Sample records for butyl radicals

  1. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Radical Semi-Batch Copolymerization of Butyl Acrylate and 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan E S Schier; David Cohen-Sacal; Owen R Larsen; Robin A Hutchinson


    The radical copolymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) was investigated under batch and semi-batch operations, with a focus on the influence of hydrogen-bonding on acrylate backbiting...


    Block copolymers of polystyrene and poly(t-butyl acrylate) were prepared using atom transfer radical polymerization techniques. These polymers were synthesized with a CuBr/N,N,N,NUV absorption spectra, kinetics and mechanism for alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals originating from t-butyl alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Sehested, J.


    Alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals from 1-butyl alcohol (TBA), HOC (CH3)2CH2. and HOC(CH3)2CH2O2. have been studied in the ps phase at 298 K. Two techniques were used: pulse radiolysis UV absorption to measure the spectra and kinetics, and long path-length Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR......) to identify and quantify the reaction products. Absorption cross sections were quantified over the wavelength range 220-320 nm. At 240 nm, sigma(HOC(CH3)2CH2) = (2.4 +/- 0.3) x 10(-18) and sigma(HOC(CH3)2CH2O2) = (3.4 +/- 0.5) X 10(-18) cm2 molecule-1 have been obtained. Observed rate constants for the self...

  3. Bis(formylphenolatocobalt(II-Mediated Alternating Radical Copolymerization of tert-Butyl 2-Trifluoromethylacrylate with Vinyl Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Banerjee


    Full Text Available The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP of vinyl acetate (VAc and its OMR copolymerization (OMRcoP with tert-butyl 2-trifluoromethylacrylate (MAF-TBE mediated by Co(SAL2 (SAL = 2-formylphenolato or deprotonated salicylaldehyde produced relatively well-defined PVAc and poly(VAc-alt-MAF-TBE copolymers at moderate temperature (<40 °C in bulk. The resulting alternating copolymer was characterized by 1H-, 13C- and 19F-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies, and by size exclusion chromatography. The linear first-order kinetic plot, the linear evolutions of the molar mass with total monomer conversion, and the relatively low dispersity (Đ~1.55 of the resulting copolymers suggest that this cobalt complex provides some degree of control over the copolymerization of VAc and MAF-TBE. Compared to the previously investigated cobalt complex OMRP mediators having a fully oxygen-based first coordination sphere, this study emphasizes a few peculiarities of Co(SAL2: a lower ability to trap radical chains as compared to Co(acac2 and the absence of catalytic chain transfer reactions, which dominates polymerizations carried in the presence of 9-oxyphenalenone cobalt derivative.

  4. Polymer brushes on single-walled carbon nanotubes by atom transfer radical polymerization of n-butyl methacrylate. (United States)

    Qin, Shuhui; Qin, Dongqi; Ford, Warren T; Resasco, Daniel E; Herrera, Jose E


    Polymer brushes with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as backbones were synthesized by grafting n-butyl methacrylate (nBMA) from the ends and sidewalls of SWNT via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Carboxylic acid groups on SWNT were formed by nitric acid oxidation. The ATRP initiators were covalently attached to the SWNT by esterification of 2-hydroxyethyl 2'-bromopropionate with carboxylic acid groups. Methyl 2-bromopropionate (MBP) was added as free initiator during the brush preparation to control growth of the brushes and to monitor the polymerization kinetics. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) results show that the molecular weight of free poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PnBMA) increased linearly with nBMA monomer conversion. PnBMA cleaved from the SWNT after high conversion had the same molecular weight as PnBMA produced in solution. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) show that the amount of PnBMA grown from the SWNT increased linearly with the molecular weight of the free PnBMA. The most highly PnBMA-functionalized SWNT dissolve in 1,2-dichlorobenzene, chloroform, and tetrahydrofuran, and solubility increases with the amount of PnBMA bound to SWNT. Near-infrared and Raman spectra indicate that the side walls of the SWNT were lightly functionalized by the nitric acid treatment and that the degree of functionalization of the SWNT did not change significantly during the formation of initiator or during the polymerization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show contour lengths of the SWNT brushes on a mica surface from 200 nm to 2.0 microm and an average height of the backbone of 2-3 nm, indicating that the bundles of original SWNT were broken into individual tubes by functionalization and polymerization.

  5. UV absorption spectra and kinetics for alkyl and alkyl peroxy radicals originating from di-tert-butyl ether

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.; Langer, S.


    Alkyl, (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2, and alkyl peroxy, (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2O2, radicals from di-tert-butyl ether (DTBE), have been studied in the gas phase at 296 K. A pulse radiolysis UV absorption technique was used to measure the spectra and kinetics. Absorption cross sections were quantified over...... the wavelength range 220-330 nm. At 240 nm, sigma((CH3)3COC(CH3)2CH2) = (3.6 +/- 0.4) X 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) and at 260 nm, sigma((CH3)3COC(CH3)2CH2) = (3.8 +/- 0.3) X 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) have been obtained. The observed rate constants for the self-reaction of (CH3)(3)COC(CH3)(2)CH2 and (CH3)(3)COC...

  6. Pulse radiolysis study of reactions of alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals originating from methyl tert-butyl ether in the gas phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, S.; Ljungström, E.; Ellermann, T.


    UV spectra and kinetics for the reactions of alkyl and alkylperoxy radicals from methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were studied in 1 atm of SF6 by the pulse radiolysis-UV absorption technique. UV spectra for the radical mixtures were quantified from 215 to 340 nm. At 240 nm, sigma(R) = (2.6 +/- 0.4) X...... 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) and sigma(RO2) = (4.1 +/- 0.6) X 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) (base e). The rate constant for the self-reaction of the alkyl radicals is (2.5 +/- 1.1) X 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The rate constants for reaction of the alkyl radicals with molecular oxygen...

  7. Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Magnetite Nanoparticles with Statistical Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) Copolymers


    Patcharin Kanhakeaw; Boonjira Rutnakornpituk; Uthai Wichai; Metha Rutnakornpituk


    This work presented the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticle (MNP) with poly[(t-butyl acrylate)-stat-(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)] copolymers (P[(t-BA)-stat-PEGMA]) via a surface-initiated “grafting from” atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Loading molar ratio of t-BA to PEGMA was systematically varied (100 : 0, 75 : 25, 50 : 50, and 25 : 75, resp.) such that the degree of hydrophilicity of the copolymers, affecting the particle dispersibility in water,...

  8. Kinetic study of the 7-endo selective radical cyclization of N-tert-butyl-o-bromobenzylmethacryl amides: kinetic investigation of the cyclization and 1,7-hydrogen transfer of aromatic radicals. (United States)

    Kamimura, Akio; Kotake, Tomoko; Ishihara, Yuriko; So, Masahiro; Hayashi, Takahiro


    A kinetic investigation of the radical cyclization of N-tert-butyl-o-bromobenzylmethacryl amides to give 2-benzazepines via 7-endo selective cyclization was undertaken. The aryl radical generated from the amide precursor by treatment with Bu3SnH gave the three compounds, which are a 7-endo cyclized adduct, a 6-exocyclized adduct, and a reduced product. The cyclization reactions under various Bu3SnH concentrations were traced by GC analysis. The 7-endo/6-exo selectivity was constant irrespective of variation in Bu3SnH concentration. These results revealed that regioselectivity is controlled in a kinetic manner and that there is no possibility of a neophyl rearrangement. The use of Bu3SnD revealed that 1,7-hydrogen transfer, in which an aryl radical abstracts a hydrogen atom from the methallylic methyl group, occurs during the reaction. Hydrogen abstraction from toluene, the reaction solvent, was also observed. The 1,7-transfer rate depended on the Bu3SnX (X = H or D), and the reaction kinetics was examined. The k(H)/k(D) value for the hydrogen abstraction of aryl radical from Bu3SnX (X = H or D) was estimated using 4-bromoanisol. The utilization of these values revealed the overall reaction kinetics and relative rates for the cyclization and reduction by Bu3SnX (X = H or D). Kinetic parameters for hydrogen abstraction from toluene by aryl radicals were also estimated.

  9. Kinetic Analysis of the Gas-Phase Reactions of Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether with the OH Radical in the Presence of NOx

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    Pimentel André Silva


    Full Text Available An explicit chemical mechanism for the reaction of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE with OH radicals in NOx-air systems, was simulated by solving the corresponding ordinary differential equations using Runge-Kutta-4-semi-implicit method. The simulated results are consistent with the published experimental data and the model accounts for all the major pathways by which MTBE reacts in NOx-air systems. An eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis is used to extract meaningful kinetic information from linear sensitivity coefficients computed for all species of the chemical mechanism at several time points. This method is used to get an objective condition for constructing a minimal reaction set. Also, a classic method called rate of production analysis (ROPA was used for the study of the reactions relevance. Using the principal component information as well as the rate of production analysis the main paths of reaction are identified and discussed.

  10. Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of Magnetite Nanoparticles with Statistical Poly(tert-butyl acrylate-poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharin Kanhakeaw


    Full Text Available This work presented the surface modification of magnetite nanoparticle (MNP with poly[(t-butyl acrylate-stat-(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate] copolymers (P[(t-BA-stat-PEGMA] via a surface-initiated “grafting from” atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP. Loading molar ratio of t-BA to PEGMA was systematically varied (100 : 0, 75 : 25, 50 : 50, and 25 : 75, resp. such that the degree of hydrophilicity of the copolymers, affecting the particle dispersibility in water, can be fine-tuned. The reaction progress in each step of the synthesis was monitored via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The studies in the reaction kinetics indicated that PEGMA had higher reactivity than that of t-BA in the copolymerizations. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC indicated that the molecular weights of the copolymers increased with the increase of the monomer conversion. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that the particles were spherical with averaged size of 8.1 nm in diameter. Dispersibility of the particles in water was apparently improved when the copolymers were coated as compared to P(t-BA homopolymer coating. The percentages of MNP and the copolymer in the composites were determined via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and their magnetic properties were investigated via vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM.

  11. Emulsion Polymerization of Butyl Acrylate: Spin Trapping and EPR Study (United States)

    Kim, S.; Westmoreland, D.


    The propagating radical in the emulsion polymerization reaction of butyl acrylate was detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy using two spin trapping agents, 2-methyl-2nitrosopropane and alpha -N-tert-butylnitrone.

