Sample records for butyrophenones

  1. Development of predictive retention-activity models of butyrophenones by biopartitioning micellar chromatography. (United States)

    Martín-Biosca, Y; Molero-Monfort, M; Sagrado, S; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Medina-Hernández, M J


    The predictive and interpretative capability of quantitative chromatographic retention-biological activity models is supported by the fact that in adequate experimental conditions the solute partitioning into the chromatographic system can emulate the solute partitioning into lipid bilayers of biological membranes, which is the basis of drug and metabolite uptake, passive transport across membranes and bioaccumulation. The use of retention data obtained in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) has been demonstrated to be helpful in describing the biological behaviour of different kinds of drugs. In this chromatographic system, polioxyethylene 23 lauryl ether Brij35 micellar mobile phases and C(18) reversed stationary phase in adequate experimental conditions are used. The RP-HPLC capacity factors of butyrophenones were determined using different Brij35 concentrations as micellar mobile phases. Relationships between seven biological activities of butyrophenones reported in bibliography and retention data were established and their predictive and interpretative ability evaluated. These relationships were significant between preclinical pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy parameters and the retention factors of butyrophenones (0.89 < R(2) < 0.98). The results indicate that the retention of compounds in BMC is capable of describing and predicting in vitro the biological activities of butyrophenones. This approach can be very useful in the development of new neuroleptic drugs, avoiding the use of experimental animals. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization, and Agricultural Biological Activities of 5-Fluoro-2-hydroxy Butyrophenone

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    Fengli Xin


    Full Text Available A novel synthetic approach towards 5-fluoro-2-hydroxy butyrophenone is reported. Using 4-fluorophenol as a raw material, the processes of etherification protection, Friedel-Crafts acylation and demethylation provide the target compound under mild conditions. The structure was characterized by the melting point and IR, MS, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The bioassay results indicate that the target compound exhibits potent antifungal activities against Valsa mali, Coniella dipodiella, and other agricultural plant fungi. The target compound also shows potent herbicidal activities for Lactuca sativa, a dicotyledon, and Echinochloa crus-galli, a monocotyledon. The toxicity regression C50 values of the compound against Valsa mali, Coniothyrium diplodiella, Lactuca sativa seedling, and Echinochloa crusgalli seedling were calculated by SPSS. The Hormesis effect for roots of Echinochloa crusgalli was confirmed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    emetics. Various drugs have been used in the management including anticho- linergics, antihistamines, phenothiazines, benzamides, butyrophenones and more recently dexamethasone and. 5-HT3- receptor antagonists.

  4. Drug: D02621 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02621 Drug Fluanisone (INN) C21H25FN2O2 356.19 356.4338 D02621.gif ATC code: N05AD...M N05 PSYCHOLEPTICS N05A ANTIPSYCHOTICS N05AD Butyrophenone derivatives N05AD09 Fluanisone D02621 Fluanisone

  5. Regional distribution of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, in the rat brain at different time intervals and after chronic administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, A.J.M.; Van Wijngaarden, I.; Janssen, P.A.J.; Soudijn, W.


    Only a very small amount of halopemide, a new psychotropic agent, structurally related to the butyrophenones, but with a different pharmacological and clinical profile, penetrates into the rat brain. The maximum concentration is reached between 1 and 2 hours after injection. Halopemide is evenly

  6. [The effect of psychotropic substances on the deamination of monoamines in the rat brain]. (United States)

    Gol'dina, O A; Gankina, E M


    A comparative study of antimonoamine oxidase activity of psychotropic agents of different classes was made. Phenothiazine, butyrophenone and atypical neuroleptics were found to suppress deamination of 2-phenylethylamine in the brain. Tranquilizers of benzodiazepine structure appeared to be inactive with respect to monoamine oxidase (MAO) of the brain. Anticonvulsants (except difenin) weakly inhibit serotonin deamination and, on the contrary, difenin stimulates serotonin- and 2-phenylethylamine deamination. Antidepressants--MAO inhibitors--more actively reduce the rate of serotonin deamination, and tricyclic antidepressant desimipramine is similar to aminazine by its effect on MAO. Phenamine is a potent MAO inhibitor. The effect of cocaine is significantly less pronounced.

