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Sample records for butylated hydroxytoluene bht

  1. Radiostability of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): An ESR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, H.; Korkmaz, M.

    2007-05-01

    In the present work, the effects of gamma radiation on solid butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used as an antioxidant, were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. While unirradiated BHT presented no ESR signal, irradiated BHT exhibited an ESR spectrum with many resonance maxima and minima spread over a magnetic field range of 12 mT and centered at about g = 2.0026. Weak satellite and central intense resonance lines, likely, originated from radical species of different stabilities and ratios were observed to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated BHT. Studies based on the variations of the observed line intensities and spectrum area under different experimental conditions were carried out and characteristic features of the radical species responsible from experimental ESR spectrum were determined. Mesomeric radical species of different stabilities providing to BHT a G value of 0.25 were believed to be induced in gamma irradiated BHT. While species responsible from weak satellite lines were unstable, the species causing central intense lines were found to be relatively stable. BHT belongs to a class of compounds with low radiosensitivity ( G = 0.25). This feature of BHT enables the feasibility of radiosterilizations of the products containing BHT as antioxidant without very much loss from its antioxidant benefit. BHT has been shown to provide an opportunity in the estimation of applied radiation dose with a reasonable accuracy if an appropriate mathematical function is used to describe experimental dose-response data.

  2. Radiostability of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): An ESR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuner, H. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)]. E-mail: htuner@hacettepe.edu.tr; Korkmaz, M. [Department of Physics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2007-05-15

    In the present work, the effects of gamma radiation on solid butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which is used as an antioxidant, were investigated by ESR spectroscopy. While unirradiated BHT presented no ESR signal, irradiated BHT exhibited an ESR spectrum with many resonance maxima and minima spread over a magnetic field range of 12 mT and centered at about g = 2.0026. Weak satellite and central intense resonance lines, likely, originated from radical species of different stabilities and ratios were observed to be responsible from experimental ESR spectrum of gamma irradiated BHT. Studies based on the variations of the observed line intensities and spectrum area under different experimental conditions were carried out and characteristic features of the radical species responsible from experimental ESR spectrum were determined. Mesomeric radical species of different stabilities providing to BHT a G value of 0.25 were believed to be induced in gamma irradiated BHT. While species responsible from weak satellite lines were unstable, the species causing central intense lines were found to be relatively stable. BHT belongs to a class of compounds with low radiosensitivity (G = 0.25). This feature of BHT enables the feasibility of radiosterilizations of the products containing BHT as antioxidant without very much loss from its antioxidant benefit. BHT has been shown to provide an opportunity in the estimation of applied radiation dose with a reasonable accuracy if an appropriate mathematical function is used to describe experimental dose-response data.

  3. Biological fate of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is the chemical widely used not only as the antioxidant for food additives but also as that for containers. 14C-BHT was administered orally to rats, and the subcellular distribution and the change of existence mode in course of time in kidneys were investigated, also the separation and identification of the metabolites in urine were tested. Radioactivity was determined with a liquid scintillation counter. Subcellular fractions were separated by the gel-filtration with Sephadex, and thin layer autoradiography was performed, and radioactive parts were confirmed. The radioactivity in each fraction of the reference group showed the highest 6 hours after the administration, and then it decreased rapidly, but the radioactivity in microsome fraction was the highest at 12 hours after the administration. Only BHT acids was identified out of the metabolites in urine by the thin layer autoradiography, and further investigation will be made about other metabolites. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Enhanced tumor development by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witschi, H.P.

    1986-04-03

    Continuous feeding of 0.5% or 0.05% of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) enhances the development of spontaneously occurring liver tumors in C3H mice, but not in BALB/c mice. In mouse lung, the tumor-enhancing effects of BHT vary with the carcinogen used and in the gastrointestinal tract of mice and rats BHT enhances development of dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors but is without effect on tumors produced by methylnitrosourea. Strain differences, effect upon various carcinogens, paradoxical dose-responses and mechanisms of action remain major questions in the toxicology of BHT. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.;

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...

  6. Biological fate of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in rats, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, distribution and excretion of BHT were studied by the subcutaneous administration of 14C-labelled BHT in rats, and the following results were obtained. The absorption of radioactive BHT after the subcutaneous administration was slow. The distributions of 14C-BHT in blood, serum, spleen, liver, kidney, heart, intestine, lung, brain, testis, fat and skin were slow and low. The excretion of 14C-BHT in urine and feces increased rapidly after 24 hours, and the excretion ratio for 3 days reached 5 percent of the total amount of administration. The olive oil solution injected subcutaneously for a long time, and after 3 days, the olive oil solution was found around the injection points. The radioactivity in the skin around the injection parts was 11.6% of the total injection dose. (J.P.N.)

  7. Instrumental laboratories based on the analysis of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiginton, John Franklin

    A semester-long series of instrumental analysis laboratory activities appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students is described. The activities incorporate five analytical instruments commonly found in post-secondary educational, industrial, and governmental laboratories: a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector (GC), a gas chromatograph with a mass specific detector (GC/MS), a high-pressure liquid chromatograph with a UV-Visible detector (HPLC), a high-performance liquid chromatograph with a mass specific detector (LC/MS), and a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (NMR). The series of activities utilizes two analytes, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), which are qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed, then structurally characterized. The protocol for each laboratory activity directs students to accomplish a specific analysis in the most efficient manner, but leaves the actual procedure vague enough to give the student a chance to experiment with the instrument. Student success is assessed by two means, having the student submit a detailed journal-style lab report and a class-wide discussion regarding the development of experimental protocols and individual instrument capabilities and limitations.

  8. Understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehye, Wageeh A; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abdul; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh

    2015-08-28

    Hindered phenols find a wide variety of applications across many different industry sectors. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a most commonly used antioxidant recognized as safe for use in foods containing fats, pharmaceuticals, petroleum products, rubber and oil industries. In the past two decades, there has been growing interest in finding novel antioxidants to meet the requirements of these industries. To accelerate the antioxidant discovery process, researchers have designed and synthesized a series of BHT derivatives targeting to improve its antioxidant properties to be having a wide range of antioxidant activities markedly enhanced radical scavenging ability and other physical properties. Accordingly, some structure-activity relationships and rational design strategies for antioxidants based on BHT structure have been suggested and applied in practice. We have identified 14 very sensitive parameters, which may play a major role on the antioxidant performance of BHT. In this review, we attempt to summarize the current knowledge on this topic, which is of significance in selecting and designing novel antioxidants using a well-known antioxidant BHT as a building-block molecule. Our strategy involved investigation on understanding the chemistry behind the antioxidant activities of BHT, whether through hydrogen or electron transfer mechanism to enable promising anti-oxidant candidates to be synthesized. PMID:26150290

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Antioksidan BHT (Butylated Hydroxytoluene) Terhadap Bilangan Peroksida RBDPO (Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Oil)

    OpenAIRE

    Milana, Muharinnisa

    2014-01-01

    The quality standard is the most important thing to determine a good quality cooking oil. One of the factors that determine the quality standard of cooking oil is peroxide value. Peroxide value is the index of the amount of fat or oil that has undergone oxidation. The amount of peroxide in the cooking oil can cause rancidity. The addition of antioxidants Butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT) with iodometric titrimetric method can reduce the number of peroxide so as to improve the quality of the cooki...

  10. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.;

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each sex...... were formed from 40, 29, 30 and 44 litters, respectively. After weaning, the highest dose (500 mg BHT/kg/day) was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. The numbers of litters of ten or more pups at birth decreased with increasing BHT dose. At weaning, treated F1 rats had lower body weights than the...... controls, the extent of the reduction being dose related; the effect, which persisted throughout the study, was most pronounced in the males. The survival of BHT-treated F1 rats of both sexes was significantly better than that of the controls. No significant changes attributable to BHT treatment were found...

  11. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    OpenAIRE

    Grillo Claudia A.; Seoane Analía I.; Dulout Fernando N.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC) and potassium dichromate (PD) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM), BHT (1.0 mg/ml), or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM), BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-tel...

  12. Hepatotoxicity induced by the anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene BHT, in rats. An electron microscopical study

    OpenAIRE

    Safer, A.M.; Al-Nughamish, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The anti-oxidant food additive, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), was fed to Sprague-Dawley rats at three concentrations: 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% for periods of 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks, and the results were compared with corresponging groups treated with a potent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) groups, with olive oil, and with untreated control groups. BHT resulted in a significant increase in liver weight. The liver cells presented gradual vacuo...

  13. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT against the clastogenic acitivity of cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate in hamster ovary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo Claudia A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a widely used food additive, on chromosomal alterations induced by cadmium chloride (CC and potassium dichromate (PD in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells was studied both at metaphase and anaphase-telophase. CHO cells were cultured for 15-16 h in the presence of PD (6.0, 9.0 or 12.0 mM, BHT (1.0 mg/ml, or PD plus BHT as well as CC (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM, BHT or CC plus BHT for the analysis of chromosomal aberrations. To perform the anaphase-telophase test, cells were cultured in cover glasses and treated 8 h before fixation with the same chemicals. An extra dose of CC (4 mM was used in this test. Both metal salts significantly increased chromosomal aberration frequencies in relation to untreated controls, and to DMSO- and BHT-treated cells. Post-treatment with BHT decreased the yield of chromosomal damage in relation to treatments performed with CC and PD. However, chromosomal aberration frequencies were significantly higher than those of the controls. In the anaphase-telophase test, CC significantly increased the yield of lagging chromosomes with the four doses employed and the frequency of lagging fragments with the highest dose. In combined treatments of CC and BHT, frequencies of the two types of alterations decreased significantly in relation to the cells treated with CC alone. No significant variation was found in the frequencies of chromatin bridges. Significant increases of numbers of chromatin bridges, lagging chromosomes and lagging fragments were found in cells treated with PD. The protective effect of BHT in combined treatments was evidenced by the significant decrease of chromatid bridges and lagging chromosomes in relation to PD-treated cells. Whereas BHT is able to induce chromosomal damage, it can also protect against oxidative damage induced by other genotoxicants.

  14. Adsorption of 2,6-di-t-butyl-p-hydroxytoluene (BHT) on gold nanoparticles: Assignment and interpretation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Xie, Yun-Fei; Wang, He-Ya; Qian, He; Yao, Wei-Rong

    2012-11-01

    2,6-Di-t-butyl-p-hydroxytoluene (BHT), a common antioxidant, has been implicated in oil foods and food packaging materials as a substance that could migrate into the food supply chain and cause suppression of human respiratory enzymes. In this study, BHT solutions in different solvents were measured by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in combination with SERS-active substrates: gold colloidal nanoparticles. The limit of detection of BHT can reach the level of 10 μg/mL with SERS in methanol. The Raman peak at 766 cm-1 was used as the index of quantitative analysis and the correlation coefficient was 0.9761. These results demonstrated the applicability of utilizing SERS to detect low concentrations of BHT. By comparing the features of SERS peaks with the density functional theory (DFT)-calculated Raman spectrum, the adsorption behavior of BHT on the surface of gold nanoparticles was analyzed in detail and it was determined that the dominant contribution to the SERS signal in this case should be the electromagnetic enhancement mechanism. A charge-transfer mechanism also contributed to the SERS signal for BHT adsorbed on gold nanoparticles by the Phsbnd O(H) (Ph = phenyl) coalescent format.

  15. Effects of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retinal degeneration induced transplacentally by a single low dosage of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S B; Cooke, C B; Yielding, K L

    1988-01-01

    A 1 mg/kg dose of the DNA alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), when administered on day 16 of gestation provokes a progressive retinal degeneration in CD-1 albino mice reared under standard fluorescent lighting conditions (12 hr light: 12 hr dark); this degeneration begins at about 4 weeks post-natally and worsens with age. It is accelerated by constant fluorescent light exposure but is retarded greatly by constant darkness, suggesting the importance of secondary insults in the post-natal period for development of the degenerative disease. To determine whether the secondary photochemical damage might be specifically blocked, MNU-exposed and control animals in the present study were fed an antioxidant-enriched diet of Purina mouse chow supplemented with 0.75% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). A second group of MNU-exposed and control animals were fed a non-BHT supplemented standard Purina mouse chow diet. Systematic measurements of the number of rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei, the thickness of the inner/outer segment layer, and the thickness of the whole retina were made, to quantify and degenerative changes in animals 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of age. By 8 weeks, retinas of BHT-fed, MNU-exposed animals were significantly thicker and had more rows of photoreceptor cell nuclei than regular-diet, MNU-exposed animals. Moreover, the retinas of BHT-fed animals, both for MNU-exposed and controls, demonstrated sporadic morphologic changes in the form of circular configurations composed of ganglion cells, arcades of nuclear and plexiform layers, and, in one control animal, a hyperplastic nodule. These experiments suggested that MNU-induced retinal degeneration may be retarded by a BHT-enriched diet; however, continuous high doses of this compound pre- and postnatally may induce other retinal abnormalities. PMID:2906176

  16. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  17. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD....3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytoluene. (b) Tolerance. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 582.3173 Butylated hydroxytoluene. (a) Product. Butylated hydroxytol- uene. (b) Tolerance....

  19. Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Butylated Hydroxytoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidants play an important role in the preservation of foods and the management of oxidative stress related diseases by acting on reactive oxygen species and free radicals. However, their use in high temperature processed food and pharmaceuticals are limited due to its low thermal stability. The objective of the study was to use the bioeld energy treatment on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) i.e. antioxidant and analyse its impact on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of BH...

  20. Effect of Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Some Properties of Kidney Fat and Tail Fat During Frozen Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ATAY, Ömür

    1998-01-01

    Some physical and chemical properties of kidney fat (obtained from cattle) and tail fat (obtained from sheep) were determined in this study. Effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and BHT+BHA on free fatty acids (FFA) contents, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values and peroxide number were also examined during frozen storage at -18°C for 9 months. The following values were determined for kidney fat; melting point 47°C, saponification number 193, iodine number...

  1. The antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene prevents early cholesterol-induced microcirculatory changes in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Xiu, R J; Freyschuss, A; X Ying; Berglund, L.; Henriksson, P; Björkhem, I

    1994-01-01

    Microcirculation was studied during 10 wk in untreated rabbits (n = 13) and in rabbits treated with dietary addition of 1% cholesterol (n = 13), 1% cholesterol + 1% of the antioxidant BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) (n = 11), or 1% BHT (n = 5). The studies were performed by direct intravital microscopic imaging of the left and right conjunctivae with the use of a stereo microscope and a high resolution television camera. Microvessel diameter, erythrocyte flow velocity, and microhemorheologic c...

  2. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira; Tatiana Fontoura Vidal; Marcílio Costa Teixeira; Patrícia Freitas de Oliveira; Roberto Cláudio Fernandes Franco Pompeu; Marieta Maria Martins Vieira; Jorge Fernando Fuentes Zapata

    2011-01-01

    The effects of mango seed extract (MSE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antiox...

  3. Comparative cytotoxicity between butylated hydroxytoluene and its methylcarbamate derivative, terbucarb, on isolated rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Yaguchi, K.; Suzuki, T. (Tokyo Metropolitan Research Lab. of Public Health (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene; BHT) is widely used as phenolic antioxidant in processed foods, cosmetics and petroleum products. It is well known that high doses of BHT cause acute hepatic damage accompanied by centrilobular necrosis in rats. The hepatic damage is associated with prolonged depletion of glutathione (GSH). Terbucarb (2,6-di-tert-butyl-para-tolyl-methylcarbamate), which has a methylcarbamate group substituted for the phenol group on BHT, was developed as an insecticide and is also presently used as a herbicide on turfgrass. Despite the metabolic and toxicological details known about BHT in vivo and in vitro, no extensive studies have been reported on the metabolism and toxicity of Terbucarb. The isolated hepatocyte system provides a very useful system for the study of the temporal sequences leading to cell damage caused by chemicals and drugs. Here, using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes, we report on the comparative toxic effects of BHT and its methylcarbamate derivative, Terbucarb. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Neutrophils Are Required for 3-Methylcholanthrene-Initiated, Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Promoted Lung Carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Vikis, Haris G.; Gelman, Andrew E.; Franklin, Andrew; Stein, Lauren; Rymaszewski, Amy; Zhu, Jihong; Liu, Pengyuan; Tichelaar, Jay W.; Krupnick, Alexander S.; You, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies have shown a link between chronic inflammation and lung tumorigenesis. Inbred mouse strains vary in their susceptibility to methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated whether neutrophils play a role in strain dependent differences in susceptibility to lung tumor promotion. We observed a significant elevation in homeostatic levels of neutrophils in the lungs of tumor-susceptible BALB/cByJ...

  5. Analysis of Ki-ras Exon 2 Gene Mutations in 3-Methylcholanthrene and Butylated Hydroxytoluene-Induced Rat Lung Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Fikriye; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; ELAGÖZ, Şahende

    2008-01-01

    3-Methylcholanthrene (MCA) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent that is often used in experimental cancer studies. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) has been widely used for many years as an antioxidant to preserve and stabilize the freshness, nutritional value, flavor, and color of foods. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the application of MCA and BHT in the development of lung cancer, and to detect any mutation in the Ki-ras gene exon 2....

  6. Modification of radiation-induced genetic damage in Drosophila melanogaster male germ cells by butylated hydroxytoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation were studied in post-meiotic male cells of Drosophila melanogaster. Prior to submitting Samarkand males to 2 krad of X-rays, BHT was administered (a) with the food (0.2 per cent final concentration) from emergence of the imago for 7 days or (b) by intra-abdominal injection (0.05 per cent) to 7-day-old adults. Dominant lethality (embryonic and total), II-III translocations and sex-linked recessive lethals were recorded. The only effect of BHT observed was a decrease in the frequency of recessive lethals induced, detected in early spermatids. Since oxygen plays an important role in the high radiosensitivity of these cells, it is suggested that the sparing action of BHT was due to its antioxidative and radical scavenging properties. (U.K.)

  7. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Giddings, A.M.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200

  8. Radioprotection by butylated hydroxytoluene against radiation induced genetic and lethal effects in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a phenolic antioxidant which is used widely in food industry as a food preservative for fats and oils; in plastics and also in cosmetics and fragrances. Generally it is considered harmless, however BHT has also shown potentiation of radiation effects in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the modifying properties of BHT in a eukaryotic model system comprising of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7, a diploid yeast strain, against the genotoxic effects induced by 60Co gamma radiation. Log phase cells were exposed to 100 Gy of radiation in the absence or presence of 0.025-0.25 mM BHT. In another set of experiments, log phase cells were exposed to 400 Gy of radiation in the absence or presence of 0.025 mM BHT. Cells were washed and plated. The results indicated that presence of BHT reduced the frequencies of gene conversion and back mutation as well as cell killing induced by radiation. The results obtained in the present study can be explained on the basis of potent radical scavenging ability of BHT, which is a well known standard antioxidant and whose free radical scavenging ability has been very well established and documented using stable free radical DPPH. (author)

  9. Levels of synthetic antioxidants (ethoxyquin, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole) in fish feed and commercially farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebye, A-K; Hove, H; Måge, A; Bohne, V J B; Hamre, K

    2010-12-01

    Several synthetic antioxidants are authorized for use as feed additives in the European Union. Ethoxyquin (EQ) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are generally added to fish meal and fish oil, respectively, to limit lipid oxidation. The study was conducted to examine the concentrations of EQ, BHT and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) in several commercially important species of farmed fish, namely Atlantic salmon, halibut and cod and rainbow trout, as well as concentrations in fish feed. The highest levels of BHT, EQ and BHA were found in farmed Atlantic salmon fillets, and were 7.60, 0.17 and 0.07 mg kg(-1), respectively. The lowest concentrations of the synthetic antioxidants found were in cod. The concentration of the oxidation product ethoxyquin dimer (EQDM) was more than ten-fold higher than the concentration of parent EQ in Atlantic salmon halibut and rainbow trout, whereas this dimer was not detected in cod fillets. The theoretical consumer exposure to the synthetic antioxidants EQ, BHA and BHT from the consumption of farmed fish was calculated. The contribution of EQ from a single portion (300 g) of skinned fillets of the different species of farmed fish would contribute at most 15% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for a 60 kg adult. The consumption of farmed fish would not contribute measurably to the intake of BHA; however, a 300 g portion of farmed Atlantic salmon would contribute up to 75% of the ADI for BHT. PMID:20931417

  10. Mechanisms of butylated hydroxytoluene chemoprevention of aflatoxicosis-inhibition of aflatoxin B1 metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemoprevention of toxicoses and/or cancer through the use of nutrients or pharmacologic compounds is the subject of intense study. Among the many compounds examined, food additives such as antioxidants are being considered due to their ability to reduce disease formation by either induction or inhibition of key enzyme systems. One such compound, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), has been found to protect against cancer formation caused by exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rodents. We have shown that dietary BHT protects against clinical signs of aflatoxicosis in turkeys, a species that is very susceptible to this mycotoxin. In this study, the effect of BHT on AFB1 metabolism and other cytochrome P450 (CYP)-related enzyme activities in turkey liver microsomes was examined to discern possible mechanisms of BHT-mediated protection against aflatoxicosis. Ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), prototype activities for CYP1A1 and 1A2, respectively, were decreased in the BHT fed (4000 ppm) animals, while oxidation of nifedipine, a prototype activity for CYP3A4, was increased. However, BHT added to microsomal incubations inhibited these CYP activities in a concentration-related manner. Importantly, BHT inhibited conversion of AFB1 to the reactive intermediate AFB1-8,-9-epoxide (AFBO), exhibiting Michaelis-Menton competitive inhibition kinetics (Ki = 0.81 μM). Likewise, microsomes prepared from turkeys fed BHT were significantly less active in AFBO formation compared to those from control birds. When turkeys were fed BHT for up to 40 days, residual BHT was present in liver, breast meat, thigh meat and abdominal fat in concentrations substantially below U.S. FDA guidelines for this antioxidant, but in concentrations greater than the Ki, likely sufficient to inhibit bioactivation of AFB1in vivo. BHT-induced hydropic degeneration in the livers of BHT fed animals was significantly greater in birds that remained on BHT treatment for up to 30

  11. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  12. Effect of various concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene on freezing capacity of Turkman stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifi-Jamadi, Afshin; Kohram, Hamid; Zareh-Shahne, Ahmad; Dehghanizadeh, Parvaneh; Ahmad, Ejaz

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of different concentrations of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on post-thaw stallion sperm quality. The ejaculates collected from four healthy mature Turkmen stallions were pooled and divided into eight aliquots. The samples were diluted with extenders containing different concentrations (0.5, 1 or 2mM/mL) of BHA or BHT. The positive control (PC) samples were diluted with extender containing 0.5% ethanol (v/v) whereas; the negative control (NC) samples were diluted with basic extender only. Semen samples were frozen according to a standard protocol. After thawing of samples, sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, total abnormality and lipid peroxidation were assessed. The greatest (P<0.05) values for total sperm motility, viability and plasma membrane functionality and least values for malonedialdehyde (MDA) concentration were observed in samples supplemented either with 1mM BHT or 2mM BHA. However, the progressive motility was greater (P<0.05) only in samples treated with 2mM BHA. In conclusion, the use of 1mM BHT or 2mM BHA in extender improves the freezing capacity of stallion sperm by reducing oxidative stress during freeze-thaw process. PMID:27112036

  13. Hydrolysis of the quinone methide of butylated hydroxytoluene in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud; Toteva, Maria M; Stella, Valentino J

    2013-10-01

    Butylated hydroxytoluene or BHT is an antioxidant commonly used in pharmaceutical formulations. BHT upon oxidation forms a quinone methide (QM). QM is a highly reactive electrophilic species that can undergo nucleophilic addition. Here, the kinetic reactivity of QM with water at various apparent pH values in a 50% (v/v) water-acetonitrile solution at constant ionic strength of I = 0.5 (NaCl)4 , was studied. The hydrolysis of QM in the presence of added acid, base, sodium chloride, and phosphate buffer resulted in the formation of only one product--the corresponding 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (BA). The rate of BA formation was catalyzed by the addition of acid and base, but not chloride and phosphate species. Nucleophilic excipients, used in the pharmaceutical formulation, or nucleophilic groups on active pharmaceutical ingredient molecule may form adducts with QM, the immediate oxidative product of BHT degradation, thus having implications for drug product impurity profiles. Because of these considerations, BHT should be used with caution in formulations containing drugs or excipients capable of acting as nucleophiles. PMID:23873381

  14. Cell kinetics in mouse lung following administration of carcinogens and butylated hydroxytoluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments is described which was designed to test the hypothesis that, in mouse lung, enhancement of tumor development could occur independently of overall alveolar cell hyperplasia. Male A/J mice were given 1000 mg/kg of urethane or 10 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Alveolar cells were labeled through continuous infusion of [3H]thymidine for 6 weeks after administration of the carcinogen. Urethane produced a significant hyperplasia of the type II alveolar cell population, whereas MCA had no such effect. Five repeated injections of 300 mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a procedure known to enhance lung tumor development, produced cell hyperplasia only during the first 2 weeks; later the mice became resistant to the action of BHT. In animals treated with piperonyl butoxide prior to BHT, cell proliferation was abolished. BHT still had a small but significant enhancing effect on tumor development. However, this effect was dwarfed by the observation that piperonyl butoxide alone greatly inhibited tumor development. The data do not allow exclusion of alveolar cell hyperplasia as a mechanism in BHT-mediated enhancement of mouse lung tumor development. 19 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  15. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Akhil Patel; Atul Saxena; Dilip Kumar Swain; Dushyant Yadav; Sanjay Singh Yadav; Abhishek Kumar; Anuj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1) and 1.0 mM (T2). After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples w...

  16. Transcriptome analysis provides new insights into liver changes induced in the rat upon dietary administration of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Conesa, A.; Heijne, W.; Ommen, B.v.; Junker, K.; Scott, M.P.; Price, R.J.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.; Groten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptomics was performed to gain insight into mechanisms of food additives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG), and thiabendazole (TB), additives for which interactions in the liver can not be excluded. Additives were administered in diets for 28 days to Sprague-D

  17. 21 CFR 172.115 - BHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true BHT. 172.115 Section 172.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Preservatives § 172.115 BHT. The food additive BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), alone or in combination...

  18. Effect of supplementation of butylated hydroxytoluene on post-thaw sperm viability, motility and membrane integrity of Hariana bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Patel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was aimed to see the beneficial effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as a semen additive of Hariana bull semen. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Hariana bulls. Twenty-four ejaculates from two bulls were used for this study. Each ejaculate was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and supplemented with BHT at two concentrations as 0.5 mM (T1 and 1.0 mM (T2. After dilution, equilibration and 24 h of cryopreservation, the samples were analyzed for progressive motility, sperm viability and membrane integrity. Results: Progressive motility, sperm viability and sperm membrane integrity were significantly (p<0.05 increased in the samples fortified with BHT as compared to the control during the process of cryopreservation and thawing. The BHT concentration of 1 mM revealed better results as compared to 0.5 mM. Conclusion: Addition of 1.0 mM BHT was found better in cryopreservation of Hariana bull semen compared to 0.5 mM BHT and control samples. The addition of BHT has improved the sperm quality by acting as an antioxidant thereby reducing the lipid peroxidation of the sperms.

  19. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Katnik; Javier Cuevas

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+] i ) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin t...

  20. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties

    OpenAIRE

    Wageeh A. Yehye; Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman; Omar Saad; Azhar Ariffin; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid; Alhadi, Abeer A.; Kadir, Farkaad A; Marzieh Yaeghoobi; Abdulsalam A. Matlob

    2016-01-01

    A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs), namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS). The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4–10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds...

  1. Butylated hydroxytoluene can protect polyunsaturated fatty acids in dried blood spots from degradation for up to 8 weeks at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Metherel, Adam H; Hogg, Ryan C; Buzikievich, Lindy M; Stark, Ken D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dried blood spots (DBS) from fingertip prick blood can enable high throughput fatty acid profiling but may be prone to lipid peroxidation during storage. The use of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on chromatography paper can prevent polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) loss but examinations on the length of storage times possible are not comprehensive. Method In the first study, venous whole blood was saturated on paper strips pre-soaked with 0, 2.5 or 5.0 mg/mL BHT and exposed to air ...

  2. Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Multipotent Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageeh A. Yehye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and 5 showed more inhibition of DPPH stable free radical at 10−4 M than the well-known standard antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Compound 5 exhibited promising in vitro inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation of the essential egg yolk as a lipid-rich medium (83.99%, IC50 16.07 ± 3.51 µM/mL compared to a-tocopherol (a-TOH, 84.6%, IC50 5.6 ± 1.09 µM/mL. The parameters for drug-likeness of these BHT analogues were also evaluated according to the Lipinski’s “rule-of-five” (RO5. All the BHT analogues were found to violate one of the Lipinski’s parameters (LogP > 5, even though they have been found to be soluble in protic solvents. The predictive polar surface area (PSA and absorption percent (% ABS data allow us to conclude that they could have a good capacity for penetrating cell membranes. Therefore, one can propose these new multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs as potential antioxidants for tackling oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation processes.

  3. Lung damage induced by butylated hydroxytoluene in mice. Biochemical, cellular, and morphologic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L J

    1984-11-01

    This study was designed to characterize the biochemical, cellular, and morphologic events produced in mice by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and to relate these events to changes in extracellular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On Day 1 after the administration of BHT, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) ACE activity increased 4-fold (p less than 0.001), its specific activity relative to BAL protein increased 3-fold (p less than 0.001), and both type 1 cell damage and endothelial cell damage were detected by electron microscopy. The early increase in BAL ACE activity preceded changes in plasma ACE levels, BAL cell number, protein, lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in both plasma and BAL, and the ACE content of alveolar macrophages. On Day 2, BAL ACE activity increased 9-fold, BAL protein increased 4-fold (p less than 0.001), BAL LDH activity increased 34% (p less than 0.05), and the BAL cell count doubled (p less than 0.01). Changes in each animal's appearance, body weight, wet and dry lung weights, and plasma ACE levels occurred between Days 3 and 5. The BAL differential cell count, which consisted of greater than 95% macrophages in uninjured mice, did not change until Day 5 when there was a small increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). On Day 7, the number of PMN peaked, and some of the other measures of lung injury began returning toward normal. These results indicate that BAL ACE activity is a sensitive, early marker of BHT-induced lung injury, which appears to reflect damage to the cells of the alveolar-capillary barrier. In addition, PMN do not appear to play a major role in this model of lung injury. Because of its effects on angiotensin, bradykinin, and prostaglandins, the early release of ACE from damaged cells may modulate the subsequent injury. PMID:6093659

  4. The influence of subsequent dehydroepiandrosterone, diaminopropane, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene treatment on the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat initiated with di-hydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M A; Thamavit, W; Tsuda, H; Ito, N

    1986-02-01

    The comparative modifying potential of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), diaminopropane (DAP), phenobarbital (PB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the development of lesions initiated by dihydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine (DHPN) in F344 rats were investigated. DHEA, BHA and BHT were all associated with significant reduction in numbers of glutathione-S-transferase P form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver whereas PB brought about their enhanced development. BHT and PB exerted promoting activity on the incidence of thyroid adenomas while DAP similarly increased lung adenoma formation. The results illustrate the advantages to be gained from two stage experiments using broad spectrum carcinogen initiation for comparative analysis of 'modifiers' of the neoplastic process and suggest that studies of enzyme alteration within putative preneoplastic lesions may be directly relevant to elucidation of mechanisms underlying such modification. PMID:2937531

  5. Voltammetric Determination of Dinonyl Diphenylamine and Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Mineral and Synthetic Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Yaling; Qian, Xuzheng; Hua, Meng; Cheng, Bingxue; Chen, Wu; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A method is reported for the determination of diphenylamine and butylated hydroxytoluene in mineral and synthetic oil. The procedure used differential pulse voltammetry with a glassy carbon electrode. This method was then used for determining these antioxidants in supporting electrolyte consisting of dilute sulfuric acid and sodium dodecyl sulfonate in ethanol. Anodic peaks were obtained for both analytes. Oxidation peaks at 250 mV were observed from a mixture of butylated hydroxytol...

  6. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wageeh A Yehye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs, namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS. The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4–10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds 4–10 inhibited stable DPPH free radicals at a level that is 10−4 M more than the well-known standard antioxidant BHT. Compounds 8–10 with para-substituents were less active than compounds 4 and 5 with trimethoxy substituents compared to those with a second BHT moiety (compounds 6 and 7. With an IC50 of 46.13 ± 0.31 µM, compound 6 exhibited the most promising in vitro inhibition at 89%. Therefore, novel MPAOs containing active triazole rings, thioethers, Schiff bases, and BHT moieties are suggested as potential antioxidants for inhibiting oxidative stress processes and scavenging free radicals, hence, this combination of functions is anticipated to play a vital role in repairing cellular damage, preventing various human diseases and in medical therapeutic applications.

  7. Rational Design and Synthesis of New, High Efficiency, Multipotent Schiff Base-1,2,4-triazole Antioxidants Bearing Butylated Hydroxytoluene Moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehye, Wageeh A; Abdul Rahman, Noorsaadah; Saad, Omar; Ariffin, Azhar; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Alhadi, Abeer A; Kadir, Farkaad A; Yaeghoobi, Marzieh; Matlob, Abdulsalam A

    2016-01-01

    A new series of multipotent antioxidants (MPAOs), namely Schiff base-1,2,4-triazoles attached to the oxygen-derived free radical scavenging moiety butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were designed and subsequently synthesized. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the designed antioxidants was established alongside the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS). The antioxidant activities of the synthesized compounds 4-10 were tested by the DPPH bioassay. The synthesized compounds 4-10 inhibited stable DPPH free radicals at a level that is 10(-4) M more than the well-known standard antioxidant BHT. Compounds 8-10 with para-substituents were less active than compounds 4 and 5 with trimethoxy substituents compared to those with a second BHT moiety (compounds 6 and 7). With an IC50 of 46.13 ± 0.31 µM, compound 6 exhibited the most promising in vitro inhibition at 89%. Therefore, novel MPAOs containing active triazole rings, thioethers, Schiff bases, and BHT moieties are suggested as potential antioxidants for inhibiting oxidative stress processes and scavenging free radicals, hence, this combination of functions is anticipated to play a vital role in repairing cellular damage, preventing various human diseases and in medical therapeutic applications. PMID:27367658

  8. Non-Specific Inhibition of Ischemia- and Acidosis-Induced Intracellular Calcium Elevations and Membrane Currents by α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Trolox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Katnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0 produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses.

  9. Butylated hydroxytoluene can reduce oxidative stress and improve quality of frozen-thawed bull semen processed in lecithin and egg yolk based extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumran, A M; Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Ariff, M O; Wahid, H; Kaka, Asmatullah; Ebrahimi, M; Sarsaifi, K

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of anti-oxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), when added at different concentrations into lecithin-based Bioxcell(®) (BX) and two egg-yolk-based; Tris (TY) and citrate (CE) semen extenders, on post-thaw bull sperm quality and oxidative stress. A total of 30 ejaculates from three bulls were collected using an electro ejaculator. Ejaculates were extended with one of the BX, TY and CE extenders, which contained different concentrations (0.0 - control, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml) of BHT. The extended semen samples were chilled to 4 °C, and then frozen slowly to -196 °C in 0.25 ml straws before being stored in liquid nitrogen for 2 weeks. Results showed that supplementation of BHT improved (P<0.05) general motility, progressive motility, morphology, acrosome integrity, DNA integrity and malondialdehyde of sperm at 0.5mM/ml for BX and at 1-1.5mM/ml of BHT for TY and CE when compared with the control. However, greater concentrations of 2.0 and 3.0mM/ml of BHT had a detrimental (P<0.05) effect compared with the control with all extenders evaluated. In conclusion, BHT supplementation at lesser concentrations (0.5-1.5mM/ml) could improve frozen-thawed bull sperm quality by reducing oxidative stress produced during the freezing-thawing procedures in either lecithin or egg-yolk based extenders. PMID:26515370

  10. Carbonyl reductase inactivation may contribute to mouse lung tumor promotion by electrophilic metabolites of butylated hydroxytoluene: protein alkylation in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearn, Colin T; Fritz, Kristofer S; Meier, Brent W; Kirichenko, Oleg V; Thompson, John A

    2008-08-01

    Promotion of lung tumors in mice by the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is mediated by electrophilic metabolites produced in the target organ. Identifying the proteins alkylated by these quinone methides (QMs) is a necessary step in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Covalent adducts of the antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxin 6 and Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase were detected previously in lung cytosols from BALB/c mice injected with BHT, and complimentary in vitro studies demonstrated that QM alkylation causes inactivation and enhances oxidative stress. In the present work, adducts of another protective enzyme, carbonyl reductase (CBR), were detected by Western blotting and mass spectrometry in mitochondria from lungs of mice one day after a single injection of BHT and throughout a 28-day period of weekly injections required to achieve tumor promotion. BHT treatment was accompanied by the accumulation of protein carbonyls in lung cytosol from sustained oxidative stress. Studies in vitro demonstrated that CBR activity in lung homogenates was susceptible to concentration- and time-dependent inhibition by QMs. Recombinant CBR underwent irreversible inhibition during QM exposure, and mass spectrometry was utilized to identify alkylation sites at Cys 51, Lys 17, Lys 189, Lys 201, His 28, and His 204. Except for Lys 17, all of these adducts were eliminated as a cause of enzyme inhibition either by chemical modification (cysteine) or site-directed mutagenesis (lysines and histidines). The data demonstrated that Lys 17 is the critical alkylation target, consistent with the role of this basic residue in NADPH binding. These data support the possibility that CBR inhibition occurs in BHT-treated mice, thereby compromising one pathway for inactivating lipid peroxidation products, particularly 4-oxo-2-nonenal. These data, in concert with previous evidence for the inactivation of antioxidant enzymes, provide a molecular basis to explain lung inflammation leading to

  11. Phenothiazines inhibit copper and endothelial cell-induced peroxidation of low density lipoprotein. A comparative study with probucol, butylated hydroxytoluene and vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugnot, C; Mazière, C; Salmon, S; Auclair, M; Santus, R; Morlière, P; Lenaers, A; Mazière, J C

    1990-11-01

    The effect of two phenothiazines, chlorpromazine (CPZ) and trifluoperazine (TFP) on the copper and endothelial cell-induced peroxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been studied and compared to that of drugs previously shown to protect LDL against peroxidation: probucol (PBC) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Incubation with CPZ or TFP inhibited in a dose-dependent manner LDL peroxidation induced either by copper ions or by cultured endothelial cells. Both the electrophoretic mobility and the thiobarbituric reactive substance content of LDL returned to almost normal values in the presence of 50 microM CPZ or TFP. The two studied phenothiazines also strongly inhibited the hydrolysis of LDL phosphatidylcholine which accompanies copper or endothelial cell-induced peroxidation of the particle. CPZ and TFP were as effective as PBC and BHT in inhibiting the LDL peroxidation. Whereas copper or endothelial cell-oxidized LDL were recognized and rapidly catabolized by mouse peritoneal macrophages, CPZ- or TFP-, as well as PBC- or BHT-treated LDL were not. Moreover, it was found that, in contrast to vitamin E, neither CPZ nor PBC reacted with model peroxy radicals formed by gamma irradiation of aerated ethanol. The possible mechanisms underlying this protective effect of phenothiazines against LDL oxidative modification are discussed. PMID:2242028

  12. The reorientation of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene: A deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectral and relaxation time study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polson, James M.; Fyfe, J. D. Dean; Jeffrey, Kenneth R.

    1991-03-01

    Deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and spin-lattice relaxation times were determined in order to study the dynamics of t-butyl groups in butylated hydroxytoluene. The results are consistent with a model first proposed by Beckmann et al. [J. Magn. Reson. 36, 199 (1979)], where there is an inequivalence between the methyl groups within each t-butyl group. While two methyl groups reorient rapidly relative to the whole t-butyl rotation, the remaining methyl group is more restricted in its motion, reorienting at a rate comparable to that of the t-butyl group itself. The spin-lattice relaxation data show two T1 minima, the high temperature minimum (40 °C) corresponding to the combined t-butyl and ``slow'' methyl rotations, and the low temperature minimum corresponding to ``fast'' methyl group rotation. Using an explicitly defined T1 fitting function, the T1 data yield activation energies of 2.2 and 6.0 kcal/mol for the fast methyl and t-butyl rotations, respectively, both in agreement with Beckmann's values obtained from proton T1 experiments. It was also possible to simulate the low temperature deuterium NMR spectra from T=-160 °C to T=-80 °C using the aforementioned dynamical inequivalence between the t-butyl methyl groups. While the fast methyl group rotation was in the motional narrowing region for T>-160 °C, it was possible, from the simulations, to determine the t-butyl exchange rates to within 10%. The jump rates are remarkably close to the values predicted from the T1 results. Above -80 °C, the spectra could not be simulated, implying that a third motion must be present to further alter the high temperature line shapes. The effective axial asymmetry of the T>-20° spectra indicates that the additional motion involves a two site exchange.

  13. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C) sierra (Scomberomorus sierra) muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez; Josafat Marina Ezquerra-Brauer; Enrique Márquez-Ríos; Wilfrido Torres-Arreola

    2015-01-01

    Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C) of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively). Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days) on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture) and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric ...

