, outperforms a standard Gaussian photoporation beam, achieving up to 70% optoinjection efficiency. Studies on the osmotic effects of culture media show that a hypertonic extracellular medium was found to be necessary to reduce turgor pressure and facilitate molecular entry into the cells.

  3. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

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    Rene Kizek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles, electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases or imaging (contrast agents. Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis — total protein content, thiols — reduced (GSH and oxidized (GSSG glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension

  4. Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on tobacco BY-2 cell suspension culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-12-20

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis - total protein content, thiols - reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  5. Dynamics and roles of phragmoplast microfilaments in cell plate formation during cytokinesis of tobacco BY-2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; ZHANG WenJie; BALUSKA Frantisek; MENZEL Diedrik; REN HaiYun

    2009-01-01

    The phragmoplast is a special apparatus that functions in establishing a cell plate in dividing plant cells.It is known that microfilaments (MFs) are involved in constituting phragmoplast structure, but the dynamic distribution and role of phragmoplast MFs are far from being understood. In this study, the precise structure and dynamics of MFs during the initiation and the late lateral expansion of the phragmoplast were observed by using a tobacco BY-2 cell line stably expressing the microfilament reporter construct GFP-f ABD2. Three-dimensional imaging showed that the phragmoplast MFs were initiated by two populations of MFs emerging between the reconstituting daughter nuclei at anaphase, which migrated to the mid-zone and gave rise to two layers of microfilament arrays. FM4-64 stained vesicles accumulated and fused with the cell plate between the two populations of MFs. The two layers of microfilament arrays of phragmoplast with ends overlapped always surrounded the centrifugally expanding cell plate. Partial disruption of MFs at metaphase by low concentration of latrunculin B resulted in the inhibition of the cell plate consolidation and the blockage of cell plate lateral expansion,whereas high concentration of latrunculin B restrained the progression of the cell cycle. Treating the cell after the initiation of phragmoplast led to the cease of the expansion of the cell plate. Our observations provide new insights into the precise structure and dynamics of phragmoplast MFs during cytokinesis and suggest that dynamic phragmoplast MFs are important in cell plate formation.

  6. Dihydrosphingosine-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Is Independent of H2O2 Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christophe Lachaud; Patrice Thuleau; Daniel Da Silva; Nicolas Amelot; Chloé Béziat; Christian Brière; Valérie Cotelle; Annick Graziana; Sabine Grat; Christian Mazars

    2011-01-01

    Sphinganine or dihydrosphingosine (d18:0,DHS),one of the most abundant free sphingoid Long Chain Base (LCB) in plants,has been recently shown to induce both cytosolic and nuclear calcium transient increases and a correlated Programmed Cell Death (PCD) in tobacco BY-2 cells. In this study,in order to get deeper insight into the LCB signaling pathway leading to cell death,the putative role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) has been investigated. We show that DHS triggers a rapid dose-dependent production of H2O2 that is blocked by diphenyleniodonium (DPI),indicating the involvement of NADPH oxidase(s) in the process. In addition,while DPI does not block DHS-induced calcium increases,the ROS production is inhibited by the broad spectrum calcium channel blocker lanthanum (La3+). Therefore,ROS production occurs downstream of DHS-induced Ca2+ transients. Interestingly,DHS activates expression of defense-related genes that is inhibited by both La3+ and DPI. Since DPI does not prevent DHS-induced cell death,these results strongly indicate that DHS-induced H2O2 production is not implicated in PCD mechanisms but rather would be associated to basal cell defense mechanisms.

  7. Deciphering early events involved in hyperosmotic stress-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monetti, Emanuela; Kadono, Takashi; Tran, Daniel; Azzarello, Elisa; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Briand, Joël; Kawano, Tomonori; Mancuso, Stefano; Bouteau, François

    2014-03-01

    Hyperosmotic stresses represent one of the major constraints that adversely affect plants growth, development, and productivity. In this study, the focus was on early responses to hyperosmotic stress- (NaCl and sorbitol) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]cyt) increase, ion fluxes, and mitochondrial potential variations, and on their links in pathways leading to programmed cell death (PCD). By using BY-2 tobacco cells, it was shown that both NaCl- and sorbitol-induced PCD seemed to be dependent on superoxide anion (O2·(-)) generation by NADPH-oxidase. In the case of NaCl, an early influx of sodium through non-selective cation channels participates in the development of PCD through mitochondrial dysfunction and NADPH-oxidase-dependent O2·(-) generation. This supports the hypothesis of different pathways in NaCl- and sorbitol-induced cell death. Surprisingly, other shared early responses, such as [Ca(2+)]cyt increase and singlet oxygen production, do not seem to be involved in PCD.

  8. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieberer, Björn J; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W

    2009-11-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March-April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton, the results suggest a role for the cell wall, or its production machinery, in structuring the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:19756725

  9. Possible Involvement of NADPH Oxidase in Lanthanide Cation-Induced Superoxide Anion Generation in BY-2 Tobacco Cell Suspension Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Shengchang

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and concentration-dependent generation of superoxide anion (·O-2), measured with a superoxide-specific Cypridina luciferin-derived chemiluminescent reagent, was observed when two lanthanide salts (LaCl3 and GdCl3) were added to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cell suspension culture.Addition of superoxide dismutase (480 U·ml-1) and Tiron (5 μmol·L-1) to cell culture suspension decreases the level of lanthanide cation-induced ·O-2 generation, suggesting that ·O-2 generation is extra-cellular.Pretreatment of the cell culture suspension with diphenyleneiodonium (10 and 50 μmol·L-1), quinacrine (1 and 5 mmol·L-1) and imidazol (10 mmol·L-1), inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, notably inhibits the generation of superoxide induced by lanthanide cation, implying the possible involvement of activation of NADPH oxidase.In addition, addition of SHAM (1 and 5 mmol·L-1), azide (0.2 and 1 mmol·L-1), inhibitor of peroxidase, has no influence on ·O-2 generation.

  10. Live-Cell Imaging of Dual-Labeled Golgi Stacks in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Reveals Similar Behaviors for Different Cisternae during Movement and Brefeldin A Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanie L. Madison; Andreas Nebenführ

    2011-01-01

    In plant cells,the Golgi apparatus consists of numerous stacks that,in turn,are composed of several flattened cisternae with a clear cis-to-trans polarity.During normal functioning within living cells,this unusual organelle displays a wide range of dynamic behaviors such as whole stack motility,constant membrane flux through the cisternae,and Golgi enzyme recycling through the ER.In order to further investigate various aspects of Golgi stack dynamics and integrity,we co-expressed pairs of established Golgi markers in tobacco BY-2 cells to distinguish sub-compartments of the Golgi during monensin treatments,movement,and brefeldin A (BFA)-induced disassembly.A combination of cis and trans markers revealed that Golgi stacks remain intact as they move through the cytoplasm.The Golgi stack orientation during these movements showed a slight preference for the cis side moving ahead,but trans cisternae were also found at the leading edge.During BFA treatments,the different sub-compartments of about half of the observed stacks fused with the ER sequentially; however,no consistent order could be detected.In contrast,the ionophore monensin resulted in swelling of trans cisternae while medial and particularly cis cisternae were mostly unaffected.Our results thus demonstrate a remarkable equivalence of the different cisternae with respect to movement and BFA-induced fusion with the ER.In addition,we propose that a combination of dual-label fluorescence microscopy and drug treatments can provide a simple alternative approach to the determination of protein localization to specific Golgi sub-compartments.

  11. Development of an optimized tetracycline-inducible expression system to increase the accumulation of interleukin-10 in tobacco BY-2 suspension cells

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    Bortesi Luisa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant cell suspension cultures can be used for the production of valuable pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. When the recombinant protein is secreted into the culture medium, restricting expression to a defined growth phase can improve both the quality and quantity of the recovered product by minimizing proteolytic activity. Temporal restriction is also useful for recombinant proteins whose constitutive expression affects cell growth and viability, such as viral interleukin-10 (vIL-10. Results We have developed a novel, tetracycline-inducible system suitable for tobacco BY-2 suspension cells which increases the yields of vIL-10. The new system is based on a binary vector that is easier to handle than conventional vectors, contains an enhanced inducible promoter and 5′-UTR to improve yields, and incorporates a constitutively-expressed visible marker gene to allow the rapid and straightforward selection of the most promising transformed clones. Stable transformation of BY-2 cells with this vector, without extensive optimization of the induction conditions, led to a 3.5 fold increase in vIL-10 levels compared to constitutive expression in the same host. Conclusions We have developed an effective and straightforward molecular farming platform technology that improves both the quality and the quantity of recombinant proteins produced in plant cells, particularly those whose constitutive expression has a negative impact on plant growth and development. Although we tested the platform using vIL-10 produced in BY-2 cells, it can be applied to other host/product combinations and is also useful for basic research requiring strictly controlled transgene expression.

  12. Growth phase-dependent expression of proteins with decreased plant-specific N-glycans and immunogenicity in tobacco BY2 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants possess some desirable characteristics to synthesize recombinant glycoproteins for pharma-ceutical application.However,the mammalian glycoproteins produced in plants are somewhat different from their natural counterparts in terms of N-glycoforms.The immunogenicity of plant-specific glyco-epitopes is the major concern in human therapy.Here,the distribution of N-glycans in different growth phases of tobacco BY2 cells and their immunogenicity in mice were determined.It was ob-served that the percentage of β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose in proteins of growing cells increased and the corresponding protein extracts caused accelerated immune response in mice.Based on this observation,the recombinant erythropoietin in BY2 cells was expressed and characterized,and Western blot analysis showed that the recombinant erythropoietin contained a relatively small amount of plant-specific glyco-epitopes in the early phase of culture growth.This study may provide a simple but effective strategy for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins with human-like N-glycan structures in plant hosts to avoid a great allergenic risk.

  13. 烟草赤星病菌代谢产物诱导的烟草BY-2细胞ROS爆发和ATP损耗%ROS Burst and ATP Depletion in Tobacco BY-2 Cells Induced by Metabolic Products of Alternaria alternata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程丹丹; 孙学娟; 高辉远; 杨程; 张立涛; 孟庆伟

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨赤星病菌代谢产物(metabolic product s of AIternaria alternata,MP)对烟草BY-2细胞活性氧(reactive oxygen species,ROS)产生和ATP含量的影响以及产生这种影响的原因.[方法]用10%MP处理烟草BY-2细胞,用氧电极检测不同MP处理时间后,烟草BY-2细胞呼吸速率和呼吸途径的变化,同时分析BY-2细胞内BO产生和ATP含量等的变化.[结果]MP处理导致了烟草BY-2细胞HO爆发和ATP含量下降,此外,MP处理也导致了烟草BY-2细胞总呼吸速率、细胞色素途径(cytochrome pathway)和交替氧化酶途径(AOX)的下降,并且造成线粒体通透转换孔道(permeability transition pore,PTP)开放和细胞色素c释放.[结论]MP对BY-2细胞呼吸速率和细胞色素途径的抑制不可避免地导致胞内ATP含量下降,此外MP诱导的烟草BY-2细胞氧化磷酸化的解偶联作用是MP导致胞内ATP含量下降的另一重要原因.而MP对AOX途径的抑制则是诱导胞内ROS爆发的重要原因.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to explore the effect of the Alternaria alternata metabolic products (MP) on changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and ATP content in the tobacco BY-2 cells. [ Method] 10% MP was used to treat tobacco BY-2 cells, and Oxytherm oxygen electrode was used to study the effects of MP on the reparation rate and reparation pathway in the tobacco BY-2 cells. The changes of ROS production and ATP content in tobacco BY-2 cells was also studied. [ Result] Treatment with the MP led to remarkable overproduction of ROS, rapid depletion of ATP, significant declines in respiration, in cytochrome pathway and in alternative oxidase pathway (AOX). The treatment with MP also resulted in uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, opening of the permeability transition pore (PTP) and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytoplasm in tobacco BY-2 cells. [Conclusion] The inhibition of respiration and cytochrome pathway inevitably result in ATP

  14. The effect of MEP pathway and other inhibitors on the intracellular localization of a plasma membrane-targeted, isoprenylable GFP reporter protein in tobacco BY-2 cells [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/yx

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    Michael Hartmann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We have established an in vivo visualization system for the geranylgeranylation of proteins in a stably transformed tobacco BY-2 cell line, based on the expression of a dexamethasone-inducible GFP fused to the carboxy-terminal basic domain of the rice calmodulin CaM61, which naturally bears a CaaL geranylgeranylation motif (GFP-BD-CVIL. By using pathway-specific inhibitors it was demonstrated that inhibition of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP pathway with known inhibitors like oxoclomazone and fosmidomycin, as well as inhibition of the protein geranylgeranyltransferase type 1 (PGGT-1, shifted the localization of the GFP-BD-CVIL protein from the membrane to the nucleus. In contrast, the inhibition of the mevalonate (MVA pathway with mevinolin did not affect the localization. During the present work, this test system has been used to examine the effect of newly designed inhibitors of the MEP pathway and inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis such as squalestatin, terbinafine and Ro48-8071. In addition, we also studied the impact of different post-prenylation inhibitors or those suspected to affect the transport of proteins to the plasma membrane on the localization of the geranylgeranylable fusion protein GFP-BD-CVIL.

  15. Is Tobacco Smoke a Germ-Cell Mutagen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although no international organization exists to declare whether an agent is a germ-cell mutagen, tobacco smoke may be a human germ-cell mutagen. In the mouse, tobacco smoke induces a significant increase in the mutation frequency at an expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) locus....

  16. Modes of exocytotic and endocytotic events in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts.

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    Bandmann, Vera; Kreft, Marko; Homann, Ulrike

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the kinetics and size of single exo- and endocytotic events in BY-2 protoplasts, we employed cell-attached membrane capacitance measurements. These measurements revealed different modes of fusion and fission of single vesicles. In about half of the observed exocytotic events, fusion occurred transiently, which facilitates rapid recycling of vesicles. In addition, transient sequential or multi-vesicular exocytosis observed in some recordings can contribute to an increase in efficiency of secretory product release. Microscopic analysis of the timescale of cellulose and pectin deposition in protoplasts demonstrates that rebuilding of the cell wall starts soon after isolation of protoplasts and that transient fusion events can fully account for secretion of the required soluble material. The capacitance measurements also allowed us to investigate formation of the fusion pore. We speculate that regulation of secretion may involve control of the length and/or size of fusion pore opening. Together, the different kinetic modes of exo- and endocytosis revealed by capacitance measurements underline the complexity of this process in plants and provide a basis for future research into the underlying mechanisms. The fact that similar fusion/fission kinetics are present in plant and animal cells suggests that many of these mechanisms are highly conserved among eukaryotes.

  17. Modes of Exocytotic and Endocytotic Events in Tobacco BY-2 Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vera Bandmann; Marko Kreft; Ulrike Homann

    2011-01-01

    To analyze the kinetics and size of single exo- and endocytotic events in BY-2 protoplasts,we employed cell-attached membrane capacitance measurements. These measurements revealed different modes of fusion and fission of single vesicles. In about half of the observed exocytotic events,fusion occurred transiently,which facilitates rapid recycling of vesicles. In addition,transient sequential or multi-vesicular exocytosis observed in some recordings can contribute to an increase in efficiency of secretory product release. Microscopic analysis of the timescale of cellulose and pectin deposition in protoplasts demonstrates that rebuilding of the cell wall starts soon after isolation of protoplasts and that transient fusion events can fully account for secretion of the required soluble material. The capacitance measurements also allowed us to investigate formation of the fusion pore. We speculate that regulation of secretion may involve control of the length and/or size of fusion pore opening. Together,the different kinetic modes of exo- and endocytosis revealed by capacitance measurements underline the complexity of this process in plants and provide a basis for future research into the underlying mechanisms. The fact that similar fusion/fission kinetics are present in plant and animal cells suggests that many of these mechanisms are highly conserved among eukaryotes.

  18. Lethal impacts of cigarette smoke in cultured tobacco cells

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    Kawano Tomonori

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to understand and generalize the toxic mechanism of cigarette smoke in living cells, comparison of the data between animal systems and other biological system such as microbial and plant systems is highly beneficial. Objective By employing the tobacco cells as model materials for cigarette smoke toxicity assay, the impacts of the combustion by-products such as nitrogen oxides could be highlighted as the toxic impacts of the plant-derived endogenous chemicals could be excluded in the plant cells. Methods Cigarette smoke-induced cell death was assessed in tobacco cell suspension cultures in the presence and absence of pharmacological inhibitors. Results Cigarette smoke was effective in induction of cell death. The smoke-induced cell death could be partially prevented by addition of nitric oxide (NO scavenger, suggesting the role for NO as the cell death mediator. Addition of NO donor to tobacco cells also resulted in development of partial cell death further confirming the role of NO as cell death mediator. Members of reactive oxygen species and calcium ion were shown to be protecting the cells from the toxic action of smoke-derived NO.

  19. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for effective siRNA delivery to tobacco BY-2 protoplasts

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    Verchot Jeanmarie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS is a mechanism harnessed by plant biologists to knock down gene expression. siRNAs contribute to PTGS that are synthesized from mRNAs or viral RNAs and function to guide cellular endoribonucleases to target mRNAs for degradation. Plant biologists have employed electroporation to deliver artificial siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study gene expression mechanisms at the single cell level. One drawback of electroporation is the extensive loss of viable protoplasts that occurs as a result of the transfection technology. Results We employed fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs to deliver siRNAs and knockdown a target gene in plant protoplasts. CPNs are non toxic to protoplasts, having little impact on viability over a 72 h period. Microscopy and flow cytometry reveal that CPNs can penetrate protoplasts within 2 h of delivery. Cellular uptake of CPNs/siRNA complexes were easily monitored using epifluorescence microscopy. We also demonstrate that CPNs can deliver siRNAs targeting specific genes in the cellulose biosynthesis pathway (NtCesA-1a and NtCesA-1b. Conclusions While prior work showed that NtCesA-1 is a factor involved in cell wall synthesis in whole plants, we demonstrate that the same gene plays an essential role in cell wall regeneration in isolated protoplasts. Cell wall biosynthesis is central to cell elongation, plant growth and development. The experiments presented here shows that NtCesA is also a factor in cell viability. We show that CPNs are valuable vehicles for delivering siRNAs to plant protoplasts to study vital cellular pathways at the single cell level.

  20. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengke; Richard S Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement, and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes,...

  1. Visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments in fixed BY-2 suspension cells using an optimised whole mount immunolabelling protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Szechynska-Hebda, M.; Wedzony, M.; Dubas, E.; Kieft, H; Lammeren, van, ACAP Andre

    2006-01-01

    Excellent visualisation of microtubules and actin filaments was obtained in fixed tobacco BY-2 suspension cells after optimising a protocol for whole mount immunolabelling. The procedure is based on modification of fixation, cell wall digestion, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment, post fixation, and blocking. The most critical aspects of successful preservation and visualization of cytoskeletal elements appeared to be: a two-step fixation with paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde before enzym...

  2. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengke; Nelson, Richard S

    2013-01-01

    Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement, and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton, and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  3. ANALYSIS OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM OF TOBACCO CELLS USING CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY

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    Barbora Radochová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Image analysis techniques for preprocessing, segmentation and estimation of geometrical characteristics of fiber-like structures from 2-D or 3-D images captured by a confocal microscope are presented. Methods are demonstrated on fiber-like biological structure: endoplasmic reticulum (ER of tobacco cells. In the presented analysis of 2-D images of ER before and after the treatment of latrunculin B, ER and ER tubules were segmented and the area density of ER as well as the length density of ER tubules in the cell cortical layer were estimated by automatic image analysis algorithms. Images of 3-D arrangement of ER were reconstructed and rendered by various visualization techniques.

  4. Elemental analysis in cultured cells, tobacco and grape, treated with aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relationship between Al toxicity and the Al, Fe and B amount of element in tobacco and grape cells are discussed. Al and Fe were analyzed by neutron activation analysis and B was analyzed by prompt gamma-ray analysis. Callose content was also measured as an indicator of cell damage induced Al toxicity. When tobacco cells were incubated in 1 mM and 300 μM Al solution, the pattern of callose formation was much similar to that of Fe accumulation than that of Al accumulation in tobacco cells, suggesting that the increase of Fe content induced toxic effect along with Al incorporated into the cells. However, this tendency was not observed in grape cells. Boron content did not show any relation to those of Al or Fe throughout the Al treatment in both tobacco and grape cells. (author)

  5. The cell biology of Tobacco mosaic virus replication and movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengke eLiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful systemic infection of a plant by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV requires three processes that repeat over time: initial establishment and accumulation in invaded cells, intercellular movement and systemic transport. Accumulation and intercellular movement of TMV necessarily involves intracellular transport by complexes containing virus and host proteins and virus RNA during a dynamic process that can be visualized. Multiple membranes appear to assist TMV accumulation, while membranes, microfilaments and microtubules appear to assist TMV movement. Here we review cell biological studies that describe TMV-membrane, -cytoskeleton and -other host protein interactions which influence virus accumulation and movement in leaves and callus tissue. The importance of understanding the developmental phase of the infection in relationship to the observed virus-membrane or -host protein interaction is emphasized. Utilizing the latest observations of TMV-membrane and -host protein interactions within our evolving understanding of the infection ontogeny, a model for TMV accumulation and intracellular spread in a cell biological context is provided.

  6. Aluminum toxicity and Ca depletion may enhance cell death of tobacco cells via similar syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Refat Abdel; Matsumoto, Hideaki

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this work is to find out whether aluminum (Al) toxicity and Ca depletion cause cell death of tobacco cells via similar sequence of events. Tobacco cell suspension culture exhibited maximum fresh weight in the presence of a wide range of Ca concentrations between 0.1-1.0 mM whereas higher concentrations (>1.0-5.0 mM) gradually lowered cell fresh weight. However, this decrease in fresh weight does not imply a negative impact on cell viability since cell growth recommenced in fresh MS medium with rates mostly higher than those of low Ca. In addition, high Ca seems to be crucial for survival of Al-treated cells. On the other side, tobacco cells exhibited extreme sensitivity to complete deprivation of Ca. Without Ca, cells could not survive for 18 h and substantially lost their growth capability. Evans blue uptake proved membrane damage of Ca-depleted same as Al-treated cells; relative to maintained membrane intactness of calcium-supplemented (control) ones. Percentage of membrane damage and the growth capability (survival) of tobacco cells exhibited a clear negative correlation.Alterations in growth (fresh weight per aliquot) could not be ascribed neither to cell number nor to decreased dry matter allocation (dry weight/fresh weight percentage) but was mainly due to decreased cellular water content. In this context, Ca-depleted cells lost about half their original water content while 100 microM Al-treated ones retained most of it (ca 87%). This represented the single difference between the two treatments (discussed in the text). Nevertheless, such high water content of the Al-treated cells seems physiologically useless since it did not result in improved viability. Similarities, however, included negligible levels of growth capability, maximum levels of membrane damage, and comparable amounts of NO(3) (-) efflux. As well, both types of treatments led to a sharp decline in osmotic potential that is, in turn, needed for water influx. The above

  7. Introduction of transformed chloroplasts from tobacco into petunia by asymmetric cell fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigeno, Asako; Hayashi, Sugane; Terachi, Toru; Yamagishi, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Plastid engineering technique has been established only in Nicotiana tabacum, and the widespread application is severely limited so far. In order to exploit a method to transfer the genetically transformed plastomes already obtained in tobacco into other plant species, somatic cell fusion was conducted between a plastome transformant of tobacco and a cultivar of petunia (Petunia hybrida). A tobacco strain whose plastids had been transformed with aadA (a streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferase gene) and mdar [a gene for monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR)] and a petunia variety, 'Telstar', were used as cell fusion partners. An efficient regeneration system from the protoplasts of both the parents, and effectiveness of selection for the aadA gene with spectinomycin were established before the cell fusion. In addition, the influence of UV irradiation on the callus development from the protoplasts and shoot regeneration of tobacco was investigated. Protoplasts were cultured after cell fusion treatment with polyethylene glycol, and asymmetric somatic cybrids were selected using the aadA gene as a marker. Although many shoots of tobacco that had escaped the UV irradiation regenerated, several shoots possessing the morphology of petunia and the resistance to spectinomycin were obtained. Molecular analyses of the petunia type regenerants demonstrated that they had the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes derived from petunia besides the chloroplasts of tobacco transformed with aadA and mdar. Furthermore, it was ascertained that mdar was transcribed in the somatic cybrids. The results indicate the success in intergeneric transfer of transformed plastids of tobacco into petunia. PMID:19727738

  8. Operation of an efficient site-specific recombination system of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onouchi, H; Yokoi, K; Machida, C; Matsuzaki, H; Oshima, Y; Matsuoka, K; Nakamura, K; Machida, Y

    1991-12-11

    Recombinase encoded by the R gene of pSR1 of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii mediates reciprocal recombination between two specific recombination sites (RSs) to induce excision or inversion of the DNA segment that is flanked by the RSs. We report here that site-specific recombination mediated by this system takes place effeciently in tobacco cells. To monitor the recombination events in tobacco cells, we have constructed two types of cryptic beta-glucuronidase reporter gene in such a way that recombination such as inversion of the construct or excision of the intervening sequence results in their expression. When these cryptic reporter constructs were transiently introduced together with the R gene by electroporation into protoplasts of tobacco cells, beta-glucuronidase activity was detected. The cryptic reporter genes, when stably resident in the chromosome of tobacco cells, were also activated by the R gene. Structural analyses of the genomic DNA isolated from these tobacco cells showed that the R protein did in fact catalyze precise recombination between two copies of RSs in tobacco cells, with resultant activation of the cryptic reporter genes. This observation provides the basis for development of a DNA technology whereby large regions of DNA can be manipulated in plant chromosomes. Potential uses of this recombination system are discussed.

  9. Initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks and DNA Fragmentation patterns depend on linear energy transfer in tobacco BY-2 protoplasts irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Yuichiro; Yamada, Shinya; Hase, Yoshihiro; Shikazono, Naoya; Narumi, Issay; Tanaka, Atsushi; Inoue, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    The ability of ion beams to kill or mutate plant cells is known to depend on the linear energy transfer (LET) of the ions, although the mechanism of damage is poorly understood. In this study, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were quantified by a DNA fragment-size analysis in tobacco protoplasts irradiated with high-LET ions. Tobacco BY-2 protoplasts, as a model of single plant cells, were irradiated with helium, carbon and neon ions having different LETs and with gamma rays. After irradiation, DNA fragments were separated into sizes between 1600 and 6.6 kbp by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Information on DNA fragmentation was obtained by staining the gels with SYBR Green I. Initial DSB yields were found to depend on LET, and the highest relative biological effectiveness (about 1.6) was obtained at 124 and 241 keV/microm carbon ions. High-LET carbon and neon ions induced short DNA fragments more efficiently than gamma rays. These results partially explain the large biological effects caused by high-LET ions in plants.

  10. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Calcium-stimulated Serine Transport into Tobacco Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ivan K.

    1978-01-01

    The transport of serine into tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum L.) cultured in liquid medium was examined. Transport was inhibited approximately 50% by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, indoleacetic acid, α-naphthalene acetic acid, and kinetin at a concentration of 10 micrograms per milliliter. Transport was not inhibited by 2,6-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and inhibited less than 25% by p-chlorophenoxyacetic acid at this concentration. Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from the transport medium resulted in an alleviation of inhibition. Gibberellic acid at concentrations from 2 to 20 micrograms per milliliter stimulated transport. It was previously shown that inhibition of transport by La3+ was due to removal of Ca2+ from surface sites and inhibition of Ca2+ uptake by cells. None of the growth regulators tested had any significant effect on Ca2+ binding and/or transport. A contributing factor to the low transport rates in the absence of Ca2+ is the increased rate of serine efflux. None of the growth regulators tested had any significant effect on the rate of serine efflux. PMID:16660646

  11. Genotoxic Effects of Tobacco on Buccal Epithelium: Cell Nuclear Anomalies as Biomarker

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    Sohini Das Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco use has toxic effects on different organs. This study was carried out to assess the effect of indigenous tobacco both in smoking (bidi and smokeless (gutkha, zarda and khaini forms on buccal cells at chromosomal level, through assessment of different nuclear anomalies as biomarker. Methods:This study was done on people living in Durgapur and its adjacent areas, West Bengal, India during January to July 2011. The samples were collected from 50 smokers (case group, 50 smokeless tobacco consumers or chewers (case group and 50 non-tobacco consumers (control group. Micronucleus assay was used to assess buccal cell nuclear changes. Buccal smears collected from study subjects were prepared on a grease free slide. Prepared slides were observed under light microscope and 2 to 5 fields were observed randomly for counting the different anomalies. In each field, the frequency of each anomaly was assessed in 100 cells and reported with percentage. Results:Chewers had significantly the highest frequency of all nuclear anomalies compared to smokers and healthy controls (HCs. Smokers also had significantly more anomalies compared to HCs. Condensed chromatin (CC, karyolysis (KL and bi-nucleation (BN in chewers and CC, pyknosis and BN in smokers were the most frequent anomalies. KL was significantly more frequent in chewers compared to smokers (59.8 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 12.4%, P < 0.001, however, the frequency of other nuclear anomalies were not significantly different in these two study groups. Presence of each nuclear anomaly was significantly greater in older ages in all study groups. Conclusion:Tobacco can cause and increase the rate of nuclear anomalies in both smoking and smokeless forms compared to HCs. The genotoxic effects of tobacco on buccal cells are partly age-related. Cell nuclear anomalies in buccal tissue can be used as biomarker indicating the detrimental effects of tobacco.

  12. Assessment of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticide Residues in Cigarette Tobacco with a Novel Cell Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridon Kintzios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional analysis of pesticide residues in analytical commodities, such as tobacco and tobacco products is a labor intensive procedure, since it is necessary to cover a wide range of different chemicals, using a single procedure. Standard analysis methods include extensive sample pretreatment (with solvent extraction and partitioning phases and determination by GC and HPLC to achieve the necessary selectivity and sensitivity for the different classes of compounds under detection. As a consequence, current methods of analysis provide a limited sample capacity. In the present study, we report on the development of a novel cell biosensor for detecting organophosphate and carbamate pesticide residues in tobacco. The sensor is based on neuroblastoma N2a cells and the measurement of changes of the cell membrane potential, according to the working principle of the Bioelectric Recognition Assay (BERA. The presence of pesticide residues is detected by the degree of inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE. The sensor instantly responded to both the organophoshate pesticide chlorpyriphos and the carbamate carbaryl in a concentration-dependent pattern, being able to detect one part per billion (1 ppb. Additionally, tobacco leaf samples (in blended dry form were analyzed with both the novel biosensor and conventional methods, according to a double-blind protocol. Pesticide residues in tobacco samples caused a considerable cell membrane hyperpolarization to neuroblastoma cells immobilized in the sensor, as indicated by the increase of the negative sensor potential, which was clearly distinguishable from the sensor’s response against pesticide-free control samples. The observed response was quite reproducible, with an average variation of +5,6%. Fluorescence microscopy observations showed that treatment of the cells with either chlorpyrifos or carbaryl was associated with increased [Ca2+]cyt . The novel biosensor offers fresh

  13. Conjugation of the mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in tobacco suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Andreas A; Kohn, Beate N; Pfeiffer, Erika; Wefers, Daniel; Metzler, Manfred; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-05-20

    The mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-O-methyl ether (AME) carry three and two phenolic hydroxyl groups, respectively, which makes them candidates for the formation of conjugated metabolites in plants. Such conjugates may escape routine methods of analysis and have therefore been termed masked or, more recently, modified mycotoxins. We report now that AOH and AME are extensively conjugated in suspension cultures of tobacco BY-2 cells. Five conjugates of AOH were identified by MS and NMR spectroscopy as β-D-glucopyranosides (attached in AOH 3- or 9-position) as well as their 6'-malonyl derivatives, and as a gentiobiose conjugate. For AME, conjugation resulted in the d-glucopyranoside (mostly attached in the AME 3-position) and its 6'- and 4'-malonyl derivatives. Pronounced differences were noted for the quantitative pattern of AOH and AME conjugates as well as for their phytotoxicity. Our in vitro study demonstrates for the first time that masked mycotoxins of AOH and AME can be formed in plant cells.

  14. Transient Expression of P-type ATPases in Tobacco Epidermal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Lisbeth R; Palmgren, Michael G; López-Marqués, Rosa L

    2016-01-01

    Transient expression in tobacco cells is a convenient method for several purposes such as analysis of protein-protein interactions and the subcellular localization of plant proteins. A suspension of Agrobacterium tumefaciens cells carrying the plasmid of interest is injected into the intracellular space between leaf epidermal cells, which results in DNA transfer from the bacteria to the plant and expression of the corresponding proteins. By injecting mixes of Agrobacterium strains, this system offers the possibility to co-express a number of target proteins simultaneously, thus allowing for example protein-protein interaction studies. In this chapter, we describe the procedure to transiently express P-type ATPases in tobacco epidermal cells, with focus on subcellular localization of the protein complexes formed by P4-ATPases and their β-subunits. PMID:26695049

  15. Evaluation of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells of tobacco chewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurjeet Kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Genotoxic substances i.e. chemicals, mutagens and radiations are those substances which are toxic to the genetic material. Damage to the genetic material can be assessed in number of ways by studying chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and other nuclear aberrations like micronuclei, binucleated cells etc. Present research was conducted on 10 tobacco chewers. Slides were prepared from their buccal mucosal cells by cell suspension technique. Cells were spread on slide and stained with May Grunwald stain followed by Giemsa stain. Standard slides were examined under trinocular Zeiss microscope at 800 X-magnification. 500 cells were examined for each 10 tobacco chewers. Slides shows Binucleated cells (BN, Micronucleated cells (MN and Karyolytic cells. Study concludes that age, duration of exposure and other addictions like smoking and intake of alcohol affects the frequencies of nuclear abnormalities. Duration of exposure significantly affects BN frequency but not MN frequency. The mean values for MN cells were not different but for BN cells they were different among two age groups taken.

  16. DNA damage in male gonad cells of Green mussel (Perna viridis) upon exposure to tobacco products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nagarajappa; Ganguly, A.; Goswami, U.

    . Keywords: Genotoxicity, DNA damage, Comet assay, Cigar tobacco extracts, H2O2 Introduction Marine pollution is a global problem and can arise from natural occurrences as well as human activities, resource uses and interventions..., 781, 56-63. Nacci, D.E., Cayula, S., and Eugene, J., (1996). Detection of DNA damage in individual cells from marine organisms using the single gel assay. Aquatic Toxicol., 35,197?219. Ostling, O., and Johanson, K.J., (1984). Microelectrophoretic...

  17. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants

    OpenAIRE

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D.; Brumós Fuentes, Javier; Rosales Villegas, Miguel Á.; Cubero Font, Paloma; Talón Cubillo, Manuel; Colmenero Flores, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Chloride (Cl–) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl– when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinat...

  18. Hemicellulose biosynthesis and degradation in tobacco cell walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compier, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Natural fibres have a wide range of technological applications, such as in paper and textile industries. The basic properties and the quality of plant fibres are determined by the composition of the plant cell wall. Characteristic for fibres are thick secondary cell walls, which consist of cellulose

  19. Interleukin-16-producing NK cells and T-cells in the blood of tobacco smokers with and without COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Anders Andersson,1,* Carina Malmhäll,2,* Birgitta Houltz,1 Sara Tengvall,1 Margareta Sjöstrand,2 Ingemar Qvarfordt,1 Anders Lindén,3 Apostolos Bossios2 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 2Krefting Research Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 3Unit for Lung and Airway Research, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Long-term exposure to tobacco smoke causes local inflammation in the airways that involves not only innate immune cells, including NK cells, but also adaptive immune cells such as cytotoxic (CD8+ and helper (CD4+ T-cells. We have previously demonstrated that long-term tobacco smoking increases extracellular concentration of the CD4+-recruiting cytokine interleukin (IL-16 locally in the airways. Here, we hypothesized that tobacco smoking alters IL-16 biology at the systemic level and that this effect involves oxygen free radicals (OFR.Methods: We quantified extracellular IL-16 protein (ELISA and intracellular IL-16 in NK cells, T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes (flow cytometry in blood samples from long-term tobacco smokers with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and in never-smokers. NK cells from healthy blood donors were stimulated with water-soluble tobacco smoke components (cigarette smoke extract with or without an OFR scavenger (glutathione in vitro and followed by quantification of IL-16 protein.Results: The extracellular concentrations of IL-16 protein in blood did not display any substantial differences between groups. Notably, intracellular IL-16 protein was detected in all types of blood leukocytes. All long-term smokers displayed

  20. Expression of Chlamydomonas actin-gfp fusion gene in to-bacco suspension cell and polymerization of the actin-gfp protein in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fusion gene of actin (cDNA of Chlamydo- monas reinhardtii) and green fluorescence protein (gfp) had been constructed into two expression vectors which could be expressed in E. coli and tobacco suspension cells BY2. The correct expression was observed in E. coli and BY2 with a fluorescence microscopy. The fusion protein, which took part in the membrane skeleton, was mainly located peripherally along the membrane, specially the fusion protein was dis-tributed around nucleus and cell plate, while the fusion pro-tein also forms F-actin in the cell. The fusion protein was purified from Bl21plus by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified production could polymerize into F-actin when the actin polymerizing buffer was added. It was demonstrated that the characteristics and function of actin in Chlamydomonas was similar with those of animals and higher plants.

  1. Expression, intracellular targeting and purification of HIV Nef variants in tobacco cells

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    Baschieri Selene

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants may represent excellent alternatives to classical heterologous protein expression systems, especially for the production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccine components. Modern vaccines are becoming increasingly complex, with the incorporation of multiple antigens. Approaches towards developing an HIV vaccine appear to confirm this, with a combination of candidate antigens. Among these, HIV-Nef is considered a promising target for vaccine development because immune responses directed against this viral protein could help to control the initial steps of viral infection and to reduce viral loads and spreading. Two isoforms of Nef protein can be found in cells: a full-length N-terminal myristoylated form (p27, 27 kDa and a truncated form (p25, 25 kDa. Here we report the expression and purification of HIV Nef from transgenic tobacco. Results We designed constructs to direct the expression of p25 and p27 Nef to either the cytosol or the secretory pathway. We tested these constructs by transient expression in tobacco protoplasts. Cytosolic Nef polypeptides are correctly synthesised and are stable. The same is not true for Nef polypeptides targeted to the secretory pathway by virtue of a signal peptide. We therefore generated transgenic plants expressing cytosolic, full length or truncated Nef. Expression levels were variable, but in some lines they averaged 0.7% of total soluble proteins. Hexahistidine-tagged Nef was easily purified from transgenic tissue in a one-step procedure. Conclusion We have shown that transient expression can help to rapidly determine the best cellular compartment for accumulation of a recombinant protein. We have successfully expressed HIV Nef polypeptides in the cytosol of transgenic tobacco plants. The proteins can easily be purified from transgenic tissue.

  2. MOLECULAR PHENOTYPING OF LIGNIN-MODIFIED TOBACCO REVEALS ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN CELL WALL METABOLISM, PRIMARY METABOLISM, STRESS METABOLISM AND PHOTORESPIRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignin is an important component of secondary thickened cell walls. Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) are two key enzymes catalyzing the penultimate and last step in the biosynthesis of the monolignols. Down-regulation of CCR in tobacco has been shown to reduce l...

  3. Power loss analysis of n-PASHA cells validated by 2D simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, G.J.M.; Gutjahr, A.; Burgers, A.R.; Saynova, D.S.; Cesar, I.; Romijn, I.G.

    2013-10-15

    To reach >21% efficiency for the n-Pasha (passivated all sides H-pattern) cell of ECN, reliable power-loss analyses are essential. A power-loss analysis is presented that is based on experimental data but validated and completed by 2D simulations. The analysis is used to identify the key factors that will contribute most to achieving >21% efficiency.

  4. NtSCP1 from tobacco is an extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III that has an impact on cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Delannoy, Mélanie; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2012-03-01

    The leaf extracellular space contains several peptidases, most of which are of unknown function. We isolated cDNAs for two extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III genes from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), NtSCP1 and NtSCP2, belonging to a phylogenetic clade not yet functionally characterized in plants. NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are orthologs derived from the two ancestors of tobacco. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower tissues. Expression analysis of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene fused to the NtSCP1 transcription promoter region confirmed this expression profile. Western blotting of NtSCP1 and expression of an NtSCP1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that the protein is located in the extracellular space of tobacco leaves and culture cells. Purified His-tagged NtSCP1 had carboxypeptidase activity in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtSCP1 showed a reduced flower length due to a decrease in cell size. Etiolated seedlings of these transgenic plants had shorter hypocotyls. These data provide support for a role of an extracellular type III carboxypeptidase in the control of cell elongation.

  5. Assessment of cultivation factors that affect biomass and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco cell suspension cultures.