  12. Well-defined iron complexes as efficient catalysts for "green" atom-transfer radical polymerization of styrene, methyl methacrylate, and butyl acrylate with low catalyst loadings and catalyst recycling. (United States)

    Nakanishi, So-Ichiro; Kawamura, Mitsunobu; Kai, Hidetomo; Jin, Ren-Hua; Sunada, Yusuke; Nagashima, Hideo


    Environmentally friendly iron(II) catalysts for atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) were synthesized by careful selection of the nitrogen substituents of N,N,N-trialkylated-1,4,9-triazacyclononane (R3 TACN) ligands. Two types of structures were confirmed by crystallography: "[(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]" complexes with relatively small R groups have ionic and dinuclear structures including a [(R3 TACN)Fe(μ-X)3 Fe(R3 TACN)](+) moiety, whereas those with more bulky R groups are neutral and mononuclear. The twelve [(R3 TACN)FeX2 ]n complexes that were synthesized were subjected to bulk ATRP of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and butyl acrylate (BA). Among the iron complexes examined, [{(cyclopentyl)3 TACN}FeBr2 ] (4 b) was the best catalyst for the well-controlled ATRP of all three monomers. This species allowed easy catalyst separation and recycling, a lowering of the catalyst concentration needed for the reaction, and the absence of additional reducing reagents. The lowest catalyst loading was accomplished in the ATRP of MMA with 4 b (59 ppm of Fe based on the charged monomer). Catalyst recycling in ATRP with low catalyst loadings was also successful. The ATRP of styrene with 4 b (117 ppm Fe atom) was followed by precipitation from methanol to give polystyrene that contained residual iron below the calculated detection limit (0.28 ppm). Mechanisms that involve equilibria between the multinuclear and mononuclear species were also examined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structural and functional changes in proteins induced by free radical-mediated oxidative stress and protective action of the antioxidants N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone and vitamin E. (United States)

    Butterfield, D A; Koppal, T; Howard, B; Subramaniam, R; Hall, N; Hensley, K; Yatin, S; Allen, K; Aksenov, M; Aksenova, M; Carney, J


    The free radical theory of aging proposes that reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative damage over the lifetime of the subject. It is the cumulative and potentially increasing amount of accumulated damage that accounts for the dysfunctions and pathologies seen in normal aging. We have previously demonstrated that both normal rodent brain aging and normal human brain aging are associated with an increase in oxidative modification of proteins and in changes in plasma membrane lipids. Several lines of investigation indicate that one of the likely sources of ROS is the mitochondria. There is an increase in oxidative damage to the mitochondrial genome in aging and a decreased expression of mitochondrial mRNA in aging. We have used a multidisciplinary approach to the characterization of the changes that occur in aging and in the modeling of brain aging, both in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of rodents to acute normobaric hyperoxia for up to 24 h results in oxidative modifications in cytosolic proteins and loss of activity for the oxidation-sensitive enzymes glutamine synthetase and creatine kinase. Cytoskeletal protein spin labeling also reveals synaptosomal membrane protein oxidation following hyperoxia. These changes are similar to the changes seen in senescent brains, compared to young adult controls. The antioxidant spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) was effective in preventing all of these changes. In a related study, we characterized the changes in brain protein spin labeling and cytosolic enzyme activity in a series of phenotypically selected senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP), compared to a resistant line (SAMR1) that was derived from the same original parents. In general, the SAM mice demonstrated greater oxidative changes in brain proteins. In a sequel study, a group of mice from the SAMP8-sensitive line were compared to the SAMR1-resistant mice following 14 days of daily PBN treatment at a dose of 30 mg/kg. PBN treatment resulted

  14. An unexpected ethyl transfer reaction between Et2Zn anddo(t-butyl)glyoxaldiimine (t-BuDAB).Studies of thepersistent [EtZn(t-BuDAB)] radical which is in equilibrium with its C-C coupled dimer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Jastrzebski, J.T.B.H.; Klerks, J.M.; Vrieze, K.


    Whereas p-Tol{2}Zn reacts with t-BuN@?CHCH@?N-t-Bu (t-BuDAB) to give a stable 11 complex [p-Tol{2}Zn(t-BuDAB)], Et{2}Zn gives EtZnN(Et)(t-Bu)CH@?CHN-(t-Bu) via intramolecular ethyl transfer in the unstable Et{2}Zn(t-BuDAB) complex. In solution the stable persistent organozinc radical EtZn(t-BuDAB),

  15. Gamma-radiation effect on thermal ageing of butyl rubber compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elizabeth C.L.; Lugao, Ademar B., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Butyl rubber has a comprehensive use in sealing systems, especially in tires inner tubes, due to their low permeability to gases. So, it is required that butyl rubber compounds show a better performance, more and more. Butyl rubber is provided with excellent mechanical properties and oxidation resistance. Besides showing these properties, radiation exposures impart modifications in physical-chemical and morphological properties on butyl rubber materials. When exposed to gamma-radiation, rubbers suffer changes in their mechanical and physical properties, caused by material degradation. The major radiation effect in butyl rubbers is chain scission; besides, ageing promotes too the same effect with further build-up of free radicals. This work aims to the study of gamma-radiation in physical-chemical properties of butyl rubber subjected to thermal ageing. Doses used herein were: 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 KGy. Samples were evaluated before and after ageing according to traditional essays, such as: hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break. From accomplished assessments it is possible to affirm that at doses higher than 50 kGy it was observed a sharp decreasing in butyl rubber physical-chemical properties, before and after exposure to ageing. (author)

  16. Morphology and film formation of poly(butyl methacrylate)-polypyrrole core-shell latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, F; Lang, J

    Core-shell latex particles made of a poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) core and a thin polypyrrole (PPy) shell were synthesized by two-stage polymerization. In the first stage, PBMA latex particles were synthesized in a semicontinuous process by free-radical polymerization. PBMA latex particles were

  17. Scavenging and characterization of short-lived radicals using a novel stable nitroxide radical with a characteristic UV-vis absorption spectrum. (United States)

    Toba, Ryuta; Gotoh, Hiroaki; Sakakibara, Kazuhisa


    A stable tert-butyl(10-phenyl-9-anthryl)nitroxide (BPAN) radical was newly synthesized and used for the capture/characterization of reactive radicals. Adducts obtained from the reactions of BPAN with in situ generated reactive radicals showed excellent stability, assuring complete isolation and purification. The structures of the adducts were established by LC-MS and NMR analyses.

  18. Optical fibers by butyl methacrylate reactive extrusion


    Berthet, Romuald; Chalamet, Yvan; Taha, Mohamed; Zerroukhi, Amar


    51 p.; A process for a poly(butyl methacrylate) optical fibers production by reactive extrusion was developed. The reactive system was adapted to the reduced reaction time in the extruder combining concepts based on the free volume theory and a kinetic model for mass polymerization a butyl methacrylate. A kinetic model was proposed and the reaction evolution was simulated at different temperature and initiator concentration. This allowed the choice of reaction conditions in adequation with re...

  19. Macromolecular Architectures Designed by Living Radical Polymerization with Organic Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Tanishima


    Full Text Available Well-defined diblock and triblock copolymers, star polymers, and concentrated polymer brushes on solid surfaces were prepared using living radical polymerization with organic catalysts. Polymerizations of methyl methacrylate, butyl acrylate, and selected functional methacrylates were performed with a monofunctional initiator, a difunctional initiator, a trifunctional initiator, and a surface-immobilized initiator.

  1. Pyrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). 2. Theoretical study of decomposition pathways. (United States)

    Zhang, Taichang; Zhang, Lidong; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Tao; Hong, Xin; Qi, Fei


    The thermal decomposition pathways of MTBE have been investigated using the G3B3 method. On the basis of the experimental observation and theoretical calculation, the pyrolysis channels are provided, especially for primary pyrolysis reactions. The primary decomposition pathways include formation of methanol and isobutene, CH4 elimination, H2 elimination and C-H, C-C, C-O bond cleavage reactions. Among them, the formation channel of methanol and isobutene is the lowest energy pathway, which is in accordance with experimental observation. Furthermore, the secondary pyrolysis pathways have been calculated as well, including decomposition of tert-butyl radical, isobutene, methanol and acetone. The radicals play an important role in the formation of pyrolysis products, for example, tert-butyl radical and allyl radical are major precursors for the formation of allene and propyne. Although some isomers (isobutene and 1-butene, allene and propyne, acetone and propanal) are identified in our experiment, these isomerization reaction pathways occur merely at the high temperature due to their high activation energies. The theoretical calculation can explain the experimental results reported in part 1 and shed further light on the thermal decomposition pathways.

  2. Butylated caffeic acid: An efficient novel antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shi


    Full Text Available A novel antioxidant, butylated caffeic acid (BCA was rationally designed by adding a tert-butyl group to caffeic acid, which was synthesized at a high yield (36.2% from 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol by a four-step reaction including Friedel-Crafts alkylation, bromine oxidation, ether bond hydrolysis and Knoevenagel condensation. Its antioxidant capacity was much stronger than common commercial antioxidant tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ and its mother compound, caffeic acid, in both rancimat and deep frying tests. When investigated via the DPPH method, the antioxidant capacity of BCA was almost equal to TBHQ, but lower than caffeic acid. BCA could be a potentially strong antioxidant, especially for food processing at high temperatures such as deep frying and baking.

  3. Direct determination of rate constants for coupling between aromatic radical anions and alkyl and benzyl radicals by laser-flash photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.; Christensen, P.; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter


    Coupling rates between the radicals methyl, n-, sec-, tert-butyl and benzyl (R-.) and the aromatic radical anions of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene, 9,10-dicyanoanthracene and fluorenone (A(-.)) have been obtained using a new laser-flash photolysis method. The radicals R-. and the radical anions A(-.) we...... of the radicals and the structure and standard potentials of the aromatic radical anions.......Coupling rates between the radicals methyl, n-, sec-, tert-butyl and benzyl (R-.) and the aromatic radical anions of 1,4-dicyanonaphthalene, 9,10-dicyanoanthracene and fluorenone (A(-.)) have been obtained using a new laser-flash photolysis method. The radicals R-. and the radical anions A(-.) were...... generated by a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between the aromatic compound A and the alkyl or benzyl triphenylborate anion RB(Ph)(3)(-). For the first time the rate constants of the coupling reaction between methyl and benzyl radicals with aromatic radical anions have been obtained. For all...

  4. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation by ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation: feasibility and kinetics studies. (United States)

    Chen, K F; Kao, C M; Wu, L C; Surampalli, R Y; Liang, S H


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation to remediate groundwater contaminated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). In this study, batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various factors on the efficiency of MTBE degradation including persulfate concentrations, ferrous ion concentrations, and persulfate coupled with hydrogen peroxide. Results show that ferrous ion-activated persulfate oxidation was capable of degrading MTBE efficiently. Persulfate and ferrous ion concentrations correlated with MTBE degradation rates. However, excess addition of ferrous ion resulted in decreased MTBE degrading rates most likely because of competition for sulfate free radicals between ferrous ion and MTBE. Two main byproducts of MTBE degradation, tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl alcohol, were detected in the experiments; both were, however, subsequently degraded. Results of sulfate analysis show that proper addition of ferrous ion could prevent unnecessary persulfate decomposition.