  14. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixue; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xingzhe; Li, Qi; Chen, Yuanli; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Wei, Yuquan; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and negatively related to lung IFN-γ levels, respectively. We then determined the inhibitory effects of T0901317 on mouse pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or urethane. We found that T0901317 reduced morbidity and mortality in MCA/BHT-injected BALB/c mice by inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. T0901317 also protected C57BL/6 mice, but not IFN-γ deficient (IFN-γ(-/-), C57BL/6 background) mice, against MCA/BHT-induced lung hyperplasia/inflammation. In addition, we determined that T0901317 inhibited urethane-induced lung tumors in BABL/c mice. Furthermore, we determined that T0901317 prevented metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice. Administration of T0901317 substantially increased serum IFN-γ levels and lung IFN-γ expression in BABL/c and C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that LXR inhibits MCA/BHT-induced pulmonary carcinomas in BABL/c mice and the inhibition is associated with induction of IFN-γ production. PMID:27250582

  15. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qixue; Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xingzhe; Li, Qi; Chen, Yuanli; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Di; Li, Xiaoju; Xiang, Rong; Wei, Yuquan; Han, Jihong; Duan, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and negatively related to lung IFN-γ levels, respectively. We then determined the inhibitory effects of T0901317 on mouse pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or urethane. We found that T0901317 reduced morbidity and mortality in MCA/BHT-injected BALB/c mice by inhibiting lung adenocarcinoma. T0901317 also protected C57BL/6 mice, but not IFN-γ deficient (IFN-γ−/−, C57BL/6 background) mice, against MCA/BHT-induced lung hyperplasia/inflammation. In addition, we determined that T0901317 inhibited urethane-induced lung tumors in BABL/c mice. Furthermore, we determined that T0901317 prevented metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells in BALB/c mice. Administration of T0901317 substantially increased serum IFN-γ levels and lung IFN-γ expression in BABL/c and C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that LXR inhibits MCA/BHT-induced pulmonary carcinomas in BABL/c mice and the inhibition is associated with induction of IFN-γ production. PMID:27250582

  16. Tests for mutagenic effects of ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum arabic in roden germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheu, C.W.; Cain, K.T.; Rushbrook, C.J.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Generoso, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ammoniated glycyrrhizin, butylated hydroxytoluene, and gum Arabic are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) substances that are used primarily as additives in foods. These substances were incorporated into rodent diets and fed to male rats and mice for 10 and 8 wk, respectively. The treated male mice and rats were then tested for dominant lethal effects. The mice were also tested for induced heritable translocation. Results of the rat studies indicated a statistically significant dominant lethal effect of each of the compounds tested; however, the biological significance of this response is not known. Results of the mouse dominant lethal and heritable translocation studies, on the other hand, indicated no adverse effects of the compounds tested.

  17. Development and validation of a reverse phase-liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of butylated hydroxytoluene as antioxidant in paricalcitol hard gelatin capsule formulation dosage form

    OpenAIRE

    Vaghela, Bhupendrasinh; Rao, Surendra Singh; Sharma, Nitish; Balakrishna, P.; Reddy, A. Malleshwar

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: A novel and simple isocratic reverse phase liquid chromatographic (RP-LC) method was developed for the quantitative determination of antioxidant-butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) in paricalcitol hard gelatin capsule. In the paricalcitol capsule BHT concentration is very low. This method is precisely able to estimate BHT at low concentration at about 0.0039 μg/mL and to separate BHT from paricalcitol main compound and other oil-based excipients. Materials and Methods: The method wa...

  18. Chronic study on BHT in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 40, 29, 39 and 44 F0 rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated, and groups of 100, 80, 80 and 100 F1 rats of each sex were...... formed. After weaning, the highest dose of BHT was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. At weaning the BHT-treated F1 rats, especially the males, had lower body weights than the controls and the effect was dose related. The survival of the BHT-treated rats of both sexes was higher than that of the...

  19. Simultaneous determination of BHT and BHA in mineral and synthetic oils using linear scan voltammetry with a gold disc electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášková, M.; Chýlková, J.; Jehlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Švancara, I.; Šelešovská, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 123, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 107-112. ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : gold disc electrode * BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) * BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 3.520, year: 2014

  20. The effect of 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene on glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues of rats

    OpenAIRE

    POLAT, Fikriye; DERE, Egemen; GÜL, Eylem; YELKUVAN, İzzet; ÖZDEMİR, Öztürk; BİNGÖL, Günsel

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of separate and combined applications of 3-methylcholanthrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and potent carcinogenic agent, and butylated hydroxytoluene, the antioxidant food additive, on the glycogen levels of liver, muscle, testis, and tumor tissues in rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats weighing 100-110 g at 8 weeks of age were used in this study. This study consisted of a control group (n = 9) and 3 different experiment groups in which rats were chronic...

  1. The Quantitative Determination of Butylated Hydroxytoluene in Chewing Gum Using GC--MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to measure concentration of Photophysical Characterization(BHT) and determine percent recovery in chewing gum is described. The results demonstrated that over time, the concentration of BHT in the extract decreased owing to aerial oxidation.

  2. Trapping free radicals formed in the reaction of ozone with simple olefins using 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-cresol (BHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free radicals are detected from the ozonation of a series of olefins using a BHT trapping technique. We have determined the structure of the adduct when 3,3-dimethylbutene (tert-butylethylene) is ozonated at -780C and then warmed in the presence of BHT. The adduct can be rationalized as arising from trapping tert-butylperoxyl radicals by BHT to give 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(tert-butylperoxy)-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone. 17 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  3. Protective effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on sperm function in human spermatozoa cryopreserved by vitrification technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, O; Aguagüiña, W E; Esponda, P; Risopatrón, J; Isachenko, E; Isachenko, V; Sánchez, R

    2015-03-01

    Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT), a synthetic analogue of vitamin E, shows antioxidant and antiviral properties and has been successfully used for mammalian sperm cryopreservation. In this study, BHT was included in a vitrification solution to determine its cryoprotective effect on human spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were selected by swim-up and vitrified in close sealed straw using either a combination of human tubal fluid (HTF), sucrose and BHT 1 mm (VMBHT), or only HTF and sucrose (VM). The optimal concentration of BHT was determined by the observation of preserved progressive sperm motility (PSM) after warming and detection of plasma membrane (PMI), membrane mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) and DNA integrity. The presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected. The PSM was significantly higher in the VMBHT group (80.86 ± 5.41%) compared with the VM group (68.9 ± 3.67%) (P < 0.05). Butylhydroxytoluene significantly preserved DNA integrity (4.0 ± 0.1% versus 6.1 ± 1.6%; P < 0.05) and reduced ROS production (5.5 ± 2.2 versus 8.6 ± 1.8%; P < 0.05). Plasma membrane and ΔΨm showed no statistical differences. One millimolar BHT effectively maintained cell function and due to its antioxidant and antiviral properties could be used in semen cryopreservation of patients with viral infections transmitted by seminal plasma. PMID:24612426

  4. Free radical-derived quinone methide mediates skin tumor promotion by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: expanded role for electrophiles in multistage carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyton, K Z; Bhan, P; Kuppusamy, P.; Zweier, J L; Trush, M A; Kensler, T W

    1991-01-01

    Free radical derivatives of peroxides, hydroperoxides, and anthrones are thought to mediate tumor promotion by these compounds. Further, the promoting activity of phorbol esters is attributed, in part, to their ability to stimulate the cellular generation of oxygen radicals. A hydroperoxide metabolite of butylated hydroxytoluene, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroperoxyl-4-methyl-2,5-cyclohexadienone (BHTOOH), has previously been shown to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin. BHTOOH is extensively metabo...

  5. Chronic study on BHT in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, G.; Olsen, P.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of 40, 29, 39 and 44 F0 rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated, and groups of 100, 80, 80 and 100 F1 rats of each sex were...... formed. After weaning, the highest dose of BHT was lowered to 250 mg/kg/day for the F1 rats. At weaning the BHT-treated F1 rats, especially the males, had lower body weights than the controls and the effect was dose related. The survival of the BHT-treated rats of both sexes was higher than that of the...... controls. Dose-related increases in the numbers of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were statistically significant in male F1 rats when all groups together were tested for heterogeneity or analysis for trend. The increases in hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in treated female F1 rats were only...

  6. Effect of previous chilling storage on quality loss in frozen (–20 °C sierra (Scomberomorus sierra muscle packed with a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlinda Soto-Valdez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rancidity development during frozen storage (–20 °C of sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra was studied. Fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with and without butylated hydroxytoluene added (BHT-LDPE and LDPE respectively. Fillets stored with no package were used as control. Special attention was given to the effect of previous ice storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 15 days on the quality of the frozen fish. Physical (pH and texture and chemical (peroxide value, PV and thiobarbituric acid index, TBA-i analyses were carried out. Lipid oxidation increased with ice storage time in fish muscle without film packing, being greater than the film packed muscle (with and without antioxidant. An effect of previous ice storage time was observed on the frozen product (in all treatments. However, fish muscle with film packing containing antioxidant showed less lipid deterioration. Under the conditions applied in this study, the plastic films with antioxidant prevented the lipids oxidation during the cold handling of the sierra muscle.

  7. Evaluation of Keishi-bukuryo-gan in a diabetic nephropathy model by comparison with aminoguanidine, butylated hydroxytoluene and captopril

    OpenAIRE

    Nakagawa, Takako; Oya, Takeshi; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Terasawa, Katsutoshi; Yokozawa, Takako

    2002-01-01

    桂枝茯苓丸の糖尿病性腎症に対する作用を,モデルラットを用い検討した。腎機能パラメーター,病理組織学的検討に加え,advanced glycation end products(AGEs)の蓄積,酸化ストレスに及ぼす影響を,アミノグアニジン(AGEs阻害薬),カプトプリル(アンジオテンシン変換酵素阻害薬),buthylated hydroxytoluene(BHT)(抗酸化剤)とで比較検討した。桂枝茯苓丸では腎機能(血清Cr,尿蛋白排泄量)と病理所見の有意な改善作用が認められ,糖尿病性腎症の進展を抑制することが実験的に明らかとなったが,このような腎保護作用はカプトプリルよりは弱く,アミノグアニジンと同程度であった。BHTには腎保護作用は認められなかった。腎組織中のAGEsの蓄積に対しては,桂枝茯苓丸,カプトプリル,BHTがいずれも有意に低下していたが,アミノグアニジンの作用よりは弱かった。腎組織中の脂質過酸化量はBHTで最も低下し,桂枝茯苓丸,カプトプリルでも有意に低下していた。一方,血中脂質過酸化に対しては,すべてにおいて有意な低下作用が認められたが,カプトプリルで最も強かった。...

  8. Collaborative study of a qualitative TLC-method for detection of antioxidants (BHA, BHT, gallates and NDGA) in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg, Merethe

    1981-01-01

    A method for the qualitative detection of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the gallates and nordihydroguajaretic acid (NDGA) in bakery products and fat has been tested in a collaborative study. The method is similar to a IUPAC-method, an EEC-proposed me......A method for the qualitative detection of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the gallates and nordihydroguajaretic acid (NDGA) in bakery products and fat has been tested in a collaborative study. The method is similar to a IUPAC-method, an EEC......-proposed method, and an official French method. After extraction, the compounds are detected by TLC. Being a qualitative method the probability of obtaining correct results is a measure of the goodness of the method, and the study examines the influence on the probability of the following 3 factors: type of...... antioxidant, type of food, and concentration of antioxidant. From the study is was concluded that the method worked quite well for BHA, with a detection limit about 15 mg/kg, whereas it worked badly for BHT, the detection limit being higher than 30 mg/kg. For the gallates and NDGA the detection limit was 30...

  9. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    Iulia Movileanu; Núñez de González, Máryuri T.; Brian Hafley; Miller, Rhonda K.; Jimmy T. Keeton

    2013-01-01

    Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at 4°C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in...

  10. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  11. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Movileanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh ground beef patties with (1 no antioxidant (control, (2 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT, (3 3% dried plum puree, or (4 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses, and stored at C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding ( irradiation-induced lipid oxidation during storage as determined by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs values. Rosemary extracts had the same antioxidant effect ( as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels.

  12. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500 ppm) or BHT (50, and 100 ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80 % at 570 nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97 % protein solubility and 41 to 54 % water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50 %) (P  0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods. PMID:26344999

  13. Hepatic retention and toxicological responses during feeding and depuration periods in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) fed graded levels of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaas, Eivind; Bohne, Victoria B; Hamre, Kristin; Arukwe, Augustine

    2008-12-10

    The human safety aspects of seafood production require the expansion of vital knowledge of both nutrients and possible contaminants along the entire production chain. Thus, production of safer seafood can be achieved by using feed materials that are low in contaminants, while maintaining balanced nutrition, in order to secure optimal fish and consumer health. Our understanding of primary responses of fish health and production related diseases, as well as biological processes that influence carry-over and lowering of contaminants in farmed fish, will contribute to a sustainable production of safer seafood products. Therefore, we have studied the liver deposition and toxicological effects in salmon fed graded levels of BHT during a 12-week feeding followed by a 2-week depuration period using chemical, molecular, and catalytic assays. In general, our data showed that BHT was significantly retained in the liver and selectively modulated toxicological responses in the xenobiotic biotransformation pathways during the feeding period. Specifically, BHT produced consistent dose- and time-specific gene expression patterns for AhR2alpha, AhR2beta, CYP1A1, CYP3A, UGT1, and GSTpi. The effect of BHT on the gene expression of biotransformation enzyme did not parallel enzyme activity levels, suggesting a possible inhibition by parent BHT or its metabolites. As a safety precaution, the production of farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway requires a mandatory 2-week depuration period prior to slaughtering and market delivery to ensure the elimination of veterinary medicaments, additives, and other undesirable components. Comparison of feeding and depuration periods showed that BHT was highly retained in fish liver, as only 8-13% of fed BHT was eliminated during the 2-week depuration period. This is just a part of the total concentration in the whole fish, since BHT may have been distributed and accumulated in other organs. Since BHT or its metabolites putatively inhibited

  14. Effect of Naphthalene, Butylated Hydroxytoluene, Dioctyl Phthalate, and Adipic Dioctyl Ester, Chemicals Found in the Nests of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) on a Saprophytic Mucor sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi are commonly found associated with termites and their nests. Four chemicals that have been isolated from the nests of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were evaluated to determine their effect on a common nest fungus, a saprophytic Mucor sp. Butylated hydroxyto...

  15. Effectiveness of the antioxidants BHA and BHT in selected vegetable oils during intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protopapa, Evangelia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The heating performance of olive oil was compared with that of corn oil, olive-residue oil and 50:50 mixture of olive oil and corn oil. The oils were heated intermittently for two hours per day at a temperature of 175 ± 5° C for five consecutive days. Under such conditions thermal and oxidative decomposition of the oils takes place. Free fatty acid content, peroxide values, E1%1 cm, at 232 and 270nm, polar compounds, colour and viscosity, of the oils all increased, whereas the iodine values, smoke points, polyunsaturated fatty acids content and tocopherol concentration decreased. The effectiveness of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at a rate of 200 ppm in retarding the deterioration of oils during static heating (175 ± 5° C, was studied and it was found that BHA gave a slight protection to the olive-residue oil and the BHT gave some protection to the corn oil, while both antioxidants were relatively ineffective in the other oils.Se ha comparado el comportamiento del aceite de oliva al calentamiento con respecto al del aceite de maíz, el aceite de orujo y una mezcla al 50 % de aceite de oliva y aceite de maíz. Los aceites fueron calentados intermitentemente durante dos horas al día a una temperatura de 175º C ± 5º C durante cinco días consecutivos. Bajo tales condiciones tuvo lugar la descomposición térmica y oxidativa de los mismos. En todos los aceites aumentaron el contenido en ácidos grasos libres, el índice de peróxido, E1%1 cm, a 232 y 270 nm, los compuestos polares, el color y la viscosidad, mientras que el índice de yodo, el punto de humo, el contenido en ácidos grasos poliinsaturados y el contenido en tocoferoles disminuyeron. Se estudió la eficacia del 3-terc-butil-4-hidroxianisol (BHA y del butilhidroxitolueno (BHT en una proporción de 200 ppm en el retraso de la deterioración de los aceites durante el calentamiento estático (175 ± 5º C, encontrándose que el BHA

  16. BIBRA toxicity profile of butylated hydroxytoluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    The BIBRA Toxicity Profile is a comprehensive yet concise review of the toxicological data on the profiled chemical. All studies identified have been carefully evaluated (using primary data sources wherever possible), but only the data most pertinent to hazard assessment are included. Information is summarized, where available, on the effects in man, as well as other species, and studies relating to the principal exposure routes are given precedence. The Profile is divided into the following main sections: Summary, Identification, Local Effects (including skin, eye and respiratory tract irritation), Sensitization and Intolerance, General Systemic Effects (including single and repeated administration), Reproductive Toxicity, Carcinogenicity and Other Genotoxicity.

  17. The effect of the BHT and BHT-Gamma on photo stability of CuO nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photochemical stability of an oxide semiconductor is a very important consideration in the application as of oxide semiconducting materials. Effect of antioxidants on nanoparticle photo stability was studied using copper oxide. Photo stability study study done by using Uv-vis spectrometer. In addition, the changes in size and formation of aggregates by as revealed by of VSEM, TEM and DLS also had been determined. CuO nanoparticle is synthesized via novel thermal decomposition method. The analysis of the size of the CuO nanoparticle is 70-80 nm. Three types of samples were prepared in ethanol solution and 20 mg CuO nanoparticle added for each sample. Then, two of the three samples are mixed with 20 mg butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Then, a sample containing CuO and BHT nanoparticle was taken and irradiated at 15 kGy acute dose. Through this study, the BHT was detected for its ability to increase in photo stability of BHT but the aggregate size needs to be controlled. The aggregate formation was detected through the characterization using VSEM, TEM and DLS. The result show that the irradiated CuO-BHT had the average size of 3462 nm and non-irradiated CuO-BHT had the average size of 3847 nm. Via this study, BHT had been found the capability to induce aggregation. Meanwhile, the irradiation effect of the gamma had been found to reduce aggregate size. (author)

  18. Antioxidant BHT Modelling Migration from Food Packaging of High Density Polyethylene Plastics into the Food Simulant

    OpenAIRE

    Chi Haitao; Liu Ying; Gao Xia; Liu Weili; Luo Yunjun

    2015-01-01

    Made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) films containing antioxidant 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT), film samples were manufactured by plastic extrusion equipment, 95% ethanol aqueous solution simulating liquid was used for stimulant, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) for the long-term migration test of 4 kinds of HDPE films containing different concentrations of antioxidant BHT. The migration data were processed by using Weibull model and then the migration model was sp...

  19. Kwantitatieve bepaling van BHT in melkpoeder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostrom, van J.J.; Hollman, P.

    1985-01-01

    Gezocht is naar een snelle eenvoudige methode voor de bepaling van BHT in melkpoeder. De bestaande multi-methode voor antioxidanten werd aangepast, waarbij de extractie vereenvoudigd werd en de chromatografische condities geoptimaliseerd werden in relatie tot BHT.

  20. Electronic structure and bonding in four-coordinate organometallic complexes of aluminum. Valence photoelectron spectra of BHT-H, Me sub 3 Al(PMe sub 3 ), and Me sub 2 (BHT)Al(PMe sub 3 )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberger, D.L.; Hogan, R.H. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA)); Healy, M.D.; Barron, A.R. (Harvard univ., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1990-04-25

    The He I valence photoelectron spectra of the Lewis acid-base adducts Me{sub 3}Al(PMe{sub 3}) and Me{sub 2}(BHT)Al(PMe{sub 3}) (BHT{minus}H = 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) have been obtained to characterize the electronic structure and bonding in four-coordinate organometallic complexes of aluminum. To aid in the assignment of the spectrum of Me{sub 2}(BHT)Al(PMe{sub 3}), the spectrum of the free alcohol, BHT-H, was also obtained. The first and second ionizations of the free BHT-H alcohol show vibrational progressions associated with the symmetric C-C phenyl ring stretching modes, consistent with the b{sub 1} and a{sub 2} {pi} ionizations, respectively, of monosubstituted phenyl rings. In the photoelectron spectrum of BHT coordinated to aluminum in Me{sub 2}(BHT)Al(PMe{sub 3}), the corresponding phenoxide a{sub 2} ionization retains the vibrational structure, but the individual vibrational components are lost in the ionization that corresponds most closely with the b{sub 1}. The loss of vibrational fine structure associated with ionization from the phenyl {pi} b{sub 1} orbital in the coordinated phenoxide shows that the phenoxide is involved in a {pi} interaction with the Me{sub 2}Al(PMe{sub 3}) portion of the molecule.

  1. An improved financial tool to replace BHT

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In November, the BHT tool used to control financial data will be replaced by an improved and more powerful system, called CET for CERN Expenditure Tracking. The team in charge of CET. From left to right, sitting, Martyn Rankin, David McGlashan, standing, Per Gunnar Jonsson, James Purvis and Mikael Angberg. After 10 years of BHT at CERN, in order to face the challenges of the LHC era, and following the recommendations of the External Review Committee, the BHT application will be replaced by an improved and more powerful expenditure tracking tool called CET for CERN Expenditure Tracking. For those who are not familiar with it, the BHT, Budget Holders Toolkit, is a utility that provides a way to view CERN financial data. It is available for users who have access to at least one budget code. The new CET represents a tool that not only allows powerful analysis of the past, but also assists in forecasting the future. CET will offer significantly more functionality than BHT, including extended contract analysis, ...

  2. Antioxidant BHT Modelling Migration from Food Packaging of High Density Polyethylene Plastics into the Food Simulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Made of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE films containing antioxidant 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (BHT, film samples were manufactured by plastic extrusion equipment, 95% ethanol aqueous solution simulating liquid was used for stimulant, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC for the long-term migration test of 4 kinds of HDPE films containing different concentrations of antioxidant BHT. The migration data were processed by using Weibull model and then the migration model was specific under experimental conditions. Migration model was setup using the migrating data by Weibull model to fitting real experimental data. Using empirical formula reported FDA model formula and the diffusion coefficient constant D, calculated by the FDA model. Two kinds of model numerical after compared according to FDA model transfer numerical literature that is far lower than the actual test migration value. According to the actual test migration value, Weibull model numerical and experimental tests that the migration software fitting values are consistent.

  3. Effects of water extracts from chicory and BHT on the in vitro rumen degradation of feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Butyl-Hydroxyl-Toluene (BHT and of Red Chicory Extract (RCE on kinetics of gas production (GP and rumen degradability values (OMd, NDFd and in vitro true OM degradability - IVTOMD of two feeds (meadow hay and corn meal were evaluated using an in vitro automatic batch system. For each feed 2 increasing dosages (0.15 and 1.5 mg/g of feed of BHT and RCE and a Control (C were tested in 4 replications and 2 incubations. First incubation lasted 72h, the 2nd one was stopped at the times on which half of GP was produced (t½, which were 9 and 16 h for corn and hay, respectively. From the supernatants of the 2nd incubation, VFA, NH3, N content of the residual NDF were analysed and the microbial N balance was computed. The 2 feeds significantly affected rumen fermentation parameters; BHT significantly increased asymptotic GP, t½ and IVTOMD (P<0.01, decreased the proportion of butyrate (P<0.01 but did not affect microbial N balance; RCE did not influence any of the parameters measured with respect to C, except for a significant increase of the estimated N available for microbes at the higher dosage.

  4. The implementation of security for microBHT

    CERN Document Server

    Purvis, J

    1997-01-01

    With the construction of LHC and the funding of up to 80% of the new experiments (ATLAS and CMS) to come from outside CERN it is important that budget responsibles have secure and instantaneous access to view their financial data which is managed by CERN. MicroBHT (BHT)is a system specifically designed to cater for these requirements. MicroBHT provides for secure web-based access for Teams (and other budget holders) to view their financial data. The security mechanism for BHT which is detailed in this paper uses the standards adopted by banks and other institutions who use the web with maximum security and confidentialy of for both their data and their customers.

  5. Black-hole dynamics in BHT massive gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Using an exact Vaidya-type null-dust solution, we study the area and entropy laws for dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon in (2+1)-dimensional Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend (BHT) massive gravity. We consider the theory admitting a degenerate (anti-)de Sitter vacuum and pure BHT gravity. It is shown that, while the area of a black hole decreases by the injection of a null dust with positive energy density in several cases, the Wald-Kodama dynamical entropy always increa...

  6. Butylated Hydroxytoluene Analogs: Synthesis and Evaluation of Their Multipotent Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Wageeh A. Yehye; Noorsaadah Abdul Rahman; Alhadi, Abeer A.; Hamid Khaledi; Ng Seik Weng; Azhar Ariffin

    2012-01-01

    A computer-aided predictions of antioxidant activities were performed with the Prediction Activity Spectra of Substances (PASS) program. Antioxidant activity of compounds 1, 3, 4 and 5 were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation assays to verify the predictions obtained by the PASS program. Compounds 3 and

  7. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of solubilized C60 and its conjugates with butylated hydroxytoluene

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, A. S.; A Matias; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Graça, Anabela; Simplício, Ana Luísa

    2011-01-01

    It has been described that fullerenes (C60) present interesting properties with potential application in clinical conditions related to oxidative stress. One of the most prominent features of fullerenes is the ability to quench free radicals. However, because of its poor solubility, this has been studied mostly in organic solutions, while the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of fullerenes and their derivates in aqueous medium is not well characterized. The antioxidant capacity of s...

  8. Procés de fabricació del BHT

    OpenAIRE

    Llorens Gibert, Nil

    2015-01-01

    L’objectiu del projecte és avaluar, de manera teòrica, la viabilitat industrial del procés de fabricació del 2,6-ditert-butil-4-metil-fenol, conegut com BHT, a partir de fenol. S’estudien les diverses vies de reacció possibles i es desenvolupa el procediment industrial de l’òptima. L’esquema general consta de dos processos: El primer procés explica la formació del 2,6-ditert-butil-fenol, conegut com 2,6-DTBF, constituït per les quatre etapes següents: ...

  9. Antioxidant activity of BHA, BHT and TBHQ examined with Miller's test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamac, M.

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available In model experiments with the use of Miller's test to 5 ml emulsion 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13µg BHA, BHT and TBHQ was added. Inhibitory ratios (IR for BHA and BHT were similar. At addition level of 6.25 and 3.13 IR for TBHQ was lower than for BHA and BHT. It is suggested that in the model studies with the use of Miller's test 25 µg BHA, BHT or TBHQ should be added to 5 ml of control sample.

    En experimentos modelos usando el test de Miller, a 5ml de emulsión se añadió 25, 12.5, 6.25 y 3.13µg de BHA, BHT y TBHQ. Las relaciones inhibitorias (IR para el BHA y BHT fueron similares. IR para TBHQ fue más baja que para BHA y BHT con niveles de adición del 6.25 y 3.13. Esto sugiere que en estudios modelos usando el test de Miller 25µg de BHA, BHT, o TBHQ deben ser añadidos a 5 ml de muestra control.

  10. Dramatic solvent effect on the synergy between α-tocopherol and BHT antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteau, Clémentine; Favier, Dominique; Nardello-Rataj, Véronique; Aubry, Jean-Marie

    2014-10-01

    During the DPPH scavenging assay carried out in non polar and non protic solvents, such as toluene, BHT regenerates α-tocopherol from tocopheryl radical, whereas in polar and protic solvents, like methanol, no regeneration is observed due to a fast electron transfer reaction from the tocopheryl radical to the reactive DPPH radical. Surprisingly, in the presence of a small amount of alcohol, the synergy is exalted and BHT regenerates twice as much α-tocopherol due to a nucleophilic addition of short alcohols on the BHT oxidation product, giving a new phenolic co-antioxidant. PMID:24799226

  11. Effect of xenobiotics on the respiratory activity of rat heart mitochondria and the concomitant formation of superoxide radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolze, K.; Nohl, H. (Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1994-03-01

    The effects of the xenobiotics atrazine, benzene, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), lindane, toluene, and xylenol on the respiration of isolated rate heart mitochondria were studied. Bioenergetic parameters such as respiratory control (RC) and ATP/oxygen (P/O) values decreased considerably in the presence of these substances, and a concomitant increase of superoxide radical (O[sub 2][sup [minus

  12. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Tevfik

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phosphomolybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccin...

  13. Effect of Glazing and Storage Time on Lipid Oxidation of Frozen Chub Mackerel (Scomber japonicus)

    OpenAIRE

    SOYER, Ayla; ŞAHİN, M. Ekin

    1999-01-01

    The effect of glazing with the solutions contained ascorbic acid (AA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), BHT/BHA combination and only water, and storage time on lipid oxidation of chub mackerel were determined during frozen storage at -18°C for 10 months. Glazing with some antioxidants or water of the fish retarded lipid oxidation when compared to control samples during frozen storage. The results of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxide v...

  14. Optimization and Validation of RP-HPLC-UV/Vis Method for Determination Phenolic Compounds in Several Personal Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Akkbik; Zaini Bin Assim; Fasihuddin Badruddin Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    An HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC) as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250 mg/L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25% ( = 4 ). Limits of detection for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.196, 0.170, ...

  15. Effect of irradiation and soaking in BHT and sodium pyrophosphate on meat proteins and lipids during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation treatments up to 10 KGy, soaking in a solution containing 0.5% Na-pyrophosphate and 250 ppm butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) and a combination of both treatments on the nitrogen content and solubility, protein fractions and lipids stability in beef steaks during cold storage at 4 ± 1°C was followed until the samples were rejected by sensory evaluation. The least effective radiation doses for soluble protein nitrogen (SPN), total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and total nitrogen (TN) were 2, 5 and 10 KGy, respectively. Such effects were proportionally related to the applied dose. The loss in nitrogen compounds and/or their solubility which occurred upon irradiation appeared to be retarded by soaking treatment. Irradiation treatments induced additional protein fraction which seems to be originated from the sarcoplasmic proteins. After the resolution of rigor mortis, the incremental rate of nitrogen extractability was inversely related to the irradiation dose. Another protein fraction was detected only in the 10 KGy irradiated samples after 14 days of cold storage which might be originating from fibrillar proteins as a result of its interaction with some lipid oxidation products. However, soaking treatment itself caused extensive changes in protein fractions, in contrast, protection from radiation and radiation after-effects were observed

  16. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and ...

  17. Protection of fish oil from oxidation with sesamol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether sesamol may provide antioxidant protection for functional foods containing marine omega-3 fatty acids. We tested the effectiveness of sesamol at two temperatures, 30 and 50 ºC and compared its antioxidant activity with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a ...

  18. 21 CFR 177.2600 - Rubber articles intended for repeated use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of these methods may be obtained from the Division of Petition Control (HFS... C8) phenols. BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). 4- amino]-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (CAS Reg. No. 991-84-4.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 177.2600, see the List of CFR Sections...

  19. Safety of food contact silicone rubber: Liberation of volatile compounds from soothers and teats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kirsten H.; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2002-01-01

    ) detectors. The main compounds were siloxane oligomers and aliphatic hydrocarbons. One teat released about 0.1 mg diethyl phtalate (DEP), which is considered to be quite a high quantity. Limited amounts of the antioxidant 3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT) were found in most samples....

  20. 7 CFR 58.305 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following terms shall have the following meaning. (a) Butter. The food product usually known as butter, and... having been allowed for. (b) Butteroil. The food product resulting from the removal of practically all of... Maximum level Propyl gallate 0.02% of fat. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) 0.02% of fat....

  1. Vertical flow soil filter for the elimination of micro pollutants from storm and waste water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janzen, Niklas; Banzhaf, Stefan; Scheytt, Traugott;

    2009-01-01

    ) to prevent clogging and was spiked with activated sludge to enhance microbial biomass and biodegradation potential. Compounds used as UV filters, antioxidants or plasticizers, namely 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), benzophenone-3 (BP-3), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS...

  2. Fluorescence of commercial Pluronic F127 samples: Temperature-dependent micellization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Christopher C; Sabir, Theodore S; Livingston, Wesley J; Milligan, Jamie R; Chen, Qiao; Maskiewicz, Victoria; Boskovic, Danilo S

    2011-02-15

    We present a novel approach of using the butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant found in commercial Pluronic F127 samples as a marker of polymer aggregation. The BHT marker was compared to the pyrene dye and static light scattering methods as a way to measure the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and critical micelle temperature (CMT). The n→π(∗) transitions of BHT are sensitive to the microenvironment as demonstrated by plotting the fractional intensities of its excitation (≈280nm) and emission (≈325nm) peaks. BHT is more sensitive to changes in temperature than concentration. The partition coefficient increases ≈40-fold for pyrene compared to ≈2-fold for BHT when the temperature is increased from 25 to 37°C. CMT values determined using the BHT fluorescence decrease with increasing F127 concentration. Our results show that BHT can be used as a reliable marker of changes in the microenvironment of Pluronic F127. PMID:21087773

  3. Comparison of several BHT correction methods: a case study on an Australian data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutorbe, Bruno; Lucazeau, Francis; Bonneville, Alain

    2007-08-01

    Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) from oil exploration provide useful constraints on the subsurface thermal regime, but they need to be corrected to obtain the equilibrium temperature. In this work, we introduce several BHT correction methods and compare them using a large Australian data set of more than 650 groups of multiple BHT measurements in about 300 oil exploration boreholes. Existing and suggested corrections are classified within a coherent framework, in which methods are divided into: line/cylinder source; instantaneous/continuous heat extraction; one/two component(s). Comparisons with reservoir test temperatures show that most of the corrections lead to reliable estimates of the formation equilibrium temperature within +/-10°C, but too few data exist to perform an intercomparison of the models based on this criterion. As expected, the Horner method diverges from its parent models for small elapsed times (or equivalently large radii). The mathematical expression of line source models suffers from an unphysical delay time that also restrains their domain of applicability. The model that takes into account the difference of thermal properties between circulating mud and surrounding rocks-that is the two-component model-is delicate to use because of its high complexity. For these reasons, our preferred correction methods are the cylindrical source models. We show that mud circulation time below 10 hr has a negligible effect. The cylindrical source models rely on one parameter depending on the thermal diffusivity and the borehole radius, which are poorly constrained, but the induced uncertainty on the extrapolations remains reasonably low.

  4. Otimização de Diferentes Procedimentos de Preparo de Amostras: Aplicação na Extração de Antioxidantes Presentes em Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Garabini de Freitas Andrade; Ricardo Pini Caramit; Tatiane Alfonso de Araújo; Luiz Henrique Viana; João Batista Gomes de Souza; Magno A. G. Trindade; Valdir Souza Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    In this work, different procedures were compared for the extraction of synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG), tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA) and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4 hydroxytoluene (BHT) from biodiesel samples. The efficiency of target procedures was tested using liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction containing different stationary phase. To accomplish this efficiency and determine the antioxidants, a method based on high performan...

  5. Aplicação do delineamento simplex-centroide no estudo da cinética da oxidação de biodiesel B100 em mistura com antioxidantes sintéticos The simplex-centroid design applied to study of the kinetics of the oxidation of B100 biodiesel in blend with synthetic antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Dionísio Borsato; Luiz Henrique Dall'Antonia; Carmen Luísa B. Guedes; Elaine Cristina R. Maia; Heverson Renan de Freitas; Ivanira Moreira; Kelly Roberta Spacino

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidants are an alternative to prevent or slow the degradation of the biofuel. In this study, it was evaluated the oxidative stability of B100 biodiesel from soybean oil in the presence of three commercial synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), pure or blended, from the experimental design of simplex-centroid mixture. The reaction order and rate constant were also calculated for all tests. The treatment con...

  6. Obtaining of the antioxidants by supercritical fluid extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Babović Nada V.; Petrović Slobodan D.

    2011-01-01

    One of the important trends in the food industry today is demand for natural antioxidants from plant material. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are now being replaced by the natural antioxidants because of theirs possible toxicity and as they may act as promoters of carcinogens. The natural antioxidants may show equivalent or higher antioxidant activity than the endogenous or the synthetic antioxidants. Thus, great effort ...

  7. Antioxidant, Free Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Characteristics of Propolis

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Geckil; Burhan Ates; Gokhan Durmaz; Selim Erdogan; Ismet Yilmaz

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the reducing characteristics, metal chelating capability, anti-lipid peroxidative and antiradical properties of propolis compared to two widely used artificial antioxidants, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT). The water and ethanol extracts of propolis showed significantly a different degree of metal chelating, radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In general, ethanol extracts of propolis showed higher activity re...

  8. Antioxidant Activity of Spice Extracts and Phenolics in Comparison to Synthetic Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M.; Brunton, N.; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Martin-Diana, Ana Belen; Wilkinson, M

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of 30 spices used frequently in ready meals and a selection of key compounds from spices were investigated in the current study using ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylebenzothiaziline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) and microsomal lipid peroxidation (MLP) assays. Antioxidant capacities of the spice extracts were compared to 5 popular synthetic antioxidants [buylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylated hydroquinon...

  9. Avaliação da estabilidade oxidativa de biodiesel de óleo de girassol com antioxidantes Evaluation of oxidation stability of sunflower oil biodiesel with antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Aparecida Ferrari; Waleska Lemes de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Biodiesel can contain unsaturated fatty acids, which are susceptible to oxidation, being able to change into polymerized compounds. In this work biodiesel was characterized according to physical-chemistry parameters and the antioxidant activity of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) added to biofuel was analyzed. Biodiesel was submitted to accelerate oxidation in the Schaal oven test, and peroxide value was analyzed.The absorptivity...

  10. Effects of Food Additives on Susceptibility of Gram Negative Bacteria Derived from Dry-Fermented Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    DORJ, Serjmyadag; SHIMADA, Kenichiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; 島田, 謙一郎; 関川, 三男

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of food additives on gram-negative bacteria. The food additives used included synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA, and butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT), a curing agent and lactic acid with or without a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing antimicrobial compounds of Lactobacillus sakei D-1001. The gram-negative bacteria were selected from dry-fermented sausages and cultured with different food additives for 18 h in nutrient broth, and then anot...

  11. Potentiation of chemically induced lung fibrosis by thorax irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraperitoneal injection of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) causes epithelial cell death, followed 2 to 4 days later by extensive proliferation of type II alveolar cells in mouse lung. Five to 8 days after BHT, most dividing cells are capillary endothelial cells or interstitial cells. In animials that were exposed to 200 rad thorax irradiation immediately or 1 day after BHT, lung hydroxyproline was increased 2 weeks later. The response was dose dependent, and the interaction between BHT and thorax irradiation was synergistic. Light microscopy showed abnormal accumulation of collagen in the alveolar septa. Lung hydroxyproline was not increased in animals that were irradiated 6 days after BHT, compared to animals treated with BHT alone. We concluded that fibrosis develops if lung is damaged by a blood-borne agent and radiation to the thorax occurs at a time when it may compromise alveolar reepithelialization. Exposure to x-rays during proliferation of capillary endothelial cells or interstitial cells does not enhance development of fibrosis

  12. Synthetic Phenolic Antioxidants and Their Metabolites in Indoor Dust from Homes and Microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Asimakopoulos, Alexandros G; Abualnaja, Khalid O; Covaci, Adrian; Gevao, Bondi; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kumosani, Taha A; Malarvannan, Govindan; Minh, Tu Binh; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Nakata, Haruhiko; Sinha, Ravindra K; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), are extensively used in food, cosmetic and plastic industries. Nevertheless, limited information is available on human exposures, other than the dietary sources, to SPAs. In this study, occurrence of 9 SPAs and their metabolites/degradation products was determined in 339 indoor dust collected from 12 countries. BHT was found in 99.5% of indoor dust samples from homes and microenvironments at concentrations that ranged from BHT metabolites in house dust (0.01-35.1 μg/g) and their concentrations accounted for 9.2-58% of the sum concentrations (∑SPAs). 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (BHT-Q) were the major derivatives of BHT found in dust samples. The concentrations of gallic acid esters (gallates) in dust from homes and microenvironments ranged from BHT via house dust ingestion ranged from 0.40 to 222 ng/kg/d (95th percentile). PMID:26629709

  13. Canonical structure of BHT massive gravity in warped AdS3 sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mahdavian Yekta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the asymptotic structure of the three dimensional Warped Anti-de Sitter (WAdS3 black holes in the Bergshoeff–Hohm–Townsend (BHT massive gravity using the canonical Hamiltonian formalism. We define the canonical asymptotic gauge generators, which produce the conserved charges and the asymptotic symmetry group for the WAdS3 black holes. The attained symmetry group is described by a semi-direct sum of a Virasoro and a Kač–Moody algebra. Using the Sugawara construction, we obtain a direct sum of two Virasoro algebras. We show that not only the asymptotic conserved charges satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, but also they lead to the expected Smarr formula for the WAdS3 black holes. We also show that the black hole's entropy obeys the Cardy formula of the dual conformal field theory (CFT.

  14. Canonical structure of BHT massive gravity in warped AdS3 sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavian Yekta, Davood

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the asymptotic structure of the three dimensional Warped Anti-de Sitter (WAdS3) black holes in the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend (BHT) massive gravity using the canonical Hamiltonian formalism. We define the canonical asymptotic gauge generators, which produce the conserved charges and the asymptotic symmetry group for the WAdS3 black holes. The attained symmetry group is described by a semi-direct sum of a Virasoro and a Kač-Moody algebra. Using the Sugawara construction, we obtain a direct sum of two Virasoro algebras. We show that not only the asymptotic conserved charges satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, but also they lead to the expected Smarr formula for the WAdS3 black holes. We also show that the black hole's entropy obeys the Cardy formula of the dual conformal field theory (CFT).

  15. Clean up procedure (GPC) voor de GC bepaling van de antioxidanten BHA, BHT en TBHQ in botervet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, J.; Traag, W.; Kamp, van der H.; Hollman, P.

    1987-01-01

    Voor het opstellen van een normvoorschrift voor de bepaling van de antioxydanten BHA, BHT en TBHQ in botervet worden door werkgroep E43 van de "International Dairy Federation" methoden geëvalueerd. Uitgangspunt voor deze norm is de gaschromatografische bepaling beschreven in ISO 6463-1982. De wens b

  16. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  17. Microscopic entropy of the three-dimensional rotating black hole of BHT massive gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gaston; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Asymptotically AdS rotating black holes for the Bergshoeff-Hohm-Townsend (BHT) massive gravity theory in three dimensions are considered. In the special case when the theory admits a unique maximally symmetric solution, apart from the mass and the angular momentum, the black hole is described by an independent "gravitational hair" parameter, which provides a negative lower bound for the mass. This bound is saturated at the extremal case and, since the temperature and the semiclassical entropy vanish, it is naturally regarded as the ground state. The absence of a global charge associated with the gravitational hair parameter reflects through the first law of thermodynamics in the fact that the variation of this parameter can be consistently reabsorbed by a shift of the global charges, giving further support to consider the extremal case as the ground state. The rotating black hole fits within relaxed asymptotic conditions as compared with the ones of Brown and Henneaux, such that they are invariant under the s...