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    Nikolay Vasilev

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical experimental design was used to determine essential cultivation parameters that affect biomass accumulation and geraniol production in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun NN cell suspension cultures. The carbohydrate source played a major role in determining the geraniol yield and factors such as filling volume, inoculum size and light were less important. Sucrose, filling volume and inoculum size had a positive effect on geraniol yield by boosting growth of plant cell cultures whereas illumination of the cultures stimulated the geraniol biosynthesis. We also found that the carbohydrates sucrose and mannitol showed polarizing effects on biomass and geraniol accumulation. Factors such as shaking frequency, the presence of conditioned medium and solubilizers had minor influence on both plant cell growth and geraniol content. When cells were cultivated under the screened conditions for all the investigated factors, the cultures produced ∼ 5.2 mg/l geraniol after 12 days of cultivation in shaking flasks which is comparable to the yield obtained in microbial expression systems. Our data suggest that industrial experimental designs based on orthogonal arrays are suitable for the selection of initial cultivation parameters prior to the essential medium optimization steps. Such designs are particularly beneficial in the early optimization steps when many factors must be screened, increasing the statistical power of the experiments without increasing the demand on time and resources.

  6. Ectopic expression of a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor in guard cells confers drought tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Fen; Liang, Ke; Yin, Dong-Mei; Ni, Di-An; Zhang, Zhi-Guo; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-12-01

    There are several hypotheses that explain stomatal behavior. These include the concept of osmoregulation mediated by potassium and its counterions malate and chlorine and the more recent starch-sugar hypothesis. We have previously reported that the activity of the sucrose cleavage enzyme, vacuolar invertase (VIN), is significantly higher in guard cells than in other leaf epidermal cells and its activity is correlated with stomatal aperture. Here, we examined whether VIN indeed controls stomatal movement under normal and drought conditions by transforming Arabidopsis with a tobacco vacuolar invertase inhibitor homolog (Nt-inhh) under the control of an abscisic acid-sensitive and guard cell-specific promoter (AtRab18). The data obtained showed that guard cells of transgenic Arabidopsis plants had lower VIN activity, stomatal aperture and conductance than that of wild-type plants. Moreover, the transgenic plants also displayed higher drought tolerance than wild-type plants. The data indicate that VIN is a promising target for manipulating stomatal function to increase drought tolerance. PMID:26899912

  7. Induction of apoptosis with tobacco smoke and related products in A549 lung epithelial cells in vitro

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    Jones Amanda C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study has investigated the ability of tobacco smoke, and ingredients of tobacco smoke, to induce apoptosis in the airway epithelial cell line A549. Method A549 cells were treated with 80 μg/ml Tobacco smoke condensate (TSC, 10 mM Nicotine, 10 μM paraldehyde, 10 μM hydrogen peroxide, 1 μM Taxol® (Paclitaxel, 100%, 50% and 25% cigarette smoke extract (CSE. Following 4–48 h incubation apoptosis was measured morphologically following staining of cells with DAPI. TUNEL staining was also used to assess DNA damage after 24 and 48 h incubation. In addition, loss of mitochondrial cytochrome C and activation of Bax-α, early events in the apoptotic process, were measured after 4 h of incubation. Results Incubation of A549 cells with vehicle, Taxol, TSC, nicotine, paraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and CSE caused a time-dependent detachment of the cells from the flask between 6 and 48 h. DAPI staining revealed that the cells remaining adhered to the flask appeared healthy whereas some of those that had detached appeared to be either apoptotic or indeterminate. Treatment with Taxol, TSC, nicotine, paraldehyde, hydrogen peroxide and CSE caused a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Similarly, treatment with Taxol, TSC, nicotine, hydrogen peroxide and CSE caused a significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells among the cells that had detached from the culture plate. After 4 h of incubation, Taxol, TSC, hydrogen peroxide and CSE caused a significant reduction in mitochondrial cytochrome C and an increase in cytosolic cytochrome C. At the same time point, hydrogen peroxide and CSE significantly increased the concentration of Bax-α in the mitochondria. Conclusion Tobacco smoke initiates apoptosis in A549 airway epithelial cells as a result of mitochondrial damage and that this results in a cell detachment and full apoptosis. This effect appears to result from factors in tobacco smoke other than nicotine and

  8. Chloride regulates leaf cell size and water relations in tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Navarro, Juan D; Brumós, Javier; Rosales, Miguel A; Cubero-Font, Paloma; Talón, Manuel; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2016-02-01

    Chloride (Cl(-)) is a micronutrient that accumulates to macronutrient levels since it is normally available in nature and actively taken up by higher plants. Besides a role as an unspecific cell osmoticum, no clear biological roles have been explicitly associated with Cl(-) when accumulated to macronutrient concentrations. To address this question, the glycophyte tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Habana) has been treated with a basal nutrient solution supplemented with one of three salt combinations containing the same cationic balance: Cl(-)-based (CL), nitrate-based (N), and sulphate+phosphate-based (SP) treatments. Under non-saline conditions (up to 5 mM Cl(-)) and no water limitation, Cl(-) specifically stimulated higher leaf cell size and led to a moderate increase of plant fresh and dry biomass mainly due to higher shoot expansion. When applied in the 1-5 mM range, Cl(-) played specific roles in regulating leaf osmotic potential and turgor, allowing plants to improve leaf water balance parameters. In addition, Cl(-) also altered water relations at the whole-plant level through reduction of plant transpiration. This was a consequence of a lower stomatal conductance, which resulted in lower water loss and greater photosynthetic and integrated water-use efficiency. In contrast to Cl(-), these effects were not observed for essential anionic macronutrients such as nitrate, sulphate, and phosphate. We propose that the abundant uptake and accumulation of Cl(-) responds to adaptive functions improving water homeostasis in higher plants.

  9. Alteration in buccal mucosal cells due to the effect of tobacco and alcohol by assessing the silver-stained nucleolar organiser regions and micronuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Jindal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Tobacco and alcohol consumption produce alteration in apparently normal buccal mucosal cells, which may cumulatively lead to carcinomatous changes. Result of these changes may be used as educational tool in cessation of habits.

  10. Putative signal peptides of two BURP proteins can direct proteins to their destinations in tobacco cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yulin; Ou, Zhonghua; Qiu, Jianbin; Mi, Zilan

    2014-11-01

    Plant-specific BURP family proteins have a diverse subcellular localization with different functions. However, only limited studies have investigated the functions of their different domains. In the present study, the role of the N-terminal putative signal peptide in protein subcellular localization was investigated using a tobacco cell system. The results showed that SALI3-2 was present in vacuoles, whereas AtRD22 was directed to the apoplast. The N-terminal putative signal peptides of both proteins were confirmed to be the essential and critical domains for targeting the proteins to their destinations. We also demonstrate that the expression and accumulation of mGFP in tobacco cells was increased when mGFP was fused to the putative signal peptide of SALI3-2. The findings offer the potential application of this short peptide in protein production in plants. PMID:25048229

  11. EffectS Of Synergism Between PVY and PVX on Vi rus Titer and Cell Ultrastructure in Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Han; GUO Xing-qi; LI Xiang-dong; GUO Heng-jun; LI Zhao-hui

    2003-01-01

    The viruses titer and the ultrastructure of infected cells in tobacco host (Nicotiana tabacum cv.Samsun), which doubly infected with potato virus Y necrosis strain (PVYN) and potato virus X (PVX), were studied under greenhouse conditions. The results indicated that PVYN and PVX interacted synergistically, and tobacco plants which doubly infected with PVX and PVYN could greatly increase symptom severity as compared with that induced by the single virus. As determined by triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), the titer of PVX in the tobacco leaves infected with both PVYN and PVX was up to 9.10 times higher than the plants infected with PVX only. No significant differences in PVYN titer were detected between singly and doubly infected plants. The enhancement of PVX titer in doubly infected plants was evident in greenhouse and was independent of the virus strains, tested seasons, intervals between PVYN and PVX inoculation. When sections of doubly infected leaves were examined with an electron microscope, it could be frequently found that cells contained pinwheels and large masses of PVX-like particles, pinwheels and laminate inclusions, or all three structures, most of them were swollen, and their chloroplast and other organella were destructed heavily. This suggested that doubly infected cells were involved in the enhancement phenomenon,which seemed to be the result of an increase in the amount of PVX synthesized in them.

  12. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... users have receding gums, gum disease, cavities and tooth decay (from the high sugar content in the tobacco), ... Tobacco . References American Cancer Society. Cancer Prevention & Early Detection Facts & Figures 2015-2016 . Atlanta, Ga. 2015. Campaign ...

  13. Further observations on cell-wall formation around isolated protoplasts of tobacco and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, J H; Grout, B W

    1978-01-01

    Freeze-etch observations of protoplasts isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) mesophyll tissue and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) fruit locule tissue are described which clarify earlier observations (Burgess, J., Fleming, E.N., Planta 131, 173-178, 1976; Planta 133, 267-273, 1977), obtained using scanning electron microscopy. of "fibres" associated with "projections" from these cell surfaces. It is demonstrated (1) that the "fibres" consist of bundles of small numbers of microfibrils which have become artifactually thickened by the deposition of coating materials, and (2) that the apparent association between "fibres" and "projections" results from microfibrils being lifted preferentially from protoplast surfaces in regions rich in "projections" (plasmalemmasomes). With the higher resolution available using freeze-etching it can be demonstrated that microfibril deposition does not occur in discontinuous zones on these protoplast surfaces. Globules associated with microfibril termini in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) roots are illustrated and it is proposed that turgor pressure differences between isolated protoplasts and intact tissue may account for the absence of similar globules from isolated protoplast surfaces.

  14. Gene Inactivation by CRISPR-Cas9 in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 Suspension Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercx, Sébastien; Tollet, Jérémie; Magy, Bertrand; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Plant suspension cells are interesting hosts for the heterologous production of pharmacological proteins such as antibodies. They have the advantage to facilitate the containment and the application of good manufacturing practices. Furthermore, antibodies can be secreted to the extracellular medium, which makes the purification steps much simpler. However, improvements are still to be made regarding the quality and the production yield. For instance, the inactivation of proteases and the humanization of glycosylation are both important targets which require either gene silencing or gene inactivation. To this purpose, CRISPR-Cas9 is a very promising technique which has been used recently in a series of plant species, but not yet in plant suspension cells. Here, we sought to use the CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene inactivation in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells. We transformed a transgenic line expressing a red fluorescent protein (mCherry) with a binary vector containing genes coding for Cas9 and three guide RNAs targeting mCherry restriction sites, as well as a bialaphos-resistant (bar) gene for selection. To demonstrate gene inactivation in the transgenic lines, the mCherry gene was PCR-amplified and analyzed by electrophoresis. Seven out of 20 transformants displayed a shortened fragment, indicating that a deletion occurred between two target sites. We also analyzed the transformants by restriction fragment length polymorphism and observed that the three targeted restriction sites were hit. DNA sequencing of the PCR fragments confirmed either deletion between two target sites or single nucleotide deletion. We therefore conclude that CRISPR-Cas9 can be used in N. tabacum BY2 cells. PMID:26870061

  15. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people who chew tobacco or dip snuff think it's safer than smoking. But you don't have to smoke tobacco for it to be dangerous. Chewing or dipping ... cancer Recent research shows the dangers of smokeless tobacco may go beyond the mouth. It might also ...

  16. Enhancement of radionuclide induced cytotoxicity by 2-deoxy-D-glucose in human tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrivastava V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of targeted radiotherapy can be enhanced by selective delivery of radionuclide to the tumors and/or by differentially enhancing the manifestation of radiation damage in tumors. Our earlier studies have shown that the 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, an inhibitor of glucose transport and glycolytic ATP production, selectively enhances the cytotoxicity of external beam radiation in tumor cells. Therefore, it is suggested that 2-DG may also enhance the cytotoxic effects of radionuclides selectively in tumor cells, thereby improving the efficacy of radionuclide therapy. In vitro studies on breast carcinoma (MDA-MB-468 and glioma (U-87 cell lines, has been carried out to verify this proposition. Clonogenicity (macrocolony assay, cell proliferation, cytogenetic damage (micronuclei formation and apoptosis were investigated as parameters of radiation response. Mean inactivation dose D (dose required to reduce the survival from 1 to 0.37, was 48 MBq/ml and 96 MBq/ml for 99 mTc, treated MDA-MB-468 and U-87, respectively. The dose response of growth inhibition, induction of micronuclei formation and apoptosis observed under these conditions, were correlated well with the changes in cell survival. Presence of 2-DG (5 mM during radionuclide exposure (24 hrs, reduced the survival by nearly 2 folds in MDA-MB-468 (from 48.5 MBq to18.5 MBq and by 1.6 folds in U-87 cells (from 96 MBq to 66 Mbq. These results clearly show that the presence of 2-DG during radionuclide exposure, significantly enhances the cytotoxicity, by increasing mitotic as well as interphase death. Further studies to understand the mechanisms of radio-sensitization by 2-DG and preclinical studies using tumor-bearing animals, are required for optimizing the treatment schedule.

  17. Tobacco NUP1 transports both tobacco alkaloids and vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Keita; Shitan, Nobukazu; Shoji, Tsubasa; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    The purine permeases (PUPs) constitute a large plasma membrane-localized transporter family in plants that mediates the proton-coupled uptake of nucleotide bases and their derivatives, such as adenine, cytokinins, and caffeine. A Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) PUP-family transporter, nicotine uptake permease 1 (NtNUP1), was previously shown to transport tobacco alkaloids and to affect both nicotine biosynthesis and root growth in tobacco plants. Since Arabidopsis PUP1, which belongs to the same subclade as NtNUP1, was recently reported to transport pyridoxine and its derivatives (vitamin B6), it was of interest to examine whether NtNUP1 could also transport these substrates. Direct uptake measurements in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrated that NtNUP1 efficiently promoted the uptake of pyridoxamine, pyridoxine, anatabine, and nicotine. The naturally occurring (S)-isomer of nicotine was preferentially transported over the (R)-isomer. Transport studies using tobacco BY-2 cell lines overexpressing NtNUP1 or PUP1 showed that NtNUP1, similar to PUP1, transported various compounds containing a pyridine ring, but that the two transporters had distinct substrate preferences. Therefore, the previously reported effects of NtNUP1 on tobacco physiology might involve bioactive metabolites other than tobacco alkaloids. PMID:24947336

  18. A Tobacco-Derived Thymosin β4 Concatemer Promotes Cell Proliferation and Wound Healing in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janarthini, Rylosona; Wang, Xiaolei; Chen, Lulu; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Lingxia

    2016-01-01

    Thymosin β4 (Tβ4) is a peptide that is known to play important roles in protection, regeneration, and remodeling of injured tissues in humans, and that shows great promise in a range of clinical applications. However, current strategies to Tβ4 are insufficient to meet growing demand and have a number of limitations. In this current study we investigated whether expression of recombinant Tβ4 in plants, specifically in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves, represents an effective approach. To address this question, a 168 bp Tβ4 gene optimized for tobacco codon usage bias was constitutively expressed in tobacco as a 4-unit repeat concatemer, fused to a polyhistidine tag. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses were used to verify 4×Tβ4 expression in 14 transgenic tobacco lines and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis indicated 4×Tβ4 protein concentrations as high as 3 μg/g of fresh weight in the leaves. We observed that direct administration of tobacco-derived Tβ4 was more effective than Tβ4 either obtained commercially or derived from expression in Escherichia coli at promoting splenocyte proliferation in vitro and wound healing in mice through an endothelial migration assay. This study provides new insights into the development of plant-derived therapeutic proteins and their application by direct administration. PMID:27493953

  19. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  20. Proteomic profiling of cellular targets of lipopolysaccharide-induced signalling in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Isak B; Laukens, Kris; De Vijlder, Thomas; Witters, Erwin; Dubery, Ian A

    2008-11-01

    Plants constantly monitor for pathogen challenge and utilize a diverse array of adaptive defense mechanisms, including differential protein regulation, during pathogen attack. A proteomic analysis of Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 cells was performed in order to investigate the dynamic changes following perception of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. A multiplexed proteome analysis, employing two-dimensional difference-in-gel-electrophoresis with CyDye DIGE fluors, as well as Ruthenium II tris (bathophenanthroline disulfonate) fluorescence staining and Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein-specific gel staining, monitored over 1500 proteins and resulted in the identification of 88 differentially regulated proteins and phosphoproteins responsive to LPS(B.cep.)-elicitation. Functional clustering of the proteins both at the level of their abundance and phosphorylation status, revealed 9 proteins involved in transport, ion homeostasis and signal transduction. A large number of responsive proteins were found to be involved in metabolism- and energy-related processes (36), representing various metabolic pathways. Another abundant category corresponded to proteins classified as molecular chaperones and involved in protein destination/targeting (12). Other categories of proteins found to be LPS(B.cep.)-responsive and differentially regulated include cell structure- and cytoskeletal rearrangement proteins (8) and proteins involved in transcription and translation as well as degradation (11). The results indicate that LPS(B.cep.) induces metabolic reprogramming and changes in cellular activities supporting protein synthesis, -folding, vesicle trafficking and secretion; accompanied by changes to the cytoskeleton and proteosome function. Many of the identified proteins are known to be interconnected at various levels through a complex web of activation/deactivation, complex formation, protein-protein interactions, and chaperoning reactions. The presented data offers novel insights and further

  1. Valine-Resistance, a Potential Marker in Plant Cell Genetics. I. Distinction between Two Types of Valine-Resistant Tobacco Mutants Isolated from Protoplast-Derived Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgin, J. P.; Goujaud, J.; Missonier, C.; Pethe, C.

    1985-01-01

    In previous experiments, seven lines of valine-resistant plants were regenerated from protoplast-derived haploid tobacco mesophyll cells which had been UV mutagenized and submitted to selection by toxic concentrations of valine. In this study we described the transmission of valine-resistance to progeny and a preliminary phenotypical and biochemical characterization of the resistant plants.—Two types were thus distinguished among the seven mutant lines. Valine-resistance of the mutants of the...

  2. Valine-Resistance, a Potential Marker in Plant Cell Genetics. II. Optimization of Uv Mutagenesis and Selection of Valine-Resistant Colonies Derived from Tobacco Mesophyll Protoplasts

    OpenAIRE

    Grandbastien, M. A.; Bourgin, J. P.; Caboche, M.

    1985-01-01

    The induction and selection of valine-resistant mutants from haploid tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) mesophyll protoplast-derived cells have been studied. Using cells from an original mutant plant obtained previously, we performed reconstruction experiments in order to determine the best conditions for the recovery of resistant cells among a population of sensitive cells. Optimal selective conditions were shown to depend on various factors including cell density, time of addition of valine and...

  3. Smoking, environmental tobacco smoke, and risk of renal cell cancer: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqui Tariq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney and renal pelvis cancers account for 4% of all new cancer cases in the United States, among which 85% are renal cell carcinomas (RCC. While cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for RCC, little is known about the contribution of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS to RCC incidence. This study assesses the role of smoking and ETS on RCC incidence using a population-based case-control design in Florida and Georgia. Methods Incident cases (n = 335 were identified from hospital records and the Florida cancer registry, and population controls (n = 337 frequency-matched by age (+/- 5 years, gender, and race were identified through random-digit dialing. In-person interviews assessed smoking history and lifetime exposure to ETS at home, work, and public spaces. Home ETS was measured in both years and hours of exposure. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression, controlled for age, gender, race, and BMI. Results Cases were more likely to have smoked 20 or more pack-years, compared with never-smokers (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.93 – 1.95. A protective effect was found for smoking cessation, beginning with 11–20 years of cessation (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.18–0.85 and ending with 51 or more years of cessation (OR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.03–0.39 in comparison with those having quit for 1–10 years. Among never-smokers, cases were more likely to report home ETS exposure of greater than 20 years, compared with those never exposed to home ETS (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.14–4.18. Home ETS associations were comparable when measured in lifetime hours of exposure, with cases more likely to report 30,000 or more hours of home ETS exposure (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.20–4.69. Highest quartiles of combined home/work ETS exposure among never-smokers, especially with public ETS exposure, increased RCC risk by 2 to 4 times. Conclusion These findings confirm known associations between smoking and RCC and establish a

  4. TOBACCO TIGHTROPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China's monopoly tobacco industry is trying to maintain revenue levels while adjusting to stricter policies aimed at curbing smoking While China is increasingly opening the doors to its booming economy, reducing the number of state-owned enterprises and welcoming foreign businesses, when it comes to tobacco, the government is still screening out the smoke. A major source of government tax rev-

  5. Induction of Apoptosis in Purified Nuclei from Tobacco-Suspension Cells by Cytochrome b6/f Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵友; 李萍; 朱瑞宇; 田瑞华; 戴尧仁

    2004-01-01

    An apoptotic cell-free system containing cytosol and nuclei from normally cultured tobacco suspension cells was used to show that a spinach chloroplast preparation can induce apoptosis in nuclei,evidenced by DNA electrophoresis and fluorescence microscopy observations.Further study showed that the chloroplast preparation or its pellet (thylakoid membrane) after hypoosmotic or supersonic treatment still exhibited the apoptosis-inducing activity,but the supernatant had no effect,which indicates that the apoptosis-inducing effector in the chloroplast preparation is water-insoluble.The induction of apoptosis by chloroplast preparation could be attenuated by Ac-DEVD-CHO,the specific inhibitor of Caspase-3,implying involvement of a Caspase-3-like protease during the process.Furthermore,extensive apoptosis in nuclei was induced by cytochrome b6/f on the thylakoid membrane,indicating that this important cytochrome complex may have an important role in the chloroplast-related apoptotic pathway.

  6. Expression of the major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 in tobacco plants and cell cultures: problems and perspectives for allergen production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Marc; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ferreira, Fatima; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    An economic and cheap production of large amounts of recombinant allergenic proteins might become a prerequisite for the common use of microarray-based diagnostic allergy assays which allow a component-specific diagnosis. A molecular pharming strategy was applied to express the major allergen of Artemisia vulgaris pollen, Art v 1, in tobacco plants and tobacco cell cultures. The original Art v 1 with its endogenous signal peptide which directs Art v 1 to the secretory pathway, was expressed in transiently transformed tobacco leaves but was lost in stable transformed tobacco plants during the alternation of generations. Using a light-regulated promoter and "hiding" the recombinant Art v 1 in the ER succeeded in expression of Art v 1 over three generations of tobacco plants and in cell cultures generated from stable transformed plants. However, the amounts of the recombinant allergen were sufficient for analysis but not high enough to allow an economic production. Although molecular pharming has been shown to work well for the production of non-plant therapeutic proteins, it might be less efficient for closely related plant proteins. PMID:22159963

  7. Expression of the major mugwort pollen allergen Art v 1 in tobacco plants and cell cultures: problems and perspectives for allergen production in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Marc; Pertl-Obermeyer, Heidi; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Ferreira, Fatima; Obermeyer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    An economic and cheap production of large amounts of recombinant allergenic proteins might become a prerequisite for the common use of microarray-based diagnostic allergy assays which allow a component-specific diagnosis. A molecular pharming strategy was applied to express the major allergen of Artemisia vulgaris pollen, Art v 1, in tobacco plants and tobacco cell cultures. The original Art v 1 with its endogenous signal peptide which directs Art v 1 to the secretory pathway, was expressed in transiently transformed tobacco leaves but was lost in stable transformed tobacco plants during the alternation of generations. Using a light-regulated promoter and "hiding" the recombinant Art v 1 in the ER succeeded in expression of Art v 1 over three generations of tobacco plants and in cell cultures generated from stable transformed plants. However, the amounts of the recombinant allergen were sufficient for analysis but not high enough to allow an economic production. Although molecular pharming has been shown to work well for the production of non-plant therapeutic proteins, it might be less efficient for closely related plant proteins.

  8. Overexpression of poplar xylem sucrose synthase in tobacco leads to a thickened cell wall and increased height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Wei

    Full Text Available Sucrose synthase (SuSy is considered the first key enzyme for secondary growth because it is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and UDP into UDP-glucose and fructose. Although SuSy enzymes preferentially functions in the direction of sucrose cleavage at most cellular condition, they also catalyze the synthetic reaction. We isolated a gene that encodes a SuSy from Populus simonii×Populus nigra and named it PsnSuSy2 because it shares high similarity to SuSy2 in Populus trichocarpa. RT-PCR revealed that PsnSuSy2 was highly expressed in xylem, but lowly expressed in young leaves. To characterize its functions in secondary growth, multiple tobacco overexpression transgenic lines of PnsSuSy2 were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The PsnSuSy2 expression levels and altered wood properties in stem segments from the different transgenic lines were carefully characterized. The results demonstrated that the levels of PsnSuSy2 enzyme activity, chlorophyll content, total soluble sugars, fructose and glucose increased significantly, while the sucrose level decreased significantly. Consequently, the cellulose content and fiber length increased, whereas the lignin content decreased, suggesting that PsnSuSy2 plays a significant role in cleaving sucrose into UDP-glucose and fructose to facilitate cellulose biosynthesis and that promotion of cellulose biosynthesis suppresses lignin biosynthesis. Additionally, the noticeable increase in the lodging resistance in transgenic tobacco stem suggested that the cell wall characteristics were altered by PsnSuSy2 overexpression. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to study the cell wall morphology of stem, and surprisingly, we found that the secondary cell wall was significantly thicker in transgenic tobacco. However, the thickened secondary cell wall did not negatively affect the height of the plants because the PsnSuSy2- overexpressing lines

  9. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  10. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Although a major fiscal revenue source, the tobacco industry is always under a watchful eye while many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  11. Promiscuous, non-catalytic, tandem carbohydrate-binding modules modulate the cell-wall structure and development of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olawole, O.; Jacobsen, E.; Timmers, J.F.P.; Gilbert, H.J.; Blake, W.; Knox, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vincken, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We have compared heterologous expression of two types of carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in tobacco cell walls. These are the promiscuous CBM29 modules (a tandem CBM29-1-2 and its single derivative CBM29-2), derived from a non-catalytic protein1, NCP1, of the Piromyces equi cellulase/hemicellulase

  12. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yifei Shen; Michael J. Wolkowicz; Tatyana Kotova; Lonjiang Fan; Timko, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e...

  13. Potent antiproliferative cembrenoids accumulate in tobacco upon infection with Rhodococcus fascians and trigger unusual microtubule dynamics in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminata P Nacoulma

    Full Text Available AIMS: Though plant metabolic changes are known to occur during interactions with bacteria, these were rarely challenged for pharmacologically active compounds suitable for further drug development. Here, the occurrence of specific chemicals with antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines was evidenced in hyperplasia (leafy galls induced when plants interact with particular phytopathogens, such as the Actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. METHODS: We examined leafy galls fraction F3.1.1 on cell proliferation, cell division and cytoskeletal disorganization of human cancer cell lines using time-lapse videomicroscopy imaging, combined with flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis. We determined the F3.1.1-fraction composition by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The leafy galls induced on tobacco by R. fascians yielded fraction F3.1.1 which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with an IC50 of 4.5 µg/mL, F.3.1.1 was shown to increase cell division duration, cause nuclear morphological deformations and cell enlargement, and, at higher concentrations, karyokinesis defects leading to polyploidization and apoptosis. F3.1.1 consisted of a mixture of isomers belonging to the cembrenoids. The cellular defects induced by F3.1.1 were caused by a peculiar cytoskeletal disorganization, with the occurrence of fragmented tubulin and strongly organized microtubule aggregates within the same cell. Colchicine, paclitaxel, and cembrene also affected U373 cell proliferation and karyokinesis, but the induced microtubule rearrangement was very different from that provoked by F3.1.1. Altogether our data indicate that the cembrenoid isomers in F3.1.1 have a unique mode of action and are able to simultaneously modulate microtubule polymerization and stability.

  14. NtSCP1 from Tobacco Is an Extracellular Serine Carboxypeptidase III That Has an Impact on Cell Elongation1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Manuela Désirée; Delannoy, Mélanie; Navarre, Catherine; Boutry, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The leaf extracellular space contains several peptidases, most of which are of unknown function. We isolated cDNAs for two extracellular serine carboxypeptidase III genes from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), NtSCP1 and NtSCP2, belonging to a phylogenetic clade not yet functionally characterized in plants. NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are orthologs derived from the two ancestors of tobacco. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that NtSCP1 and NtSCP2 are expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower tissues. Expression analysis of the β-glucuronidase reporter gene fused to the NtSCP1 transcription promoter region confirmed this expression profile. Western blotting of NtSCP1 and expression of an NtSCP1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein showed that the protein is located in the extracellular space of tobacco leaves and culture cells. Purified His-tagged NtSCP1 had carboxypeptidase activity in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing NtSCP1 showed a reduced flower length due to a decrease in cell size. Etiolated seedlings of these transgenic plants had shorter hypocotyls. These data provide support for a role of an extracellular type III carboxypeptidase in the control of cell elongation. PMID:22214816

  15. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J

    2011-10-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (ST) (chewing tobacco and snuff) can lead to a number of consequences detrimental to health. ST rapidly delivers high doses of nicotine, which can lead to dependence and is also a source of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Changes usually develop in the mouth area where the ST is most often placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leuko-oedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. Oral premalignant lesions are leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucosal fibrosis and lichen planus. Betel chewing, with or without tobacco, may increase the incidence of oral cancer. There is conflicting evidence with regard to snuff users about the risk of oral and gastro-oesophageal cancer. ST use is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer and may increase the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, ST is associated with an increase in pre-eclampsia, preterm delivery and stillbirth. Nicotine replacement therapy and bupropion reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during ST cessation. However, they have not been shown to help long-term abstinence. Information concerning the potential hazards of ST products should be incorporated into educational programmes to discourage its use and to help users to quit. Smokeless tobacco is not recommended to help smoking cessation.

  16. A multidirectional non-cell autonomous control and a genetic interaction restricting tobacco etch virus susceptibility in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Gopalan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viruses constitute a major class of pathogens that infect a variety of hosts. Understanding the intricacies of signaling during host-virus interactions should aid in designing disease prevention strategies and in understanding mechanistic aspects of host and pathogen signaling machinery. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An Arabidopsis mutant, B149, impaired in susceptibility to Tobacco etch virus (TEV, a positive strand RNA virus of picoRNA family, was identified using a high-throughput genetic screen and a counterselection scheme. The defects include initiation of infection foci, rate of cell-to-cell movement and long distance movement. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The defect in infectivity is conferred by a recessive locus. Molecular genetic analysis and complementation analysis with three alleles of a previously published mutant lsp1 (loss of susceptibility to potyviruses indicate a genetic interaction conferring haploinsufficiency between the B149 locus and certain alleles of lsp1 resulting in impaired host susceptibility. The pattern of restriction of TEV foci on leaves at or near the boundaries of certain cell types and leaf boundaries suggest dysregulation of a multidirectional non-cell autonomous regulatory mechanism. Understanding the nature of this multidirectional signal and the molecular genetic mechanism conferring it should potentially reveal a novel arsenal in the cellular machinery.

  17. DGP1, a drought-induced guard cell-specific promoter and its function analysis in tobacco plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Jun; GONG; Ximing; LIN; Huiqiong; SONG; Quanbo; CHEN; J

    2005-01-01

    The genetic regulation of stomatal movement mainly depends on an efficient control system of gene expression, and guard cell-specific promoter is becoming the best choice. Here we combined the dehydration responsive element (DRE) with guard cell specific element (GCSE) to construct a novel promoter, DGP1. Histochemical assays in transgenic tobacco carryingβ-glucuronidase (gus) gene fused to DGP1 demonstrated that GUS activity was found to be highly inducible by drought treatment and specifically restricted to guard cells. No GUS activity was detected in roots, stems or flowers after treatment. Further quantitative analysis showed that GUS activity in the epidermal strips was apparently induced by dehydration and dramatically increased with the elongation of treatment. The GUS activity after 8 h treatment was 179 times that of those without treatment. Although GUS activity in roots, stems or mesophyll increased after treatment, no great changes were observed. These results suggested that DGP1 could drive target gene expressed in guard cells when plant is subjected to drought stress. And this gets us prepared to control opening and closing of stomata through plant gene engineering.

  18. Uptake of fluorescent nano beads into BY2-cells involves clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandmann, Vera; Müller, Jasmin Daniela; Köhler, Tim; Homann, Ulrike

    2012-10-19

    To follow endocytosis in BY-2 cells we made use of fluorescent nano beads. Beads with 20nm in diameter were internalised rapidly and accumulated partially in compartments also labelled by the endocytic marker FM4-64. Studies in BY-2 cells and protoplasts revealed that larger beads (100nm) were excluded from uptake into turgescent and plasmolysed cells while protoplasts were able to internalise beads with a diameter of up to 1000nm. Endocytosis of beads was only partially inhibited by the clathrin-specific inhibitor Ikarugamycin and strongly blocked by wortmannin. These results imply that uptake of beads involves clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms and supports the hypothesis that clathrin-independent endocytosis plays a general role in plants. PMID:23046971

  19. Inhibition by 2-deoxy-D-ribose of DNA synthesis and growth in Raji cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When Raji cells were cultured for 3 days in serum-free medium, addition of 2-deoxy-D-ribose at the start of culture inhibited incorporation of [3H]thymidine and cell division. At deoxyribose concentrations between 1 and 5 mM, viability was 80% or greater after 3 days of culture even though 5 mM deoxyribose inhibited thymidine incorporation 95-99%. Inhibition by deoxyribose could be completely reversed if the culture medium was replaced with fresh medium up to 8 hr after the start of culture. The inhibition was specific for deoxyribose since other monosaccharides had no effect. Inhibition of DNA synthesis did not appear to be due to depletion of essential nutrients in the medium since the percentage inhibition of thymidine incorporation by cells cultured either in suboptimal serum-free media or in media supplemented with 0.025-5% human AB serum was similar. When DNA repair synthesis was measured as hydroxyurea-resistant thymidine incorporation, addition of deoxyribose to Raji cultures caused increased thymidine incorporation. These results, together with data from others,suggest that deoxyribose damages DNA

  20. Curcumin down regulates smokeless tobacco-induced NF-κB activation and COX-2 expression in human oral premalignant and cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption is a major cause of oral cancer in South East Asia including India. Recently, we showed that exposure to smokeless tobacco extract (STE) (khaini) results in increased expression and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and its downstream target cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in human oral cell systems in vitro. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that curcumin may inhibit the activation of NF-κB in ST exposed oral premalignant and cancer cells. Exposure of oral premalignant and cancer cells to curcumin resulted in significant decrease in cell viability and induced apoptosis. STE-induced nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB were inhibited in curcumin pretreated oral premalignant and cancer cells in vitro. Curcumin treatment led to decreased expression of NF-κB and COX-2. The tobacco specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino-)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), is one of the carcinogenic components of STE (khaini). We demonstrate that curcumin pretreatment abrogated NNK-induced activation of NF-κB and COX-2 expression, suggesting that NNK is one of the factors in STE (khaini) modulated by curcumin. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time that curcumin downregulates STE (khaini) or NNK-induced NF-κB and COX-2 in oral premalignant and cancer cells in vitro

  1. Aspirin inhibits the proliferation of tobacco-related esophageal squamous carcinomas cell lines through cyclooxygenase 2 pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiao-Zhi; LIU Hai-bo; DING Xin-chun; LI Peng; ZHANG Shu-tian; YU Zhong-lin

    2007-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking has been verified as the risk factor of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma(ESCC).Overexpression of cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2)is shown in ESCC.The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking ethanol extract(EE)on the proliferation of the human ESCC cell Iines,and to explore the correlation between the proliferation rate of human ESCC cell lines and the expression pattern of COX-2.Whether aspirin can inhibit the proliferation of the ESCC cell lines pretreated with EE.and regulate the mRNA expression levels of COX-2 are also examined.Methods Two human ESCC cell Iines were selected.EC109 was poorly differentiated and EC9706 was highly differentiated.EC109 and EC9706 were treated with EE and aspirin for different time course.The cell growth of ESCC was measured by MTT reduction assay and the expression of COX-2 was measured by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.Results EE promoted the proliferation of EC109 and EC9706 in dose- and time-dependent manners.In the concentration range (10-100 μg/ml for EE)and in the time range(24-72 hours)after addition of EE,the cell proliferation was prominent in an up-scaled manner respectively.Aspirin could inhibit the proliferation of cell lines EC109 and EC9706.pretreated with EE for 5 hours,in a dose-dependent manner.In the concentration range (0.5-8.0 mmol/L for aspirin),the cell growth inhibition was prominent in an up-scaled manner accordingly (P<0.05).The effect of EE on cell proliferation was correlated with the up-regulation of COX-2 gene.However,the cell growth inhibition of aspirin was correlated with the down-regulation of COX-2 gene.Conclusions EE can stimulate the proliferation of human ESCC cell lines EC109 and EC9706,most likely through up-regulating the expression of COX-2.Aspirin can inhibit the proliferation of ESCC cell lines induced by EE,which suggests it may be advantageous in the chemoprevention and therapy of human tobacco-related ESCC.And its effect is

  2. The cytological changes of tobacco zygote and proembryo cells induced by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent suggest the involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell division and cell plate formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Miao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In dicotyledonous plant, the first asymmetric zygotic division and subsequent several cell divisions are crucial for proembryo pattern formation and later embryo development. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a family of extensively glycosylated cell surface proteins that are thought to have important roles in various aspects of plant growth and development, including embryogenesis. Previous results from our laboratory show that AGPs are concerned with tobacco egg cell fertilization and zygotic division. However, how AGPs interact with other factors involved in zygotic division and proembryo development remains unknown. Results In this study, we used the tobacco in vitro zygote culture system and series of meticulous cell biology techniques to investigate the roles of AGPs in zygote and proembryo cell division. For the first time, we examined tobacco proembryo division patterns detailed to every cell division. The bright-field images and statistical results both revealed that with the addition of an exogenous AGPs inhibitor, beta-glucosyl Yariv (beta-GlcY reagent, the frequency of aberrant division increased remarkably in cultured tobacco zygotes and proembryos, and the cell plate specific locations of AGPs were greatly reduced after beta-GlcY treatment. In addition, the accumulations of new cell wall materials were also significantly affected by treating with beta-GlcY. Detection of cellulose components by Calcofluor white stain showed that strong fluorescence was located in the newly formed wall of daughter cells after the zygotic division of in vivo samples and the control samples from in vitro culture without beta-GlcY treatment; while there was only weak fluorescence in the newly formed cell walls with beta-GlcY treatment. Immunocytochemistry examination with JIM5 and JIM7 respectively against the low- and high-esterified pectins displayed that these two pectins located in opposite positions of zygotes and proembryos in

  3. Smokeless Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number of high school girls use smokeless tobacco. Peer pressure is just one of the reasons for starting the habit. After you start, the addictive quality of nicotine kicks in: With each use, you need a little more of the drug to get the same feeling. So serious users ...

  4. Tobacco Dilemma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ While many industries continue to suffer negative growth, even with economic recovery efforts in full swing, profits from Chinese tobacco companies allowed the industry to pay 513.11 billion yuan ($75.13 billion) in taxes in 2009, a year-on-year increase of 12.2 percent.

  5. Cross-talk between the cytosolic mevalonate and the plastidial methylerythritol phosphate pathways in tobacco bright yellow-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmerlin, Andréa; Hoeffler, Jean-François; Meyer, Odile; Tritsch, Denis; Kagan, Isabelle A; Grosdemange-Billiard, Catherine; Rohmer, Michel; Bach, Thomas J

    2003-07-18

    In plants, two pathways are utilized for the synthesis of isopentenyl diphosphate, the universal precursor for isoprenoid biosynthesis. The key enzyme of the cytoplasmic mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). Treatment of Tobacco Bright Yellow-2 (TBY-2) cells by the HMGR-specific inhibitor mevinolin led to growth reduction and induction of apparent HMGR activity, in parallel to an increase in protein representing two HMGR isozymes. Maximum induction was observed at 24 h. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose (DX), the dephosphorylated first precursor of the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway, complemented growth inhibition by mevinolin in the low millimolar concentration range. Furthermore, DX partially re-established feedback repression of mevinolin-induced HMGR activity. Incorporation studies with [1,1,1,4-2H4]DX showed that sterols, normally derived from MVA, in the presence of mevinolin are synthesized via the MEP pathway. Fosmidomycin, an inhibitor of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase, the second enzyme of the MEP pathway, was utilized to study the reverse complementation. Growth inhibition by fosmidomycin of TBY-2 cells could be partially overcome by MVA. Chemical complementation was further substantiated by incorporation of [2-13C]MVA into plastoquinone, representative of plastidial isoprenoids. Best rates of incorporation of exogenous stably labeled precursors were observed in the presence of both inhibitors, thereby avoiding internal isotope dilution.