  5. Compound list: butylated hydroxyanisole [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available butylated hydroxyanisole BHA 00156 ...

  6. Thermal Polymerization of N-Butyl Acrylate (United States)

    Ingham, J. D.


    Simple new polymerization method enables production of n-butyl acrylate polymer of desired high molecular weight, without disadvantages that usually attend more conventional methods. Process, which is hybrid of thermal, solution, and emulsion polymerization methods, involves controlled thermal polymerization of monomer at moderate temperatures without use of catalysts or additives.

  7. 21 CFR 582.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene. (United States)


    ... 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food provided the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxytoluene. 582.3173 Section 582.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole. (United States)


    ... 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food provided the... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Butylated hydroxyanisole. 582.3169 Section 582.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3173 - Butylated hydroxytoluene. (United States)


    ... of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food, provided the substance is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxytoluene. 182.3173 Section 182.3173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  10. 21 CFR 182.3169 - Butylated hydroxyanisole. (United States)


    ... of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of food, provided the substance is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Butylated hydroxyanisole. 182.3169 Section 182.3169 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...


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    -t-butyl(benzyl/benzyliden)amino)-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4- triazole-5-one: (1) ... All potentiometric measurements were performed in an 80 mL jacketed titration cell ... potentiometric titration curves were formed for all the cases (Figure 2-5).

  12. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new use...

  13. Intake of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene and stomach cancer risk : results from analyses in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Verhagen, H.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kleinjans, J.; Brandt, P.A. van den


    Both carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic properties have been reported for the synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The association between dietary intake of BHA and BHT and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)

  14. Intra-arterial tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide infusion induces an exacerbated sensory response in the rat hind limb and is associated with an impaired tissue oxygen uptake.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Goor, H. van; Bahrami, S.; Kozlov, A.V.; Leixnering, M.; Redl, H.; Goris, R.J.A.


    The objective of this study was to investigate oxidative stress and oxygen extraction mechanisms in an animal model of continuous intra-arterial infusion of a free radical donor and in an in vitro model using isolated mitochondria. tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide (tert-BuOOH, 25 mM) was infused for 24 h in

  15. Radical versus Non-Radical Inventions


    Schoenmakers, Wilfred; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim


    This paper looks at the special characteristics of radical inventions. It tries to identify those variables that differentiate radical inventions from non-radical inventions. Since radical inventions are very important for the economy as a whole and for the individual firm performances, understanding what makes radical inventions differ from non-radical inventions is very important. For our research we made use of the EPO (European Patent Office) database on patents. We used...

  16. Alkyl Radicals as Hydrogen Bond Acceptors: Computational Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Steen


    Spectroscopic, energetic and structural information obtained by DFT and G3-type computational studies demonstrates that charged proton donors can form moderately strong hydrogen bonds to simple alkyl radicals. The presence of these bonds stabilizes the adducts and modifies their structure......, and gives rise to pronounced shifts of IR stretching frequencies and to increased absorption intensities. The hydrogen bond acceptor properties of alkyl radicals equal those of many conventional acceptors, e.g., the bond length changes and IR red-shifts suggest that tert-butyl radicals are slightly better...... acceptors than formaldehyde molecules, while propyl radicals are as good as H2O. The hydrogen bond strength appears to depend on the proton affinity of the proton donor and on the ionization energy of the acceptor alkyl radical, not on the donor-acceptor proton affinity difference, reflecting...

  17. Study of n-Butyl Acrylate Self-Initiation Reaction Experimentally and via Macroscopic Mechanistic Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Arabi Shamsabadi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study of the self-initiation reaction of n-butyl acrylate (n-BA in free-radical polymerization. For the first time, the frequency factor and activation energy of the monomer self-initiation reaction are estimated from measurements of n-BA conversion in free-radical homo-polymerization initiated only by the monomer. The estimation was carried out using a macroscopic mechanistic mathematical model of the reactor. In addition to already-known reactions that contribute to the polymerization, the model considers a n-BA self-initiation reaction mechanism that is based on our previous electronic-level first-principles theoretical study of the self-initiation reaction. Reaction rate equations are derived using the method of moments. The reaction-rate parameter estimates obtained from conversion measurements agree well with estimates obtained via our purely-theoretical quantum chemical calculations.

  18. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health (United States)

    Lobo, V.; Patil, A.; Phatak, A.; Chandra, N.


    In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the field of free radical chemistry. Free radicals reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species are generated by our body by various endogenous systems, exposure to different physiochemical conditions or pathological states. A balance between free radicals and antioxidants is necessary for proper physiological function. If free radicals overwhelm the body's ability to regulate them, a condition known as oxidative stress ensues. Free radicals thus adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases. Hence application of external source of antioxidants can assist in coping this oxidative stress. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review provides a brief overview on oxidative stress mediated cellular damages and role of dietary antioxidants as functional foods in the management of human diseases. PMID:22228951

  19. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    shape and size of the aggregates of sodium n-butyl benzene sulfonate in aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first SANS report on the aggre- gation behaviour of a hydrotrope in aqueous solutions. 2. Materials and methods n-Butyl benzene, procured from Herdilia Chemicals, Mumbai, was sulfonated ...

  20. Solvent effects on the magnetic shielding of tertiary butyl alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The magnetic shielding and its polarizabilities, have been calculated for tertiary butyl alcohol and tertiary butyl amine. These have been used to rationalise the solvent shifts of the proton spectra of the interesting cosolvent systems with water recently measured by Kipkemboi, et al. Continuum solvation calculations and ...

  1. An efficient and highly selective ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether catalyzed by sulfonated ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Reza Fareghi


    Full Text Available A novel series of sulfonic acid-functionalized ionic liquids (SFILs was found to act as efficient catalysts for ortho-tert-butylation of p-cresol with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE as the tert-butylating agent without an added solvent. The mono o-tert-butylated product was obtained in up to 80.4% isolated yield and 95.2% selectivity under such green conditions. No O-tert-butylated byproducts were formed.

  2. 4-tert-Butyl-pyridinium triiodide-4-tert-butyl-pyridine (1/1). (United States)

    He, Hongshan; Sykes, Andrew G


    The title compound, C(9)H(14)N(+)·I(3) (-)·C(9)H(13)N, consists of monoprotonated 4-tert-butyl-pyridinium cations and triiodide anions. The triiodide ion has near-symmetric linear geometry, with bond lengths of 2.9105 (4) Å (I-I) and a bond angle of 177.55 (3)° (I-I-I). For this room-temperature structure, the butyl group on the pyridine ring is disordered and has been treated as a rigid rotator, modeled in three separate positions with 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 occupancies. The cations assemble into dimeric forms by way of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  3. 4-tert-Butyl­pyridinium triiodide–4-tert-butyl­pyridine (1/1) (United States)

    He, Hongshan; Sykes, Andrew G.


    The title compound, C9H14N+·I3 −·C9H13N, consists of monoprotonated 4-tert-butyl­pyridinium cations and triiodide anions. The triiodide ion has near-symmetric linear geometry, with bond lengths of 2.9105 (4) Å (I—I) and a bond angle of 177.55 (3)° (I—I—I). For this room-temperature structure, the butyl group on the pyridine ring is disordered and has been treated as a rigid rotator, modeled in three separate positions with 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 occupancies. The cations assemble into dimeric forms by way of N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:21523100

  4. Quantification of hypoglycin A as butyl ester. (United States)

    Sander, Johannes; Terhardt, Michael; Sander, Stefanie; Janzen, Nils


    L-α-amino-methylenecyclopropyl propionic acid (Hypoglycin A, HGA) has been found to be the toxic compound in fruits of the Sapindaceae family causing acute intoxication when ingested as food or feed. Clinical symptoms are consistent with acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD). Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure HGA after butylation. Sample volumes were 10μL for serum and 20μL for urine. Internal standard for HGA was d3-leucine, samples were plotted on a 7-point linear calibration curve. Coefficients of variation were Ackee fruit poisoning or atypical myopathy in horses and for forensic purposes in cases of suspected HGA poisoning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Steric Effects in the Reaction of Aryl Radicals on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combellas, Catherine [CNRS-ESPCI; Jiang, Deen [ORNL; Kanoufi, Frederic [CNRS-ESPCI; Pinson, Jean [Alchimer; Podvorica, Fetah [University of Prishtina, Kosovo


    Steric effects are investigated in the reaction of aryl radicals with surfaces. The electrochemical reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-methyl, 2-methoxy, 2-ethyl, 2,6-, 2,4-, and 3,5-dimethyl, 4-tert-butyl, 3,5-bis-tert-butyl benzenediazonium, 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl), and pentafluoro benzenediazonium tetrafluoroborates is examined in acetonitrile solutions. It leads to the formation of grafted layers only if the steric hindrance at the 2- or 2,6-position(s) is small. When the 3,5-positions are crowded with tert-butyl groups, the growth of the organic layer is limited by steric effects and a monolayer is formed. The efficiency of the grafting process is assessed by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared, and ellipsometry. These experiments, together with density functional computations of bonding energies of substituted phenyl groups on a copper surface, are discussed in terms of the reactivity of aryl radicals in the electrografting reaction and in the growth of the polyaryl layer.

  6. Nuclease Activity via Self-Activation and Anticancer Activity of Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex: Novel Role of Tertiary Butyl Group in the Ligand Frame


    Ghosh, Kaushik; Kumar, Pramod; Mohan, Varun; Singh, Udai P.; Kasiri, Sahba; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.


    Copper complex [Cu(tBuPhimp)(Cl)] (1) derived from tridentate ligand tBuPhimpH having N2O donors was synthesized and molecular structure was determined. Phenoxyl radical complex was generated in solution at room temperature using Ce(IV) salt. Nuclease activity and anticancer activity of 1 was investigated. Roles of tert-butyl group and singlet oxygen in DNA cleavage activity were also discussed.

  7. A radical approach to radical innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Deichmann (Dirk); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)


    textabstractInnovation pays. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google – nearly every one of today’s most successful companies has a talent for developing radical new ideas. But how best to encourage radical initiative taking from employees, and does their previous success or failure at it play a role?

  8. Aquatic Life Criteria - Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) (United States)

    Information pertaining to the 1999 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) for freshwater and salt water. Information includes the safe levels of MTBE that should protect the majority of species.