  18. Effects of antioxidants on the fate and impact of spilled vegetable oils in aquatic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salam, D.A.; Suidan, M.T. [University of Cincinnati (United States)], email: salamda@email.uc.edu; Venosa, A.D. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Adding antioxidants to vegetable oils prevents lipid oxidation. Antioxidants always influence oil biodegradability and their toxicity patterns in impacted water bodies. This study used glyceryl trilinoleate as a model system to investigate the impact of butylated-hydroxytoluene (BHT) concentration on the biodegradability of vegetable oils and induced toxicity. As is known, glyceryl trilinoleate is the most susceptible triglyceride with regard to auto-oxidation. Biodegradation experiments on glyceryl trilinoleate were run by means of respirometric experiments. In this study, various concentrations of BHT ranging from 0 to 200 ppm (no BHT added, 50, 100, 200) were tested and the completely mixed conditions in 250 mL microcosms were simulated. There were three replicate samples and three abiotic blanks per BHT level. Through observing the competition between polymerization and biodegradation, it was found out that toxicity did not exist in the liquid phase after 19 weeks of incubation with the exception of the abiotic blanks with no BHT added.

  19. Activation of liver X receptor inhibits the development of pulmonary carcinomas induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and butylated hydroxytoluene in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qixue Wang; Lei Sun; Xiaoxiao Yang; Xingzhe Ma; Qi Li; Yuanli Chen; Ying Liu; Di Zhang; Xiaoju Li; Rong Xiang; Yuquan Wei; Jihong Han; Yajun Duan

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that LXR ligand, T0901317, inhibited the growth of inoculated Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice by activating IFN-γ production. However, the effects of T0901317 on carcinogen-induced pulmonary carcinomas remain unknown. In this study, we initially conducted a statistical analysis on the data of human lung cancer samples extracted from the TCGA database, and determined that survival rate/time of lung cancer patients and grade of lung adenocarcinoma were positively and...

  20. Efeito da Adição do Antioxidante BHT e do Armazenamento Sobre a Qualidade da Farinha de Carne e Ossos Para Frangos de Corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racanicci AMC

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi desenvolvido com a finalidade monitorar a qualidade da farinha de carne e ossos (FCO, durante o armazenamento prolongado (10 semanas, e avaliar os efeitos da adição do BHT (500mg/kg a esta farinha. Um lote fresco de FCO (41,12% PB e 9,14% EE foi dividido em seis partes iguais, sendo uma não tratada (CONTROLE e as demais tratadas com BHT em diferentes tempos de armazenamento (nos dias 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28: BHT/0, BHT/7, BHT/14, BHT/21 e BHT/28, respectivamente. As FCO foram armazenadas em ambiente diariamente monitorado e sua qualidade foi avaliada por amostragens semanais, com determinação do índice de peróxidos, cujo nível máximo obtido foi de aproximadamente 80meq/kg (CONTROLE. A partir da 4ª semana de armazenamento, foi conduzido um experimento com frangos de corte alimentados por 42 dias com rações à base de milho e farelo de soja, contendo cerca de 4% das FCO armazenadas. Foram utilizados 1.440 pintos de um dia, machos, distribuídos num delineamento em blocos casualizados, com 6 tratamentos e 6 repetições. Os resultados médios obtidos para peso vivo, ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar, mortalidade e refugagem e fator de produção foram submetidos à análise da variância e as médias dos tratamentos foram comparadas ao CONTROLE através do teste de Dunnett. As variáveis estudadas, em geral, não foram afetadas pelos tratamentos (p>0,05, indicando que, neste estudo, o uso da FCO oxidada ou das FCO protegidas pelo BHT, não influenciaram o desempenho das aves.

  1. Oxidation of synthetic phenolic antioxidants during water chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Rosario; Quintana, José Benito; Cela, Rafael

    2012-01-15

    The degradation of seven phenolic antioxidants and metabolites during chlorination was investigated. Under strong chlorination conditions (10 mg L(-1) chlorine, 24h), five of the target compounds were significantly degraded, while only BHT-Q (2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione) and BHT-CHO (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were stable. The effect of the presence of bromide to the sample was only significant for BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole) resulting in increased disappearance rate as it is increased. Moreover, the disappearance kinetics were investigated at different concentrations of chlorine and pH of sample using a factorial experimental design. It was observed that the pH of the sample was a significant factor for BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and BHA, and chlorine concentration was significant for BHT, resulting in increased disappearance kinetics as they are increased. The degradation of these compounds has revealed two main processes: hydroxylation and oxidation of the aromatic system. The hydroxylated derivatives in some cases (e.g. from BHT-OH (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxymethyl)phenol) and BHT-COOH (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid)) are formed via the chlorinated and/or brominated intermediate. Moreover, the oxidation of the aromatic system leads to the quinone derivatives. The investigation of these by-products in real samples by solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-MS) showed that derivatives of BHT, BHT-OH and/or BHT-COOH occurred in wastewater and drinking water samples analysed. PMID:22093692

  2. In vitro antioxidant, reducing power, free radical scavenging and membrane stabilizing activities of seeds of Syzygium cumini L.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mohammad S; Rashid, Mohammad A.; Sikder, Al Amin; Rahman, Arifur; Kaisar, Mohammad A.; Hasan, Choudhury M.

    2011-01-01

    Different extractives of Syzygium cumini seeds were evaluated by free radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, phosphomolybdenum total antioxidant assay and reducing power determination in order to identify promising sources of antioxidants along with its membrane stabilizing activity. The total phenolic content was also determined and expressed in gallic acid equivalent. Here, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (ASA) were used as standard antioxidants. The membrane stabilizing activity...

  3. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Origanum dictamnus Extracts before and after Encapsulation in Liposomes

    OpenAIRE

    John Tsaknis; Ioanna Chinou; Stavros Lala; Olga Gortzi

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol or dichloromethane extracts of O. dictamnus, produced from wild and organic cultivated specimens, were determined. The Rancimat and malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC methods were used to measure the antioxidant action, in comparison with that of the common commercial antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol. The extracts that presented high antioxidant activity were encapsulated in liposomes and their antioxidant action...

  4. Location of two antioxidants in oriented model membranes. Small-angle x-ray diffraction study.

    OpenAIRE

    Katsaras, J.; Stinson, R H; Davis, J H; Kendall, E J

    1991-01-01

    Small-angle x-ray diffraction has been applied in locating either butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or delta-tocopherol and their brominated analogues at a concentration of 40 mol% in oriented bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) or DPPC + 15 mol% cholesterol at 20 degrees C. Phases were determined using swelling experiments with structure factors plotted in reciprocal space, creating a relatively smooth curve as the amount of water between the bilayers was changed. Continuous Fouri...

  5. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Phymatopteris hastata

    OpenAIRE

    Su Wei; Li Peiyuan; Huo Lini; Wu Caiying; Guo Nana; Liu Liangquan

    2011-01-01

    Various solvent extracts of Phymatopteris hastata, a traditional Chinese medicinal material, were screened for their antioxidant activities. Four systems of in vitro testing were employed to investigate the antiradical and antioxidant effect, i.e., the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) systems, the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and the reducing power. In addition, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a widely used synth...

  6. Biodiesel metílico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparação, caracterização e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade à oxidação Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo; Carla Verônica Rodarte de Moura; Mariana H. Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 ± 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm) antioxidants in the ...

  7. Ultrasonic radiation induced lipid peroxidation in liposomal membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, A.K.; Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1986-12-01

    Ultrasonic radiation produced a dose dependent linear increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA formation) in the liposomal membrane. The yield of MDA was significantly inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the antioxidant, sodium formate,the OH/sup ./ radical scavenger, and EDTA, the metal ion chelator. Ascorbic acid at low concentration increased the ultrasonic induced MDA formation while high concentrations inhibited lipid peroxidation. A mechanism of ultrasound induced lipid peroxidation is suggested.

  8. Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum) on Duck Sausage Quality during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Muthia Dewi; Nurul Huda; Easa. A. M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding natural antioxidant (garlic, fresh or powdered) or a synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene/ BHT) on the quality of duck sausage during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Proximate composition, pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Aerobic plate counts (APC), and mold count were measured. Generally, all sample types showed decreased moisture content and pH and increased protein and fat contents over the course of the refrigerated s...

  9. Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Renata-Maria Sumalan; Mariana-Atena Poiana; Ersilia Alexa

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some natural extracts obtained from grape pomace (GPE) and grape seeds (GSE) as compared to a synthetic food, antioxidant-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in order to control fungal population and ochratoxin A (OTA) production in naturally contaminated wheat. The results showed that the addition of these extracts was efficient with OTA content decreasing. On treatment with these extracts the loss of OTA content after 14 days was in the range ...

  10. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Utilized Ex Vivo to Validate In Vivo Findings: Inhibition of Gap Junction Activity in Lung Tumor Promotion is Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Thomas; Osgood, Ross S; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Alexander, Carla-Maria; Upham, Brad L; Bauer, Alison K

    2013-01-01

    TLR4 protects against lung tumor promotion and pulmonary inflammation in mice. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction gene, was increased in Tlr4 wildtype compared to Tlr4-mutant mice in response to promotion, which suggests gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may be compromised. We hypothesized that the early tumor microenvironment, represented by Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) from Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; promoter)-treated mice, would produce TLR4-dependent changes in ...

  11. Selective Monoarylation of Primary Amines Using the Pd-PEPPSI-IPent(Cl) Precatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Sepideh; Rucker, Richard P; Chandrasoma, Nalin; Mitchell, David; Rodriguez, Michael J; Froese, Robert D J; Organ, Michael G

    2015-08-10

    A single set of reaction conditions for the palladium-catalyzed amination of a wide variety of (hetero)aryl halides using primary alkyl amines has been developed. By combining the exceptionally high reactivity of the Pd-PEPPSI-IPent(Cl) catalyst (PEPPSI=pyridine enhanced precatalyst preparation, stabilization, and initiation) with the soluble and nonaggressive sodium salt of BHT (BHT=2,6-di-tert-butyl-hydroxytoluene), both six- and five-membered (hetero)aryl halides undergo efficient and selective amination. PMID:26097000

  12. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting. PMID:26929990

  13. Comparative antioxidant effect of BHT and water extracts of banana and sapodilla peels in raw poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Kumboj, Ritu; Paul, Devosmita

    2014-02-01

    Antioxidant properties of banana (Musa paradisiaca) and Sapodilla/Chikoo (Manilkara zapota) peel extracts in chicken patties were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat + 2% salt), II.BHT (meat + 2% salt + 0.1% BHT), III. BPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% banana peel extract) and IV. SPE (meat + 2% salt + 2% sapodilla/chikoo peel extract) were compared for changes in colour and lipid oxidation during 8 days refrigerated storage (4 ± °C). The average phenolic content was 550.2 and 550.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per 10 g peel in BPE and SPE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 66.9 and 67.8% in BPE and SPE respectively. Banana peel extract had significantly (P sapodilla peel extract (0.91). During refrigerated storage period, all color parameters decreased significantly in all treatments. Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significantly (P sapodilla peels could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24493901

  14. Dimethyl sulfoxide as a mild oxidizing agent for porous silicon and its effect on photoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.H.; Sailor, M.J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1998-06-29

    Dimethyl sulfoxide acts as a mild room-temperature oxidant of luminescent porous silicon. The oxidation reaction is accompanied by a loss in photoluminescence intensity from the silicon nanocrystallites, indicating that the oxide formed under these conditions is electronically defective. The rate of oxidation is reduced if the reaction is carried out in the presence of the radical traps 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT) or cumene. In addition, photoluminescence intensity is preserved if the DMSO oxidation reaction is carried out in the presence of high concentrations of BHT. The BHT is proposed to form a more electronically passive oxide layer by hydrogenating the surface radicals (dangling bonds) generated during the oxidation reaction.

  15. Alkylation of 2'-deoxynucleosides and DNA by quinone methides derived from 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Yoerg, D G; Bolton, J L; Thompson, J A

    1996-12-01

    4-Alkylphenols, such as the antioxidant 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), exhibit toxicities that appear to be mediated by their oxidative metabolism to electrophilic quinone methides. Reactions of these Michael acceptors with simple nucleophiles and proteins have been reported, but little information is available on quinone methide binding to the competing nucleophilic sites in DNA. In the present investigation, 2'-deoxynucleoside adducts generated in vitro with two BHT-derived quinone methides, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylenecyclohexa-2,5-dienone and 6-tert-butyl-2- (2'-hydroxy-1',1'-dimethylethyl)-4-methylenecyclohexa-2,5-dieno ne (BHTOH-QM) were isolated and identified. Both quinone methides produced adducts at the 1- and N2-positions of deoxyguanosine (dG) and the N6-position of deoxyadenosine (dA). In addition, a labile adduct formed at the 7-position of dG, which degraded to the corresponding 7-alkylguanine derivative. Additional work was conducted with BHTOH-QM, the more reactive of the two quinone methides. This species also formed stable adducts at the N4-position of deoxycytosine (dC) and the 3-position of thymidine and formed a labile adduct at the 3-position of dC that underwent hydrolytic cleavage to regenerate dC. In mixtures of deoxynucleosides treated with [14C]BHTOH-QM, alkylation occurred primarily at the N2- and 7-positions of dG and the N6-position of dA and occurred secondarily at the 1-position of dG. Treatment of calf thymus DNA with this quinone methide yielded N6-dA and N2-dG adducts with the former predominating. The unstable 7-dG adduct was detected by analysis of the 7-alkylguanine product from depurination. These results demonstrate that quinone methides are most likely to damage DNA through alkylation of the exocyclic amino groups of purine residues and possibly also by attack at the 7-position of dG followed by depurination. PMID:8951242

  16. Determination of BHA and BHT in Vegetable Oil by Gas Chromatography for Nitrogen- purge%氮吹-气相色谱法测定植物油BHA与BHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敬永计; 夏燕平; 姚勇; 龙德尚; 彭小燕

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the pretreatment technique for the detection of BHA and BHT from edible oils and fats by using gas chromatography. Methods Comparing the test results of two extraction and purification methods of nitrogen - purge and vacuum concentration by gas chromatography in the same test conditions of GC. The chromatographic conditions were suggested as follows: Gas chrom Q( 80 ~ 100mesh) covered by10% QF - 1 ( m/m)in 2. 0 × 3 mm stainless steel column was used as stationary phase, injection temperature 200 ℃ , detector temperature 200 ℃ , column temperature 140 ℃ . Results The RSDs of two pretreatment technique were all lower than 5% , the recovery rate was 88. 7% - 96. 2% and the detection limit were 0. 004 g/Kg. Conclusion It showed no statistical difference between two pretreatment methods of nitrogen - purge and vacuum concentration. The gas chromatography of nitrogen - purge is simple and accurate, and has a good reproducibility for the determination of BHA and BHT from vegetable oil.%目的 探讨气相色谱法检测食用油脂中BHA、BHT样品的前处理法.方法 在相同检测条件下比较柱层析后氮吹和减压浓缩2种样品前处理方法的结果.色谱条件为:色谱柱为长20 m内径3 mm不锈钢柱,内装涂有10%QF-1(m/m)的Gas chrom Q(80~100目)担体.气化室温度200℃,检测室温度200 ℃,柱温140℃.结果 2种前处理方法的相对标准差均小于5%,回收率在88.7%~96.2%之间,RSD为2.70%~3.78%,检出限为0.004 g/kg.结论 2种前处理方法测定结果差异无统计学意义,氮吹-气相色谱法简便、准确、重现性好,可用于植物油中BHA、BHT的测定.

  17. Demand boom boosts ethyl, butyl acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US ethyl and butyl acetate markets are being described as 'extremely tight.' One major domestic producer is 'in a sold-out position' and has 'gone on sales control' with respect to these two products. Producers say that sales of both ethyl and butyl acetate have increased during the past year, and industry observers say they expect to see an April 1 price initiative of 2 cts to 3 cts/lb, and possibly a second increase in October. While one producer suggests that this market strength could be 'a sign that the coatings industry is turning around,' most agree that reformulation is the principal driver of growth. Ethyl acetate is said to be replacing methyl ethyl ketone in many formulations, while butyl acetate and butyl acetate blends are substituting for methyl isobutyl ketone. In addition, both ethyl and butyl acetate work as substitutes for xylene and toluene in certain applications. In an effort to conform to the requirements of the Clean Air Act of 1990 and to cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency's 33/50 voluntary emissions reduction program, coatings manufacturers are moving as quickly as possible to eliminate solvents from their products. And although solvents as a whole will eventually see a dramatic decline in consumption, the temporary beneficiaries of reformulation will be certain of the oxygenated solvents, says Jeff Back, business manager at Kline ampersand Co

  18. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using microvial insert large volume injection gas-chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Three synthetic phenolic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), were determined in different edible vegetable oil samples. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using microvial insert large volume injection (LVI). Several parameters affecting this sample introduction step, such as temperatures, times and gas flows, were optimised. Quantification was carried out by the matrix-matched calibration method using carvacrol as internal standard, providing quantification limits between 0.08 and 0.10 ng g(-1), depending on the compound. The three phenolic compounds were detected in several of the samples, BHT being the most frequently found. Recovery assays for oil samples spiked at two concentration levels, 2.5 and 10 ng g(-1), provided recoveries in the 86-115% range. PMID:26830586

  19. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Mohammad Bagher; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Eskandari, Mohammad Hadi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, application of various concentrations (0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075%) of Carum copticum essential oil (EO) were examined on oxidative stability of sunflower oil and there were compared to Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) during storage at 37 and 47 °C. The main compounds of EO were identified as thymol (50.07%), γ- terpinene (23.92%) and p-cymene (22.9%). Peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AnV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value measurement in su...

  20. Use of propolis extract as a natural antioxidant for plant oils

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Musa

    2000-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of propolis were tested in natural olive oil stored at 60ºC. The concentration of extracts in olive oil varied from 0.02 to 0.08%. Extracts at 0.06 and 0.08% concentrations had better antioxidant activity as compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at 0.01% levels. The greatest antioxidant activities were exhibited by propolis balsam extract at 0.08% levels. lt can be said that the antioxidant act...

  1. Aplicação do delineamento simplex-centroide no estudo da cinética da oxidação de biodiesel B100 em mistura com antioxidantes sintéticos The simplex-centroid design applied to study of the kinetics of the oxidation of B100 biodiesel in blend with synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísio Borsato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants are an alternative to prevent or slow the degradation of the biofuel. In this study, it was evaluated the oxidative stability of B100 biodiesel from soybean oil in the presence of three commercial synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, pure or blended, from the experimental design of simplex-centroid mixture. The reaction order and rate constant were also calculated for all tests. The treatment containing pure TBHQ proved to be the most effective, proven by design, the optimum mix obtained and the rate constant. Binary and ternary mixtures containing TBHQ also showed appreciable antioxidant effect.

  2. Antioxidants used in oils, fats and fatty foods Antioxidantes utilizados em óleos, gorduras e alimentos gordurosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina Ramalho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation is certainly one of the most important alterations that affect both oils or fats and foods that contain them. It is responsible for the development of unpleasant taste and smell in foods, making them unsuitable for consuming. The use of antioxidants permits a longer useful life of these products. This work presents a bibliographic review of research carried out in order to evaluate the antioxidant activity of natural or synthetic substances used in the conservation of food lipid. Among such substances, the following antioxidants are highlighted: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, propyl gallate (PG, tocopherols, phenolic acids and isolated compounds from rosemary and oregano.

  3. Short-term pathological and proliferative effects of butylated hydroxy anisole and other phenolic antioxidants in the forestomach of Fischer 344 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food grade butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) when incorporated in the diet and fed to male Fischer 344 rats for 9 or 27 days induced proliferative squamous epithelial changes in the lesser curvature of the forestomach proximate to the plandular stomach. These changes were assessed histopathologically and by (methyl-3H) thymidine radioautography. It was shown that BHA mixed dry into powdered diet, incorporated into the diet in corn oil, or in a pelleted diet, induced similar effects. When levels of 2%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, 0.1% and BHA were incorporated in rat diet for 9 days, the proliferative effect appeared to show a no effect level at 0.25% based on the (methyl-3H) thymidine-labelling index. Other food use antioxidants, namely butylated hydroxytoluene or tertiary butylhydroquinone, induced a lesser reponse than BHA at the maximum dose employed in the study. Propyl gallate was without effect. Propyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, a food use phenol, on the other hand, induced a less pronounced response that BHA but was more effective than the other antioxidants. Because increased cellular proliferation often provides an optimal milieu for tumor formation, it is suggested that these observations may be relevant to rat forestomach tumors induced by BHA (author)

  4. Optimization and Validation of RP-HPLC-UV/Vis Method for Determination Phenolic Compounds in Several Personal Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Akkbik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250 mg/L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25% (=4. Limits of detection for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.196, 0.170, and 0.478 mg/L, respectively. While limits of quantification for BHA, BHT, and OMC were 0.593, 0.515, and 1.448 mg/L, respectively. The recovery for BHA, BHT, and OMC was ranged from 92.1–105.9%, 83.2–108.9%, and 87.3–103.7%, respectively. The concentration ranges of BHA, BHT, and OMC in 12 commercial personal care samples were 0.13–4.85, 0.16–2.30, and 0.12–65.5 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of phenolic compounds in these personal care samples were below than maximum allowable concentration in personal care formulation, that is, 0.0004–10 mg/g, 0.002–5 mg/g, and up to 100 mg/g for BHA, BHT, and OMC, respectively.

  5. Development and validation of RP-HPLC-UV/ Vis method for determination of phenolic compounds in several personal care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A HPLC method with ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry detection has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as antioxidants, and octyl methyl cinnamate (OMC) as UVB-filter in several personal care products. The dynamic range was between 1 to 250 mg/ L with relative standard deviation less than 0.25 %, (n=4). Limit of detection for BHA, BHT and OMC were 0.196, 0.170 and 0.478 mg/ L, respectively. While limit of quantification for BHA, BHT and OMC were 0.593, 0.515 and 1.448 mg/ L, respectively. The recovery for BHA, BHT and OMC ranged from 92.1-105.9 %, 83.2-108.9 % and 87.3-103.7 %, respectively. The concentration ranges of BHA, BHT and OMC in 12 commercial personal care samples were 0.13-4.85, 0.16-2.30 and 0.12-65.5 mg/ g, respectively. The concentrations of phenolic compounds in these personal care samples were below than maximum allowable concentration in personal care formulation for example 0.0004 - 10 mg/ g, 0.002 - 5 mg/ g and up to 100 mg/ g for BHA, BHT and OMC, respectively. (author)

  6. Compound list: butylated hydroxyanisole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available butylated hydroxyanisole BHA 00156 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/...LATEST/Human/in_vitro/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/o...pen-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp....biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/butylated_hydroxyanisole.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  7. 40 CFR 180.232 - Butylate; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butylate; tolerances for residues. 180... PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.232 Butylate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for the herbicide butylate in...

  8. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 582.3169 Section 582.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not...

  10. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  11. CT colonography with and without butyl scopolamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare colorectal distention with and without butyl scopolamine (Buscopan) during CT colonography. A sixty-four-detector row CT colonography was performed without the administration of butyl scopolamine in 75 subjects (group without buscopan). These subjects were compared to 75 subjects who were premedicated with 20 mg of butyl scopolamine (group with buscopan). The large intestine was divided into six segments, and three observers recorded the degrees of colorectal distention using a 4-point scale for both dual positions (1=completely collapsed, 2=partially collapsed, 3=adequately but not optimally distended, 4=optimally distended). A total of 1,800 segments were evaluated. The average colorectal distention scores for the group without and with buscopan were 3.59 and 3.57, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of colorectal distention (p=0.48). Butyl scopolamine administration before CT colonography does not improve the overall adequacy of colorectal distention and our results do not support its routine use for CT colonography for screening purposes. (author)

  12. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  13. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  14. Supplementation of Pork Patties with Bovine Plasma Protein Hydrolysates Augments Antioxidant Properties and Improves Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of bovine plasma protein (PP) hydrolysates on the antioxidant and quality properties of pork patties during storage. Pork patties were divided into 4 groups: without butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and PP hydrolysates (control), 0.02% BHT (T1), 1% PP hydrolysates (T2), and 2% PP hydrolysates (T3). Pork patty supplemented with PP hydrolysates had higher pH values and lower weight loss during cooking than the control patties. Results showed that lightness and hardness both decreased upon the addition of PP hydrolysates. All samples containing BHT and PP hydrolysates had reduced TBARS and peroxide values during storage. In particular, 2% PP hydrolysates were more effective in delaying lipid oxidation than were the other treatments. It was concluded that treatment with 2% PP hydrolysates can enhance the acceptance of pork patty. PMID:27194928

  15. Chemical composition of volatile fraction of pakistani peanut and its

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachis hypogaea Linn (peanut or groundnut) is an economically important crop. Thousands of peanut cultivars are grown in the world and studies have been carried out on these but, to the best of our knowledge, no salient work has been done on Pakistani cultivar so far. Here, we report the chemical composition of volatile fraction of Pakistani cultivar of peanut and its anti radical activities using 1,I-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging and phospho molybdenum complex (PC) method. This study revealed that Pakistani cultivar exhibited an almost equal antioxidant potential to that of standard, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which was obvious from their IC/sub 50/ values. The IC/sub 50/ value of peanut extract was found to be 13.42 +- 26 macro L/mL, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene, having 12.1 +- 0.92 macro/mL. (author)

  16. tert-Butyl 1-hydroxypiperidine-2-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Brücher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H19NO3, is a disubstituted piperidine bearing substituents in two equatorial positions. One of the substituents is a hydroxy group bound to nitrogen and the second a tert-butyl ester group bound to the carbon next to the endocyclic nitrogen. Enantiomers of the title compound form hydrogen-bridged dimers across a center of inversion.

  17. Antioxidant, Free Radical Scavenging and Metal Chelating Characteristics of Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Geckil

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the reducing characteristics, metal chelating capability, anti-lipid peroxidative and antiradical properties of propolis compared to two widely used artificial antioxidants, Butylated Hydroxyanisole (BHA and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT. The water and ethanol extracts of propolis showed significantly a different degree of metal chelating, radical scavenging activity and reducing power. In general, ethanol extracts of propolis showed higher activity regarding these parameters. Synthetic antioxidants showed better activities than both propolis extracts for antioxidant properties, utilizing a -carotene bleaching method. At higher concentrations, the reducing power of ethanol extract of propolis was similar to that of artificial antioxidants. The metal chelating activity of both water and ethanol extracts of propolis was comparable to that of EDTA and significantly higher than both BHA and BHT.

  18. Gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants: effects on lipid oxidation of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Azam, Mahmood; Hasnain, Abid

    2015-04-01

    Performance of antioxidants is improved by incorporating them into polymer matrix such as polysaccharides based edible coatings. Gum cordia, an anionic polysaccharide extracted from the fruits of Cordia.myxa could be used as carrier of antioxidants by virtue of its strong adhering and emulsifying properties. This study aimed to explore the potential of gum cordia as carrier of antioxidants when applied as edible coating on peanuts. Gum Cordia was compared with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in delivering of antioxidants: butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid (AA). Coated and uncoated peanuts were stored at 35 °C for 126 days and coating carrier effectiveness was measured by following lipid oxidation using chemical parameters (peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive species) and sensory evaluation (oxidized flavor). Significant differences (p < 0.05) between coated and uncoated samples were observed. Gum cordia was found better than CMC to deliver the antioxidants. Gum cordia based coating in combination with BHA/BHT exhibited highest protection (290 % higher shelf life than control) based on peroxide value (40 meq.O2 kg(-1)) followed by gum codia plus BHT (244 %), gum cordia plus BHA (232 %), CMC plus BHA/BHT (184 %), CMC plus BHA (139 %), CMC plus BHT (119 %), gum cordia plus AA (96 %) and CMC plus AA (46 %). PMID:25829621

  19. Effect of incorporation of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on quality of ground pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, M; Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Sen, A R; Sureshkumar, K

    2014-11-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of addition of different levels of Moringa oleifera leaves extract (MLE) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in raw and cooked pork patties during refrigerated storage. Five treatments evaluated include: Control (without MLE/BHT), MLE 300 (300 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 450 (450 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics), MLE 600 (600 ppm equivalent M. oleifera leaves phenolics) and BHT 200 (200 ppm BHT). Total phenolic content ranged from 60.78 to 70.27 mg per gram. A concentration dependent increase in reducing power and 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of both MLE and BHT was noticed. Higher (P BHT 200 compared to control. Addition of MLE did not affect the sensory attributes or microbial quality. These results showed that M. oleifera leaves can be used as a potential source of natural antioxidants to inhibit lipid oxidation in ground pork patties. PMID:26396309

  20. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  1. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi; Zamani Faezeh Ghorbani; Zekri Negar

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs) was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  2. Toxicity, antioxidant activity and phytochemical characterization of Coccoloba mollis roots and leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Iuri Bezerra de Barros; Queli Cristina Fidelis; Juliana Feijo de Souza Daniel; Jurandir Pereira Pinto; Audrey Alesandra Stinhen Garcia Lonni; Gideão Silva Ribeiro; Raimundo Braz- Filho; Norton Resende de Araújo; Dalva Trevisan Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Coccoloba mollis is a plant that is used in medicine in Londrina, Brazil. The root extract showed stronger activity against A. salina (68.5 μg/mL) than did the leaf extract (1342 μg mL), and demonstrated good activity when compared with the positive control (16.24 μg /mL). The antioxidant potential (Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl – DPPH) of root and leaf extracts was comparable to that of commonly used BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene). In the chemical characterization the compounds identified were a mi...

  3. Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability; Biodiesel metilico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparacao, caracterizacao e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade a oxidacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Francisca Diana da Silva; Moura, Carla Veronica Rodarte de; Chaves, Mariana H., E-mail: mariana@ufpi.edu.b [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 {+-} 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm) and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm) antioxidants in the biodiesel contributed to the increase of the induction period of 2.97 h for 8.08; 6.06 and 6.02 h, respectively. (author)

  4. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant activity of quinolin-5-ylamine derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mallesha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Imines of six new quinolin-5-ylamine derivatives 3(a-c and 5(a-c were synthesized by the reaction of quinolin-5-ylamine (1 with different aldehydes 2(a-c and ketones 4(a-c. The chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed by UV-visible, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectral study. New compounds were screened for the antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method. Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT was used as standard. All the compounds showed DPPH radical scavenging activity, where compound 3c was the best radical scavenger.

  5. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent

    OpenAIRE

    Herdis; Kusuma; M. Surachman; I.K Sutama; M Riza; I Inounu; B. Purwantara; I Arifiantini

    2002-01-01

    The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent use...

  6. Biodiesel metílico de Dipteryx lacunifera: preparação, caracterização e efeito de antioxidantes na estabilidade à oxidação Methyl biodiesel from Dipteryx lacunifera: preparation, characterization and effect of antioxidant on the oxidation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the potentialities of Dipteryx lacunifera Ducke seeds oil for biodiesel production. The yield in oil was of 46.11 ± 0.37%. Methyl biodiesel was prepared by base catalyzed transesterification yielding 88.13% and percentage conversion of triglycerides to corresponding methyl ester of 89.1%. The addition of the tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 50 ppm, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 50 ppm and cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, 2000 ppm antioxidants in the biodiesel contributed to the increase of the induction period of 2.97 h for 8.08; 6.06 and 6.02 h, respectively.

  7. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2014-01-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Tot...

  8. Synthesis and in vitro antioxidant activity of quinolin-5-ylamine derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Mallesha, L.; B. K. Kendagannaswamy; K. N. Mohana

    2013-01-01

    Imines of six new quinolin-5-ylamine derivatives 3(a-c) and 5(a-c) were synthesized by the reaction of quinolin-5-ylamine (1) with different aldehydes 2(a-c) and ketones 4(a-c). The chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed by UV-visible, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectral study. New compounds were screened for the antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as standard. All the compounds showed DPPH radical scavenging activity...

  9. Effect of different antioxidants on lipid oxidation of irradiated cooked streaky pork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of antioxidants on lipid oxidation of vacuum packaged irradiated cooked streaky pork were studied. The cooked streaky pork were added with 0.02% TeaPolyphenols (TP), rosemary, Tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and vitamin E separately, then were irradiated with 6 kGy, and stored at 4 degree C. The results showed that antioxidants can reduce the value of TBA, POV value of irradiated cooked streaky pork, and the effects of TBHQ and TP were better, than other antiatidins. (authors)

  10. Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies at the molecular, biochemical, and immunological level of carcinogenesis induced in mice by viruses, radiation, or environmental chemicals alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the identification and assessments of cocarcinogens and studies on their mechanisms of action. Data are included on mechanisms of carcinogenesis in the liver, thyroid, Harderian glands, skin, and lungs. The effects of the food additive butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), phenobarbitol, DDT, uv irradiation, the herbicide 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole(AT), the pituitary hormone prolactin, topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and benzo(a) pyrene(BaP) on tumor induction or enhancement were studied

  11. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rice, butylated hydroxytoluene may be added as an optional ingredient in an amount not to exceed 0.0033... paragraph (a)(4) of this section is added, the statement “Butylated hydroxytoluene added as a...

  12. Solubilization of meso-carbon microbeads by potassium- or dibutylzinc-promoted butylation and structural analysis of the butylated products; Mesocarbon microbeads no butyl ka ni yoru kayoka to erareta butyl kabutsu no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, S.; Zhang, Y.; Kidena, K.; Nomura, M. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility and structure of the butylated products of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) were studied experimentally. In experiment, MCMB-A and MCMB-B obtained from two kinds of coal-tar pitch were used as specimens. MCMBs were butylated by BZ method using dibutylzinc-butyl iodide and KT method using K-butyl iodide-THF, and the butylated products were successfully obtained. The butylated products were investigated through THF solubility test, {sup 13}C-NMR measurement and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurement. As the experimental result, a BZ method produced the butylated products at a yield of nearly 170%, while a KT method produced them at a yield of nearly 130%. The THF solubility was estimated to be 89-97%. As the study result of molecular weight distributions by GPC measurement of solvent solubles, the molecular weight of raw material MCMB was estimated to be 590-770 in terms of polystyrene. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.

    1994-01-01

    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  14. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF CONGENITAL VASCULAR ANOMALIES WITH N BUTYL CYANOACRYLATE

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Prasad; Biswajit

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Congenital vascular malformation is stressful both to the patient and the treating physician. Use of sclerosing agent followed by surgical excision has been used by many. In our study we have used percutaneous injection of N - butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in such lesions to make these lesions a menable to easy excision. N Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is a rapidly hardening liquid adhesive often referred to as glue. The substance polymerizes immediately...

  15. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of butyl cyclohexyl phthalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksal, Çinel; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Karabay Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü

    2016-03-01

    Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate (BCP) is frequently used in personal care products, medical and household applications. The aim of this study is therefore to evaluate possible cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of BCP using in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro cytotoxic effect of BCP was investigated on mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929 cells) by MTT assay. The result showed that BCP inhibits cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 value = 0.29 µg/mL). For genotoxicity assessment, tested concentrations of BCP demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of S9 mix with the Salmonella strain TA100 in the Ames test. Results showed that BCP is a secondary mutagenic substance even in low concentrations. The data obtained from 28-days repeated toxicity tests on mice revealed that BCP caused abnormalities of chromosome number, in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, DNA damage, particularly DNA strand breaks, was assessed by Comet assay. The test result shows that BCP seemed to have genotoxic potential at a high level of exposure. PMID:25501535

  16. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telnov, A. V.; Zavyalov, N. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Sitnikov, N. P.; Smetanin, M. L.; Tarantasov, V. P.; Shadrin, D. N.; Shorikov, I. V.; Liakumovich, A. L.; Miryasova, F. K.

    2002-03-01

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing.

  17. Radiation degradation of spent butyl rubbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation methods of materials modification applied in technological chains can have significant economical and ecological advantages as compared to the established chemical, thermal and mechanical methods. Each year the problems of nature resources economy through the use of production and consumption wastes acquire a more significant value, as it allows to solve also ecological issues along with economical ones. This is mostly acute in relation to polymeric systems based on saturated rubbers, for example butyl rubber (BR) used in the tyre industry, as due to their high resistance to the action of oxygen, ozone, solar radiation and bacteria, they contaminate the environment for rather a long period. At VNIIEF and KSPU experiments were carried out on application of electron beams with energy from 6 to 10 MeV for radiation destruction of spent rubber based on BR. The radiation-degraded material was tested for re-use in the formulation of initial diaphragm mixture, rubber mixture for producing rubberized fabric and roofing

  18. NQR in tert-butyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Aldo H.

    2004-03-01

    Tert-butyl chloride has been broadly studied experimentally through various techniques such as X-ray crystallography, DTA, and NMR. It was also studied experimentally through nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), but this study was limited and incomplete. In this paper, we present a more detailed study of TBC through the NQR of 35Cl. Our results show that near 120 K, the onset of the CH 3 groups semirotations around symmetry axis C3 takes place with an activation energy U=16.1 kJ mol -1. This intramolecular movement produces a T1 minimum near 148 K and is the dominant mechanism of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in phase III of this compound. In phase II of TBC, we show that there are not only methyl groups semirotations, but also semirotations of the whole molecule around a different axis from the symmetry axis C' 3 (C-Cl bond) with an activation energy of E=10.4 kJ mol -1.

  19. Thyroid Disruption by Di-n-Butyl Phthalate (DBP) and Mono-n-Butyl Phthalate (MBP) in Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Ouxi; Wu, Wei; Du, Guizhen; Liu, Renping; Yu, Lugang; Sun, Hong; Han, Xiumei; Jiang, Yi; Shi, Wei; Hu, Wei; Song, Ling; Xia, Yankai; Wang, Shoulin; Wang, Xinru

    2011-01-01

    Background Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), a chemical widely used in many consumer products, is estrogenic and capable of producing seriously reproductive and developmental effects in laboratory animals. However, recent in vitro studies have shown that DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), the major metabolite of DBP, possessed thyroid hormone receptor (TR) antagonist activity. It is therefore important to consider DBP and MBP that may interfere with thyroid hormone system. Methodology/Principal ...

  20. The effect of antioxidants, packaging type and frozen storage time on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, Mirosława

    2014-04-01

    Oil-soluble rosemary extract (OR) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were added individually and in mixture (MIX) to raw turkey meatballs. After cooking and chilling, samples were air- and vacuum-packaged and frozen stored for 90 days. The synthetic antioxidant, the natural antioxidant and their mixture significantly decreased TBA values. Lipid oxidation was most effectively inhibited by a mixture of BHT and OR during storage in the air, and by BHT in vacuum-packaged samples. A lower rate of the hydrolytic process was observed in BHT samples. All additives stabilized the red colour of turkey meatballs, but samples with a mixture of natural and synthetic antioxidants showed higher a(∗) values than OR samples. Vacuum-packaged turkey meatballs were darker in colour, and the contribution of redness in these samples continued to increase until day 80. OR added alone or in combination with BHT maintained the quality of turkey meatballs during frozen storage, but samples with the synthetic antioxidant were characterized by a non-typical flavour after a longer time of storage. PMID:24262557

  1. Effect of an olive phenolic extract on the quality of vegetable oils during frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Di Maio, I; Urbani, S; Veneziani, G; Selvaggini, R; Sordini, B; Servili, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential of a phenolic extract (PE) from olive vegetation water (OVW) to limit the negative effects of frying was tested after adding it at different concentrations to a refined olive oil (RO). Its efficacy was also compared to ROs containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with a high polyphenol content. Analyses of the oils collected after 30min, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h of frying at 180°C, demonstrated that degradation of the polyphenols was proportional to the original content; at a concentration of at least 400mg/kg of polyphenols, PE was able to reduce oxidation of the tocopherols and the emission of low-molecular-weight aldehydes better than BHT and with similar results to the EVOO. In addition, secoiridoid oxidative compounds were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography/triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation. PMID:25624222

  2. False Results Caused by Solvent Impurity in Tetrahydrofuran for MALDI TOF MS Analysis of Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xianwen; Leenders, Christianus M. A.; van Onzen, Arthur H. A. M.; Bovee, Ralf A. A.; van Dongen, Joost L. J.; Vekemans, Jef A. J. M.; Meijer, E. W.

    2013-11-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is one of the most frequently used solvents in the MALDI TOF MS analysis of synthetic compounds. However, it should be used with caution because a trace amount of 4-hydroxybutanal (HBA) might be generated and accumulated in THF during storage. Since only a tiny amount of analytes is required in MALDI MS measurements, a trace amount of HBA might have a significant effect on the MS results. It was found that HBA will quickly react with primary and secondary amino compounds, leading to false results about the sample composition with an extra series of ions with additional mass of 70 Da in between. The formation of HBA can be inhibited by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) antioxidant. Therefore, when THF is required as the solvent for sample preparation, it is strongly recommended to use a BHT-stabilized one, at least for the analysis of compounds with amino groups.

  3. Identificationof Major Phenolic Compounds of Chinese Water Chestnut and their Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli You

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Chinese water chestnut (CWC is one of the most popular foods among Asian people due to its special taste and medical function. Experiments were conducted to test the antioxidant activity and then determine the major phenolic compound components present in CWC. CWC phenolic extract strongly inhibited linoleic acid oxidation and exhibited a dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity against α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals, superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals, which was superior to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, two commercial used antioxidants. Furthermore, the CWC extract was found to have a relatively higher reducing power, compared with BHT. The major phenolic compounds present in CWC tissues were extracted, purified and identified by high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC as (–-gallocatechin gallate, (–-epicatechin gallate and (+-catechin gallate. This study suggests that CWC tissues exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions.

  4. Effect of antiperoxidative drugs on gastric damage induced by ethanol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizui, T.; Sato, H.; Hirose, F.; Doteuchi, M.