  6. Heat reduces nitric oxide production required for auxin-mediated gene expression and fate determination in tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Robert A; Anderson, David J; Bufford, Jennifer L; Tallman, Gary

    2012-08-01

    Tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca) is an equatorial perennial with a high basal thermotolerance. Cultured tree tobacco guard cell protoplasts (GCPs) are useful for studying the effects of heat stress on fate-determining hormonal signaling. At lower temperatures (32°C or less), exogenous auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) cause GCPs to expand 20- to 30-fold, regenerate cell walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, and divide. At higher temperatures (34°C or greater), GCPs expand only 5- to 6-fold; they do not regenerate walls, dedifferentiate, reenter the cell cycle, or divide. Heat (38°C) suppresses activation of the BA auxin-responsive transgene promoter in tree tobacco GCPs, suggesting that inhibition of cell expansion and cell cycle reentry at high temperatures is due to suppressed auxin signaling. Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in auxin signaling in other plant systems. Here, we show that heat inhibits NO accumulation by GCPs and that L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine, an inhibitor of NO production in animals and plants, mimics the effects of heat by limiting cell expansion and preventing cell wall regeneration; inhibiting cell cycle reentry, dedifferentiation, and cell division; and suppressing activation of the BA auxin-responsive promoter. We also show that heat and L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine reduce the mitotic indices of primary root meristems and inhibit lateral root elongation similarly. These data link reduced NO levels to suppressed auxin signaling in heat-stressed cells and seedlings of thermotolerant plants and suggest that even plants that have evolved to withstand sustained high temperatures may still be negatively impacted by heat stress.

  7. Substrate profiling of tobacco etch virus protease using a novel fluorescence-assisted whole-cell assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kostallas

    Full Text Available Site-specific proteolysis of proteins plays an important role in many cellular functions and is often key to the virulence of infectious organisms. Efficient methods for characterization of proteases and their substrates will therefore help us understand these fundamental processes and thereby hopefully point towards new therapeutic strategies. Here, a novel whole-cell in vivo method was used to investigate the substrate preference of the sequence specific tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp. The assay, which utilizes protease-mediated intracellular rescue of genetically encoded short-lived fluorescent substrate reporters to enhance the fluorescence of the entire cell, allowed subtle differences in the processing efficiency of closely related substrate peptides to be detected. Quantitative screening of large combinatorial substrate libraries, through flow cytometry analysis and cell sorting, enabled identification of optimal substrates for TEVp. The peptide, ENLYFQG, identical to the protease's natural substrate peptide, emerged as a strong consensus cleavage sequence, and position P3 (tyrosine, Y and P1 (glutamine, Q within the substrate peptide were confirmed as being the most important specificity determinants. In position P1', glycine (G, serine (S, cysteine (C, alanine (A and arginine (R were among the most prevalent residues observed, all known to generate functional TEVp substrates and largely in line with other published studies stating that there is a strong preference for short aliphatic residues in this position. Interestingly, given the complex hydrogen-bonding network that the P6 glutamate (E is engaged in within the substrate-enzyme complex, an unexpectedly relaxed residue preference was revealed for this position, which has not been reported earlier. Thus, in the light of our results, we believe that our assay, besides enabling protease substrate profiling, also may serve as a highly competitive platform for directed evolution of

  8. Consumption of salted meat and its interactions with alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking on esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sihao; Wang, Xiaorong; Huang, Chengyu; Liu, Xudong; Zhao, Jin; Yu, Ignatius T S; Christiani, David C

    2015-08-01

    Etiology of esophageal cancer has not yet been clearly documented, especially in high-risk regions. To evaluate the association between salted meat intake and esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to explore its joint effects with alcohol drinking and smoking, a population-based case-control study was conducted in a high ESCC risk area in China, including 942 incident ESCC cases and 942 age- and sex-matching controls. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect information on dietary factors, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. Conditional logistic regressions were applied to estimate the association between salted meat intake and ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and smoking, with adjustment for other confounders, including total energy intake. Salted meat intake was associated with an increased risk of ESCC, showing an exposure-response relationship (p for trend alcohol drinking or smoking had a greater risk than salted meat alone, which was more than additive. The strongest association was seen in the combination of all the three factors, particularly at the highest level of salted meat intake (odds ratio = 29.27, 95% confidence interval: 13.21-64.89). Salted meat intake is strongly associated with ESCC and its interactions with alcohol drinking and/or smoking highlights the significance of reducing salted meat intake among smokers and drinkers with respect to ESCC prevention.

  9. Comparison of Tobacco Host Cell Protein Removal Methods by Blanching Intact Plants or by Heat Treatment of Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes F; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Fischer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Plants not only provide food, feed and raw materials for humans, but have also been developed as an economical production system for biopharmaceutical proteins, such as antibodies, vaccine candidates and enzymes. These must be purified from the plant biomass but chromatography steps are hindered by the high concentrations of host cell proteins (HCPs) in plant extracts. However, most HCPs irreversibly aggregate at temperatures above 60 °C facilitating subsequent purification of the target protein. Here, three methods are presented to achieve the heat precipitation of tobacco HCPs in either intact leaves or extracts. The blanching of intact leaves can easily be incorporated into existing processes but may have a negative impact on subsequent filtration steps. The opposite is true for heat precipitation of leaf extracts in a stirred vessel, which can improve the performance of downstream operations albeit with major changes in process equipment design, such as homogenizer geometry. Finally, a heat exchanger setup is well characterized in terms of heat transfer conditions and easy to scale, but cleaning can be difficult and there may be a negative impact on filter capacity. The design-of-experiments approach can be used to identify the most relevant process parameters affecting HCP removal and product recovery. This facilitates the application of each method in other expression platforms and the identification of the most suitable method for a given purification strategy.

  10. Comparison of Tobacco Host Cell Protein Removal Methods by Blanching Intact Plants or by Heat Treatment of Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyel, Johannes F; Hubbuch, Jürgen; Fischer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Plants not only provide food, feed and raw materials for humans, but have also been developed as an economical production system for biopharmaceutical proteins, such as antibodies, vaccine candidates and enzymes. These must be purified from the plant biomass but chromatography steps are hindered by the high concentrations of host cell proteins (HCPs) in plant extracts. However, most HCPs irreversibly aggregate at temperatures above 60 °C facilitating subsequent purification of the target protein. Here, three methods are presented to achieve the heat precipitation of tobacco HCPs in either intact leaves or extracts. The blanching of intact leaves can easily be incorporated into existing processes but may have a negative impact on subsequent filtration steps. The opposite is true for heat precipitation of leaf extracts in a stirred vessel, which can improve the performance of downstream operations albeit with major changes in process equipment design, such as homogenizer geometry. Finally, a heat exchanger setup is well characterized in terms of heat transfer conditions and easy to scale, but cleaning can be difficult and there may be a negative impact on filter capacity. The design-of-experiments approach can be used to identify the most relevant process parameters affecting HCP removal and product recovery. This facilitates the application of each method in other expression platforms and the identification of the most suitable method for a given purification strategy. PMID:27584939

  11. Auxin influx inhibitors 1-NOA, 2-NOA, and CHPAA interfere with membrane dynamics in tobacco cells

    OpenAIRE

    Laňková, M. (Martina); Smith, R. S.; Pešek, B. (Bedřich); Kubeš, M. (Martin); Zažímalová, E. (Eva); Petrášek, J. (Jan); Hoyerová, K.

    2010-01-01

    The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their ro...

  12. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from Tobacco Regulations Restricting the Sale, Distribution, and Marketing of Cigarettes, Cigarette Tobacco, and Smokeless Tobacco. Preventing ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  13. Inhibition of topoisomerase IIα activity in CHO K1 cells by 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aminothiol 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065) is the active thiol of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). WR-1065 is an effective radiation protector and antimutagenic agent when it is administered 30 min prior to radiation exposure to Chinese hamster ovary Kl cells at a concentration of 4 mM. Under these exposure conditions, topoisomerase (topo) I and II activities and associated protein contents were measured in the K1 cell line using the DNA relaxation assay, the P4 unknotting assay, and immunoblotting, respectively. WR-1065 was ineffective in modifying topo I activity, but it did reduce topo IIa activity by an average of 50 percent. The magnitude of topo IIa protein content, however, was not affected by these exposure conditions. Cell cycle effects were monitored by the method of flow cytometry. Exposure of cells to 4 mM WR-1065 for a period of up to 6 h resulted in a buildup of cells in the G2 compartment. However, in contrast to topo II inhibitors used in chemotherapy, WR-1065 is an effective radioprotector agent capable of protecting against both radiation-induced cell lethality and mutagenesis. One of several mechanisms of radiation protection attributed to aminothiol compounds such as WR-1065 has been their ability to affect endogenous enzymatic reactions involved in DNA synthesis, repair, and cell cycle progression. These results are consistent with such a proposed mechanism and demonstrate in particular a modifying effect by 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol on type II topoisomerase, which is involved in DNA synthesis

  14. Comparison of the growth promoting activities and toxicities of various auxin analogs on cells derived from wild type and a nonrooting mutant of tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caboche, M.; Muller, J.F. (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Versailles (France)); Chanut, F. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Aranda, G.; Cirakoglu, S. (Laboratoire de Synthese organique de l' Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France))

    1987-01-01

    A naphthaleneacetic acid tolerant mutant isolated from a mutagenized culture of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts and impaired in root morphogenesis has been previously characterized by genetic analysis. To understand the biochemical basis for naphthaleneacetic acid resistance, cells derived from this mutant and from wild-type tobacco were compared for their ability to respond to various growth regulators. The growth promoting abilities and cytotoxicities of auxin analogs were different for mutant and wild-type cells. These different activities were not correlated with increased rate of conjugation or breakdown of the auxins by mutant cells. These observations, as well as previous studies on the interaction of the mutant with Agrobacterium, suggest that mutant resistance to auxins is not a result of a specific modification of the process by which auxins induce cell killing, but to a more general alteration of the cellular response to auxin. A screening of auxin-related molecules which induce cell death in wild-type cells but not mutant cells without promoting growth in either was performed. p-Bromophenyleacetic acid was found to display these characteristics.

  15. Changes of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Xiao; Yu-Lan Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the changes of CD8+ T subsets especially CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rat model of experimental colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrofiuorobenzene (DNFB).METHODS: The rat model of experimental colitis was induced by enema with DNFB. Ten days later, colonic intraepithelial and splenic lymphocytes were isolated from colitis animals (n=16) and controls (n=8). The proportion of CD8+ T cells, CD8+CD28+ T cells and CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells were determined by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The model of experimental colitis was successfully established by DNFB that was demonstrated by bloody diarrhea, weight loss and colonic histopathology. The proportion of CD8+ T cells in either splenic or colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes was not significantly different between colitis animals and controls (spleen: 34.6±7.24 % vs33.5±9.41%,colon: 14.0±8.93 % vs 18.0±4.06 %, P>0.05). But CD8+CD28-T regulatory cells from colitis animals were significantly more than those from controls (spleen: 11.3±2.26 % vs5.64±1.01%,colon: 6.50±5.37 % vs 1.07±0.65 %, P<0.05). In contrast,CD8+CD28+ T cells from colitis animals were less than those from controls (spleen: 23.3±6.14 % vs27.8±9.70 %, P=0.06;colon: 7.52±4.18 % vs 16.9±4.07 %, P<0.05). The proportion of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in splenic and colonintraepithelial CD8+ T cells from colitis animals was higher than that from controls (spleen: 33.3±5.49 % vs 18.4±7.26 %,colon: 46.0±14.3 % vs6.10±3.72 %, P<0.005).CONCLUSION: Experimental colitis of rats can be induced by DNFB with simplicity and good reproducibility. The proportion of CD8+CD28- T regulatory cells in rats with experimental colitis is increased, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of colitis.

  16. Relationship of phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) level to exposure to tobacco smoke in primary non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunkyung; Kim, Yujin; Lee, Bo Bin; Han, Joungho; Song, Sang Yong; Shim, Young Mog; Park, Joobae; Kim, Duk-Hwan

    2009-02-18

    This study was aimed at understanding the effect of smoking on pRb phosphorylation and the clinicopathological significance of phospho-pRb in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) expression was not detected in 149 (39%) of 382 patients, and the mean phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) level was 5.7%. Squamous cell carcinoma had higher phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) levels than adenocarcinoma (7.1%+/-10.4% versus 4.7%+/-7.9%; P=0.003). The association between phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) levels and exposure to tobacco smoke was different according to the statuses of cyclin D1 expression and p16 methylation, suggesting that their statuses might play a role as an effect modifier in the relationship between phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) levels and exposure to tobacco smoke. In stratified multivariate analysis, phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) levels were not associated with exposure to tobacco smoke in 38 patients with p16 hypermethylation and cyclin D1 expression >5%, after adjusting for confounding factors. However, in the remaining 344 patients, the mean phospho-pRb (Ser-807/811) levels in patients who had smoked >40 pack years increased by 4.65% (PpRb (Ser-807/811) levels and overall survival. In conclusion, the present study suggests that exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with phosphorylation of pRb in NSCLC patients and its relationship depends on the p16 methylation status and cyclin D1 expression levels.

  17. Alamethicin permeabilizes the plasma membrane and mitochondria but not the tonoplast in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) suspension cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matic, S.; Geisler, D.A.; Møller, I.M.;

    2005-01-01

    The ion channel-forming peptide AlaM (alamethicin) is known to permeabilize isolated mitochondria as well as animal cells. When intact tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow-2 cells were treated with AlaM, the cells became permeable for low-molecular-mass molecules as shown by induced leakage...... remained intact, as indicated by an unaffected tonoplast proton gradient. Low-flux permeabilization of plasma membranes and mitochondria at moderate AlaM concentrations was reversible and did not affect cell vigour. Higher AlaM concentrations induced cell death. After the addition of catalase that removes...... the H2O2 necessary for NADH oxidation by apoplastic peroxidases, mitochondrial oxygen consumption could be measured in permeabilized cells. Inhibitor-sensitive oxidation of the respiratory substrates succinate, malate and NADH was observed after the addition of the appropriate coenzymes (ATP, NAD...

  18. Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-induced heat tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) suspension cultured cells and involvement of Ca(2+) and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Gong, Ming; Xie, Hong; Yang, Lan; Li, Jing

    2012-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is considered as a new emerging cell signal in higher plants. Hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide, pretreatment significantly increased survival percentage of tobacco suspension cultured cells under heat stress and regrowth ability after heat stress, and alleviated decrease in vitality of cells, increase in electrolyte leakage and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, sodium hydrosulfide-induced heat tolerance was markedly strengthened by application of exogenous Ca(2+) and its ionophore A23187, respectively, while this heat tolerance was weakened by addition of Ca(2+) chelator ethylene glycol-bis(b-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), plasma membrane channel blocker La(3+), as well as calmodulin (CaM) antagonists chlorpromazine (CPZ) and trifluoperazine (TFP), respectively, but intracellular channel blocker ruthenium red (RR) did not. These results suggested that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance in tobacco suspension cultured cells and the acquisition of this heat tolerance requires the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) into cells across the plasma membrane and the mediation of intracellular CaM.

  19. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall components by 2-fluoro 2-deoxy-L-fucose induces defects in root cell elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Lehner, Arnaud; Bardor, Muriel; Burel, Carole; Vauzeilles, Boris; Lerouxel, Olivier; Anderson, Charles T; Mollet, Jean-Claude; Lerouge, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    Screening of commercially available fluoro monosaccharides as putative growth inhibitors in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that 2-fluoro 2-l-fucose (2F-Fuc) reduces root growth at micromolar concentrations. The inability of 2F-Fuc to affect an Atfkgp mutant that is defective in the fucose salvage pathway indicates that 2F-Fuc must be converted to its cognate GDP nucleotide sugar in order to inhibit root growth. Chemical analysis of cell wall polysaccharides and glycoproteins demonstrated that fucosylation of xyloglucans and of N-linked glycans is fully inhibited by 10 μm 2F-Fuc in Arabidopsis seedling roots, but genetic evidence indicates that these alterations are not responsible for the inhibition of root development by 2F-Fuc. Inhibition of fucosylation of cell wall polysaccharides also affected pectic rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II). At low concentrations, 2F-Fuc induced a decrease in RG-II dimerization. Both RG-II dimerization and root growth were partially restored in 2F-Fuc-treated seedlings by addition of boric acid, suggesting that the growth phenotype caused by 2F-Fuc was due to a deficiency of RG-II dimerization. Closer investigation of the 2F-Fuc-induced growth phenotype demonstrated that cell division is not affected by 2F-Fuc treatments. In contrast, the inhibitor suppressed elongation of root cells and promoted the emergence of adventitious roots. This study further emphasizes the importance of RG-II in cell elongation and the utility of glycosyltransferase inhibitors as new tools for studying the functions of cell wall polysaccharides in plant development. Moreover, supplementation experiments with borate suggest that the function of boron in plants might not be restricted to RG-II cross-linking, but that it might also be a signal molecule in the cell wall integrity-sensing mechanism.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MALE GERM CELLS TO MAINSTREAM AND SIDESTREAM TOBACCO SMOKE IN THE MOUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris; Schmid, Thomas Ernst; Pina-Guzman, Belem; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Marchetti, Francesco

    2009-03-13

    Cigarette smoking in men has been associated with increased chromosomal abnormalities in sperm and with increased risks for spontaneous abortions, birth defects and neonatal death. Little is known, however, about the reproductive consequences of paternal exposure to second-hand smoke. We used a mouse model to investigate the effects of paternal exposure to sidestream (SS) smoke, the main constituent of second-hand smoke, on the genetic integrity and function of sperm, and to determine whether male germ cells were equally sensitive to mainstream (MS) and SS smoke. A series of sperm DNA quality and reproductive endpoints were investigated after exposing male mice for two weeks to MS or SS smoke. Our results indicated that: (i) only SS smoke significantly affected sperm motility; (ii) only MS smoke induced DNA strand breaks in sperm; (iii) both MS and SS smoke increased sperm chromatin structure abnormalities; and (iv) MS smoke affected both fertilization and the rate of early embryonic development, while SS smoke affected fertilization only. These results show that MS and SS smoke have differential effects on the genetic integrity and function of sperm and provide further evidence that male exposure to second-hand smoke, as well as direct cigarette smoke, may diminish a couple's chance for a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.

  1. Osmotically induced cell swelling versus cell shrinking elicits specific changes in phospholipid signals in tobacco pollen tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Zonia; T. Munnik

    2004-01-01

    Pollen tube cell volume changes rapidly in response to perturbation of the extracellular osmotic potential. This report shows that specific phospholipid signals are differentially stimulated or attenuated during osmotic perturbations. Hypo-osmotic stress induces rapid increases in phosphatidic acid

  2. Comparative Detection of Calcium Fluctuations in Single Female Sex Cells of Tobacco to Distinguish Calcium Signals Triggered by in vitro Fertilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Bo Peng; Meng-Xiang Sun; Hong-Yuan Yang

    2009-01-01

    Double fertilization is a key process of sexual reproduction in higher plants. The role of calcium In the activation of female sex cells through fertilization has recently received a great deal of attention. The establishment of a Ca-imaging technique for living, single, female sex cells is a difficult but necessary prerequisite for evaluating the role of Ca in the transduction of external stimuli, including the fusion with the sperm cell, to internal cellular processes. The present study describes the use of Fluo-3 for reporting the Ca signal in isolated, single, female sex cells, egg cells and central cells, of tobacco plants. A suitable loading protocol was optimized by loading the cells at pH 5.6 with 2 μM Fluo-3 for 30 min at 30℃. Under theseconditions, several key factors related to in vitro fertilization were also investigated in order to test their possible effects onthe [Ca] of the female sex cells. The results indicated that the bovine serum albumin-fusion system was superior to the polyethlene glycol.fusion system for detecting calcium fluctuations in female sex cells during fertilization. The central cell was fertilized with the sperm cell in bovine serum albumin; however, no evident calcium dynamic was detected, implying that a transient calcium rise might be a specific signal for egg cell fertilization.

  3. Production by Tobacco Transplastomic Plants of Recombinant Fungal and Bacterial Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes to Be Used for Cellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Longoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels from renewable plant biomass are gaining momentum due to climate change related to atmospheric CO2 increase. However, the production cost of enzymes required for cellulosic biomass saccharification is a major limiting step in this process. Low-cost production of large amounts of recombinant enzymes by transgenic plants was proposed as an alternative to the conventional microbial based fermentation. A number of studies have shown that chloroplast-based gene expression offers several advantages over nuclear transformation due to efficient transcription and translation systems and high copy number of the transgene. In this study, we expressed in tobacco chloroplasts microbial genes encoding five cellulases and a polygalacturonase. Leaf extracts containing the recombinant enzymes showed the ability to degrade various cell-wall components under different conditions, singly and in combinations. In addition, our group also tested a previously described thermostable xylanase in combination with a cellulase and a polygalacturonase to study the cumulative effect on the depolymerization of a complex plant substrate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using transplastomic tobacco leaf extracts to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into reducing sugars, fulfilling a major prerequisite of large scale availability of a variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes for biofuel industry.

  4. Transcriptome sequencing reveals e-cigarette vapor and mainstream-smoke from tobacco cigarettes activate different gene expression profiles in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yifei; Wolkowicz, Michael J; Kotova, Tatyana; Fan, Lonjiang; Timko, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) generate an aerosol vapor (e-vapor) thought to represent a less risky alternative to main stream smoke (MSS) of conventional tobacco cigarettes. RNA-seq analysis was used to examine the transcriptomes of differentiated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to air, MSS from 1R5F tobacco reference cigarettes, and e-vapor with and without added nicotine in an in vitro air-liquid interface model for cellular exposure. Our results indicate that while e-vapor does not elicit many of the cell toxicity responses observed in MSS-exposed HBE cells, e-vapor exposure is not benign, but elicits discrete transcriptomic signatures with and without added nicotine. Among the cellular pathways with the most significantly enriched gene expression following e-vapor exposure are the phospholipid and fatty acid triacylglycerol metabolism pathways. Our data suggest that alterations in cellular glycerophopholipid biosynthesis are an important consequences of e-vapor exposure. Moreover, the presence of nicotine in e-vapor elicits a cellular response distinct from e-vapor alone including alterations of cytochrome P450 function, retinoid metabolism, and nicotine catabolism. These studies establish a baseline for future analysis of e-vapor and e-vapor additives that will better inform the FDA and other governmental bodies in discussions of the risks and future regulation of these products. PMID:27041137

  5. Production by Tobacco Transplastomic Plants of Recombinant Fungal and Bacterial Cell-Wall Degrading Enzymes to Be Used for Cellulosic Biomass Saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Paolo; Leelavathi, Sadhu; Doria, Enrico; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Cella, Rino

    2015-01-01

    Biofuels from renewable plant biomass are gaining momentum due to climate change related to atmospheric CO2 increase. However, the production cost of enzymes required for cellulosic biomass saccharification is a major limiting step in this process. Low-cost production of large amounts of recombinant enzymes by transgenic plants was proposed as an alternative to the conventional microbial based fermentation. A number of studies have shown that chloroplast-based gene expression offers several advantages over nuclear transformation due to efficient transcription and translation systems and high copy number of the transgene. In this study, we expressed in tobacco chloroplasts microbial genes encoding five cellulases and a polygalacturonase. Leaf extracts containing the recombinant enzymes showed the ability to degrade various cell-wall components under different conditions, singly and in combinations. In addition, our group also tested a previously described thermostable xylanase in combination with a cellulase and a polygalacturonase to study the cumulative effect on the depolymerization of a complex plant substrate. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using transplastomic tobacco leaf extracts to convert cell-wall polysaccharides into reducing sugars, fulfilling a major prerequisite of large scale availability of a variety of cell-wall degrading enzymes for biofuel industry.

  6. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahadoon Nivia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  7. Relationship among tobacco habits, human papilloma virus (HPV infection, p53 polymorphism/mutation and the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidyut Chakrobarty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has significantly increased over decades in several countries and human papilloma virus (HPV has been indicated as one of the underlying causes. This suggests that HPV plays a role in the early stages of carcinogenesis but is not a requisite for the maintenance and progression of malignant state. p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that checks the cell and promotes apoptosis and cell repair that can be deactivated by mutations and a viral interaction leading to cancer and individuals with particular polymorphic variant of p53 is more susceptible to HPV-induced carcinogenesis. The present study has been carried out to detect and correlate p53 polymorphism/mutation, HPV DNA in the biopsy samples of oral cancer patients who had tobacco habits.

  8. Tobacco Industry Interference with Tobacco Control

    OpenAIRE

    World Health Organization,

    2009-01-01

    A large body of evidence demonstrates that tobacco companies use a wide range of tactics to interfere with tobacco control. Such strategies include direct and indirect political lobbying and campaign contributions, financing of research, attempting to affect the course of regulatory and policy machinery and engaging in social responsibility initiatives as part of public relations campaigns. Although more and more is known about tobacco industry tactics, a systematic, comprehensive gu...

  9. Rapid and sensitive analysis of three polyphenols in tobacco by CE using homemade C(4)D with a mini detection cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fuwei; Zhang, Yanhao; Zheng, Bo; Xu, Feifei; Su, Jianpo; Lu, Yanyan; Zeng, Fanya; Zhang, Bin; Guo, Yaxiao; Zhang, Shusheng

    2012-08-01

    A rapid, sensitive, and practical CE with C(4) D detection was developed for the analysis of three polyphenols (rutin, scopoletin, and chlorogenic acid) in tobacco samples. The constructed mini detection cell (12 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm) of C(4) D featured with small inner cell volume (∼2 nL), smaller noise (<0.9 mV), repeatability, high strength and durableness. Three polyphenols were ultrasonically extracted with methanol-water (70:30, v/v) solution following SPE cleanup. The CE method was optimized with the running buffer of 150 mmol L(-1) 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (pH 11.2), and the applied separation voltage of +20 kV over a capillary of 50 μm id × 375 μm od × 50 cm (38 cm to the C(4) D window, 41.5 cm to the UV detector window), which gave a baseline separation of three polyphenols within ca. 6 min. The method provided the limits of quantification (S/N = 10) at about 0.08-0.15 μg g(-1) for three polyphenols, whereas the overall recoveries ranged from 82% to 88%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to measure three polyphenols in the actual tobacco samples, and their contents were calculated and evaluated. PMID:22887165

  10. Tobacco smoke. Effects on pulmonary host defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-07-01

    Tobacco smoke affected both the metabolism and function of pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM). Phagocytosis of viable Staphylococcus aureus and inert starch particles was minimally but consistently depressed in PAM from rats exposed to tobacco smoke for six months. Oxygen consumption, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide release, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity were elevated in cells from smokers. Oxidation of glucose, labelled in the carbon-six position, remained unchanged. All observed effects of tobacco smoke on oxygen metabolism occurred during phagocytosis and did not affect the basal metabolism of the nonstimulated cell. PMID:225267

  11. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... music, and TV, parents can be the GREATEST INFLUENCE in their kids' lives. Talk directly to children about the risks of tobacco use; if friends or relatives died from tobacco-related illnesses, let ...

  12. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... generous support Make a difference by delivering research, education and advocacy to those impacted by lung disease. ...

  13. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  14. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tobacco Use Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Lung Cancer National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Youth and Tobacco Use Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Background Estimates of Current Tobacco Use Among Youth ...

  15. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  16. Phytophthora elicitor PB90 induced apoptosis in suspension cultures of tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Rui; ZHANG Zhengguang; WANG Yuanchao; ZHENG Xiaobo

    2005-01-01

    The protein elicitor PB90 secreted by Phytophthora boehmeriae is an efficient elicitor inducing the hypersensitive response and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco plants. Here, we observed cell death in suspension-cultured cells of Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 with PB90 treatment using Trypan blue staining method. And this cell death could be suppressed by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of proteins synthesis, which implies that PB90-induced cell death was an active cell death process requiring new protein synthesis. DAPI staining revealed that PB90 induce rapid chromatin condensation, margination, apoptotic bodies' formation and DNA laddering, further TUNEL assay also observed the specific breakage of 3′-OH ends. All of the above common morphological characteristics indicated that PB90 induced apoptosis in suspension cultures of tobacco, suggesting that hypersensitive response induced by PB90 is an apoptotic process.

  17. Tobacco guard cells fix CO2 by both Rubisco and PEPcase while sucrose acts as a substrate during light-induced stomatal opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daloso, Danilo M; Antunes, Werner C; Pinheiro, Daniela P; Waquim, Jardel P; Araújo, Wagner L; Loureiro, Marcelo E; Fernie, Alisdair R; Williams, Thomas C R

    2015-11-01

    Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have improved our knowledge of guard cell function; however, metabolic changes in guard cells remain relatively poorly understood. Here we analysed metabolic changes in guard cell-enriched epidermal fragments from tobacco during light-induced stomatal opening. Increases in sucrose, glucose and fructose were observed during light-induced stomatal opening in the presence of sucrose in the medium while no changes in starch were observed, suggesting that the elevated fructose and glucose levels were a consequence of sucrose rather than starch breakdown. Conversely, reduction in sucrose was observed during light- plus potassium-induced stomatal opening. Concomitant with the decrease in sucrose, we observed an increase in the level as well as in the (13) C enrichment in metabolites of, or associated with, the tricarboxylic acid cycle following incubation of the guard cell-enriched preparations in (13) C-labelled bicarbonate. Collectively, the results obtained support the hypothesis that sucrose is catabolized within guard cells in order to provide carbon skeletons for organic acid production. Furthermore, they provide a qualitative demonstration that CO2 fixation occurs both via ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase). The combined data are discussed with respect to current models of guard cell metabolism and function.

  18. Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Alteration of Cytosolic Ascorbate Peroxidase, and Impairment of Mitochondrial Metabolism Are Early Events in Heat Shock-Induced Programmed Cell Death in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; De Gara, Laura

    2004-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanisms by which plant cells die as a result of abiotic stress, we exposed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells to heat shock and investigated cell survival as a function of time after heat shock induction. Heat treatment at 55°C triggered processes leading to programmed cell death (PCD) that was complete after 72 h. In the early phase, cells undergoing PCD showed an immediate burst in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2·-) anion production. Consistently, death was prevented by the antioxidants ascorbate (ASC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Actinomycin D and cycloheximide, inhibitors of transcription and translation, respectively, also prevented cell death, but with a lower efficiency. Induction of PCD resulted in gradual oxidation of endogenous ASC; this was accompanied by a decrease in both the amount and the specific activity of the cytosolic ASC peroxidase (cAPX). A reduction in cAPX gene expression was also found in the late PCD phase. Moreover, changes of cAPX kinetic properties were found in PCD cells. Production of ROS in PCD cells was accompanied by early inhibition of glucose (Glc) oxidation, with a strong impairment of mitochondrial function as shown by an increase in cellular NAD(P)H fluorescence, and by failure of mitochondria isolated from cells undergoing PCD to generate membrane potential and to oxidize succinate in a manner controlled by ADP. Thus, we propose that in the early phase of tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 cell PCD, ROS production occurs, perhaps because of damage of the cell antioxidant system, with impairment of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:15020761

  19. Radionuclides detected in lime samples that consumed with tobacco and betel nuts by people of Northeast India where head and neck squamous cells cancer (HNSCC) is prevalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is a very predominant type of cancer amongst the population of northeastern states of India than the rest of the world. Epidemiological and other data suggest consumption of betel nuts with/without tobacco and lime or tobacco alone with lime is a probable cause of high cancer incidence. The fundamental question arises that why this particular cancer is induced more in this region while people follow the similar habits elsewhere. Here we report the results on analysis of lime samples, collected from 12 different locations spectrophotometrically by high-purity germanium detector. The calculated activity of radionuclides showed to an average of 2.68, 0.10 and 0.83 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series respectively for ten samples which are about 8 times higher than the normal background level of 0.37, 0.02 and 0.02 Bq/gm for 238U, 235U and 232Th series found in control samples, collected from outside of northeast. The results conclusively showed for the first time that the lime samples almost throughout the northeastern India contain high proportion of radionuclides of uranium, thorium and actinides series. Further, annual effective dose of gamma radiation calculations from these results of earth's crust in northeast showed that gamma rays emitted at an average dose of up to 2.5 mSv/year/consumer approximately. This dose calculation in the oral cavity is underestimated as short range radiations by decay of alpha, beta and electron-capture etc are not considered in the present study. Continuous exposure of such low dose radiations emitting from different radionuclides to the sensitive squamous cells of the oral cavity for a long twenty years or more amounting to a total minimum dose of at least 50 mSv evidently contributes towards excessive HNSCC to the people of northeast than other parts of India.

  20. Sincronización de Células de Tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum NT-1 Synchronization of tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum NT-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León F Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado la capacidad sincronizante de afidicolina e hidroxiurea en cultivos de células de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum NT-1. Los cultivos sincronizados son poderosas herramientas en estudios moleculares y bioquímicos relacionados al ciclo celular y comúnmente se utilizan químicos para bloquear el ciclo celular. La línea celular de tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum NT-1 proviene de la línea celular TBY-2, caracterizándose NT-1 por su menor velocidad de crecimiento y tamaño celular heterogéneo. Los resultados mostraron una sincronía del 30 % de NT-1 con afidicolina 5 mg/ml, similar a la obtenida con TBY-2. Se probaron diferentes concentraciones de hidroxiurea, obteniéndose niveles óptimos de sincronización de hasta 31 % con 0.75 mM. Se muestra también que es posible sincronizar cultivos NT-1 en porcentajes similares a cultivos TBY-2 con afidicolina e hidroxiurea. Para este propósito, se recomienda la hidroxiurea por ser químicamente más estable y económica.The synchronizing capacity of aphidicolin and hydroxyurea on NT-1 cultures of tobacco cells (Nicotiana tabacum NT-1. Synchronized cell cultures are a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular studies related to cell cycle and commonly chemicals are used to block the biochemical cycle. The tobacco cell line NT-1 comes from cell line TBY-2, the former being characterized with a slower growth rate and heterogeneous cell size. Results show 30 % synchrony with 5 mg/ml aphidicolin, similar to that obtained with TBY-2. Different concentrations of hydroxyurea were tested, obtaining an optimal synchrony of 31 % at 0.75 mM of concentration. It is also shown that it is possible to synchronize NT-1 cultures in similar percentages to those obtained with TBY-2, with either aphidicolin or hydroxyurea. For this purpose, hydroxyurea is recommended because of its lower cost and chemical stability.

  1. Phenotypic modification of human airway epithelial cells in air-liquid interface culture induced by exposure to the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Johnny L; Brighton, Luisa E; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-04-01

    The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a potent tobacco-specific carcinogen. We used an air-liquid interface epithelial cell culture system to model changes associated with NNK exposure relative to pathologies documented in human tobacco-related illnesses. Although in vitro systems exhibit certain limitations, they often offer accentuation of subtle pathologies. While the distribution of cell types in control cultures typically favors the ciliated cell phenotype, NNK-exposed cultures transitioned to non-ciliated cell phenotypes as well as reflecting features consistent with squamous metaplasia. We conclude that NNK impacts normal growth and differentiation of human airway epithelium in a short interval of time in vitro.

  2. Tobacco in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139

  3. Tobacco control in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiljun; Kim, Dae Soon; Park, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seon Kui

    2004-01-01

    The Tobacco Business Act and the National Health Promotion Act coexist in Korea, causing conflicts. While the Tobacco Business Act mainly emphasizes the state's financial and economic aspects by describing the operation and control of tobacco business, the National Health Promotion Act states the measures on warnings on the harmful effects of tobacco, prohibition of advertising, and sales limitation for the public's health. In addition to these legal problems, it is not acceptable to continue the Tobacco Business Act, which is completely opposite to the establishment of active social welfare policies for the quality improvement of people's lives. The Tobacco Business Act, whose objective is tobacco business promotion, should be abolished to meet and follow such a desire for health, international trend, and WHO (World Health Organization) FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). It would be most proper to ratify the FCTC and abolish the Tobacco Business Act. Also, revision of the National Health Promotion Act is necessary to secure the enforcement and implementation of FCTC in Korea.

  4. 1.5-NM PROJECTION STRUCTURE OF HELA-CELL PROSOME-MCP (PROTEASOME) PROVIDED BY 2-DIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERKINS, GA; BERGSMASCHUTTER, W; KEEGSTRA, W; ARNBERG, AC; COUX, O; SCHERRER, K

    1994-01-01

    We grew two-dimensional crystals of HeLa cell prosomes, also called multicatalytic proteinases (MCP) and proteasomes, for a structure determination by electron microscopy. The molecules were arranged in side views in these crystals. The crystals have p21 plane group symmetry with one particle per un

  5. Tobacco-specific Carcinogen 4-(Methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl )-1-butanone(NNK) Activating ERK1/2 MAP Kinases and Stimulating Proliferation of Hmnan Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is correlated with the development of various cancers. 4 - (Methylnitrosoamino) -1 - ( 3 -pyridyl) -1-butanone (NNK) is one of the major tobacco-specific carcinogens in the cigarette smoke, which increases the risk of breast cancer. In the present study, it was demonstrated that NNK rapidly activated ERK1 and ERK2 MAP kinases in human normal mammary epithelial cells. It was found that there are two different routes for the activation of ERK1/2with NNK. One is from nicotinic receptor nAchR to MEK1/2, and the other is from tyrosine kinase containing receptor to MEK1/2. The tobacco-specific carcinogen NNK shows a strong proliferative effect on normal human mammary epithelial cells and cancer mammary epithelial cells.

  6. Induction of neutralizing antibodies by a tobacco chloroplast-derived vaccine based on a B cell epitope from canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2L21 epitope of the VP2 protein from the canine parvovirus (CPV), fused to the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB-2L21), was expressed in transgenic tobacco chloroplasts. Mice and rabbits that received protein-enriched leaf extracts by parenteral route produced high titers of anti-2L21 antibodies able to recognize the VP2 protein. Rabbit sera were able to neutralize CPV in an in vitro infection assay with an efficacy similar to the anti-2L21 neutralizing monoclonal antibody 3C9. Anti-2L21 IgG and seric IgA antibodies were elicited when mice were gavaged with a suspension of pulverized tissues from CTB-2L21 transformed plants. Combined immunization (a single parenteral injection followed by oral boosters) shows that oral boosters help to maintain the anti-2L21 IgG response induced after a single injection, whereas parenteral administration of the antigen primes the subsequent oral boosters by promoting the induction of anti-2L21 seric IgA antibodies. Despite the induced humoral response, antibodies elicited by oral delivery did not show neutralizing capacity in the in vitro assay. The high yield of the fusion protein permits the preparation of a high number of vaccine doses from a single plant and makes feasible the oral vaccination using a small amount of crude plant material. However, a big effort has still to be done to enhance the protective efficacy of subunit vaccines by the oral route

  7. Tobacco control in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536

  8. Tobacco control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaly Preetha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a ′smoking epidemic′ in developing countries. India′s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations.

  9. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  10. Laser-induced tobacco protoplast fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银妹; 关力劼; 楼立人; 崔国强; 姚湲; 王浩威; 操传顺; 鲁润龙; 陈曦

    1999-01-01

    Laser tweezers can manipulate small particles, such as cells and organdies. When coupling them with laser microbeam selective fusion of two tobacco protoplasts containing some chloroplast was achieved. Physical and biological variables that affect laser trapping and laser-induced fusion were also discussed. The results show that the effect of chloroplast content and distribution on the yield of cell fusion is remarkable.

  11. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II) dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal. This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and interpreted alongside existent kinetic data in a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG) with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that 2OG-dependent enzymes incorporate several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html).

  12. Unity in diversity, a systems approach to regulating plant cell physiology by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha eKundu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Could a disjoint group of enzymes synchronize their activities and execute a complex multi-step, measurable, and reproducible response ? Here, I surmise that the alpha-ketoglutarate dependent superfamily of non-haem iron (II dioxygenases could influence cell physiology as a cohesive unit, and that the broad spectra of substrates transformed is an absolute necessity to this portrayal.This eclectic group comprises members from all major taxa, and participates in pesticide breakdown, hypoxia signaling, and osmotic stress neutralization. The oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate is coupled with a concomitant substrate hydroxylation and, in most cases, is followed by an additional specialized conversion. The domain profile of a protein sequence was used as an index of miscellaneous reaction chemistry and combined with available kinetic data to form a linear model of integrated function. Statistical parameters were inferred by the creation of a novel, empirically motivated flat-file database of over 3800 sequences (DB2OG with putative 2-oxoglutarate dependent activity. The collated information was categorized on the basis of existing annotation schema. The data suggests that the 2OG-dependent superfamily incorporates several desirable features of a systems level player. DB2OG, is free, accessible without a login to all users, and available at the following URL (http://comp-biol.theacms.in/DB2OG.html.