  7. [Loss of visual acuity after treatment with pipamperone]. (United States)

    Loos, D; Kook, P; Huber, J; Zorn, C; Lohmann, C P; Zapp, D; Maier, M


    The butyrophenone derivative pipamperone is a neuroleptic agent administered to reduce psychomotor agitation and psychotic conditions in schizophrenic psychoses. Among other things it blocks D2 receptors in the dopamine pathways of the mesolimbic system and therefore reduces excess release of dopamine in the area thought to control psychotic experiences. Dopamine also takes part in signal transduction in the visual process. Loss of visual acuity, color vision, scotoma and electrophysiological alterations were observed under treatment with different groups of neuroleptics which interfere with dopamine metabolism but have not yet been observed after therapy with pipamperone. We present the case of a young women suffering from unilateral loss of visual acuity after treatment with pipamperone.

  8. The neurotoxicity of pyridinium metabolites of haloperidol

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    Agnieszka Górska


    Full Text Available Haloperydol is a butyrophenone, typical neuroleptic agent characterized as a high antipsychotics effects in the treatment of schizophrenia and in palliative care to alleviation many syndromes, such as naursea, vomiting and delirium. Clinical problems occurs during and after administration of the drug are side effects, particularly extrapyrramidal symptoms (EPS. The neurotoxicity of haloperydol may be initiated by the cationic metabolites of haloperydol, HPP+, RHPP+, formed by oxidation and reduction pathways. These metabolites are transported by human organic cation transporters (hOCT to several brain structures for exapmle, in substantia nigra, striatum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus. After reaching the dopaminergic neurons inhibits mitochondrial complex I, evidence for free radical involvement, thus leading to neurodegeneration.

  9. Serum iron and ferritin in acute neuroleptic akathisia. (United States)

    Hofmann, M; Seifritz, E; Botschev, C; Kräuchi, K; Müller-Spahn, F


    Acute akathisia is a common and disturbing side effect of classic antipsychotic medication. Some evidence suggests a role for iron deficiency in chronic and tardive akathisia. In acute akathisia, however, the data are contradictory. Serum iron and ferritin levels of 33 inpatients with acute akathisia during classic neuroleptic medication were compared with those of 23 patients on classic neuroleptics without this side effect. Akathisia was rated by means of the Hillside Akathisia Scale. The groups were balanced for age (mean 38.5+/-14.5), medication (butyrophenone- and phenothiazine-derived neuroleptics) and diagnosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychotic affective disorder). Patients with acute akathisia had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than the patients in the control group. However, the ferritin (56. 94+/-39.54 ng/ml) and iron (88.52+/-40.0 mg/dl) levels in these patients were within the normal range (ferritin 30-300 ng/dl, iron 80-180 mg/dl). No correlations between serum iron or ferritin and akathisia ratings could be found. Although some reduction in serum ferritin was found in patients with acute akathisia compared to patients without akathisia, the difference was small and the ferritin levels were within the range of the normal population. These findings suggest a minor role for iron deficiency in acute akathisia.

  10. Observational study of drug-drug interactions in oncological inpatients

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    María Sacramento Díaz-Carrasco


    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of potential clinically relevant drug- drug interactions in adult oncological inpatients, as well as to describe the most frequent interactions. A standard database was used. Method: An observational, transversal, and descriptive study including patients admitted to the Oncology Service of a reference hospital. All prescriptions were collected twice a week during a month. They were analysed using Lexicomp® database, recording all interactions classified with a level of risk: C, D or X. Results: A total of 1 850 drug-drug interactions were detected in 218 treatments. The prevalence of treatments with at least one clinically relevant interaction was 95%, being 94.5% for those at level C and 26.1% for levels D and X. The drugs most commonly involved in the interactions detected were opioid analgesics, antipsychotics (butyrophenones, benzodiazepines, pyrazolones, glucocorticoids and heparins, whereas interactions with antineoplastics were minimal, highlighting those related to paclitaxel and between metamizole and various antineoplastics. Conclusions: The prevalence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions rate was very high, highlighting the high risk percentage of them related to level of risk X. Due to the frequency of onset and potential severity, highlighted the concomitant use of central nervous system depressants drugs with risk of respiratory depression, the risk of onset of anticholinergic symptoms when combining morphine or haloperidol with butylscopolamine, ipratropium bromide or dexchlorpheniramine and the multiple interactions involving metamizole.