  9. Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water by glow discharge plasma. (United States)

    Tong, Shaoping; Ni, Yanyan; Shen, Chensi; Wen, Yuezhong; Jiang, Xuanzhen


    This study evaluated the ability of the glow discharge plasma (GDP) technique to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in an aqueous solution. The results showed that a large amount of hydrogen peroxide and highly active *OH free radicals were produced during the treatment. Various experimental parameters including discharge current, initial MTBE concentration and initial pH played significant roles on MTBE degradation. In addition, Fe2+ had a catalytic effect on the degradation of MTBE, which is potentially attributable to the reaction between Fe3+ and the hydrated electron. It was also confirmed that GDP was comparable to electrocatalytic oxidation and high-density plasma and more efficient than photocatalytic degradation techniques. These results suggest that GDP may become a competitive MTBE wastewater treatment technology.

  10. Improvement of the butyl methacrylate-paraffin embedment. (United States)

    McMillan, P J; Engen, P C; Dalgleish, A; McMillan, J


    The excellent butyl methacrylate-paraffin method as an embedment for light microscopy has been technically improved. More uniform and reproducible polymerization has been obtained by using a vacuum oven to degas the polymerizing mixture and to replace the air with nitrogen at 650 Torr. The amount of benzoyl peroxide required must be determined for each batch of butyl methacrylate. A teflon lined, reusable metal mold and a method of one-step blocking of tissues in preparation for sectioning are also described.

  11. Hydroxyl radical reactions with volatile organic compounds under simulated tropospheric conditions: tropospheric lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semadeni, M.


    Kinetic investigations of the hydroxyl radical reaction with volatile organic compounds (VOC) are important to estimate the potential of VOCs in air pollution. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficients of the hydroxyl radical reaction with members of two classes of organic compounds have been measured under simulated tropospheric conditions using a competitive technique rebuilt in this laboratory. A thermostat flow reactor was employed, which was specially constructed to investigate gas-phase reactions under atmospheric pressure. The hydroxyl radical reactions of the organic test compounds have been measured in the presence of given reference compounds over the temperature range (273-373) K using GC/FID. The rate coefficients obtained in the present study range from 11-42x10[sup -12] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup -1] s[sup -1] and from 1-52x10[sup -12] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup -1] s[sup -1] for the following ethers and aromatic compounds respectively: diethyl ether, methyl n-butyl ether, ethyl n-butyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, di-n-pentyl ether and benzene, toluene, benzaldehyde, phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, arranged according to their increasing reactivity within their class. The temperature dependence of the hydroxyl radical with methyl n-butyl ether, di-n-butyl ether, m-cresol, p-cresol and benzaldehyde have been determined for the first time in this study. The Arrhenius parameters obtained confirm the negative temperature dependence often observed in this type of reaction. The results of the present study show, that the experimental system employed can provide accurate kinetic data and discrepancies occurred in previous studies have been resolved. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  12. Reactions of hydroxyl radicals with alkenes in low-temperature matrices. (United States)

    Feltham, E J; Almond, M J; Marston, G; Wiltshire, K S; Goldberg, N


    The reactions of hydroxyl radicals with a number of stable alkenes have been studied in low-temperature matrices. The reactions were initiated by broad band UV-visible irradiation of matrices containing H2O2, and the alkene under investigation. The hydroxyalkyl radical products were identified principally by comparison of their spectra with the spectra of corresponding stable alcohols. Accordingly, IR spectra were recorded for the following series of alcohols isolated in argon matrices--methanol, ethanol, ethanol-d6, propan-1-ol, propan-2-ol, butan-2-ol, 2-methylpropan-1-ol (iso-butyl alcohol), 2-methylpropan-2-ol (tert-butyl alcohol), 2-methylbutan-2-ol (tert-amyl alcohol), 3-methylbutan-2-ol and 2,3-dimethylbutan-2-ol. The hydroxyalkyl radicals, which appear to be formed from the alkenes studied were as follows--from ethene, 2-hydroxyethyl radical: from cis- or trans-but-2-ene. 1-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radical; from propene, 1-methyl-2-hydroxyethyl and 2-hydroxypropyl radicals; from but-1-ene. 1-hydroxymethylpropyl and 2-hydroxybutyl radicals; from 2-methylpropene (iso-butene), 1,1-dimethyl-2-hydroxyethyl and 2-methyl-2-hydroxypropyl radicals; the radical products from buta-1,3-diene and isoprene could not be identified. In the cases, where two radical products were possible, i.e. when propene, but-1-ene or 2-methylpropene were the substrates, it was found that the concentration of the secondary or tertiary radical always exceeded that of the primary radical. However, the relative concentration of these radicals appears to be determined by subsequent photolysis to give carbonyl compounds. There seems, therefore, to be little preference for the secondary and tertiary radicals over the primary radicals in the primary addition process. Comments on the mechanism of the transformation from radical to carbonyl compound based upon identification of intermediates within the matrix and isotopic substitution experiments are made. The characterisation of the 2-hydroxyethyl

  13. From Molecules to Surfaces: Radical-Based Mechanisms of Si-S and Si-Se Bond Formation on Silicon. (United States)

    Buriak, Jillian M; Sikder, Md Delwar H


    The derivatization of silicon surfaces can have profound effects on the underlying electronic properties of the semiconductor. In this work, we investigate the radical surface chemistry of silicon with a range of organochalcogenide reagents (comprising S and Se) on a hydride-terminated silicon surface, to cleanly and efficiently produce surface Si-S and Si-Se bonds, at ambient temperature. Using a diazonium-based radical initiator, which induces formation of surface silicon radicals, a group of organochalcogenides were screened for reactivity at room temperature, including di-n-butyl disulfide, diphenyl disulfide, diphenyl diselenide, di-n-butyl sulfide, diphenyl selenide, diphenyl sulfide, 1-octadecanethiol, t-butyl disulfide, and t-butylthiol, which comprises the disulfide, diselenide, thiol, and thioether functionalities. The surface reactions were monitored by transmission mode Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry. Calculation of Si-Hx consumption, a semiquantitative measure of yield of production of surface-bound Si-E bonds (E = S, Se), was carried out via FTIR spectroscopy. Control experiments, sans the BBD diazonium radical initiator, were all negative for any evident incorporation, as determined by FTIR spectroscopy. The functional groups that did react with surface silicon radicals included the dialkyl/diphenyl disulfides, diphenyl diselenide, and 1-octadecanethiol, but not t-butylthiol, diphenyl sulfide/selenide, and di-n-butyl sulfide. Through a comparison with the rich body of literature regarding molecular radicals, and in particular, silyl radicals, reaction mechanisms were proposed for each. Armed with an understanding of the reaction mechanisms, much of the known chemistry within the extensive body of radical-based reactivity has the potential to be harnessed on silicon and could be extended to a range of technologically relevant semiconductor

  14. Chromogenic radical based optical sensor membrane for screening of antioxidant activity. (United States)

    Steinberg, Ivana Murković; Milardović, Stjepan


    Solid-state optical sensor membranes based on immobilised chromogenic radicals for the assessment of antioxidant activity have been studied. Two stable lipophilic chromogenic radicals, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) and galvinoxyl radical, GV, (2,6-di-tert-butyl-alpha-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy radical), were immobilised in plasticised PVC films and screened for suitability as indicators of antioxidative activity. The spectrophotometric characterisation of the polymer films containing immobilised free radicals was performed, and the response of the immobilised free radicals toward standard antioxidants was studied. It has been demonstrated that the immobilised radicals retain their reactivity towards antioxidants and the results suggest that the reactivity of immobilised radicals is comparable to standard solution-based DPPH assays. Polymer films containing immobilised DPPH radical respond to standard antioxidants in aqueous solutions by changing colour irreversibly from purple (absorption maximum at 520nm) to yellow. The initial slopes of the response curves to the phenolic antioxidant gallic acid, obtained in the 1-50mM concentration range, gave a linear calibration plot in a 1min exposure cuvette test. The polymer films were used to screen antioxidative activity of beverage and food samples known to contain antioxidants, such as black and green tea, coffee, red wine, fruit juice, olive oil and sunflower oil. It has been demonstrated that a rapid and simple qualitative screening test of untreated samples is possible using a test strip based on immobilised DPPH radical.

  15. Radical theory of rings

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, JW


    Radical Theory of Rings distills the most noteworthy present-day theoretical topics, gives a unified account of the classical structure theorems for rings, and deepens understanding of key aspects of ring theory via ring and radical constructions. Assimilating radical theory's evolution in the decades since the last major work on rings and radicals was published, the authors deal with some distinctive features of the radical theory of nonassociative rings, associative rings with involution, and near-rings. Written in clear algebraic terms by globally acknowledged authorities, the presentation

  16. Radical Change by Entrepreneurial Design


    Roberts, Nancy C.


    This article offers a conceptual framework to understand radical change. It opens with a typology that defines change in terms of its pace and scope, and defines radical change as the swift transformation of an entire system. How radical change in public policy has occurred in the past is then documented. We find examples of radical change by chance, radical change by consensus, radical change by learning, and radical change by entrepreneurial design. Radical chang...

  17. Anaerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether and tert-butyl alcohol in petrochemical wastewater. (United States)

    Ghasemian, Mohammad; Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Jaafarzadeh, Neemat


    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was used to evaluate treatment of a synthetic substrate mixture representing petrochemical wastewater containing methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethanol and acetic acid. Influent MTBE concentrations were 5, 10 and 50 mg/l (corresponding to MTBE loading rates of 0.2, 0.4 and 2 mg/l.d) with overall organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.51, 3.23 and 3.25 g COD/1.d, respectively. These OLRs resulted in removal efficiencies for MTBE of 78%, 98% and 88%. Removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand were 85% and 90% with influent MTBE concentrations of 5 and 10mg/l, but were significantly reduced to 72% with influent MTBE concentrations of 50mg/l. During all reactor runs, effluent concentrations oftert-butyl alcohol (TBA) were below the detection limit. Batch degradation of the organic substrate mixture demonstrated initial inhibitory effects when exposed to MTBE concentrations of 50 mg/l and complete inhibition with MTBE concentrations above 2000 mg/l. It is interesting to note that in batch tests using MTBE as the sole organic substrate (initial MTBE concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/l), the specific methanogenic activity decreased to below detection within the first 96 hours, but following a 72-hour lag phase the methane production increased again. Based on low volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, disappearance of TBA peaks and no findings of any other intermediate via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, while the MTBE concentration is still high, it can be suggested that during the batch tests the breakdown of gas production and the following lag phase were the direct effect of higher MTBE concentrations (more than 50 mg/l) and not because of the TBA or VFA accumulations.