  13. Analysis of differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins in chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and renal oncocytomas by 2-D gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Yusenko, Thomas Ruppert, Gyula Kovacs

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal oncocytomas (RO and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (RCC display morphological and functional alterations of the mitochondria. Previous studies showed that accumulation of mitochondria in ROs is associated with somatic mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA resulting in decreased activity of the respiratory chain complex I, whereas in chromophobe RCC only heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations were found. To identify proteins associated with these changes, for the first time we have compared the mitochondrial proteomes of mitochondria isolated from ROs and chromophobe RCCs as well as from normal kidney tissues by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteome profiles were reproducible within the same group of tissues in subsequent experiments. The expression patterns within each group of samples were compared and 81 in-gel digested spots were subjected to nanoLC-MS/MS-based identification of proteins. Although the list of mitochondrial proteins identified in this study is incomplete, we identified the downregulation of NDUFS3 from complex I of the respiratory chain and upregulation of COX5A, COX5B, and ATP5H from complex IV and V in ROs. In chromophobe RCCs downregulation of ATP5A1, the alpha subunit of complex V, has been observed, but no changes in expression of other complexes of the respiratory chain were detected. To confirm the role of respiratory chain complex alterations in the morphological and/or functional changes in chromophobe RCCs and ROs, further studies will be necessary.

  14. Proteomics approaches for identification of tumor relevant protein targets in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma by 2D-DIGE-MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lihong

    Full Text Available Potential markers for progression of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC were identified by examining samples of lung SCC and adjacent normal tissues using a combination of fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and electrospray ionization quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF. The PANTHER System was used for gel image based quantification and statistical analysis. An analysis of proteomic data revealed that 323 protein spots showed significantly different levels of expression (P ≤ 0.05 in lung SCC tissue compared to expression in normal lung tissue. A further analysis of these protein spots by MALDI-TOF-MS identified 81 different proteins. A systems biology approach was used to map these proteins to major pathways involved in numerous cellular processes, including localization, transport, cellular component organization, apoptosis, and reproduction. Additionally, the expression of several proteins in lung SCC and normal tissues was examined using immunohistochemistry and western blot. The functions of individual proteins are being further investigated and validated, and the results might provide new insights into the mechanism of lung SCC progression, potentially leading to the design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  15. Influence of the Tobacco Industry on Wisconsin Tobacco Control Policies

    OpenAIRE

    University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report by the Monitoring and Evaluation Program of the University of Wisconsin Comprehensive Cancer Center is to assist policy makers and tobacco control advocates in understanding the role of the tobacco industry in forming state and local policies on tobacco in Wisconsin. These activities in policy-making play an integral role in the level of tobacco use in the state. The late John Slade formulated a public health model of tobacco addiction where the agent (of the diseas...

  16. O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity in human buccal mucosal tissue and cell cultures. Complex mixtures related to habitual use of tobacco and betel quid inhibit the activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Egyhazi, S; Hansson, J; Bhide, S V; Kulkarni, P S; Grafström, R C

    1997-10-01

    Extracts prepared from tissue specimens of normal, non-tumourous human buccal mucosa, and cultured buccal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, exhibited O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity by catalysing the repair of the premutagenic O6-methylguanine lesion in isolated DNA with rates of 0.2 to 0.3 pmol/mg protein. An SV40 T antigen-immortalized buccal epithelial cell line termed SVpgC2a and a buccal squamous carcinoma line termed SqCC/Y1, both of which lack normal tumour suppressor gene p53 function, exhibited about 50 and 10% of the MGMT activity of normal cells, respectively. The normal, experimentally transformed and tumourous buccal cell types showed MGMT mRNA levels which correlated with their respective levels of MGMT activity. Exposure of buccal cell cultures to various organic or water-based extracts of products related to the use of tobacco and betel quid, decreased both cell survival (measured by reduction of tetrazolium dye) and MGMT activity (measured subsequently to the exposures in cellular extracts). Organic extracts of bidi smoke condensate and betel leaf showed higher potency than those of tobacco and snuff. An aqueous snuff extract also decreased both parameters, whereas an aqueous areca nut extract was without effect. The well-established sulph-hydryl-reactive agent Hg2+, a corrosion product of dental amalgam, served as a positive control and decreased MGMT activity following treatment of cells within a range of 1-10 microM. Taken together, significant MGMT activities were demonstrated in buccal tissue specimens and in the major buccal mucosal cell types in vitro. Lower than normal MGMT activity in two transformed buccal epithelial cell lines correlated with decreased MGMT mRNA and lack of functional p53. Finally, in vitro experiments suggested the potential inhibition of buccal mucosal MGMT activity by complex mixtures present in the saliva of tobacco and betel nut chewers. PMID:9363996

  17. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  18. Tobacco use increases susceptibility to bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuth Donald R

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Active smokers and those exposed to secondhand smoke are at increased risk of bacterial infection. Tobacco smoke exposure increases susceptibility to respiratory tract infections, including tuberculosis, pneumonia and Legionnaires disease; bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases, such as chlamydia and gonorrhoea; Helicobacter pylori infection; periodontitis; meningitis; otitis media; and post-surgical and nosocomial infections. Tobacco smoke compromises the anti-bacterial function of leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes, T cells and B cells, providing a mechanistic explanation for increased infection risk. Further epidemiological, clinical and mechanistic research into this important area is warranted.

  19. Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study regarding Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Farshadpour, F.; Konings, S.; Speel, E. J. M.; Hordijk, G J; Koole, R.; Blokland, M.; P. J. Slootweg; Kummer, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine the role of HPV in the pathogenesis and outcome of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in lifelong nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. A case-case analysis was performed to compare the presence of HPV-DNA in tumor cells of 16 nonsmoking and nondrinking with 16 matched smoking and drinking patients (matching criteria: age at incidence, gender, tumor sublocation, tumor stage). HPV was detected using 2 PCR tests, FISH analysis, and p16(INK4A) immunostaining. Nonsm...

  20. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome ...

  1. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  2. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  3. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  4. Genetics of Tobacco Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maserejian Nancy

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The worldwide prevalence of tobacco use is widespread, resulting in nearly 4.5 million deaths every year. Nicotine is addictive and has psychopharmacological effects that maintain the use of tobacco products. Several studies have documented a strong hereditary component to tobacco use. The present article reviews results from twin and adoption studies and proceeds to present association studies of specific genes that may be involved in tobacco use. Cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta polypeptide 2, serotonin receptor and transporter genes, dopamine receptor and transporter genes, and the cytochrome P450A6 gene are reviewed. Linkage studies help to identify regions of the genome that may be worth further investigation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the limitations of genetic research and the future of genetic epidemiology in this domain.

  5. Tobacco and cancer (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco and its various components increase the risk of several types of cancer especially cancer of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, bladder, kidney, pancreas, and cervix. Smoking also increases ...

  6. Tobacco and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality globally. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of abdominal obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure, insulin resistance (with and without glucose intolerance, pro-inflammatory state, and pro-thrombotic state. Tobacco use is associated with various core components of metabolic syndrome. It has been found to play a causal role in various pathways leading on to development this condition, the current article discusses various facets of this association.

  7. Lost in traffic? The K+ channel of lily pollen, LilKT1, is detected at the endomembranes inside yeast cells, tobacco leaves and lily pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Jasmin Safiarian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization in plants relies on fast growth of pollen tubes through the style tissue towards the ovules. This polarized growth depends on influx of ions and water to increase the tube’s volume. K+ inward rectifying channels were detected in many pollen species, with one identified in Arabidopsis. Here, an Arabidopsis AKT1-like channel (LilKT1 was identified from Lilium longiflorum pollen. Complementation of K+ uptake deficient yeast mutants was only successful when the entire LilKT1 C-terminus was replaced by the AKT1 C-terminus. No signals were observed in the plasma membrane (PM of pollen tubes after expression of fluorescence-tagged LilKT1 nor were any LilKT1-derived peptides detectable in the pollen PM by mass spectrometry analysis. In contrast, fluorescent LilKT1 partly co-localized with the lily PM H+ ATPase LilHA2 in the PM of tobacco leaf cells, but exhibited a punctual fluorescence pattern and also sub-plasma membrane localization. Thus, incorporation of LilKT1 into the pollen PM seems tighter controlled than in other cells with still unknown trafficking signals in LilKT1’s C-terminus, resulting in channel densities below detection limits. This highly controlled incorporation might have physiological reasons: an uncontrolled number of K+ inward channels in the pollen PM will give an increased water influx due to the raising cytosolic K+ concentration, and finally, causing the tube to burst.

  8. Tobacco Use in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Daniel; Berk, Michael; Dodd, Seetal; Rapado-Castro, Marta; Quirk, Shae E.; Ellegaard, Pernille K.; Berk, Lesley; Dean, Olivia M.

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use in mental health in general and bipolar disorder in particular remains disproportionally common, despite declining smoking rates in the community. Furthermore, interactions between tobacco use and mental health have been shown, indicating the outcomes for those with mental health disorders are impacted by tobacco use. Factors need to be explored and addressed to improve outcomes for those with these disorders and target specific interventions for people with psychiatric illness to cease tobacco smoking. In the context of bipolar disorder, this review explores; the effects of tobacco smoking on symptoms, quality of life, suicidal behaviour, the biological interactions between tobacco use and bipolar disorder, the interactions between tobacco smoking and psychiatric medications, rates and factors surrounding tobacco smoking cessation in bipolar disorder and suggests potential directions for research and clinical translation. The importance of this review is to bring together the current understanding of tobacco use in bipolar disorder to highlight the need for specific intervention. PMID:25912533

  9. Cytochrome c Is Released in a Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Manner and Is Degraded via Caspase-Like Proteases in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells en Route to Heat Shock-Induced Cell Death1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Rosa Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Bobba, Antonella; Merafina, Riccardo Sandro; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia

    2006-01-01

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of plant programmed cell death, certain features of cytochrome c (cyt c) release were investigated in heat-shocked tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright-Yellow 2 cells in the 2- to 6-h time range. We found that 2 h after heat shock, cyt c is released from intact mitochondria into the cytoplasm as a functionally active protein. Such a release did not occur in the presence of superoxide anion dismutase and catalase, thus showing that it depends on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Interestingly, ROS production due to xanthine plus xanthine oxidase results in cyt c release in sister control cultures. Maximal cyt c release was found 2 h after heat shock; later, activation of caspase-3-like protease was found to increase with time. Activation of this protease did not occur in the presence of ROS scavenger enzymes. The released cyt c was found to be progressively degraded in a manner prevented by either the broad-range caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) or the specific inhibitor of caspase-3 (AC-DEVD-CHO), which have no effect on cyt c release. In the presence of these inhibitors, a significant increase in survival of the cells undergoing programmed cell death was found. We conclude that ROS can trigger release of cyt c, but do not cause cell death, which requires caspase-like activation. PMID:16531480

  10. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  11. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  12. Human Papillomavirus and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study regarding Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Farshadpour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the role of HPV in the pathogenesis and outcome of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in lifelong nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. A case-case analysis was performed to compare the presence of HPV-DNA in tumor cells of 16 nonsmoking and nondrinking with 16 matched smoking and drinking patients (matching criteria: age at incidence, gender, tumor sublocation, tumor stage. HPV was detected using 2 PCR tests, FISH analysis, and p16INK4A immunostaining. Nonsmoking and nondrinking patients had more HPV-positive tumors than smoking and drinking patients (n=12; 75% versus n=2; 13%; P<0.001. All HPV-positive tumors showed p16INK4A overexpression, and 1 HPV-negative tumor had p16INK4A overexpression, (P<0.001. Overall survival and disease-specific survival were higher for HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative cases (P=0.027, P=0.039, resp.. In conclusion, HPV is strongly associated with OSCC of nonsmoking and nondrinking patients. Specific diagnostic and therapeutic actions should be considered for these patients to achieve a better prognosis.

  13. HGF is released from buccal fibroblasts after smokeless tobacco stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Christensen, S; Gron, B;

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effect of smokeless tobacco (ST) on (1) HGF, KGF and GM-CSF expression by buccal fibroblasts and (2) on keratinocyte and fibroblast proliferation. Buccal fibroblasts were stimulated with different concentrations of ST extracts in a double dilution from 0.50% w/v to 0.03% w...... on exposure time and on concentration of the tobacco extract. High concentration increased production of HGF 4-fold. KGF production was doubled when high concentration of tobacco was used, low concentration did not stimulate cells. GM-CSF production was low in both stimulated and non-stimulated cells...

  14. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1463 RIN 0560-AH30 Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) is modifying the regulations for the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP) to clarify, consistent with current practice and as required by the Fair and Equitable...

  15. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  16. Tobacco-induced contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Mastrolonardo, Mario; Angelini, Gianni; Foti, Caterina

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco and tobacco smoke are strongly associated with various skin conditions, among which contact dermatitis is of prime importance. The aetiological and clinical aspects vary according to the different tobacco production and processing steps. Contact dermatitis is frequent in tobacco harvesters, curers and cigar makers, whereas it rarely affects smokers and, only exceptionally, cigarette packaging workers. The skin sites involved also vary, according to whether the exposure is occupational or non-occupational. Tobacco contact irritation is far more frequent than contact allergy. The sensitizing compound in tobacco is unknown; nicotine, while highly toxic, does not seem to cause sensitization, except in rare cases. Besides natural substances, several compounds are added to tobacco during processing and manufacturing. For this reason, identifying the aetiological factors is exceedingly difficult. Another important aspect to take into account is the co-causative role of tobacco in eliciting or exacerbating contact dermatitis in response to other agents, occupational or extra-occupational. PMID:27020490

  17. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  18. Float Greenhouse Tobacco Transplant Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, T. David

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of growing tobacco transplants in greenhouses. Examines concerns such as sanitation, proper chemical usage, ventilation, temperature control, and fertilization. For hydroponic growth of tobacco seedlings, discusses water quality, clipping and other concerns.

  19. Tobacco Workers in 1916

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    I looked at the women in the photo carefully,judging theirage from the style of their hair and clothes,and guessingtheir mood at the time when the photo was taken. On this photo there are about 50 workers from theNanyang Brothers Tobacco Company,who are sitting in thefactory working.It seems they are married women, for allwear their hair in buns.Behind them stand two men in white;they may be the foremen. Women tobacco workers were one branch of Chinesewomen workrs in modern industry.At the end of the 1900’s,the reeling.cotton spinning,match and cigarette trades usedwomen workers extensively.They were mainly employed inenterprises with more than 500 workers,chiefly in cotton,silkand weaving mills.They also amassed in the tobacco trade,

  20. Isolation of Two Populations of Sperm Cells from the Pollen Tube of Tobacco%烟草精细胞两个群体的分离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱义兰; 杨延红; 张塞群; 田惠桥

    2004-01-01

    Pollen of Nicotiana tabacum L. is bicellular type, a generative cell and a vegetative cell in a mature pollen grain. To isolate sperm cells pollen tube should be induced in advance. Using an in vivo-in vitro technique, the style was pollinated and kept in vivo growing for 37 h and then cut about 3.5-4.0 cm long to be cultured in a medium containing 15%(W/V) sucrose, 0.01% (W/V) boric acid, 0.01% (W/V) CaCl2,0.01% (W/V) KH2PO4, at pH 5.0. A numerous pollen tubes grew out of the cut end of the style after being cultured for 3-5 h. When the pollen tubes were transferred to a broken solution just containing 9% mannitol some tubes broke and released the tube content into the broken solution including two sperm cells. Two sperm cells just released from the tube are connected with vegetative nucleus (VN) of pollen tube consisting of a male germ unit (MGU). Two sperm cells of tobacco are dimorphism: one is big and the other small. The small one (Svn) connects with vegetative nucleus and the big one only associates with the small one. Two isomorphic sperm cells might be selective fusion with egg cell and central cell during in vivo fertilization (preferential fertilization). When two associated sperm cells were transferred into a solution containing 0.01% cellulase, 0.008% pectinase and 9% mannitol, the association between two brother sperm cells disappeared, and both cells could be easily separated using a micromanipulator. To probe the mechanism of preferential fertilization two sperm cells from one pollen tube have to be separated each other to find the differences at the molecular level. Two sperm cells were respectively collected into two individual populations, each containing over thousand big sperm cells or small one, using a micromanipulator.The two sperm populations will offer a possibility to find the differences between two sperm cells in genes and proteins by using molecular methods, which will help us to understand the mechanism of preferential fertilization

  1. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  2. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gives the FDA authority to regulate the manufacturing, marketing and sale of tobacco products National Tobacco Control Strategy Learn more about the Administration's plan to reinvigorate efforts to reduce tobacco use Health Care Reform New law bolsters disease prevention and expands coverage for ...

  3. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your..., CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.30 Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco are taxed at the following...

  4. Floral gradient in flowering tobacco in relation to free amino acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENYONGNING; WENANLI

    1993-01-01

    By employing TCLs (thin cell layers) culture, the floral gradient in flowering tobacco of different developmental stages was confirmed. The TCLs from early flowering tobacco regenerated more floral buds than those from the tobacco plants in full blooming or fruiting stages. Analysis of free amino acid levels revealed the acropetal gradient of Pro in flowering tobacco stem. L-Pro. L-Trp. D,L-Met and L-Arg were respectively added into the culture medium for testing their influence on floral bud formation from tobacco pedicel segments. Only L-Trp evidently enhanced the floral bud neoformation.

  5. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172

  6. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  7. [Tobacco--a source of biofuels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzianowska, Anna; Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2012-01-01

    One of the concepts of global protection of environment is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, mainly carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere by replacing fossil fuels by the so-called biofuels, which can be obtained from cultivated plants or any plant waste biomass. Currently applied industrial technologies allow the production of biofuels to receive ethanol, mostly from the reserve carbohydrates of sugar cane and corn as well as biodiesel from oil, mainly from rapeseed or oil palm. Tobacco, which provides a high biomass, can be used to produce biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel. The latter derived from oil from seeds and leaves of tobacco has proved useful for driving cars. Modest oil content in tobacco leaves can be increased by the expression of foreign genes encoding its biosynthesis. Promising future source of biofuels is a waste plant biomass consisting mainly of cell walls, which can be subjected to the degradation to produce sugars suitable for fermentation and the production of bioethanol. A number of enzymes needed for efficient degradation of plant cell walls can be produced using recombinant DNA technology in a variety of plants, particularly in chloroplasts of tobacco.

  8. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    R A Kireev; A.I.Popovsky; M.V. Ershova; L.G. Bochkova

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  9. NEONATAL TOBACCO SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Kireev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to study neonatal adaptation in new-born children from the tobacco abused mothers. A comparative analysis of clinical and neuroendochnal status and lipid metabolism in new-born children from smoking and non-smoking mothers was carried out Neonatal adaptation disorders were revealed in new-born children from the smoking mothers.

  10. Studies on tobacco radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of radioactive substances with the effluents and the exhaust air of nuclear installations may result in the contamination of tobacco plants. This in turn may - via the exposition pathway ''tobacco smoking'' - cause a radiation exposure to smoking people. In the present paper, ecological parameters from site and literature investigations are listed which are necessary for the determination of the degrees of exposure to radiation. Using a model calculation, based on the airborne aerosol type releases of a nuclear PWR poer plant, the potential radiation exposures by tobacco smoking are compared to those by inhalation of radioactive aerosols from the air near the ground and by ingestion of contaminated foodstuff. According to this calculation, the radiation exposures by tobacco smoking amount to less than 0.1x10-5 Sv/a. This means they are far below the potential radiation exposures via the ingestion paths. Therefore, they are comparable only to those radiation doses that result from the inhalation of radioactive aerosols as contained in air near the ground. (orig.)

  11. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Every week, month, and year without tobacco further improves your health. Within 20 minutes of quitting: Your blood pressure ... that of a person who still smokes. Other health benefits of quitting ... may travel to the lungs Lower risk of erectile dysfunction ...

  12. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  13. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  14. Shifting Attitudes Towards Tobacco Control in Tobacco Country: Tobacco Industry Political Influence and Tobacco Policy Making in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan BA, Sarah; Barnes, Richard L JD; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in South Carolina. Smoking-related medical costs amount to $1.1 billion each year, including $393 million for Medicaid. Tobacco growing in South Carolina declined by over 50 percent from 1997 to 2008. Tobacco accounted for less than 10% of the state's cash receipts from all crops in 2007. Despite the low levels of actual tobacco growing and the small role tobacco played in the state's economy in 2008, the cultural construct of bei...

  15. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  16. Changes in the Antioxidant Systems as Part of the Signaling Pathway Responsible for the Programmed Cell Death Activated by Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species in Tobacco Bright-Yellow 2 Cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinto, Maria Concetta; Tommasi, Franca; De Gara, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been postulated to be required, together with reactive oxygen species (ROS), for the activation of the hypersensitive reaction, a defense response induced in the noncompatible plant-pathogen interaction. However, its involvement in activating programmed cell death (PCD) in plant cells has been questioned. In this paper, the involvement of the cellular antioxidant metabolism in the signal transduction triggered by these bioactive molecules has been investigated. NO and ROS levels were singularly or simultaneously increased in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Bright-Yellow 2) cells by the addition to the culture medium of NO and/or ROS generators. The individual increase in NO or ROS had different effects on the studied parameters than the simultaneous increase in the two reactive species. NO generation did not cause an increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity or induction of cellular death. It only induced minor changes in ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) metabolisms. An increase in ROS induced oxidative stress in the cells, causing an oxidation of the ASC and GSH redox pairs; however, it had no effect on PAL activity and did not induce cell death when it was generated at low concentrations. In contrast, the simultaneous increase of NO and ROS activated a process of death with the typical cytological and biochemical features of hypersensitive PCD and a remarkable rise in PAL activity. Under the simultaneous generation of NO and ROS, the cellular antioxidant capabilities were also suppressed. The involvement of ASC and GSH as part of the transduction pathway leading to PCD is discussed. PMID:12376637

  17. Tobacco or health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piha, T; Besselink, E; Lopez, A D

    1993-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the major cause of premature death among men in the CCEE/NIS. Reliable information on smoking prevalence and tobacco use is scarce, but the overall evidence points to two different patterns: a traditional and a high prevalence pattern. The traditional pattern dominates in the NIS and some of the CCEE, and is characterized by a high smoking rate in men (about 50%) and a low rate in women (10%). Smoking by women, however, is increasing, starting with the younger age groups. The high prevalence pattern found in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland, for example, shows a high smoking prevalence in women (about 25%) in addition to a high prevalence in men. Predictions made in 1990 indicated further increases or stable tobacco consumption in the CCEE/NIS by the year 2000, in contrast with the steady decrease in western European countries. When smoking is combined with other types of harmful health behaviour and environmental influences, the result is some of the highest mortality rates from lung cancer and other diseases in the world. This situation has caused severe concern in public health professionals in many of the affected countries, but not in the public and policy-makers. The fundamental changes in social and economic structures have both improved and decreased opportunities to promote nonsmoking. In the short term, the negative influences seem to dominate, although some countries, such as Lithuania and Poland, are now introducing their first realistic policies on tobacco. In most countries, however, tobacco control has to compete with other issues for priority on a crowded public health agenda.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Transient expression in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells and pollen grains: A fast, efficient and reliable system for functional promoter analysis of plant genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratić Ana M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression is mediated by DNA sequences directly upstream from the coding sequences, recruited transcription factors and RNA polymerase in a spatially-defined manner. Understanding promoter strength and regulation would enhance our understanding of gene expression. The goal of this study was to develop a fast, efficient and reliable method for testing basal promoter activity and identifying core sequences within its pollen specific elements. In this paper we examined the functionality of buckwheat metallothionein promoter by a histochemical GUS assay in two transient expression systems: BY2 cells and pollen grains. Strong promoter activity was observed in both systems.

  19. Soluble methionine enhances accumulation of a 15 kDa zein, a methionine-rich storage protein, in transgenic alfalfa but not in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amira, Golan; Ifat, Matityahu; Tal, Avraham; Hana, Badani; Shmuel, Galili; Rachel, Amir

    2005-09-01

    With the general aim of elevating the content of the essential amino acid methionine in vegetative tissues of plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tobacco plants, as well as BY2 tobacco suspension cells, were transformed with a beta-zein::3HA gene under the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus encoding a rumen-stable methionine-rich storage protein of 15 kDa zein. To examine whether soluble methionine content limited the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA, methionine was first added to the growth medium of the different transgenic plants and the level of the alien protein was determined. Results demonstrated that the added methionine enhanced the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA in transgenic alfalfa and tobacco BY2 cells, but not in whole transgenic tobacco plants. Next, the endogenous levels of methionine were elevated in the transgenic tobacco and alfalfa plants by crossing them with plants expressing the Arabidopsis cystathionine gamma-synthase (AtCGS) having significantly higher levels of soluble methionine in their leaves. Compared with plants expressing only the 15 kDa zein::3HA, transgenic alfalfa co-expressing both alien genes showed significantly enhanced levels of this protein concurrently with a reduction in the soluble methionine content, thus implying that soluble methionine was incorporated into the 15 kDa zein::3HA. Similar phenomena also occurred in tobacco, but were considerably less pronounced. The results demonstrate that the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein::3HA is regulated in a species-specific manner and that soluble methionine plays a major role in the accumulation of the 15 kDa zein in some plant species but less so in others. PMID:16061510

  20. Chipping Away at Tobacco Traditions in Tobacco Country: Tobacco Industry Political Influence and Tobacco Policy Making in North Carolina 1969-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Washington, Michelle; Barnes, Richard L.; Glantz, Stanton

    2011-01-01

    North Carolina, the top U.S. tobacco producing state and home to RJ Reynolds and Lorillard tobacco companies, has a historic, economic, and social legacy tied to tobacco, creating particular resistance to tobacco control efforts. The tobacco manufacturers historically relied on tobacco grower organizations, which had more influence on political and public opinion than tobacco manufacturers, to act on their behalf to shape policy in North Carolina. To influence policymakers, between 1996 and 2...

  1. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  2. Secondhand Smoke/“Light” Tobacco/ Smokeless Tobacco | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health. Here's why: Smokeless tobacco is still tobacco. Tobacco contains cancer-causing chemicals, including nitrosamines, a family of chemicals ... cigarettes. Nicotine addiction can make quitting difficult. Smokeless tobacco causes mouth cancer, pancreatic cancer, and other health problems, such as ...

  3. [Tobacco dependence treatment guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Králíková, Eva; Češka, Richard; Pánková, Alexandra; Štěpánková, Lenka; Zvolská, Kamila; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Zvolský, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Tobacco dependence causes every sixth death in the Czech Republic and is associated with diseases of the whole body. Treatment of tobacco dependence should be a standard part of clinical care to the extent of time available--from brief intervention at each clinical contact with patients up to intensive treatment. It includes psycho-socio-behavioural support and pharmacotherapy. It should apply to all professions in clinical medicine--as recommended by WHO mainly doctors, nurses, pharmacists and dentists, and should be covered within health care systems. Economically, it is one of the most cost-effective interventions in medicine. In our population over 15 years about 30% smokes (about 2.2 million people), diagnosis F17 relates to approximately 1.75 million people (about 80% of smokers). PMID:26955915

  4. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  5. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of L-galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shingo; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2012-01-01

    L-Galactose-1-phosphate phosphatase (GPPase) is an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in higher plants. We isolated a cDNA encoding GPPase from tobacco, and named it NtGPPase. The putative amino acid sequence of NtGPPase contained inositol monophosphatase motifs and metal binding sites. Recombinant NtGPPase hydrolyzed not only L-galactose-1-phosphate, but also myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The optimum pH for the GPPase activity of NtGPPase was 7.5. Its enzyme activity required Mg2+, and was inhibited by Li+ and Ca2+. Its fluorescence, fused with green fluorescence protein in onion cells and protoplasts of tobacco BY-2 cells, was observed in both the cytosol and nucleus. The expression of NtGPPase mRNA and protein was clearly correlated with L-ascorbic acid (AsA) contents of BY-2 cells during culture. The AsA contents of NtGPPase over expression lines were higher than those of empty lines at 13 d after subculture. This suggests that NtGPPase contributes slightly to AsA biosynthesis. PMID:22790939

  7. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  8. The hazardous effects of tobacco smoking on male fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jing-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Qiao, Zhong-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The substantial harmful effects of tobacco smoking on fertility and reproduction have become apparent but are not generally appreciated. Tobacco smoke contains more than 4000 kinds of constituents, including nicotine, tar, carbonic monoxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals. Because of the complexity of tobacco smoke components, the toxicological mechanism is notably complicated. Most studies have reported reduced semen quality, reproductive hormone system dysfunction and impaired spermatogenesis, sperm maturation, and spermatozoa function in smokers compared with nonsmokers. Underlying these effects, elevated oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis may play important roles collaboratively in the overall effect of tobacco smoking on male fertility. In this review, we strive to focus on both the phenotype of and the molecular mechanism underlying these harmful effects, although current studies regarding the mechanism remain insufficient. PMID:25851659

  9. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  10. NEW TOBACCO SORTS POTENTIAL FOR TOBACCO INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homutova S. A.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The review of the latest tobacco selection researches is given in the article. The basic aim of these researches is creation of new sort material, which is ecologically stable, and corresponding to energy conservation demands. New tobacco sorts are presented

  11. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  12. Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms, because it is easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. Many bacterial proteins involved in the synthesis of commercial products are currently engineered for production in tobacco. Bacterial enzymes synthesized in tobacco can enhance protection against abiotic stresses and diseases, and provide a system to test appli...

  13. [DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): as a tobacco-associated disease -- case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Vitor; Carvalho, Lina

    2004-01-01

    DIP (desquamative interstitial pneumonia) is an interstitial lung disease with diffuse and uniform accumulation of alveolar macrophages. There is a strong association with tobacco since 90% of the patients are smokers. The interstitial lung diseases related to tobacco are diverse and include tumours, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, RBILD (Respiratory Bronchilites associated Interstitial Lung Disease), DIP and Langerhans Cell Histiocitosis. The authors present a case of DIP. A brief theorycal revision and discussion of a case is made facing the association with tobacco.

  14. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  15. 不同质膜稳定剂对烟草原生质体细胞壁再生的影响%The Effect of Different Cell Membrane Stabilizer on Reformation of Cell Wall from Tobacco Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊; 聂琼; 杨川龙; 陈茜

    2012-01-01

    The cell membrane stabilizer can increase the number of intact protoplasts, so as to prevent the disruption of the cell membrane, and promote the cell wall reformation from protoplast and formation of mitotic cell clusters. To investigate the effect of membrane stabilizers on the reformation of tobacco cell wall from protoplasts, three kinds of cell membrane stabilizers including either CaCl2 · 2H2O, or KH2PO4 or MES was added to the enzyme solution of protoplast, or their combination was supplemented in the solution, and protoplast was isolated, purified and cultrued. The results showed that three kinds of membrane stabilizers had certain effects on the protoplast quality, cell wall reformation and protoplast division. The optimum concentration was CaCl2 · 2H2O 10 mM, KH2PO4 0. 7 mM, and MES 5 mM. Among the tested membrane stabilizer combinations, the best one was CaCl2 · 2H2O 5 mM, KH2P04 0.35 mM and MES 2.5 mM, and the cell wall reformation rate and cell division rate were as high as 88.5% and 77.5% , respectively.%质膜稳定剂能增加完整原生质体数量,防止质膜破坏,促进原生质体细胞壁再生和细胞分裂形成细胞团.本研究拟在原生质体酶解液中分别加入CaCl2 ·2H2O、KH2 PO4、MES 3种质膜稳定剂,或3种质膜稳定剂组合分离、提纯、培养原生质体,探讨3种质膜稳定剂对烟草原生质体细胞壁再生的影响.结果表明:3种质膜稳定剂对于解离出的原生质体的质量及原生质体细胞壁再生和原生质体细胞分裂都有一定影响,最佳浓度分别为CaCl2·2H2O10mM、KH2PO4 0.7 mM、MES 5 mM;3种质膜稳定剂组合以CaCl2·2H2O 5 mM、KH2PO4 0.35 mM与MES 2.5 mM的组合最佳,原生质体壁再生率达88.5%,细胞分裂率达77.5%,表明能最快促进烟草原生质体细胞壁再生及细胞分裂生长.

  16. Activation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Defense Responses in Tobacco Cells Treated with Riboflavin%核黄素对烟草悬浮细胞活性氧和防卫反应的激活作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菲; 魏芳芳; 王蕾; 刘辉; 梁元存; 刘爱新

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To study the triggering defense responses in tobacco suspension cells after treated with riboflavin,reactive oxygen species (ROS) and defense-related responses were investigated together with their related effects involving in calcium signals and protein kinases.[method]tobacco suspension cells were treated 1 mmol·L~(-1) riboflavin or pretreated with inhibitors including calcium surrogate La~(3+),calcium chelator EGTA and staurosporine which is an inhibitor of serine/threonine protein kinase.A series of dynamic defense responses were then studied with several methods,including semiquantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) techniques.[Result] It was identified that a series of defense-related responses were induced in tobacco suspension cells after treated with riboflavin,such as an oxidative burst,resulting in alkalization of the extracellular medium,activated the expression of four defense-related genes,and the scopoletin accumulation.And all the tested three inhibitors were shown in suppressing the riboflavin triggered defense responses at difference levels.[Conclusion]These results suggest that riboflavin triggers plant basal defense signal pathway which are also concerned with calcium signal pathway and protein phosphorylation in tobacco cell suspensions as an elicitor.%[目的]研究核黄素处理烟草悬浮细胞后,激活的氧进发和防卫反应,以及钙信号和蛋白激酶对这些事件的影响.[方法]1mmol·L~(-1)核黄素处理烟草悬浮细胞,用半定量RT-PCR(reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction)和高效液相色谱(high performance liquid chromatography,HPLC)等方法测定一系列防卫反应,并用钙离子通道抑制剂LaCl3、钙离子螯合剂EGTA和一种丝氨酸/苏氨酸蛋白激酶抑制剂staurosporine处理细胞,测定防卫反应的变化.[结果]1mmol·L~(-1)核黄素处理悬浮细胞后,产生了氧进发、导致培

  17. Tobacco smoke and the pulmonary alveolar macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Davies, P; Karnovsky, M L; Huber, G L

    1979-01-01

    Our results indicate that tobacco smoke exposure to varying duration causes morphological, biochemical and functional alterations in pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The results of these changes is a population of alveolar macrophages made up of larger cells, with a reduced nucleus-cytoplasmic ratio, which are heavily loaded with heterolysosomes containing lipid. Though their fractional complement of mitochondria remains the same, an increase in the inner mitochondrial membrane surface area may be related to an enhanced oxidative metabolism. The cell is biochemically activated particularly following chronic exposure and is functionally impaired with respect to phagocytosis. PMID:232822

  18. Phospholipase D activation correlates with microtubule reorganization in living plant cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.B. Dhonukshe; A.M. Laxalt; J. Goedhart; Th.W.J. Gadella; T. Munnik

    2003-01-01

    A phospholipase D (PLD) was shown recently to decorate microtubules in plant cells. Therefore, we used tobacco BY-2 cells expressing the microtubule reporter GFP-MAP4 to test whether PLD activation affects the organization of plant microtubules. Within 30 min of adding n-butanol, a potent activator

  19. Mechanisms of Cancer Induction by Tobacco-Specific NNK and NNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jiaping [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Yang, Suping; Seng, Seyha, E-mail: sseng@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Tobacco use is a major public health problem worldwide. Tobacco-related cancers cause millions of deaths annually. Although several tobacco agents play a role in the development of tumors, the potent effects of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) are unique. Metabolically activated NNK and NNN induce deleterious mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppression genes by forming DNA adducts, which could be considered as tumor initiation. Meanwhile, the binding of NNK and NNN to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor promotes tumor growth by enhancing and deregulating cell proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion, thereby creating a microenvironment for tumor growth. These two unique aspects of NNK and NNN synergistically induce cancers in tobacco-exposed individuals. This review will discuss various types of tobacco products and tobacco-related cancers, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which nitrosamines, such as NNK and NNN, induce cancer.

  20. Tobacco and health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is a well-acknowledged social and health evil. The history of tobacco use traces back to the dawn of human civilization and has been deeply entrenched into the human society since time immemorial. The social, economic, and health impact of tobacco has been a subject of intense debate over the recent decades. For India, this problem has been a unique one, with the consumption patterns either largely influenced by the socioeconomic backgrounds or dictated by the cultural diversity. With more than 200 million tobacco consumers in the country at present, it becomes imperative to address this health hazard and stir up strong measures toward damage control. This article addresses the tobacco problem, its evolution, and the factors that have affected the growth of Indian tobacco industry. It also highlights the current legislative measures against tobacco, fiscal gains to the government, and the serious health and economic impact to the consumer, compounded by the increasing cost of private health care in the present era of consumerism.

  1. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  2. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED)...

  3. Economics of Tobacco Toolkit, Tool 4 : Design and Administer Tobacco Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Yurekli, Ayda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this tool is to help the reader understand the structure, design, and administration of tobacco taxes. There is no doubt about the adverse health impacts of tobacco use. In both developed and developing countries, the Ministries of health, tobacco interest groups, academia, and advocates against tobacco strongly believe that tobacco consumption should be reduced, and that to...

  4. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  5. Radiosensitization by 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloroquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide under oxia and hypoxia in human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitizing effects of 2-benzoyl-3-phenyl-6,7-dichloroquinoxaline 1,4-dioxide (DCQ) and ionizing radiation (IR) were determined in four colon cancer cells and in FHs74Int normal intestinal cells. Cell cycle modulation, TUNEL assay, clonogenic survival and DNA damage were examined under oxia or hypoxia. Effects on apoptotic molecules and on p-Akt and Cox-2 protein expression were investigated. The four cell lines responded differently to DCQ+IR; HT-29 cells were most resistant. Combination treatment caused significant increases in preG1 (apoptosis) in HCT-116, while G2/M arrest occurred in DLD-1. DCQ potentiated IR effects more so under hypoxia than oxia. Pre-exposure of DLD-1 to hypoxia induced 30% apoptosis, and G2/M arrest in oxia. The survival rate was 50% lower in DCQ+IR than DCQ alone and this rate further decreased under hypoxia. FHs74Int normal intestinal cells were more resistant to DCQ+IR than cancer cells.Greater ssDNA damage occurred in DLD-1 exposed to DCQ+IR under hypoxia than oxia. In oxia, p-Akt protein expression increased upon IR exposure and drug pre-treatment inhibited this increase. In contrast, in hypoxia, exposure to IR reduced p-Akt protein and DCQ restored its expression to the untreated control. Apoptosis induced in hypoxic DLD-1 cells was independent of p53-p21 modulation but was associated with an increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the inhibition of the Cox-2 protein. DCQ is a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer in DLD-1 human colon cancer cells

  6. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  7. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type...

  8. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears...

  9. Cyclin D1 Gene Expression in Oral Mucosa of Tobacco Chewers”–An Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Basnaker, Maharudrappa; SP, Srikala; BNVS, Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the expression of cyclin D1 in normal oral mucosa of both non tobacco habituated and tobacco habituated individuals histologically and also compare and correlate cyclin D1 expression with histopathologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

  10. Tobacco control: overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D

    1996-01-01

    This chapter assesses the principal components of an effective tobacco control programme in relation to efficacy, reach (i.e. numbers of smokers influenced) and cost-effectiveness. National targets for the reduction of prevalence are most likely to be achieved through the use of high reach interventions such as fiscal policy and mass communications. Restrictions on smoking at work may contribute to declines in consumption, but advice from health professionals, though effective, has limited impact owing to low reach. Measures aimed primarily at youth can delay, but not prevent, recruitment to smoking. Media publicity not only reduces smoking, but also creates a climate of opinion in favour of effective measures such as fiscal policy. In the long run, health professionals can achieve more for their patients through the media than through personal advice. PMID:8746300

  11. Human mesenchymal stem cell expression program upon extended ex-vivo cultivation, as revealed by 2-DE-based quantitative proteomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Madeira

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been on the focus of intense clinical-oriented research due to their multilineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties. However, to reach the clinically meaningful cell numbers for cellular therapy and tissue engineering applications, MSC ex-vivo expansion is mandatory but sequential cell passaging results in loss of proliferative, clonogenic and differentiation potential. To get clues into the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular senescence resulting from extended ex-vivo cultivation of bone marrow (BM MSC, we explored a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE based quantitative proteomics to compare the expression programs of Passage 3 cells (P3, commonly used in clinical studies with expanded MSC, and Passage 7 (P7 cells, which already demonstrated significant signs of culture-induced senescence. Proteins of the functional categories "Structural components and cellular cytoskeleton" and "Folding and stress response proteins" are less abundant in P7 cells, compared to P3, while proteins involved in "Energy metabolism", "Cell cycle regulation and aging" and "Apoptosis" are more abundant. The large number of multiple size and charge isoforms with an altered content that were identified in this study in P7 versus P3, namely the cytoskeleton components β-actin (7 forms and vimentin (24 forms, also emphasizes the importance of post-transcriptional modification upon long-term cultivation. The differential protein expression registered suggests that cellular senescence occurring during ex-vivo expansion of BM MSC is associated with the impairment of cytoskeleton remodeling and/or organization and the repair of damaged proteins resulting from cell exposure to culture stress. The genome-wide expression approach used in this study has proven useful for getting mechanistic insights into the observed decrease on the proliferative and clonogenic potential of P7 versus P3 cells and paves the

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cell expression program upon extended ex-vivo cultivation, as revealed by 2-DE-based quantitative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Andreia; da Silva, Cláudia L; dos Santos, Francisco; Camafeita, Emilio; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been on the focus of intense clinical-oriented research due to their multilineage differentiation potential and immunomodulatory properties. However, to reach the clinically meaningful cell numbers for cellular therapy and tissue engineering applications, MSC ex-vivo expansion is mandatory but sequential cell passaging results in loss of proliferative, clonogenic and differentiation potential. To get clues into the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular senescence resulting from extended ex-vivo cultivation of bone marrow (BM) MSC, we explored a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) based quantitative proteomics to compare the expression programs of Passage 3 cells (P3), commonly used in clinical studies with expanded MSC, and Passage 7 (P7) cells, which already demonstrated significant signs of culture-induced senescence. Proteins of the functional categories "Structural components and cellular cytoskeleton" and "Folding and stress response proteins" are less abundant in P7 cells, compared to P3, while proteins involved in "Energy metabolism", "Cell cycle regulation and aging" and "Apoptosis" are more abundant. The large number of multiple size and charge isoforms with an altered content that were identified in this study in P7 versus P3, namely the cytoskeleton components β-actin (7 forms) and vimentin (24 forms), also emphasizes the importance of post-transcriptional modification upon long-term cultivation. The differential protein expression registered suggests that cellular senescence occurring during ex-vivo expansion of BM MSC is associated with the impairment of cytoskeleton remodeling and/or organization and the repair of damaged proteins resulting from cell exposure to culture stress. The genome-wide expression approach used in this study has proven useful for getting mechanistic insights into the observed decrease on the proliferative and clonogenic potential of P7 versus P3 cells and paves the way to set

  13. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS.Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand.Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS.Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72.Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  14. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2015, 2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is...