    1987-08-10

    Lesion formation due to oral administration of absolute ethanol could be prevented by parenteral pretreatment with antiperoxidative drugs such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin and quinacrine. Also effective were allopurinol and oxypurinol, inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, but not superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hydroxyl radical scavengers, such as sodium benzoate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). BHT, quercetin, quinacrine and sulfhydryl compounds such as reduced glutathione and cysteamine which offer gastroprotection in vivo against ethanol inhibited lipid peroxidation induced in vitro by ferrous ion in porcine gastric mucosal homogenate, but SOD, sodium benzoate, DMSO, allopurinol and oxypurinol did not. These results suggest the possibility that an active species, probably derived from free iron mobilized by the xanthine oxidase system, other than oxygen radicals such as hydroxyl formation in the gastric mucosa after absolute ethanol administration. 38 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  5. [Antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from clove bud and pimento].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misharina, T A; Alinkina, E S; Medvedeva, I B

    2015-01-01

    The antiradical properties of essential oils and extracts from the clove bud (Eugenia caryophyllata Thumb.) and berries of tree (Pimenta dioica (L.) Meriff) were studied and compared with the properties of synthetic antioxidant ionol (2,6-ditret-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHT) in model reactions with the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The essential oils of clove bud and pimento had qualitatively close composition of the main components but differed by their quantitative content. In the studied samples, eugenol was the main compound with high antiradical activity. The reaction rates of essential oils and extracts with the DPPH radical were practically the same for essential oils and twice the reaction rate of BHT. The values of antiradical efficiency (AE) were also close for essential oils and were twice that for extracts and ionol. A synergetic action of components in the essential oil and extract of pimento on antiradical efficiency values was found. PMID:25842910

  6. Peroxidation of the dried thin film of lipid by high-energy alpha particles from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy α particles produced a dose-dependent linear increase in different lipid peroxidation products (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxides) in the dried thin film state. An inverse dose-rate effect was observed when the dose rate was varied by changing either the α-particle fluence rate or the α-particle energy. The antioxidants α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) suppressed the α-particle-induced lipid peroxidation in the dried thin film state, and in this respect α-tocopherol was found superior to BHT. It was found that α-tocopherol was equally efficient in inhibiting lipid peroxidations by α particles and ultraviolet light

  7. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herdis

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  8. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Olorunjuwon Olugbami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG. Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0. Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 μg GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 μg QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001 displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]. Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 μg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. β-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001 higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001 higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001 exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

  9. Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in tap and Qaroun lake water using polyurethane foam functionalized with 4-hydroxytoluene and 4-hydroxyacetophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable chelating sorbent was synthesized by covalently linking 4-hydroxytoluene or 4-hydroxyacetophenone with the polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N- group. The synthesized chelating sorbents were characterized by IR and UV/vis measurements. The modified foams show excellent stability towards various solvents. Factors influencing the extraction process of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibration shaking time. The values of sorption capacity of metal ions (μg g-1) were determined with the two types of bonded foams. The two phenolic bonded foams were studied comparatively. The potential applications of the two newly synthesized foams for the removal and separation of the examined metal ions from two natural water samples (drinking tap water and Qaroun lake water at Fayoum City, Egypt) were investigated. Precision (assessed as a relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was also evaluated and found to be ≤7.3% (N = 5) with a detection limit under 0.46 μg L-1

  10. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  11. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Performance Liquid Chromatography/Ultra-Violet Spectrometry (HPLC/UV)) is available to enforce the tolerance... of fluazifop-P-butyl in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, refined oil; and cotton, undelinted... Tolerance In the Federal Register of December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78240) (FRL- 8853-1), EPA issued a...

  12. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  13. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...

  14. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.

    1978-01-01

    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  15. Degradace methyl tert-butyl etheru (MTBE) v bioreaktoru.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehnert, Radek; Gavlasová, Pavla; Kuncová, Gabriela; Bolyó, Juraj

    Bratislava: -, 2007, s. 225-226. [Zjazd chemikov /59./. Tatranské Matliare, Vysoké Tatry (SK), 02.09.2007-06.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA104/05/2637 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : biodegradation * methyl terc-butyl ether (MTBE) Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  16. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    OpenAIRE

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi; Mohammad Tehrani; Mohammad Bashashati

    2010-01-01

    Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B). Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission tim...

  17. (R)-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R)-tert-butyl­sulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butane­sulfonamide

    OpenAIRE

    Cong-Bin Fan; Xiao-Xia Sun; Yu Hu

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R)-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  18. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozen, T.

    2010-07-01

    The anti oxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phospho molybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, and Similax Excelsa had the highest antioxidant capacities. Overall results showed that these plants can serve as good sources of bioactive polyphenols in the human diet and can be regarded as good candidates for nutritional supplement formulations due to their high concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins as well as their strong antioxidant activity. (Author) 42 refs.

  19. Antioxidant activities of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the black sea region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Ozen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum wildly grown in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated in this study. Antioxidant activities were evaluated in terms of total antioxidant activity, reducing power, metal chelating ability, inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, superoxide, peroxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects. Various antioxidant activities were compared to references antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, and trolox. In total antioxidant (12674.45 ΅mol α-tocopherol/g of extract, superoxide scavenging (53.74% and peroxide scavenging activity (45.73%, the methanol extract of Sarcodon imbricatum showed stronger activity patterns than that of references antioxidants. Reducing power, metal chelating activity and free radical (DPPH· scavenging activity was increased with the increasing concentration. The contents of total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene of Sarcodon imbricatum were determined and found to be noteworthy.

  20. In vitro antioxidant profiles of some flavonoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Mine; Gülçin, Ilhami; Küfrevioǧlu, Ö. Irfan

    2016-04-01

    Baicalin ((2S,3S,4S,5R,6S)-6-(5,6-dihydroxy-4-oxo-2-phenyl-chromen-7-yl)oxy-3,4,5-trihydroxy-tetrahydropyran-2-carboxylic acid) and baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone) are a flavone, a type of flavonoid. Baicalin is the glucuronide of baicalein. Phlorizin, or phloridzin is a naturally occurring flavonoid produced in some plants. It belongs to the group of dihydrochalcones. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of baicalin, baicalein and phloridzin using different methods including ferric ion (Fe3+) reducing power, cupric ion (Cu2+) reducing power (CUPRAC method), reduction of Fe3+-TPTZ complex, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals (DPPH.) scavenging, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radicals (ABTS.+) scavenging activities. Also, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-Tocopherol were used as standard antioxidants.

  1. Dietary management of nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, B F

    1979-01-01

    Two case reports illustrate the therapeutic response of congenital nystagmus to a diet eliminating synthetic food colors, synthetic food flavors, the antioxidant preservatives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and a small group of foods thought to contain a natural salicylate radical. A brief discussion of the hyperkinetic syndrome is offered with the proposal that a variety of neurologic and neuromuscular disturbances (grand mal, petit mal, psychomotor seizures; La Tourette syndrome; autism; retardation; the behevioral component of Down's syndrome; and oculomotor disturbances) may be induced by identical chemicals, depending upon the individual's genetic profile and the interaction with other environmental factors. It is perhaps the failure to integrate all the signs presented by the various clinical patterns with hyperkinesis or Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) under a single heading that eye muscle involvement manifested as either nystagmus or strabismus has not been emphasized as part of the hyperkinetic syndrome. PMID:469522

  2. Brewery waste as a potential source of phenolic compounds: optimisation of the extraction process and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Vilches, Patxi; Angulo, Inmaculada; LLuis, Jaume; Fité, Benet; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto; Cruz, José Manuel

    2014-02-15

    This paper reports the development of an extraction process that allows selective recovery of polyphenols from a brewery waste stream. The antioxidant activity of this extract (EC50 = 0.23-0.3g/L) was very high, similar to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and higher than that of other synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Crude extracts exhibited a high level of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, when applied at concentrations of 1% and 3% (w/v). The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities can probably be attributed to the major phenolic compounds, such as protocatechuic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids and catechin. With this procedure, the waste polyphenols could be used as cheap source of natural compounds, with potential applications in the food and health sectors. Substitution of synthetic additives with safe and effective natural additives may be of further benefit to the food industry. PMID:24128467

  3. Differential protective effects of antioxidants against cell killing and mutagenesis of Salmonella typhimurium by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial mixture of phenolic antioxidants containing BHA (butylated hydroxyanisole), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and PG (propyl gallate), commonly used in the food industry, was found to protect Salmonella typhimurium against killing and induction of his+ mutations by gamma radiation. The protective effect was apparent only when irradiation was performed in the presence of oxygen and no protection could be detected in its absence. When each of the components of the antioxidant mixture was tested separately, only PG displayed a protective effects. The amount of protection provided by the mixture of antioxidants was close to the protection afforded by hypoxia. Also, protection against cell killing was very similar in magnitude to protection against induction of mutations. The protective effect could be detected only when antioxidants were added to the cells before irradiation. No protection was afforded upon addition immediately after irradiation. (author)

  4. Lipoxygenase—mediated N—demethylation of imipramine and related tricyclic antidepressants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJA; SajaM

    2002-01-01

    The ability of soybean lipoxygenase to mediate the N-demethylation of imipramine and related drugs in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was examined.Under optimal assay conditions,Vmax values of 14 to 18 mol formaldehyde·min-1·mol-1 enzyme were observed.An inhibition of formaldehyde and desipramine formation by nordihydroguaiaretic acid confirmed the lipoxygenase involvement.The blockade of the reaction by glutathione,dithiothreitol butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT) indicated the generation of a free radical intermediate from imipramine.Desipramine,trimipramine,clomipramine,and diltiazem,but not amitriptyline and doxepin,were also oxidized,albeit at a lower rate.Collectively,the evidence gathered in this study suggests,for the first time,that tricyclic antidepressant drugs may undergo lipoxygenase-catalyzed N-demethylation.

  5. Effects of 2-acetylaminofluorene, dietary fats and antioxidants on nuclear envelope cytochrome P-450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carubelli, R.; Graham, S.A.; Griffin, M.J.; McCay, P.B.

    1986-05-01

    The authors reported a marked loss of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic nuclear envelope (NE) but not in microsomes of male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a semipurified diet containing 0.05% w/w 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) for 3 weeks. This may reflect loss of NE capacity to detoxify AAF metabolites generated by microsomal P-450. They are now investigating if dietary effects such as progressive decrease in the incidence of AAF-induced tumors in rats fed high polyunsaturated fat diet (HPUF) vs. high saturated fat diet (HSF) vs. low fat diet (LF), and the anticarcinogenic activity of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; 0.3% w/w) correlate with preservation of NE P-450. Rats fed AAF HSF (25.6% w/w corn oil) showed marked loss of NE P-450 after 3 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Rats fed AAF in HSF (25.6% w/w; 18 parts beef tallow + 2 parts corn oil), on the other hand, experienced a marked drop in NE P-450 after 9 weeks; BHT protected against this loss. Comparison of NE P-450 levels in control rats fed HPUF or HSF for 3 weeks with those of rats fed a semipurified diet with 10% fat or Purina chow (ca. 5% fat), support the prediction of an inverse correlation between the levels of dietary fat and the NE P-450 content. Studies on AAF and BHT effects using LF (2% w/w corn oil) are in progress.

  6. Use of spin labels to evaluate effects of cold shock and osmolality on sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstedt, R.H.; Keith, A.D.; Snipes, W.; Amann, R.P.; Arruda, D.; Griel, L.C. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Spin labels were used to evaluate the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C and osmolality on the integrity of sperm membranes. In vitro incubation of rabbit sperm with 0.5 mM BHT prior to artificial insemination did not alter the fertilizing ability of the sperm. Sperm from 6 species were ranked in terms of susceptibility to membrane damage caused by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. The integrity of bull and ram sperm membranes was destroyed by the rapid cooling; BHT protected membranes of these spermatozoa from cold-induced lysis. Boar sperm membranes were porous after rapid cooling and BHT did not prevent this membrane damage. Membranes of rabbit and rooster sperm were not damaged by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. Stallion sperm could not be analyzed because their membranes were altered by addition of reagents necessary to use the technique. The responses of bull, ram and rabbit sperm membranes to hyper- and hypo-osmotic conditions were determined. Hypotonic treatment (less than 200 mOsm) resulted in a 50 percent expansion of the volume of the aqueous compartment of sperm while hypertonic (700 mOsm) conditions compressed the volume of the aqueous compartment to 25 to 30 percent of the volume measured at 300 mOsm. Bull sperm, but not rabbit or ram sperm, responded as ''perfect osmometers'' between 300 and 700 mOsm.

  7. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  8. Endocrine disrupting effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA - E320)

    OpenAIRE

    POP, ANCA; KISS, BELA; Felicia LOGHIN

    2013-01-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is extensively used as antioxidant in foods, food packaging, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the past years, it raised concerns regarding its possible endocrine disrupting effect. The existing in vitro studies indicate that BHA presents a weak estrogenic effect and also anti-androgenic properties while an in vivo study found it to have antiestrogenic properties. There is no sufficient data available at the moment to draw a conclusion regarding the safety of BH...

  9. Endocrine Disrupting Effects Of Butylated Hydroxyanisole (Bhabhabha - E320)

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Pop; Bela Kiss; Felicia Loghin

    2014-01-01

        Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is extensively used as antioxidant in foods, food packaging, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the past years, it raised concerns regarding its possible endocrine disrupting effect. The existing in vitro studies indicate that BHA presents a weak estrogenic effect and also anti-androgenic properties while an in vivo study found it to have antiestrogenic properties.    There is no sufficient data available at the moment to draw a conclusion regarding the safet...

  10. Biodistribution of poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles were radiolabelled with a technetium-99m-dextran complex and the biodistribution pattern of the intravenously injected particles determined in rabbits using γ-scintigraphy. The nanoparticles were found to localise partly in the liver/spleen region (about 60%) and partly to stay in the circulation (about 30%) before degrading and releasing the radiolabel. Coating the nanoparticles with the block copolymer poloxamer 338 or poloxamine 908 did not significantly influence the biodistribution pattern. (Auth.)

  11. Preoperative Embolization of Meningiomas with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Kominami*, S.; Watanabe, A; M. Suzuki; Mizunari, T.; Kobayashi, S; Teramoto, A.

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas are often embolized before their surgical resection to reduce blood loss during surgery. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles have been the most frequently used material for embolization of meningiomas. We have used n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) as the first-choice material since 2001. Thirty-one meningiomas were embolized with NBCA. We report the result of embolization of meningiomas with NBCA in comparison with PVA particles.

  12. European Union Summary Risk Assessment Report - Benzyl Butyl Phthalate (BBP)

    OpenAIRE

    PAKALIN Sazan; ASCHBERGER Karin; COSGROVE Orna; PAYA PEREZ Ana; VEGRO Stefania

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a summary, with conclusions, of the risk assessment report of the substance benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) that has been prepared by Norway in the context of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 793/93 on the evaluation and control of existing substances. For detailed information on the risk assessment principles and procedures followed, the underlying data and the literature references the reader is referred to the comprehensive Final Risk Assessment Report (Final RAR) that ca...

  13. 2-Benzhydryl-6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Yoon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H26O, was prepared by the reaction between 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and diphenylmethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. Three benzene rings are attached directly to the central C—H group in a twisted propeller conformation with the local pseudo-C3 rotational axis coinciding with the C—H bond. There are three short C—H...O contacts in the molecule.

  14. Study of the butyl acetate synthesis - 1. Catalyst selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a laboratory scale selection study over eight catalytic agents was made, in the acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (seven lon exchange resins and a zeolytic solid. Considering some physicochemical characteristics as the activation pre-treating requirements, acidity, thermal stability, reaction performance, etc., it was found that macroporous ion exchange resins are the most efficient catalysts, especially Lewatit K-2431 resin.

  15. 76 FR 5696 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... fluazifop-P-butyl in or on potato, tuber at 1.1 ppm; potato, peel (wet) at 1.1 ppm; potato, chips at 3.0 ppm... Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 864) (FRL-8801- 5), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...) at 3.5 ppm. In the Federal Register of February 4, 2010 (75 FR 5790) (FRL-8807- 5), EPA issued...

  16. Methyltert-butyl Ether (MTBE) Degradation by a Microbial Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Mortazavi; A Nikpey; A. Rezaee; H Asilian; A Khavanin; H. Kazemian

    2005-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was deve...

  17. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Roeren, T.; Holstege, A.; Raedecke, J.

    1987-08-01

    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  18. Evaluation of the antioxidant potential of natural food/plant extracts as compared with synthetic antioxidants and vitamin E in raw and cooked pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M C Carthy, T L; Kerry, J P; Kerry, J F; Lynch, P B; Buckley, D J

    2001-05-01

    Antioxidant potential for previously identified optimum levels of aloe vera (AV), fenugreek (FGK), ginseng (G), mustard (M), rosemary (R), sage (S), soya protein (SPI), tea catechins (TC) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated in raw and cooked patties manufactured from frozen pork. The optimum levels determined were: AV (0.25%), FGK (0.01%), G (0.25%), M (0.10%), R (0.10%), S (0.05%), SPI (0.10%), TC (0.25%) and WPC (4%). Test ingredients were evaluated against synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT) (0.01%) and a supplemented meat containing natural antioxidant, α-tocopherol (1000 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed). Ranking the decreasing antioxidant effectiveness of added ingredients in raw patties on day 9 showed that: Control>G>SPI>FGK>AV>M>WPC>S>α-tocopherol>R>TC>BHA/BHT. Cooking resulted in a four-fold increase in TBARS values over raw patties with TC being the most effective antioxidant having significantly (PSPI>G>FGK>α-tocopherol>AV>control>S>BHA/BHT>R>WPC>TC. BHA/BHT had the most beneficial effect on cooked meat redness with Hunter 'a' values being significantly (PWPC>control>R>BHA/BHT>α-tocopherol>TC>AV>SPI>M>G>S on day 9. Hunter 'L' and 'b' values showed no significant trend over the storage period in either raw or cooked patties. The pH values of both raw and cooked pork control patties and products containing added test antioxidants were variable and while a number of trends were observed, no significant differences were recorded between samples. PMID:22061918

  19. Differential innate immune cell signatures and effects regulated by toll-like receptor 4 during murine lung tumor promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Carla-Maria; Xiong, Ka-Na; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Xiong, Julie; Osgood, Ross S; Bauer, Alison K

    2016-04-01

    Tumor promotion is an early and critical stage during lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). We previously demonstrated that Tlr4 mutant mice were more susceptible to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-induced pulmonary inflammation and tumor promotion in comparison to Tlr4-sufficient mice. Our study objective was to elucidate the underlying differences in Tlr4 mutant mice in innate immune cell populations, their functional responses, and the influence of these cellular differences on ADC progenitor (type II) cells following BHT-treatment. BALB (Tlr4-sufficient) and C.C3-Tlr4(Lps-d)/J (BALB(Lpsd); Tlr4 mutant) mice were treated with BHT (promoter) followed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and flow cytometry processing on the lungs. ELISAs, Club cell enrichment, macrophage function, and RNA isolation were also performed. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) co-cultured with a type II cell line were used for wound healing assays. Innate immune cells significantly increased in whole lung in BHT-treated BALB(Lpsd) mice compared to BALB mice. BHT-treated BALB(Lpsd) mice demonstrated enhanced macrophage functionality, increased epithelial wound closure via BMDMs, and increased Club cell number in BALB(Lpsd) mice, all compared to BALB BHT-treated mice. Cytokine/chemokine (Kc, Mcp1) and growth factor (Igf1) levels also significantly differed among the strains and within macrophages, gene expression, and cell surface markers collectively demonstrated a more plastic phenotype in BALB(Lpsd) mice. Therefore, these correlative studies suggest that distinct innate immune cell populations are associated with the differences observed in the Tlr4-mutant model. Future studies will investigate the macrophage origins and the utility of the pathways identified herein as indicators of immune system deficiencies and lung tumorigenesis. PMID:27093379

  20. Contribution to the study of uranyl salts in butyl phosphate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectroscopic study in the normal infrared region and involving the following associations: tri-alkyl phosphates (tri-butyl, tri-ethyl, tri-methyl), uranyl salts (nitrate, chloride, acetate) has confirmed the existence of an interaction between the phosphoryl group and the uranium atom, as shown by a movement of absorption band for the valency P = 0 from ∼ 1270 cm-1 to ∼ 1180 cm-1. A study of the preparation, analysis and spectroscopy of the solids obtained by the precipitation of uranyl salts by acid butyl phosphates has been carried out. By infrared spectrophotometry it has been shown that the tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates are associated in non-polar diluents even before the uranium is introduced. The extraction of uranyl salts from acid aqueous solutions by a diluted mixture of tri-butyl and di-butyl phosphates proceeds by different mechanisms according to the nature of the ion (nitrate or chloride). (author)

  1. Molecular recognition study of Carbamazepine, antiseizure drug, by p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of inclusion complex of Carbamazepine, a antiseizure drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene was the host molecule and Carbamazepine was the guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to study the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with Carbamazepine. The stochiometry of the host-guest complex and the binding constant were determined.

  2. Tris(tert-butyl isocyanide-κC)carbonylnickel(0)

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang Imhof; Helmar Görls; Kathi Halbauer

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Ni(C5H9N)3(CO)], was prepared from Ni(CO)4 and a tenfold excess of tert-butyl isocyanide. It crystallizes with two symmetry-independent mol­ecules per asymmetric unit. The central Ni atom of each independent mol­ecule has a nearly perfect tetra­hedral coordination environment, comprising one carbon monoxide and three isocyanide ligands. The title compound is the first structurally characterized Ni0 compound with a mixed CO/RNC coordination.

  3. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.

    1978-01-01

    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with B...... was observed on the number of corpora luteae, implantations, fetuses dead or alive, or on gross malformations, skeletal and internal malformations, and on the weight of the fetuses....

  4. Effect of Parameters on Oxychlorination of Tert-Butyl Ethers

    OpenAIRE

    Gaca, Jerzy; Gackowska, Alicja; Belt, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The effect of concentration, molar ratios of reagents, pH, and temperature on formation of chloro-organic products in reaction of tert-butyl ethers with chloride ions and hydrogen peroxide has been determined. A significant effect of Cl− ions and H2O2 molar ratios on the rate of chloro-organic product formation has been observed. Studies on oxychlorination of tert-butylethyl ether (ETBE) at pH 7, 3.5, and 2.5 have been carried out. It was found that introduction of hydronium ions into the rea...

  5. tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2-ylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene C. Hsu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H13NO2S, the dihedral angle between the thiophene ring and the carbamate group is 15.79 (14°. In the crystal structure, intramolecular C—H...O interactions in tandem with the tert-butyl groups render the packing of adjacent molecules in the [001] direction nearly perpendicular [the angle between adjacent thiophene rings is 74.83 (7°]. An intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond gives rise to a chain extending along [001]. The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin.

  6. Densities and isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the mixtures formed by four butyl esters and 1-butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E.; Ortega, J. [Univ. of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    1996-01-01

    Densities of 298.15 K and the vapor-liquid equilibria for 1-butanol + butyl methanoate, + butyl ethanoate, + butyl propanoate, and + butyl butanoate have been measured at 101.32 kPa in small capacity ebulliometer. All results were found to be thermodynamically consistent with a point-to-point test. The mixtures containing butyl methanoate and butyl ethanoate show azeotropes at T = 379.14 K, x = 0.871 and T = 389.64 K, x = 0.222, respectively. Different group-contribution methods were applied to these mixtures.

  7. Antioxidants Inhibit Formation of 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol Esters in Model Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chang; Jia, Hanbing; Shen, Mingyue; Wang, Yuting; Nie, Shaoping; Chen, Yi; Zhou, Yongqiang; Wang, Yuanxing; Xie, Mingyong

    2015-11-11

    The capacities of six antioxidants to inhibit the formation of 3-monochloropropane-1,2 diol (3-MCPD) esters were examined in this study. Inhibitory capacities of the antioxidants were investigated both in chemical models containing the precursors (tripalmitoyl glycerol, 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol, monopalmitoyl glycerol, and sodium chloride) of 3-MCPD esters and in oil models (rapeseed oil and sodium chloride). Six antioxidants, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG), L-ascorbyl palmitate (AP), and α-tocopherol (VE), were found to exhibit inhibiting capacities on 3-MCPD ester formation both in chemical models and in oil models. TBHQ provided the highest inhibitory capacity both in chemical models and in oil models; 44% of 3-MCPD ester formation was inhibited in the presence of TBHQ (66 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min, followed by PG and AP. BHT, BHA, and VE appeared to have weaker inhibitory abilities in both models. VE exhibited the lowest inhibition rate; 22% of 3-MCPD esters were inhibited in the presence of VE (172 mg/kg of oil) after heating of rapeseed oil at 230 °C for 30 min. In addition, the inhibition rates of PG and VE decreased dramatically with an increase in temperature or heating time. The results suggested that some antioxidants, such as TBHQ, PG, and AP, could be the potential inhibitors of 3-MCPD esters in practice. PMID:26478126

  8. Radiolytic decontamination of Di-n-butyl phthalate from water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a considerable amount of phthalic acid esters (PAE), the most widely utilized plasticizer, has been released into and polluted the environment. Since their toxicity and teratogenicity, although fairly low, to experimental animals have recently been shown, the removal of them from the environment, especially from the drinking water, is desirable. As an attempt for the removal, the radiolytic degradation of 7-14C-di-n-butyl phthalate (14C-DBP) in water was investigated at several pHs. Approximately 50% of 14C-DBP (1 ppm aqueous solution) was decomposed by 60Co γ-irradiation to a dose of 3 x 104 rad at pH 7 and the main product was mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP). At pHs 3 and 11 14C-DBP was more easily radiolyzed and converted to ether-soluble compounds other than MBP or phthalic acid (PA). By irradiation to 106 rad 14C-DBP as well as 14C-MBP and 14C-PA, at pH value tested, was almost completely decomposed to volatile or water-soluble substances of possibly low molecular weight. These findings suggest that the γ-irradiation is effective to make the PAE-polluted water clean. (auth.)

  9. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, Javid, E-mail: javid.safarov@uni-rostock.de [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kul, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013 (United States); El-Awady, Waleed A. [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Mansoura Univeristy, Mansoura (Egypt); Shahverdiyev, Astan [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Hassel, Egon [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. > The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. > The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of {Delta}{rho}/{rho} = {+-}(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, {rho}, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  10. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. → The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. → The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF4] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δρ/ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, ρ, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF4] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  11. Thermophysical properties of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► (p, ρ, T) data of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. ► The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. ► The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Thermophysical properties, {(p, ρ, T) at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K, pressures up to p = 100 MPa, and viscosity at T = (283.15 to 373.15) K and p = 0.101 MPa}, of 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [b4mpy][BF4] are reported. The measurements were carried out with a recently constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter and a fully automated SVM 3000 Anton-Paar rotational Stabinger viscometer. The vibration-tube densimeter was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene, and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, ρ, T) data of [b4mpy][BF4] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  12. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dorothe Dinangayi Tshilanda; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Damase Nguwo Vele Onyamboko; Blaise Mavinga Mbala; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha Tshibey Tshibangu; Matthieu Kokengo Bokolo; Kalulu Muzele Taba; Teddy Kabeya Kasonga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. Methods:The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). Results: The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. Conclusions:The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.

  13. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W

    1986-11-01

    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Methyltert-butyl Ether (MTBE Degradation by a Microbial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Mortazavi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was developed from mixed urban and petrochemical activated sludge after 4 month's enrichment. Enrichment was conducted in batch reactor, fitted with a screw cap and butyl rubber septum. MTBE concentration was measured in head space by gas chromatography. Degradation was determined by MTBE removal. MTBE biodegradation was depended to Dissolved Oxygen (DO concentration and not affected by the changes in concentration of trace element solution or other stimulator Substances. Degradation rates were nearly 1.478 mg MTBE h-1 g-1 (wet biomass and didn't change with MTBE concentration (up 500 mg L-1.

  15. Reactive Distillation for Producing n-Butyl Acetate: Experiment and Simulation%Reactive Distillation for Producing n-Butyl Acetate: Experiment and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晖; 黄智贤; 邱挺; 王晓达; 吴燕翔

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a reactive distillation (RD) column was applied for synthesis n-butyl acetate from n-butanol and acetic acid. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) kinetic model and an equilibrium stage model for separation were employed to study the RD process. The results obtained from the equilibrium stage model agreed well with the experiments. The effects of operating variables on the n-butanol conversion and n-butyl acetate purity were further investigated. The optimal column configuration for the production of n-butyl acetate was designed with 5 rectifying stages, 8 reaction stages and 13 stripping stages by the simulation study. According to the simulation results, n-butanol conversion and n-butyl acetate purity all reached greater than 96%.

  16. 76 FR 46796 - Butylate; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Register on July 28, 2010 (75 FR 44240; FRL-8835-2). For the remaining butylate product registrations... published in the Federal Register on March 23, 2011 (76 FR 16147, FRL-8867-8). Due to the cancellation...-use registrant, Arysta Lifescience North America, LLC, to voluntarily cancel the last butylate...

  17. Recovering/recycling of butyl and halogenated butyl rubber via ionizing radiation; Recuperacao/reciclagem de compostos de borrachas butilica e halobutilica por meio de radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Sandra Regina Scagliusi

    2013-07-01

    Polymeric materials (plastics and rubbers) attain a continuous and raising proportion of urban and industrial scraps discarded in landfills; their impact on environment are more and more concerning. The implementation of new technologies in order to reduce impacts of plastic waste on the environment, at an effective cost, proved to be a great problem, due to inherent complexity for polymers re-using. Ionizing radiation is capable to modify structure and properties of polymeric material. Butyl and halobutyl rubbers have been used within a comprehensive scale, applications such as tires spare parts and diverse artifacts. The major high energy photon effect, as gamma-rays in butyl and halo butyl rubbers consists in free-radicals generation along changes in mechanical properties.This work aims to the development of controlled degradation processes (devulcanization) of butyl and halo butyl (chlorine and bromine) rubbers, in order to characterize their availability for transformation and modification of properties. Experimental results obtained showed that butyl and halobutyl rubbers,irradiated at 25 kGy and further sheared, are able to be used as an initial point for mixtures with pristine. (author)

  18. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui

    2016-03-24

    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  19. Isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium data for the binary system methanol + 2-butyl alcohol and the quaternary system methyl acetate + methanol + 2-butyl alcohol + 2-butyl acetate at P = 101.33 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • VLE data for methanol + 2-butyl alcohol were determined. • VLE data for methyl acetate + methanol + 2-butyl alcohol + SBAC were determined. • The binary interaction parameters were obtained based on the binary VLE data. • The data of quaternary system have been predicted. • Both Wilson and NRTL models are suitable to describe the VLE of quaternary system. - Abstract: In this paper, isobaric (vapor + liquid) equilibrium (VLE) data for the binary system methanol + 2-butyl alcohol and the quaternary system methyl acetate + methanol + 2-butyl alcohol + 2-butyl acetate were determined at P = 101.33 kPa in a modified Rose still. The binary VLE data were found to be thermodynamic consistency by the Herrington method. The VLE data for the binary system were correlated by the Wilson and NRTL equations respectively, which were used to predict the VLE data of the quaternary system. The results showed that the Wilson and NRTL models matched well with the (vapor + liquid) phase equilibrium data. The deviations for the vapor-phase compositions and the equilibrium temperatures are reasonably small and the models are both suitable for these systems

  20. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A; Husson, Pascale; DeVine, Jessalyn A; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Greenbaum, Steven G; Castner, Edward W

    2015-08-14

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies. PMID:26277141

  1. Microemulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate irradiated by γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate was carried out in microemulsion with high monomer and low emulsifier content. The rate of polymerization shows three intervals--the increasing period, the plateau period and the decreasing period for most cases. The length of nucleation period is independent of monomer content and temperature, and becomes longer with the increase of dose rate and the decrease of emulsifier content. The length of Rp plateau region increases with the increase of monomer and emulsifier content and with the decrease of dose rate. By studying the kinetics, the following formula were derived: Rp ∝ [M]0.93D1.27 [E]-1.07; Mn ∝ [M]0.65D0.28 [E]-1.66. (author)

  2. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A.; DeVine, Jessalyn A.; Castner, Edward W., E-mail: ed.castner@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Husson, Pascale [CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 80026, F-63171 Aubière (France); Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Costa Gomes, Margarida F. [CNRS, UMR 6296, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 80026, F-63171 Aubière (France); Greenbaum, Steven G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College, CUNY, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies.

  3. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies

  4. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. PMID:26812027

  5. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  6. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: srscagliusi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  7. Genotoxicity of di-butyl-phthalate and di-iso-butyl-phthalate in human lymphocytes and mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, N H; Wallner, B C; Kastenbauer, E R; Weissacher, H; Harréus, U A

    2001-01-01

    The genotoxicity of phthalates, widely used plasticizers, has been shown previously for di-butyl-phthalate (DBP) and di-iso-butyl-phthalate (DBP) in human mucosal cells of the upper aerodigestive tract in a previous study using the Comet assay. Furthermore, higher genotoxic sensitivities of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of either the larynx or the oropharynx compared to non-tumor patients were described. Other authors have demonstrated DNA damage by a different phthalate in human lymphocytes. It was the aim of the present study to determine whether there is a correlation between the genotoxic sensitivities to DBP and its isomer DiBP in either mucosal cells or lymphocytes. The single-cell microgel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was applied to detect DNA strand breaks in human epithelial cells of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=132 specimens). Human mucosa was harvested from the oropharynx in non-tumor patients and patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx. Laryngeal mucosa of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas was harvested as well. Peripheral lymphocytes (n=49 specimens) were separated from peripheral blood. Xenobiotics investigated were DBP, DiBP, and N'methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as positive control, respectively. For statistical analysis, the SPSS correlation analysis according to Pearson and the Wilcoxon test were performed. Genotoxicity was found for DBP and DiBP in epithelial cells and lymphocytes (Pintermediate correlation (r=0.570). Correlation in lymphocytes was the same (r=0.570). Phthalates have been investigated as a potential health hazard for a variety of reasons, including possible xenoestrogenic impact, peroxisome proliferation, and membrane destabilization. The present investigation suggests a correlated DNA-damaging impact of DBP and DiBP in human mucosal cells and in lymphocytes, respectively. PMID:11301413

  8. Polyphenolic rich traditional plants and teas improve lipid stability in food test systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaha, Srishti; Aumjaud, B Esha; Neergheen-Bhujun, Vidushi S; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2015-02-01

    The deleterious effects of lipid autoxidation are of major concern to the food industry and can be prevented by food antioxidants. In this vein, the phenolic contents and antioxidant potential of traditional plants of Mauritius such as P. betle L. (Piperaceae), M. koenigii L. Sprengel. (Rutaceae), O. gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae), O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae), and commercially available Mauritian green and black teas were evaluated. Their ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) with the following order of potency: BHT > "Natural" commercial green tea > "Black Label" commercial black tea > O. gratissimum > P. betle > O. tenuiflorum > M. koenigii. The trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay reflected a similar antioxidative order for BHT and "Natural" commercial green tea, with however P. betle, O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum exhibiting higher activities than "Black Label" commercial black tea and M. koenigii. Based on their potent antioxidant capacity, P. betle (0.2 % m/m) and O. tenuiflorum (0.2 % m/m) extracts, and green tea (0.1 % m/m) infusate were compared with BHT (0.02 % m/m) on their ability to retard lipid oxidation in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise during storage at 40 °C. P. betle and green tea were more effective than BHT in both food systems. Moreover, odour evaluation by a sensory panel showed that the plant extracts and green tea infusate effectively delayed the development of rancid odours in unstripped sunflower oil and mayonnaise (p < 0.05). PMID:25694685

  9. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Utilized Ex Vivo to Validate In Vivo Findings: Inhibition of Gap Junction Activity in Lung Tumor Promotion is Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas; Osgood, Ross S; Velmurugan, Kalpana; Alexander, Carla-Maria; Upham, Brad L; Bauer, Alison K

    2013-12-27

    TLR4 protects against lung tumor promotion and pulmonary inflammation in mice. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction gene, was increased in Tlr4 wildtype compared to Tlr4-mutant mice in response to promotion, which suggests gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) may be compromised. We hypothesized that the early tumor microenvironment, represented by Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) from Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; promoter)-treated mice, would produce TLR4-dependent changes in pulmonary epithelium, including dysregulation of GJIC in the Tlr4-mutant (BALB (Lps-d) ) compared to the Tlr4-sufficient (BALB; wildtype) mice. BHT (4 weekly doses) was injected ip followed by BALF collection at 24 h. BALF total protein and total macrophages were significantly elevated in BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) over BALB mice, similar to previous findings. BALF was then utilized in an ex vivo manner to treat C10 cells, a murine alveolar type II cell line, followed by the scrape-load dye transfer assay (GJIC), Cx43 immunostaining, and quantitative RT-PCR (Mcp-1, monocyte chemotactic protein 1). GJIC was markedly reduced in C10 cells treated with BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) BALF for 4 and 24 h compared to BALB and control BALF from the respective mice (p < 0.05). Mcp-1, a chemokine, was also significantly increased in the BHT-treated BALB (Lps-d) BALF compared to the BALB mice, and Cx43 protein expression in the cell membrane altered. These novel findings suggest signaling from the BALF milieu is involved in GJIC dysregulation associated with promotion and links gap junctions to pulmonary TLR4 protection in a novel ex vivo model that could assist in future potential tumor promoter screening. PMID:25035812

  10. PBX 9501 Outgas Analysis by SPME/GC/MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, D.M.

    2000-12-11

    The authors used equilibrium headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to monitor volatile and semivolate species that are expected to migrate through PBX 9501 under environmentally relevant conditions. In this work they screened 11 samples taken from deployed parts. Although a number of chemical permeates were identified, the antioxidant signature provided the most information with regard to decomposition aging. Specifically, they were able to monitor butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and other antioxidants, which are apparently added to either the Estane adipate or MDI precursor by the manufacturer. They found that in those parts where diphenylamine (DPA) was used as a stabilizer, BHT response was significantly lower than in those formulations stabilized with Irganox 1010 (Irganox). These results imply that DPA is less efficient as a radical scavenger than Irganox. This lower efficiency might be related to the lack of oxygen in the weapon environment, which is initially < 0.1%. With regard to DPA, it has been reported that radical scavenging activity is proportional to the oxygen pressure. At this time they are uncertain whether the low DPA efficiency is mainly attributed to the oxygen level or if there is another rate limiting step that would lead to the preferential consumption of BHT.

  11. Mycoflora and Ochratoxin A Control in Wheat Grain Using Natural Extracts Obtained from Wine Industry By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata-Maria Sumalan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of some natural extracts obtained from grape pomace (GPE and grape seeds (GSE as compared to a synthetic food, antioxidant-butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, in order to control fungal population and ochratoxin A (OTA production in naturally contaminated wheat. The results showed that the addition of these extracts was efficient with OTA content decreasing. On treatment with these extracts the loss of OTA content after 14 days was in the range 7.8–28.3% relative to the control sample, but increased up to 26.48–37% after 28 days. The highest loss in OTA content was recorded for treatment with GPE at the 500 ppm level. Regarding the fungal development, the obtained results show that the total fungal populations were significantly reduced by using natural extracts. The most efficient extract was GPE. Both BHT and GPE inhibit the growth of Penicillium verrrucosum, for all doses, but less with Aspergillus genera. GPE affects the growth of other types of moulds such as Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria infectoria and Cladosporium herbarum. Our data suggested that GPE and GSE are able to provide fungicidal and fungistatic protection and to control the OTA accumulation in wheat, at least in a similar manner to BHT.

  12. Pathogenic mechanism in lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether an interaction between two agents causing alveolar epithelial damage would produce lung fibrosis. In mouse lung, intraperitoneal injection of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene causes diffuse alveolar type I cell necrosis, followed by proliferation of type II alveolar cells. In animals exposed to 70% O2 or 100-200 rad x rays during the phase of type II cell proliferation following BHT, diffuse interstitial lung fibrosis developed within 2 weeks. Quantitative analysis of the lungs for hydroxyproline showed that the interaction between BHT and O2 or x rays was synergistic. If exposure to O2 or x rays was delayed until epithelial recovery was complete, no fibrosis was seen. Abnormally high levels of lung collagen persisted up to 6 months after one single treatment with BHT and 100 rad x rays. A commonly seen form of chronic lung damage may thus be caused by an acute interaction between a bloodborne agent which damages the alveolar cell and a toxic inhalant or x rays, provided a critically ordered sequence of exposure is observed

  13. Effect of natural and synthetic antioxidants on oxidative stability of FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Nivetha; D.Vetha; Roy

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel(fatty acid alkyl esters),an alternate to fossil fuel,has the tendency of autoxidation and hence requires antioxidants for long term storage.The influence of synthetic and natural antioxidants on the oxidative stability was analysed for fresh FAMEs(fatty acid methyl esters)obtained from hevea brasiliensis at 140 C.Higher activity was observed for synthetic antioxidants following the order of GA>BHT>DTBP>Q>GT-M>PH-M>GT-C,whereas the oxidative stability of stored FAMEs samples measured at 110 C reveals a nearly inverse trend.Storage stability was tested for the FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis stored at 30 C,after addition of synthetic and natural antioxidants—butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT),2,6-di-tert-butylphenol(DTBP),quercetin(Q),gallic acid(GA),methanol extracts from green tea(GTM),pomegranate hull(PH-M),and chloroform extract of green tea(GT-C).Antioxidant activities above 1500 ppm was in the order of DTBP>BHT>GA>GT-C>GT-M>Q>PH-M.Synthetic antioxidants have been found more efficient to improve the storage stability of FAMEs obtained from hevea brasiliensis.DTBP in particular has the highest protection factor.