  18. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Thomas [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Erpelding, Michael [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Schmid, Josef [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Chin, Andrew [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Sammons, Rhea [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States); Rockafellow, Erin [Archer Daniels Midland Company, Decatur, IL (United States)


    Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol and Butyl Acrylate. The purpose of Archer Daniels Midlands Integrated Biorefinery (IBR) was to demonstrate a modified acetosolv process on corn stover. It would show the fractionation of crop residue to distinct fractions of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose fractions would be further converted to ethanol as the primary product and a fraction of the sugars would be catalytically converted to acrylic acid, with butyl acrylate the final product. These primary steps have been demonstrated.

  19. Persistent free radicals in woodsmoke: an ESR spin trapping study. (United States)

    Lachocki, T M; Church, D F; Pryor, W A


    Free radicals are detected in the gas-phase smoke resulting from the combustion of wood using the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping method. The materials were pyrolyzed by rapid heating in a quartz tube in a flowing air stream. The filtered smoke was bubbled into a dodecane solution of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, and the resulting nitroxide radicals were detected by ESR. The radicals spin trapped from woodsmoke are compared to those we have spin trapped from tobacco smoke; the smoke from both yellow pine and oak produce more intense ESR spectra than does tobacco smoke per unit mass burned under the conditions of these experiments. When woodsmoke is bubbled through pure dodecane and the resulting woodsmoke/dodecane solution is held for a delay time before the PBN is added, radicals are detected even after the woodsmoke/dodecane solution is aged for more than 20 min. Similar experiments with tobacco smoke show that radicals no longer are trapped even after much shorter delay times from tobacco smoke/dodecane solutions.

  20. Online Radicalization: Bangladesh Perspective (United States)


    develop a sustainable counter radicalization mechanism without impinging citizens’ democratic rights. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bangladesh, cyber, online, social... sustainable counter radicalization mechanism without impinging citizens’ democratic rights. v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS At first, I would like to convey my... restaurant in the Dhaka diplomatic zone that became a lead story in the world media. The Government of Bangladesh claims the militants to be home-grown

  1. Physiology of free radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka


    Full Text Available Free radicals imply that every atom, molecule, ion, group of atoms, or molecules with one or several non-paired electrons in outer orbital. Among these are: nitrogenoxide (NO•, superoxide-anion-radical (O2•-, hydroxyl radical (OH•, peroxyl radical (ROO•, alcoxyl radical (RO• and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•. However, reactive oxygen species also include components without non-paired electrons in outer orbital (so-called reactive non-radical agents, such as: singlet oxygen (1O2, peroxynitrite (ONOO-, hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2, hypochloric acid (eg. HOCl and ozone (O3. High concentrations of free radicals lead to the development of oxidative stress which is a precondition for numerous pathological effects. However, low and moderate concentrations of these matter, which occur quite normally during cell metabolic activity, play multiple significant roles in many reactions. Some of these are: regulation of signal pathways within the cell and between cells, the role of chemoattractors and leukocyte activators, the role in phagocytosis, participation in maintaining, changes in the position and shape of the cell, assisting the cell during adaption and recovery from damage (e.g.caused by physical effort, the role in normal cell growth, programmed cell death (apoptosis and cell ageing, in the synthesis of essential biological compounds and energy production, as well as the contribution to the regulation of the vascular tone, actually, tissue vascularization.

  2. Orgasm after radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeman, M; VanDriel, MF; Schultz, WCMW; Mensink, HJA

    Objective To evaluate the ability to obtain and the quality of orgasm after radical prostatectomy, Patients and methods The orgasms experienced after undergoing radical prostatectomy were evaluated in 20 men (median age 65 years, range 56-76) using a semi-structured interview and a self-administered

  3. On the Radicalization Process. (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J


    This study aimed to provide an in-depth description of the radicalization process, which is a very important step in terrorist activities. The author proposes a translational analysis that is first based on the author's experience in the psychological evaluation of terrorist behavior and second on an exhaustive review of the current literature. The search terms "terrorism," "radicalization," "social psychology," and "psychopathology" were used to identify relevant studies in the following databases: Scopus, Medline, PubCentral, and Science Direct. Because of its importance, understanding radicalization process should be one of the priorities of behavioral scientists. International studies should be performed with a focus on several aspects, such as radicalization risk factors, brainwashing, the role of the media, and finally, in de-radicalization programs. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. In vivo copper-mediated free radical production: an ESR spin-trapping study (United States)

    Kadiiska, Maria B.; Mason, Ronald P.


    Copper has been suggested to facilitate oxidative tissue injury through a free radical-mediated pathway analogous to the Fenton reaction. By applying the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique, evidence for hydroxyl radical formation in vivo was obtained in rats treated simultaneously with copper and ascorbic acid or paraquat. A secondary radical spin-trapping technique was used in which the hydroxyl radical formed the methyl radical upon reaction with dimethylsulfoxide. The methyl radical was then detected by ESR spectroscopy as its adduct with the spin trap phenyl- N- t-butyl- nitrone (PBN). In contrast, lipid derived radical was detected in vivo in copper-challenged, vitamin E and selenium-deficient rats. These findings support the proposal that dietary selenium and vitamin E can protect against lipid peroxidation and copper toxicity. Since copper excreted into the bile from treated animals is expected to be maintained in the Cu(I) state (by ascorbic acid or glutathione), a chelating agent that would redox-stablilize it in the Cu(I) state was used to prevent ex vivo redox chemistry. Bile samples were collected directly into solutions of bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, a Cu(I)-stabilizing agent, and 2,2'-dipyridyl, a Fe(II)-stabilizing agent. If these precautions were not taken, radical adducts generated ex vivo could be mistaken for radical adducts produced in vivo and excreted into the bile.

  5. Effectiveness of hyoscine butyl bromide in shortening the first stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prolonged labour from cervical dystocia or stasis is one of the common indications for caesarean delivery. Hyoscine N-butyl bromide (HBB), an anticholinergic and antispasmodic drug, has been found effective in shortening the first stage of labour with no adverse effects on feto-maternal outcomes.

  6. Solvent free lipase catalyzed synthesis of butyl caprylate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 10, 2017 ... Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. Solvent free lipase ... The ester, butyl caprylate has wide applications in commercial market and it also possesses characteristic fruity ... lyst can offer better advantage rather the use of acid or harmful catalyst ...

  7. 27 CFR 21.100 - n-Butyl alcohol. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false n-Butyl alcohol. 21.100 Section 21.100 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  8. 27 CFR 21.101 - tert-Butyl alcohol. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false tert-Butyl alcohol. 21.101 Section 21.101 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  9. A Study of the Teratogenicity of Butylated Hydroxyanisole on Rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst; Meyer, Otto A.


    A teratogenicity study on butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was carried out in SPF New Zealand White rabbits. BHA was given by gavage from day 7–18 of the gestation period in doses of 0, 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt./day. The fetuses were removed on day 28. No effect related to the treatment with BHA...

  10. 76 FR 59906 - Fluazifop-P-butyl; Pesticide Tolerances (United States)


    ... of fluazifop-P-butyl in or on cotton, gin byproducts; cotton, refined oil; and cotton, undelinted...]propanoic acid, expressed as fluazifop, in or on cotton, undelinted seed at 0.9 ppm; and cotton, gin... made changes to the requested tolerances. First, EPA is raising the proposed cotton, gin byproducts...

  11. An alternative approach to synthesis of 2--butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 5. An alternative approach to synthesis of 2--butyl-5-nitrobenzofuran derivative: A key starting material for dronedarone hydrochloride. P Raja Gopal E R R Chandrashekar M Saravanan B Vijaya Bhaskar P Veera Somaiah. Volume 124 Issue 5 September ...

  12. Polymerization behavior of butyl bis(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Polymerization behavior of butyl bis(hydroxymethyl)phosphine oxide: Phosphorus containing polyethers for. Li‒ion conductivities. Heeralal Vignesh Babu, Billakanti Srinivas and Krishnamurthi Muralidharan*. School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad - 500046, India. Table of Contents. TGA plots of SPE2.

  13. 76 FR 77709 - Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY...-propenoate and ethenylbenzene (CAS Reg. No. 25036-16-2); also known as butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid...-risk polymers are described in 40 CFR 723.250(d). Butyl acrylate-methacrylic acid-styrene polymer...

  14. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study of water + t-butyl alcohol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydroxyl-proton chemical shifts for water and t-butyl alcohol in water + t-butyl alcohol mixtures with 8 mol% t-butyl alcohol, and the average hydroxyl and amino proton chemical shift for water + t-butylamine mixtures, have been determined at 200 MHz for four temperatures (263, 278, 298 and 313 K) as a function of ...

  15. Preparation, structural characterization, and thermochemistry of an isolable 4-arylphenoxyl radical. (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Kaminsky, Werner; Mayer, James M


    The preparation and full characterization of the 4-(nitrophenyl)phenoxyl radical, 2,6-di-(t)butyl-4-(4'-nitrophenyl) phenoxyl radical ((t)Bu2NPArO(•)) is described. This is a rare example of an isolable and crystallographically characterized phenoxyl radical and is the only example in which the parent phenol is also crystallographically well-defined. Analysis of EPR spectra indicates some spin delocalization onto the secondary aromatic ring and nitro group. Equilibrium studies show that the corresponding phenol has an O-H bond dissociation free energy (BDFE) of 77.8 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1) in MeCN (77.5 ± 0.5 kcal mol(-1) in toluene). This value is higher than related isolated phenoxyl radicals, making this a useful reagent for hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) studies. Additional thermochemical and spectroscopic parameters are also discussed.

  16. The Origins of Radical Inventions




    This paper looks at the special characteristics of radical inventions. It tries to identify those variables that differentiate radical inventions from non-radical inventions. Since radical inventions are very important for the economy as a whole and for the individual firm performances, understanding what makes radical inventions differ from non-radical inventions is very important. For our research we made use of the EPO (European Patent Office) database on patents. We used the number of for...

  17. The Nature of Radical Inventions




    Inventions come in many different forms ranging from incremental technical change to radical inventions. Radical inventions are very important for industry competition as well as for individual firm survival. In spite of many theoretical discussions on the effect of radical inventions the specific nature of radical inventions has so far remained relatively unclear. We try to shed some light on the nature of these radical inventions by investigating a group of radical, as well as a group of no...

  18. Radical chemistry of artemisinin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Evgenii T; Solodova, S L; Denisova, Taisa G [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    The review summarizes physicochemical characteristics of the natural sesquiterpene peroxide artemisinin. The kinetic schemes of transformations of artemisinin radicals under anaerobic conditions are presented and analyzed. The sequence of radical reactions of artemisinin in the presence of oxygen is considered in detail. Special emphasis is given to the intramolecular chain oxidation resulting in the transformation of artemisinin into polyatomic hydroperoxide. The kinetic characteristics of elementary reaction steps involving alkyl, alkoxyl, and peroxyl radicals generated from artemisinin are discussed. The results of testing of artemisinin and its derivatives for the antimalarial activity and the scheme of the biochemical synthesis of artemisinin in nature are considered.