  15. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... General Population Study, respectively. According to the magnitude of the hazard ratios, tobacco consumption was the most important risk factor for hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm, followed by male sex and hypertension in both cohorts. The population attributable risk of aortic aneurysm...... outcomes due to tobacco consumption was 64% and 47% in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and Copenhagen General Population Study, respectively, and ranked highest among population attributable risks of aortic aneurysm in both cohorts. The absolute 10-year risk for hospitalization or death from aortic...

  16. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  17. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Survey Questions (Tobacco Use). The QIT is a...

  18. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  19. Sport Sponsorship and Tobacco: Implications and Impact of Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotlar, David

    1992-01-01

    The union of sports and tobacco represents a multimillion dollar enterprise. Recent litigation, the Federal Trade Commission v. Pinkerton Tobacco Company, jeopardizes sport sponsorship agreements. Tobacco advertising may no longer be displayed anywhere during televised sporting events. (SM)

  20. NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by 2B4 and NTB-A is dependent on SAP acting downstream of receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Stephan; Watzl, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    2B4 (CD244) and NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A, CD352) are activating receptors on human natural killer (NK) cells and belong to the family of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-related receptors (SRR). Engagement of these receptors leads to phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and recruitment of the adapter proteins SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and Ewing's sarcoma-activated transcript-2 (EAT-2). X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP) is a severe immunodeficiency that results from mutations in the SAP gene. 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity are abrogated in XLP NK cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for this defect we analyzed early signaling events in SAP knockdown cells. Similar to XLP NK cells, knockdown of SAP in primary human NK cells leads to a reduction of 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that early signaling events such as raft recruitment and receptor phosphorylation are not affected by the absence of SAP, indicating the defect in the absence of SAP is downstream of these events. In addition, knockdown of EAT-2 does not impair 2B4 or NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, EAT-2 recruitment to both receptors is abrogated in the absence of SAP, revealing a novel cooperativity between these adapters.

  1. NK cell cytotoxicity mediated by 2B4 and NTB-A is dependent on SAP acting downstream of receptor phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eMeinke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available 2B4 (CD244 and NK-T-B-antigen (NTB-A, CD352 are activating receptors on human NK cells and belong to the family of SLAM-related receptors. Engagement of these receptors leads to phosphorylation of their cytoplasmic tails and recruitment of the adapter proteins SAP and EAT-2. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome (XLP is a severe immunodeficiency that results from mutations in the SAP gene. 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity are abrogated in XLP NK cells. To elucidate the molecular basis for this defect we analyzed early signaling events in SAP knockdown cells. Similar to XLP NK cells, knockdown of SAP in primary human NK cells leads to a reduction of 2B4 and NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. We found that early signaling events such as raft recruitment and receptor phosphorylation are not affected by the absence of SAP, indicating the defect in the absence of SAP is downstream of these events. In addition, knockdown of EAT-2 does not impair 2B4 or NTB-A-mediated cytotoxicity. Surprisingly, EAT-2 recruitment to both receptors is abrogated in the absence of SAP, revealing a novel cooperativity between these adapters.

  2. 27 CFR 40.25a - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your... TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes § 40.25a Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates and classification. (a) Tax rates. Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own...

  3. Music preferences and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszna, Joanna; Burtowy, Agnieszka; Palusinski, Robert

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the association of music preferences with tobacco smoking in a group of 152 high school and college students. Both the questionnaire and the listening survey indicated a higher preference for music associated with anxiety and depressed mood among smokers. These findings may reflect a common etiology of tobacco addiction and a specific type of music preferences. To elucidate this phenomenon further studies are needed. PMID:15077771

  4. Electrofusion of tobacco protoplasts in space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Huiqiong; WANG Liufa; CHENG Aidi; LIU Chengxian

    2003-01-01

    Electrofusion of evacuolated (N. Tabacum L. cvs. Gexin no1) and vacuolated (N. Rustic) tobacco mesophyll protoplasts was performed on the Chinese spacecraft (Shenzhou No. 4, from 30th Dec. 2002 to 6th Jan. 2003). The results showed that the frequency of bi-nucleated and multinucleated protoplasts was significantly increased under microgravity. Compared with the control samples incubated on the ground, the viability of protoplasts incubated in space was much higher. In addition, the influence of altered gravity on carbohydrates was also observed. These results confirmed the effect of microgravitation on electrofusion of plant cell protoplasts.

  5. Alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves: Effect of fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nain, Mahabir [Department of Physics, Government College Karnal, Haryana 132001 (India)], E-mail: mnain@rediffmail.com; Chauhan, R.P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Chakarvarti, S.K. [Department of Applied Physics, NIT, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2008-08-15

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are 10 times at a greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. The toxicity in tobacco is considered mainly due to the presence of chemi-toxins like nicotine, tar, aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols and many other materials leading to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. There are many reports on the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides viz., {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in tobacco. Investigations on alpha-emitting radionuclides, especially on {sup 210}Po have gained significant importance as alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells may contribute to early arteriosclerosis developments in tobacco smokers. Due to relatively high activity concentration of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb that are found in tobacco and its product cigarette can increase the internal intake of both the radionuclides and their concentrations in lung tissues. This causes an increase in the internal radiation dose which enhances the instances of lung cancer. Many workers have tried to explain the role of {sup 210}Po in tobacco in the epidemiological investigation of cancer and tumour formation. In the present work, the estimation of alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves taken from tobacco plants grown using different types of chemical fertilizers like diammonium phosphate (DAP), zinc sulphate, potash, super phosphate, urea etc. in varying amounts before the plantation of the seedlings has been made. For these measurements we used {alpha}-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The results indicate an increase in alpha radioactivity with the use of some fertilizers.

  6. A fluorescent reporter protein containing AtRMR1 domains is targeted to the storage and central vacuoles in Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco leaf cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scabone, Camila María; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2011-10-01

    To develop a new strategy to target recombinant proteins to the vacuolar storage system in transgenic plants, the ability of the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of Arabidopsis receptor homology-transmembrane-RING H2-1 (AtRMR1) was evaluated. A secreted version of RFP (secRFP) and a fusion of it to the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of AtRMR1 (RFP-TMCT) were produced and studied both in transient and stable expression assays. Transient expression in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum showed that secRFP is secreted to the apoplast while its fusion to TMCT of AtRMR1 is sufficient to prevent secretion of the reporter. In tobacco leaves, RFP-TMCT reporter showed an endoplasmic reticulum pattern in early expression stages while in late expression stages, it was found in the vacuolar lumen. For the first time, the role of TM and CT domains of AtRMR1 in stable expression in Arabidopsis thaliana is presented; the fusion of TMCT to secRFP is sufficient to sort RFP to the lumen of the central vacuoles in leaves and roots and to the lumen of PSV in cotyledons of mature embryos. In addition, biochemical studies performed in extract from transgenic plants showed that RFP-TMCT is an integral membrane protein. Full-length RFP-TMCT was also found in the vacuolar lumen, suggesting internalization into destination vacuole. Not colocalization of RFP-TMCT with tonoplast and plasma membrane markers were observed. This membrane vacuolar determinant sorting signal could be used for future application in molecular pharming as an alternative means to sort proteins of interest to vacuoles. PMID:21611741

  7. A fluorescent reporter protein containing AtRMR1 domains is targeted to the storage and central vacuoles in Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco leaf cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scabone, Camila María; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Petruccelli, Silvana

    2011-10-01

    To develop a new strategy to target recombinant proteins to the vacuolar storage system in transgenic plants, the ability of the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of Arabidopsis receptor homology-transmembrane-RING H2-1 (AtRMR1) was evaluated. A secreted version of RFP (secRFP) and a fusion of it to the transmembrane and cytosolic domains of AtRMR1 (RFP-TMCT) were produced and studied both in transient and stable expression assays. Transient expression in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum showed that secRFP is secreted to the apoplast while its fusion to TMCT of AtRMR1 is sufficient to prevent secretion of the reporter. In tobacco leaves, RFP-TMCT reporter showed an endoplasmic reticulum pattern in early expression stages while in late expression stages, it was found in the vacuolar lumen. For the first time, the role of TM and CT domains of AtRMR1 in stable expression in Arabidopsis thaliana is presented; the fusion of TMCT to secRFP is sufficient to sort RFP to the lumen of the central vacuoles in leaves and roots and to the lumen of PSV in cotyledons of mature embryos. In addition, biochemical studies performed in extract from transgenic plants showed that RFP-TMCT is an integral membrane protein. Full-length RFP-TMCT was also found in the vacuolar lumen, suggesting internalization into destination vacuole. Not colocalization of RFP-TMCT with tonoplast and plasma membrane markers were observed. This membrane vacuolar determinant sorting signal could be used for future application in molecular pharming as an alternative means to sort proteins of interest to vacuoles.

  8. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia. PMID:10728606

  9. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  10. [The Tobacco-Free Generation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kanter, W

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, every day some 100 adolescents become addicted to cigarettes. These new smokers fill the gap left by the 25% of smokers who die before reaching retirement age. The State Secretary for Health, Welfare and Sport in the Netherlands, the Royal Dutch Medical Association (KNMG), and the Dutch Cancer Society, Lung Foundation and Heart Foundation all support the concept of a tobacco-free generation. The concept is that, by applying public health interventions and restriction of tobacco accessibility through price hikes, in the near future none of the children in the Netherlands born in 2017 and beyond will take up smoking. This appealing plan can be phased in gradually, reaching full implementation by 2035. That gives politicians time to take evidence-based measures. The roadmap for this 'tobacco endgame' starts today with tobacco-free conception and pregnancy, and will follow the life of a child from then on. In this comment, I discuss the concept of a tobacco-free generation and focus on the responsibility of the government to take effective measures. PMID:27581862

  11. Immunohistochemical locali- zation of Ca2+/calmodulin- dependent kinase in tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The existence of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaM kinase, CaMK) in tobacco is verified immuno- logically and its distribution in different tissues of tobacco is studied. It has been demonstrated that CaMK is mainly distributed in early developing anthers, developing ovules and embryos, lateral root primordium, apical meristem and leaf primordium of buds and mesophyll cells and developing vascular bundles of leaves. There is enormous CaM kinase distributed in leaf epidermis fair cells and guard cells of stomas too. Little kinase is found in mature stem or root cells. The distribution properties of CaM kinase in tobacco are consistent with those of CaM, suggesting that there exists the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway mediated by CaM kinase in tobacco and it plays an important role in the plant growth and development.

  12. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC.

  13. The Museum as a platform for tobacco promotion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Sun, Shaojing; Yao, Xinyi; Fu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The China Tobacco Museum in Shanghai is the largest in China, consisting of seven pavilions of tobacco-related exhibits. A focus group and previous survey data revealed that the museum conveys messages that make tobacco use appealing. Of the pavilions, three were found to contain blatant misinformation about tobacco and tobacco consumption. We argue that the China Tobacco Museum is a platform for tobacco promotion, a form of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and thus contravenes the FCTC. PMID:25270734

  14. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological Parameters in Tobacco Snuffers Among the Igbos of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ureme, SO; Njoku, OU; Ejezie, FE; Ibeh, BO; Ikekpazu, E; Mba, MJ

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco snuffing, like cigarette smoking, is known to be a common habit among the adults of Igbo communities in Nigeria. In view of the various pharmacological actions of nicotine and other additive constituents of tobacco snuff, there is growing concern that ascorbic acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood cell production or morphology may be affected. Objective: To investigate the possible effects of prolonged use of tobacco snuff on plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and...

  15. [Tobacco--a highly efficient producer of vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2010-01-01

    Along with the depreciation of tobacco as a source of nicotine-containing commercial products, the increase of its appreciation as a potential producer of recombinant therapeutical proteins can be observed. Two species of tobacco--Nicotiana tabacum L. and N. benthamiana are easily grown by well established methods of field or green-house cultivation or cell culture, yield high biomass and soluble protein content, can be easily transformed by several methods and are not food for humans or feed for animals. Expression of foreign proteins, including vaccines, can be achieved in those plants either through stable transformation of nuclear or plastid (chloroplast) genomes or by transient transformation using infection with plant virus or bacteria--Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration). The most advanced mode of agrofiltration termed magnifection, which combines benefits of virus and Agrobacterium and depends on using Agrobacterium with viral pro-vectors, enables high-yield and rapid expression of therapeutical proteins, even in a few days, and can be employed on an industrial scale. Expression of many antigenic proteins, which may serve as antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoan and anticancer vaccines, and additionally a few autoantigens designed for the treatment of autoimunogenic diseases, like diabetes, have been achieved in tobacco. To date, a vaccine against Newcastle virus disease in poultry produced by tobacco cell culture has been approved for commercial application and several other vaccines are in advanced stage of development. The possibility of a high-level production of vaccines in tobacco against pandemic influenza or anthrax and plague due to a bioterroristic attack, as well as of individualised anticancer vaccines against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a much shorter period of time than by traditional methods became realistic and hence caused increased interest in tobacco as a high-efficient producer of vaccines not only of specialistic

  16. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  17. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  18. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  19. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  20. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND...

  1. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  2. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the country.Broomrape (Orobanche ce

  3. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2013. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  4. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  5. Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Elbert D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This literature review delineates the current status of smokeless tobacco, including prevalence, terminology, periodontal effects, and addiction potential. Also discussed is the possible influence on youth of smokeless tobacco use by popular sports figures. (Author/CB)

  6. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  7. Tobacco Use in Racial and Ethnic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... generous support Make a difference by delivering research, education and advocacy to those impacted by lung disease. ...

  8. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  9. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee:...

  10. Identification and characterization of cDNA clones encoding hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, M J; Czernic, P; Michael, A; Negrel, J

    1999-08-01

    The sequences of three cDNA clones that include the complete coding region of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:tyramine N-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (THT) from tobacco are reported. The three cDNAs were isolated by antibody screening of a cDNA expression library produced from poly(A)+RNA purified from tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bottom Special), previously infiltrated with an incompatible strain of Ralstonia solanacearum. The identity of these clones was confirmed by the detection of THT activity in extracts of transformed Escherichia coli and by matching the translated polypeptides with tryptic enzyme sequences. cDNA clones tht4 and tht11 differ only by their 5' leader and 3' UTRs and therefore encode the same protein, whereas tht10 and tht11 exhibit 95 and 99% sequence identity at the DNA and deduced amino acid levels, respectively. The three clones encode proteins of 226 amino acids with calculated molecular masses of 26 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequences show no similarity with the sequence of anthranilate hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase from Dianthus caryophyllus, the only enzyme exhibiting hydroxycinnamoyltransferase activity to be cloned so far in plants. In contrast, comparison of the THT amino acid sequence with protein sequence databases revealed substantial homology with mammalian diamine acetyltransferases. The THT clones hybridized to a 0.95-kb mRNA from elicited tobacco cell-suspension cultures and also to a mRNA of similar size from wound-healing potato tubers. The messengers for THT were also found to be expressed at relatively high levels in tobacco root tissues. Southern hybridization of tobacco genomic DNA with THT cDNA suggests that several copies of the THT gene occur in the tobacco genome. Inhibition experiments using amino-acid-specific reagents demonstrated that both histidyl and cysteyl residues are required for THT activity. In the course of these experiments THT was also found to be inhibited by (2-hydroxyphenyl) amino sulfinyl

  11. Addressing Tobacco Dependence Through a Nurse-driven Tobacco Intervention Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceass, Tasha; Parsons, Lynn C

    2015-12-01

    Tobacco use contributes to the largest proportion of preventable disease, disability, and death. Use of tobacco products is at epidemic proportions in the United States. Estimates retrieved between 2012 and 2013 by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 1 in 5 adults used tobacco products. Tobacco use was greatest among men, young adults, those living in the Midwest and south, and those with less education. Cigarette smoking resulting in inhalation of tobacco and its by-products is the most common form of tobacco use. Tobacco use results in multiple diseases, including numerous cancers and chronic diseases. PMID:26596660

  12. ICT Transformation in Chinese Tobacco Industry: Case Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on four in-depth case studies on the information and communication technology (ICT) evolution of Chinese tobacco companies. The ICT transformation processes of these companies are introduced briefly. A strategic grid model was used, which shows that depending on a company's strategic grid cell, different behavior patterns can be observed, in terms of Nolan's stage model. The analysis shows that companies allocated in the "turnaround" and "strategic" cell do not behave accordingly to Nolan's stage model. A few years after China first application for a World Trade Organization (WTO) membership renewal in 1986, observed companies skipped some of Nolan's stages to achieve an accelerated ICT transformation. Therefore, a fast transformation of ICT plays a major role for Chinese tobacco companies to face the challenges entailed by an open door policy and the WTO entry. This conclusion is limited to companies that are allocated either in the "transformation" cell or the "strategic" cell.

  13. A Fluorimetric Sensor for Detection of One Living Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, studies of metabolic pathways and processes in living organisms cannot be easily done at the cellular level. That is why the development of a new analytical methods and approaches is needed, to allow detection of different biologically important species at very low concentrations levels and sample volumes, especially in individual cells. In the present work, we suggested a sensor to detect units of living cells by means determination of plant esterases (PE based on fluorimetric detection of the products of the enzymatic hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate in plant cell cultures (BY-2 tobacco cells and early somatic embryos of Norway spruce, clone 2/32. We standardized the sensor using a readily available esterase from pig liver. The detection limits were approximately 17 to 50 amol in 2 ml (8.5 to 25 femtomolar concentrations of esterases of the enzyme contained in BY-2 tobacco cells and spruce early somatic embryos, respectively, after re-computation on the amounts of pig liver esterases. We assumed that the optimised sensor for the determination of PE in cell extracts accomplishes all requirements for a sensitive analysis which could be usable for single cell analysis. The detection limit was 1.5 in case of analysing BY-2 tobacco cells and 0.5 in early somatic embryos. Moreover, we were able to detect single protoplasts.

  14. The tobacco gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rovetto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 it was closed and dismantled the spectacular Duke Gar­dens near Princeton University. They were created by the famous heiress Doris Duke, in honor of her father, James Buchanan Duke. This last gentleman caused 100-million deaths during the 20th century. The gardens mentioned demonstrated, perhaps trivially, what was stated by philosopher Walter Benjamin: There has never been a document of culture, which is not simultaneously one of barbarism”. “Buck” Duke was the inventor of the modern cigarette. By the end of the 20th century, this astute manufacturer entered the instantly ready-to-smoke tobacco market (without having to roll in small pieces of paper or cut off the cigarette tips with the automated production of cigarettes. Without a cigarette maker like Carmen from opera by Bizet who rolled a maximum of 200 cigarettes per day, the machine he perfected with a mechanic named Bonsack produced 120,000 “cigarettes” during the same time. Thereby, rea­ching a oversupply that had to be sold – creating a demand for it. The solution was cigarette marketing and advertising. These were placed in restaurants, bars, and cigar stores; thus, making them an important part of the worker’s period of rest and dining. Although, in principle, they were associated to women of free morals (“Smo­king is a great sensual pleasure. While smoking, I a wait for the man I love …” sang Sarita Montiel in the 1950s in a stroke of clever advertising these were transformed into symbols of women’s libe­ration. Toward the late 1920s, young women were seen marching and brandishing their freedom torches, the cigarettes. During the two world wars, cigarettes were distributed to hundreds of thou­sands of soldiers as part of their daily nutritional ration. During the immediate post-war, packs of Camel and Lucky Strike were the most used Exchange currency in Europe. With all these publi­city maneuvers, Mr. Duke and his partners have caused, as we al

  15. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and...

  17. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  18. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt...

  19. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."

  20. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) §...

  2. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2...

  3. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008.a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area.On the roof of the school building stands the signboard"Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School."A slogan engraved on another board reads,"Tobacco heIps your Success."

  4. Smokeless Tobacco Education for College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia J.

    2001-01-01

    Chewing tobacco and taking snuff are common practices among college athletes. This article describes one college's smokeless tobacco education program for students athletes in the health, physical education, and recreation department. Research on the multiple-strategy intervention indicated decreases in student athletes' smokeless tobacco use and…

  5. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  6. Smokeless Tobacco: Tips on How to Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... swallow tobacco juice when they chew or dip benefit most from nicotine replacement. Find an oral substitute for smokeless tobacco that you enjoy. This may be sugarless gum, hard candy, beef jerky or sunflower seeds. Don't substitute cigarette smoking for smokeless tobacco. ...

  7. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto M Sebrie; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  8. Recommendations for Sustainable Development of Ankang Tobacco Growing Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hatao; YANG; Ke; SUN; Feng; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable development of high quality characteristic tobacco is the only path for future development of China’s tobacco industry.In combination with realities of tobacco development in Ankang tobacco growing area,this paper made analysis on factors restricting sustainable development of Ankang tobacco growing area.On the basis of actual situations,it came up with recommendations including establishing scientific basic tobacco field protection system,gradually cultivating professional tobacco farmers and strengthening tobacco technician team construction,improving scientific and technological innovation,implementing standardized technologies,improving tobacco production organization mode,and improving tobacco production security mechanism.

  9. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I;

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  10. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders. PMID:19283970

  11. Rimonabant for treating tobacco dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Steinberg

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael B Steinberg1,2, Jonathan Foulds11University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–School of Public Health, Tobacco Dependence Program, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 2University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Department of Medicine, New Brunswick, NJ, USAAbstract: Tobacco use continues to cause 5 million preventable deaths worldwide each year. Despite effective treatments being available, these are underutilized and cessation rates remain low. As tobacco use has complex physiological effects, there are multiple opportunities for novel pharmacological agents to play a role in a comprehensive treatment plan. The endocannabinoid system has been linked to the nicotine reward pathways in animal models. Rimonabant, a selective cannabinoid receptor (type 1 blocker, has been shown in some early clinical trials to have some positive effects in increasing abstinence rates of smokers attempting to stop. In addition, smokers who stop smoking with the assistance of rimonabant may gain less weight than those using placebo. However, the results from these few trials have not been entirely consistent and so its role as an aid to smoking cessation remains to be determined.Keywords: rimonabant, tobacco, smoking, cessation, medications, pharmacotherapy

  12. Comparison of pure nicotine- and smokeless tobacco extract-induced toxicities and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, D; Liu, Y S; Ercal, N; Armstrong, D W

    1999-11-01

    The toxicities and oxidative stress-inducing actions of (-)-nicotine and smokeless tobacco extract (STE), containing equivalent amounts of nicotine, were studied. Toxicities were determined by colony formation assays using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Results indicated that nicotine is less toxic than smokeless tobacco extract that contained the same amount of nicotine. The generation of reactive oxygen species, following treatment with smokeless tobacco extract and nicotine, was assessed by measurement of changes in glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. CHO cells (5 x 10(5) cells/5 ml media) were incubated with 4, 0.8, and 0.08 mg of nicotine and STE containing the same amounts of nicotine. All preparations of smokeless tobacco extract significantly decreased GSH levels and increased MDA generation. However, 0.08 mg of nicotine treatment did not result in a significant change in GSH level, and only 4 mg of nicotine were sufficient to increase MDA generation. Addition of free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and an intracellular GSH precursor, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), replenished the GSH levels in nicotine-treated cells. GSH levels in cells exposed to smokeless tobacco extract containing 4 and 0.8 mg nicotine remained significantly lower than the control with the addition of SOD and CAT. However, co-addition of NAC with smokeless tobacco extract preparations returned the GSH levels to the control level. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured in the media to establish the membrane damage following exposure to smokeless tobacco extract and nicotine. Treatment of cells with 4 mg nicotine caused a significant increase in LDH activity, which was returned to control level in the presence of the antioxidant enzymes and NAC. Smokeless tobacco extract did not change the LDH activity. http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n4p434.html

  13. How effective has tobacco tax increase been in the Gambia? A case study of tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Manneh, Yahya; Krubally, Bakary; Jobe, Baboucarr; Ouma, Ahmed E Ogwell; Tcha-Kondor, Noureiny; Blecher, Evan H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to evaluate how effective tobacco tax increase has been in increasing price of tobacco products and reducing tobacco consumption in the Gambia. In addition, it tests the hypothesis that tobacco tax revenue grows while tobacco consumption decreases as a result of tax and price increase. Setting The study is designed at the macroeconomic level to examine the import of tobacco products and revenue collected from tobacco taxation in a low-income setting. Participants The participants of this study are the government officials employed in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs (MoFEA), the Gambia and the Gambia Revenue Authority, who are in charge of planning and implementing the tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. Interventions The study includes 2 consecutive interventions in tobacco tax policy in the Gambia. The first intervention was moving the tax base for the uniform specific excise tax on cigarettes from weight to pack of cigarettes in 2013. The second intervention involved increasing the excise and the environmental tax on tobacco products in 2014. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome measures were the cost, insurance and freight value and the price of tobacco products. The secondary outcome measures included the import of tobacco products and tobacco tax revenue. Results In 2013–2014, the Gambia MoFEA raised the specific excise rate, which increased price, reduced consumption and generated significantly more government revenue from tobacco products. This is a clear evidence of the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. In addition, the Gambia has set the example of harmonising tax rates between tobacco products that reduces the substitution between tobacco products. Conclusions The Gambia presents the best practice in tobacco taxation. There is need for documenting more country-specific evidence on the win-win outcome of raising tobacco tax. PMID:27566626

  14. A membrane-bound matrix-metalloproteinase from Nicotiana tabacum cv. BY-2 is induced by bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahner Verena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant matrix metalloproteinases (MMP are conserved proteolytic enzymes found in a wide range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. Acting on the plant extracellular matrix, they play crucial roles in many aspects of plant physiology including growth, development and the response to stresses such as pathogen attack. Results We have identified the first tobacco MMP, designated NtMMP1, and have isolated the corresponding cDNA sequence from the tobacco suspension cell line BY-2. The overall domain structure of NtMMP1 is similar to known MMP sequences, although certain features suggest it may be constitutively active rather than dependent on proteolytic processing. The protein appears to be expressed in two forms with different molecular masses, both of which are enzymatically active as determined by casein zymography. Exchanging the catalytic domain of NtMMP1 with green fluorescent protein (GFP facilitated subcellular localization by confocal laser scanning microscopy, showing the protein is normally inserted into the plasma membrane. The NtMMP1 gene is expressed constitutively at a low level but can be induced by exposure to bacterial pathogens. Conclusion Our biochemical analysis of NtMMP1 together with bioinformatic data on the primary sequence indicate that NtMMP1 is a constitutively-active protease. Given its induction in response to bacterial pathogens and its localization in the plasma membrane, we propose a role in pathogen defense at the cell periphery.

  15. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. Objective : To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India′s comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Materials and Methods : Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. Results : The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco Control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. Conclusion : The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seem to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  16. Biotransformation enzyme-dependent formation of micronucleus and multinuclei in cell line V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1 by 2-nitropropane and N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong; Gao, Hai; Liu, Yungang

    2011-11-27

    V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1, a V79-derived cell line co-expressing both human CYP2E1 and SULT1A1, has been constructed and efficiently used in detection of the mutagenic activities of a number of promutagens. 2-Nitropropane (2-NP) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), both being hepatocarcinogenic to animals but inactive in standard genotoxicity assays in vitro, are activated to mutagenic metabolites by human SULT1A1 and CYP2E1, respectively. Nevertheless, little is known about the chromosomal effects of these two carcinogens. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 2-NP and NDMA on frequencies of micronucleated (F(mi)) and multinucleated cells (F(mu)) in V79-hCYP2E1-hSULT1A1 cells. The results showed induction of both F(mi) and F(mu) by 2-NP and NDMA individually, and this effect was completely suppressed by relatively specific inhibitor of SULT1A1 and CYP2E1, i.e., pentachlorophenol and 1-aminobenzotriazole, respectively. The F(mu)/F(mi) ratio in 2-NP groups was significantly higher than NDMA groups, probably indicating an aneugenic activity of 2-NP based on proposed F(mu)/F(mi) ratio as a simple index to discriminate aneugens from clastogens. The present study has established biotransformation enzyme-dependent formation of multinuclei and micronuclei induced by 2-NP and NDMA. PMID:21903177

  17. Electrical disturbance in heart by smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Aniket; Chaudhary, Gaurav; Srivastava, Rohit; Tiwari, Sunita

    2013-05-01

    Smokeless tobacco use in the form of chewed tobacco or snuff is common in various parts of the world, including India. It is well known that smokeless tobacco consumption is responsible for cancer but less is known about its role as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Nicotine, the main constituent of tobacco smoke is responsible for the elevated risk of the cardiovascular disease and sudden coronary death associated with smoking, presumably by provoking cardiac arrhythmias. This review discusses some of the acute and chronic cardiac effects of smokeless tobacco on cardiovascular disease with special reference to the electrical disturbance as well as comparing nicotine kinetics between smoking and smokeless tobacco. It would further enhance the clamor to urge people to quit all forms of tobacco consumption.

  18. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  19. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  20. The Tobacco Industry's Abuse of Scientific Evidence and Activities to Recruit Scientists During Tobacco Litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu

    2016-01-01

    South Korea's state health insurer, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), is in the process of a compensation suit against tobacco industry. The tobacco companies have habitually endeavored to ensure favorable outcomes in litigation by misusing scientific evidence or recruiting scientists to support its interests. This study analyzed strategies that tobacco companies have used during the NHIS litigation, which has been receiving world-wide attention. To understand the litigation strategies of tobacco companies, the present study reviewed the existing literature and carried out content analysis of petitions, preparatory documents, and supporting evidence submitted to the court by the NHIS and the tobacco companies during the suit. Tobacco companies misrepresented the World Health Organization (WHO) report's argument and misused scientific evidence, and removed the word "deadly" from the title of the citation. Tobacco companies submitted the research results of scientists who had worked as a consultant for the tobacco industry as evidence. Such litigation strategies employed by the tobacco companies internationally were applied similarly in Korean lawsuits. Results of tobacco litigation have a huge influence on tobacco control policies. For desirable outcomes of the suits, healthcare professionals need to pay a great deal of attention to the enormous volume of written opinions and supporting evidence that tobacco companies submit. They also need to face the fact that the companies engage in recruitment of scientists. Healthcare professionals should refuse to partner with tobacco industry, as recommended by Article 5.3 of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:26841882

  1. Tobacco advertising restrictions, price, income and tobacco consumption in OECD countries, 1960-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, M; Meads, C

    1991-10-01

    Factors affecting tobacco consumption per adult in 22 countries of the OECD between 1960 and 1986, were studied using pooled cross-section time-series analysis. The resulting log-linear model was estimated using Generalized Least Squares. The severity of tobacco advertising restrictions in each country and year was scored from published legislation and information from health agencies. Tobacco advertising restrictions have since 1973 increasingly been associated with lower tobacco consumption. Lower consumption levels were also associated with higher real tobacco prices, and with increased female labour force participation. Higher levels of consumption were associated with higher per capita real income and with a larger fraction of tobacco consumed as manufactured cigarettes. The model explains 99.5% of the variance in the average annual level of tobacco consumption across these countries. Ten-fold differences in purchasing power for tobacco products were found across the countries and years studied. In all countries tobacco products became more affordable between 1960 and 1986. In 1986 either a 36% inflation-indexed increase in real tobacco prices, or legislation to end tobacco promotion in those countries without a total ban, would have lowered average consumption by 6.8% and both together, by 13.5%. Across the OECD, if in 1986 all governments had raised tobacco product prices relative to income to Irish levels, and had banned all tobacco promotion, tobacco products consumption per adult would have fallen by 40% in that year. PMID:1751850

  2. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulajić; Janoš Berenji; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2006-01-01

    Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...

  3. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. Toxic chemicals have also been identified in roadside TPW. With as much as two-thirds of all smoked cigarettes (numbering in the trillions globally) being discarded into the environment each year, it is critical to consider the potential toxicity and remediation of these waste products. This article reviews reports on the toxicity of TPW and recommends several policy approaches to mitigation of this ubiquitous environmental blight.

  4. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-05-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products).

  5. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  6. Ending tobacco-caused mortality and morbidity: the case for performance standards for tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2013-01-01

    The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide us with powerful tools to reduce the death and disease caused by the use of tobacco products. One tool that can contribute substantially toward this goal is the authority to establish performance standards for tobacco products. Conjointly with reducing levels of nicotine in cigarettes, performance and quality control standards need to be established for non-combusted tobacco products. Performance standards and incentives should be provided so that tobacco companies are compelled to manufacture and market products with very low or almost non-existent toxicity (eg, nicotine-only products). PMID:23591505

  7. A LIM Domain Protein from Tobacco Involved in Actin-Bundling and Histone Gene Transcription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danièle Moes; Sabrina Gatti; Céline Hoffmann; Monika Dieterle; Flora Moreau; Katrin Neumann; Marc Schumacher

    2013-01-01

    The two LIM domain-containing proteins from plants (LIMs) typically exhibit a dual cytoplasmic-nuclear distribution,suggesting that,in addition to their previously described roles in actin cytoskeleton organization,they participate in nuclear processes.Using a south-western blot-based screen aimed at identifying factors that bind to plant histone gene promoters,we isolated a positive clone containing the tobacco LIM protein WLIM2 (NtWLIM2) cDNA.Using both green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion-and immunology-based strategies,we provide clear evidence that NtWLIM2 localizes to the actin cytoskeleton,the nucleus,and the nucleolus.Interestingly,the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton by latrunculin B significantly increases NtWLIM2 nuclear fraction,pinpointing a possible novel cytoskeletal-nuclear crosstalk.Biochemical and electron microscopy experiments reveal the ability of NtWLIM2 to directly bind to actin filaments and to crosslink the latter into thick actin bundles.Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that NtWLIM2 specifically binds to the conserved octameric cis-elements (Oct) of the Arabidopsis histone H4A748 gene promoter and that this binding largely relies on both LIM domains.Importantly,reporter-based experiments conducted in Arabidopsis and tobacco protoplasts confirm the ability of NtWLIM2 to bind to and activate the H4A748 gene promoter in live cells.Expression studies indicate the constitutive presence of NtWLIM2 mRNA and NtWLIM2 protein during tobacco BY-2 cell proliferation and cell cycle progression,suggesting a role of NtWLIM2 in the activation of basal histone gene expression.Interestingly,both live cell and in vitro data support NtWLIM2 di/oligomerization.We propose that NtWLIM2 functions as an actin-stabilizing protein,which,upon cytoskeleton remodeling,shuttles to the nucleus in order to modify gene expression.

  8. Regular black tea habit could reduce tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in oral mucosa of normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Sur, Subhayan; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Das, Sukta; Panda, Chinmay Kumar

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco and tea habit are very common in world wide. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of regular drinking of black tea on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in buccal cells of normal subjects with or without tobacco habit. Expression of ROS associated proteins IκB, NF-κB as well as DNA repair associated proteins p53, MLH1 were also analyzed. Exfoliated buccal cells were collected from 308 healthy individuals and classified according to age, tobacco and tea habits. In all age groups, comparatively high ROS level and significantly high DNA damage frequency were seen in individuals with tobacco habit than the subjects without tea and tobacco habits. Tea habit effectively lowered ROS level and restrict DNA damage in tobacco users irrespective of ages. The DNA damage seen in the subjects was not associated with apoptosis. Moreover, tea habit effectively lowered the expression of IκB, NF-κB, p53 and MLH1 in tobacco users in all age groups. It seems that regular black tea habit could have anti-genotoxic effect as revealed by reduced tobacco associated ROS generation and DNA damage in buccal cells.

  9. Transient expression assays in tobacco protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bossche, Robin; Demedts, Brecht; Vanderhaeghen, Rudy; Goossens, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The sequence information generated through genome and transcriptome analysis from plant tissues has reached unprecedented sizes. Sequence homology-based annotations may provide hints for the possible function and roles of particular plant genes, but the functional annotation remains nonexistent or incomplete for many of them. To discover gene functions, transient expression assays are a valuable tool because they can be done more rapidly and at a higher scale than generating stably transformed tissues. Here, we describe a transient expression assay in protoplasts derived from suspension cells of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the study of the transactivation capacities of transcription factors. To enhance throughput and reproducibility, this method can be automated, allowing medium-throughput screening of interactions between large compendia of potential transcription factors and gene promoters.

  10. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L C Somatunga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT use among the youth and adolescents is a cause for concern in Sri Lanka. There were evidences of diverse benign, premalignant, and malignant oral diseases due to smokeless tobacco use in the country. The level of awareness about health risks related to the consumption of smokeless tobacco products was low, particularly among the people with low socio-economic status. In Sri Lanka various forms of smokeless tobacco products, some of them imported, are used. At the national level, 15.8% used smokeless tobacco products and its use is three-fold higher among men compared to women. Betel quid is by far the traditional form in which tobacco is a general component. Other manufactured tobacco products include pan parag/pan masala, Mawa, Red tooth powder, Khaini, tobacco powder, and Zarda. Some 8.6% of the youth are current users of smokeless tobacco. There are studies demonstrating the harmful effects of smokeless tobacco use, especially on the oral mucosa, however, the level of awareness of this aspect is low. The highest mean expenditure on betel quid alone in rural areas for those earning Rs. 5,000/month was Rs. 952. The core issue is the easy availability of these products. To combat the smokeless tobacco problem, public health programs need to be intensified and targeted to vulnerable younger age groups. Another vital approach should be to levy higher taxation.

  11. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactant are the...

  12. The Pulmonary Surfactant: Impact of Tobacco Smoke and Related Compounds on Surfactant and Lung Development

    OpenAIRE

    Scott J Elliott

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Cigarette smoking, one of the most pervasive habits in society, presents many well established health risks. While lung cancer is probably the most common and well documented disease associated with tobacco exposure, it is becoming clear from recent research that many other diseases are causally related to smoking. Whether from direct smoking or inhaling environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), termed secondhand smoke, the cells of the respiratory tissues and the lining pulmonary surfactan...

  13. Attempts to undermine tobacco control: tobacco industry "youth smoking prevention" programs to undermine meaningful tobacco control in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses "youth smoking prevention" programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called "social reports," media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted "youth smoking prevention" programs as part of their "Corporate Social Responsibility" campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, mos...

  14. Young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging: a comparison of EU Tobacco Products Directive & Ireland's Standardisation of Tobacco Act

    OpenAIRE

    Babineau, Kate; Clancy, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging according to two current pieces of legislation: The EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) and Ireland's Public Health (Standardisation of Tobacco Products) Act. Design Within-subject experimental cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of secondary school students. School-based pen and paper survey. Setting 27 secondary schools across Ireland, randomly stratified for size, geographic location, gender, religious affi...

  15. Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, J

    1999-01-01

    One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death s...

  16. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco...

  17. 7 CFR 29.65 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.65 Section 29.65... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Permissive Inspection § 29.65 Accessibility of tobacco. All tobacco... characteristics or for drawing of samples. In the case of tobacco in packages, the coverings shall be removed...

  18. Functional and metabolic properties of alveolar macrophages in response to the gas phase of tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drath, D.B.; Shorey, J.M.; Huber, G.L.