  11. Antidepressants and protein kinases: inhibition of Ca2+-regulated myosin phosphorylation by fluoxetine and iprindole. (United States)

    Silver, P J; Sigg, E B; Moyer, J A


    The effects of several antidepressant and antipsychotic agents on Ca2+-calmodulin-regulated myosin light chain phosphorylation were evaluated. At a concentration of 100 microM, the antidepressant agents buproprion, mianserin and maprotiline were ineffective; zimelidine, desipramine and imipramine produced 40-50% inhibition; and iprindole and fluoxetine produced 75-90% inhibition. The efficacies of iprindole and fluoxetine were similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic and the butyrophenone haloperidol were relatively ineffective as myosin light chain phosphorylation inhibitors. IC50 values of the most effective agents were: trifluoperazine 16 microM, fluoxetine 28 microM, chlorpromazine and iprindole 56 microM. As with trifluoperazine, inhibition of myosin phosphorylation by iprindole was completely attenuated in the presence of exogenous calmodulin. However, a significant component (30%) of the inhibitory effect of fluoxetine was not reversible with calmodulin. These results show that some antidepressant agents, most notably iprindole and fluoxetine, are capable of antagonizing a calmodulin-regulated protein kinase through calmodulin inhibition; and in the case of fluoxetine, through an additional calmodulin-independent mechanism.

  12. Pemoline ingestion in children: a report of five cases and review of the literature. (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidefumi; Blumer, Jeffrey L; Reed, Michael D


    The authors describe five pediatric cases of excessive pemoline ingestion. Based on their experience compared with previously reported cases in the literature, they describe the clinical presentation and rational treatment recommendations for acute pemoline ingestion. Overall, patients experienced a relatively benign clinical course following pemoline ingestion. Symptoms of pemoline ingestion appear to be primarily an accentuation of the drug's pharmacological effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems with sinus tachycardia, hypertension, hyperactivity, choreoathetoid movements, and hallucinations being most commonly observed. These findings are consistent with previously reported cases. Possible rhabdomyolysis manifested by evaluation of serum CPK was also observed in 3 of 4 patients in whom this laboratory parameter was measured and appears to be a common finding in acute pemoline poisoning. After acute ingestion, symptoms occurred within 6 hours, lasting up to 48 hours in all patients. Gastric lavage and/or activated charcoal would be effective decontamination measures, whereas ipecac-induced emesis should be avoided after massive ingestion due to the possibility of seizures. Aggressive use of a benzodiazepine appears a reasonable first choice to treat associated involuntary movements, tremor, hyperactivity, irritability, and agitation. Phenothiazines or butyrophenones may also be used especially for serious life-threatening symptoms, including hypertensive crisis and severe hyperthermia, although these serious complications of stimulant overdose have not been reported after pemoline ingestion. If a patient should experience pemoline-induced hypertensive crisis, individual dose titration of labetalol or sodium nitroprusside would appear reasonable pharmacologic approaches for rapid stabilization of blood pressure.