  14. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariza Pires de Melo; Marco Antonio Trindade; Jose Manuel Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in vitro of peanut skin extract (PSE) and effect of PSE on characteristics of sheep patties during storage. Methods: PSE phenolic profile was evaluated in LC–MS analysis and by total phenolic content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power. Patties elaborated with sheep meat were packaged in modified at-mosphere and storage at (2 ± 1) ?C. The analyses were performed every 5 days for 20 days on microbial counts, physico-chemical properties, lipid oxidation, protein stability and sensory characteristics. Results: The major group of phenolic compounds in PSE was the proanthocyanidins followed by other flavonoids, which are related to potential phenolic content and anti-oxidant activity. The addition of PSE and butyl hydroxytoluene (BHT) reduced the mi-crobial counts during the storage time, caused reduction on the loss of redness and sensory properties over time. The lipid and protein oxidation in sheep patties was effectively inhibited by PSE and BHT. Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT) for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  15. Effect of the volatile constituents isolated from Thymus albicans, Th. mastichina, Th. carnosus and Thymbra capitata in sunflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria G; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Costa, Monya M; Martins, Denise; Duarte, João; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2003-12-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from Thymus albicans and Thymbra capitata collected in Algarve (Portugal), Th. mastichina collected in Algarve and Estremadura (Portugal) and Th. carnosus also collected in Algarve, during the flowering phase, was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant capacity of the oils as well as some of their main components was determined by periodic evaluation of the peroxide values in sunflower oils stored at 60 degrees C. These peroxide values were compared to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control (without adding antioxidants) under the same experimental conditions. The oils of Th. albicans and Th. mastichina, collected in Algarve, were dominated by 1,8-cineole (68% and 45%, respectively), whereas linalool (52%) was the main component from the oils isolated from Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. Carvacrol (68%) was the major component present in the oils of Thymbra capitata while borneol (18%), terpinen-4-ol (11%) and camphene (9%) were the major ones in the essential oil of Th. carnosus. The essential oils as well as some of their main components showed higher antioxidant capacity than that of the synthetic antioxidant BHT. At the end of the experiment (57 days), BHT showed a percentage of inhibition of 20%, while that of the essential oils ranged from 46% for Th. carnosus, to 59% for Th. mastichina collected in Estremadura. PMID:14727767

  16. Free radical scavenging abilities of flavonoids as mechanism of protection against mutagenicity induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or cumene hydroperoxide in Salmonella typhimurium TA102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenharder, R; Grünhage, D

    2003-09-01

    Mutagenicity induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (BHP) or cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 was effectively reduced by flavonols with 3',4'-hydroxyl groups such as fisetin, quercetin, rutin, isoquercitrin, hyperoxide, myricetin, myricitrin, robinetin, and to a lesser extent also by morin and kaempferol (ID50=0.25-1.05 micromol per plate). With the exception of isorhamnetin, rhamnetin, morin, and kaempferol, closely similar results were obtained with both peroxides. Hydrogenation of the double bond between carbons 2 and 3 (dihydroquercetin, dihydrorobinetin) as well as the additional elimination of the carbonyl function at carbon 4 (catechins) resulted in a loss of antimutagenicity with the notable exception of catechin itself. Again, all flavones and flavanones tested were inactive except luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, diosmetin, and naringenin. The typical radical scavenger butylated hydroxytoluene also showed strong antimutagenicity against CHP (ID50=5.4 micromol per plate) and BHP (ID50=11.4 micromol per plate). Other lipophilic scavengers such as alpha-tocopherol and N,N'-diphenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine exerted only moderate effects, the hydrophilic scavenger trolox was inactive. The metal chelating agent 1,10-phenanthroline strongly reduced mutagenicities induced by CHP and BHP (ID50=2.75 and 2.5 micromol per plate) at low concentrations but induced mutagenic activities at higher concentrations. The iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate, however, was less effective in both respects. The copper chelator neocuproine effectively inhibited mutagenicity induced by BHP (ID50=39.7 micromol per plate) and CHP (ID50=25.9 micrommol per plate), the iron chelator 2,2'-dipyridyl was less potent (ID50=6.25 mmol per plate against BHP, 0.42 mmol per plate against CHP). In the absence of BHP and CHP, yet not in the presence of these hydroperoxides, quercetin, rutin, catechin, epicatechin, and naringenin induced strong mutagenic activities in S

  17. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Origanum dictamnus Extracts before and after Encapsulation in Liposomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tsaknis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol or dichloromethane extracts of O. dictamnus, produced from wild and organic cultivated specimens, were determined. The Rancimat and malondialdehyde (MDA by HPLC methods were used to measure the antioxidant action, in comparison with that of the common commercial antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and α-tocopherol. The extracts that presented high antioxidant activity were encapsulated in liposomes and their antioxidant action was again estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Thermaloxidative decomposition of the samples (pure liposomes and encapsulated extracts and the modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also studied by the DSC method. All extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Their action proved superior to α-tocopherol. The methanol extract of organic cultivated O. dictamnus (240 ppm showed higher activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. After encapsulation in liposomes the antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities proved to be higher than those of the same extracts in pure form.

  18. Evaluation of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Origanum dictamnus extracts before and after encapsulation in liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gortzi, Olga; Lala, Stavros; Chinou, Ioanna; Tsaknis, John

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanol or dichloromethane extracts of O. dictamnus, produced from wild and organic cultivated specimens, were determined. The Rancimat and malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC methods were used to measure the antioxidant action, in comparison with that of the common commercial antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol. The extracts that presented high antioxidant activity were encapsulated in liposomes and their antioxidant action was again estimated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermaloxidative decomposition of the samples (pure liposomes and encapsulated extracts) and the modification of the main transition temperature for the lipid mixture and the splitting of the calorimetric peak in the presence of the antioxidants were also studied by the DSC method. All extracts showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Their action proved superior to alpha-tocopherol. The methanol extract of organic cultivated O. dictamnus (240 ppm) showed higher activity than butylated hydroxytoluene. After encapsulation in liposomes the antioxidant as well as antimicrobial activities proved to be higher than those of the same extracts in pure form. PMID:17873829

  19. Effects of antioxidant additives on pollutant formation from the combustion of palm oil methyl ester blends with diesel in a non-pressurised burner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Suyin [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia); Ng, Hoon Kiat [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-07-15

    In order to alleviate escalating worldwide crises of oil reserves exhaustion and global warming, an alternative fuel that is sustainable, economically feasible and environmental friendly must be developed for large-scale adoption. Biodiesel has emerged as the leading alternative fuel of choice due to its cost, availability of current production technology and compatibility with existing infrastructure of petroleum diesel. Although considerable in-roads have been made to understand combustion and tailpipe emissions of various biodiesel fuels in compression-ignited engines, research efforts dedicated to examining these and the associated impacts of additives for non-transportation usage have been scarce. This work aims to establish the effects of antioxidants addition on pollutant emissions from the combustion of palm oil methyl ester blends with No. 2 diesel in a non-pressurised, water-cooled combustion chamber. Antioxidant additives butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) were individually dissolved at varying concentrations in B10 and B20 fuel blends for testing. Both BHA and TBHQ were effective in lowering the nitric oxide (NO) emission produced, where their concentrations in the fuel blends were shown to scale proportionately to NO levels in the flue gas. Addition of BHT to both fuel blends, however, increased the generation of NO during combustion. BHA was found to decrease the carbon monoxide (CO) levels when added to B10 and B20, while both BHT and TBHQ were observed to raise CO formation at all test points. With the proper selection of additives type and quantity for application to specific biodiesel blends, this simple measure has been shown to be an effective pollutants control strategy which is more economical than other existing technologies. (author)

  20. Effects of antioxidant additives on pollutant formation from the combustion of palm oil methyl ester blends with diesel in a non-pressurised burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to alleviate escalating worldwide crises of oil reserves exhaustion and global warming, an alternative fuel that is sustainable, economically feasible and environmental friendly must be developed for large-scale adoption. Biodiesel has emerged as the leading alternative fuel of choice due to its cost, availability of current production technology and compatibility with existing infrastructure of petroleum diesel. Although considerable in-roads have been made to understand combustion and tailpipe emissions of various biodiesel fuels in compression-ignited engines, research efforts dedicated to examining these and the associated impacts of additives for non-transportation usage have been scarce. This work aims to establish the effects of antioxidants addition on pollutant emissions from the combustion of palm oil methyl ester blends with No. 2 diesel in a non-pressurised, water-cooled combustion chamber. Antioxidant additives butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) were individually dissolved at varying concentrations in B10 and B20 fuel blends for testing. Both BHA and TBHQ were effective in lowering the nitric oxide (NO) emission produced, where their concentrations in the fuel blends were shown to scale proportionately to NO levels in the flue gas. Addition of BHT to both fuel blends, however, increased the generation of NO during combustion. BHA was found to decrease the carbon monoxide (CO) levels when added to B10 and B20, while both BHT and TBHQ were observed to raise CO formation at all test points. With the proper selection of additives type and quantity for application to specific biodiesel blends, this simple measure has been shown to be an effective pollutants control strategy which is more economical than other existing technologies.

  1. 77 FR 1682 - Butylate, Fenoxycarb, Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate, and Temephos Registration Review Final Decisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... field corn, pop corn, and sweet corn. The last butylate pesticide product registered for use in the... a soil fumigant used for the management of nematodes and phytophthora root rot, oak root fungus,...

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (EGBE) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessme...

  3. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  4. Effectiveness of various phenolic compounds (commercial and non-commercial) on biodiesel oxidation stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasakos, A.; Deligiannis, A.; Dodos, G.S.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F. [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of seven phenolic compounds, including pyrogallol (PY), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,5-di-tert-butylhydroquinone (DTBHQ), 4-tert-Butylcatechol (TBC), 2,5- bis(dimethylaminomethyl) hydroquinone, 2,5-bis(piperidinomethyl) hydroquinone and 2,5-bis(morpholinomethyl) hydroquinone on the oxidation stability of sunflower and soybean oil methyl esters. The seven phenolic compounds were dissolved in the base fuels at the same concentration levels, i.e., 200, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 ppm. The oxidation stability measurements were carried out by employing a Rancimat accelerated oxidation unit according to EN 14214. Most of the antioxidants had a measurable positive impact on the oxidation stability in all concentrations of the additives. (orig.)

  5. Oxidation kinetics of common Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia) oil in presence of bene oils' unsaponifiable matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhouhanmehr, Samaneh; Farhoosh, Reza; Sharif, Ali; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The oxidation mechanisms and kinetics of the purified common Kilka (Clupeonella cultiventris caspia) triacylglycerols (PKO) as affected by 1-1.5% (w/w) of unsaponifiable matters of bene kernel (UKO) and hull (UHO) oils were studied and compared with that of 100 mg/kg of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol in the Rancimat test at 50-70 °C. There were good correlations between the oxidative stability index (OSI) and time required to reach a 50%-increase in PV (t50). The frequency factor (A) and activation energy (Ea) were correlated well with the values of entropy and enthalpy, respectively. The values of free energy of activation (ΔG(++)) could describe the values of t50 or OSI well. Kinetic data indicated that the UKO with higher contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and terpenoid compounds was more effective than the UHO on the PKO stability. PMID:26213034

  6. ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF STEM OF THUJA ORIENTALIS: IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Saharan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of different extracts of Thuja orientalis was evaluated by employing three in vitro experiments namely (1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, reducing power and chelating power assays. The stem powder of the plant was extracted with different solvents by maceration method in order of decreasing polarity and then partitioned (Flow Chart 1. The differential activities of the different extracts could be correlated with their respective phenolic and flavanoid contents and compared with standards L-ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. All the extracts exhibit a remarkable concentration dependant scavenging activity. Moreover, among the different extract, methanol extract exhibited good scavenging response of 74.3%, 59.51% and 0.997% in DPPH, chelating power and reducing power assay in decreasing order of solvent polarity at maximum concentration, respectively. Studies are in progress to isolate and identify the active principle components responsible for this activity.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of N1-Phenylhydrazine-1,2-bis(carbothioamide and Its Evaluation for Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Golzar Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The compound N1-phenylhydrazine-1,2-bis(carbothioamide was synthesised from phenylisothiocyanate reacting with thiosemicarbazide refluxing the mixture in ethanol. The new compound obtained was characterised by various spectral and elemental analyses. It was subjected to antibacterial, antioxidant and brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The compound showed brine shrimp lethality with LC50 value of 12.79 μg which was comparable to vincristine with LC50 value of 0.33 μg. The compound did not exhibit any antimicrobial activity against Gram +ve and Gram −ve organisms, as well as against the tested fungal strains. But very good free radical scavenging activity was observed at concentration range of 0.185–100 μg with IC50 values of 1.43 μg in comparison to reference standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT with IC50 value 16.46 μg.

  8. Antioxidant activities of bioactive components from Xylaria gracillima in submerged culture%细小炭角菌深层发酵产物的抗氧化活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赛飞; 文华安

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant potency of components from Xylaria gracillima in submerged culture was investigated,employing various established in vitro systems,such as superoxide(O2.-)and hydroxyl(OH)radical scavenging,reducing power,and ferrous ion chelating ability.Tocopherol(Ve),butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid(EDTA)were used as positive controls.According to the results,components from X.gracillima in submerged culture showed significant effect on ferrous ion chelating ability,O2.-and .OH radical scavenging ability at the range of concentration tested,and their highest antioxidant activities reached 89.72%,70.90% and 77.46% respectively.The components also showed positive results of reducing power.These in vitro results suggested the possibility that components from X.gracillima in submerged culture could be effectively employed as an ingredient in healthy or functional food.

  9. In vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities of the essential oil and various extracts from herbal parts and callus cultures of Origanum acutidens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Münevver; Serkedjieva, Julia; Daferera, Dimitra; Gulluce, Medine; Polissiou, Moschos; Tepe, Bektas; Akpulat, H Askin; Sahin, Fikrettin; Sokmen, Atalay

    2004-06-01

    The essential oil and various extracts obtained from Origanum acutidens and methanol extracts (MeOH) from callus cultures have been evaluated for their antioxidative, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties. The essential oil exhibited strong antimicrobial activity with a significant inhibitory effect against 27 (77%) of the 35 bacteria, 12 (67%) of the 18 fungi, and a yeast tested and moderate antioxidative capacity in DPPH and beta-carotene/linoleic acid assays. GC and GC-MS analyses of the oil resulted in the identification of 38 constituents, carvacrol being the main component. The MeOH extracts obtained from herbal parts showed better antioxidative effect than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), whereas callus cultures also exhibited interesting antioxidative patterns. Concerning antiviral activity, none of the extracts inhibited the reproduction of influenza A/Aichi virus in MDCK cells. The MeOH extracts from herbal parts inhibited the reproduction of HSV-1, and also callus cultures exerted slight antiherpetic effect. PMID:15161188

  10. Antioxidant properties of modified rutin esters by DPPH, reducing power, iron chelation and human low density lipoprotein assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte;

    2010-01-01

    moieties. Herein, two derivatives of rutin (possessing C12:0 or C16:0 acyl groups) were assessed for their antioxidant properties, and compared with their parent compound, rutin and with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). While all compounds exhibited relatively strong radical scavenging abilities, modified...... rutin compounds exhibited decreased reducing power and metal chelating abilities as compared to rutin. Conversely, investigations on the oxidation of human low density lipoprotein (LDL) revealed that rutin laurate was most effective in inhibiting oxidation by prolonging LDL lag time for an in vitro...... system. With regards to in vivo considerations, a pre-treatment step confirmed that the ester bond linking rutin and acyl moieties was most susceptible to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes, while rutin itself was not degraded. Thus, acylation of rutin with medium or long chain fatty acids may result in...

  11. Potato peel extract-a natural antioxidant for retarding lipid peroxidation in radiation processed lamb meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R; Chander, Ramesh; Radhakrishna, P; Sharma, Arun

    2005-03-01

    The effective utilization of potato peel, a waste generated in large quantities by the food industry, as an antioxidant was investigated. Potato peel extract (PPE) exhibited high phenolic content (70.82 mg of catechin equivalent/100 g), chlorogenic acid (27.56 mg/100 g of sample) being the major component. The yield of total phenolics and chlorogenic acid increased by 26 and 60%, respectively, when the extract was prepared from gamma irradiated (150 Gy) potatoes. PPE showed excellent antioxidant activity as determined by beta-carotene bleaching and radical scavenging activity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The suitability of PPE for controlling lipid oxidation of radiation processed lamb meat was also investigated. PPE (0.04%) when added to meat before radiation processing was found to retard lipid peroxidation of irradiated meat as measured by TBA number and carbonyl content. The antioxidant activity of PPE was found to be comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). PMID:15740031

  12. Effect of pomegranate peel extract on lipid and protein oxidation in beef meatballs during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Sebahattin Serhat; Soyer, Ayla; Işıkçı, Fatma

    2016-06-01

    Antioxidant effect of pomegranate peel extract (PE) to retard lipid and protein oxidation was investigated in meatballs during refrigerated storage at 4±1°C. Concentrated lyophilised water extract of pomegranate peel was incorporated into freshly minced beef meat at 0.5% and 1% concentrations and compared with 0.01% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as a reference and control (without any antioxidant). PE showed high phenolic content and antioxidant activity. In PE added samples, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide formation, loss of sulfhydryl groups and formation of protein carbonyls were lower than control (PSensory evaluation with respect to colour and rancid odour revealed that PE incorporation in meatballs prolonged the refrigerated storage up to 8 days. Addition of both 0.5 and 1% PE in meatballs reduced lipid and protein oxidation and improved sensory scores. These results indicated that PE was effective on retarding lipid and protein oxidation. PMID:26878610

  13. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) tuber mucilage exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2002-12-01

    The yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber mucilage (YTM) was extracted and partially purified by SDS and heating treatments. This purified YTM exhibited antioxidant activities in a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC 50, was 0.86 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical (IC 50 was 22 microg/mL) scavenging activity assays, reducing power test, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-human low density lipoprotein peroxidation tests (IC 50 was 145.46 microg/mL) using butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), reduced glutathione, or ascorbic acid for comparisons. With electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, the intensities of the EPR signals were decreased by the increased amounts of YTM added (IC 50 was 1.62 mg/mL). These results suggest that mucilage of yam tuber might play roles as antiradicals and antioxidants. PMID:12494332

  14. Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champailler, A.; Gremillet, E.; Decousus, M.; Kassir, A.; Voutay, M.; Healy, J.C.

    1985-05-01

    Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA was measured by four in vitro methods: trichloroacetic acid precipitation, electrophoresis, HPLC, and Scatchard binding isotherm. The data are in accord with protein transport, the main carrier being albumin with two categories of sites. This work suggests that after IV injection of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA in humans plasma protein binding is one of the limiting factors for the hepatic deposition of the radiopharmacentical.

  15. Effect of N-butyl cyanoacrylate on fracture healing in segmental rat tibia fracture model

    OpenAIRE

    Akcal, Mehmet Akif; Poyanli, Oguz; Unay, Koray; Esenkaya, Irfan; Gokcen, Bahadir; Fıratlıgil, Ayşe Sanem

    2014-01-01

    Background Comminuted fractures can occur due to severe traumas. The treatment of these fractures that may cause serious morbidity and sometimes mortality is N-butyl cyanoacrylate. It has been reported that this adhesive provides sufficient rigid fixation for bone healing. This study aims to examine cyanoacrylate radiologically and histologically to determine whether it provides adequate recovery in segmental fractures. The secondary objective is to evaluate N-butyl cyanoacrylate, an adhesive...

  16. Ruptured Duodenal Varices Successfully Managed by Endoscopic N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyung Hun; Kim, Sung Eun

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding from ectopic varices is rare and accounts for only 1% and 5% of all variceal bleeding. However, once the bleeding starts, it becomes difficult to control and is sometimes fatal. We faced a 65-year-old man with ruptured duodenal varices and injected N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate into the spurting duodenal varices. As a result, oozing was successfully controlled. Subsequently, the patient remained hemodynamically stable, and no repeat -butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection was needed. He was final...

  17. Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma transport of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA was measured by four in vitro methods: trichloroacetic acid precipitation, electrophoresis, HPLC, and Scatchard binding isotherm. The data are in accord with protein transport, the main carrier being albumin with two categories of sites. This work suggests that after IV injection of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA in humans plasma protein binding is one of the limiting factors for the hepatic deposition of the radiopharmacentical. (orig.)

  18. Permeability of noble gases through Kapton, butyl, nylon, and 'Silver Shield'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble gas permeabilities and diffusivities of Kapton, butyl, nylon, and 'Silver Shield' are measured at temperatures between 22 and 115 deg. C. The breakthrough times and solubilities at 22 deg. C are also determined. The relationship of the room temperature permeabilities to the noble gas atomic radii is used to estimate radon permeability for each material studied. For the noble gases tested, Kapton and Silver Shield have the lowest permeabilities and diffusivities, followed by nylon and butyl, respectively.

  19. APPLICATION OF PHOTOCATALYTIC PROCESS FOR REMOVAL OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER FROM HIGHLYCONTAMINATED WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mesdaghinia

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether is added to gasoline to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions by vehicles. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with methyl tert-butyl ether may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this research the degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether at relatively high concentrations was investigated by UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as pH, amount of H2O2, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and intermediates such as tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl alcohol were measured over a 180 min period using a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector and combined with headspace sampler. Results showed that the time required for complete degradation increased from 30 to 180min, when the initial concentration was increased from 10 to 500mg/L. The first order rate constant for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether from the hydroxyl radical was estimated to be 0.177 to 0.022 1/min as the concentration increased from 10 to 500mg/L. Study on the overall mineralization monitored by total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed that in the initial concentration of 100mg/L methyl tert-butyl ether, complete mineralization was obtained after 110min under UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process.

  20. Occupational exposures to new dry cleaning solvents: High-flashpoint hydrocarbons and butylal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Lee, Eun Gyung; Roberts, Jennifer; Streicher, Robert; Nourian, Fariba; Gong, Wei; Broadwater, Kendra

    2016-10-01

    The dry cleaning industry is moving away from using perchloroethylene. Occupational exposures to two alternative dry cleaning solvents, butylal and high-flashpoint hydrocarbons, have not been well characterized. We evaluated four dry cleaning shops that used these alternative solvents. The shops were staffed by Korean- and Cantonese-speaking owners, and Korean-, Cantonese-, and Spanish-speaking employees. Because most workers had limited English proficiency we used language services in our evaluations. In two shops we collected personal and area air samples for butylal. We also collected air samples for formaldehyde and butanol, potential hydrolysis products of butylal. Because there are no occupational exposure limits for butylal, we assessed employee health risks using control banding tools. In the remaining two shops we collected personal and area air samples for high-flashpoint hydrocarbon solvents. In all shops the highest personal airborne exposures occurred when workers loaded and unloaded the dry cleaning machines and pressed dry cleaned fabrics. The air concentrations of formaldehyde and butanol in the butylal shops were well below occupational exposure limits. Likewise, the air concentrations of high-flashpoint hydrocarbons were also well below occupational exposure limits. However, we saw potential skin exposures to these chemicals. We provided recommendations on appropriate work practices and the selection and use of personal protective equipment. These recommendations were consistent with those derived using control banding tools for butylal. However, there is insufficient toxicological and health information to determine the safety of butylal in occupational settings. Independent evaluation of the toxicological properties of these alternative dry cleaning solvents, especially butylal, is urgently needed. PMID:27105306

  1. Effect of antioxidants of aflatoxigenic molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were measured in synthetic media and chicken feed treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ethoxyquin (EXQ), propyl gallate (PG) or t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at 50-250 ..mu..g/g and 50-1000 ..mu..g/g, respectively. BHA at 50 ..mu..g/g in broth or agar inhibited growth and alfatoxin production by both molds. In poultry feeds, 1000 ..mu..g/g BHA was required to depress CO/sub 2/ production at day 5 of incubation, while 200 ..mu..g/g decreased aflatoxin B/sub 1/ 23.8%. BHT, EXQ, and PG had slight effects on mold growth while TBHQ enhanced growth on broth but reduced it on agar. Afaltoxin B/sub 1/ production was stimulated by EXQ, although G/sub 1/ production declines. Measurement of cellular constituents released from mycelia over 5 hours indicated that BHA doubled the release of UV-absorbing materials and increase by threefold the release of previously incorporated radiolabeled compounds. Furthermore, BHA inhibited the uptake of /sup 14/C-amino acids 8 and 44%, /sup 3/H-uridine 65 and 91%, and /sup 3/H-methyl thymidine 67 and 71%, for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, compared to untreated controls.

  2. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Phymatopteris hastata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Wei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various solvent extracts of Phymatopteris hastata, a traditional Chinese medicinal material, were screened for their antioxidant activities. Four systems of in vitro testing were employed to investigate the antiradical and antioxidant effect, i.e., the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS systems, the hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and the reducing power. In addition, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a widely used synthetic antioxidant, was also studied for comparison. The results revealed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities, which was close or even superior to BHT. Furthermore, the total phenolic (TP and total flavonoid (TF contents of different extracts were measured, expressed as gallic acid and rutin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant activities and the TP/TF content of different extracts followed the same order: ethyl acetate extract > butyl alcohol extract > petroleum ether extract, showing a good correlation between the antioxidant activities and the TP/TF content. The results showed that these extracts, especially the ethyl acetate extract, were rich in phenolics and flavonoids and could be considered as natural antioxidants.

  3. Use of propolis extract as a natural antioxidant for plant oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan, Musa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activities of methanol extracts of propolis were tested in natural olive oil stored at 60ºC. The concentration of extracts in olive oil varied from 0.02 to 0.08%. Extracts at 0.06 and 0.08% concentrations had better antioxidant activity as compared to butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 0.01% levels. The greatest antioxidant activities were exhibited by propolis balsam extract at 0.08% levels. lt can be said that the antioxidant activity of propolis increases with concentration. This product is considered as a new source of natural antioxidants.Se ha ensayado las actividades antioxidantes de extractos metanólicos de propóleos en aceite de oliva almacenado a 60ºC. La concentración de extractos en aceite de oliva varió desde 0,02 a 0,08%. Los extractos con concentraciones del 0,06 y 0,08% tuvieron una mayor actividad antioxidante comparando con el hidroxianisol butilado (BHA y el hidroxitolueno butilado (BHT a concentraciones del 0,01%. Las mayores actividades antioxidantes se encontraron en extractos de bálsamo de propóleos a niveles del 0,08%. Puede decirse que la actividad antioxidante de propóleos aumenta con la concentración, constituyendo una nueva fuente de antioxidantes naturales.

  4. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of p-coumaric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim

    2013-11-01

    p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), a phenolic acid, is a hydroxyl derivative of cinnamic acid. It decreases low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation and reduces the risk of stomach cancer. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of p-coumaric acid were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. p-Coumaric acid inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 66.8%, 69.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, p-coumaric acid had an effective DPPHrad scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that p-coumaric acid can be used in the pharmacological and food industry because of these properties.

  5. Effect of EMA and antioxidants on properties of thermoplastic starch blown films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threepopnatkul, P.; Kulsetthanchalee, C.; Sittattrakul, A.; Kaewjinda, E.

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of poly(ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) (EMA) at 10, 30 and 50 wt% on the morphological properties, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability of thermoplastic starch (TPS). Urea and formamide were used as a mixed plasticizer. In addition, the effect of antioxidants namely, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamate (DTBH), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and bis(octadecyl)hydroxylamine (BOH) at 1 wt% on the properties of TPS/EMA film was investigated. TPS/EMA films were produced by a blown film molding machine and characterized by scanning electron microscropy, moisture sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability measurement. Results found that the increment of EMA content in the TPS matrix could improve the water sorption, water vapor permeability and biodegradability properties of TPS/EMA films. For biodegradation, the weight loss of the blended films was directly proportional to TPS content. Regarding the antioxidants effect, the water vapor permeability of TPS/EMA films containing DTBH was higher than the one with BOH and BHT. However, the antioxidants contributed little to the biodegradability of TPS/EMA films and had no effect on the moisture sorption of TPS/EMA films.

  6. Spectroscopic studies on the antioxidant activity of ellagic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Ismail; Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Bayrak, Yüksel

    2014-09-01

    Ellagic acid (EA, C14H6O8) is a natural dietary polyphenol whose benefits in a variety of diseases shown in epidemiological and experimental studies involve anti-inflammation, anti-proliferation, anti-angiogenesis, anticarcinogenesis and anti-oxidation properties. In vitro radical scavenging and antioxidant capacity of EA were clarified using different analytical methodologies such as total antioxidant activity determination by ferric thiocyanate, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging, ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activity and ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing ability. EA inhibited 71.2% lipid peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion at 45 μg/mL concentration. On the other hand, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid displayed 69.8%, 66.8%, 64.5% and 59.7% inhibition on the peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the same concentration, respectively. In addition, EA had an effective DPPH• scavenging, ABTSrad + scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric ions (Fe3+) reducing power and ferrous ions (Fe2+) chelating activities. Also, those various antioxidant activities were compared to BHA, BHT, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid as references antioxidant compounds. These results suggested that EA can be used in the pharmacological, food industry and medicine because of these properties.

  7. Comparison of antioxidant activity between aromatic indolinonic nitroxides and natural and synthetic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Elisabetta; Belaid, Chokri; Carloni, Patricia; Greci, Lucedio

    2003-07-01

    In view of the possible employment of nitroxide compounds in various fields, it is important to know how they compare with other synthetic antioxidant compounds currently used in several industries and with naturally occurring antioxidants. To address this issue, the antioxidant activity of two aromatic indolinonic nitroxides synthesized by us was compared with both commercial phenolic antioxidants (BHT and BHA) and with natural phenolic antioxidants (alpha-hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, alpha-tocopherol). DPPH radical scavenging ability and the inhibition of both lipid and protein oxidation induced by the peroxyl-radical generator, AAPH, were evaluated. The results obtained show that overall: (i) the reduced forms of the nitroxide compounds are better scavengers of DPPH radical than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BLT) but less efficient than the natural compounds; (ii) the nitroxides inhibit both linolenic acid micelles and bovine serum albumin (BSA) oxidation to similar extents as most of the other compounds in a concentration-dependent fashion. Since the aromatic nitroxides tested in this study are less toxic than BHT, these compounds may be regarded as potential, alternative sources for several applications. The mechanisms underlying the antioxidant activity of nitroxides were further confirmed by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy experiments and macroscale reactions in the presence of radicals generated by thermolabile azo-compounds. Distribution coefficients in octanol/buffer of the nitroxides and the other compounds were also determined as a measure of lipophilicity. PMID:12911269

  8. Effect of antioxidants of aflatoxigenic molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus were measured in synthetic media and chicken feed treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ethoxyquin (EXQ), propyl gallate (PG) or t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) at 50-250 μg/g and 50-1000 μg/g, respectively. BHA at 50 μg/g in broth or agar inhibited growth and alfatoxin production by both molds. In poultry feeds, 1000 μg/g BHA was required to depress CO2 production at day 5 of incubation, while 200 μg/g decreased aflatoxin B1 23.8%. BHT, EXQ, and PG had slight effects on mold growth while TBHQ enhanced growth on broth but reduced it on agar. Afaltoxin B1 production was stimulated by EXQ, although G1 production declines. Measurement of cellular constituents released from mycelia over 5 hours indicated that BHA doubled the release of UV-absorbing materials and increase by threefold the release of previously incorporated radiolabeled compounds. Furthermore, BHA inhibited the uptake of 14C-amino acids 8 and 44%, 3H-uridine 65 and 91%, and 3H-methyl thymidine 67 and 71%, for A. flavus and A. parasiticus, respectively, compared to untreated controls

  9. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristicafragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa L.cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akeem AKINBORO; Kamaruzaman Bin MOHAMED; Mohd Zaini ASMAWI; Shaida Fariza SULAIMAN; Othman Ahmad SOFIMAN

    2011-01-01

    In this study,freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potentials using the Allium cepa assay.Freeze-dried water extract alone and its combination with cyclophosphamide (CP) (50 mg/kg) were separately dissolved in tap water at 500,1000,2000,and 4000 mg/kg.Onions (A.cepa) were suspended in the solutions and controls for 48 h in the dark.Root tips were prepared for microscopic evaluation.2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals' scavenging power of the extract was tested using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as standards.Water extract of Myristica fragrans scavenged free radicals better than BHA,but worse than BHT.The extract alone,as well as in combination with CP suppressed cell division,and induced chromosomal aberrations that were insignificantly different from the negative control (P≤0.05).However,cytotoxic and mutagenic actions of CP were considerably suppressed.The observed effects on cell division and chromosomes of A.cepa may be principally connected to the antioxidant properties of the extract.The obtained results suggest mitodepressive and antimutagenic potentials of water extract of the leaves of M.fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anticancer agent.

  10. Dietary Exposure to Benzyl Butyl Phthalate in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; JIANG Ding Guo; SUI Hai Xia; WU Ping Gu; LIU Ai Dong; YANG Da Jin; LIU Zhao Ping; SONG Yan; LI Ning

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveBenzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a plasticizer used in food contact materials. Dietary exposure to BBP might lead to reproduction and developmental damages to human. The present paper was aimed to assess the health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population. MethodsThe BBP contents were detected in 7409 food samples from 25 foodcategories by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The dietary exposures of BBP in different age and sex groups were estimated by combining the content data with food consumption data derived from 2002 China National Nutrient and Health Survey, and evaluated according to the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BBP established by European Food safety Agency. ResultsIt was found that BBP was undetectable in most samples and the highest level was 1.69 mg/kg detected in a vegetable oil sample. The average dietary exposure of BBP in people aged≥2 years was 1.03 μg/kgbw perday and the highest average exposure was found in 2-6 years old children (1.98 μg/kg bw perday). The BBP exposure in 7-12 months old children excessed 10% of tolerable daily intake (TDI) in worst scenario. ConclusionThe health risk of BBP dietary exposure in Chinese population is low and, considering BBP alone, there is no safety concern.

  11. Palladium electrodeposition in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In aqueous solutions, Pd electrodeposition is complicated by hydrogen embrittlement. As an alternative, ionic liquids have been suggested. However, the physical and chemical properties of each ionic liquid are unique. In this work, Pd electrodeposition was investigated on Ni at room temperature in one of the promising air- and water-stable ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium dicyanamide ([Bmpyrr][DCA]). The goal of this study was to elucidate kinetics of the Pd electro-reduction in [Bmpyrr][DCA] on Ni using current-time transient method (CTT) and its effect on the structure of the Pd deposits using chronoamperometry. The kinetics of the electrodeposition process was found to be limited by mass transfer. The nucleation and growth mechanism on Ni, extracted from the CTTs and analyzed using Scharifker and Hills model, showed potential dependence; at lower overpotential, the nucleation and growth was progressive that transitioned to instantaneous as the overpotential increased. Pd films obtained after potential holds for 30 min were crack-free and had a surface morphology that was less granular when overpotential increased showing clear potential-dependent nucleation and growth. Evidence of [Bmpyrr][DCA] on the surface of the Pd films was observed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Pd films had well-defined crystallinity only after heat treatment at 600 °C

  12. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Cha, Joo Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding.

  13. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding

  14. 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride Pretreatment on Malaysia Lignocellulose Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are of great interest as potential solvents for the production of fuels from lignocellulose biomass which is a potential source of bio fuels. To study the effects of pretreatment, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([B mim]Cl) was used to pretreat woody plants, kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) and jelutong (Dyera costulata), and non-woody plants, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and rice husk (Oryza sativa) at 120 degree Celsius for 24 h. Cellulose was regenerated by the addition of water. The cell wall composition and structure of the lignocellulose bio masses before and after the ILs pretreatment were observed and characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out to identify the total reducing sugars (TRS) yields using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method. Regenerated lignocellulose bio masses resulted in high TRS yields compared to their counter-parts which are in agreement with the findings of FESEM, ATR FT-IR and XRD that exhibited regenerated cellulose were less crystalline and more amorphous upon IL pretreatment. Therefore, kempas and jelutong can be alternate sources for the bio fuels production. (author)

  15. Strategies for production of butanol and butyl-butyrate through lipase-catalyzed esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Fengxue; Basu, Anindya; Yang, Kun-Lin; He, Jianzhong

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a fermentation process for production of butanol and butyl-butyrate by using Clostridium sp. strain BOH3 is developed. This strain is able to produce butyric acid and butanol when it ferments 60 g/L xylose. Meanwhile, it also excreted indigenous lipases (induced by olive oil) which naturally convert butyric acid and butanol into 1.2 g/L of butyl-butyrate. When Bio-OSR was used as both an inducer for lipase and extractant for butyl-butyrate, the butyl-butyrate concentration can reach 6.3 g/L. To further increase the yield, additional lipases and butyric acid are added to the fermentation system. Moreover, kerosene was used as an extractant to remove butyl-butyrate in situ. When all strategies are combined, 22.4 g/L butyl-butyrate can be produced in a fed-batch reactor spiked with 70 g/L xylose and 7.9 g/L butyric acid, which is 4.5-fold of that in a similar system (5 g/L) with hexadecane as the extractant. PMID:26710347

  16. Degradation of n-butyl xanthate using fly ash as heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍华; 杜冬云

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous Fenton-like process using fly ash as a catalyst was studied to degrade n-butyl xanthate form aqueous solution. The different reaction parameters on the degradation efficiency of the process were investigated. The fly ash/H2O2 catalyst possesses a high oxidation activity for n-butyl xanthate degradation in aqueous solution. It is found that both the dosage of catalyst and initial solution pH significantly affect the n-butyl xanthate conversion efficient. The results indicate that by using 1.176 mmol/L H2O2 and 1.0 g/L fly ash catalyst with mass fraction of 4.14%Fe(III) oxide at pH 3.0, almost 96.90%n-butyl xanthate conversion and over 96.66%COD removal can be achieved within 120 min with heterogeneous catalysis by fly ash. CS2 as an intermediate of n-butyl xanthate oxidation. Finally, it is demonstrated that the fly ash/H2O2 catalytic oxidation process can be an efficient method for the treatment of n-butyl xanthate containing wastewater.

  17. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jaemdphd@gmail.com; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  18. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices

  19. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

  20. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  1. Butyl acetate synthesis using immobilized lipase in calcium alginate beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The esterification reaction of acetic acid and n-butanol using immobilized lipase encapsulated in calcium alginate beads (Lipase - CAB) and in chitosan coated calcium alginate beads (Lipase-CCAB) in n-hexane under mild reaction conditions were studied. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration (acetic acid and n-butanol) using Lipase - CAB, Lipase - CCAB and free lipase on the esterification reaction and their thermal stability towards esterification reaction were investigated. Results of temperature studies showed that the butyl acetate conversion increased with increase of temperature and reached the highest yield of about 70% around 50 degree Celsius for both immobilized systems but the yield of product catalyzed by free enzyme decreased as temperature was increased. Thermal stabilities studies showed that the Lipase-CCAB and Lipase-CAB were stable throughout the temperature range of 30-60 degree Celsius. However, free lipase became less stable at temperatures higher than 50 degree Celsius. The substrates, n-butanol and acetic acid exerted different effects on the esterification reaction and the reaction was favoured by higher acetic acid concentration than butanol. Kinetics parameters, Km and Vmax values for both substrates and the specific activities of the three enzyme system were also determined. The beads morphology was examined using SEM. Batch-wise operational stability studies for both immobilized systems demonstrated that the immobilized lipase performed better in the batch wise reactor system than the continuous bioreactor system and that the immobilized lipase remained active for at least 5 cycles of batch wise esterification reactions. (author)

  2. Radiation-induced degradation of butyl rubber vulcanized by three different crosslinking systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl rubber (IIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer and is provided with good properties including low permeability to gases, good thermal stability and high resistance to oxygen and ozone action, among others. It is well known that the major effect of ionizing radiations on butyl rubber is chain scission accompanied with a significant reduction in molar mass. This work aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation on the properties of butyl rubbers vulcanized by three different curing systems, such as, the ones based on sulfur, sulfur donor and phenolic resin to identify which curing system is the most stable under irradiation. The butyl rubber vulcanized by three different systems was gamma irradiated with doses of 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by the following techniques: tensile, elongation and hardness. It was observed that doses higher than 150 kGy practically destroy the assessed properties for all butyl compounds, irrespective of the vulcanization system used; however compounds cured with phenolic resin showed a decrease in properties proportional to the dose. - Highlights: ► Butyl rubber (IIR) has a great variety of applications. ► In butyl rubber, initial stages of degradation indicate a random breaking of bonds in the polymer chain. ► IIR vulcanized samples with “sulfur”, “sulfur donors” and “resin” had different sensitivities when irradiated. ► Mechanical properties of compounds vulcanized by the three systems are reduced. ► Above 100 kGy there was a major prejudice in assessed properties for all the three systems.

  3. Effects of antioxidants on the lipase-catalyzed acidolysis during production of structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xuebing; Timm Heinrich, Maike; Nielsen, Nina Skall;

    2005-01-01

    In the production process of structured lipids, the influence of the addition of antioxidants before enzymatic acidolysis was investigated. Eight different antioxidants were screened: butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, propyl gallate, ascorbyl palmitate, citric acid, EDTA, a...

  4. High energy radiation effects on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozenato, Cristina A.; Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: cangioletto@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The high energy radiation on butyl rubber compounds causes a number of chemical reactions that occur after initial ionization and excitation events. These reactions lead to changes in molecular mass of the polymer through scission and crosslinking of the molecules, being able to affect the physical and mechanical properties. Butyl rubber has excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance as well as low gas and water vapor permeability. Due to all these properties butyl rubber is widely used industrially and particularly in tires manufacturing. In accordance with various authors, the major effect of high energy, such as gamma rays in butyl rubber, is the yielding of free-radicals along with changes in mechanical properties. There were evaluated effects imparted from high energy radiation on mechanical properties of butyl rubber compounds, non-irradiated and irradiated with 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. It was also observed a sharp reducing in stress rupture and elongation at break for doses higher than 50 kGy, pointing toward changes in polymeric chain along build-up of free radicals and consequent degradation. (author)

  5. Thermal decomposition mechanism of p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chennakesavulu, K., E-mail: chennanml@yahoo.com [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, CSIR Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India); Department of Chemistry, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600 119 (India); Sreedevi, P.; Raviathul Basaria, M. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, CSIR Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India); Ramanjaneya Reddy, G. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Guindy Campus, University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Sasipraba, T. [International Research Centre, Sathyabama University, Jeppiaar Nagar, Chennai 600 119 (India); Bhaskar Raju, G.; Prabhakar, S. [National Metallurgical Laboratory Madras Centre, CSIR Madras Complex, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • Systematic thermal decomposition, structural elucidation of intermediates at various quenched temperatures. • At solid state the phenolic free radical was quenched and was evidenced by recording stable EPR. • Since the lower decomposition energy these p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arenes can be used as a antioxidants for thermal stabilization of polyolefins. • Solid state NMR CP-MAS studies show the breakage of calixarene at bridged methylene. • Kinetic triplets of p-tert-butyl-calixarenes were determined by model free methods. - Abstract: Thermal decomposition of p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene was studied using thermo gravimetry (TG) and differential thermo gram (DTG) methods. Non-isothermal TG was done under static air atmosphere with 1, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 K/min. Model-free methods such as Friedman and Flynn Wall Ozawa (FWO) were used to evaluate the kinetic parameters such as activation energy and exponential factors. The probable thermal decomposition mechanism was proposed by analyzing the quenched intermediate p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene samples with FTIR, mass, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR cross polarization magic angle spectrometry (CP-MAS), EPR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The thermal stability of the polyolefins was checked with p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene as an antioxidant additive.