  19. Gnosticism and Radical Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan


    and radical feminism would easily fall under this definition. There is, however, one major difference: since radical feminism is a relatively recent phenomenon which also benefited from modern modes of text production and preservation, almost all of the sources are still with us. This, in turn, may allow us...... to use radical feminism to make certain aspects of ancient Gnosticism re-emerge from their long submersion, provided that enough similarities can be independently drawn between the two phenomena to merit such a comparison. This paper therefore presents a comparison between concepts and positions...

  20. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    It has been reported that a growing number of youngsters from Western Europe are engaging in conflicts motivated by religious and political conflicts in the Middle East. This paper explores the reasons behind this seemingly religious radicalization from the point of view of the youngsters...... youngsters and parents of youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging and recognition have to be taken into account in our understanding of homegrown religious radicalization...

  1. An on-line normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the rapid detection of radical scavengers in non-polar food matrixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; van der Klift, E.J.C.; Janssen, H.-G.; van Beek, T.A.


    An on-line method for the rapid pinpointing of radical scavengers in non-polar mixtures like vegetable oils was developed. To avoid problems with dissolving the sample, normal-phase chromatography on bare silica gel was used with mixtures of hexane and methyl tert-butyl ether as the eluent. The high

  2. Radical prostatectomy - discharge (United States)

    ... to 6 months. You will learn exercises (called Kegel exercises) that strengthen the muscles in your pelvis. ... Radical prostatectomy Retrograde ejaculation Urinary incontinence Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Suprapubic catheter care Urinary catheters - ...

  3. Violent Radicalization in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja


    and foiled plots inspired by militant Islamism have grabbed European and American headlines. This article identifies and discusses empirical studies of radicalization and points to the strengths as well as the weaknesses characterizing these studies. The aim is to take stock of the current state of research...... within this field and to answer the question: From an empirical point of view, what is known and what is not known about radicalization connected to militant Islamism in Europe?...

  4. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk). (United States)

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari


    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate.

  5. Removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) with Nafion. (United States)

    Lien, Hsing-Lung; Zhang, Wei-Xian


    A solid organic polymer, Nafion, is tested for the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water. Nafion with perfluorosulfonic acid backbone and terminal sulfonic acid groups has a surface acidity similar to 100% sulfuric acid, and has been commonly used as a strong-acid catalyst in many organic reactions. Sorption and subsequent transformation of MTBE were observed in batch experiments. The transformation of MTBE by porous nanocomposite Nafion SAC-13 to tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), acetone, isobutene and probably methanol was found. Subsequent transformation of TBA to acetone was also observed. Results suggest that transformational pathways may include hydrolysis, dehydrogenation and oxidation. Dissolved oxygen is needed for the oxidation of isobutene to acetone. As Nafion is insoluble in water, chemically stable, and regenerable, its use in packed-bed reactors for MTBE removal looks promising.

  6. A novel organogelator incorporating tert-butyl esters of asparagines. (United States)

    Lozano, Virginia; Hernández, Rebeca; Mijangos, Carmen; Pérez-Pérez, María-Jesús


    A novel organogelator based on tert-butyl esters of asparagines has been synthesized and its organogelation abilities have been investigated. The rheological characterization has confirmed the gelation behavior, and its thixotropic properties. Furthermore, the morphological studies performed reveal a spherical structure. Thus, this organogelator can be considered as a new example of the emerging, but still reduced, list of gels with a non-fibrillar assembly.

  7. 2-Benzhydryl-6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Yoon


    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H26O, was prepared by the reaction between 2-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol and diphenylmethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid. Three benzene rings are attached directly to the central C—H group in a twisted propeller conformation with the local pseudo-C3 rotational axis coinciding with the C—H bond. There are three short C—H...O contacts in the molecule.

  8. Solution of a gallstone with methyl-tertiary butyl ether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambs, H.J.; Roeren, T.; Holstege, A.; Raedecke, J.


    Methyl-t-butyl ether is a new agent to dissolve gallstones. The substance proves to be very successful and acts very rapidly. A percutaneous transhepatic drainage supplies an adequate access route to dissolve calculi within the bile ducts. We report the case of a patient where before insertion of an internal stent a stone in the common bile duct was dissolved within 3 1/2 hours.

  9. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM ... (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet. Raw data file from our published studies on DIBP specifically requested (6/14/2016) by NCEA scientists for analysis and inclusion in their assessment of this chemical.

  10. Free Radical Reactions in Food. (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.


    Discusses reactions of free radicals that determine the chemistry of many fresh, processed, and stored foods. Focuses on reactions involving ascorbic acid, myoglobin, and palmitate radicals as representative radicals derived from a vitamin, metallo-protein, and saturated lipid. Basic concepts related to free radical structure, formation, and…

  11. The synthesis and spectroscopic study of stable free radicals related to piperidine-n-oxyl, including a stable bi-radical; Syntheses et etudes spectroscopiques de radicaux libres piperidiniques et d'un biradical stable, du type nitroxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briere, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Laboratoire de chimie organique physique


    A new synthesis of di-tert-butyl nitroxide using the reaction between tert-butyl magnesium chloride and nitro-tert-butane is presented in the first section. Synthesis and investigation of stable free piperidine-N-oxyl radicals are described in the second section. All these nitroxides have been characterised by their I. R., U. V. and E. P. R. absorption spectra. The final section contains a description of the synthesis of a stable bi-radical of the nitroxide type by condensation of 2,2, 6, 6-tetramethyl-piperid-4-one-l-oxyl with hydrazine. (author) [French] La premiere partie expose une nouvelle methode de synthase du di-t-butyl nitroxyde, par action d'halogenures de t-butyl magnesium sur le nitro-t-butane (Rdt maximum 45 pour cert, purete 86 pour cent). Une etude de radicaux. libres stables pipericliniques est faite dans une seconde partie. Ces composes sont obtenus par oxydation de derives de la triacetonamine. Les caracteristiques spectroscopiques ultra-violette, infra-rouge, et paramagnetique electronique de ces radicaux sont donnees. La grande inertie chimique du groupement nitroxyde a permis la syn-these d'un biradical stable par formation d'azine d'une cetone radicalaire, ce qui fait 1'objet de la troisieme partie. (auteur)


    Recently, two papers reported the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/Carboxen fibers to determine trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and tertiary butyl alcohol (tBA) in water. Attempts were made to apply this technique to th...

  13. Redox Regulation of the Tumor Suppressor PTEN by Hydrogen Peroxide and Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang


    Full Text Available Organic peroxides and hydroperoxides are skin tumor promoters. Free radical derivatives from these compounds are presumed to be the prominent mediators of tumor promotion. However, the molecular targets of these species are unknown. Phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN are tumor suppressors that play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival by negative regulation of phosphoinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B signaling. PTEN is reversibly oxidized in various cells by exogenous and endogenous hydrogen peroxide. Oxidized PTEN is converted back to the reduced form by cellular reducing agents, predominantly by the thioredoxin (Trx system. Here, the role of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP in redox regulation of PTEN was analyzed by using cell-based and in vitro assays. Exposure to t-BHP led to oxidation of recombinant PTEN. In contrast to H2O2, PTEN oxidation by t-BHP was irreversible in HeLa cells. However, oxidized PTEN was reduced by exogenous Trx system. Taken together, these results indicate that t-BHP induces PTEN oxidation and inhibits Trx system, which results in irreversible PTEN oxidation in HeLa cells. Collectively, these results suggest a novel mechanism of t-BHP in the promotion of tumorigenesis.

  14. Ginger attenuated di (n-butyl phthalate-induced reproductive toxicity in pubertal male rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Oda


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of di (n-butyl phthalate (DBP on reproductive functions in male rabbits and the probable protective role of ginger. Twenty rabbits were divided equally into 4 groups: control group; DBP group (520 mg/kg body weight [BW] DBP orally, DBP+ginger group (520 mg/kg BW DBP and 400 mg/kg BW ginger and ginger group (400 mg/kg BW ginger orally. Treatments were given three-times/week. After 7 wk of the experiment, DBP induced significant reduction in testis and prostate weights, serum and intratesticular testosterone concentrations, sperm counts both mass and progressive sperm motility and live sperms percentage as well as significant elevation of testicular malondialdehyde compared to control group. No significant changes were detected in epididymal weights, serum FSH and serum LH concentrations and testicular total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in all treated groups. DBP induced considerable histopathological alterations in testis and to minimal extent in epididymis and prostates. Ginger treatment attenuated the significant changes to a certain extent induced by DBP intoxication in male rabbits probably due to its potential to scavenge free radicals.

  15. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy. (United States)

    Rendón, Gabriel J; Ramirez, Pedro T; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Pareja, Rene


    The standard treatment for patients with early-stage cervical cancer has been radical hysterectomy. However, for women interested in future fertility, radical trachelectomy is now considered a safe and feasible option. The use of minimally invasive surgical techniques to perform this procedure has recently been reported. We report the first case of a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy performed in a developing country. The patient is a nulligravid, 30-y-old female with stage IB1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix who desired future fertility. She underwent a laparoscopic radical trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. The operative time was 340 min, and the estimated blood loss was 100mL. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The final pathology showed no evidence of residual disease, and all pelvic lymph nodes were negative. At 20 mo of follow-up, the patient is having regular menses but has not yet attempted to become pregnant. There is no evidence of recurrence. Laparoscopic radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy in a young woman who desires future fertility may also be an alternative technique in the treatment of early cervical cancer in developing countries.