  13. The consolidation of neuroleptic therapy: Janssen, the discovery of haloperidol and its introduction into clinical practice. (United States)

    López-Muñoz, Francisco; Alamo, Cecilio


    The discovery of haloperidol at the end of the 1950s constitutes one of the greatest advances of 20th century psychiatry. This antipsychotic drug has their origin in the research process of central analgesic molecules derived from pethidine and methadone, carried out by the Belgian company Janssen Phamaceutica. After the synthesis of phenoperidine, numerous analogues of this compound were studied, and chemists at Janssen took the decision to substitute the propiophenone group for a butyrophenone group. One of these compounds went the R-1625, a stronger agent with specifically neuroleptic properties but lacking morphine-like activity. This substance was synthesized on the 11th February 1958 and received the generic name of haloperidol because of the two halogenated substitutes incorporated into the molecule. Clinical development of haloperidol was conducted, primarily, by psychiatric research team at the University of Liège that confirmed its efficacy in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders such as acute and chronic paranoid psychosis, mania, or chronic treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Under the brand name Haldol((R)), haloperidol was licensed and marketed in Belgium in October 1959. The direct and differed consequences of its introduction into the psychiatric practice have been multiple, involving different areas of socio-sanitary reality. Moreover, haloperidol has contributed substantially to the development of biological psychiatry and currently neuroscience, because it made possible the development of new experimental models for predicting the effects of antipsychotics, and allowed the postulate of the firsts biological hypotheses about the schizophrenia etiology. Haloperidol has been included in the World Health Organisation's list of essential medicines.

  14. Imaging dopamine transmission in schizophrenia

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    Laruelle, M. [New York, Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Insitute. Brain Imaging Division


    Over the last ten years, several positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon computerized tomography (SPECT) studies of the dopamine (DA) system in patients with schizophrenia were performed to test the hypothesis that DA hyperactivity is associated with this illness. In this paper are reviewed the results of fifteen brain imaging studies comparing indices of DA function in drug naive or drug free patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: thirteen studies included measurements of Da D{sub 2} receptor density, two studies compared amphetamine-induced DA release, and two studies measured DOPA decarboxylase activity, an enzyme involved in DA synthesis. It was conducted a meta-analysis of the studies measuring D{sub 2} receptor density parameters, under the assumption that all tracers labeled the same population of D{sub 2} receptors. This analysis revealed that, compared to healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia present a significant but mild elevation of D{sub 2} receptor density parameters and a significant larger variability of these indices. It was found no statistical evidence that studies performed with radiolabeled butyrophenones detected a larger increase in D{sub 2} receptor density parameters than studies performed with other radioligands, such as benzamides. Studies of presynaptic activity revealed an increase in DA transmission response to amphetamine challenge, and an increase in DOPA decarboxylase activity. Together, these data are compatible with both pre- and post-synaptic alterations of DA transmission in schizophrenia. Future studies should aim at a better characterization of these alterations, and at defining their role in the pathophysiology of the illness.

  15. Semi-Targeted Analysis of Complex Matrices by ESI FT-ICR MS or How an Experimental Bias may be Used as an Analytical Tool (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Dufour, Anthony; Aubriet, Frédéric


    Ammonia is well suited to favor deprotonation process in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to increase the formation of [M - H]-. Nevertheless, NH3 may react with carbonyl compounds (aldehyde, ketone) and bias the composition description of the investigated sample. This is of significant importance in the study of complex mixture such as oil or bio-oil. To assess the ability of primary amines to form imines with carbonyl compounds during the ESI-MS process, two aldehydes (vanillin and cinnamaldehyde) and two ketones (butyrophenone and trihydroxyacetophenone) have been infused in an ESI source with ammonia and two different amines (aniline and 3-chloronaniline). The (+) ESI-MS analyses have demonstrated the formation of imine whatever the considered carbonyl compound and the used primary amine, the structure of which was extensively studied by tandem mass spectrometry. Thus, it has been established that the addition of ammonia, in the solution infused in an ESI source, may alter the composition description of a complex mixture and leads to misinterpretations due to the formation of imines. Nevertheless, this experimental bias can be used to identify the carbonyl compounds in a pyrolysis bio-oil. As we demonstrated, infusion of the bio-oil with 3-chloroaniline in ESI source leads to specifically derivatized carbonyl compounds. Thanks to their chlorine isotopic pattern and the high mass measurement accuracy, (+) ESI Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) unambiguously highlighted them from the numerous CxHyOz bio-oil components. These results offer a new perspective into the detailed molecular structure of complex mixtures such as bio-oils. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. [Therapy of childhood schizophrenia]. (United States)