    1981-10-01

    The effect of whole tobacco smoke and the gas phase of tobacco smoke on the metabolism and phagocytic ability of alveolar macrophages was monitored over a 30-day exposure period. It was demonstrated that both the gas phase and whole tobacco smoke induced a weight loss in exposed rats. Alveolar macrophage oxygen consumption was markedly increased by both exposure regimens. Superoxide generation was not affected by whole tobacco smoke exposure but was increased in response to the filtered gas phase. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was not altered by either treatment. When metabolic alterations were seen in response to the separate exposures, they were seen only after a phagocytic challenge to the macrophage and not when the cell was unchallenged. Neither whole tobacco smoke nor the gas phase had any significant effect on the ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize a viable challenge of Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that many of the metabolic and functional effects of tobacco smoke on alveolar macrophages can be attributed to the gas-phase component of whole tobacco smoke.

  19. Functional and metabolic properties of alveolar macrophages in response to the gas phase of tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drath, D B; Shorey, J M; Huber, G L

    1981-10-01

    The effect of whole tobacco smoke and the gas phase of tobacco smoke on the metabolism and phagocytic ability of alveolar macrophages was monitored over a 30-day exposure period. It was demonstrated that both the gas phase and whole tobacco smoke induced a weight loss in exposed rats. Alveolar macrophage oxygen consumption was markedly increased by both exposure regimens. Superoxide generation was not affected by whole tobacco smoke exposure but was increased in response to the filtered gas phase. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was not altered by either treatment. When metabolic alterations were seen in response to the separate exposures, they were seen only after a phagocytic challenge to the macrophage and not when the cell was unchallenged. Neither whole tobacco smoke nor the gas phase had any significant effect on the ability of alveolar macrophages to phagocytize a viable challenge of Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that many of the metabolic and functional effects of tobacco smoke on alveolar macrophages can be attributed to the gas-phase component of whole tobacco smoke. PMID:6271676

  20. 水稻小G蛋白OsRab5b的亚细胞定位研究%Subcellular Localization of Rice Small G Protein OsRab5b in BY-2 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵军丽; 龙跃生; 徐增富

    2015-01-01

    旨在研究水稻OsRab5b亚细胞定位及第二位甘氨酸在蛋白定位中的作用。利用药物、细胞器标记物和示踪染料处理OsRab5b-GFP与OsRab5b(Gly2Ala)-GFP的转基因BY-2细胞,然后用激光共聚焦显微镜观察。结果表明,OsRab5b-GFP转基因细胞呈现出大量的分散点状结构和少量细胞质弥散信号;wortmannin处理可以使OsRab5b-GFP标记的点状结构膨胀成小的环状结构;采用100μg/mL布雷菲德菌素A(BFA)处理可使OsRab5b-GFP标记的结构聚集。大部分的OsRab5b-GFP信号都可以与前液泡区标记蛋白VSRAt-1共定位。在内吞示踪染料FM4-64摄取的第60 min,OsRab5b-GFP标记的结构大部分被FM4-64标记。突变体OsRab5b(Gly2Ala)-GFP弥散分布于细胞核和细胞质内,而且不受wortmannin或BFA药物处理的影响。OsRab5b定位于BY-2细胞的前液泡区,Gly2在蛋白准确定位方面发挥重要作用。%To investigate the subcellular localization of rice OsRab5b and the Gly2 role in the protein subcellular localization. OsRab5b-GFP and OsRab5b(Gly2Ala)-GFP plasmids were transformed into BY-2 cells. The laser confocal microscope was employed to observe the transgenic cells treated with drugs, a marker protein VSRAt-1 or an endocytosis tracer dye FM4-64. Results showed Punctuate and diffuse signals were observed in the OsRab5b-GFP transgenic cells. Wortmannin at a concentration of 16.5μmol/L led to the change of the OsRab5b-GFP marked organelles into small vacuoles. The signals of OsRab5b-GFP were aggregated after the treatment of Brefeldin A(BFA)at a concentration of 100μg/mL, but not at 10μg/mL. Most of the OsRab5b-GFP positive signals colocalized with the VSRAt-1 positive organelles in the cells with and without wortmannin or BFA treatment. Additionally, most of the OsRab5b-GFP marked organelles colocalized with the endosomal marker FM4-64 after 60-min incubation. The diffuse signals of the mutation protein OsRab5b(Gly2Ala)-GFP were

  1. The tobacco industry's accounts of refining indirect tobacco advertising in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Assunta, M; S. Chapman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore tobacco industry accounts of its use of indirect tobacco advertising and trademark diversification (TMD) in Malaysia, a nation with a reputation for having an abundance of such advertising.

  2. Proteins synthesized in tobacco mosaic virus infected protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author deals with research on the multiplication of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaf cell protoplasts. An attempt is made to answer three questions: (1) Which proteins are synthesized in TMV infected protoplasts as a result of TMV multiplication. (2) Which of the synthesized proteins are made under the direction of the TMV genome and, if any, which of the proteins are host specific. (3) In which functions are these proteins involved. (Auth.)

  3. The impact of local U.S. tobacco policies on youth tobacco use: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    FRIEND, KAREN B.; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the leading preventable cause of premature death in the United States, killing over 430,000 people annually. Tobacco initiation and use among youth remains a significant public health concern. Despite declines in U.S. youth tobacco use in recent years, state and national survey results are still cause for alarm. Although traditional school-based curricular programs are the most common strategy to prevent or reduce youth tobacco use, their effectiveness may be limit...

  4. Retailers' knowledge of tobacco harm reduction following the introduction of a new brand of smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorio Francis; Rosenberg Zale; Heavner Karyn K; Phillips Carl V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tobacco retailers are potential public health partners for tobacco harm reduction (THR). THR is the substitution of highly reduced-risk nicotine products, such as smokeless tobacco (ST) or pharmaceutical nicotine, for cigarettes. The introduction of a Swedish-style ST product, du Maurier snus (dMS) (Imperial Tobacco Canada Limited), which was marketed as a THR product, provided a unique opportunity to assess retailers' knowledge. This study examined retailers' knowledge of...

  5. Irreconcilable Conflict: The Tobacco Industry and the Public Health Challenge of Tobacco Use

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Crystal E.; Kyriss, Thomas; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Up to half of tobacco users will die of cancer, lung disease, heart disease, stroke, or another tobacco-related disease. Cigarettes and other tobacco products cause disease because they expose their users to nicotine and numerous other toxic chemicals. Tobacco companies have been working to develop a “safe” cigarette for more than half a century. Initially, their attention focused on cigarettes that produced lower tar and nicotine yields in machine-smoking tests. T...

  6. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nargis, N; AKMG Hussain; Fong, G T

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi) and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul) using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand...

  7. Child labour in tobacco production: children's experiences and tobacco companies' corporate social responsibility initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Liwander, Anna M.

    2009-01-01

    An estimated 78,000 children are working under hazardous conditions in tobacco production in Malawi. Without access to protective clothing or cleaning facilities, these children are suffering from the effects of pesticides, fertilizers and nicotine whilst working on tobacco farms for 12 hours a day. Two of the main multinational tobacco companies with production interests in Malawi, British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International, have responded to the public demand for ethical opera...

  8. Fatal Deception: The tobacco industry's "new" global standards for tobacco marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Saloojee, Yussuf; Hammond, Ross

    2001-01-01

    This report examines the proposed global standards for tobacco marketing and assesses whether it will lead to the responsible marketing of tobacco products. It concludes that the proposed measures will not lead to any substantive changes in current tobacco advertising practices and will not protect children from tobacco marketing. The report recommends that governments should reject the industry’s overtures, and instead rapidly implement past World Health Assembly resolutions on toba...

  9. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry S; Chaudhry K

    2007-01-01

    Background : The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. Objective : To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India′s comprehensive...

  10. Quality management in production of tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Miceski, Trajko; Smokvoski, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Improvement of quality management in tobacco industry should be a continuous process if we want to keep up with the latest trends in the world. A starting point in improvement of QM is to introduce the international quality standards ISO-9000. This will help to maintain the current state and to follow the technological development, technical innovations and changes in the market. In addition, international standards specific to this branch (tobacco and tobacco products) must be also con...

  11. Smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    L C Somatunga; D N Sinha; P Sumanasekera; K Galapatti; S Rinchen; A Kahandaliyanage; Mehta, F. R.; N L Jayasuriya-Dissanayake

    2012-01-01

    To comprehensively review the issues of smokeless tobacco use in Sri Lanka . This review paper is based on a variety of sources including Medline, WHO documents, Ministry of Health and Nutrition, Colombo and from other sources. Results: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use in Sri Lanka has been reported high, especially among rural and disadvantaged groups. Different smokeless tobacco products were not only widely available but also very affordable. An increasing popularity of SLT us...

  12. President Clinton and the American tobacco Industry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A number of facts spurred President Clinton to make a major confrontation with the American tobacco industry. Being in need of funding for his health care plan, Clinton proposed a tax on cigarettes, a move that immediately set the president on a collision course with tobacco firms. Contact with health groups during the preparation of the plan also called Clinton’s attention to health risks in connection with smoking. The president was also encouraged by revelations that tobacco companies had ...

  13. Taxation of smokeless tobacco in India

    OpenAIRE

    S K Rout; Arora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of fiscal policy, especially taxation, though has been proved to be an effective instrument of tobacco control, its application is limited in India due to several reasons. This paper examines the tax structure, price and affordability of SLT products in order to provide evidence on how to strengthen the role of fiscal policy in tobacco control. Method: Secondary data on tax structure and revenue from tobacco products were collected from the Ministry of Finance, Government...

  14. Tobacco and the European common agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, L; Raw, M

    1991-10-01

    The common agricultural policy of the European Community subsidizes tobacco production to the tune of 1,300 million ecu a year (US$ 1,500 million, UK pounds 900 million). This amounts to 2,500 ecu ($3,100, pounds 1,700) per minute, and is more in one year than the total amount spent on tobacco subsidies by the US in the last 50 years. The purpose of this policy was to maintain farmers' incomes and adapt community production to demand. Demand for the dark tobaccos which dominate EC production has fallen, while demand for light flue cured tobacco like Virginia has risen. A complex system of production subsidies and quotas was intended to discourage production of the dark tobaccos, for which there is virtually no market, and lead to more Virginia production. The policy has failed. Expenditure has spiralled out of control, production of unmarketable tobacco varieties has risen enormously, and the EC is the world's largest importer of raw tobacco. As a result tobacco is being bought by the community for intervention storage and surpluses of the dark high tar varieties are being 'exported' to eastern Europe and north Africa at giveaway prices. There has been no effective monitoring or control of this policy. This paper explains how this has happened and argues that, in view of the health risks attached to tobacco, these subsidies should be abolished.

  15. Teenagers' Use of Tobacco and Their Perceptions of Tobacco Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Hannah J.; Kulik, Keri S.; Klingaman, Linda; Deutschlander, Sharon; Black, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use leads to more deaths each year than any other single factor. This research examined teenagers' perceptions of anti-tobacco messages to determine which campaigns and educational approaches were most effective in preventing tobacco use among youth. Methods: Students from five rural high schools in western Pennsylvania were…

  16. Tobacco Company Strategies to Undermine Tobacco Control Activities at the World Health Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Committee of Experts on Tobacco Industry Documents, World Health Organization

    2000-01-01

    Evidence from tobacco industry documents reveals that tobacco companies have operated for many years with the deliberate purpose of subverting the efforts of the World Health Organization (WHO) to control tobacco use. The attempted subversion has been elaborate, well financed, sophisticated, and usually invisible.

  17. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  18. Tobacco and Pregnancy: Overview of exposures and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This opening paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms...

  19. DL-alpha-difluoromethyl[3,4-3H]arginine metabolism in tobacco and mammalian cells. Inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity after arginase-mediated hydrolysis of DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine to DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, R D; Bitonti, A J; McCann, P P; Feirer, R P

    1988-10-01

    DL-alpha-Difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) is an enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) in vitro. DFMA has also been shown to inhibit ADC activities in a variety of plants and bacteria in vivo. However, we questioned the specificity of this inhibitor for ADC in tobacco ovary tissues, since ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity was strongly inhibited as well. We now show that [3,4-3H]DFMA is metabolized to DL-alpha-difluoromethyl[3,4-3H]ornithine [( 3,4-3H]DFMO), the analogous mechanism-based inhibitor of ODC, by tobacco tissues in vivo. Both tobacco and mammalian (mouse, bovine) arginases (EC 3.5.3.1) hydrolyse DFMA to DFMO in vitro, suggesting a role for this enzyme in mediating the indirect inhibition of ODC by DFMA in tobacco. These results suggest that DFMA may have other effects, in addition to the inhibition of ADC, in tissues containing high arginase activities. The recent development of potent agmatine-based ADC inhibitors should permit selective inhibition of ADC, rather than ODC, in such tissues, since agmatine is not a substrate for arginase.

  20. Evaluation of micronuclei in tobacco users: A study in Punjabi population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanta Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of micronuclei in exfoliated cells is a promising tool for the study of epithelial carcinogens and can be used to detect chromosome breakage or mitotic interference, thought to be relevant to carcinogenesis. Aim: The present study aimed to detect micronuclei in exfoliated oral mucosal cells in individuals using various tobacco forms from the last 5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 healthy male subjects (25 smokeless tobacco users, 25 smokers, and 25 non-tobacco users were selected for the study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa and fixed with 95% alcohol. All the cytologic smears were stained by Papanicolaou technique. From each slide, ~1000 cells were examined under the 400× magnification and where micronucleated (MN cells were located, they were examined under the 1000× magnification. Result: MN cells were found to be significantly higher in smokeless tobacco users than in smokers and controls. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between increased micronucleus frequency and tobacco-using habits. So micronucleus assay can be used as a biomarker of genotoxicity.

  1. Use of tobacco tax stamps to prevent and reduce illicit tobacco trade--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie; DeLong, Hillary; Gourdet, Camille; Chaloupka, Frank; Edwards, Sarah Matthes; Xu, Xin; Promoff, Gabbi

    2015-05-29

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Increasing the unit price on tobacco products is the most effective tobacco prevention and control measure. Illicit tobacco trade (illicit trade) undermines high tobacco prices by providing tobacco users with cheaper-priced alternatives. In the United States, illicit trade primarily occurs when cigarettes are bought from states, jurisdictions, and federal reservation land with lower or no excise taxes, and sold in jurisdictions with higher taxes. Applying tax stamps to tobacco products, which provides documentation that taxes have been paid, is an important tool to combat illicit trade. Comprehensive tax stamping policy, which includes using digital, encrypted ("high-tech") stamps, applying stamps to all tobacco products, and working with tribes on stamping agreements, can further prevent and reduce illicit trade. This report describes state laws governing tax stamps on cigarettes, little cigars (cigarette-sized cigars), roll-your-own tobacco (RYOT), and tribal tobacco sales across the United States as of January 1, 2014, and assesses the extent of comprehensive tobacco tax stamping in the United States. Forty-four states (including the District of Columbia [DC]) applied traditional paper ("low-tech") tax stamps to cigarettes, whereas four authorized more effective high-tech stamps. Six states explicitly required stamps on other tobacco products (i.e., tobacco products other than cigarettes), and in approximately one third of states with tribal lands, tribes required tax stamping to address illicit purchases by nonmembers. No U.S. state had a comprehensive approach to tobacco tax stamping. Enhancing tobacco tax stamping across the country might further prevent and reduce illicit trade in the United States. PMID:26020136

  2. The role of tobacco advertising and promotion: themes employed in litigation by tobacco industry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Marvin E; Davis, Ronald M; O'Keefe, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To identify key themes related to tobacco advertising and promotion in testimony provided by tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses in tobacco litigation, and to present countervailing evidence and arguments. Methods Themes in industry testimony were identified by review of transcripts of testimony in the Tobacco Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (http://tobaccodocuments.org/datta) from a sample of defence witnesses, including three academic expert witnesses, six senior executives of tobacco companies, and one industry advertising consultant. Counterarguments to the themes embodied in defence testimony were based on information from peer‐reviewed literature, advertising trade publications, government reports, tobacco industry documents, and testimony provided by expert witnesses testifying for plaintiffs. Results Five major themes employed by defence witnesses were identified: (1) tobacco advertising has a relatively weak “share of voice” in the marketing environment and is a weak force in affecting smoking behaviour; (2) tobacco advertising and promotion do not create new smokers, expand markets, or increase total tobacco consumption; (3) the tobacco industry does not target, study, or track youth smoking; (4) tobacco advertising and promotion do not cause smoking initiation by youth; and (5) tobacco companies and the industry adhere closely to relevant laws, regulations, and industry voluntary codes. Substantial evidence exists in rebuttal to these arguments. Conclusions Tobacco industry‐affiliated witnesses have marshalled many arguments to deny the adverse effects of tobacco marketing activities and to portray tobacco companies as responsible corporate citizens. Effective rebuttals to these arguments exist, and plaintiffs' attorneys have, with varying degrees of success, presented them to judges and juries. PMID:17130625

  3. The tobacco epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A

    2007-12-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes and exposure to tobacco smoke pollution, has caused the premature deaths of more than 14 million Americans since 1964. The major diseases caused by tobacco and tobacco smoke include lung cancer, other cancers, coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, pregnancy complications, and respiratory diseases in children. Per capita consumption of various tobacco products has declined substantially since 1950, with current consumption at approximately 3.7 pounds per capita. Whereas approximately two in five adults smoked cigarettes in 1965, approximately one in five did so in 2005. Several factors can influence initiation and cessation, including product factors (e.g., ventilation holes, additives, and flavorings); host factors (intention to use, level of dependence); tobacco company activities (e.g., marketing strategies, efforts to undermine public health activities); and environmental factors (e.g., peer and parental smoking, smoke-free air laws and policies). Efforts to prevent initiation, promote quitting, and protect nonsmokers should reduce exposure to pro-tobacco marketing and increase (1) the price of tobacco products, (2) protection from tobacco smoke pollution, (3) effective mass media strategies, (4) provision of effective cessation support, (5) effective regulation, and (6) litigation that holds the industry responsible for its misdeeds. Adequate implementation of effective tobacco-control strategies and useful scientific advances will help to ensure that per capita consumption decreases to the lowest level possible. The economic benefits of tobacco in our society are replaceable and they pale in comparison to the extent of human life lost. PMID:18021906

  4. What Does the “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” Mean to Tobacco Growers?

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Kelly; Starnes, Jane H.; Feleke, Shiferaw T.

    2010-01-01

    The “Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act” was signed into law on June 22, 2009. The bill grants the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) an authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of tobacco products. Tobacco leaf is not subject to the regulation. As a result, it is not apparent what it does mean to tobacco growers. However, since the demand for tobacco is in large part determined by the demand for cigarettes, a change in demand for cigarettes due to the FDA ...

  5. Why the World Will Never Be Tobacco-Free: Reframing "Tobacco Control" Into a Traditional Tobacco Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Gina; Hernandez, Carol; Hoffer, Donna; Preuss, Kathleen Starlight; Tibbetts-Barto, Linda; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Scott, Sheryl

    2016-07-01

    As successes mount in reducing commercial tobacco use, an alarming disparity has taken shape in Minnesota. Recent studies revealed that overall smoking rates have dropped to 14%, whereas American Indians' rates remain higher than 50%. With support from ClearWay Minnesota, the organization created from the state's tobacco settlement, advocates working within sovereign tribal governments to create smoke-free policies came together to discuss effective strategies within tribal Nations. We discussed the history behind mainstream tobacco control's failure to resonate with Native audiences and the need to reframe the movement to a goal of restoring traditional tobacco practices. We share our insights on this critical area for achieving health equity and provide recommendations for tribes, non-Indian advocates, and funders, with a plea for tribal inclusion in commercial tobacco "end-game" strategies. PMID:27077360

  6. Eliminating child labour in Malawi: a British American Tobacco corporate responsibility project to sidestep tobacco labour exploitation

    OpenAIRE

    Otañez, M G; Muggli, M. E.; Hurt, R D; Glantz, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine British American Tobacco and other tobacco industry support of the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation. DESIGN: Analyses of internal tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data. RESULTS: British American Tobacco co-founded the Eliminating Child Labour in Tobacco Growing Foundation (ECLT) in October 2000 and launched its pilot project in Malawi. ECLT's initial projects were budgeted at US2.3 million dollars over four years. Labour unions and leaf ...

  7. Tobacco, Microbes, and Carcinogens: Correlation Between Tobacco Cure Conditions, Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content, and Cured Leaf Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Audrey D; Fisher, Colin; Jack, Anne; Moe, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco-specific nitrosamines are carcinogenic N-nitrosamine compounds present at very low levels in freshly harvested tobacco leaves that accumulate during leaf curing. Formation of N-nitrosamine compounds is associated with high nitrate levels in the leaf at harvest, and nitrate is presumed to be the source from which the N-nitrosation species originates. More specifically, nitrite is considered to be a direct precursor, and nitrite is linked with N-nitrosation in many environmental matrices where it occurs via microbial nitrate reduction. Here, we initiate work exploring the role of leaf microbial communities in formation of tobacco-specific nitrosamines. Leaves from burley tobacco line TN90H were air cured under various temperature and relative humidity levels, and 22 cured tobacco samples were analyzed for their microbial communities and leaf chemistry. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite, and total tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels revealed a strong positive correlation between the three variables, as well as a strong positive correlation with increasing relative humidity during cure conditions. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to assess microbial communities in each of the samples. In most samples, Proteobacteria predominated at the phylum level, accounting for >90 % of the OTUs. However, a distinct shift was noted among members of the high tobacco-specific nitrosamine group, with increases in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Several OTUs were identified that correlate strongly (positive and negative) with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Copy number of bacterial nitrate reductase genes, obtained using quantitative PCR, did not correlate strongly with tobacco-specific nitrosamine content. Incomplete denitrification is potentially implicated in tobacco-specific nitrosamine levels. PMID:27023797

  8. Tobacco Etch Virus protease: A shortcut across biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaratto, Francesca; Burrone, Oscar R; Petris, Gianluca

    2016-08-10

    About thirty years ago, studies on the RNA genome of Tobacco Etch Virus revealed the presence of an efficient and specific protease, called Tobacco Etch Virus protease (TEVp), that was part of the Nuclear Inclusion a (NIa) enzyme. TEVp is an efficient and specific protease of 27kDa that has become a valuable biotechnological tool. Nowadays TEVp is a unique endopeptidase largely exploited in biotechnology from industrial applications to in vitro and in vivo cellular studies. A number of TEVp mutants with different rate of cleavage, stability and specificity have been reported. Similarly, a panel of different target cleavage sites, derived from the canonical ENLYFQ-G/S site, has been established. In this review we describe these aspects of TEVp and some of its multiple applications. A particular focus is on the use and molecular biology of TEVp in living cells and organisms.

  9. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF PERCHLORATE BY TOBACCO PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have shown that tobacco plants are tolerant of perchlorate and will accumulate perchlorate in the plant tissues. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of tobacco plants in phytoremediation, a technology that employs plants to degrade,...

  10. Tobacco Use and Health in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Judith S.; Brook, David W.; Zhang, Chenshu; Cohen, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study, the authors investigated the association between lifetime tobacco use and subsequent health problems by age 30. The authors interviewed a community group of 749 participants from upstate New York at mean ages of 14, 16, 22, and 27 years. Daily tobacco use during any of the time periods, as well as the number…

  11. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.

  12. Initiating Tobacco Curricula in Dental Hygiene Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D.; Fun, Kay; Madden, Theresa E.

    2006-01-01

    Two hours of tobacco instructions were incorporated into the baccalaureate dental hygiene curricula in a university in the Northwestern United States. Prior to graduation, all senior students were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire surveying attitudes and clinical skills in providing tobacco services to their clinic patients. Twenty…

  13. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health. PMID:22257526

  14. High tobacco consumption lowers body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Ulrik C; Rode, Line; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence has been found regarding the association between high tobacco consumption and body weight among smokers. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with low body weight. METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study...... with a genetic variant in CHRNA3 (rs1051730) as proxy for high tobacco consumption. The cohort consisted of 80,342 participants from the Copenhagen General Population Study, with details on body weight, smoking habits and CHRNA3 genotype, including 15,220 current smokers. RESULTS: In observational analyses, high...... tobacco consumption was associated with high body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-hip ratio. In multivariable adjusted models a 1-cigarette/day higher tobacco consumption was associated with 0.05 kg (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) higher body weight, 0.02 kg...

  15. PCR based detection of HPV 16 and 18 genotypes in normal oral mucosa of tobacco users and non-users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanshetty, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Nayak, R; Bhat, K; Somannavar, P; Babji, D

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing evidence of a causal association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Several studies have shown that HPV is associated with increased risk of oral cancer independent of exposure to tobacco and alcohol. The association is valid for HPVs 16 and 18, which generally are considered high risk types, because they have been detected in oral dysplastic lesions and cancers. We determined the baseline prevalence of HPVs 16 and 18 in normal oral mucosa of individuals with and without tobacco habit. PCR was used for DNA collected by oral smears to detect HPV 16/18 DNA in normal oral mucosa of 60 healthy individuals who were assigned to two groups of 30 subjects each. One group had a tobacco habit, the other did not. The tobacco user group comprised individuals who were tobacco chewers only. Sixty-five percent of individuals were positive for HPV 16/18 DNA, but HPV 16/18 positivity was less in individuals with tobacco habit than in those without tobacco habit. No significant association was found between the presence of HPVs and gender, age or duration of chewing habit, or between groups with and without a tobacco habit. We propose that HPVs16 and 18 commonly are present in normal oral mucosa and emphasize the importance of distinguishing clinical, subclinical and latent HPV infections when investigating HPVs and OSCC.

  16. Dual use of tobacco among Bangladeshi men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dual use of tobacco (using smoking and smokeless forms in Bangladesh is uncommon in women but common in men. Dual users are at additional risk of cancers and heart diseases compared with a single form of tobacco use. Knowledge about their socioeconomic background is necessary for planning appropriate interventions. We report here socioeconomic background of the dual users of tobacco from a nationally representative survey. Methods: The study adopted a probability proportionate to size sampling technic of divisional population stratified into urban and rural areas to recruit men aged 25 years or older from their households. A total of 4312 men were recruited. Variables included questions on 20 household assets, tobacco use and other behavioral risk factors, and measurement of body weight and height. Results: The average age of dual users was 46.7 years old compared to 43.4 and 52.3 years for smokers and smokeless tobacco users. Prevalence of "smoking only," "smokeless only" and "dual use" of tobacco was 40.6%, 15.2%, and 14.2%, respectively. Among all tobacco users, dual users constituted 20%. These dual users had lower educational achievement, rural residence, lower intake of fruit, and higher intake of alcohol. They were more undernourished as indicated by a thin body mass index compared to nonusers and smokers. Dual users were of socioeconomically deprived as measured by wealth quartiles constructed out of household assets. Conclusion: Dual use of tobacco is common in Bangladesh, and it is intimately linked with socioeconomic deprivation. Poverty reduction strategy and campaigns should address tobacco control not only tobacco in general, but its dual use in particular.

  17. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of association of smokeless tobacco and of betel quid without tobacco with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Gupta

    Full Text Available This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to critically appraised data from comparable studies leading to quantitative assessment of any independent association between use of oral smokeless tobacco in any form, of betel quid without tobacco and of areca nut with incidence of oral cancer in South Asia and the Pacific.Studies (case control and/or cohort were identified by searching Pub Med, CINAHL and Cochrane databases through June 2013 using the keywords oral cancer: chewing tobacco; smokeless tobacco; betel quid; betel quid without tobacco; areca nut; Asia, the Pacific and the reference lists of retrieved articles. A random effects model was used to compute adjusted summary OR(RE for the main effect of these habits along with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals. To quantify the impact of between-study heterogeneity on adjusted main-effect summary OR(RE, Higgins' H and I2 statistics along with their 95% uncertainty intervals were used. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to evaluate publication bias.Meta-analysis of fifteen case-control studies (4,553 cases; 8,632 controls and four cohort studies (15,342 which met our inclusion criteria showed that chewing tobacco is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of squamous-cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (adjusted main-effect summary for case- control studies OR(RE = 7.46; 95% CI = 5.86-9.50, P<0.001, (adjusted main-effect summary for cohort studies RR = 5.48; 95% CI = 2.56-11.71, P<0.001. Furthermore, meta-analysis of fifteen case control studies (4,648 cases; 7,847 controls has shown betel quid without tobacco to have an independent positive association with oral cancer, with OR = 2.82 (95% CI = 2.35-3.40, P<0.001. This is presumably due to the carcinogenicity of areca nut. There was no significant publication bias.There is convincing evidence that smokeless (aka chewing tobacco, often used as a component of betel quid, and betel quid without tobacco

  19. Over-expression of poplar transcription factor ERF76 gene confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Boru; Wang, Shengji; Li, Renhua; Jiang, Tingbo

    2016-07-01

    Ethylene response factors (ERFs) belong to a large plant-specific transcription factor family, which play a significant role in plant development and stress responses. Poplar ERF76 gene, a member of ERF TF family, can be up-regulated in response to salt stress, osmotic stress, and ABA treatment. The ERF76 protein was confirmed to be targeted preferentially in the nucleus of onion cell by particle bombardment. In order to understand the functions of ERF76 gene in salt stress response, we conducted temporal and spatial expression analysis of ERF76 gene in poplar. Then the ERF76 cDNA fragment containing an ORF was cloned from di-haploid Populus simonii×P. nigra and transferred into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method. Under salt stress, transgenic tobacco over-expressing ERF76 gene showed a significant increase in seed germination rate, plant height, root length, and fresh weight, as well as in relative water content (RWC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, and proline content, compared to control tobacco lines. In contrast, transgenic tobacco lines displayed a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, relative electrical conductivity (REC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in response to salt stress, compared to control tobacco lines. Over all, the results indicated that ERF76 gene plays a critical role in salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco. PMID:27123829

  20. EXPRESSION OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN-A IN TOBACCO LEADS TO ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms because it can be easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. As bacterial enzymes can be synthesized in tobacco, here we explore the possibility of in planta expression of staphylococcal protein-A(PA which is an antibody, an important group among biopharmaceuticals. In our study we have shown that the tobacco plants harboring PA gene could combat the crown gall infection and also effective in resisting abiotic stress conditions. Transgenic plants when subjected to interact with wild variety of Agrobacterium shows its enhanced capability to resist the gall formation. And when transgenic tobacco plants were grown in presence of 200mM NaCl and/or MG(Methylglyoxal solution, shows their increased tolerance towards salinity stress and high MG stress. So far transgenic tobacco plants are concerned, improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco may also enhance production and commercial use of this protein.

  1. The biological and clinical effects of smoking by patients with cancer and strategies to implement evidence-based tobacco cessation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Graham W; Sobus, Samantha; Gritz, Ellen R

    2014-11-01

    Tobacco use is an established risk factor for the development of several cancers; however, far less work has been done to understand the effects of continued smoking on cancer treatment outcomes, and structured tobacco cessation efforts are not well incorporated into the standard care for patients with cancer. In this Review we discuss the known biological effects of smoking on cancer cell biology and emphasise the clinical effects of continued smoking in patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Although evidence supports the need for inclusion of dedicated tobacco cessation efforts for patients with cancer, clinicians should consider the methods used to provide evidence-based tobacco cessation support and the available resources to deliver and maintain consistent tobacco cessation support. We also address the variables to consider in the design and implementation of a sustainable tobacco cessation programme. PMID:25439699

  2. Smokeless tobacco product prices and taxation in Bangladesh: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nargis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smokeless tobacco use occupies a significant portion of overall tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Yet very little is known about the effectiveness of tax and price policy in controlling the use of smokeless tobacco use in the country. Methods: The paper examines the price distribution of various smoked (cigarette, bidi and smokeless tobacco products (zarda, gul using the univariate Epanechnikov kernel density function. It estimates the own and cross price elasticity of demand for the most widely used smokeless tobacco product zarda using two-step regression analysis. The analysis is based on data from the ITC Bangladesh Wave 3 Survey which is a nationally representative cohort survey of tobacco users and nonusers conducted in in Bangladesh during 2011-12. Results: The price elasticity of lower price brands of zarda is estimated at −0.64 and of higher priced brands at −0.39, and the cross price elasticity of zarda with respect to cigarette price at 0.35. The tax increase on smokeless tobacco needs to be greater than the tax increase on smoked tobacco to bridge the wide price differential between the two types of products that currently encourages downward substitution from smoked to smokeless tobacco and discourages quitting behavior. Conclusions: This paper argues that increasing tax on smokeless tobacco simultaneously with the tax increase on smoked tobacco can have significant negative impact on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in Bangladesh. Finally, a specific excise system replacing the existing ad valorem excise tax can substantially contribute to the revenue collection performance from smokeless tobacco products.

  3. CLINOPATHOLOGICAL AND CYTOLOGICAL CHANGES IN ORAL MUCOSA OF PATIENTS HAVING TOBACCO SMOKING HABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanindra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco was introduced into Europe in the late 15th century. Portuguese traders introduced it to India in late 16th or early 17th century. Since then, tobacco use has spread with remarkable rapidity, into all sections of people. Now tobacco is used in different forms out of which some are in form of smoking like cigarette, bidi whereas some are smokeless e.g., chewing, application over the teeth & the gingiva. Among tobacco habituated Indian population, about 70% are in the smoking form.1 Passive smoking is also a significant health hazard. There is a vital role of dental practitioners in identifying individuals at risk of mucosal disease, the importance of public education about the risk factors, and the necessity for counseling patients with precancerous lesions on avoiding further risk.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To study clinico-pathological & cytological changes in oral mucosal cells of people with the habit of smoking tobacco by using exfoliative cytology and PAP stain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The oral exfoliative cytology smears are taken from 60 person (30 smoking habit & 30 control from the oral pathology department of K M Shah Dental College & Hospital. The smears are spread on the glass slide and are fixed with 95% ethyl alcohol. The slides are stained with papanicolaou stain and observed under microscope. RESULTS: The result showed that the anucleated cells (Precancerous feature are increased in patient with smoking habit as compared to control group. Anucleated cells are highest in oral sub mucous fibrosis group of patients

  4. Dental students' attitudes toward tobacco cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Patrick L; Davis, Elaine L; McCall, W D

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if level of education, gender, and tobacco history affected attitudes of dental students toward tobacco cessation counseling. A secondary objective was to examine the psychometric properties of the survey instrument. First- and fourth-year dental students at one school of dental medicine completed a survey examining attitudes toward tobacco cessation and perceived barriers to performing tobacco cessation counseling in a dental setting. Analyses were conducted to determine whether there were differences in attitudes by gender, level of education, or personal and family tobacco use. A main effect for education level was discovered. Fourth-year students were more likely than first-year students to consider the prescription of nicotine gum and transdermal patches to be within the scope and responsibility of the dental profession. No significant differences were seen with regard to gender or students' personal and family tobacco histories. Dental students were in general agreement that tobacco cessation counseling is within the responsibility of the dental profession, is within the scope of dental practice, and can be effective. Psychometric analysis revealed reliability of the survey instrument.

  5. Tobacco and the escalating global cancer burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppeltz, Richard F; Jatoi, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world. PMID:21869888

  6. Influence of tobacco type on smoke composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    Cigarette smoke quantity and composition is affected by both the physical properties and chemical nature of the tobacco. Flue-cured tobacco exhibits a greater density than does Burley which results in a larger number of standard puffs per cigarette for the former and, thus, increased per cigarette deliveries of most smoke constituents. The greater carbohydrate and polyphenolic content of flue-cured tobaccos contributes to an increased yield of acidic constituents in the smoke. The increased nitrogenous component of Burley tobacco leads to a more alkaline smoke and one enriched in oxides of nitrogen. A quantitative elucidation of the relationship between tobacco type and smoke composition from literature results is complicated by the large number of variables influencing smoke composition which are generally unspecified in the reports. Smokes from cigaretts containing straight Burley and straight Bright tobaccos are compared based on analytical results from this laboratory. With few exceptions, smoke composition is often influenced more by processing variables and agronomic practices than by general tobacco ''type.'' 6 tables.

  7. Tobacco and the Escalating Global Cancer Burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F. Oppeltz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of cancer is escalating as a result of dramatic increases in the use of tobacco in the developing world. The use of tobacco is linked to the development of a broad variety of cancers, mainly lung cancer, the single most common cancer in the world. Tobacco smoking-attributable deaths extends beyond cancer and include stroke, heart attack and COPD. Widening disparities in cancer-related mortality have shifted towards a more dramatic burden in the developing world. Appropriate interventions must be implemented to reduce tobacco use and prevent global mortality that has escalated to epidemic levels. Tobacco control policies, including public health advertisement campaigns, warning labels, adoption of smoke-free laws, comprehensive bans and tax policies are highly effective measures to control tobacco use. Clinicians and academic institutions have to be actively committed to support tobacco control initiatives. The reduction in cancer related morbidity and mortality should be viewed as a global crisis and definitive results will depend on a multilevel effort to effectively reduce the burden of cancer, particularly in underprivileged regions of the world.

  8. The implementation of health care aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Boytsov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The summarizing of the experience of medical care at the cessation of tobacco use and the treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the Russian Federation (RF as well as suggestions for their improvement are presented.For the effective implementation of health care, aimed at the cessation of tobacco use, treatment of tobacco addiction and consequences of tobacco consumption in the RF it is necessary to solve the following problems:to include doctors of all specialties in the process of medical care and treatment oftobacco addiction and consequences oftobacco consumption in the RF; to ensure effective implementation of the existing legal documents determining the procedure for providing medical aid, aimed at ending the use of tobacco, treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, greater control over their performance and quality of their implementation; to expand of the network of medical offices for cessation of tobacco consumption on the basis of existing structures in primary health care settings (including women's and children’s outpatient clinics, as well as hospitals and health resorts, their provision of personnel and equipment, introduction of group forms of work; to ensure a permanent system of training on assistance at the cessation of tobacco consumption, the treatment of tobacco dependence and consequences of tobacco consumption, including the introduction of medical assistance cycle on cessation of tobacco consumption for student training in medical schools and programs for postgraduate education of health professionals

  9. Tobacco Industry Interference in the WHO European Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Céline E J L Brassart

    2012-01-01

    WHO selected tobacco industry interference as the theme of the 2012 World No Tobacco Day, recognizing the serious danger the tobacco industry poses to public health and the need to expose and counter the industry’s increasing attempts to undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control...

  10. 7 CFR 29.75 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.75 Section 29.75... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75 Accessibility of tobacco. (a) All tobacco subject to mandatory inspection shall be made readily accessible for inspection. (b)(1)...

  11. Health Implications of Smokeless Tobacco Use. Volume 6, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD. Office of Medical Applications of Research.

    Concerned with the increase in use of chewing tobacco and snuff, this brochure looks at the health risks of using smokeless tobacco. It presents five questions about smokeless tobacco use and provides answers to the questions developed by a consensus development conference on health implications of smokeless tobacco use convened by the National…

  12. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thavarajah Rooban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods : We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result : The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion : The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries.

  13. Tobacco Product Use Among Sexual Minority Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Tessman, Greta K.; King, Brian A.; Alexander, Tesfa; Zhao, Xiaoquan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A growing body of evidence reveals higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority populations relative to non-minority (“straight”) populations. This study seeks to more fully characterize this disparity by examining tobacco use by distinct sexual identities and gender to better understand patterns of: (1) cigarette smoking and smoking history; and (2) use of other tobacco products including cigars, pipes, hookah, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco. Methods Data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a random-digit dialed landline and cellular telephone survey of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, were analyzed in 2014. A sexual minority category was created by combining gay, lesbian, and bisexual responses, along with those who selected an option for other non-heterosexual identities. Results Smoking prevalence was higher among sexual minority adults (27.4%) than straight adults (17.3%). Cigarette smoking was particularly high among bisexual women (36.0%). Sexual minority women started smoking and transitioned to daily smoking earlier than their straight peers. Use of other tobacco products was higher among sexual minority women: prevalence of e-cigarette (12.4%), hookah (10.3%), and cigar use (7.2%) was more than triple that of their straight female peers (3.4%, 2.5%, and 1.3%, respectively). Likewise, prevalence of sexual minority men’s e-cigarette (7.9%) and hookah (12.8%) use exceeded that of straight men (4.7% and 4.5%, respectively). Conclusions Tobacco use is significantly higher among sexual minority than straight adults, particularly among sexual minority women. These findings underscore the importance of tobacco control efforts designed to reach sexual minorities and highlight the heterogeneity of tobacco use within this population. PMID:26526162

  14. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged.

  15. Countermeasures for Tobacco Branding and Industrial Development in Enshi Prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangzhong; DAI

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural branding is an important mark of agricultural modernization. Enshi Prefecture of Hubei Province is reputed as " Tobacco Kingdom" and " World Capital of Selenium". It is also the key production area of flue-cured tobacco,burley tobacco and selenium-enriched tobacco. The tobacco industry has become a pillar industry of Enshi Prefecture. This paper firstly introduces tobacco resource and industry of Enshi Prefecture. Then,it analyzes countermeasures for tobacco branding and industrial development. Finally,it comes up with several constructive recommendations.