  6. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao

    2016-01-01

    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent. PMID:27610302

  7. Endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate on esophagojejunal anastomotic leak: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelopoulos Stamatis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This case report describes an esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The leak was treated successfully with endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This is the first case report on the endoscopic application of cyanoacrylate alone for the treatment of an anastomotic leak. Case presentation This report describes a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. He underwent total gastrectomy and esophagojejunal anastomosis with Roux-en-Y anastomosis plus transverse colectomy. An anastomotic leak was treated conservatively at first for a total of three weeks. However, the leak persisted; therefore, the decision was made to apply topical endoscopic n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Conclusion The endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate alone can be used successfully to treat esophagojejunal anastomotic leakage.

  8. Molecular recognition study of ethosuximide by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supramolecule, p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene, forms inclusion complex with the antiseizure drug molecule, ethosuximide. This feature is explained on the basis of optical absorption spectroscopy. Here p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene is the host molecule and ethosuximide is the guest molecule. The stoichiometry of the host–guest complex and the binding constant has been determined using Benesi–Hildebrand plot. Based on the result obtained the structure of the inclusion complex has been proposed. -- Highlights: ► Third generation supramolecule, t-butyl calix (8) arene, is used as a host molecule. ► Anti seizure drug molecule is used as a guest molecule. ► Inclusion complex is formed between the host and guest molecule

  9. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  10. Temperature influence on mixing properties of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + gasoline additives}

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The densities and ultrasonic velocity of {ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) + (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, isooctane, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethanol)} over the temperature range (288.15 to 323.15) K and atmospheric pressure, have been measured over the whole concentration range. The experimental excess volumes and deviation of isentropic compressibilities data have been analysed in terms of different theoretical models. The gathered data improve open literature related to gasoline additives, and help to understand the ETBE volumetric and acoustic trend into different chemical environment

  11. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ri Hyeon; Yoo, Roh Eul; Kim, Hyo Cheol [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  12. Irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl analogues of mifentidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaans, H M; Donetti, A; Kramer, K; Bietti, G; Cereda, E; Dubini, D; Mondini, M; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1990-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that bidentate hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the interaction of imidazolylphenylformamidines with the H2-receptor. The present study, in which the degree of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism of the four isomeric butyl substituted mifentidine analogues was determined on the spontaneously beating right atrium of the male guinea-pig, lends further support to this hypothesis. In solution the EE/EZ ratio is different for the four isomeric butylated mifentidine analogues. The rank order of the percentage of E,E conformation, which favors a bidentate interaction, of the formamidine moiety parallels the rank order of pseudo-irreversible H2-antagonism. PMID:1973582

  13. Microsomal metabolism of NDMA and analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, D.; Yang, C.S.

    1987-05-01

    The metabolism of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), dimethylamine (DMA), N-nitro-DMA (N x NO/sub 2/ x DMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and diethylamine (DEA) was studied using control, acetone (Ac)-, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-, pregnenolone 16- ..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN)-, and phenobarbital (PB)-induced rat liver microsomes. At low substrate concentrations, the NDMA demethylase activity of Ac-induced microsomes was 5-fold greater than that of control, BHT-, and PCN-induced microsomes. The rate of NDMA denitrosation was ca. 10% that of demethylation. N x NO/sub 2/ x DMA was metabolized to HCHO, but not to NO/sub 2//sup -/, and the rate of metabolism was greatest with Ac-induced microsomes; the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ of Ac-induced microsomes were similar to those of NDMA. For the dealkylation of NDEA, Ac- and BHT-induced microsomes were twice as active as the control. Ratios of dealkylation/denitrosation for NDEA remained constant over a broad range of low substrate concentrations. BHT- or Ac-treatment appeared to cause a selective increase in the ability of microsomes to denitrosate NDEA. The activity of all microsome preparations with the amines, DMA and DEA was less than that with the nitrosamine or nitramine substrates. The results suggest that both the N-nitroso and N-nitro compounds are good substrates for microsomal P-450; the amines, which bear positive charges, are not. Denitrosation appeared to be a more important pathway with NDEA than with NDMA.

  14. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  15. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a contaminant of concern to groundwater resources due to its persistence in subsurface environments. MTBE appears to be degraded readily in the presence of oxygen but is recalcitrant under the anaerobic conditions prevalent in the subsurface, and can be converted into the more toxic compound tert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as a renewable fuel and a replacement for MTBE in gasoline formulations, its potential impact on the biodegradation of pr...

  16. An alternative approach to synthesis of 2--butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran derivative: A key starting material for dronedarone hydrochloride

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Raja Gopal; E R R Chandrashekar; M Saravanan; B Vijaya Bhaskar; P Veera Somaiah

    2012-09-01

    A practical synthesis of (2-butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran-3-yl)(4-hydroxyphenyl)methanone, a key intermediate in the preparation of anti arrhythmic drug, is described. The commercially available 4-nitrophenol (3) is converted in five steps to 2-butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran (9) which upon Friedel-Crafts acylation with 4-methoxybenzoyl chloride followed by deprotection of methyl group gives (2).

  17. Effect of antioxidants on the oxidative stability of methyl soyate (biodiesel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Robert O. [Food and Industrial Oils Research, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, IL 61604-3999 (United States)

    2005-06-25

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel derived from transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, is composed of saturated and unsaturated long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters. When exposed to air during storage, autoxidation of biodiesel can cause degradation of fuel quality by adversely affecting properties such as kinematic viscosity, acid value and peroxide value. One approach for increasing resistance of fatty derivatives against autoxidation is to treat them with oxidation inhibitors (antioxidants). This study examines the effectiveness of five such antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), propyl gallate (PrG) and {alpha}-Tocopherol in mixtures with soybean oil fatty acid methyl esters (SME). Antioxidant activity in terms of increasing oxidation onset temperature (OT) was determined by non-isothermal pressurized-differential scanning calorimetry (P-DSC). Analyses were conducted in static (zero gas flow) and dynamic (positive gas flow) mode under 2000 kPa (290 psig) pressure and 5 {sup o}C/min heating scan rate. Results showed that PrG, BHT and BHA were most effective and {alpha}-Tocopherol least effective in increasing OT. Increasing antioxidant loading (concentration) showed sharp increases in activity for loadings up to 1000 ppm followed by smaller increases in activity at higher loadings. Phase equilibrium studies were also conducted to test physical compatibility of antioxidants in SME-No. 2 diesel fuel (D2) blends. Overall, this study recommends BHA or TBHQ (loadings up to 3000 ppm) for safeguarding biodiesel from effects of autoxidation during storage. BHT is also suitable at relatively low loadings (210 ppm after blending). PrG showed some compatibility problems and may not be readily soluble in blends with larger SME ratios. Although {alpha}-Tocopherol showed very good compatibility in blends, it was significantly less effective than the synthetic antioxidants screened in this

  18. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NOx emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  19. 40 CFR 721.10193 - 1-Butanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. 721.10193 Section 721.10193 Protection of...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts. (a) Chemical substance and...-aminopropyl)-N-butyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl)-, N-coco acyl derivs., inner salts (PMN P-06-263, Chemical B; CAS...

  20. Identification of mercury methylation product by tert-butyl compounds in aqueous solution under light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Tert-butyl alcohol and hydroperoxide are methyl donors of Hg photo-methylation. • The hydroxyl radical can initially promote the photo-methylation of inorganic Hg. • Excessive ·OH can lead to the degradation of MeHg. • MeHg can be produced via intramolecular methyl transfer. - Abstract: The methylation of mercury (Hg) is of great concern as methylmercury (MeHg), the most toxic species, is produced. This study examined the possibilities of tert-butyl compounds (tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH)) and other alcohols serving as methyl donors for Hg photo-methylation under light irradiation. The yield of MeHg varied among the methyl donors, and it was also significantly influenced by salinity and pH. MeHg could be generated in the presence of TBH under visible light irradiation. The hydroxyl radical (·OH) was found to promote MeHg production at low levels, but degrade MeHg in excess. The photo-production of MeHg was tentatively proposed via the complexation of Hg and methyl donors, the formation of an intermediate (·O(Hg)C(CH3)3), and the intramolecular methyl transfer from methyl donors to Hg. This study implicates photoreactions between Hg and organic pollutants in understanding the fate and transformation of Hg in the aquatic environment

  1. A direct and sustainable synthesis of tertiary butyl esters enabled by flow microreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degennaro, Leonardo; Maggiulli, Daniela; Carlucci, Claudia; Fanelli, Flavio; Romanazzi, Giuseppe; Luisi, Renzo

    2016-08-01

    Tertiary butyl esters find large applications in synthetic organic chemistry. A straightforward method for the direct introduction of the tert-butoxycarbonyl group into a variety of organic compounds has been developed using flow microreactor systems. The resultant flow process was more efficient, versatile and sustainable compared to the batch. PMID:27383138

  2. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Gianpaolo Carrafiello; Anna Maria Ierardi; Filippo Piacentino; Larissa N Cardim

    2012-01-01

    Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient.

  3. Cirsoid renal arteriovenous malformation treated by endovascular embolization with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report a rare case of renal arteriovenous malformation (rAVM) which was diagnosed by arteriography years after onset of intermittent haematuria. The rAVM of the cirsoid type was superselectively catheterized and embolized in toto with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate. Diagnostic imaging modalities and the technique of embolization are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Bilateral transrenal ureteral occlusion by means of n-butyl cyanoacrylate and AMPLATZER vascular plug

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Rosario F; Roberto Luigi Cazzato; Giacomo Luppi; Simona Mercurio; Francesco Giurazza; Riccardo Del Vescovo; Eliodoro Faiella; Bruno Beomonte Zobel

    2014-01-01

    AMPLATZER vascular plug is a widely used embolic agent. In the present paper, we present a case of an 86-year-old female patient who underwent bilateral ureteral occlusion by means of AMPLATZER vascular plug II coupled to n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) because of recurring pyelonephritis following cystectomy with subsequent bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy (sec. Mainz type II).

  5. Posttraumatic High-Flow Priapism Treated byN-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patient with high-flow priapism was treated by transcatheter embolization of a posttraumatic left cavernosal arteriovenous fistula using N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA), resulting in complete detumescence. Erectile function has been preserved during a 3-month follow-up. Only two patients with NBCA embolization for high-flow priapism have been reported previously

  6. A case of successful ablation of a gastrophrenic fistula with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Ashish; Rao, G; Lees, Gordon; Owen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman with a fistula between a subphrenic abscess and the fundus of the stomach was successfully treated with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. Conservative management had failed. Clinical presentation, treatment progress and imaging findings by computed tomography scan, ultrasound, gastroscopy and fluoroscopy are presented, along with a brief review of the relevant literature.

  7. Bilateral transrenal ureteral occlusion by means of n-butyl cyanoacrylate and AMPLATZER vascular plug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario F Grasso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available AMPLATZER vascular plug is a widely used embolic agent. In the present paper, we present a case of an 86-year-old female patient who underwent bilateral ureteral occlusion by means of AMPLATZER vascular plug II coupled to n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA because of recurring pyelonephritis following cystectomy with subsequent bilateral ureterosigmoidostomy (sec. Mainz type II.

  8. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and lipoidol pulmonary embolism (glue embolism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glue embolisation is a rare happening and many clinicians who evaluate patients for post sclerotherapy problems may be unaware of this complication. We present a case of pulmonary embolism in a patient of cirrhosis liver secondary to gastric variceal sclerotherapy with N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and lipoidol solution. This is also called glue embolism. (author)

  9. N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate Embolization of Spinal Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: Presenting with Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, B.J.; Kim, T.-K.; Seo, S.I.; Kyung, J.B.; Seol, H.Y.; Han, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) presenting with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Cure was achieved with endovascular treatment with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). A review of the literature revealed five cases of cervical SDAVF that presented with SAH. None of these cases were treated with NBCA.

  10. Kinetic Study of the Reaction between Tert-butyl Hydrazine and Nitrous Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The kinetic study of the reaction between tert-butyl hydrazine(TBH)and nitrous acid in nitric acid system is performed by spectrophotometry. The effect of some factors such as the concentration of TBH, the concentration of nitric acid, ionic strength, temperature and the

  11. Automatic mechanism generation for pyrolysis of di-tert-butyl sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Caleb A; Liu, Mengjie; Vandeputte, Aäron G; Green, William H

    2016-08-01

    The automated Reaction Mechanism Generator (RMG), using rate parameters derived from ab initio CCSD(T) calculations, is used to build reaction networks for the thermal decomposition of di-tert-butyl sulfide. Simulation results were compared with data from pyrolysis experiments with and without the addition of a cyclohexene inhibitor. Purely free-radical chemistry did not properly explain the reactivity of di-tert-butyl sulfide, as the previous experimental work showed that the sulfide decomposed via first-order kinetics in the presence and absence of the radical inhibitor. The concerted unimolecular decomposition of di-tert-butyl sulfide to form isobutene and tert-butyl thiol was found to be a key reaction in both cases, as it explained the first-order sulfide decomposition. The computer-generated kinetic model predictions quantitatively match most of the experimental data, but the model is apparently missing pathways for radical-induced decomposition of thiols to form elemental sulfur. Cyclohexene has a significant effect on the composition of the radical pool, and this led to dramatic changes in the resulting product distribution. PMID:27431650

  12. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2013-04-26

    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  13. Ion-conductive polymer membranes containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate and 1-ethylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Sikora, Antonín; Plíšková, M.; Mališ, J.; Mazúr, P.; Paidar, M.; Bouzek, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 367, 1/2 (2011), s. 332-339. ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate * 1-ethylmethylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate * polymer electrolyte membrane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.850, year: 2011

  14. AN EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN CARCINOGENIC POTENTIAL OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL BUTYL ETHER: INTERIM FINAL POSITION PAPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to determine the merit of a petition to remove ethylene glycol ether (EGBE) from the Agency's Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) list, EPA has developed an interim final position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, t...

  15. 2-Butyl-4-chloroimidazole based substituted piperazine-thiosemicarbazone hybrids as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallapally, Anvesh; Addla, Dinesh; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Kantevari, Srinivas

    2014-12-01

    Here a series of 2-butyl-4-chloroimidazole based substituted piperazine-thiosemicarbazone hybrids were designed by combining three different pharmacophoric fragments in single molecular architecture. 2-Butyl-4-chloro-1-(3-(4-substituted)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carbaldehydes (4a-p) prepared by reacting carboxaldehyde 2 with N-alkyl piperazines 3a-p which were condensed with thiosemicarbazine to give desired compounds 5a-p in very good yields. Among all sixteen compounds screened for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (MTB), two compounds (E)-2-((2-butyl-4-chloro-1-(3-(4-(o-tolyl) piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methylene)hydrazinecarbothioamide 5e and (E)-2-((2-butyl-4-chloro-1-(3-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl)propyl)-1H-imidazol-5-yl)methylene) hydrazine carbothioamide 5f were found to be the most potent antitubercular agents (MIC: 3.13 μg/mL) with low toxicity profile. PMID:25451998

  16. A new efficient synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik; Hansen, Jon S.; Pittelkow, Michael;

    2008-01-01

    Alkyl and aryl amines are converted smoothly to the corresponding isothiocyanates via the dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) and 1-3 mol% of DMAP or DABCO as catalyst. As most of the byproducts are volatile, the work-up involves simple evaporation...

  17. 75 FR 44184 - Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al.; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al..., etofenprox, fenbutatin-oxide, fosthiazate, propetamphos, and tebufenozide; the fungicides aluminum tris(O... for aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate) on pineapple fodder and forage because they are not...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ, a Halotolerant Di-n-Butyl-Phthalate-Degrading Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Decai; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Xinxin; Kong, Xiao; Liu, Huijun; Wang, Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Sphingobium yanoikuyae TJ is a halotolerant di-n-butyl-phthalate-degrading bacterium, isolated from the Haihe estuary in Bohai Bay, Tianjin, China. Here, we report the 5.1-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Sphingobium spp. and the mechanism of phthalate ester degradation in the estuary. PMID:27313307

  19. Di-tert-butyl 1-[2-hydroxy-3-(methylsulfanylpropyl]hydrazine-1,2-dicarboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Bai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H28N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of 2-[(methylsulfanylmethyl]oxirane with di-tert-butyl oxalate in hydrazine hydrate. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction.

  20. A new steroidal compound (β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl isolated from Caesalpinia gilliesii flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mohamed Osman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of total extracts from leaves, flowers and pods of Caesalpinia gilliesii (Fabaceae, Caesalpinoideae. In addition, a detailed phytochemical investigation of flower extracts was carried out to isolate and elucidate the structures of the bioactive compounds. Flower extract was the most cytotoxic against MCF7 and HepG2 cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 and 15.6 µg/mL, respectively. A new β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was isolated from dichloromethane fraction of flowers together with another known sterol (daucosterol, and two flavonoids (isorhamnetin and isorhamnetin 3-O-rhamnoside. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl was the most active compound against both HepG2 and MCF7 cells with IC50 values of 13.1 and 14.4 µg/mL, respectively. Isorhamnetin possesses a moderate antioxidant activity with an IC50 value 370 µg/mL as determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay.Industrial relevance. β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl and the other phytosterols are responsible for the cytotoxicity of the extracts which would correlate with the known abortifacient, antimalarial and anthelmintic properties, which can provide a cheap alternative drug.Keywords. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant; Caesalpinia gilliesii; β-sitosterol-3-O-butyl; daucosterol; isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside

  1. Voltammetric determination of butylated hydroxyanisol in biodiesel, mineral and synthetic oils using gold electrode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomášková, M.; Chýlková, J.; Jehlička, V.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Šelešovská, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2013 (2013), s. 155-172. ISSN 1211-5541 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : voltammetry * butylated hydroxyanisol * gold electrode Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Simultaneous clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C. van den; Heeres, A.S.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20gL -1. To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to

  3. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David

    2011-01-01

    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  4. Polypyrrole-coated styrene-butyl acrylate copolymer composite particles with tunable conductivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Liyan; HOU Wenbo; LIU Zhengping; ZHANG Qingyue

    2005-01-01

    A series of near or monodisperse styrene-butyl acrylate (SBA) copolymer latex particles with different butyl acrylate contents were coated with polypyrrole. The structure of the SBA/PPy composites was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and standard four-probe method. The core-shell morphology of the SBA/PPy composite particles was confirmed. The result of DSC showed that Tg of the composite is mainly determined by the core component. The effects of the concentration of polypyrrole, the butyl acrylate content in SBA copolymer and the nature of the counter-anion on the electrical conductivity of compression-moulded samples were studied. It was first found that the electrical conductivity of the samples can be tuned by varying the butyl acrylate content in SBA copolymer and the highest conductivity of the core-shell composite was 0.17 S·cm-1.

  5. INFLUENCE OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) ON LAKE WATER ALGAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as an octane booster in gasoline in the United States since the 1970s. MTBE use increased greatly in the 1990s with the implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The MTBE enhanced a more complete combustion of fuel hydroc...

  6. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unprotected peptides.

  7. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unpro

  8. (R-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R-tert-butylsulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butanesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Bin Fan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  9. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianpaolo Carrafiello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient.

  10. A thermal lensing study of a photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, K.; Hasegawa, A.; Ueda, M.; Itoh, M.

    1981-11-01

    A photolysis of di- t-butyl peroxide (BOOB) was studied by using a thermal lensing technique. This technique is found to be applicable to the determination Of the rate Constants of the decay of t-butoxy radical (BO ) and the hydrogen abstraction reaction.

  11. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  12. Determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in soft drinks by stir-bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacho, Juan Ignacio; Campillo, Natalia; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) were pre-concentrated by stir-bar sorptive extraction and thermally desorbed (SBSE-TD) before analysis by GC-MS. Several parameters affecting the derivatisation step and both SBSE extraction and thermal desorption were carefully optimised. When the analyses of BHA and TBHQ in their acetylated, silylated and underivatised forms were compared, the best results were obtained when the in-situ derivatisation procedure with acetic anhydride was employed. Quantification was carried out using carvacrol as the internal standard, providing quantification limits of between 0.11 and 0.15 ng ml(-1), depending on the compound. Recovery assays for samples spiked at two concentration levels, 1 and 5 ng ml(-1), provided recoveries in the 81-117% range. The proposed method was applied in the analysis canned soft drinks and the analytes were found in five of the 10 samples analysed. PMID:25622305

  13. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of 10-undecenoic acid-based epithio derivatives as multifunctional additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geethanjali, Gorla; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Sammaiah, Arukali; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-11-26

    Novel epithio compounds from alkyl epoxy undecanoates (n-alkyl, C1, C4, and C6; isoalkyl, C3, C4, and C8) were synthesized using an ammonium thiocyanate in ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/H2O (2:1) solvent system in 85-90% yields by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The synthesized products were characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography, and GC mass spectral (GC-MS) analyses and evaluated for their antioxidant, extreme pressure (EP), and antiwear (AW) properties in three different base oils, namely, epoxy jatropha fatty acid n-butyl esters (EJB), di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS), and mineral oil (S-105). Among the synthesized products, n-butyl epithio undecanoate exhibited superior antioxidant property (229.2 °C) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 193.8 °C) in base oil DOS and comparable performance in EJB and S-105 base oils. All of the epithio derivatives exhibited significantly enhanced weld point for the base oils EJB and DOS at 2 wt % level and displayed moderate enhancement in S-105 base oil. Methyl epithio undecanoate at 0.6% concentration exhibited considerable improvement in the wear scar of DOS base oil. The synthesized epithio derivatives have potential as multifunctional additives in lubricant formulations. PMID:25369173

  14. Gas chromatographic determination of Di-n-butyl phosphate in radioactive lean organic solvent of FBTR carbide fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work Di-n- butyl phosphate (DBP) a degraded product of Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) formed by acid hydrolysis and radiolysis in the PUREX process was analyzed. Lean organic streams of different fuel burn-up FBTR carbide fuel reprocessing solution was determined by standard Gas Chromatographic technique. The method involves the conversion of non-volatile Di-n-butyl phosphate into volatile and stable derivatives by the action of diazomethane and then determined by Gas Chromatograph (GC). A calibration graph was made for DBP concentration range of 200-2000 ppm with correlation coefficient of 0.99587 and RSD 1.2 %. (author)

  15. Cyhalofop-butyl has the potential to induce developmental toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis in early life stage of zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyhalofop-butyl is a selective herbicide widely employed in paddy field, which can transfer into aquatic environments. However, details of the environmental risk and aquatic toxicity of cyhalofop-butyl have not been fully investigated. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to a range of cyhalofop-butyl until 120 hour post-fertilization (hpf) to assess embryonic toxicity of the chemical. Our results demonstrated that cyhalofop-butyl was highly toxic to zebrafish embryos, with concentration-dependent negative effects in embryonic development. In addition, exposure to cyhalofop-butyl resulted in significant increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell apoptosis in heart area. The mRNA levels of the genes related to oxidative stress and apoptosis were also altered significantly after cyhalofop-butyl exposure. Moreover, the activity of capspase-9 and caspase-3 were significantly increased. Therefore, we speculated that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis should be responsible for abnormal development during embryogenesis after cyhalofop-butyl exposure. - Highlights: • Cyhalofop-butyl can induce developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. • Cyhalofop-butyl can induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos. • Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis might be responsible for abnormal development. - Cyhalofop-butyl could induce negative effects in embryonic development. The cyhalofop-butyl – induced developmental toxicity could be explained by oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

  16. 2,4-Di-tert-butyl-6-[1-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenylethyl]phenyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Wu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C37H52O4S, was obtained by the reaction of 6,6′-(ethane-1,1-diylbis(2,4-di-tert-butylphenol and 4-methylbenzene-1-sulfonyl chloride. The molecular conformation is stabilized by an intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond. Two of the tert-butyl groups are disordered over two sets of sites with occupancies 0.530 (15/0.470 (15 and 0.615 (11/0.385 (11.

  17. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analyses, as well as an allusion to a possible protective action of the vegetable oils, based on the thermal oxidation of canola vegetable oil in the laboratory under constant heating at 180 ºC/8 hours for 10 days. The studied antioxidants were: ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHT (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHA (2, 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, TBHQ (tertiary butyl hydroquinone, PG (propyl gallate - described as antioxidants by ANVISA and the FDA; and also the phytic acid antioxidant and the SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate additive, which is used in the food industry, in order to test its behavior as an antioxidant in vegetable oil. The following antioxidants: citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sorbic acid decompose at temperatures below 180 ºC, and therefore, have little protective action in vegetable oils undergoing frying processes. The antioxidants below: phytic acid, ascorbic acid and PG, are the most resistant and begin their decomposition processes at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. The thermal analytical techniques have also shown that the SAIB antioxidant is the most resistant to oxidative action, and it can be a useful choice in the thermal decomposition prevention of edible oils, improving stability regarding oxidative processes.

  18. Extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide by Pleurotus eryngii SI-02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Sun

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction parameters for Pleurotus eryngii SI-02 exopolysaccharide (EPS produced during submerged culture were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. The optimum conditions for EPS extraction were predicted to be, precipitation time 20.24 h, ethanol concentration 89.62% and pH 8.17, and EPS production was estimated at 7.27 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 7.21 g/L. The in vitro antioxidant results of the EPS showed that the inhibition effects of EPS at a dosage of 400 mg/L on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals were 59.63 ± 3.72%, 38.69 ± 2.59%, and 66.36 ± 4.42%, respectively, which were 12.74 ± 1.03%, 8.01 ± 0.56%, and 12.19 ± 1.05% higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, respectively. The reducing power of EPS of P. eryngii SI-02 was 0.98 ± 0.05, 60.66 ± 5.14% higher than that of BHT. The results provide a reference for large-scale production of EPS by P. eryngii SI-02 in industrial fermentation and the EPS can be used as a potential antioxidant which enhances adaptive immune responses.

  19. Effect of dietary ethanol extracts of mango (Mangifera indica L.) on lipid oxidation and the color of chicken meat during frozen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ednardo Rodrigues; da Silva Borges, Ângela; Pereira, Ana Lúcia Fernandes; Abreu, Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves; Trevisan, Maria Teresa Salles; Watanabe, Pedro Henrique

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary effect of mango extracts on lipid stability and the coloring of broiler chicken breast meat during frozen storage. The treatments consisted of broiler chicken diet without antioxidants (control) and diets containing antioxidants: 200 ppm of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), 200 ppm of mango peel extract (MPE), 400 ppm of MPE, 200 ppm of mango seed extract (MSE), and 400 ppm of MSE. The broiler breasts were stored for 90 days and analysis of lipid oxidation and color was performed every 30 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased during storage and at 90 days, but the 400 ppm MSE treatment yielded lower values, indicating greater antioxidant activity. During storage, the lightness values decreased and the redness increased. Additions of 200 ppm BHT and 400 ppm MPE increased yellowness at 60 days of storage. Thus, mango peel and seed extracts added to broiler chicken diets reduce lipid oxidation and maintain color in breast meat during frozen storage, with mango seed extract at 400 ppm being the most effective. PMID:26475070

  20. The Role of Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase in Models of Lung Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Rymaszewski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation plays a key tumor-promoting role in lung cancer. Our previous studies in mice demonstrated that neutrophils are critical mediators of tumor promotion in methylcholanthrene (MCA-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated the role of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in this inflammation promoted model. Increased levels of MPO protein and activity were present in the lungs of mice administered BHT. Treatment of mice with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC, a novel tripeptide inhibitor of MPO, during the inflammatory stage reduced tumor burden. In a separate tumor model, KYC treatment of a Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC tumor graft in mice had no effect on tumor growth, however, mice genetically deficient in MPO had significantly reduced LLC tumor growth. Our observations suggest that MPO catalytic activity is critical during the early stages of tumor development. However, during the later stages of tumor progression, MPO expression independent of catalytic activity appears to be required. Our studies advocate for the use of MPO inhibitors in a lung cancer prevention setting.

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 1,5-benzothiazepin-4(5H-ones as potent antiangiogenic and antioxidant agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channegowda V. Deepu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel 1,5-benzothiazepin-4-(5H-one derivatives (8a-8g have been synthesized by intramolecular cyclization of 6 using propyl phosphonic anhydride (T3P as a cyclodehydrating agent. The anti-angiogenic and anti-oxidant properties of the new derivatives were then evaluated. Compounds 8b, 8d, 8e, 8f and 8g exhibited very good inhibition of capillary proliferation, thus proving their anti-angiogenic properties. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated using diphenyl picryl hydrazine (DPPH, OH-, metal ion-chelating and NO (nitric oxide assays, and the results compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, a well known anti-oxidant. Compounds 8a-8g showed excellent free-radical scavenging activities in the metal ion-chelating assay, and compounds 8f and 8g showed nitric oxide radical scavenging properties at a concentration of 20-100 µg/mL, and are thus more potent than BHT.

  2. Effect of Garlic (Allium Sativum on Duck Sausage Quality during Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding natural antioxidant (garlic, fresh or powdered or a synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene/ BHT on the quality of duck sausage during 21 d of refrigerated storage. Proximate composition, pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, Aerobic plate counts (APC, and mold count were measured. Generally, all sample types showed decreased moisture content and pH and increased protein and fat contents over the course of the refrigerated storage period. While TBA values and APCs increased during the experimental period for all sample types, the increases were lower in the samples with garlic added due to the antioxidant effect of garlic. TBA values of duck sausage with fresh garlic or garlic powder added were higher than that of the control throughout the storage period. Fresh garlic and garlic powder were more effective in preventing microbial growth than without adding synthetic antioxidant but addition of BHT was slightly better. Overall, the addition of 50 g of fresh garlic per kg sausage was the best at reducing the TBA value among the six levels of garlic tested.

  3. The antioxidant properties of dried extracts from the spent espresso coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Milica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of coffee waste utilization is based on the fact that it contains a large amount of biologically valuable components. Preparation of espresso coffee produces substantial quantities of polyphenolic acids that have a significant antioxidant activity. In this work, the contents of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from spent espresso coffee were analyzed using different solvent systems. The 70% solution of methanol, and 70% solution of ethanol and distilled water were used as solvents. The total amounts of polyphenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH inhibition (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power. Both methods confirmed that the order of antioxidant activity of obtained dried extracts is as follows: water extract < methanol extract < ethanol extract, which was in accordance with their polyphenols content. Mild prooxidant activity was observed in the concentration of 200 μg/ml while investigating the DPPH inhibition. Prooxidant activity is a characteristic of some polypenolic acids that is considered to be one of the mechanisms of anticancer activity. The inhibition of DPPH radical, expressed by IC50 values, was compared with the results of the commercial antioxidants such are ascorbic acid and BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene. Comparing the IC50 values of ascorbic acid and BHT with the IC50 values of tested extracts it can be concluded that waste coffee extracts could be a good source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Pressurized liquid extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for confirming the photo-induced generation of dioxin-like derivatives and other cosmetic preservative photoproducts on artificial skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2016-04-01

    The stability and photochemical transformations of cosmetic preservatives in topical applications exposed to UV-light is a serious but poorly understood problem. In this study, a high throughput extraction and selective method based on pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was validated and applied to investigate the photochemical transformation of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), as well as the antimicrobials triclosan (TCS) and phenyl benzoate (PhBz) in an artificial skin model. Two sets of photodegradation experiments were performed: (i) UV-Irradiation (8W, 254nm) of artificial skin directly spiked with the target preservatives, and (ii) UV-irradiation of artificial skin after the application of a cosmetic cream fortified with the target compounds. After irradiation, PLE was used to isolate the target preservatives and their transformation products. The follow-up of the photodegradation kinetics of the parent preservatives, the identification of the arising by-products, and the monitorization of their kinetic profiles was performed by GC-MS. The photochemical transformation of triclosan into 2,8-dichloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) and other dioxin-like photoproducts has been confirmed in this work. Furthermore, seven BHT photoproducts, and three benzophenones as PhBz by-products, have been also identified. These findings reveal the first evidences of cosmetic ingredients phototransformation into unwanted photoproducts on an artificial skin model. PMID:26948762

  5. Enhancing Oxidative Stability of Sunflower Oil during Convective and Microwave Heating Using Grape Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Atena Poiana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of grape seed extract (GSE compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on retarding lipid oxidation of sunflower oil subjected to convection and microwave heating up to 240 min under simulated frying conditions. The progress of lipid oxidation was assessed in terms of peroxide value (PV, p-anisidine value (p-AV, conjugated dienes and trienes (CD, CT, inhibition of oil oxidation (IO and TOTOX value. In addition, total phenolic content (TP was evaluated in samples before and after heating in order to assess the changes in these compounds relative to the extent of lipid oxidation. The results of this study highlight that GSE showed a significantly inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation during both treatments, although to a different extent. This ability was dose-dependent; therefore, the extent of lipid oxidation was inversely related to GSE level. Convective heating, respective microwave exposure for 240 min of samples supplemented by GSE to a level of 1000 ppm, resulted in significant decreases of investigated indices relative to the control values as follows: PV (48%; 30%, p-AV (29%; 40%, CD (45%; 30%, CT (41%; 36%, TOTOX (35%; 37%. GSE to a level of 600–800 ppm inhibited the lipid oxidation in a similar manner to BHT. These results suggested that GSE can be used as a potential natural extract for improving oxidative stability of sunflower oil during thermal applications.

  6. Antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from quixabeira (Sideroxylon obtusifolium fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. FIGUEIREDO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fruits of Sideroxylon obtusifolium T.D. Penn. are small berries which have dark purple skin color at maturity due the anthocyanins presence. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from mature fruits which were obtained at a semi-arid region of Paraiba/BR. In addition, the total anthocyanins content was measured by the pH differential method. The anthocyanins were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE using C18 Sep-Pak cartridges and submitted to antioxidant activity determined by scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·. The butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT was the positive control and the results were expressed as DPPH· scavenging activity (%. Anthocyanins content were higher in the husks (236.15 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside 100g-1 fw than in the pulp (30.49 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside 100g-1 fw. The results showed that the potential free radical scavenging grew with the increase of concentration used and the reaction time. The ability of the anthocyanins in scavenging the free radical was statistically greater than the BHT one. The anthocyanins which were present in this fruit may supply substantial dietary source of antioxidant that may promote health and produce disease prevention effects or that could be applied in food industry as a good source of natural pigments

  7. Inhibition of Oxidation of Aqueous Emulsions of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Fish Oil by Phloretin and Phloridzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsana Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of two apple dihydrochalcones, namely phloretin and phloridzin, were evaluated and compared with those of α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. The effects were studied in an oil-in-water emulsion system containing methyl linolenate (ML, methyl eicosapentaenoate (MEPA, and methyl docosahexaenoate (MDHA in which oxidation was initiated by the peroxyl radical generator 2,2-azobis(2-amidinopropane dihydrochloride (AAPH and in fish oil where oxidation was initiated thermally. In the emulsion system, phloretin (1 and 5 mM completely inhibited the oxidation of ML tested as evidenced by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS assay. Under the same conditions, phloridzin was less effective than phloretin, but still more effective than α-tocopherol. Both phloretin and phloridzin molecules had a marginal inhibitory effect against oxidation of fish oil induced by heating at 70 °C for 3 hours, when compared to BHT. These results indicate that phloretin and phloridzin have the potential to suppress lipid oxidation in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA containing foods.

  8. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition. PMID:26028729

  9. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G. Gallego

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products.

  10. The Role of Neutrophil Myeloperoxidase in Models of Lung Tumor Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rymaszewski, Amy L.; Tate, Everett; Yimbesalu, Joannes P. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and MCW Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Gelman, Andrew E. [Department of Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Jarzembowski, Jason A. [Department of Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Zhang, Hao; Pritchard, Kirkwood A. Jr. [Department of Surgery and MCW Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States); Vikis, Haris G., E-mail: hvikis@mcw.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and MCW Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    Chronic inflammation plays a key tumor-promoting role in lung cancer. Our previous studies in mice demonstrated that neutrophils are critical mediators of tumor promotion in methylcholanthrene (MCA)-initiated, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)-promoted lung carcinogenesis. In the present study we investigated the role of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in this inflammation promoted model. Increased levels of MPO protein and activity were present in the lungs of mice administered BHT. Treatment of mice with N-acetyl lysyltyrosylcysteine amide (KYC), a novel tripeptide inhibitor of MPO, during the inflammatory stage reduced tumor burden. In a separate tumor model, KYC treatment of a Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumor graft in mice had no effect on tumor growth, however, mice genetically deficient in MPO had significantly reduced LLC tumor growth. Our observations suggest that MPO catalytic activity is critical during the early stages of tumor development. However, during the later stages of tumor progression, MPO expression independent of catalytic activity appears to be required. Our studies advocate for the use of MPO inhibitors in a lung cancer prevention setting.

  11. Extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide by Pleurotus eryngii SI-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyi; Hao, Long; Ma, Hua; Li, Tong; Zheng, Lan; Ma, Zhao; Zhai, Guoyin; Wang, Liqin; Gao, Shanglong; Liu, Xiaonan; Jia, Mengshi; Jia, Le

    2013-12-01

    The extraction parameters for Pleurotus eryngii SI-02 exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced during submerged culture were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum conditions for EPS extraction were predicted to be, precipitation time 20.24 h, ethanol concentration 89.62% and pH 8.17, and EPS production was estimated at 7.27 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 7.21 g/L. The in vitro antioxidant results of the EPS showed that the inhibition effects of EPS at a dosage of 400 mg/L on hydroxyl, superoxide anion and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals were 59.63 ± 3.72%, 38.69 ± 2.59%, and 66.36 ± 4.42%, respectively, which were 12.74 ± 1.03%, 8.01 ± 0.56%, and 12.19 ± 1.05% higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), respectively. The reducing power of EPS of P. eryngii SI-02 was 0.98 ± 0.05, 60.66 ± 5.14% higher than that of BHT. The results provide a reference for large-scale production of EPS by P. eryngii SI-02 in industrial fermentation and the EPS can be used as a potential antioxidant which enhances adaptive immune responses. PMID:24688496

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of lipophilic rutin and vanillyl esters from fish byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatia, Betty; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Mattiasson, Bo; Mulaa, Francis; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2011-07-13

    Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of lipophilic phenolic antioxidants was carried out with a concentrate of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), recovered from oil extracted from salmon ( Salmon salar ) byproduct. Vanillyl alcohol and rutin were selected for the esterification reaction, and obtained esters yields were 60 and 30%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of the esters were compared with those of commercial butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol using DPPH radical scavenging and thiobarbituric acid assays. In the DPPH assay, rutin esters showed better activity than vanillyl esters, and on the contrary in lipophilic medium, vanillyl esters were found to be superior to rutin esters. In bulk oil system, the antioxidant activities of rutin and vanillyl derivatives were lower than that of BHT and α-tocopherol, but in emulsion, they showed better activity than α-tocopherol. By attaching to natural phenolics, the PUFAs are protected against oxidation, and PUFA improves the hydrophobicity of the phenolic, which could enhance its function in lipid systems. PMID:21630661

  13. Stabilisation of phytosterols by natural and synthetic antioxidants in high temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, Dominik; Korczak, Józef; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Hęś, Marzanna; Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna

    2015-04-15

    The aim of the study was to assess the potential applicability of natural antioxidants in the stabilisation of phytosterols. A mixture of β-sitosterol and campesterol was incorporated into triacylglycerols (TAGs). The following antioxidants were added to the prepared matrix: green tea extract, rosemary extract, a mix of tocopherols from rapeseed oil, a mix of synthetic tocopherols, phenolic compounds extracted from rapeseed meal, sinapic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Samples were heated at a temperature of 180 °C for 4 h. After the completion of heating, the losses of phytosterols were analysed, as well as the contents of β-sitosterol and campesterol oxidation products. The total content of phytosterol oxidation products in samples ranged from 96.69 to 268.35 μg/g of oil. The effectiveness of antioxidants decreased in the following order: phenolic compounds from rapeseed meal>rosemary extract>mix of tocopherols from rapeseed oil>mix of synthetic tocopherols>green tea extract>sinapic acid>BHT. PMID:25466113

  14. Effects of low energy radiations on the stability of red palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red palm oil (R-PO) is a new generation of cooking oil in which the carotenes are retained in the refined oil. In this study, the oxidative effects of low energy radiations (sunlight and ultra-violet radiation) on RPO were investigated. The red palm oil was exposed to sunlight and ultra-violet (UV) radiation for various time intervals. The concentrations of carotene, peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene value (CD) and free fatty acid (FFA) content were measured. The irradiation was also performed in the presence of antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Results showed that carotene contents were significantly reduced as the irradiation doses increase. The destruction of carotenes were 23.9 % and 24.1 % respectively under sunlight and UV radiation after 5 hours exposure. Measurements of PV, CD and FFA have indicated that both UV and sunlight radiations caused deterioration of red palm oil. In the presence of antioxidant, the extent of deterioration of RPO and the destruction of carotene were suppressed. This study has shown that the natural antioxidant (carotenes and tocopherols) did not give complete protection to RPO against oxidative deterioration induced by low energy radiations. Additional antioxidant (BHT) was needed to suppress the oxidative deterioration of RPO. (Author)

  15. Antioxidant Capacity and Metal Content of Physalis Peruviana L. Fruit Sold in Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Eken

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The dietary intake of medicinal food with antioxidant activity and required amounts of trace elements is important to pursue good healthy life. In our study, we aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity and metal content of goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L. fruit sold in markets in Kayseri. Material and Method: The antioxidant capacity of P. peruviana fruit was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The DPPH radical scavenger capacity of the methanol extract of fruit was compared with known antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT as references. The metal content of P. peruviana fruit was measured by using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Results: The fruit of P. peruviana was found to possess DPPH free radical scavenging activity but the antioxidant capacity was lower than the standard substances. Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 values of P. peruviana, ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and BHT were determined as 32 mg/ml, 3.8 mg/ml, 3.51 mg/ml, and 1.21 mg/ml, respectively. As a result of the analysis by AAS, it was observed that P. peruviana fruit contented plentiful trace elements and the content of heavy metal was small amount or not detected. Discussion: These observations suggest that the fruit of P. peruviana has a potential source of antioxidant and trace elements of natural origin.