    Eggers, C


    Due to the multifacet genesis and variability of clinical phenomenology, the therapy of childhood schizophrenia must be multidimensional. Formerly applied techniques like electroshock- and insulin-therapy are now replaced by pharmaco-therapy, primarily with phenothiazines, butyrophenones and chlorprothixens. The dosage depends on age, body weight or body surface. Because of extrapyramidal motor side effects, combinations with anticholinergic drugs may be necessary. Psychopharmaco-therapy alone, however, is insufficient. High emphasis must be placed on psychotherapy and educational guidance and counselling of the psychotic child. Participation in play groups, sports, muscial activities, arts and crafts, and acting helps make it possible to improve communication behaviour and to transform aggressive anxiety defense into stabilized control of emotions and impulses. In addition to successive integration of the psychotic child into small groups, play therapy with the single child is meaningful. In this case, a constant and confidential relation between therapist and child is extremely important and only possible if the therapist attempts to place himself into the magic-animistic phantasies of the psychotic child. He has first to learn the psychotic language of his patient in order to support more reality-oriented behaviour processes of the child's thinking, preceiving and performing later on. In this manner, the magic-omnipotent phantasies can be dissolved and an increasing orientation of the child toward reality can be encouraged. This involves strengthening and support of non-pathological ego-functions and initiation of a new level of ego-functioning. Such an integrated developmental concept can best be realized through play therapy.

  17. Effect of drugs used in psychoses on cerebral dopamine metabolism (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Ruth; Sharman, D. F.; Vogt, Marthe


    of atropine are discussed. 7. At present we know of two types of biochemical changes which may occur in the brain of animals after treatment with drugs apt to cause Parkinsonism in man: a loss of cerebral catecholamines, as seen after reserpine or oxypertine, or an increase in turnover of DA as after phenothiazines and butyrophenones. PMID:4984801

  18. Perbandingan Granisetron 0,01 mg/KgBb dengan Ondansetron 0,08 Mg/Kg.Bb Untuk Mencegah Mual Muntah Pascaoperasi Dini Mastektomi Radikal Modifikasi

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    Budi Fitriyana


    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting not only cause discomfort to the patient, but also lead to electrolyte imbalance, regurgitation and aspiration, bleeding and loss of surgical sutures. Patients who experience postoperative nausea and vomiting will require further attention and treatment which of course increases the cost of medical services. Women who underwent mastectomy with accompanying decision underarm lymph nodes have a high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Many anti-vomiting are given including antihistamines, butyrophenon, and dopamine receptor antagonists have been reported to have undesirable side effects including excessive sedation, hypotension, dry mouth, dysphoria, hallucinations and extrapyramidal effects. 5 HT3 receptor antagonists provide a major advancement for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting due to fewer side effects when compared with anti-vomiting medications before. This study will compare the two drugs 5 HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron with ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting modified radical mastectomy early. Conducted research on 58 patients ASA I and II modified radical mastectomy is performed under general anesthesia. Sampling was carried out using double-blind randomized controlled trial. Samples were divided into two groups by block randomization. Group G is given granisetron 0.01 gr / and group O is given ondansetron 0.08 mg / Drug treatment is administered intravenously 30 minutes before the surgery ended on a complete evaluation of blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and length of surgery. Postoperative nausea and vomiting shortly after surgery assessed every hour until 6 hours after surgery (early postoperative nausea and vomiting to 4 scale (0-3. Data were analyzed by t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's Exact test on Windows SPSS ver.16 The results suggest there is a tendency complaints of postoperative nausea and

  19. Azaperone e sua associação com xilazina ou dexmedetomidina em suínos Azaperone and its association with xilazina or dexmedetomidina in swines