  16. Epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, G A; Henningfield, J E; Tomar, S L; Escobedo, L G; Slade, J

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the epidemiology of tobacco use and dependence can be used to guide research initiatives, intervention programs, and policy decisions. Both the reduction in the prevalence of smoking among US adults and black adolescents and the decline in per capita consumption are encouraging. These changes have probably been influenced by factors operating at the individual (e.g., school-based prevention programs and cessation programs) and environmental (e.g., mass media educational strategies, the presence of smoke-free laws and policies, and the price of tobacco products) levels (for a discussion of these factors, see, e.g., refs. 2, 48, 52, 183, and 184). The lack of progress among adolescents, especially whites and males, and the high risk for experimenters of developing tobacco dependence present cause for great concern (48, 183-186). In addition to those discussed above, several areas of research can be recommended. 1. Better understanding of the clustering of tobacco use with the use of other drugs, other risk behaviors, and other psychiatric disorders could better illuminate the causal processes involved, as well as the special features of the interventions needed to prevent and treat tobacco dependence. 2. To better understand population needs, trend analyses of prevalence, initiation, and cessation should, whenever possible, incorporate standardized measures of these other risk factors. Future research should compare the effect of socioeconomic status variables on measures of smoking behavior among racial/ethnic groups in the United States. 3. For reasons that may be genetic, environmental, or both, some persons do not progress beyond initial experimentation with tobacco use (2, 48, 183, 187-192), but about one-third to one-half of those who experiment with cigarettes become regular users (48, 193, 194). Factors, both individual and environmental, that can influence the susceptibility of individuals to tobacco dependence need further attention. 4. To

  17. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given. PMID:19634530

  18. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  19. Altria means tobacco: Philip Morris's identity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2003-04-01

    Philip Morris Companies, the world's largest and most profitable tobacco seller, has changed its corporate name to The Altria Group. The company has also embarked on a plan to improve its corporate image. Examination of internal company documents reveals that these changes have been planned for over a decade and that the company expects to reap specific and substantial rewards from them. Tobacco control advocates should be alert to the threat Philip Morris's plans pose to industry focused tobacco control campaigns. Company documents also suggest what the vulnerabilities of those plans are and how advocates might best exploit them.

  20. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  1. Effect of smokeless tobacco and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens on survival of ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokko, H.; Min, P.S.; Cherrick, H.M.; Park, N.H. (Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, UCLA School of Dentistry (USA))

    1991-04-01

    Low doses of ultraviolet (UV) light, x-rays, photodynamic treatment, or aflatoxins increase the survival of UV-irradiated virus in cells. This effect is postulated to occur by enhancement of the error-prone cellular repair function, which could also be associated with oncogenic cell transformation. The present study was designed to investigate whether treatment of green monkey kidney cells with water extract of snuff (snuff extract), benzo(a)pyrene, nicotine, or tobacco-specific N'-nitrosamines would result in enhanced survival of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus (HSV). Exposure of the cells with snuff extract, benzo(a)pyrene, N'-nitrosonornicotine, or 4-(N-methyl-N'-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone resulted in an enhancement of survival of UV-irradiated HSV type 1 compared with the control whereas exposure of the cells with nicotine did not. These data indicate that the water-extractable component of snuff and tobacco-related chemical carcinogens increase the cellular repair mechanism and provides for increased survival of UV-irradiated HSV.

  2. Plant Cell-Based Recombinant Antibody Manufacturing with a 200 L Orbitally Shaken Disposable Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Rasche, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco BY-2 cells are an attractive platform for the manufacture of a variety of biopharmaceutical proteins, including antibodies. Here, we describe the scaled-up cultivation of human IgG-secreting BY-2 cells in a 200 L orbitally shaken disposable bioreactor, resulting in cell growth and recombinant protein yields that are proportionately comparable with those obtained from cultivations in 500 mL shake flasks. Furthermore, we present an efficient downstream process for antibody recovery from the viscous spent culture medium using expanded bed adsorption (EBA) chromatography. PMID:26614289

  3. Tobacco Usage and Attitude towards Tobacco Cessation among Prisoners in India – A Cross Sectional Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Samyukta; Khanagar, Sanjeev Balappa; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Kodoth, Jithesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tobacco is a highly addictive substance. Tobacco usage is considered one of the main causes responsible for the death of adults worldwide, with 4.9 million deaths occurring worldwide each year. And if the current tobacco usage patterns continue, it will cause some 10 million deaths every year by 2020. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was carried out among 566 prisoners of central prison Bangalore, who met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected using a questionnaire ...

  4. Military Line Leadership and Tobacco Control: Perspectives of Military Policy Leaders and Tobacco Control Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Poston, Walker S. C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Hoffman, Kevin M.; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Hughey, Joseph; Lando, Harry A; Winsby, Amelia; Haddock, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in policy changes, tobacco use rates are still high in the military. Little is known about the views of those who create and implement tobacco control policies within the Department of Defense. These individuals determine what policy initiatives will be developed, prioritized, and implemented. We conducted key informant interviews with 16 service-level policy leaders (PLs) and 36 installation-level tobacco control managers (TCMs). PLs and TCMs believed that line leadership vi...

  5. Global assessment of deforestation related to tobacco farming

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, H.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the global amount of forest and woodland consumed annually for curing tobacco between 1990 and 1995; to estimate tobacco's share in total deforestation; to rank tobacco-growing countries by the degree of impact of tobacco deforestation; and to indicate environmental criticality emerging from tobacco's impact on forest resources. 
DESIGN—Production of country-specific estimates of forests/woodlands needed and depleted on the basis of growing stock/increment of woody biomas...

  6. Tobacco marketing in California and implications for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Roeseler, April; Feighery, Ellen C.; Cruz, Tess Boley

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco marketing influences tobacco use initiation, maintenance of use, and it undermines comprehensive tobacco control programmes. Policies to ban the impact of tobacco marketing are most likely to be more effective if they are comprehensive, as partial bans shift marketing to non-banned forms of media. A comprehensive approach to reducing tobacco marketing includes documentation through monitoring, media and policy interventions and aggressive enforcement of existing laws. Metho...

  7. Multiple tobacco product use among US adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Soneji, Samir; Sargent, James; Tanski, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the extent to which multiple tobacco product use among adolescents and young adults falls outside current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority. Methods We conducted a web-based survey of 1596 16–26-year-olds to assess use of 11 types of tobacco products. We ascertained current (past 30 days) tobacco product use among 927 respondents who ever used tobacco. Combustible tobacco products included cigarettes, cigars (little filtered, cigarillos, premium) and ...

  8. Mass rearing of the oriental tobacco budworm for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the study is to find out a proper technique for mass rearing the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta Guenee. The oriental tobacco budworms larvae were reared with different formulation diets and kept in traditional glass test tubes or in specially-designed cell-unit devices. When the diets including vitamin C and tomato source, and the ratio of corn and soybean powder was set as 1:2, the pupae weight, moth weight, pupation, emergence, fecundity and hatchability were increased significantly. When reared in cell-units, there is no significant difference in insect compared with those in glass test tubes, but the production efficiency was much higher and the cost was lower than the latter. The results of this study provide a key technical support for the application of sterile insect technique in control of oriental tobacco budworm. (authors)

  9. Knowledge and attitude towards the health effects of tobacco and measures of tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Mohan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a major public health threat the world has ever faced. It is a risk factor for six of the eight leading causes of death in the world. Without the effective implementation of tobacco regulation policy, the risk itself cannot be minimized. The aim of this study is to provide the adolescents knowledge of the health effects of active and passive smoking, and knowledge and attitudes towards tobacco control measures. Materials and Methods: A descriptive type of study was conducted in December 2013 in one of the government school of Palpa district, one of the rural areas of the Western region. Data entry and analysis was done using SPSS 17 version. Microsoft Excel 2007 is also used for the data processing. Results: There is substantial support for the government taking measure towards tobacco control (96%. Furthermore, strong supports are there regarding ban of smoking in public places and public transport (95% followed by increasing price of tobacco products (87%, banning sales of tobacco to and by minors (82% and ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship (73%. Conclusion: The study focuses the effective implementation of the Tobacco Control and Regulation Act 2011, Nepal and health education should be provided to the adolescents with the facts and skills that will enable them to protect themselves from the harmful effects of tobacco related exposure.

  10. Tobacco and tobacco branding in films most popular in the UK from 1989 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film. PMID:20435863

  11. Can tobacco control be transformative? Reducing gender inequity and tobacco use among vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine

    2014-01-07

    Tobacco use and exposure is unequally distributed across populations and countries and among women and men. These trends and patterns reflect and cause gender and economic inequities along with negative health impacts. Despite a commitment to gender analysis in the preamble to Framework Convention on Tobacco Control there is much yet to be done to fully understand how gender operates in tobacco control. Policies, program and research in tobacco control need to not only integrate gender, but rather operationalize gender with the goal of transforming gender and social inequities in the course of tobacco control initiatives. Gender transformative tobacco control goes beyond gender sensitive efforts and challenges policy and program developers to apply gender theory in designing their initiatives, with the goal of changing negative gender and social norms and improving social, economic, health and social indicators along with tobacco reduction. This paper outlines what is needed to progress tobacco control in enhancing the status of gendered and vulnerable groups, with a view to reducing gender and social inequities due to tobacco use and exposure.

  12. Recent Tobacco Smoking is Associated with Poor HIV Medical Outcomes Among HIV-Infected Individuals in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hile, Stephen J; Feldman, Matthew B; Alexy, Emily R; Irvine, Mary K

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with adverse health effects among people living with HIV (PLWH), including a higher risk of cancer and cardiovascular problems. Further, there is evidence that PLWH are two to three times more likely to smoke than the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tobacco smoking and biomarkers of HIV disease progression, including unsuppressed viral load (viral load >200 copies/mL) and low CD4 cell count (New York City metropolitan area. In multivariate analyses controlling for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, recent tobacco smoking was independently associated with unsuppressed viral load (AOR = 1.38, CI 1.26-1.50) and low CD4 cell count (AOR = 1.12, CI 1.01-1.24). Findings suggest the importance of routine assessments of tobacco use in clinical care settings for PLWH. PMID:26837623

  13. Conveying misinformation: Top-ranked Japanese books on tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Ruth E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco control efforts in Japan have lagged other high income countries, possibly because the Japanese government partially owns Japan Tobacco, Inc. In Japan, tobacco use is still often regarded as an issue of manners rather than an issue of health. Information about tobacco is available, but may not always be accurate. We explored what information Japanese consumers might access by reading popular Japanese books about tobacco. Methods We searched Amazon.com Japan using the term "Tobacco", identifying the top 12 books by "relevance" and "bestselling." We eliminated duplicates and books not concerned with tobacco use and classified the remaining books as pro-smoking, anti-smoking, or neutral. We reviewed the pro-smoking books, published 2004-2009, and analyzed examples of misinformation by theme. Results Pro-smoking popular books conveyed five types of misinformation: doubt about science; suggestions that smoking increased health, longevity, virility, etc.; trivializing tobacco's effects; attacking public health advocates/authorities; and linking tobacco use with authenticity, history, or civil rights. At least one book was authored by a former Japan Tobacco employee; another used a popular Japan Tobacco advertising phrase. Conclusions Creating doubt and confusion about tobacco serves tobacco industry interests and re-creates a strategy developed by US tobacco interests more than 40 years ago. Japanese readers may be misled by texts such as those reviewed. Tobacco control and public health advocates in Japan and globally should expose and counter such misinformation. "Naming and shaming" may be effective.

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses....

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  16. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  17. Smokeless Tobacco: A Guide for Quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... switch to other tobacco products like cigarettes or cigars! In fact, if you already smoke, this is ... be patient. Constipation/irregularity Add fiber to your diet (whole grain breads and cereals, fresh fruits and ...

  18. Does High Tobacco Consumption Cause Psychological Distress?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Petersen, Christina B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that smoking influences mental health negatively. This study investigated whether high tobacco consumption is causally related to psychological distress in a Mendelian randomization design, using a variant in the nicotine acetylcholine receptor gene CHRNA3...... is associated with several mental health outcomes and smoking cessation is associated with improved mental health. Causality in the association between smoking and mental health is difficult to establish using observational data. Using a genotype known to influence tobacco consumption as instrumental variable......-known to influence individual tobacco consumption-as instrumental variable for tobacco consumption. METHODS: Data from 90 108 participants in the Copenhagen General Population Study was used. Exposures included self-reported cigarettes/day and pack years and the CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype as instrumental...

  19. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  20. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  1. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  2. Tobacco Advertising Study, 2008/2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The California Tobacco Advertising Survey (CTAS) is a longitudinal cohort study of California stores that sell cigarettes. The data table shows the percentage of...

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  4. Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Healthy People 2020 Tobacco Use Objectives. Healthy People...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  6. Should Tobacco Researchers Be Selected as Academicians?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Deccmber 8,2011,the Chinese cademy of Engineering (CAE)lected 54 academicians.Xic Jianping,whose research focuses on adding Chinese herbal medicine to cigarettes to reduce tar content,was on the list.Xie,52,is widely known for his research on low-tar cigarettes and serves as the deputy head of a tobacco research institute under China National Tobacco Corp.,China's tobacco monopoly and the world's largest cigarette company.Xie's election has ignited great controversy.Supporters say people shouldn't discriminate against researchers in controversial fields.Xie does not encourage smoking but has done his best to reduce its harm.The tobacco industry is a big one and China cannot eliminate it now.

  7. Researcher eyeing tobacco for factory of biopharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The economics of producing biopharmaceuticals from transgenic plants such as tobacco is still a roadblock to producing large quantities of urgently needed medicines, especially for people in underdeveloped nations.

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  9. Smokeless tobacco in Canada: deterring market development

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckham, R.

    1999-01-01

    DATA SOURCES—A review of the literature identified demographic, cultural, and marketing variables related to the uptake and continuation of smokeless tobacco use. Government and industry data on production, marketing, and consumption of smokeless tobacco products are presented.
METHODS—The Canadian and American markets are compared in terms of prevalence, consumption per capita, and marketing practices. Lessons to be learned from the well-orchestrated development of the American market in the...

  10. Communicating tobacco product harm: Compared to what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R; Suls, Jerry M; Klein, William M P

    2016-01-01

    With the expansion of tobacco product options, a better understanding is needed of how information about the known and unknown risks of products is communicated to the public. Engaging in comparative processes is an common way for people to understand novel products, but the referent of comparison matters and can influence perceptions and behavior. This paper builds awareness of research from other disciplines, including decision science, marketing, and psychology, which can help inform research and tobacco control efforts.

  11. Swimming Upstream: Tobacco Policy Making in Nevada

    OpenAIRE

    Tung, Gregory MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a major political force in Nevada. The industry dominated state politics through a combination of strategic alliances with the hospitality and gaming industries and campaign contributions. From 1990-2006 the tobacco industry contributed $552,111 to the state political parties and individuals running for state office. In 1975, health groups in Nevada attempted to pass a legislative proposal, AB 17, that would have required smoking and non-smoking sections in al...

  12. Standardised Packaging of Tobacco Products Evidence Review

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health

    2014-01-01

    The current report reviews the scientific evidence on standardised or “plain” packaging, and the extent to which plain packaging regulations would help Ireland to achieve its tobacco control objectives.   Plain packaging is a form of marketing restriction that prohibits the use of logos, colours, brand images and promotional information on tobacco packaging. Under plain packaging regulations, the colour of the pack is uniform across different brands and varieties. Regulations ma...

  13. Communicating tobacco product harm: Compared to what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R; Suls, Jerry M; Klein, William M P

    2016-01-01

    With the expansion of tobacco product options, a better understanding is needed of how information about the known and unknown risks of products is communicated to the public. Engaging in comparative processes is an common way for people to understand novel products, but the referent of comparison matters and can influence perceptions and behavior. This paper builds awareness of research from other disciplines, including decision science, marketing, and psychology, which can help inform research and tobacco control efforts. PMID:26162963

  14. 27 CFR 71.46 - Suspension and revocation of tobacco permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... felony violation of any other provision of Federal criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed... criminal law relating to tobacco products, processed tobacco, cigarette paper, or cigarette tubes,...

  15. Effects on the local symptoms of subgenomic RNAs expressions and their translational products of Tobacco necrosis virus A Chinese isolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiang; LI Min; LI Cui; GAO Yang; LI DaWei; HAN ChengGui; YU JiaLin

    2008-01-01

    Based on a full-length infectious cDNA clone, gene modifications of Tobacco necrosis virus A Chinese isolate (TNV-Ac) were made by site-directed mutagenesis or nucleotide deletions for in vitro transcription of mutant viral RNAs. Mechanical inoculations of Chenopodium amaranticolor with in vitro transcripts, containing a single nucleic acid substitution at the presumed transcriptional start sites for the two subgenomic (sg) RNAs, showed that the sgRNA1 and sgRNA2 of TNV-Ac were initiated at G2184 or G2460, respectively. Mutagenesis of the translational initiation-codons for the open-reading frame (ORF) P8 or P6 encoded by sgRNA1 indicated that each of the two genes was essential for formation of local lesions on C. amaranticolor leaves, perhaps by blocking virus cell-to-cell movement, but were not necessary for viral RNA replication in the protoplast of tobacco cell BY-2. Results of prokaryotic expression showed that the ORF coding for coat protein on TNV-Ac sgRNA2 was initiatively translated by the first AUG codon at nucleotides 2612-2614. Site-directed mutation of translational start codons, and deletion of the entire coding region, showed that the intact TNV-Ac coat protein was dispensable for establishment of TNV-Ac infection in C. amaranticolor, otherwise the numbers of local lesions and the viral RNA accumulation level were reduced, or the time to symptom appearance significantly delayed. These results suggested that the nucleotide sequence around the translational start codon coding for TNV-Ac coat protein gene may play an important role in the local symptoms. Aspects of the involvement of the coat protein in the TNV-Ac life cycle were discussed.

  16. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed. PMID:25526245

  17. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  18. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnemann, K.D.; Hoffmann, D.

    1981-01-01

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. (/sup 14/C)NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned.

  19. Assessment of the carcinogenic N-nitrosodiethanolamine in tobacco products and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, reproducible gas chromatography-thermal energy analyzer (g.c.-TEA) method has been developed for the analysis of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) in tobacco and tobacco smoke. The extract of tobacco or the trapped particulates of tobacco smoke are chromatographed on silica gel. The NDELA containing fractions are concentrated, silylated and analyzed with a modified g.c.-TEA system. [/sup 14/C]NDELA serves as internal standard for the quantitative analysis. Experimental cigarettes made from tobaccos which were treated with the sucker growth inhibitor maleic hydrazidediethanolamine (MH-DELA) contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and their smoke contained 20--290 ng/cigarette, whereas hand-suckered tobacco and its smoke were free of NDELA. The tobacco of US smoking products contained 115--420 p.p.b. of NDELA and the mainstream smoke from such products yielded 10--68 ng/cigar or cigarette. NDELA levels in chewing tobacco ranged from 220--280 p.p.b. and in two commercial snuff products were 3,200 and 6,800 p.p.b. Although the five analyzed MH-DELA preparations contained between 0.6--1.9 p.p.m. NDELA it is evident that the major portion of NDELA in tobacco is formed from the DELA residue during the tobacco processing. Based on bioassay data from various laboratories which have shown that NDELA is a relatively strong carcinogen and based on the results of this study the use of MH-DELA for the cultivation of tobacco is questioned

  20. Effects of mutated replicase and movement protein genes on attenuation of tobacco mosaic virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Gong; (

    2001-01-01

    [1]Banerjee, N., Wang, J. Y., Zaitlin, M., A single nucleotide change in the coat protein gene of tobacco mosaic virus is involved in the induction of severe chlorosis, Virology, 1995, 207: 234-239.[2]Dawson, W. O., Bubrick, P., Grantham, G. L., Modifications of the tobacco mosaic virus coat protein gene affecting replication, movement, and symptomatology, Mol. Plant Pathol., 1988, 78: 783-789.[3]Lu, B., Stubbs, G., Culver, J. N., Coat protein interactions involved in tobacco mosaic tobamovirus cross-protection, Virology, 1998, 248: 188-198.[4]Bao, Y. M., Carter, S. A., Nelson,R. S., The 126- and 183-kilodalton proteins of tobacco mosaic virus, and not their common nucleotide sequence, control mosaic symptom formation in tobacco, J. Virol., 1996, 70: 6378-6383.[5]Holt, C. A., Hodgson, A. J., Coker, F. A. et al., Characterization of the masked strain of tobacco mosaic virus: identification of the region responsible for symptom attenuation by analysis of an infectious cDNA clone, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact., 1990, 3: 417-423.[6]Nishiguchi, M., Kikuchi, S., Kiho, Y. et al., Molecular basis of plant viral virulence, the complete nucleotide sequence of an attenuated strain of tobacco mosaic virus, Nucleic Acids Res., 1985, 13: 5585-5590.[7]Watanabe, Y., Morita, N., Nishiguchi, M.et al., Attenuated strains of tobacco mosaic virus reduced synthesis of a viral protein with a cell to cell movement function, J. Mol. Biol., 1987, 194: 699-704.[8]Lewandowski, D. J., Dawson, W. O., A single amino acid change in tobacco mosaic virus replicase prevents symptom production, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact., 1993, 6: 157-160.[9]Yang, G., Qiu, B. S., Cloning and infectivity analysis of the cDNAs of tobacco mosaic virus (tomato strain) and its attenuated virus (N14) genomes, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology (in Chinese), 2000, 16: 207-210.[10]Yang, G., Liu, X. G., Qiu, B. S., Complete nucleotid sequences and genome structures of two Chinese tobacco

  1. Influence of tobacco industry advertisements and promotions on tobacco use in India: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    D N Sinha; K M Palipudi; K Oswal; P C Gupta; L J Andes; S Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The developing world, including countries like India, has become a major target for the tobacco industry to market its products. This study examines the influence of the marketing (advertising and promotion) of tobacco products on the use of tobacco by adults (ages 15 and over) in India. Method: Data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed using methods for complex (clustered) sample designs. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to predict the use of dif...

  2. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices.

  3. Branding the rodeo: a case study of tobacco sports sponsorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Haber, Lawrence A; Wedl, Stefani

    2010-01-01

    Rodeo is one of the few sports still sponsored by the tobacco industry, particularly the US Smokeless Tobacco Company. Rodeo is popular in rural communities, where smokeless tobacco use is more prevalent. We used previously secret tobacco industry documents to examine the history and internal motivations for tobacco company rodeo sponsorship. Rodeos allow tobacco companies to reach rural audiences and young people, enhance brand image, conduct market research, and generate positive press. Relationships with athletes and fans were used to fight proposed restrictions on tobacco sports sponsorship. Rodeo sponsorship was intended to enhance tobacco sales, not the sport. Rural communities should question the tradition of tobacco sponsorship of rodeo sports and reject these predatory marketing practices. PMID:19910357

  4. Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Dolar; Bandari, Srikanth Reddy; Madupu, Padma Reddy; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease, currently leading to over five million deaths each year worldwide. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Oral health professionals play an important role in promoting tobacco free-lifestyles. They should counsel their patients not to smoke; and reinforce the anti-tobacco message and refer the patients to smoking cessation services. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5 A’s and 5 R’s approach, quit lines and pharmacotherapy. Additionally, tobacco cessation programs should be conducted at community, state and national levels. Various policies should be employed for better tobacco control. Governments should implement the tobacco control measures to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use and exposure to tobacco smoke. In addition, there should be availability of leaflets, brochures, continuing patient education materials regarding tobacco cessation. PMID:27437378

  5. Old wine in new bottles: tobacco industry's submission to European Commission tobacco product directive public consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Between September and December 2010 the European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General (DGSANCO) held a public consultation on a possible revision of the European Union Tobacco Products Directive (2001/37/EC). We used content analysis of the tobacco industry's and related parties' 300 submissions to the public consultation to determine if tobacco industry and its allies in Europe are prepared to reduce harm of the tobacco products as their public statements assert. The industry submission resorted to traditional tobacco industry arguments where illicit trade and freedom of choice were emphasized and misrepresented the conclusions of a DGSANCO-commissioned scientific report on smokeless tobacco products. Retailers and wholesalers referred to employment and economic growth more often than respondents from other categories. The pattern of responses in the submission differed dramatically from independent public opinion polls of EU citizens' support for tobacco control policies. None of the major tobacco manufacturers or their lobbying organizations supported any of the DGSANCO's proposed evidence based interventions (pictorial health warnings, plain packaging or point-of-sale display bans) to reduce harms caused by cigarette smoking. PMID:25467283

  6. Introducing oral tobacco for tobacco harm reduction: what are the main obstacles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohadana Abraham

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the number of smokers worldwide currently on the rise, the regular failure of smokers to give up their tobacco addiction, the direct role of smoke (and, to a much lesser extent, nicotine in most tobacco-related diseases, and the availability of less toxic (but still addictive oral tobacco products, the use of oral tobacco in lieu of smoking for tobacco harm reduction (HR merits assessment. Instead of focusing on the activity itself, HR focuses on the risks related to the activity. Currently, tobacco HR is controversial, generally not discussed, and consequently, poorly evaluated. In this paper, we try to pinpoint some of the main reasons for this lack of interest or reluctance to carry out or fund this type of research. In this paper we deal with the following issues: the status of nicotine in society, the reluctance of the mainstream anti-tobacco lobby toward the HR approach, the absence of smokers from the debate, the lack of information disseminated to the general population and politicians, the need to protect young people, the role of physicians, the future of HR research, and the role of tobacco companies.

  7. Tobacco control law enforcement and compliance in odisha, India - implications for tobacco control policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panda, B.; Rout, A.; Pati, S.; Chauhan, A.S.; Tripathy, A.; Shrivastava, R.; Bassi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco use is a leading cause of deaths and disabilities in India, killing about 1.2 lakh people in 2010. About 29% of adults use tobacco on a daily basis and an additional 5% use it occasionally. In Odisha, non-smoking forms are more prevalent than smoking forms. The habit has very h

  8. Tobacco consumption among adolescents in rural Wardha: Where and how tobacco control should focus its attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongre A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of the present study were to study the pattern of tobacco use among rural adolescents (15-19 years and to find out reasons for use and non use of tobacco products. Materials and Methods : In the present community-based research, triangulation of qualitative (free list, focus group discussions and quantitative methods (survey was undertaken. The study was carried out in surrounding 11 villages of the Kasturba Rural Health Training Centre, Anji during January 2008 where 385 adolescents were selected by simple random sampling and interviewed by house to house visits. After survey, six focus group discussions were undertaken with adolescent boys. Results: About 68.3% boys and 12.4% girls had consumed any tobacco products in last 30 days. Out of boys who had consumed tobacco, 79.2% consumed kharra, and 46.4% consumed gutka. Among boys, 51.2% consumed it due to peer pressure, 35.2% consumed tobacco as they felt better, and five percent consumed tobacco to ease abdominal complaints and dental problem. Among girls, 72% used dry snuff for teeth cleaning, 32% and 20% consumed tobacco in the form of gutka and tobacco & lime respectively. The reasons for non use of tobacco among girls were fear of cancer (59%, poor oral health (37.9%. Among non consuming boys it was fear of cancer (58.6%, poor oral health (44.8% and fear of getting addiction (29.3%. According to FGD respondents, few adolescent boys taste tobacco by 8-10 years of age, while girls do it by 12-13 years. Peer pressure acts as a pro tobacco influence among boys who are outgoing and spend more time with their friends. They prefer to consume freshly prepared kharra which was supposed to be less strong (tej than gutka. Tobacco is being used in treatment of some health problems. Tobacco is chewed after meals for better digestion, given to ease toothache, pain in abdomen and to induce vomiting in suicidal insecticide poisoning. Conclusion: The current consumption of any

  9. DNA methylation polymorphism in flue-cured tobacco and candidate markers for tobacco mosaic virus resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie-hong ZHAO; Ji-shun ZHANG; Yi WANG; Ren-gang WANG; Chun WU; Long-jiang FAN; Xue-liang REN

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression during plant growth,development,and polyploidization.However,there is still no distinct evidence in tobacco regarding the distribution of the methylation pattern and whether it contributes to qualitative characteristics.We studied the levels and patterns of methylation polymorphism at CCGG sites in 48 accessions of allotetraploid flue-cured tobacco,Nicotiana tabacum,using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique.The results showed that methylation existed at a high level among tobacco accessions,among which 49.3% sites were methylated and 69.9% allelic sites were polymorphic.A cluster analysis revealed distinct patterns of geography-specific groups.In addition,three polymorphic sites significantly related to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) resistance were explored.This suggests that tobacco breeders should pay more attention to epigenetic traits.

  10. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  11. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J E; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M J

    2001-12-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for tobacco control are identified: unrestricted sales to minors; cheaper cigarettes through tax avoidance and smuggling; unfettered advertising, marketing and promotion; and continued normalisation of the tobacco industry and its products. Potential strategies for addressing these challenges include international tobacco control agreements, national and state regulation, and legal remedies. PMID:11740029

  12. Smokeless tobacco reduction: preliminary study of tobacco-free snuff versus no snuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Edmonds, Amanda; Li, Casey; Lin, Haiying; Le, Chap; Hecht, Stephen S

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effects of tobacco-free snuff (intervention, n = 52) compared with no snuff (control, n = 54) for reducing tobacco use among smokeless tobacco (ST) users not interested in quitting. Both groups received behavioral instructions, and intervention subjects received tobacco-free snuff for 8 weeks. Participants were required to reduce their intake by 50% during the first 4 weeks and by 75% during the subsequent 4 weeks. Follow-up occurred at 12 weeks. Significant reductions were observed from baseline to week 8 (end of treatment) for both treatment groups in the amount of ST use (tins/week and dips/day, psnuff could potentially reduce risk for ST-related disease beyond that achieved with no snuff by increasing the number of patients who achieve significant reductions in carcinogen exposure and, more important, by facilitating tobacco abstinence by increasing quit attempts and abstinence duration.

  13. Metabolic engineering of monoterpende biosysnthesis: two step production of (+)-trans-Isopiperitenol by tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in tobacco was modified by introducing two subsequent enzymatic activities targeted to different cell compartments. A limonene-3-hydroxylase (lim3h) cDNA was isolated from Mentha spicata L. 'Crispa'. This cDNA was used to re-transform a transgenic Nicotiana tabacum'Petit H

  14. Analysis of the Appearance Quality of Tobacco Leaves in the Tobacco-growing Areas of Qujing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijuan; BAO; Folin; LI; Jun; WANG; Jiahe; JIANG; Binjie; DAI

    2014-01-01

    In order to set up the digitization indices system of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves in Qujing. According to the relevant standards,the quantitative analysis on appearance quality of 39 cutter and upper tobacco leaf samples which were collected from eight fluecured tobacco production regions of Qujing City,Yunnan Province were carried out in 2011,respectively. The results showed that the difference in evaluation score of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco in eight regions was not significant. The tobacco leaves had high maturity,high oil content,loose structure and good appearance quality. The scores of appearance quality of flue-cured tobacco in Shizong County and Malong County are higher than other regions. The two regions are suitable for tobacco plantation. The preliminary digitization indices provide reference and guidance to tobacco production and standards system of tobacco leaves base.

  15. Relationship Between LOX Activity, SA and JA Accumulation in Tobacco Leaves Under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Chang-rong; LI Yan-mei; YANG Li-jun

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between LOX (lipoxygenase) activity, SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid) accumulation was studied in the tobacco leaf under water stress. The result showed that LOX activity and JA content increased sirnutaneously with losing of water. NDGA(nordihydroguaiaretic), an inhibitor of LOX,inhibited simultaneously both the activity of LOX and the enhancement of JA level under the stress. Likewise,adding LOX to tobacco cell-free system led to the increase of JA content. It suggested that LOX could be a key enzyme in JA biosynthesis under water stress. SA inhibited the enhancement of JA level under the stress.

  16. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P advertising in pharmacies and in low (advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and advertising. PMID:27172257

  17. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... illustrates that tobacco products are inherently dangerous and cause cancer, heart disease, and other serious... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product... for Tobacco Product's (CTP's) Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation...

  18. Transfer of resistance traits from carrot into tobacco by asymmetric somatic hybridization: Regeneration of fertile plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudits, Denes; Maroy, Eszter; Praznovszky, Tunde; Olah, Zoltan; Gyorgyey, Janos; Cella, Rino

    1987-01-01

    Transfer of methotrexate and 5-methyltryptophan resistance from carrot (Daucus carota) to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was achieved by fusion between leaf mesophyll protoplasts of tobacco and irradiated cell culture protoplasts of carrot. Some of the regenerated somatic hybrids exhibited normal tobacco morphology with coexpression and independent segregation of the transferred resistance markers. Chromosomal instability resulted in aneuploid somatic hybrids with significantly lower chromosome number than predicted by simple addition of parental chromosome number. The methotrexate resistance phenotype was correlated with the expression of carrot-specific dihydrofolate reductase as judged by isozyme and immunological characteristics of the enzyme. The genomic construct of these somatic hybrids made the transmission of the resistance character into the next sexual generation possible. Images PMID:16593902

  19. Tobacco control for clinicians who treat adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Smoking remains the most common preventable cause of death in the developed world, and is rapidly becoming an important cause of death in the developing world. Nicotine is a powerfully addictive substance, and the tobacco industry spends billions annually promoting it in the United States. It is therefore important for clinicians to understand why people smoke, to address smoking in patients of all ages, and to lobby for health-preserving tobacco control policies at the community level. Children take up smoking in response to social influences: smoking by friends, parents, and family, and through exposure to smoking in media. Parents who smoke not only model the behavior, but also often make the product available by leaving cigarettes around the house. Media influences include the dollar 10 billion spent per year on tobacco marketing, but more importantly, the modeling of the behavior on screen by movie and television stars. Once children start smoking, many rapidly lose autonomy over the behavior. Youth can get hooked after smoking just a few cigarettes. The most effective community efforts for reducing tobacco use are: raising the price of tobacco; halting the sale of tobacco to minors; enforcing strict school tobacco policies; and making public places smoke free through local ordinances. Working with individuals, clinicians should support cessation in all smokers, including parents of children and adolescents. They should screen children for smoking risk factors beginning at age 10. They should teach parents to maintain smoke-free households, to set nonsmoking expectations early on, and to monitor adolescents for signs of smoking. Parents should limit exposure to adult media (e.g., R-rated movies) and use family television time to discuss the effect of seeing screen depictions of smoking on adolescent behavior. Adolescents who smoke should be assessed for signs of nicotine dependence and counseled about quitting. Clinicians are effective community voices; they

  20. Predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; de Guia, Nicole A; Ashley, Mary Jane; Ferrence, Roberta; Northrup, David A; Studlar, Donley T

    2002-09-01

    It is clear that regulatory strategies can be effective in reducing tobacco use. Because legislators ultimately determine whether many of these policies are enacted, they are a key focus for tobacco policy research. This study identifies political and personal predictors of Canadian legislators' support for tobacco control policies. Data are from a 1996-97 survey of federal, provincial and territorial legislators. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess relationships between five groups of variables (political factors including political ideology, personal characteristics, tobacco experiences, tobacco knowledge, interest group saliency) and support for tobacco control based on an 11-item scale. Support for tobacco control varied by political party. Support was higher among legislators who thought government had a duty to promote healthy lifestyles, knew second-hand smoke could cause lung cancer, knew tobacco caused more deaths than alcohol, and said they wanted more contact with medical associations about tobacco issues. Support was lower among current smokers and those with tobacco industry jobs in their ridings. The findings indicate that political party membership cannot be ignored in enlisting legislator support for tobacco control. It also appears that legislators who oppose tobacco control measures may not be opposed to tobacco control per se, but are more generally opposed to a government role in health promotion. Thus, public health professionals and tobacco control advocates need to be more attentive to the way tobacco control issues are framed for particular legislators. Further, meetings with health groups about tobacco issues would be welcomed by many legislators; non-governmental organizations and other health advocates could work to increase tobacco knowledge among legislators.

  1. "People over profits": retailers who voluntarily ended tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. METHODS: We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer's decision. RESULTS: Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store's image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers' values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69% supported the decision. CONCLUSION: Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary

  2. Source Credibility in Tobacco Control Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Allison M.; Ranney, Leah M.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Perceived credibility of a message’s source can affect persuasion. This paper reviews how beliefs about the source of tobacco control messages may encourage attitude and behavior change. Methods We conducted a series of searches of the peer-reviewed literature using terms from communication and public health fields. We reviewed research on source credibility, its underlying concepts, and its relation to the persuasiveness of tobacco control messages. Results We recommend an agenda for future research to bridge the gaps between communication literature on source credibility and tobacco control research. Our recommendations are to study the impact of source credibility on persuasion with long-term behavior change outcomes, in different populations and demographic groups, by developing new credibility measures that are topic- and organization-specific, by measuring how credibility operates across media platforms, and by identifying factors that enhance credibility and persuasion. Conclusions This manuscript reviews the state of research on source credibility and identifies gaps that are maximally relevant to tobacco control communication. Knowing first whether a source is perceived as credible, and second, how to enhance perceived credibility, can inform the development of future tobacco control campaigns and regulatory communications.

  3. Influence of regular black tea consumption on tobacco associated DNA damage and HPV prevalence in human oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Debolina; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Indra, Dipanjana; Mandal, Shyamsundar; Dum, Anirudha; Bhowmik, Anup; Panda, Chinmay Kr; Das, Sukta

    2007-01-01

    Black tea is more widely consumed than green tea worldwide, particularly in India. Therefore, it is necessary to focus attention on black tea with respect to its health promoting and anti-cancer actions. In order to establish the concept that black tea is a potential candidate for cancer prevention, it is important to provide epidemiological evidence derived from investigations of human populations. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to determine the correlation between nature of black tea consumption and DNA damage in normal subjects with or without tobacco habit and oral cancer patients, taking the latter as positive controls. Much experimental evidence points to associations between tobacco habit and HPV 16 and HPV 18 (Human Papilloma virus) infection. But no studies have taken into account the possible confounding effect of black tea consumption on DNA damage along with HPV infection. A pilot study was therefore undertaken. Comet assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage among normal subjects including tobacco users (n = 86), non-tobacco users (n = 45) and Oral cancer patients (n = 37). Percentage of damaged cells was scored in the buccal squamous cells of all subjects mentioned above. HPV analysis was performed on 79 samples (including 37 oral cancer patients). The evaluation of various confounding factors like age, tenure of tobacco habit and tea habit showed significant associations with DNA damage. The observations strongly indicate that regular intake of black tea at least above four cups can reduce tobacco associated DNA damage among normal tobacco users. HPV prevalence was not seen to be associated with age, tenure of tobacco habit or the tea drinking habit. PMID:17696743

  4. Comparative effectiveness of the nicotine lozenge and tobacco-free snuff for smokeless tobacco reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Jon O; Severson, Herbert H; Croghan, Ivana T; Danaher, Brian G; Schroeder, Darrell R

    2013-05-01

    Long-term smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with cardiovascular disease and cancer, but not all ST users want to quit. Previous studies have evaluated the effectiveness of nicotine lozenges and tobacco-free snuff for reducing ST use among ST users not ready to quit, but no comparative effectiveness trials of these two products have been conducted. We conducted a multicenter, randomized clinical pilot study evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the 4-mg nicotine lozenge and tobacco-free snuff for reducing ST use and increasing tobacco abstinence among ST users with no intention of quitting in the next 30 days. Participants received 8 weeks of treatment and behavioral counseling on tobacco reduction strategies with follow-up to 26 weeks. We randomized 81 participants (40 nicotine lozenges, 41 tobacco-free snuff). No significant differences in reduction were observed between the two groups at weeks 8, 12, and 26. No significant differences were observed between groups in nicotine withdrawal or tobacco craving. However, both groups significantly reduced (psnuff both appear to be effective and comparable for reducing ST use among ST users not ready to quit in the next 30 days.

  5. 27 CFR 41.72b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 41.72b Section 41.72b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  6. 27 CFR 40.216b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 40.216b Section 40.216b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  7. 27 CFR 45.45b - Notice for roll-your-own tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for roll-your-own tobacco. 45.45b Section 45.45b Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE...

  8. The Tax Burden on Tobacco Volume 49, 1970-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1970-2014. Orzechowski and Walker. Tax Burden on Tobacco. Tax burden data was obtained from the annual compendium on tobacco revenue and industry statistics, The...

  9. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  10. CDC Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco Control Programs. Funding. CDC's Best Practices for Comprehensive Tobacco...

  11. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2001-2011. The GSPS was initiated in 2000 to collect information on tobacco use, knowledge and attitudes of school personnel toward tobacco, existence and...

  12. 1 in 5 Americans Uses a Tobacco Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html 1 in 5 Americans Uses a Tobacco Product CDC report raises concerns about e-cigarettes, hookahs ... or uses hookahs, e-cigarettes or other tobacco products, U.S. health officials reported Thursday. Cigarettes remain the ...

  13. 7 CFR 457.136 - Tobacco crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Cutting or priming and removing all insured tobacco from the unit. Hydroponic plants. Seedlings grown in..., including hydroponic plants, have been transplanted by hand or machine from the tobacco bed to the...