  16. Encapsulation of Vitamin A palmitate for animal supplementation: Formulation, manufacturing and stability implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Marcello; Calogerà, Giacomo; Passerini, Nadia; Rodriguez, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Two manufacturing methods and numerous formulative approaches have been evaluated to obtain a stable oral pharmaceutical form of Vitamin A palmitate (VAP), a substance very sensitive to light, temperature, humidity and metal ions. The best results were obtained by formulating VAP, stabilized with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in double layer microcapsules constituted by a core of chitosan, Tween 20, CaCl(2) and EDTA surrounded by a first chitosan-alginate membrane and an outer membrane of calcium-alginate. This formulation design enabled the production of beads with high drug loading (42% w/w) and high encapsulation efficiency (94%). The stability of VAP-loaded microcapsules was assessed according to EMEA guidelines. This formulation design showed the best performance in terms of VAP recovery (t(50%) > 360 days) after 1 year of storage at room conditions. This is a very important result considering the poor shelf-life (45 days) of pure VAP stabilized with BHT stored at the same conditions. PMID:19538031

  17. Caesalpinia decapetala Extracts as Inhibitors of Lipid Oxidation in Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Maria G; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco J; Almajano, María P

    2015-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) extracts on lipid oxidation in ground beef patties. Plant extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were individually added to patties at both 0.1% and 0.5% (w/w) concentrations. We assessed the antioxidant efficacy of CD by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and evaluated their potential as natural antioxidants for meat preservation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values, hexanal content, fatty acid composition and color parameters. These were tested periodically during 11 days of refrigerated storage. TBARS levels were significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the samples containing plant extracts or BHT than in the non-treated control. In addition, the beef patties formulated with the selected plant extracts showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better color stability than those without antioxidants. These results indicate that edible plant extracts are promising sources of natural antioxidants and can potentially be used as functional preservatives in meat products. PMID:26263964

  18. Isothermal (vapor + liquid) equilibria and excess enthalpy data of {1-hexene + methyl butyl ether (MBE)} and {1-hexene + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)} binary systems at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Vapor pressures of (1-hexene + methyl butyl ether) or (1-hexene + methyl tert-butyl ether) are reported between (263 and 363) K. ► The two mixtures exhibit positive GE. ► Additionally, molar excess enthalpies, HE, for the two binary systems have been measured at 303.15. - Abstract: The vapor pressures of {1-hexene + methyl butyl ether (MBE)} and {1-hexene + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)} binary mixtures and of the three pure components were measured by means of a static device at temperatures between (263 and 333) K. The data were correlated with the Antoine equation. From these data, excess Gibbs functions were calculated for several constant temperatures and fitted to a third-order Redlich–Kister equation using the Barker’s method. Additionally, molar excess enthalpies, HE, for the two binary systems have been measured at 303.15 K using an isothermal flow calorimeter.

  19. Portal Hypertension Secondary to Spontaneous Arterio-Portal Venous Fistulas: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a 73-year-old man with recurrent variceal bleeding due to portal hypertension caused by multiple intrahepatic arterio-portal venous fistulas, which were successfully occluded by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and micro-coils

  20. Transcatheter Embolization of a Coronary Fistula Originating from the Left Anterior Descending Artery by Using N-Butyl 2-Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, we describe a successful percutaneous transcatheter n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate embolization of a coronary fistula originating from the left anterior descending artery in an adolescent with unexpected recurrent attacks of myocardial ischemia

  1. Studies on acrylated epoxydised triglyceride resin-co-butyl methacrylate towards the development of biodegradable pressure sensitive adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, S Begila; Sathiyalekshmi, K; Gnana Raj, G Allen

    2009-12-01

    The potential chemical utility of Soya bean oil for the preparation of novel biodegradable polymeric pressure sensitive adhesive has been investigated. Epoxy resin was prepared through in situ epoxidation of Soya bean oil under controlled reaction conditions. Acrylated epoxidised triglyceride resin (AET resin) and copolymer of AET resin with butyl methacrylate were prepared and evaluated. Higher the concentration of butyl methacrylate higher is the degree of copolymerization of AET resin with butyl methacrylate. An optimum concentration of AET resin with butyl methacrylate (100 : 0.40) yields favourable shear holding time and peel strength to qualify as pressure sensitive adhesive. The candidate PSA formulation is biodegradable with antimicrobial activity against gram positive S. aureus ATCC 25923. PMID:18584126

  2. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  3. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping

    2016-02-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  4. Changes in physical properties and molecular structure of butyl rubber during γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butyl rubber samples have been aged by γ-irradiation at 250C in air. The change in molecular structure due to chain scission and formation of oxygenated groups also change the number-average molecular weight, tensile strength and density of butyl rubber. The rubber predominantly undergoes chain scission upon γ-irradiation up to a dose of 50 Mrad, but there is also substantial chain crosslinking above 50 Mrad. The yield G(x) has been found, which provides an insight into the mechanism of the radiolytic degradation. Hydroperoxide is the major product and unsaturation is incorporated in the polymer back bone. The change in molecular structure due to recombination and chain scission are followed by the formation of a more ordered structure and hence an increase in density. (author)

  5. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C

    2016-09-20

    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. PMID:27261731

  6. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  7. Crystal structure of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium dicarba-7,8-nido-undecaborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Klemes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C9H17N2+·C2H12B9−, the carborane cage has a bridging B—H—B bond on the open B3C2 face. The butyl side chain of the cation adopts an extended conformation [C—C—C—C = 179.6 (1°]. In the crystal, the imidazolium ring is almost coplanar with the open face of the carborane anion. The cations stack in the [010] direction and the dihedral angle between the imidazolium rings of adjacent cations is 68.45 (6°. The butyl chains extend into the space between carborane anions.

  8. Study on adsorption and desorption properties of the starch grafted p-tert-butyl-calix[n]arene for butyl Rhodamine B solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorbents of starch grafted p-tert-butyl-calix[4,6,8]arene-SGCn (SGC4, SGC6, SGC8) are prepared. The products are characterized by FTIR, elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope. Static adsorption behavior is studied by using SGC8 as adsorbent, butyl Rhodamine B (BRB) solution as simulation dye wastewater. The adsorption of BRB onto SGC8 fits the second order kinetic model and the apparent adsorption rate constant is 0.002 g mg-1 min-1 at 25 deg. C. The equilibrium adsorption data are interpreted using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of BRB onto SGC8 is better represented by the Langmuir equation. The thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption reaction are calculated through van't Hoff analysis. The adsorbent may be easily regenerated by using ethanol solution as desorption agent to extract dye from SGC8. The rate of desorption of BRB is dependent on the concentration of ethanol and the temperature. SGC8 exhibits excellent adsorption and desorption properties toward dye molecule. The new-style adsorbent of SGC8 is regarded as a potential adsorbent to deal with dye or organic wastewater.

  9. Combined toxicities of methyl tert-butyl ether and its metabolite tert-butyl alcohol on earthworms via different exposure routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo-Mi; Yoon, Youngdae; An, Youn-Joo

    2015-06-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) are among the major soil contaminants that threaten the health of soil ecosystems. Many MTBE-contaminated sites accumulate TBA, because TBA is the intermediate of MTBE biodegradation. To access the risk of MTBE and TBA in soil, we investigated the combined toxicities of MTBE and TBA using two earthworm species, Perionyx excavatus and Eisenia andrei, as well as the toxic effects via different exposure routes. The combined toxicity showed weak antagonistic effects (LC50mix values were slightly greater than 1.0), and sensitivity toward same pollutants differed in the two earthworm species. Moreover, the toxicity of MTBE and TBA was also affected by the exposure route; both filter paper and artificial soil tests showed that dermal-only exposure to MTBE had an even greater toxic effect than combined dermal and oral exposure. Thus, we suggest that diverse environmental factors including organic materials, the physicochemical properties of the contact media, and the exposure routes of the organism, should be taken into consideration when assessing the effects of pollutants on organisms in diverse environmental systems. PMID:25706436

  10. Tri-n-butyl phosphate - the universal solvent for the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-n-butyl phosphates (TBP) is now Widely used in the processes of solvent extraction, especially in those, used in nuclear fuel cycle. Problems, related with actinide separation and purification, can be solved easily by accurate sampling of diluent, concentration and purification degree of a solvent, aqueous phase acidity and temperature. Physical and chemical properties of TBP, mechanism of actinide solvent extraction, TBP hydrolysis and radiolysis are considered

  11. 1-[(E-2-(5-tert-Butyl-2-hydroxyphenyldiazen-1-yl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba Bougueria

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The non-H atoms of the title compound, C20H20N2O2, is located on a mirror plane except two methyl groups of the tert-butyl group. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the hydroxy and diazenyl groups. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains running along the a-axis direction.

  12. The relationship between crystal structure and NMR relaxation in molecular solids with tert-butyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rheingold, Arnold L.; DiPasquale, Antonio G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0358 (United States); Beckmann, Peter A. [Department of Physics, Bryn Mawr College, 101 North Merion Avenue, Bryn Mawr, PA 19010-2899 (United States)], E-mail: pbeckman@brynmawr.edu

    2008-04-03

    We correlate an X-ray determination of the molecular and crystal structures of 2-tert-butylanthracene and 2-tert-butylanthraquinone reported here with the previously reported dynamical nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the motions of the tert-butyl groups and their resident methyl groups in the solid state [P.A. Beckmann, K.S. Burbank, M.M.W. Lau, J.N. Ree, T.L. Weber, Chem. Phys. 290 (2003) 241].

  13. The relationship between crystal structure and NMR relaxation in molecular solids with tert-butyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We correlate an X-ray determination of the molecular and crystal structures of 2-tert-butylanthracene and 2-tert-butylanthraquinone reported here with the previously reported dynamical nuclear magnetic resonance determination of the motions of the tert-butyl groups and their resident methyl groups in the solid state [P.A. Beckmann, K.S. Burbank, M.M.W. Lau, J.N. Ree, T.L. Weber, Chem. Phys. 290 (2003) 241

  14. Transdermal Uptake of Diethyl Phthalate and Di(n-butyl) Phthalate Directly from Air: Experimental Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of phthalate esters. Objectives This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods In a series of experiments, six h...

  15. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Congkui Tian; Jinren Ni; Fang Chang; Sitong Liu; Nan Xu; Weiling Sun; Yuan Xie; Yongzhao Guo; Yanrong Ma; Zhenxing Yang; Chenyuan Dang; Yuefei Huang; Zhexian Tian; Yiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid path...

  16. Biodegradation of di-n-Butyl Phthalate by Achromobacter sp. Isolated from Rural Domestic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Decai Jin; Xiao Kong; Yujie Li; Zhihui Bai; Guoqiang Zhuang; Xuliang Zhuang; Ye Deng

    2015-01-01

    A bacterial strain W-1, isolated from rural domestic wastewater, can utilize the environmental hormone di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as the sole carbon and energy source. The isolated bacterium species was confirmed to belong to the genus Achromobacter based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The results of substrate utilization tests showed that the strain W-1 could utilize other common phthalates and phenol. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the optimal conditions for D...

  17. Cerebral and splenic infarctions after injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in esophageal variceal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Dae-Seong; Chung, Cho-Yun; Park, Hyung-Chul; Kim, Jong-Sun; Cho, Sung-Bum; Lee, Wan-Sik; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Joo, Young-Eun

    2013-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is the most serious complication of portal hypertension, and it accounts for approximately one fifth to one third of all deaths in liver cirrhosis patients. Currently, endoscopic treatment remains the predominant method for the prevention and treatment of variceal bleeding. Endoscopic treatments include band ligation and injection sclerotherapy. Injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate has been successfully used to treat variceal bleeding. Although injection scle...

  18. n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Synthesis. A New Quality Step Using Microwaves

    OpenAIRE

    Yaquelin Ramos Carriles; Rubén Álvarez Brito; Ricardo Martínez Sánchez; Elayma Sánchez Acevedo; Paola Rodríguez Domínguez; Wolf-Dieter Mueller

    2014-01-01

    Alkyl cyanoacrylates are interesting products for use in industry because of their properties enabling them to stick together a wide range of substrates. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is one of the most successfully used tissue adhesives in the field of medicine because it exhibits bacteriostatic and haemostatic characteristics, in addition to its adhesive properties. At present, its synthesis is performed with good yields via Knoevenagel condensation using conventional sources of heating, but this r...

  19. Bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistula with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl cyanoacrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Rakesh K.; Arun Madan; P K Bhardwaj; Kiran Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Context: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the pleural space and bronchial tree. Materials and Methods: A series of 9 cases are reported where BPF was identified and managed with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate) through a video bronchoscope. Results: Out of 9 patients the BPF was successfully sealed in 8 cases (88.88%). In 1 patient of postpneumonectomy, the fistula was big, that is >8 mm who had a recurrence after the procedure. In one case of...

  20. Endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate on esophagojejunal anastomotic leak: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Angelopoulos Stamatis; Mantzoros Ioannis; Kanellos Ioannis; Vrakas Georgios; Pramateftakis Manousos-Georgios; Eleftheriades Efthymios; Lazarides Charalampos

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction This case report describes an esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The leak was treated successfully with endoscopic application of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. This is the first case report on the endoscopic application of cyanoacrylate alone for the treatment of an anastomotic leak. Case presentation This report describes a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian man who underwent surgery for gastric cancer. He underwent total gastrectom...

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Transformations in Hibiscus sabdariffa-graft-poly(butyl acrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaith, B. S.; Chauhan, Aashish

    2008-01-01

    Different reaction parameters for the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber were optimized. Graft copolymers thus obtained were subjected to characterization using XRD, TGA, DTA, SEM and FTIR techniques and were evaluated for physio-chemical changes in the behavior. The percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index were found to decrease with increase in grafting while there was reduction in moisture absorption and increase in chemical, thermal resistance ...

  2. Use of a Balloon and N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Treatment of Arteriovenous Fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a patient who developed a large arteriovenous fistula in right lower extremity after gunshot injury. Because other endovascular methods failed, the patient was successfully treated with concomitant use of detachable latex balloon and N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). The combination of detachable balloon and NBCA can be effectively used for endovascular treatment of peripheral arteriovenous fistulas in selected cases when effective embolization could not be achieved with other embolizing agents or their various combinations.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O R Pal; V G Gaikar; J V Joshi; P S Goyal; V K Aswal

    2004-08-01

    The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodium -butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36–40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration.

  4. The preparation and characterisation of poly(butyl-2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Stephen John

    1985-01-01

    Poly (butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles have been prepared with a range of particle sizes by varying the nature and concentration of stabiliser added to the polymerisation medium. Particle size analysis was performed by photon correlation spectroscopy. The range of diameters produced using dextran stabilisers was found to be approximately 100 to 800nm. This could be extended to 3ym using j3 -cyclodextrin and to 20nm using polysorbate 20. The results infer that the nanoparticles are sterica...

  5. Effect of Impeller Agitation on Preparation of Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semiclathrate Hydrate Slurries

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiro Inoue; Kazunari Ohgaki; Shunsuke Hashimoto; Hiroyuki Ito

    2012-01-01

    The slurries-containing tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) solution and its semiclathrate hydrate have attracted a lot of interest as latent heat transport media. These hydrate slurries contain some microparticles of crystal, and the size and shape of these hydrate particles could affect the mobility of slurries. Hence, it is essential to investigate the efficient hydrate-slurry preparation methods and the effect of hydrate particles on the fluid property of slurries for the application to...

  6. Effect of solvents on scandium extraction by tri-n-butyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of solvents on scandium extraction from hydrochloric acid solutions by tri-n-butyl phosphate is studied. Analysis are presented of peculiarities of scandium distribution in two organic phases formed as a result of stratification when paraffin hydrocarbons are used as solvents. One--parameter correlations lgDSc with more then 80 parameters of solvents are considered. Correlations possessing the best statistical characteristics are selected

  7. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Aaron D.; Gray, Danielle L.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl­phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis­[chlorido­bis­(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter­act weakly with C—H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di­chlorido­(tetra­hydro­furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl­phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra­hedral Zn complex has weak C—H⋯Cl inter­actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C—H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl­phospho­nium aqua­tri­chlorido­zincate 1,2-di­chloro­ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3]+ [(H2O)ZnCl3]−·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3]− anions from hydrogen-bonding inter­actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  8. Stark effect in the J = 3 4 microwave line of tert-butyl chloride molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierszal, S.; Mis-Kuzminska, E.; Stankowski, J.; Galica, J.

    1984-03-01

    Stark effect in the J = 3 - 4 transition spectrum of the tert-butyl chloride has been investigated. The perturbation of the rotational levels by combined effect of the quadrupole and an intermediate electric fields was calculated and used for identify the Stark components. The rotational spectrum of tert-butyl chloride /CH 3/ 3CCl is characterised by the rotational constants A = 4518.70 MHz[1] and B = 3017.85 MHz, dipole moment U= 2.12 D, and quadrupole interaction constant eqQ = -67.58 MHz [2,3]. The energy of rotational states of the tert-butyl chloride molecule is described by the Hamiltonian ? where H 0 is the unperturbed rotational energy, H Q that of interaction of the angular momentum and quadrupole moment of the chlorine nucleus, and H E the Stark energy. Since H Q ˜ H E for the electric field strengths applied during the present investigation, we are dealing with the case of intermediate fields. To solve the problem theoretically we had recourse to the representation in F-space and calculated the energy for the perturbation H Q + H E as done by Low and Townes [4]. The theoretical distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of tert-butyl chloride for various electric field strengths at J = 3 - 4 and ΔM F = 0 is shown in Fig. 1a and 1b. We applied the theoretically calculated distances of the Stark components from the absorption line of /CH 3/ 3CCl as function of the electric field strength as well as the relative intensities of the components in order to interpret our experimental results concerning the Stark effect.

  9. Bis(1-tert-butyl-1H-imidazole-κN3)dichloridocobalt(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Zeller, Alexander; Strassner, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [CoCl(2)(C(7)H(12)N(2))(2)], molecular units are formed by coordination of the unsubstituted N atoms of two tert-butyl-substituted imidazole molecules and two chloride ligands, which distinguishes the complex from structures of imidazolium-based dications with tetrachloridocobaltate dianions. There are two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, related by a noncrystallographic inversion centre. PMID:22669189

  10. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, Aaron D; Gray, Danielle L; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butyl-phosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis-[chlorido-bis-(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane)zinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P)2], (1), which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl)2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms inter-act weakly with C-H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric di-chlorido-(tetra-hydro-furan-κO)(tri-tert-butyl-phosphane-κP)zinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O)(C12H27P)] or [P(tBu3)(THF)ZnCl2], (2), is formed. This slightly distorted tetra-hedral Zn complex has weak C-H⋯Cl inter-actions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C-H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butyl-phospho-nium aqua-tri-chlorido-zincate 1,2-di-chloro-ethane monosolvate, (C12H28P)[ZnCl3(H2O)]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3](+) [(H2O)ZnCl3](-)·C2H4Cl2, (3), is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2O)ZnCl3](-) anions from hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis. PMID:26870580

  11. (2-tert-Butyl-5-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dioxan-5-ylmethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Vargas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H20O4, the dioxane ring adopts a chair conformation. The tert-butyl group occupies an equatorial position, and is staggered with respect to the O atoms of the dioxane ring. In the crystal, molecules are connected by O—H...O hydrogen-bonds into zigzag chains of R44(8 and R22(12 ring motifs that run parallel to the a axis.

  12. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effec...

  13. Two Cases of Adrenal Abscesses Following Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate) Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bo Young; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Bok, Gene Hyun; Ham, Jeong Ho; Cho, Joo Young; Lee, Joon Seong; Shim, Chan Sup

    2011-01-01

    We report two cases of adrenal abscesses that occurred following a Histoacryl® (N-butyl-2-cyanocrylate) injection for variceal bleeding. Patients had been diagnosed with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and gastric varices bleeding and received a Histoacryl® injection for the variceal bleeding. Patients had fever and abdominal tenderness and were diagnosed with an adrenal abscess at 2 months following the Histoacryl® injection. One patient received open drainage and the other underwent percutaneous ...

  14. Reactivity Ratios for Microemulsion Copolymerization of N-butyl Maleimide and Styrene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oil-in-water microemulsion containing N-butyl maleimide(NBMI, M1) and styrene(St, M2) was prepared. The complexation properties of NBMI and St in microemulsion were investigated by means of 1H-NMR. With the participation of charge-transfer complex(CTC), four reactivity ratios and the relative reactivity of free monomers and CTC were obtained. The result was compared with that measured by Mayo-Lewis method.

  15. Alkylation of C60. Reaction between C60 anions and tert-butyl chloride and mass spectrometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, S.; Chaurand, P.; Ciot, C.; Della-Negra, S.; Fabre, C.; Greugny, V.; Marx, L.; Rassat, A.; Rousseau, A.

    1996-11-01

    Alkylation of C60 in tetrahydrofuran with tert-butyl chloride and lithium gives a variety of products. Adducts of general formula C60Hn(t-Bu)qOx(thf)y (where t-Bu is the tert-butyl group and thf the tetrahydrofuryl group (C4H7O)) have been detected by mass spectrometry, with n <= 8, q + y <= 18 and x = 0, 1, 2 depending on experimental conditions. IR and NMR spectra of products confirm these assignments.

  16. Analysis of di-n-butyl phthalate and other organic pollutants in Chongqing women undergoing parturition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, 40 healthy women from Chongqing undergoing parturition were recruited and samples of venous blood, umbilical cord blood, breast milk and urine were collected for analysis of organic pollutants by GC/MS. A total of 292 different organic pollutants were detected, including 156 in venous blood, 139 in umbilical cord blood, 176 in breast milk and 138 in urine. Nine different PAEs were detectable in the samples: di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), bis(2-methylpropyl) phthalate, butyl-8-methyl-nonyl phthalate, di-ethyl phthalate, butyl-2-methylpropyl phthalate, butyloctyl phthalate, di-dodecyl phthalate, di-isodecyl phthalate, and di-tridecyl phthalate. DBP was one of the chemicals detected at the highest frequency (48.82%). DBP concentrations were 84.75 ± 33.52, 52.23 ± 32.50, 57.78 ± 35.42 and 24.93 ± 18.67 μg/l in venous blood, umbilical cord blood, breast milk and urine, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of organic pollutants in a Chongqing population. - This study represents the first investigation of organic pollutants in a Chongqing population

  17. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to ∼143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study

  18. Comprehensive testing to measure the response of butyl rubber to Hanford tank waste simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NIGREY,PAUL J.

    2000-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the Chemical Compatibility Program developed to evaluate plastic packaging components that may be incorporated in packaging mixed-waste forms for transportation. Consistent with the methodology outlined in this report, the authors performed the second phase of this experimental program to determine the effects of simulant Hanford tank mixed wastes on packaging seal materials. That effort involved the comprehensive testing of five plastic liner materials in an aqueous mixed-waste simulant. The testing protocol involved exposing the materials to {approximately}143, 286, 571, and 3,670 krad of gamma radiation and was followed by 7-, 14-, 28-, 180-day exposures to the waste simulant at 18, 50, and 60 C. Butyl rubber samples subjected to the same protocol were then evaluated by measuring seven material properties: specific gravity, dimensional changes, mass changes, hardness, compression set, vapor transport rates, and tensile properties. From the analyses, they determined that butyl rubber has relatively good resistance to radiation, this simulant, and a combination of these factors. These results suggest that butyl rubber is a relatively good seal material to withstand aqueous mixed wastes having similar composition to the one used in this study.

  19. Vapour phase alkylation of ethylbenzene with -butyl alcohol over mesoporous Al-MCM-41 molecular sieves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Umamaheswari; M Palanichamy; Banumathi Arabindoo; V Murugesan

    2002-06-01

    The alkylation of ethylbenzene with -butyl alcohol was studied over Al-MCM-41 (Si/Al = 50 and 90) and Al, Mg-MCM-41 (Si/(Al + Mg) =50) in the vapour phase from 200 to 400°C. The products were --butylethylbenzene (--BEB), --butylvinylbenzene (--BVB) and --butylethylbenzene ( --BEB). Ethylbenzene conversion decreased with increase in temperature and increase in the ethylbenzene content of the feed. The reaction between the freely diffusing ethylbenzene in the channel and the -butyl cations remaining as charge compensating ions yielded --BEB. --BVB, an unexpected product in this investigation, was produced by dehydrogenation of --BEB over alumina particles present in the channels of the molecular sieves. Adsorption of ethylbenzene on Brønsted acid sites and its subsequent reaction with very closely adsorbed -butyl cations proved to be necessary to obtain --BEB. Though --BEB was obtained, the corresponding --butylvinylbenzene was not observed in this study. Study of time durations indicated rapid and slow catalyst deactivation at lower and higher streams respectively.

  20. Discovery and application of new bacterial strains for asymmetric synthesis of L-tert-butyl leucine in high enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Zhong; Chang, Dong-Liang; Zhang, Jie

    2011-06-01

    Discovery of new bacterial strains with fast identification in a miniaturized system was performed for the synthesis of optically active L-tert-butyl leucine. With tert-butyl leucine amide as nitrogen source, one bacterial strain with high conversion and high enantioselectivity was discovered among 120 isolated microorganisms from local soils and identified as Mycobacterium sp. JX009. Glucose and ammonium chloride were examined as the good carbon source and nitrogen source for the cells' growth separately. The cells grew better at 30 °C and at pH 7.5 with higher activity of 2,650 U/l in comparison with other conditions. Cells' stability was improved by immobilization on synthetic resin 0730 without pretreatment. Tert-butyl leucine amide (30 mM) was successfully hydrolyzed by immobilized cells and examined as the highest chemical concentration that cells could endure. After six reaction cycles, the immobilized cells retained 90% activity with production of L-tert-butyl leucine in 98% ee. The results firstly reported the application of new bacterial strain in the hydrolysis of tert-butyl leucine amide to produce optically active L-tert-butyl leucine in an efficient way with investigation in detail. PMID:21153891

  1. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C

    2008-01-01

    n-Butyl Alcohol is a primary aliphatic alcohol historically used as a solvent in nail care cosmetic products, but new concentration of use data indicate that it also is being used at low concentrations in eye makeup, personal hygiene, and shaving cosmetic products. n-Butyl Alcohol has been generally recognized as safe for use as a flavoring substance in food and appears on the 1982 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of inactive ingredients for approved prescription drug products. n-Butyl Alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. n-Butyl Alcohol may be formed by hydrolysis of butyl acetate in the blood, but is rapidly oxidized. The single oral dose LD(50) of n-Butyl Alcohol for rats was 0.79 to 4.36 g/kg. The dermal LD(50) for rabbits was 4.2 g/kg. Inhalation toxicity studies in humans demonstrate sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but only at levels above 3000 mg/m(3). Animal studies demonstrate intoxication, restlessness, ataxia, prostration, and narcosis. Exposures of rats to levels up to 4000 ppm failed to produce hearing defects. High concentrations of n-Butyl Alcohol vapors can be fatal. Ocular irritation was observed for n-Butyl alcohol at 0.005 ml of a 40% solution. The behavioral no-effect dose for n-Butyl Alcohol injected subcutaneously (s.c.) was 120 mg/kg. Fetotoxicity has been demonstrated, but only at maternally toxic levels (1000 mg/kg). No significant behavioral or neurochemical effects were seen in offspring following either maternal or paternal exposure to 3000 or 6000 ppm. n-Butyl Alcohol was not mutagenic in Ames tests, did not induce sister-chromatid exchange or chromosome breakage in chick embryos or Chinese hamster ovary cells, did not induce micronuclei formation in V79 Chinese hamster cells, did not have any chromosome-damaging effects in a mouse micronucleus test, and did not impair chromosome distribution in the course of mitosis. Clinical testing of n-Butyl Alcohol for

  2. Evaluating UV/H2O2 processes for methyl tert-butyl ether and tertiary butyl alcohol removal: effect of pretreatment options and light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Hokanson, David R; Crittenden, John C; Trussell, Rhodes R; Minakata, Daisuke

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the efficiency of UV/H2O2 process to remove methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) from a drinking water source. Kinetic models were used to evaluate the removal efficiency of the UV/H2O2 technologies with different pretreatment options and light sources. Two commercial UV light sources, i.e. low pressure, high intensity lamps and medium pressure, high intensity lamps, were evaluated. The following pretreatment alternatives were evaluated: (1) ion exchange softening with seawater regeneration (NaIX); (2) Pellet Softening; (3) weak acid ion exchange (WAIX); and (4) high pH lime softening followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The presence or absence of a dealkalization step prior to the UV/H2O2 Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) was also evaluated for each pretreatment possibility. Pretreatment has a significant impact on the performance of UV/H2O2 process. The NaIX with dealkalization was shown to be the most cost effective. The electrical energy per order (EEO) values for MtBE and tBA using low pressure high output UV lamps (LPUV) and 10mg/LH2O2 are 0.77 and 3.0 kWh/kgal-order, or 0.20 and 0.79 kWh/m3-order, respectively. For medium pressure UV high output lamps (MPUV), EEO values for MtBE and tBA are 4.6 and 15 kWh/kgal-order, or 1.2 and 4.0 kWh/m3-order, for the same H2O2 dosage. PMID:18951605

  3. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME) and hot water (HWE) extracts (2.0 mg/mL) were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL) also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2-40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7) and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27196881

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoan Im

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME and hot water (HWE extracts (2.0 mg/mL were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2–40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7 and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities.

  5. Forensic analysis of tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) detections in a hydrocarbon-rich groundwater basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Konrad W; Levine, Audrey D; Kester, Janet E; Fordham, Carolyn L

    2016-04-01

    Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), a high-production volume (HPV) chemical, was sporadically detected in groundwater and coalbed methane (CBM) wells in southeastern Colorado's hydrocarbon-rich Raton Basin. TBA concentrations in shallow water wells averaged 75.1 μg/L, while detections in deeper CBM wells averaged 14.4 μg/L. The detection of TBA prompted a forensic investigation to try to identify potential sources. Historic and recent data were reviewed to determine if there was a discernable pattern of TBA occurrence. Supplemental samples from domestic water wells, monitor wells, CBM wells, surface waters, and hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluids were analyzed for TBA in conjunction with methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), proxies for evidence of contamination from reformulated gasoline or associated oxygenates. Exploratory microbiological sampling was conducted to determine if methanotrophic organisms co-occurred with TBA in individual wells. Meaningful comparisons of historic TBA data were limited due to widely varying reporting limits. Mapping of TBA occurrence did not reveal any spatial patterns or physical associations with CBM operations or contamination plumes. Additionally, TBA was not detected in HF fluids or surface water samples. Given the widespread use of TBA in industrial and consumer products, including water well completion materials, it is likely that multiple diffuse sources exist. Exploratory data on stable isotopes, dissolved gases, and microbial profiling provide preliminary evidence that methanotrophic activity may be producing TBA from naturally occurring isobutane. Reported TBA concentrations were significantly below a conservative risk-based drinking water screening level of 8000 μg/L derived from animal toxicity data. PMID:26946495

  6. Antiproliferative effects of n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside from Kangaisan on Bel-7402 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Kangaisan is a powdered compound prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine which has been used in cancers for many years in Hubei province, China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Kangaisan and screen bioactive components. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-Dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, flow cytometry, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation assay, Western blot, and real time-polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the antiproliferation effect of n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside on Bel-7402 cells. Statistical Analysis: All experiments were performed in triplicate and the results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance using Origin 8.0 software. Results: It was illustrated that treatment of Bel-7402 cells with various concentrations of n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside resulted in growth inhibition in both a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. The arrest of G0/G1 phase was also induced (P < 0.05. The increasing of sub-G1 cell population indicated the apoplectic characteristic (P < 0.05. Furthermore, the emerging of DNA fragmentation and the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and p53 expression suggested the possible mitochondrial apoptotic pathway (P < 0.05. Conclusions: The results illustrate that Kangaisan showed anticancer effects and n-butyl-β-D-fructofuranoside extracted from Kangaisan can suppress Bel-7402 cells via interfering cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis.

  7. Removal of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE from Contaminated Water by Photocatalytic Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been commercially used as an octane enhancer to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline since 1979. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with MTBE may re­sult in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this investigation the degradation of aqueous MTBE at relatively high concentrations was studied by UV-vis/TiO2/O2 photocatalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as pH, oxygen flow, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied."nMethods:Concentration of MTBE and intermediates such as tert-butyl formate (TBF and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA were meas­ured using a gas chromatograph equipped with flam ionization detector and combined with headspace sampler."nResults: The time required for complete degradation increased from 15 to 150 min, when the initial concentration was in­creased from 10 to 500 mg/L. The first order rate constant for degradation of MTBE from the hydroxyl radical was esti­mated to be 0.266 to 0.033 min-1 as the concentration increased from 10 to 500 mg/L. Study on the overall mineralization moni­tored by total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed that in the initial concentration of 100 mg/L MTBE, complete min­eralization was obtained after 110 min under UV-vis/TiO2/O2 photocatalytic process."nConclusion: The data presented in this paper clearly indicate that UV/TiO2/O2 advanced oxidation process provides an effi­cient treatment alternative for the remediation of MTBE contaminated water.  

  8. Molecular Dynamics of Tert-butyl Chloride Confined to CPG (7.4, 15.6 nm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutkowska, L.; Peplińska, B.; Jurga, S.

    2006-08-01

    The paper complements our earlier NMR investigation of molecular dynamics of tert-butyl chloride restricted by geometries of the type MCM-41 and CPG by the new sizes of CPG and by differential scanning calorimetry method. We report proton and deuteron NMR lineshapes and the spin-lattice relaxation results of tert-butyl chloride in CPG of the 15.6 nm and 7.4 nm pore diameter in the temperature range 70 K ≤ T ≤ 292 K. The bulk-like component of the confined tert-butyl chloride, in temperatures corresponding to phase III, is interpreted as a composition of two dynamically different subphases. The parameters of motions of both subphases are derived. The tert-butyl group motion in both subphases is more restricted than in the bulk tert-butyl chloride, although the activation energies are lower. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine temperatures of the phase transitions (140 K ≤T ≤292 K). The results show that the depression of the phase transition temperature is pore size dependent and that the confinement has less influence on transition to the plastic phase than on the freezing and on the solid II - solid III transition.

  9. Biodegradation of Di-n-Butyl Phthalate by a Newly Isolated Halotolerant Sphingobium sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Decai Jin; Xiao Kong; Bingjian Cui; Zhihui Bai; Hongxun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A Gram-negative strain (TJ) capable of growing aerobically on mixed phthalate esters (PAEs) as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from the Haihe estuary, Tianjin, China. It was identified as belonging to the Sphingobium genus on the basis of morphological and physiological characteristics and 16S rRNA and gyrb gene sequencing. The batch tests for biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) by the Sphingobium sp. TJ showed that the optimum conditions were 30 °C, pH 7.0, and the ab...

  10. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on male rat reproduction following pubertal exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Ai-Mei; Man, Xiao-Ming; Guo, Xue-Jiang; Dong, Hui-Bin; Wang, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Hong; Wang, Yu-Bang; Zhou, Zuo-min; Sha, Jia-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that has the potential to affect male reproduction. However, the reproductive effects of low-dose DBP are still not well known, especially at the molecular level. In the present study, pubertal male Sprague–Dawley rats were orally administered DBP at a wide range of doses (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 500 mg kg−1 day−1) for 30 days. The selected end points included reproductive organ weights, testicular histopathology and serum hormonal ...

  11. Oxidative DNA damage in male wistar rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellejus, A.; Dalgaard, Majken; Loft, S.

    2002-01-01

    Dialkyl phthalate esters are used in the plastic industry and widely distributed in the environment, Previously, it has been shown that di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) produces testicular atrophy and liver enlargement in rodents, and the mechanisms behind this could involve reactive oxygen species (ROS...... involved in the formation of testicular atrophy in phthalate-exposed rats, no apparent sign of oxidative DNA damage was found after phthalate exposure perinatally or during the preadult stage, With respect to phthalate-induced oxidative DNA damage in the liver, it appears that the developmental stage...

  12. Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on the physiology and ultrastructure of cucumber seedling roots

    OpenAIRE

    Ying ZHANG; Tao, Yue; Sun, Guoqiang; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural pollution caused by the use of plastic sheetings has been documented to be a widespread problem in most of the major crop-planting regions of the world. In order to better understand the phytotoxic mechanisms induced by phthalic acid esters involved with this problem, Cucumber sativus L. cv Jinyan No. 4 were sown in pots to the three-leaf-stage in the presence of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP; 0, 30, 50, 100, and 200 mg L−1) for 1, 3, 5, or 7 days. Physiology, biochemistry, and ultra...

  13. TRANS-ARTERIAL EMBOLIZATION WITH N-BUTYL CYANOACRYLATE GLUE FOR RENAL BLEEDING: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objectivity in management of renal bleeding is to preserve a significant renal parenchyma tissue and prevent associated morbidities like anemic shock or renal impairment from substantial nephron demise or obstructed uropathy. Trans-arterial embolization therapy by interventional radiology offers a high success rate with potential of reserving normal renal tissue. The selection material for renal arterial embolization largely depends on vasculature anatomy and end-point of procedure. N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in our experience is applied in lesion supplied by small size of end-artery. 

  14. Management of unresolved hemangiomas and venous malformations by N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Ashim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of unresolved hemangiomas and venous malformations is a real challenging problem because of their grotesque nature and aesthetic considerations. In our study we have used percutaneous injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA in such lesions to make these lesions amenable to easy excision. When the NBCA comes in contact with tissue fluid, it causes intercompartmental tissue adhesion, thus there is cessation of blood flow into the vascular malformation tissue. After few injections the whole mass forms a solid polymer, which is then excised. During excision there is remarkably minimum bleeding. In small lesions, per-operative injection just prior to surgery was also done.

  15. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 1-BUTYL-3-METHYLIMIDAZOLIUM BIS(TRIFLUOROMETHYLSULFONYL)IMIDE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hamidova; I. Kul; Safarov, J.; A. Shahverdiyev; Van Hassel, E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pressure-density-temperature (p, ρ ,T) data of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BMIM][NTF2] at T = (273.15 to 413.15) K and pressures up to p =140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δ ρ / ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, aque...

  16. Adsorption properties of leather modified by radiation induced grafting with methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption properties of leathers modified by radiation induced grafting with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate have been investigated by the McBain method. Isotherms of adsorption and desorption of water vapour have been obtained and the specific surface for various leathers calculated. No change in the adsorption properties of modified leather was noticed up to 25% content of grafted polymer. At higher polymer content deterioration of hygienic properties of modified leather was observed. From the adsorption measurements it has been concluded that the size of millipores undergoes random distribution and no specific group of pores prevails. Explanation of the observed phenomena is proposed. (author)

  17. Postcatheterization Femoral Arteriovenous Fistula: Endovascular Treatment with N-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a case of an iatrogenic femoral arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a 67-year-old man presenting with right femoral bruit on the day after sheath removal for cardiac catheterization. This was successfully treated with embolization using N-butyl-cynoacrylate (NBCA) through a coaxial microcatheter. Transcatheter embolization of iatrogenic femoral AVFs with NBCA in selected cases may be a safe and effective treatment in the presence of long fistula tracts. It is then easy to perform in experienced hands and relatively inexpensive

  18. tert-Butyl N-[2-(N-isobutyl-4-methoxybenzenesulfonamidoethyl]carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Bai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H30N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of tert-butyl 2-(isobutylaminoethylcarbamate with p-methoxyphenylsulfonyl chloride. In the molecule, two intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the imino group N atom and the ester group O atom into chains running parallel to the b axis. The chains are further connected by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the bc plane.

  19. Adsorption equilibria of butyl- and amylbenzene on monolithic silica-based columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzini, Alberto; Bardin, Gregory; Kaczmarski, Krzystof; Szabelski, Paweł; Al-Bokari, Majed; Guiochon, Georges

    2002-05-31

    The adsorption isotherms of butyl- and amylbenzene on silica monolithic columns were measured by frontal analysis. The external, internal and total porosities of these columns were determined by inverse size-exclusion chromatography. The adsorption isotherms are concave upward in the entire concentration range investigated. They were fitted to the anti-Langmuir model, an unusual model in liquid-solid and liquid-liquid phase equilibria. Band profiles under overloaded conditions were recorded. They were in good agreement with the profiles calculated using th,e lumped pore diffusion model of chromatography and these adsorption isotherms. PMID:12113336

  20. Kinetic Study of Np(Ⅵ) Reduction With Tert-butyl Hydrazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tert-butyl hydrazine(TBH) is a new salt free reductant, it can effectively reduce Np(Ⅵ) to Np(Ⅴ) but reduce Pu(Ⅳ)very slowly. Further more, it has the highest ratio of rate constant for Np(Ⅵ) reduction to the rate constant for Pu(Ⅳ) reduction in hydrazine derivatives, so it’s a promising reductant to separate Np, Pu effectively,Reduction kinetic study of the reaction in nitric acid is performed by spectrophotometry. The effect of some factors such as concentration of TBH, HNO3, Np(Ⅵ) and temperature on the redox

  1. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.