  16. Generation of free radicals from model lipid hydroperoxides and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] by Co(II) in the presence of cysteinyl and histidyl chelators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X.; Kasprzak, K.S. (National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)); Dalal, N.S. (West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States))

    Electron spin resonance spin trapping was utilized to investigate the generation of free radicals from cumene hydroperoxide (cumene-OOH), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-butyl-OOH), and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] at pH 7.2 by Co(II) in the presence of cysteinyl and histidyl chelating agents. The spin trap used was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide. Incubation of Co(II) with cumene-OOH or tert-butyl-OOH did not generate any detectable amounts of free radicals. However, in the presence of glutathione, cysteine, penicillamine, or N-acetylcysteine, Co(II) generated cumene-OOH-derived carbon-centered radicals, cumene alkoxyl radicals, and hydroxy (OH) radicals. Oxidized glutathione and cysteine used instead of reduced glutathione or cysteine did not generate any free radical, indicating an important role of the -SH group in radical generation. While the addition of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) prevented radical generation, deferoxamine had only a slightly inhibitory effect. Similar results to those obtained using cumene-OOH were obtained utilizing tert-butyl-OOH in place of cumene-OOH. The yields of free radicals were in the order of glutathione > cysteine > penicillamine > N-acetylcysteine. Incubation of Co(II) with cumene-OOH or t-butyl-OOH in the presence of the histidyl oligopeptide Gly-Gly-His also generated lipid hydroperoxide-derived free radicals, with the yield being comparable to that obtained using thiols. In contrast, histidine, anserine, homocarnosine, or carnosine did not cause any free radical generation from Co(II) and lipid hydroperoxides. Incubation of Co(II) with H[sub 2]O[sub 2] produced only a small amount of OH radicals. Addition of glutathione to the mixture of Co(II) and H[sub 2]O[sub 2] resulted in generation of both glutathionyl (GS) and OH radicals, which could be inhibited by DTPA and deferoxamine. Deferoxamine nitroxide radical was produced from deferoxamine incubated with Co(II) and H[sub 2]O[sub 2]. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Recombination of photogenerated lophyl radicals in imidazolium-based ionic liquids. (United States)

    Strehmel, Veronika; Wishart, James F; Polyansky, Dmitry E; Strehmel, Bernd


    Laser flash photolysis is applied to study the recombination reaction of lophyl radicals in ionic liquids in comparison with dimethylsulfoxide as an example of a traditional organic solvent. The latter exhibits a similar micropolarity as the ionic liquids. The ionic liquids investigated are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (1), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (2), and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetafluoroborate (3). The recombination of the photolytic generated lophyl radicals occur significantly faster in the ionic liquids than expected from their macroscopic viscosities and is a specific effect of these ionic liquids. On the other hand, this reaction can be compared with the macroscopic viscosity in the case of dimethylsulfoxide. Activation parameters obtained for lophyl radical recombination suggest different, anion-dependent mechanistic effects. Quantum chemical calculations based on density functional theory provide a deeper insight of the molecular properties of the lophyl radical and its precursor. Thus, excitation energies, spin densities, molar volumes, and partial charges are calculated. Calculations show a spread of spin density over the three carbon atoms of the imidazolyl moiety, while only low spin density is calculated for the nitrogens.

  18. Scanning thermal lithography of tailored tert-butyl ester protected carboxylic acid functionalized (meth)acrylate polymer platforms. (United States)

    Duvigneau, Joost; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, G Julius


    In this paper, we report on the development of tailored polymer films for high-resolution atomic force microscopy based scanning thermal lithography (SThL). In particular, full control of surface chemical and topographical structuring was sought. Thin cross-linked films comprising poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (MA(20)) or poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (A(20)) were prepared via UV initiated free radical polymerization. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR spectroscopy showed that the heat-induced thermal decomposition of MA(20) by oxidative depolymerization is initially the primary reaction followed by tert-butyl ester thermolysis. By contrast, no significant depolymerization was observed for A(20). For A(20) and MA(20) (at higher temperatures and/or longer reaction times) the thermolysis of the tert-butyl ester liberates isobutylene and yields carboxylic acid groups, which react further intramolecularly to cyclic anhydrides. The values of the apparent activation energies (E(a)) for the thermolysis were calculated to be 125 ± 13 kJ mol(-1) and 116 ± 7 kJ mol(-1) for MA(20) and A(20), respectively. Both MA(20) and A(20) films showed improved thermomechanical stability during SThL compared to non cross-linked films. Carboxylic acid functionalized lines written by SThL in A(20) films had a typically ~10 times smaller width compared to those written in MA(20) films regardless of the tip radius of the heated probe and did not show any evidence for thermochemically or thermomechanically induced modification of film topography. These observations and the E(a) of 45 ± 3 kJ mol(-1) for groove formation in MA(20) estimated from the observed volume loss are attributed to oxidative thermal depolymerization during SThL of MA(20) films, which is considered to be the dominant reaction mechanism for MA(20). The smallest line width values obtained for MA(20) and A(20) films with SThL were 83 ± 7 nm and 21 ± 2 nm, whereas the depth of the lines was below 1 nm, respectively.

  19. Sexuality Following Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Serefoglu, Ege C; Albersen, Maarten


    INTRODUCTION: Radical prostatectomies can result in urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunction. Traditionally, these issues have been studied separately, and the sexual problem that has received the most focus has been erectile dysfunction. AIM: To summarize the literature on sexually related side...... effects and their consequences after radical prostatectomy and focus on the occurrence and management of problems beyond erectile dysfunction. METHODS: The literature on sexuality after radical prostatectomy was reviewed through a Medline search. Original research using quantitative and qualitative...... methodologies was considered. Priority was given to studies exploring aspects of sexuality other than erectile function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence, predictive factors, and management of post-prostatectomy sexual problems beyond erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Most patients will develop urinary...

  20. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipke Michael


    Full Text Available Millions of men are diagnosed annually with prostate cancer worldwide. With the advent of PSA screening, there has been a shift in the detection of early prostate cancer, and there are increased numbers of men with asymptomatic, organ confined disease. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is the latest, well accepted treatment that patients can select. We review the surgical technique, and oncologic and functional outcomes of the most current, large series of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy published in English. Positive margin rates range from 2.1-6.9% for pT2a, 9.9-20.6% for pT2b, 24.5-42.3% for pT3a, and 22.6-54.5% for pT3b. Potency rates after bilateral nerve sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy range from 47.1 to 67%. Continence rates at 12 months range from 83.6 to 92%.

  1. Gangs, Terrorism, and Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Decker


    Full Text Available What can street gangs tell us about radicalization and extremist groups? At first glance, these two groups seem to push the boundaries of comparison. In this article, we examine the important similarities and differences across criminal, deviant, and extremist groups. Drawing from research on street gangs, this article explores issues such as levels of explanation,organizational structure, group process, and the increasingly important role of technology and the Internet in the context of radicalization. There are points of convergence across these groups, but it is important to understand the differences between these groups. This review finds little evidence to support the contention that American street gangs are becoming increasingly radicalized. This conclusion is based largely on organizational differences between gangs and terror groups.

  2. Radical dematerialization and degrowth (United States)

    Kallis, Giorgos


    The emission targets agreed in Paris require a radical reduction of material extraction, use and disposal. The core claim of this article is that a radical dematerialization can only be part and parcel of degrowth. Given that capitalist economies are designed to grow, this raises the question of whether, and under what circumstances, the inevitable `degrowth' can become socially sustainable. Three economic policies are discussed in this direction: work-sharing, green taxes and public money. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  3. Kinetic studies of the radical-scavenging activity of ebselen, a seleno-organic compound. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori


    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one) is now under active investigation as a neuroprotective and anticancer agent. In the present study, the induction period method was used to investigate the antioxidant activity of ebselen in the radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) at 70 degrees C. The reaction of ebselen with growing MMA radicals (lipid radicals) showed a k(inh) of 4 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1). This value was similar to that for mercaptomethylimidazole (MMI, a thiol) and 10-fold greater than that for butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). The ratio of the rate of chain inhibition to that of chain propagation (CI/CP) for ebselen, MMI and BHA was 0.1, 0.01 and 0.001, respectively, whereas the stoichiometric factor (n, the number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) for the corresponding compounds was 0.02, 0.2 and 2, respectively. Ebselen preferentially affected CP rather than CI, indicating that it was an effective scavenger (suppressor) of growing MMA radicals. These results suggest that ebselen is a potent suppressor of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) radicals, which are harmful radicals in biological systems.

  4. N-Butyl acrylate polymer composition for solar cell encapsulation and method (United States)

    Gupta, Amitava (Inventor); Ingham, John D. (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre H. (Inventor)


    A polymer syrup for encapsulating solar cell assemblies. The syrup includes uncrosslinked poly(n-butyl)acrylate dissolved in n-butyl acrylate monomer. Preparation of the poly(n-butyl)acrylate and preparation of the polymer syrup is disclosed. Methods for applying the polymer syrup to solar cell assemblies as an encapsulating pottant are described. Also included is a method for solar cell construction utilizing the polymer syrup as a dual purpose adhesive and encapsulating material.

  5. Enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water. (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Liu, Donghui; Luo, Mai; Jing, Xu; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    The stereoselective degradation and transformation of the enantiomers of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water were studied to investigate the environmental behavior and chiral stability of the optical pure product. Its main chiral metabolite fluazifop was also monitored. LC/MS/MS with Chiralpak IC chiral column was used to separate the enantiomers of fluazifop-butyl and fluazifop. Validated enantioselective residue analysis methods were established with recoveries ranging from 77.1 to 115.4% and RSDs from 0.85 to 8.9% for the enantiomers. It was found the dissipation of fluazifop-butyl was rapid in the three studied soils (Beijing, Harbin and Anhui soil), and the degradation half-lives of the enantiomers ranged from 0.136 to 2.7 d. Enantioselective degradations were found in two soils. In Beijing soil, R-fluazifop-butyl was preferentially degraded leading to relative enrichment of S-enantiomer, but in Anhui soil, S-fluazifop-butyl dissipated faster. There was no conversion of the R-fluazifop-butyl into S-fluazifop-butyl or vice versa in the soils. The formation of fluazifop in the soils was rapidly accompanied with the fast degradation of fluazifop-butyl, and the enantioselectivity and the transformation of S-fluazifop to R-fluazifop were found. The degradation of fluazifop-butyl in water was also quick, with half-lives of the enantiomers ranging from 0.34 to 2.52 d, and there was no significant enantioselectivity of the degradation of fluazifop-butyl and the formation of fluazifop. The effects of pH on the degradation showed fluazifop-butyl enantiomers degraded faster in alkaline conditions. This study showed an evidence of enantioselective behavior and enantiomerization of the chiral herbicide fluazifop-butyl. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Radical School Reform. (United States)

    Gross, Beatrice, Ed.; Gross, Ronald, Ed.

    This book provides a comprehensive examination of the nature of the school crisis and the ways in which radical thinkers and educators are dealing with it. Excerpts from the writings of Jonathan Kozol, John Holt, Kenneth Clark, and others are concerned with the realities of education in ghettos and suburbs. Paul Goodman, Marshall McLuhan, Sylvia…

  7. The perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical. (United States)

    Guasch, Judith; Fontrodona, Xavier; Ratera, Imma; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume


    In spite of the considerable understanding and development of perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical derivatives, the preparation of crystals of the pure unsubstituted PTM radical, C19Cl15, suitable for single-crystal X-ray diffraction has remained a challenge since its discovery, and only two studies dealing with the crystal structure of the unsubstituted PTM radical have been published. In one study, the radical forms clathrates with aromatic solvents [Veciana, Carilla, Miravitlles & Molins (1987). J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. pp. 812-814], and in the other the structure was determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data [Rius, Miravitlles, Molins, Crespo & Veciana (1990). Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 187, 155-163]. We report here the preparation of PTM crystals for single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their resolution. The structure, which shows monoclinic symmetry (C2/c), revealed a nonsymmetric molecular propeller conformation (D3 symmetry) caused by the steric strain between the ortho-Cl atoms, which protect the central C atom (sp(2)-hybridization and major spin density) and give high chemical and thermal persistence to the PTM. The supramolecular structure of PTM shows short Cl...Cl intermolecular interactions and can be described in terms of layers formed by rows of molecules positioned in a head-to-tail manner along the c axis.