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    Fabíola Niederauer Flôres


    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito sedativo do azaperone e de sua associação com a xilazina ou dexmedetomidina na espécie suína, assim como verificar a possibilidade de o agente butirofenônico contrabalançar os efeitos causados pelos agonistas α2-adrenérgicos nos parâmetros cardiovasculares. Foram estudados 18 suínos hígidos da linhagem Dambread X MS 50, de 50 dias de idade, pesando 17,3kg (±1,7. Todos os animais foram submetidos a anestesia com isofluorano para instrumentação necessária ao protocolo experimental e, 30 minutos após a recuperação anestésicas, os parâmetros basais foram mensurados e os animais alocados aleatoriamente em três grupos de seis animais cada: GA (Azaperone 2mg kg-1 + Cloreto de sódio 0,5ml - IM, GAD (Azaperone 2mg kg-1 + Dexmedetomidina 3µg kg-1 - IM, GAX (Azaperone 2mg kg-1 + Xilazina 2mg kg-1 - IM. Os parâmetros foram novamente avaliados aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 minutos após administração dos fármacos correspondentes aos grupos do estudo. A frequência cardíaca teve seus valores reduzidos em todos os grupos, porém essa redução foi maior no GAX. Durante o estudo não foi observado efeito bifásico sobre a pressão arterial, com hipertensão seguida de hipotensão. O GAX apresentou redução de PaO2 e aumento de PaCO2, assim como observou-se melhor efeito sedativo nesse grupo. Os resultados permitem concluir que a associação de azaperone com xilazina promoveu melhor sedação e miorrelaxamento e menor resposta a estímulos.The aim of this study was to evaluate the sedative effects of azaperone and its association with xylazine or dexmedetomidine in swine, as well as verifying the possibility of the butyrophenone agent to counterbalance the effects caused by α2-adreneceptor agonists on the cardiovascular and hemodynamic parameters. For this, eighteen healthy swines of the Dambread X MS 50 lineage aged 50 days-old, weighing around 17.3kg (±1.7 were used. All animals were submitted an

  20. On the clinical impact of cerebral dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy; Zur klinischen Wertigkeit der zerebralen Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie

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    Larisch, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Klimke, A. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik


    The present review describes findings and clinical indications for the dopamine D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy. Methods for the examination of D{sub 2} receptors are positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 11}C- or {sup 18}F-labelled butyrophenones or benzamides or single photon emission tomography (SPECT) using {sup 123}I-iodobenzamide (IBZM) respectively. The most important indication in neurology is the differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism: Patients with early Parkinson`s disease show an increased D{sub 2} receptor binding (D{sub 2}-RB) compared to control subjects. However, patients suffering from Steele-Richardson-Olszewski-Syndrome or Multiple System Atrophy show a decreased D{sub 2}-RB and are generally non-responsive to treatment. Postsynaptic blockade of D{sub 2} receptors results in a drug induced Parkinsonian syndrome, which can be diagnosed by D{sub 2} scintigraphy. Further possible indications occur in psychiatry: The assessment of receptor occupancy is useful in schizophrenic patients treated with neuroleptics. Additionally, D{sub 2} receptor scintigraphy might help to clarify the differential diagnosis between neuroleptic malignant syndrome and lethal catatonia. The method might be useful for supervising neurobiochemical changes in drug dependency and during withdrawal. Assessment of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor binding can simplify the choice of therapy in depressive disorder: Patients showing a low D{sub 2} binding are likely to improve following an antidepressive drug treatment whereas sleep deprivation is promising in patients with high D{sub 2} binding. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt eine Uebersicht ueber Befunde und klinische Indikationen zur Dopamin-D{sub 2}-Rezeptorszintigraphie. Methoden zur Untersuchung der D{sub 2}-Rezeptoren sind die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) mit {sup 11}C- oder {sup 18}F-markierten Butyrophenonen oder Benzamiden oder die Einzelphotonen-Emissions-Tomographie (SPECT) mit {sup 123}I