  14. Pathways to Freedom: Winning the Fight against Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Switch to sherbet or frozen yogurt instead of ice cream. ■ Use mustard in place of mayonnaise or sandwich ... way by tobacco. Tobacco is part of our history. It was a major crop in the South ...

  15. Genome-wide identification of the expansin gene family in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Anming; Marowa, Prince; Kong, Yingzhen

    2016-10-01

    Expansins are pH-dependent cell wall loosening proteins which form a large family in plants. They have been shown to be involved in various developmental processes and been implicated in enabling plants' ability to absorb nutrients from the soil as well as conferring biotic and abiotic stress resistances. It is therefore clear that they can be potential targets in genetic engineering for crop improvement. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is a major crop species as well as a model organism. Considering that only a few tobacco expansins have been studied, a genome-wide analysis of the tobacco expansin gene family is necessary. In this study, we identified 52 expansins in tobacco, which were classified into four subfamilies: 36 NtEXPAs, 6 NtEXPBs, 3 NtEXLAs and 7 NtEXLBs. Compared to other species, the NtEXLB subfamily size was relatively larger. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 52 tobacco expansins were divided into 13 subgroups. Gene structure analysis revealed that genes within subfamilies/subgroups exhibited similar characteristics such as gene structure and protein motif arrangement. Whole-genome duplication and tandem duplication events may have played important roles in the expanding of tobacco expansins. Cis-Acting element analysis revealed that each expansin gene was regulated or several expansin genes were co-regulated by both internal and environmental factors. 35 of these genes were identified as being expressed according to a microarray analysis. In contrast to most NtEXPAs which had higher expression levels in young organs, NtEXLAs and NtEXLBs were preferentially expressed in mature or senescent tissues, suggesting that they might play different roles in different organs or at different developmental stages. As the first step towards genome-wide analysis of the tobacco expansin gene family, our work provides solid background information related to structure, evolution and expression as well as regulatory cis-acting elements of the tobacco expansins. This

  16. TOBFAC: the database of tobacco transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brannock Jennifer F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription is a major control point in many biological processes. Transcription factors (TFs can activate and/or repress the transcriptional rate of target genes and vascular plant genomes devote approximately 7% of their coding capacity to TFs. Global analysis of TFs has only been performed for three complete higher plant genomes – Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana, poplar (Populus trichocarpa and rice (Oryza sativa. Presently, no large-scale analysis of TFs has been made from a member of the Solanaceae, one of the most important families of vascular plants. To fill this void, we have analysed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum TFs using a dataset of 1,159,022 gene-space sequence reads (GSRs obtained by methylation filtering of the tobacco genome. An analytical pipeline was developed to isolate TF sequences from the GSR data set. This involved multiple (typically 10–15 independent searches with different versions of the TF family-defining domain(s (normally the DNA-binding domain followed by assembly into contigs and verification. Our analysis revealed that tobacco contains a minimum of 2,513 TFs representing all of the 64 well-characterised plant TF families. The number of TFs in tobacco is higher than previously reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Results TOBFAC: the database of tobacco transcription factors, is an integrative database that provides a portal to sequence and phylogeny data for the identified TFs, together with a large quantity of other data concerning TFs in tobacco. The database contains an individual page dedicated to each of the 64 TF families. These contain background information, domain architecture via Pfam links, a list of all sequences and an assessment of the minimum number of TFs in this family in tobacco. Downloadable phylogenetic trees of the major families are provided along with detailed information on the bioinformatic pipeline that was used to find

  17. Radioactivity and tobacco; Radioactivite et tabac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    We drew the parallel between the effects on the health, in particular carcinogenic, of irradiation and tobacco. As regards this last one the carcinogenic main part of its activity is, doubtless, of chemical origin (tars and nicotine), but a part could be due to the radioactivity. Indeed, the tobacco possesses an activity due to isotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, daughter products of radon. This activity is 10 pico-becquerel by package of cigarette. The radioactive isotopes settle on the lung mucous membrane. The Academy of Sciences (US) so estimates the annual dose delivered in lungs to approximately 80 milli-sievert. This relatively important dose is however delivered only in a small fraction of the lung tissue (approximately 250 cm{sup 3}). Of this fact it contributes only weakly to the carcinogenic effect of the tobacco. (N.C.)

  18. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  19. Tobacco and tobacco branding in films most popular in the UK from 1989 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Chen, Yilu; Britton, John

    2010-05-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco promotion is now tightly restricted in the UK and many other countries, but tobacco imagery including brand appearances in the media remain potentially powerful drivers of smoking uptake among children and young people. The extent to which tobacco imagery and specific products have appeared in the most popular films viewed in the UK over 20 years has been measured, in relation to year of release, the age certification allocated to the film by the British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), country of origin and other characteristics. METHODS Occurrence of tobacco intervals (tobacco use, implied use or appearance of smoking paraphernalia) and brand appearances were measured by 5 min interval coding in the 15 most commercially successful films in the UK each year from 1989 to 2008. RESULTS Tobacco intervals occurred in 70% of all films. Over half (56%) of those that contained tobacco intervals were rated by the BBFC as suitable for viewing by children aged Brand appearances were nearly twice as likely to occur in films originating wholly or in part from the UK (UK films). Specific brands, particularly Marlboro and Silk Cut, appeared in 9% of all films, and most brand appearances (39%) were in films with BBFC 15 classification. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco imagery in the most popular films shown in the UK has declined substantially over the past 20 years but continues to occur, particularly in UK films, and predominantly in films categorised as suitable for viewing by children and young people. Specific brand appearances are now rare but occur repeatedly in some films. The BBFC is not currently protecting children and young people from exposure to tobacco imagery in film.

  20. China Says No to New Tobacco Joint Ventures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China will not launch any more tobacco joint ventures with foreign investors,according to Zhang Benfu,general manager of the China Tobacco lmport and Export(Group)Corp.Zhang states that China will not build any more joint venture cigarette manufacturing,tobacco processing or filter making facilities because the Chinese tobacco market is saturated and its cigarette production capacity is far in excess of demand.

  1. Methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program: First Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Roohafza; Kamal Heidari; Razieh Omidi; Tahereh Alinia; Fereshteh Rajabi; Saeid Bagheri; Rasoul Khormian Isfahani; Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Tobacco use continues to be the leading global cause of preventable death. The majority of smokers begin using tobacco products at teen ages. The aims of this study were providing a methodology of Isfahan Tobacco Use Prevention Program and investigating the prevalence of tobacco use and its related factors. Method. It was a cross-sectional study among guidance and high school students in Isfahan province. Initiation, social, psychological (depression and self-efficacy), family, an...

  2. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindović; Nataša Dukić; Aleksandra Bulajić; Jelena Latinović; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2007-01-01

    Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV), Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV) and Potato Virus X(PVX). This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test w...

  3. Workplace tobacco cessation program in India: A success story

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra Gauravi; Majmudar Parishi; Gupta Subhadra; Rane Pallavi; Uplap Pallavi; Shastri Surendra

    2009-01-01

    Context: This paper describes the follow-up interventions and results of the work place tobacco cessation study. Aims: To assess the tobacco quit rates among employees, through self report history, and validate it with rapid urine cotinine test; compare post-intervention KAP regarding tobacco consumption with the pre-intervention responses and assess the tobacco consumption pattern among contract employees and provide assistance to encourage quitting. Settings and Design: This is a cohor...

  4. Airborne Nicotine Concentrations in the Workplaces of Tobacco Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Seok-Ju; Park, Sung-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Seok; Lee, Kwan; Lim, Hyun-Sul; Kim, Jik-Su; Kim, In-Shik

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Nicotine is a natural alkaloid and insecticide in tobacco leaves. Green tobacco sickness (GTS) is known as a disease of acute nicotine intoxication among tobacco farmers. Until now, GTS has been recognized globally as a disease that results from nicotine absorption through the skin. However, we assumed that GTS might also result from nicotine inhalation as well as absorption. We aimed to measure the airborne nicotine concentrations in various work environments of Korean tobacco far...

  5. AWARENESS ABOUT TOBACCO USE AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS OF UTTARAKHAND

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Sharma; Pradeep Aggarwal; S D Kandpal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Worldwide tobacco is the second most common cause of death. It is the biggest enemy of public health, still people smoke knowing well the consequences. In addition to the high public health costs of treating tobacco-caused diseases, tobacco kills people at the height of their productivity, depriving families of bread winners and nations of a healthy workforce. Tobacco addiction mostly starts at adolescence. Various reasons cited by adolescents being; peer pressure, stress or for f...

  6. Tobacco use among American Indians in Oklahoma: an epidemiologic view.

    OpenAIRE

    Eichner, June E.; Cravatt, Kymberly; Beebe, Laura A.; Blevins, Kathleen S.; Stoddart, Martha L.; Bursac, Zoran; Yeh, Fawn; Lee, Elisa T.; William E. Moore

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the exception of national surveys that sample the entire U.S. population, little information exists on tobacco habits among American Indians. This study is a comparison of tobacco use findings in the 1990s among American Indians in Oklahoma, a state with a large and diverse American Indian population (39 tribes). METHODS: Data on current tobacco use are presented from two statewide surveys, the Oklahoma Youth Tobacco Survey and the Native American Behavioral Risk Factor Surve...

  7. The evolving profile of alternative tobacco use in California

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Joshua Robert

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control programs, smoking bans, and taxes have been utilized to reduce cigarette smoking in the United States. Found in all tobacco products, nicotine is highly addictive, and many anti-smoking laws can be subverted with other tobacco products. Additionally, many researchers are promoting the use of potentially reduced- exposure products (PREPs) for harm reduction to cigarette smokers. The purpose of this dissertation was to study the use of alternative tobacco products in California,...

  8. Smokeless Tobacco in Sport and Use Among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin W. Chaffee; Couch, Elizabeth T; Walsh, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco, which includes both oral moist snuff and chewing tobacco, imbues substantial health risks, not limited to increased chances of oral and pancreatic cancer, gum disease, nicotine addiction, and, among adolescents, increased likelihood of smoking initiation. There is little evidence that use of smokeless tobacco enhances athletic performance; yet, sporting events and athletic participation are consistently identified as key contexts associated with smokeless tobacco use. The t...

  9. Antioxidant isoenzyme responses to nickel-induced stress in tobacco cell suspension culture Resposta de isoenzimas antioxidantes ao estresse induzido por níquel em cultura de células em suspensão de fumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Bertoni Pompeu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to nickel (Ni at high concentrations can lead to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS resulting in oxidative damage at the cellular level. We investigated the antioxidative responses of Nicotiana tabacum cv BY-2 cell suspension to Ni stress (0.075 and 0.75 mM NiCl2 over a 72 h period with special attention to potential alterations in isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Two main SOD isoenzymes were observed, a Mn-SOD (band I and a Fe-SOD (band II, as well as one CAT isoenzyme and four GR isoenzymes. Activity staining analysis revealed that CAT activity plays a major role in the early response to Ni-induced oxidative stress, particularly when the Ni concentration used was low, whilst a specific GR isoenzyme appears to respond to the Ni-induced oxidative stress when a much higher Ni concentration was used to induce the stress for the same period of treatment. These results illustrate the importance and advantages of determining individual isoenzyme activities.A exposição ao níquel (Ni, em altas concentrações, pode levar à produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (EAOs, resultando em danos oxidativos em nível celular. Foram investigadas as respostas antioxidativas de células em suspensão do cultivar BY-2 de Nicotiana tabacum submetidas ao estresse por Ni (0.075 e 0.75 mM de NiCl2 por 72 h, com atenção especial às alterações potencias em isoenzimas de superóxido dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT e glutatione redutase (GR. Duas principais isoenzimas de SOD foram observadas, uma Mn-SOD (banda I e outra Fe-SOD (banda II, bem como uma isoenzima CAT e quatro isoenzimas de GR. As análises revelaram que a atividade de CAT tem papel principal no momento inicial de resposta ao estresse oxidativo induzido por Ni, particularmente, quando sua concentração foi mais baixa, enquanto uma isoenzima específica de GR parece responder a este estresse na concentração mais alta de Ni

  10. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V;

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...

  11. Youth tobacco use cessation: 2008 update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sussman Steve

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, an empirical review of 64 teen tobacco use cessation studies is provided. Examined include program contents, delivery modalities, number of contacts, and expected quit rates. In addition, means of recruitment and retention of smokers in programming are discussed. Also, promising contemporary methods of teen smoking cessation are examined, including use of pharmacologic adjuncts, electronic technology, and cigarette price increases (and no smoking policy. Conclusions are made regarding implications for developing and implementing teen tobacco use cessation programs.

  12. Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion-type transporters implicated in vacuolar sequestration of nicotine in tobacco roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Tsubasa; Inai, Koji; Yazaki, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yasutaka; Takase, Hisabumi; Shitan, Nobukazu; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Goto, Yumi; Toyooka, Kiminori; Matsuoka, Ken; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Nicotine is a major alkaloid accumulating in the vacuole of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), but the transporters involved in the vacuolar sequestration are not known. We here report that tobacco genes (NtMATE1 and NtMATE2) encoding transporters of the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family are coordinately regulated with structural genes for nicotine biosynthesis in the root, with respect to spatial expression patterns, regulation by NIC regulatory loci, and induction by methyl jasmonate. Subcellular fractionation, immunogold electron microscopy, and expression of a green fluorescent protein fusion protein all suggested that these transporters are localized to the vacuolar membrane. Reduced expression of the transporters rendered tobacco plants more sensitive to the application of nicotine. In contrast, overexpression of NtMATE1 in cultured tobacco cells induced strong acidification of the cytoplasm after jasmonate elicitation or after the addition of nicotine under nonelicited conditions. Expression of NtMATE1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells compromised the accumulation of exogenously supplied nicotine into the yeast cells. The results imply that these MATE-type proteins transport tobacco alkaloids from the cytosol into the vacuole in exchange for protons in alkaloid-synthesizing root cells. PMID:19098091

  13. 7 CFR 29.403 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.403 Section 29.403 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.403 Accessibility of tobacco. All...

  14. 7 CFR 29.9241 - Accessibility of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessibility of tobacco. 29.9241 Section 29.9241... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing the Identification and Certification of Nonquota Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Administration § 29.9241 Accessibility...

  15. Should College Campuses become Tobacco Free without an Enforcement Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco-free campuses are a great public health initiative. "Healthy People 2020" and "Healthy Campus 2020" address tobacco use and young adults including college students. Sources indicate that of the more than 6,000 colleges and universities in the United States, less than 800 are either smoke free or tobacco free. An increasing number of…

  16. Student and Principal Perceptions of School Tobacco Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Rayens, Mary Kay; Riggs, Richard S.; Staten, Ruth; Hahn, Ellen; Riker, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Background: Enforcement of no-tobacco policies is critical to providing a safe, healthy environment for students. Purpose: The purposes of the study were to: (1) describe and compare student and principal perceptions of enforcement of school tobacco policy in a school district with a tobacco-free policy, and (2) explore perceived barriers to…

  17. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, potato virus Y (PVY, alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, tobacco each virus (TEV and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV.The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were investigated for 4 years (2002-2005. During this period many different tobacco growing localities in Vojvodina and central Serbia were monitored and samples showing virus symptoms were collected. The collected samples were tested by DAS ELISA using polyclonal antisera, specific for the detection of PVY, TSWV, TMV, CMV, AMV and TRSV.The results obtained for the tobacco virus distribution during these four years of investigation proved the presence of four economically important viruses in our country, whose frequencies varied from year to year. In 2002, 2003 and 2004, the most frequent was TSWV(86.84%; 79% and 49.56%, respectively, while in 2005 PVY was prevalent (56.16%. All viruses detected in the samples tested were present in single or mixed infections. A corellation was established between the field symptoms on tobacco and the virus causal agents.The results obtained showed that TSWV and PVY were the most important tobacco viruses in our country, so that further research of tobacco virus diseases should be directed towards their more detailed characterization.

  18. Tobacco, the Common Enemy and a Gateway Drug: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; Jun, Mi Kyung; Nowicke, Carole; de Martinez, Barbara Seitz; Gassman, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    For the four leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, stroke and chronic respiratory disease), tobacco use is a common risk factor. Tobacco use is responsible for almost 450,000 deaths per year and impacts the health of every member of our society. Tobacco is a gateway drug for substance abuse. That role is critical to…

  19. First Nations Communities and Tobacco Taxation: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hasina; Wardman, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Taxation of tobacco is a widely used strategy that promotes smoking cessation among adults and reduces cigarette consumption among continuing smokers. First Nations (FN) populations' tobacco use is estimated to be 2-3 times that of other Canadians and, in part, a reflection that tobacco products purchased on reserve by FN people are tax exempt.…

  20. 78 FR 46905 - Tobacco Transition Program; Final Assessment Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... information about the final quarterly assessments for the Tobacco Transition Program (TTP). Through the Tobacco Transition Payment Program (TTPP), which is part of the TTP, eligible former tobacco quota holders..., 2014. Also, as specified in the TTP regulations, the final two calendar quarterly payments are both...

  1. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-01-01

    Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, ...

  2. A Model Curriculum for Tobacco Use Cessation and Prevention Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, Michael J.; Fried, Jacquelyn L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes a curriculum for dental/dental hygiene schools that would teach oral health care providers how to routinely assess tobacco use, advise cessation, and provide assistance and follow-up for tobacco-using patients. The article emphasizes the importance of making tobacco interventions routine components of schools' clinical teaching programs.…

  3. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designation. Every package of chewing tobacco or snuff shall, before removal subject to internal revenue tax... tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C,” and packages of snuff may be designated “Tax Class M.” (b) Product weight. Every package of chewing tobacco...

  4. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Nebraska. Technical Report 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ian M.

    This report on adolescent tobacco use in Nebraska focuses on grades 8 and 10. The results presented are based on over time; (2) the changing nature of tobacco use from smoking to use as a chew or snuff; (3) the viewing of smoking and chewing as one health issue of tobacco exposure; (4) definition of a smoker for purposes of this study; (5) data…

  5. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... for smokeless tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of chewing tobacco or snuff shall..., the designation “chewing tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C,” and packages of snuff may be designated “Tax Class M.” (b) Product weight....

  6. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Notice for smokeless tobacco. (a) Product designation. Every package of chewing tobacco or snuff shall..., the designation “chewing tobacco” or “snuff.” As an alternative, packages of chewing tobacco may be designated “Tax Class C”, and packages of snuff may be designated “Tax Class M”. (b) Product weight....

  7. Increasing tobacco taxes : A cheap tool to increase public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Pieter H. M.; Brouwer, Werner B. F.; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T.; Feenstra, Talitha L.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have estimated health effects resulting from tobacco tax increases. However, studies on the cost effectiveness of tobacco taxes are scarce. The aim of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of tobacco tax increases from a health care perspective, explicitly c

  8. Field Validation of Secondary Data Sources for Enumerating Retail Tobacco Outlets in a State without Tobacco Outlet Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    D’Angelo, Heather; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Rose, Shyanika W; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying tobacco retail outlets for U.S. FDA compliance checks or calculating tobacco outlet is difficult in the 13 states without tobacco retail licensing or where licensing lists are unavailable for research. This study uses primary data collection to identify tobacco outlets in three counties in a non-licensing state and validate two commercial secondary data sources. We calculated sensitivity and positive predictive values (PPV) to validate the secondary data sources, and conducted a g...

  9. A Few More Laps to Go: Tobacco Industry Political Influence, Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Daniel J. BA; Barnes, Richard L JD; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco policy has been an issue in Indiana since 1893, when the legislature passed a law prohibiting selling tobacco to people under 16. Beginning as early as 1969, Indiana General Assembly members and tobacco control advocates launched uncoordinated efforts to pass a law restricting smoking in government buildings. The tobacco industry responded with a well-financed and well-connected network of lobbyists, campaign contributions and third-party allies which's lobbyists that defeated every s...

  10. Effect of Anti-Tobacco Audiovisual Messages on Knowledge and Attitude towards Tobacco Use in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of death globally. Mass media plays a significant role in initiation as well as in control of tobacco use. Aims: To assess the effect of viewing anti-tobacco audiovisual messages on knowledge and attitudinal change towards tobacco use. Settings and Design: Interventional community-based study. Materials and Methods: A total of 1999 cinema attendees (age 10 years and above, irrespective of their smoking or tobacco using status, were selected from four cinema halls (two urban, one semi-urban, and one rural site. In pre-exposure phase 1000 subjects and in post-exposure phase 999 subjects were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. After collecting baseline information, the other days were chosen for screening the audiovisual spots that were shown twice per show. After the show, subjects were interviewed to assess its effect. Statistical Analysis Used: Proportions of two independent groups were compared and statistically significance using chi-square test was accepted if error was less than 0.05%. Results: Overall 784 (39.2% subjects were tobacco users, 52.6% were non-tobacco users and 8.2% were former tobacco users. Important factors for initiation of tobacco use were peer pressure (62%, imitating elders (53.4% and imitating celebrity (63.5%. Tobacco users were significantly less likely than non-tobacco users to recall watching the spots during movie (72.1% vs. 79.1%. Anti-tobacco advertisement gave inspiration to 37% of subjects not to use tobacco. The celebrity in advertisement influenced the people′s attention. There was significant improvement in knowledge and attitudes towards anti-tobacco legal and public health measures in post exposure group. Conclusions: The anti-tobacco advertisements have been found to be effective in enhancing knowledge as well as in transforming to positive attitude of the people about tobacco use.

  11. Expression of Endoglin (CD-105) and Microvessel Density in Oral Dysplasia and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Basnaker, Maharudrappa; SR, Shashikanth; BNVS, Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the expression of Endoglin (CD-105) and Microvessel Density in clinically normal oral mucosa of non-tobacco and tobacco habituated patients & also histopathologically confirmed cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.

  12. Understanding the Authoritative Parenting-Early Adolescent Tobacco Use Link; The Mediating Role of Peer Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk-Robinette, Stacey L.; Fletcher, Anne C.; Wright, Kristie

    2002-01-01

    Studied the link between authoritative parenting style and early adolescent tobacco use through the self-reports of 156 eighth graders and independent reports on tobacco use from their friends. Results show that high levels of authoritative parenting are associated with lower levels of tobacco use among target adolescents. (SLD)

  13. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    OpenAIRE

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R.; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms.

  14. The Effect of Exposure to Pro-Tobacco Advertising on Experimentation with Emerging Tobacco Products among U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study assessed the influence of exposure to pro-tobacco advertisements on experimentation with emerging tobacco products among U.S. adolescents aged =9 years, in Grades 6 to 12. Method: Data were obtained from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to measure the association between…

  15. Tobacco commerce on the internet: a threat to comprehensive tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, J; Sarabia, V; Ashley, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    Although internet use continues to increase and e-commerce sales are expected to exceed US$1 trillion by the end of 2001, there have been few assessments in the literature regarding the implications of this medium for tobacco control efforts. This commentary explores the challenges that the internet may pose to the key components of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, and pinpoints potential approaches for addressing these challenges. Four key challenges that the internet presents for t...

  16. Tobacco Industry Political Influence and Tobacco Policy Making in New York 1983-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Dearlove, Joanna BA; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2000-01-01

    The tobacco industry is a potent force in Albany. Since 1983 (not including 1988-89, were data are not available) tobacco interests spent $1.3 million on campaign contributions to candidates and political party committees. Of this, $277,905 went to legislative candidates, $38,650 went to candidates for constitutional office, and the remaining $1 million went to party committees. The members of the 1997-98 legislature who collected the most money from campaign contributions were Assem...

  17. PREVENTING TOBACCO USE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    SCHINKE, STEVEN PAUL; Gilchrist, Lewayne D.

    1986-01-01

    Preventing tobacco use in youths may be an easier task than helping adults break the habit of smoking and overcome its ill effects. Using experimental procedures based on social work techniques, this study suggests that social work efforts are an effective tool in programs and services that focus on primary prevention.

  18. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille K; Poulsen, Henrik E

    2016-01-01

    studies on 3668 persons using ELISA methodology showed a non-significant effect of 8.7% [95% CL -1.2;18.6]. Tobacco smoke induces oxidative damage to DNA; however, this is not detected with ELISA methodology. Currently, the use of existing ELISA methodology to measure urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7...

  19. How traceability is restructuring Malawi's tobacco industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyer-Lee, Jason; Prowse, Martin

    This article applies a global value chain framework to tobacco in Malawi. It illuminates how cigarette manufacturers govern the chain and control first-tier suppliers: the leaf merchants. Due to credence and litigation concerns, manufacturers have become obsessed with leaf integrity. Contract...

  20. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Polanska; W. Hanke; R. Ronchetti; P. van den Hazel; M. Zuurbier; J.G. Koppe; A. Bartonova

    2006-01-01

    Almost half of the child population is involuntarily exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The ETS exposure gives rise to an excessive risk of several diseases in infancy and childhood, including sudden infant death syndrome, upper and lower respiratory infections, asthma and middle ear dise

  1. Polonium-210 in food and tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is concerned with the radioactivity in food and tobacco, derived mainly from 210Po which contribute to the radiation dose received through diet and smoking. This subject was covered under four chapters. Chapter one deals with historical background of polonium-210 and its behavior in living system. Sources of polonium-210 in food and tobacco are explained in the second chapter. Relevant issues such as separation and measurement of polonium-210 covered in subsequent chapter. Chapter four reviewed recent studies on polonium-210. It was found that the main source of this radionuclide is the phosphatic fertilizers that used in food and tobacco cultivation. These fertilizers contain the decay products of 238U series of which 210Po is known to be very important from environmental point of view. Many studies conducted showed that the committed effective dose derived mainly from 210 Po due to the consumption of food, particularly sea food is significant, furthermore 210Po in tobacco is known to be the main cause of many diseases such as lung cancer.(Author)

  2. Tobacco Interventions and Anaesthesia - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Saha

    2009-01-01

    This is a review of tobacco& its products, their health consequences, diseases caused, anaesthetic consider-ations& their role in helping these patients quit smoking Preventing nicotine addiction and improving smoking cessa-tion strategies should be the priority and despite these being only partially successful, strong measures at all levels should he continued& enforced.

  3. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  4. Saying No to Tobacco: A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  5. Economics of Tobacco Control - The Maldives

    OpenAIRE

    Afaal, Ahmed; Shareef, I. Riaz

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes briefly the general economic situation in the Maldives and describes its health care system, demographics and health outcomes. Mortality and life expectancy have been improving, but cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancers are the top causes of death; smoking is a risk factor for all of them. Tobacco imports have been increasing, although changes in the imp...

  6. Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason HSIA; Gong-Huan YANG; Qiang LI; Lin XIAO; Yan YANG; Yan-Wei WU; Samira ASMA

    2010-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) is a component of Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) under auspices of the Bloomberg philanthropy and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. GATS is a household survey with a standard protocol and its goals are to measure tobacco use, to assess changes due to policy and to facilitate cross country comparison. China is the largest consumer and producer of tobacco in the world. China was selected as one of 14 countries of high burden of tobacco use, large population, and mostly low income, to conduct the GATS.

  7. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, social attractiveness of smoking, accessibility of tobacco products and associated behaviors. The article presents a review of international research on the demarketing of tobacco and its effects for the formation and change of health behavior.

  8. Mutagenicity tobacco snuff: possible health implications for coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whong, W.Z.; Ames, R.G.; Ong, T.

    1984-01-01

    Mutagenicity of tobacco snuff extracts was studied using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay system. No mutagenic activity was found for tobacco snuff extracts without S9 activation. However, mutagenic substances were formed from tobacco snuff extracts in an acidic environment. The mutagenic substances induced predominantly frameshift mutations and were direct-acting mutagens. Mutagenic activity of tobacco snuff extracts was enhanced in the presence of coal-dust extracts at low pH. Since tobacco snuff has been used by some coal miners to substitute for cigarettes, a possible risk for gastric cancer induction among coal miners is proposed.

  9. Role of AINTEGUMENTA-like gene NtANTL in the regulation of tobacco organ growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, Bulat; Avalbaev, Azamat; Nurgaleeva, Elina; Knyazev, Alexey; Nikonorov, Yuriy; Chemeris, Alexey

    2015-09-15

    The Nicotiana tabacum AINTEGUMENTA-like gene (NtANTL), encoding one of AP2/ERF transcription factors, is a putative ortholog of the AtANT gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. In wild-type tobacco plants, the NtANTL gene was expressed in the actively dividing young flowers, shoot apices, and calluses, while the level of its mRNA increased considerably after treatment with exogenous 6-benzylaminopurine, indoleacetic acid and 24-epibrassinolide. We found a positive correlation among the expression levels of NtANTL, cyclin NtCYCD3;1 and cyclin-dependent kinase NtCDKB1-1 genes, suggesting possible molecular links between AINTEGUMENTA and cell cycle regulators in tobacco plants. However, no correlation was observed between NtANTL, NtCYCD3;1 and NtCDKB1-1 expression levels in response to NaCl and ABA. These observations indicate that the transcription factor NtANTL was not involved in the regulation of the cellular response to salinity nor did it affect the expression of NtCYCD3;1 and NtCDKB1-1 when tobacco plants were exposed to salt stress and ABA. In addition, we generated transgenic tobacco plants with both up-regulated and down-regulated expression of the NtANTL gene. Constitutive expression of the NtANTL gene contributed to an increase in the size of leaves and corolla of transgenic plants. Transgenic plants with reduced expression of the NtANTL gene had smaller leaves, flowers and stems, but showed a compensatory increase in the cell size of leaves and flowers. The results show the significance of the NtANTL gene for the control of organ growth by both cell division and expansion in tobacco plants. PMID:26479044

  10. Paenibacillus lentimorbus Inoculation Enhances Tobacco Growth and Extenuates the Virulence of Cucumber mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Susheel; Chauhan, Puneet Singh; Agrawal, Lalit; Raj, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ashish; Gupta, Swati; Mishra, Shashank Kumar; Yadav, Sumit; Singh, Poonam C; Raj, Shri Krishna; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies with Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488" (hereafter referred as B-30488), a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from cow's milk, revealed its capabilities to improve plant quality under normal and stress conditions. Present study investigates its potential as a biocontrol agent against an economically important virus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley plants and delineates the physical, biophysical, biochemical and molecular perturbations due to the trilateral interactions of PGPR-host-CMV. Soil inoculation of B-30488 enhanced the plant vigor while significantly decreased the virulence and virus RNA accumulation by ~12 fold (91%) in systemic leaves of CMV infected tobacco plants as compared to the control ones. Histology of these leaves revealed the improved tissue's health and least aging signs in B-30488 inoculated tobacco plants, with or without CMV infection, and showed lesser intercellular spaces between collenchyma cells, reduced amount of xyloglucans and pectins in connecting primary cells, and higher polyphenol accumulation in hypodermis layer extending to collenchyma cells. B-30488 inoculation has favorably maneuvered the essential biophysical (ion leakage and photosynthetic efficiency) and biochemical (sugar, proline, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) attributes of tobacco plants to positively regulate and release the virus stress. Moreover, activities of defense related enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) induced due to CMV-infection were ameliorated with inoculation of B-30488, suggesting systemic induced resistance mediated protection against CMV in tobacco. The quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the genes related to normal plant development, stress and pathogenesis also corroborate well with the biochemical data and revealed the regulation (either up or down) of these genes in favor of plant to combat

  11. Do state expenditures on tobacco control programs decrease use of tobacco products among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciecierski, Christina Czart; Chatterji, Pinka; Chaloupka, Frank J; Wechsler, Henry

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of state tobacco control program expenditures on individual-level tobacco use behaviors among young adults. Data come from the 1997, 1999 and 2001 waves of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study (CAS). Our findings indicate that a higher level of state spending on tobacco control programs in the prior year is associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability that current daily smokers report at least one attempt to quit smoking in the past year. We also find evidence that higher state expenditures on tobacco control programs in the prior year are associated with reductions in the prevalence of daily smoking and 30-day cigar use among college students. We do not find any statistically significant association between state tobacco control program expenditures and the number of attempts to quit smoking among those with at least one attempt, or on the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in the past month.

  12. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women). PMID:26670238

  13. Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking in Turkey: Policy Implications and Trends from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdöl, Cevdet; Ergüder, Toker; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna; Gupta, Prakash; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-08

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is an emerging tobacco product globally, especially among adolescents and young adults who may perceive WTS as a safe alternative to smoking cigarettes. Monitoring the use of WTS in Turkey in relation to the tobacco control policy context is important to ensure that WTS does not become a major public health issue in Turkey. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) was conducted in Turkey in 2008 and was repeated in 2012. GATS provided prevalence estimates on current WTS and change over time. Other indicators of WTS were also obtained, such as age of initiation and location of use. Among persons aged 15 and older in Turkey, the current prevalence of WTS decreased from 2.3% in 2008 to 0.8% in 2012, representing a 65% relative decline. Among males, WTS decreased from 4.0% to 1.1% (72% relative decline). While the overall smoking prevalence decreased among females, there was no change in the rate of WTS (0.7% in 2008 vs. 0.5% in 2012), though the WTS prevalence rate was already low in 2008. Comprehensive tobacco control efforts have been successful in reducing the overall smoking prevalence in Turkey, which includes the reduction of cigarette smoking and WTS. However, it is important to continue monitoring the use of waterpipes in Turkey and targeting tobacco control efforts to certain groups that may be vulnerable to future WTS marketing (e.g., youth, women).

  14. Worldwide expansion of transnational tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, G N

    1992-01-01

    As smoking rates fall in North America and western Europe, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) from the United States and Great Britain turn to cigarette markets of the developing world to replace those smokers who have quit or died from smoking. The majority of these markets are dominated by state tobacco monopolies that advertise and promote smoking minimally. Few women or adolescents smoke in those nations. The majority of men do, but they smoke far fewer cigarettes per year than their counterparts in developed nations. Trade barriers in the developing world prevent foreign cigarette companies from entering. TTCs employ various techniques to force open those markets, including trade pressure from the US government. Once the market is open, Western cigarette advertising and promotions target nonsmoking women and children. Retail tobacco outlets increase, smoking rates rise, and more death and disease result. Latin America was the TTC target in the 1960s, the newly developed nations of Asia during the 1980s, and, today, the tobacco giants are pushing into eastern Europe, China, and Africa. If nothing is done, emerging national smoking-control programs will be overwhelmed, and state-owned cigarette monopolies will be taken over by the TTCs. Policies and programs to curb smoking exist, but for various reasons many lesser developed countries have not adopted them. The threat of TTC entry into a closed market offers an opportunity to form national coalitions against smoking, educate the public about the dangers of tobacco use, and implement public health policies and programs to restrict marketing and use of cigarettes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1616807

  15. Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Sean; Neff, Linda; Agaku, Israel T; Cox, Shanna; Day, Hannah R; Holder-Hayes, Enver; King, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    While significant declines in cigarette smoking have occurred among U.S. adults during the past 5 decades, the use of emerging tobacco products* has increased in recent years (1-3). To estimate tobacco use among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) analyzed data from the 2013-2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS). During 2013-2014, 21.3% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day or some days, and 25.5% of U.S. adults used a tobacco product every day, some days, or rarely. Despite progress in reducing cigarette smoking, during 2013-2014, cigarettes remained the most commonly used tobacco product among adults. Young adults aged 18-24 years reported the highest prevalence of use of emerging tobacco products, including water pipes/hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Furthermore, racial/ethnic and sociodemographic differences in the use of any tobacco product were observed, with higher use reported among males; non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and non-Hispanics of other races(†); persons aged smoke-free laws, and enhanced access to help quitting tobacco use, in conjunction with FDA regulation of tobacco products, are critical to reducing tobacco-related diseases and deaths in the United States.(§). PMID:27416365

  16. Poly-Tobacco Use among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Sarah D; Patel, Tanha; Ranney, Leah M; Huang, Li-Ling; Sutfin, Erin L; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-11-13

    Although cigarette use by adolescents is declining, emerging tobacco products are becoming increasingly popular and youth may use more than one type of tobacco product. The purposes of this study were: (1) to assess patterns of poly-tobacco use among a representative sample of high school students and (2) to determine how beliefs correlate with poly-tobacco use. Data came from the 2013 North Carolina Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 4092). SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Among all high school students in NC in 2013, 29.7% reported current any tobacco use, with 19.1% reporting current poly-tobacco use, and 10.6% reporting current use of only one product. Among poly-tobacco users, 59.3% reported that one of the products they currently used was cigarettes. Positive tobacco product beliefs were found to be significantly associated with poly-tobacco use. Communication campaigns, policy efforts, and future research are needed for prevention, regulation, and control of poly-tobacco use among adolescents, which represents a significant public health problem.

  17. Tobacco Retail Outlets and Vulnerable Populations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Chaiton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest has been increasing in regulating the location and number of tobacco vendors as part of a comprehensive tobacco control program. The objective of this paper is to examine the distribution of tobacco outlets in a large jurisdiction, to assess: (1 whether tobacco outlets are more likely to be located in vulnerable areas; and (2 what proportion of tobacco outlets are located close to schools. Retail locations across the Province of Ontario from Ministry of Health Promotion data were linked to 2006 Census data at the neighbourhood level. There was one tobacco retail outlet for every 1,000 people over age 15 in Ontario. Density of outlets varied by public health unit, and was associated with the number of smokers. Tobacco outlets were more likely to be located in areas that had high neighbourhood deprivation, in both rural and urban areas. Outlets were less likely to be located in areas with high immigrant populations in urban areas, with the reverse being true for rural areas. Overall, 65% of tobacco retailers were located within 500 m of a school. The sale of tobacco products is ubiquitous, however, neighbourhoods with lower socio-economic status are more likely to have easier availability of tobacco products and most retailers are located within walking distance of a school. The results suggest the importance of policies to regulate the location of tobacco retail outlets.

  18. Tobacco branding, plain packaging, pictorial warnings, and symbolic consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Gendall, Philip; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith; Pene, Gina; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2012-05-01

    We use brand association and symbolic consumption theory to explore how plain cigarette packaging would influence the identities young adults cocreate with tobacco products. Group discussions and in-depth interviews with 86 young adult smokers and nonsmokers investigated how participants perceive tobacco branding and plain cigarette packaging with larger health warnings. We examined the transcript data using thematic analysis and explored how removing tobacco branding and replacing this with larger warnings would affect the symbolic status of tobacco brands and their social connotations. Smokers used tobacco brand imagery to define their social attributes and standing, and their connection with specific groups. Plain cigarette packaging usurped this process by undermining aspirational connotations and exposing tobacco products as toxic. Replacing tobacco branding with larger health warnings diminishes the cachet brand insignia creates, weakens the social benefits brands confer on users, and represents a potentially powerful policy measure.

  19. Women and tobacco: moving from policy to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V; Kaufman, N; Nichter, M; Samet, J; Yoon, S Y

    2000-01-01

    A gender perspective contributes to a better understanding of the epidemiological trends, social marketing strategies, economic policies, and international actions relating to women and the tobacco epidemic. Evidence is provided in this article for the negative impact of tobacco use by women and of passive smoking on the health of women and children. Use of tobacco by women is increasing and this is related to the tobacco industry's aggressive advertising, sponsorship and promotion strategies. Policy directions are proposed in this article. At all levels, a multi-pronged strategy--including changes in legislation and fiscal policies, improvements in gender-sensitive health services, and cessation programmes--should be considered. Much more gender-specific research on tobacco use is needed, particularly in developing countries. Women's empowerment and leadership should be at the centre of all tobacco control efforts and are essential for the success of national programmes and the recently introduced Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  20. Away with tobacco? On the early understandings of tobacco as a problem and the associated attempts at political regulation of tobacco in Norway 1900–1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sæbø Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - In the early 1900s, the industrialization of cigarette production rapidly created the first major expansion in tobacco consumption in modern times. AIMS - This article focuses on the “tobacco problem” as it was understood, debated and sought governed in Norway around the time of the First World War. I identify various attempts to define tobacco as a problem, including arguments put forward by the anti-tobacco movement, the medical profession and politicians. How were health, moral-aesthetic and economic conditions articulated and integrated in these arguments? What (if any addictive elements of smoking were in focus? I also discuss the association between perceptions of the tobacco problem and political attempts to regulate it. There were repeated calls for a state tobacco monopoly to be introduced and municipal licensing system for the sale of cigarettes. DATA - The data are sourced from the journals Tobakskampen (The Tobacco Fight, the journal of the norwegian medical association and parliamentary documents. FINDINGS - The findings suggest that a to the extent tobacco was perceived as a social problem, it was a moral one (vice, not a behavioural and dependency problem, which alcohol was perceived to be at the time; b proposals to establish a tobacco monopoly were based on economic arguments only, and lacked any firm connection to social issues, health and morality; and c the anti-tobacco movement was socially marginal and their commitment to the municipal licensing idea resulted in large regional variations in public support, too large in fact for the idea to be effective. Although the government did not introduce regulations in the 1920s, the industrialization of cigarettes and subsequent developments in advertising caused a “moral panic” among tobacco opponents and created the modern climate of opinion regarding tobacco.