    2002-11-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)

  2. Multi properties of new schiff base and its mononuclear copper(II) complex: synthesis, characterization, liquid crystal properties and antioxidant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new Schiff base ligand, 4-(octadecyloxy)-N-(4-hexyloxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-benzal imine, was synthesized by condensation of 4-octadecyloxy-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde with 4-hexyloxy aniline. This ligand have been characterized by UV-VIS, FTIR, H-NMR, C-NMR, mass spectra. Copper(II) complex of this ligand has been prepared by the interaction of copper(II) acetate dihydrate with ethanolic solution of the ligand. The copper(II) complex was confirmed by various spectroscopic studies like UV-VIS, FTIR and elemental analysis. The liquid crystalline behaviour of the ligand and copper(II) complex was determined by polarized light microscopy (PM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The antioxidant activities of the free Schiff base and its complex have been investigated with different tests such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DMPD ) radical scavenging activities. The results were compared with known antioxidants e.g. butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), trolox, -tocopherol or ascorbic acid. The ligand exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all tests. Therefore, some activities were pressurized in the its copper(II) complex. (author)

  3. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  4. Antioxidant, antiradical, and anticholinergic properties of cynarin purified from the Illyrian thistle (Onopordum illyricum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, Meryem; Gocer, Hulya; Topal, Fevzi; Kalin, Pınar; Köse, Leyla Polat; Gülçin, İlhami; Çakmak, Kader C; Küçük, Murat; Durmaz, Lokman; Gören, Ahmet C; Alwasel, Saleh H

    2016-01-01

    Cynarin is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and it has biologically active functional groups constituent of some plants and food. We elucidated the antioxidant activity of cynarin by using different in vitro condition bioanalytical antioxidant assays like DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), O2(•-), DPPH(•) and H2O2 scavenging effects, the total antioxidant influence, reducing capabilities, Fe(2+) chelating and anticholinergic activities. Cynarin demonstrated 87.72% inhibition of linoleic acid lipid peroxidation at 30 µg/mL concentration. Conversely, some standard antioxidants like trolox, α-tocopherol, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) exhibited inhibitions of 90.32, 75.26, 97.61, 87.30%, and opponent peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at the identical concentration, seriatim. Also, cynarin exhibited effective DMPD(•+), ABTS(•+), O2(•-), DPPH(•), and H2O2 scavenging effects, reducing capabilities and Fe(2+) chelating effects. On the contrary, IC50 and K(i) parameters of cynarin for acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibition were determined as 243.67 nM (r(2): 0.9444) and 39.34 ± 13.88 nM, respectively. This study clearly showed that cynarin had marked antioxidant, anticholinergic, reducing ability, radical-scavenging, and metal-binding activities. PMID:25792498

  5. Lipid peroxidation measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in tissue slices: characterization and comparison with homogenates and microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, C G; Leibovitz, B E; Tappel, A L

    1988-01-01

    Liver slices were used to measure lipid peroxidation induced by bromotrichloromethane, tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH), or ferrous iron. The responses of liver homogenates and microsomes to oxidative conditions were compared with the response of tissue slices. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated by the production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). As was observed in homogenates and microsomes, TBARS production by liver slices depended upon the amount of tissue, the incubation time, inducer, the amount of inducer, and the presence of antioxidant. Control liver slices incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 h produced 19 nmol of TBARS per g of liver. When slices were incubated in the presence of 1 mM BrCCl3, 1 mM t-BOOH, or 50 microM ferrous iron, TBARS production increased 4.6-, 8.2-, or 6.7-fold over the control value, respectively. Comparable induction of TBARS by liver homogenates and microsomes was observed when these preparations were incubated with the same inducers. Addition of 5 microM butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) prevented the induction of TBARS by 50 microM ferrous iron by liver slices. The results indicate the usefulness of tissue slices to measure lipid peroxidation. The usefulness of tissue slices is emphasized when a number of compounds or tissues are studied and tissue integrity is desired as in toxicological, pharmacological, and nutritional studies where reduced numbers of experimental animals is a relevant issue. PMID:3356355

  6. Alterations in the metabolism of benzo(a)pyrene in syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells pretreated with phenolic antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strniste, G.F.; Okinaka, R.T.; Chen, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Inhibition of chemical- or raddiation-induced neoplasia has been observed in animals whose diets were supplemented with antioxidants commonly used as food additives. Inhibition of the carcinogenicity of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or of 7,12-dimenthylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) - in rats has been achieved by the addition of the phenolic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) to the diet. Our data suggest that in SHE cells antioxidants inhibit the overall metabolism of BaP to its various oxidized moieties including 7,8-diol- and 7,8,9,10-tetrol-BaP. A plausible explanation for our results with SHE cells is that the antioxidants interact directly with AHH, thus inhibiting AHH metabolic capacity. From analysis of nuclear material from SHE cells (+- antioxidants) incubated for 36 hours with BaP at 1 ..mu..g/ml, it is calculated that 4.6, 2.4 and 2.9 pmol BaP are bound to the DNA isolated from 10/sup 7/ nuclei of control, BHA-(20 ..mu..g/ml) and p-MP-(10 ..mu..g/ml) treated cultures, respectively.

  7. Method validation and measurement uncertainty for the simultaneous determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Shin, Gi-Hae; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kang, Seong-Ran; Lee, Kyun-Young; Lim, Ho-Soo; Kang, Tae Seok; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2016-12-15

    This study investigated a method for the validation and determination of measurement uncertainty for the simultaneous determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) such as propyl gallate (PG), octyl gallate (OG), dodecyl gallate (DG), 2,4,5-trihydroxy butyrophenone (THBP), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The validated method was able to extract SPA residues under the optimized HPLC-UV and LC-MS/MS conditions. Furthermore, the measurement of uncertainty was evaluated based on the precision study. For HPLC-UV analysis, the recoveries of SPAs ranged from 91.4% to 115.9% with relative standard deviations between 0.3% and 11.4%. In addition, the expanded uncertainties of the SPAs ranged from 0.15 to 5.91. These results indicate that the validated method is appropriate for the extraction and determination of SPAs and can be used to verify the safety of edible oil products containing SPAs residues. PMID:27451150

  8. Growth promoting effects of some lichen metabolites on probiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Subhash; Verma, Neeraj; Sharma, B O; Behera, B C

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the extract of four natural lichen species Canoparmelia eruptens, Everniastrum cirrhatum, Parmotrema austrosinense and Rimelia cetrata were studied for the source of natural antioxidant and their purified secondary metabolites were evaluated for growth promoting effects on probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus casei. The methanolic fraction of lichen species showed moderate to high antioxidant activity in the order P. austrosinense > E. cirrhatum > C. eruptens > R. cetrata. The lichen metabolites showed antioxidant activity with an IC50 values (μg/ml); lecanoric acid 79-95, salazinic 88-108, atranorin 100-116 and consalazinic acid 119-125. As far as the growth promoting effects of lichen metabolites on L. casei is concerned, lecanoric acid at 100 μg/ml conc. showed high growth stimulating activity in terms of increased dry matter of biomass (56.08 mg) of L. casei. Other lichen metabolites; salazinic acid, atranorin and consalazinic acid produced relatively less dry biomass 43.98 mg, 41.1 mg, 40.68 mg, respectively. However, standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Trolox after 36 h produced 39.04-47.81 mg dry biomass. At lower pH the growth promoting activity of lichen metabolites was found stable. PMID:25328204

  9. Crystal structure of catena-poly[[(3-tert-butyl­pyridine-κN)(4-tert-butyl­pyridine-κN)cadmium]-di-μ-thio­cyanato-κ2 N:S;κ2 S:N

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Julia; Reinert, Thorben; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)2(C9H13N)2] n , the CdII cations are coordinated in a slightly distorted octa­hedral geometry by one 3-tert-butyl­pyridine ligand, one 4-tert-butyl­pyridine ligand and two pairs of translationally-equivalent μ-1,3-bridging thio­cyanate ligands, all of which are in general positions. These μ-1,3-bridging thio­cyante anions bridge the CdII cations, forming chains that propagate parallel to the b axis.

  10. Acid-Assisted Ball Milling of Cellulose as an Efficient Pretreatment Process for the Production of Butyl Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissou, Florent; Sayoud, Nassim; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Barakat, Abdellatif; Marinkovic, Sinisa; Estrine, Boris; Jérôme, François

    2015-10-12

    Ball milling of cellulose in the presence of a catalytic amount of H2SO4 was found to be a promising pre-treatment process to produce butyl glycosides in high yields. Conversely to the case of water, n-butanol has only a slight effect on the recrystallization of ball-milled cellulose. As a result, thorough depolymerization of cellulose prior the glycosylation step is no longer required, which is a pivotal aspect with respect to energy consumption. This process was successfully transposed to wheat straw from which butyl glycosides and xylosides were produced in good yields. Butyl glycosides and xylosides are important chemicals as they can be used as hydrotropes but also as intermediates in the production of valuable amphiphilic alkyl glycosides. PMID:26346950

  11. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla;

    2008-01-01

    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order...... to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...

  12. Catalytic Synthesis of Glycerol tert-Butyl Ethers as Fuel Additives from the Biodiesel By-Product Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a major by-product in the biodiesel production process. Every 100 kg of biodiesel produced generates approximately 10 kg of crude glycerol. As the biodiesel industry has expanded rapidly in recent years, finding new uses of the excess crude glycerol is important. Many studies have examined alternative uses of crude glycerol. One of them is the use of glycerol derivatives, such as glycerol tert-butyl ethers as fuel additives. In this paper, the etherification kinetics of glycerol with tert-butyl alcohol to glycerol tert-butyl ethers was studied using an Amberlyst catalyst. The influences of the catalyst type and loading, reaction time, molar ratio, and temperature were investigated in detail.

  13. Liquid phase equilibria of (water + phosphoric acid + 1-butanol or butyl acetate) ternary systems at T = 308.2 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibria and tie lines for the ternary systems of (water + phosphoric acid + 1-butanol) and (water + phosphoric acid + butyl acetate) were measured at T = 308.2 K. The experimental ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data were correlated with the UNIQUAC model. The reliability of the experimental tie lines was confirmed using Othmer-Tobias correlation. The average root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) values of (water + phosphoric acid + 1-butanol) and (water + phosphoric acid + butyl acetate) systems were 2.17% and 2.16%, respectively. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were measured to evaluate the extracting capability of the solvents. The results show that butyl acetate may be considered as a reliable organic solvent for the extraction of phosphoric acid from aqueous solutions

  14. BINDING OF THERMO-SENSITIVE AND pH-SENSITIVE BUTYLATED POLY(ALLYLAMINE)S WITH LYSOZYME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-jing Liu; Yun-feng Yan; Ping Yao

    2011-01-01

    Butyl modified poly(allylamine)s with butyl substitution degrees of 15% to 70% were prepared. The polymers show pH sensitive property and lower critical solution temperature (LCST) behavior. The LCST appears at lower temperature, lower pH and lower polymer concentration for the polymer with higher butylated degree. The binding of native lysozyme with the polymers depends on the hydrophobicity of the polymers at the pH range that the protein and the polymer carry the same positive charges. The increase of polymer hydrophobicity can increase the binding with lysozyme, but the self-aggregation of the polymer decreases the binding. The bound lysozyme molecules can recover their native activity completely after the dissociation of the complexes. Compared with native lysozyme, the denatured one which exposes the hydrophobic residues can increase the binding with the polymer and form stable complex nanoparticles.

  15. Molecular recognition of curcumin (Indian Ayurvedic medicine) by the supramolecular probe, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakshi, C.; Jayabal, P.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    2014-06-01

    The thermodynamic property of the host-guest complexes formed between the curcumin, component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine turmeric, a drug molecule, with the supra molecule, p-t-butyl calix(8)arene was studied. p-t-Butyl calix(8)arene has been used as a host molecule and curcumin as a guest molecule. Optical absorption spectral studies were carried out to investigate the molecular recognition properties of p-t-butyl calix(8)arene with curcumin. The stochiometry of the host-guest complexes formed and the binding constant were determined. An interesting 1:1 and 4:1 stochiometric host-guest complexes were formed. Job's continuous method of variation and Benesi-Hildebrand expression were used for the determination of binding constant and the stochiometry of the host-guest complex formed.

  16. Rancimat法比较茶多酚、迷迭香及BHA+BHT对棕榈油氧化稳定性的影响%Study on the Effect of Anti-oxidation of Rosemary,Tea Polyphenols and BHA&BHT on Oxidative Stability of Palm Oil by Rancimat Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘祥; 欧锦强; 吴畏

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied on the effect of anti-oxidation of rosemary,tea polyphenols and composite stabilizer of BHABHT on oxidative stability of palm oil by the method of Rancimat.The induction time of samples which have different ratios anti-oxidation of rosemary,tea polyphenols and composite stabilizer of BHABHT was determined,the results showed that the anti-oxidation of antioxidants in palm oil was rosemary150 mg/kgtea polyphenols2 000 mg/kgrosemary 100 mg/kgBHT 60 mg/kg+BHA 60 mg/kgrosemary 50 mg/kgrosemary 30 mg/kgtea polyphenols500 mg/kg.Rosemary 50 mg/kg had better selectivity in the comparison,it has great prospect of application.%比较天然迷迭香、茶多酚与复配BHA和BHT对油脂氧化稳定性的影响,通过Rancimat法快速测定了添加不同配比的迷迭香、茶多酚及复配BHA和BHT的棕榈油样品的诱导时间,结果表明:在棕榈油中抗氧化稳定效果分别为迷迭香150 mg/kg〉茶多酚2 000mg/kg〉迷迭香100 mg/kg〉BHT 60 mg/kg+BHA 60 mg/kg〉迷迭香50 mg/kg〉迷迭香30 mg/kg〉茶多酚500 mg/kg。迷迭香50 mg/kg的抗氧化性能与复配BHT和BHA效果相近,具备较好的应用前景。

  17. Otimização de Diferentes Procedimentos de Preparo de Amostras: Aplicação na Extração de Antioxidantes Presentes em Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Garabini de Freitas Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, different procedures were compared for the extraction of synthetic antioxidants such as propyl gallate (PG, tert-Butylhydroquinone (TBHQ, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole (BHA and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4 hydroxytoluene (BHT from biodiesel samples. The efficiency of target procedures was tested using liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction containing different stationary phase. To accomplish this efficiency and determine the antioxidants, a method based on high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC / DAD was optimized. In liquid-liquid extraction was used acetonitrile and n-hexane, however, only acetonitrile presented selectivity, able to extract just PG and BHA, with recovery between 78.3 and 96.0%. Using solid phase extraction cartridges containing C-18 as stationary phase, only the PG and BHA were extracted, which the recovery was between 52.4 and 99.7%. Moreover, the macroporous poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone polymer presented satisfactory results for the extraction of PG and BHA with recovery between 77.3 and 103 %. All these procedures provided elimination of the sample interferences, allowing recovery with coefficients of variation always lower than 1.00%. However, the comparison of liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction techniques proved that there are many difficulties in extracting, with precision and accuracy, the PG, TBHQ, BHA and BHT antioxidants contained simultaneously in complex samples such as biodiesel. These difficulties are increased when the interest is to reduce the costs of analysis by reducing organic solvent extractors and propose extraction techniques with considerable environmental benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v7i2.672

  18. Mutagenic and antimutagenic assessment of methanol leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) using in vitro and in vivo genetic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinboro, Akeem; Mohamed, Kamaruzaman Bin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Othman, Ahmad Sofiman; Ying, Tang Hui; Maidin, Siti Marina

    2012-10-01

    The role of diets in causing cancers necessitates the ongoing search for natural antimutagens of promising anticancer therapeutics. This study determined the potential anticancer efficacy of the leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.). Methanol leaf extract of M. fragrans (Houtt.) alone was screened for mutagenicity in the bacterial reverse mutation (Ames) test, using the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 strain, the Allium cepa, and the mouse in vivo bone marrow micronucleus tests. The antimutagenicity of this extract against benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutations was evaluated. An antioxidant test on the extract was performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, using butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) as the standards, whereas its phytochemicals were elucidated by following the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry protocol. In S. typhimurium (TA100), the mutagenicity ratio at 200,500 and 1,000 µg/well was >2. Cell division in the A. cepa root tips and mouse bone marrow was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited at 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, whereas the observed chromosomal aberrations and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes were non-dose-related and were insignificantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from the negative control. Inhibition of benzo[a]pyrene- and cyclophosphamide-induced mutagenicity by this extract was above 40%. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration of the extract in the antioxidant test was lower than that of BHA and BHT. Phytochemical compounds, possessing antioxidant activity, may be responsible for the observed effects, suggesting a strong antimutagenic activity of the MeOH leaf extract of M. fragrans, a necessary characteristic of a promising anticancer agent. PMID:22149219

  19. Antioxidant activity of wild edible plants in the Black Sea Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özen, Tevfik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidative activity of the 80% ethanol extract obtained from eleven commonly consumed wild edible plants was determined according to the phosphomolybdenum method, reducing power, metal chelating, superoxide anion and free radical scavenging activity and compared to standard compounds such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT and trolox. Total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins in the extracts were also measured. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, and Similax Excelsa had the highest antioxidant capacities. Overall results showed that these plants can serve as good sources of bioactive polyphenols in the human diet and can be regarded as good candidates for nutritional supplement formulations due to their high concentrations of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins as well as their strong antioxidant activity.La actividad antioxidante de extractos etanólicos al 80%, obtenidos de once plantas salvajes comúnmente consumidas, fue determinada por el método del fosfomolibdeno, poder reductor, actividad quelatante de metales, actividad captadora de aniones superóxidos y actividad captadora de radicales libres, y comparada con compuestos patrones tales como el butil hidroxianisol (BHA, butil hidroxitolueno (BHT y Trolox. El contenido de fenoles totales, flavonoides y antocianinas en el extracto fue también determinado. Trachystemon orientalis, Vaccinium mrytillus, Rumex acetosella Polygonum amphibium, Beta vulgaris, y Similax Excelsa tienen las capacidades antioxidantes más altas. En general, los resultados muestran que estas plantas pueden servir como una buena fuente de polifenoles bioactivos en la dieta humana, y pueden ser considerados como buenos candidatos para su uso como suplemento nutricional en formulaciones debido a su alta concentración en fenoles, flavonoides y antocinainas y a su fuerte actividad

  20. Vapor Pressure, Vaporization Enthalpy, Standard Enthalpy of Formation and Standard Entropy of n-Butyl Carbamate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuoxiang Zeng⁎; Zhihong Yang; Weilan Xue⁎; Xiaonan Li

    2014-01-01

    The vapor pressures of n-butyl carbamate were measured in the temperature range from 372.37 K to 479.27 K and fitted with Antoine equation. The compressibility factor of the vapor was calculated with the Virial equation and the second virial coefficient was determined by the Vetere model. Then the standard enthalpy of vaporization for n-butyl carbamate was estimated. The heat capacity was measured for the solid state (299.39–324.2 K) and liquid state (336.65–453.21 K) by means of adiabatic calorimeter. The standard en-thalpy of formationΔfHϴ[crystal (cr),298.15 K] and standard entropy Sϴ(crystal,298.15 K) of the sub-stance were calculated on the basis of the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formationΔfHϴ(g,298.15 K) and gas-phase standard entropy Sϴ(g,298.15 K), which were estimated by the Benson method. The results are acceptable, validated by a thermochemical cycle.

  1. Enhancement of methyl tert-butyl ether degradation by the addition of readily metabolizable organic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplements with readily metabolizable organic substrates were investigated to increase the biomass and enhance degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) due to the low biomass yield of MTBE which has been one of the factors for low-rate MTBE degradation. The influence of various organic substrates on the rate of aerobic degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1 was investigated, and only yeast extract (YE), beef extract and tryptone exhibited stimulatory effect. With the concentration of each substrate being 100 mg/L, the average MTBE removal rate could increase to 1.29, 1.20 and 1.04 mg/(L h), respectively, in comparison with 0.71 mg/(L h) when carried out in medium without addition. The stimulatory effects of YE addition, as well as induction period required by MTBE degradation, varied dramatically with the storage conditions, pre-culture medium and concentrations of the inoculums. The extent of stimulatory effects of YE might be closely related to the proportion of induction period in the total time of MTBE-degradation. The removal efficiency increased from about 50% to 90.5% with the addition of YE in a packed-bed reactor loaded with calcium alginate immobilized cells.

  2. Determination of methacrylic acid in food simulants by pyrolytic butylation-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhongping; Qiu, Ruofeng; Liu, Tingfei; Huang, Yilei; Zhu, Zuoyi; Wang, Lili

    2016-07-01

    An on-line pyrolytic butylation approach was proposed to determine methacrylic acid (MA) in food simulants by gas chromatography (GC) without an expensive pyrolyzer. MA in food simulants was converted into butyl methacrylate in the presence of tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) without any pretreatment at 330°C in the injection-port, contributing to high GC signal response. The derivatizing conditions for the proposed method were optimized, namely the injection-port temperature, type and amount of the organic alkaline used for derivatization. A series of standard solutions of MA in the range of 1.0-50mg/kg were analyzed with correlation coefficient r≥0.9975. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 0.15mg/kg for MA in four matrix simulants (distilled water, 3%w/v acetic acid, 10%v/v ethanol, and isooctane). Relative standard deviations (RSDs) for retention time, peak height and peak area were all less than 3.88%. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of MA migrating from plastic cup samples, with recoveries of added MA in the range of 96.5-123.0%. Direct injection of the simulants into the GC system after migration tests, without any pretreatment step, makes the developed method of great value for rapid screening analysis of samples in bulks. PMID:27262371

  3. Relaxational study of poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-butyl acrylate) membrane by dielectric and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-butyl acrylate) (60VP-40BA) membrane is synthesized as a tractable and hydrophilic material, obtaining a water-swelling percentage around 60%. An investigation of molecular mobility by means of differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis and broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS) is fulfilled in the dry membrane. Dielectric and viscoelastic relaxation measurements are carried out on the 60VP-40BA sample at several frequencies between −150 and 150 °C. The dielectric spectrum shows several relaxation processes labelled γ, β and α in increasing order of temperature, whereas in the mechanical spectrum only the β and α relaxation processes are completely defined. In the dielectric measurements, conductive contributions overlap the α-relaxation. The apparent activation energies have similar values for the β-relaxation in both, the mechanical and the dielectric measurements. The β process is a Johari–Golstein secondary relaxation and it is related to the local motions of the pyrrolidone group accompanied by the motion of the segments of the polymer backbone. The γ process is connected with the butyl unit's motions, both located in the side chains of the polymer. (paper)

  4. Phases and phase changes in clusters of tert-butyl thiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, James W.; Bartell, Lawrence S.

    1997-09-01

    Clusters of tert-butyl thiol (TBT) were generated by condensation of vapor in supersonic flow under various expansion conditions, and their structures were examined during their free flight by electron diffraction. The system had been selected because of its similarity to tert-butyl chloride (TBC), a much more thoroughly studied material with an interesting solid-state chemistry. The warmest crystalline phase of TBT observed for the clusters (diameter, ≈ 130 Å) was the known high-temperature cubic phase I with a lattice constant of 8.609(5) Å at ≈ 160 K. A second phase into which phase I nucleated at a rate of ≈ 10 28 m -3 s -1 at about 157 K was also observed, as well as a third phase generated under conditions of very cold flow. All of the phases gave the rapidly damped, diffuse diffraction patterns characteristic of submicroscopic, poorly ordered, plastically crystalline materials. Patterns were far less distinct than those of TBC, and the structures of the colder two phases could not be determined. From the rapid nucleation rate of phase I into the second phase, it could be inferred that a major translational rearrangement of the molecules could not have been involved.

  5. Effect of butyl paraben on the development and microbial composition of periphyton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaofeng; Lin, Juan; Huang, Xiaolong; Wu, Yonghong; Liu, Jiantong; Wu, Chenxi

    2016-03-01

    Parabens are extensively used as preservatives and bactericides in personal care and other consumer products, and are commonly found in wastewater and surface water as contaminants. However, few data are currently available on the ecotoxicity of parabens. Periphyton biofilm, a widely distributed microbial aggregate of ecological importance in aquatic environment, is frequently used for water quality monitoring, ecological restoration, and toxicity assessment. In this work, the effects of butyl paraben on the development and microbial composition of periphyton biofilm was studied in a laboratory experiment for 32 days using flow through channels. No effect was observed at the environmental relevant concentration level (0.5 μg L(-1)) during the experiment. At the highest tested concentration level (5000 μg L(-1)), following effects were noted: (1) inhibition on algae growth at the end of the experiment as indicated by the chlorophyll a and total biovolume; (2) inhibition of photosynthetic efficiency on day 24 as suggested by the maximal Photosystem II quantum yield (Fv/Fm); (3) decrease of the algal diversity on day 24 and 32 as reflected by the Pielou and Shannon-Weiner indices. Bacteria were less sensitive than algae in the periphyton biofilm, which showed no difference at all tested concentration levels as illustrated by the Biolog EcoPlates™ analysis. Therefore, we conclude that environmental residues of butyl paraben have a very low risk to periphyton in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26590928

  6. Butyl 2-(5-iodo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17IO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions between a methyl H atom of the methylsulfinyl group and the benzene ring of the benzofuran system, and by an I...O halogen bond of 3.173 (3 Å and a nearly linear C—I...O angle of 171.7 (1°. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The O atom of the carbonyl group and the butyl chain are both disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors from refinement of 0.55 (4 and 0.45 (4 (for the O atom, and 0.76 (2 and 0.24 (2 (for the butyl group.

  7. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne; Dalgaard, M.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  8. tert-Butyl N-[2-(N-isobutyl-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamido)-eth-yl]carbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Ju-Xian

    2014-06-01

    The title compound, C18H30N2O5S, was synthesized by the reaction of tert-butyl 2-(iso-butyl-amino)-ethyl-carbamate with p-meth-oxy-phenyl-sulfonyl chloride. In the mol-ecule, two intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the imino group N atom and the ester group O atom into chains running parallel to the b axis. The chains are further connected by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. PMID:24940254

  9. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)

    OpenAIRE

    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  10. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means...

  11. Moessbauer spectroscopic characterisation of catalysts obtained by interaction between tetra-n-butyl-tin and silica or silica supported rhodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy at 78 K was used to study the interaction between tetra-n-butyl-tin and the surfaces of silica or silica supported rhodium. At room temperature, the tetra-n-butyl-tin was physically adsorbed on the surfaces. After reaction under hydrogen at 373 K, the formation of grafted organometallic fragments on the Rh surface was confirmed whereas with pure silica, ≡SiO-Sn(n-C4H9)3 moieties were observed. After treatment at 523 K, the rhodium grafted organometallic species was completely decomposed and there was formation of a defined bimetallic RhSn compound

  12. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne;

    2006-01-01

    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... histopathology. DiBP has similar testicular and developmental effects as DBP and DEHP, and although more developmental and especially postnatal studies are needed to clearly identify the reproductive effects of DiBP, this study indicates a reason for concern about the use of DiBP as a substitute for DBP. (c...

  13. Measurement of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in human blood by purge-and-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using an isotope-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M A; Ashley, D L; Cardinali, F L; McCraw, J M; Wooten, J V

    1995-01-01

    We developed an isotope-dilution method for measuring methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in whole human blood using a purge-and-trap gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. The labeled analogues for MTBE and TBA were [2H12]methyl tert-butyl ether and [2H9]-tert-butyl alcohol, respectively. Volatiles were removed from the blood by direct helium purging of the liquid; were trapped on a Tenax trap; and were desorbed, cryofocused, and chromatographed on a DB-624 capillary column that was connected directly to the ion source of a mass spectrometer. Detection was by mass analysis using a double-focusing magnetic-sector mass spectrometer operating in the full-scan mode at the medium mass resolution of 3000. For the isotope-dilution method, the minimum detection limits in blood (5-10 mL) are 0.01 microgram/L for MTBE and 0.06 microgram/L for TBA. The isotope-dilution method proved to be a big improvement in recovery, reproducibility, and sensitivity over our previous analytical method, which used the labeled ketone, [4-2H3]-2-butanone, as the internal standard for both MTBE and TBA. The isotope-dilution method has sufficient sensitivity for monitoring blood levels of MTBE and TBA in populations exposed to oxygenated fuels containing MTBE. PMID:7564298

  14. Balloon-assisted ultrasound-guided direct percutaneous embolization of a peripheral pseudoaneurysm with n-butyl cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the ultrasound-guided direct percutaneous injection of n-butyl cyanoacrylate to embolize an iatrogenic peripheral pseudoaneurysm secondary in a 33-year-old patient undergoing hemodialysis. We protected the parent artery with inflation of an angioplasty balloon across the neck during the cyanoacrylate injection. Complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm was achieved without ischemic complication. (orig.)

  15. Complexation of uranium with 1, 3, 5-trimethoxy 2, 4, 6-tricarboxymethoxy-P-tert-butyl calix(6) arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexation behaviour of UO22+ with 1,3,5-trimethoxy 2,4,6-tricarboxymethoxy-p-tert-butyl calix[6]arene under varying conditions of pH and acetate ion concentration has been studied. These studies indicate that extraction mechanism of uranium is influenced by the presence of Na+ ion. (author)

  16. Quercetin protects human hepatoma HepG2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flavonols such as quercetin, have been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological activities related to their antioxidant capacity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of quercetin on cell viability and redox status of cultured HepG2 cells submitted to oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Concentrations of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde, generation of reactive oxygen species and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were used as markers of cellular oxidative status. Pretreatment of HepG2 with 10 μM quercetin completely prevented lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. Pretreatment for 2 or 20 h with all doses of quercetin (0.1-10 μM) prevented the decrease of reduced glutathione and the increase of malondialdehyde evoked by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in HepG2 cells. Reactive oxygen species generation induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide was significantly reduced when cells were pretreated for 2 or 20 h with 10 μM and for 20 h with 5 μM quercetin. Finally, some of the quercetin treatments prevented the significant increase of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and catalase activities induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Gene expression of antioxidant enzymes was also affected by the treatment with the polyphenol. The results of the biomarkers analyzed clearly show that treatment of HepG2 cells in culture with the natural dietary antioxidant quercetin strongly protects the cells against an oxidative insult

  17. INTERACTION OF METHYL-TERT BUTYL ETHER AND WATER STRESS ON SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING GROWTH IN SOIL MICROCOSMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a widespread contaminant in surface and ground water in the United States. Frequently irrigation is used to water fields to germinate planted seeds and sustain plant growth. A likely possibility exists that water used may have some MTBE. Our s...

  18. Rapid and high yields of synthesis of butyl acetate catalyzed by Novozym 435 : Reaction optimization by response surface methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, Andrea B.; Graebin, Natalia G.; Soibelmann Glock Lorenzoni, André; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Ayub, Marco A. Z.; Rodrigues, Rafael C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is described the optimization of the esterification reaction of butyl acetate synthesis catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435). The reaction parameters temperature, substrate molar ratio, enzyme content, and added water, and their responses measured as conversion yields

  19. Zinc(II)-Chloride Induced Thioalkylation of Aluminium Enolates : Enantioselective Synthesis of Estradiol-3-Methyl-17-tert-Butyl Diether

    OpenAIRE

    Groth, Ulrich; Kohler, Thomas; Taapken, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Zinc(II)-chloride induced thioalkylation of the aluminium enolate 6 generated by conlugate reduction of the enone 5 leads - directly or via its trimethylsilylenol ether 6 - to alkylated hydrindanones 10 which are important intermediates in the synthesis of 19-norsteroids such as the title compound estradiol-3-methyl-17-tert-butyl diether 12

  20. Synthesis and characterization of di- and triorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Sharma; Archana; Maridula Thakur; S S Bhatt; S C Chaudhry

    2007-07-01

    The di- and trialkyltin(IV) complexes of composition R2SnCl2-(OAr), and -Bu3Sn(OAr) (R = -Bu and Me; = 1 and 2; OAr = OC6H3Bu-2-Me-4) have been synthesized by the reactions of di-n-butyl and dimethyltin dichlorides and tri-n-butyltin(IV) chloride with 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and triethylamine in tetrahydrofuran. The reaction of triphenyltin chloride with trimethylsilyl-2-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide in the same solvent however, gives a complex of composition Ph3Sn(OAr). The complexes have been characterized by microanalyses, molar conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations and IR and 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR and mass spectral studies. Thermal behaviour of the complexes has been studied by TGA and DTA techniques. From the non-isothermal TG data, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters have been calculated employing Coats-Redfern equation and the mechanism of decomposition has been computed using non-isothermal kinetic method. Thermal investigations on the blends of poly(methylmethacrylate). PMMA, with organotin(IV)-2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenoxides have shown increased thermal stability compared to pure PMMA suggesting thereby their potential as additives towards PMMA.

  1. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  2. Crystal structure of 2-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. El-Hiti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12N2S, does not contain any strong hydrogen-bond donors but two long C—H...N contacts are observed in the crystal structure, with the most linear interaction linking molecules along [010]. The ellipsoids of the tert-butyl group indicate large librational motion.

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7T, a Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether Degrader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purswani, Jessica; Guisado, Isabel M; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus; Pozo, Clementina

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus etheri sp. nov. SH7(T) (= CECT 8558(T) = DSM 29760(T)), isolated from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil pilot plant in Granada, Spain. The bacterium was isolated and sequenced due to its methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading properties. PMID:26893420

  4. Adsorption of N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)aniline on Colg(111) Substrate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sokolová, Romana; Kolivoška, Viliam; Hromadová, Magdaléna; Gál, M.

    Rila Mountains: EIA, 2014. s. 34-34. [International Symposium on Electrochemical Impedance Analysis /10./. 01.06.2014-05.06.2014, Rila Mountains] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05180S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) anilin e Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  5. Voltammetric Determination of Nitro Derivative of Synthetic Antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chýlková, J.; Machalický, O.; Tomášková, M.; Šelešovská, R.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2016), s. 92-106. ISSN 0003-2719 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl-phenol * handing drop mercury electrode * nitration Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.030, year: 2014

  6. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ince

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  7. Transdermal uptake of diethyl phthalate and di(n-butyl) phthalate directly from air: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Bekö, Gabriel; Koch, Holger M.; Salthammer, Tunga; Schripp, Tobias; Toftum, Jørn; Clausen, Geo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fundamental considerations indicate that, for certain phthalate esters, dermal absorption from air is an uptake pathway that is comparable to or greater than inhalation. Yet this pathway has not been experimentally evaluated and has been largely overlooked when assessing uptake of...... phthalate esters. Objectives: This study investigated transdermal uptake, directly from air, of diethyl phthalate (DEP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP) in humans. Methods: In a series of experiments, six human participants were exposed for 6 hr in a chamber containing deliberately elevated air...... concentrations of DEP and DnBP. The participants either wore a hood and breathed air with phthalate concentrations substantially below those in the chamber or did not wear a hood and breathed chamber air. All urinations were collected from initiation of exposure until 54 hr later. Metabolites of DEP and Dn...

  8. Bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistula with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF is a communication between the pleural space and bronchial tree. Materials and Methods: A series of 9 cases are reported where BPF was identified and managed with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate through a video bronchoscope. Results: Out of 9 patients the BPF was successfully sealed in 8 cases (88.88%. In 1 patient of postpneumonectomy, the fistula was big, that is >8 mm who had a recurrence after the procedure. In one case of pyopneumothorax the leak reduced slowly and it took us 14 days to remove the intercostal drainage tube. Rest of the patients had a favorable outcome. No complications were observed in a follow-up of 6 months. Conclusions: In our opinion, it is a cost-effective, viable, and safe alternative compared with costly, time-consuming, and high-risk surgical procedures.

  9. Radiolabelling of poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles with a technetium-99m-dextran complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly(butyl 2-cyanoacrylate) nanoparticles have been radiolabelled with a sup(99m)Tc-dextran complex to allow their pattern of biodistribution to be followed by using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The method involves the performing of a sup(99m)Tc-dextran complex and using this as a polymeric stabiliser during the formation of nanoparticles. Copolymerisation of this complex with the cyanoacrylate monomer results in the radiolabel being covalently linked to the nanoparticle matrix with a labelling efficiency of approximately 18%. The radiolabelled nanoparticles slowly degrade and release the activity into buffer solution. The release rate was relatively unaffected by the presence of plasma proteins indicating that the system should be suitable for use in vivo. (author)

  10. Inhibition Effect of 1-Butyl-4-Methylpyridinium Tetrafluoroborate on the Corrosion of Copper in Phosphate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scendo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of 1-Butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MBPBF4 as ionic liquid (IL on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M PO43− solutions of pH 2 and 4 was studied. The research involved electrochemical polarization method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. The results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency of corrosion of copper increases with an increase in the concentration of 4MBPBF4 but decreases with increasing temperature. The thermodynamic functions of corrosion analysis and adsorptive behavior of 4MBPBF4 were carried out. During the test, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the copper surface in the phosphate solutions was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism.

  11. n-butyl acrylate as a sensitizer for radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a sensitizer for radiation vulcanization of NR latex n-butyl acrylate (n-BA) has several advantages such as high sensitizing efficiency and easiness of removal of residue by drying. However n-BA tends to destabilize NR latex. A study to stabilize NR latex against n-BA has been carried out. The most effective stabilizer is potassium hydroxide. By the addition of 0.2 phr KOH the stability of NR latex is sufficiently improved to withstand the addition of 5 phr n-BA. The sensitizing efficiency of n-BA is so high that the vulcanization dose is 15 kGy with 5 phr n-BA without the addition of carbon tetrachloride as a co-sensitizer. The radiation vulcanized NR latex has enough stability for a 90 days storage. (author)

  12. Treatment of intrahepatic arteriovenous fistula in hepatocellular carcinoma with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) continues to be one of the most common malignancies with an incidence of approximately one million cases per year and a dismal prognosis; some authors have reported a median survival of 1-2 months after diagnosis. Although surgery remains the only hope for cure, few patients are candidates. As a result, the rote of interventional radiology in the management of HCC has grown remarkably in the past decade. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), by far, is the most common technique used to treat unresectable HCC, that is usually performed with the selective arterial administration of ACA- lipiodol emulsion of iodized and gelatin sponge particles to occlude temporarily tumor feeding vessels. Arteriovenous shunt has been reported in HCC and is usually as a recognized contrain-dication of TACE. In this paper, a patient of HCC with intratumoral arteriovenous fistula was successfully embolized with the mixture of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate and ethiodol oil by us. (authors)

  13. Spectroscopic studies on uranyl complexes with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexes formed from uranyl salts and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in ionic liquids (ILs) were studied by spectroscopic methods. [UO2(TBP)4]2+ is formed from UO2(ClO4)2· xH2O with excess of TBP in ILs. The coordination number of uranyl in [UO2(TBP)4]2+ is determined as 4 by ATR-FTIR study. In [Bmim][NTf2], though TBP cannot replace the NO3- coordinated to uranyl, TBP/[Bmim][NTf2] can extract 'nitrate-free' uranyl complex from diluted HNO3 medium and the extracted complex is converted into [UO2(TBP)4]2+ after drying. The formation of [UO2(TBP)4]2+ provides spectroscopic evidence for the cation-exchange mechanism of uranyl extraction by TBP/[Bmim][NTf2] from diluted HNO3 medium. (author)

  14. Study of n-Butyl Acrylate Self-Initiation Reaction Experimentally and via Macroscopic Mechanistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of alkane hydroperoxidation with tert-butyl hydroperoxide catalysed by a vanadate anion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'pin, Georgiy B; Kozlov, Yuriy N

    2003-07-01

    tert-Butyl hydroperoxide oxidizes alkanes in acetonitrile at 60 degrees C if the soluble vanadium(v) salt, n-Bu4NVO3, is used as a catalyst. Alkyl hydroperoxides are formed as main products which decompose during the course of the reaction to produce the more stable corresponding alcohols and ketones. Turnover numbers (ie. numbers of moles of products per one mole of a catalyst) attained 250. The kinetics and selectivity of the reaction have been studied. The mechanism proposed involves the formation of a complex between the V(V) species and t-BuOOH (K5 was estimated to be 5 dm3 mol(-1)) followed by decomposition of this complex (k6 = 0.2 s(-1)). The generated V(IV) species reacts with another t-BuOOH molecule to produce an active t-BuO* radical which attacks the hydrocarbon. PMID:12945701

  16. Formation of microporous polymeric materials by microemulsion radiation polymerization of butyl acrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microemulsion system composed of butyl acrylate (BA) and water with the mixture of sodium 12-acryloxy-9-octadecenate (SAO) and octylphenoxypoly(ethoxyethanol) (OP-10) as emulsifier was initiated by γ-ray at room temperature to polymerize and produce microporous polymeric materials. The morphology and swelling characteristics of the resulting polymeric materials were studied. It was found that they depend strongly on the composition (water content, crosslinker content, emulsifier content) of the precursor microemulsions. In addition, the swelling properties of polymer so prepared were also found to be sensitive to the pH of the swelling medium. The change in swelling behaviors of the polymeric materials is discussed in terms of the polyelectrolyte effect exhibited by polymerized anionic emulsifier SAO. (author)

  17. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek

    2010-12-01

    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Isolation and Initial Characterization of A Pure Cultures Capable to Degradation Methyl tert- Butyl Ether (MTBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikpey

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, a gasoline octane enhancer, was introduced as a substitute for lead tetraethyl over 30 years ago. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline, has introduced MTBE into the environment compartments, mostly into the under ground and surface water and water as a second most frequently detected contaminant. In this study, we have isolated pure cultures from bacterial consortium capable to use MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. MTBE biodegradation rate was measured in headspace by gas chromatography. Initial liner rates of biodegradation by Pinpoint and white strains were found 2.9 mg and 3 mg MTBE hˉ1 gˉ1 wet biomass, respectively. The results of 16S rDNA PCR disclosed similarities in the banding patterns between the cultures, and the known degrading strain PM1. The results of this study suggest promising perspectives for engineering the in situ bioremediation of MTBE.

  19. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase

  20. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup −3} S cm{sup −1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.