  8. Beyond Radical Educational Cynicism. (United States)

    Wood, George H.


    An alternative is presented to counter current radical arguments that the schools cannot bring about social change because they are instruments of capitalism. The works of Samuel Bowles, Herbert Gintis, and Louis Althusser are discussed. Henry Giroux's "Ideology, Culture and the Process of Schooling" provides an alternative to cynicism.…

  9. Radical Financial Innovation


    Robert J. Shiller


    Radical financial innovation is the development of new institutions and methods that permit risk management to be extended far beyond its former realm, covering important new classes of risks. This paper compares past such innovation with potential future innovation, looking at the process that produced past success and the possibilities for future financial innovation.

  10. Homegrown religious radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    and their families. Existing literature and ways of thinking about the social psychological process of radicalization will be reviewed, such as social identity theory and transformative learning theory, and a theoretical framework based on a focus on belonging, recognition and the sense of community will be proposed...

  11. Radically enhanced molecular recognition

    KAUST Repository

    Trabolsi, Ali


    The tendency for viologen radical cations to dimerize has been harnessed to establish a recognition motif based on their ability to form extremely strong inclusion complexes with cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) in its diradical dicationic redox state. This previously unreported complex involving three bipyridinium cation radicals increases the versatility of host-guest chemistry, extending its practice beyond the traditional reliance on neutral and charged guests and hosts. In particular, transporting the concept of radical dimerization into the field of mechanically interlocked molecules introduces a higher level of control within molecular switches and machines. Herein, we report that bistable and tristable [2]rotaxanes can be switched by altering electrochemical potentials. In a tristable [2]rotaxane composed of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and a dumbbell with tetrathiafulvalene, dioxynaphthalene and bipyridinium recognition sites, the position of the ring can be switched. On oxidation, it moves from the tetrathiafulvalene to the dioxynaphthalene, and on reduction, to the bipyridinium radical cation, provided the ring is also reduced simultaneously to the diradical dication. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward living radical polymerization. (United States)

    Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Thang, San H


    Radical polymerization is one of the most widely used processes for the commercial production of high-molecular-weight polymers. The main factors responsible for the preeminent position of radical polymerization are the ability to polymerize a wide array of monomers, tolerance of unprotected functionality in monomer and solvent, and compatibility with a variety of reaction conditions. Radical polymerization is simple to implement and inexpensive in relation to competitive technologies. However, conventional radical polymerization severely limits the degree of control that researchers can assert over molecular-weight distribution, copolymer composition, and macromolecular architecture. This Account focuses on nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP) and polymerization with reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT), two of the more successful approaches for controlling radical polymerization. These processes illustrate two distinct mechanisms for conferring living characteristics on radical polymerization: reversible deactivation (in NMP) and reversible or degenerate chain transfer (in RAFT). We devised NMP in the early 1980s and have exploited this method extensively for the synthesis of styrenic and acrylic polymers. The technique has undergone significant evolution since that time. New nitroxides have led to faster polymerization rates at lower temperatures. However, NMP is only applicable to a restricted range of monomers. RAFT was also developed at CSIRO and has proven both more robust and more versatile. It is applicable to the majority of monomers subject to radical polymerization, but the success of the polymerization depends upon the selection of the RAFT agent for the monomers and reaction conditions. We and other groups have proposed guidelines for selection, and the polymerization of most monomers can be well-controlled to provide minimal retardation and a high fraction of living chains by using one of just two RAFT agents. For example, a

  13. Free radical scavenging behavior of antioxidant compounds of sesame (sesamum indicum L.) in DPPH(*) system. (United States)

    Suja, Kizhiyedathu Polachira; Jayalekshmy, Anathasankaran; Arumughan, Chami


    The free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) of antioxidants from sesame cake extract was studied using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)()) on a kinetic model. Pure lignans and lignan glycosides isolated from methanolic extract by preparative HPLC were used in the study. To understand the kinetic behavior better and to determine the RSC of sesame antioxidants, the second-order rate constant (k(2)) was calculated for the quenching reaction with [DPPH(*)] radical. The k(2) values of the sesame antioxidants were compared with those of butylated hydroxytoluene and alpha-tocopherol. The k(2) values for sesamol, sesamol dimer, sesamin, sesamolin, sesaminol triglucoside, and sesaminol diglucoside were 4.00 x 10(-)(5), 0.50 x 10(-)(5), 0.36 x 10(-)(5), 0.13 x 10(-)(5), 0.33 x 10(-)(5), and 0.08 x 10(-)(5) microM(-)(1) s(-)(1), respectively.

  14. In vitro radical scavenging activity of two Columbian Magnoliaceae (United States)

    Puertas M., Miguel A.; Mesa v., Ana M.; Sáez v., Jairo A.


    The recent interest in the conservation of the tropical forest is due, at least in part, to the potential economic and health benefits that can be exploited from several plants. This report shows the in vitro antioxidant activity of some fractions isolated from leaves of two Columbian Magnoliaceae, Talauma hernandezii G. Lozano-C and Dugandiodendron yarumalense Lozano. The activity was determined using the radical monocation 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS·+) and the stable free radical 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·), as part of general biological screening of these plants. The antioxidant capacity obtained from fractions was similar to those of α-tocopherol, tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and ascorbic acid. The most active scavenger extract was the fraction 7 (TAA = 48.6 mmol Trolox/kg extract and IC50 ≤ 0.01 kg extract/mmol DPPH); and the least active was the fraction 1 (TAA = 11.23 mmol Trolox/kg extract and IC50 = 0.21 kg extract/mmol DPPH) all of them isolated from D. yarumalense. These results suggest that these plants can be attractive as source of antioxidant compounds with the ability to reduce radicals like ATBS and DPPH.

  15. tert-Butyl N-(thiophen-2-ylcarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene C. Hsu


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C9H13NO2S, the dihedral angle between the thiophene ring and the carbamate group is 15.79 (14°. In the crystal structure, intramolecular C—H...O interactions in tandem with the tert-butyl groups render the packing of adjacent molecules in the [001] direction nearly perpendicular [the angle between adjacent thiophene rings is 74.83 (7°]. An intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bond gives rise to a chain extending along [001]. The crystal studied was found to be a racemic twin.

  16. Toward Radicalizing Community Service Learning (United States)

    Sheffield, Eric C.


    This article advocates a radicalized theoretical construction of community service learning. To accomplish this radicalization, I initially take up a discussion of traditional understandings of CSL rooted in pragmatic/progressive thought. I then suggest that this traditional structural foundation can be radicalized by incorporating Deborah…

  17. Production of butyl solvents from lignocellulose: An economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, J D; Daling, R; Sandel, R L; Fitzpatrick, S W


    A process is described that produces butyl solvents, butanol, isopropanol, and ethanol from wood or other lignocellulosic feedstock. Two new elements of technology introduced are the processing batch reactor developed at SERI that produces high yields of fermentable sugars (hexoses and pentoses) at the appropriate concentration for the butyl solvents fermentation and a novel method of separating products using liquid-liquid extraction, which reduces the separation energy required to about 30% of energy required in the conventional batch method. Economic analysis suggests that the project is attractive at a feedstock capacity of 400,000 dry MTA or larger (178 million lb/yr solvents). There are, however, uncertainties associated with the project because of the relatively early stage of development of the key elements of the process technology and the sensitivity of the DCFIROR to estimated capital cost. A further conclusion is that the process economics would benefit greatly from reduced capital cost of the fermentation section. This could perhaps be accomplished by developing a continuous fermentation process. Such fermentation technology has been demonstrated on laboratory scale, but as far as is known, has not been developed to pilot scale. 21 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarov, Javid, E-mail: [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Kul, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013 (United States); El-Awady, Waleed A. [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Mechanical Power Engineering Department, Mansoura Univeristy, Mansoura (Egypt); Shahverdiyev, Astan [Department of Heat and Refrigeration Techniques, Azerbaijan Technical University, H. Javid Avn. 25, AZ1073 Baku (Azerbaijan); Hassel, Egon [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, University of Rostock, Albert-Einstein-Str. 2, D-18059 Rostock (Germany)


    Highlights: > (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate are estimated. > The measurements were carried out with a vibration-tube densimeter. > The thermomechanical coefficients were calculated. - Abstract: Pressure, density, temperature (p, {rho}, T) data of 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] at T = (283.15 to 393.15) K and pressures up to p = 100 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of {Delta}{rho}/{rho} = {+-}(0.01 to 0.08)% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, methanol, toluene and aqueous NaCl solutions. An empirical equation of state for fitting of the (p, {rho}, T) data of [C4mpyr][BF{sub 4}] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature to calculate the thermal properties of the ionic liquid (IL), such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, differences in isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, thermal pressure coefficient and internal pressure. Internal pressure and the temperature coefficient of internal pressure data were used to make conclusions on the molecular characteristics of the IL.

  19. Antisickling activity of butyl stearate isolated from Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae). (United States)

    Tshilanda, Dorothée Dinangayi; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Onyamboko, Damase Nguwo Vele; Mbala, Blaise Mavinga; Ngbolua, Koto-Te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha Tshibey; Bokolo, Matthieu Kokengo; Taba, Kalulu Muzele; Kasonga, Teddy Kabeya


    To perform phytochemical analyses on the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (O. basilicum), to elucidate the structure of isolate and then perform the antisickling activity on the crude extract and on the isolate. The Emmel test performed on the acidified methanolic extract of this plant was used to evaluate the antisickling activity. The structure characterization of the active compound was performed using chromatographic techniques for the separation and the spectroscopic ones for structure elucidation (1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, COSY, HMBC). The chemical screening on the crude extract revealed the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, tannins, quinones) alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids. The obtained extract after evaporation yielded 34.50 g (11.5%) out of 300 g of powdered leaves of O. basilicum. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate showed an interesting antisickling activity. The acidified methanolic extract and butyl stearate from O. basilicum displayed a good antisickling activity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to report the antisickling activity of this compound in this plant. The synthesized compound presented the same spectroscopic characteristics than the natural one and the antisickling activities of its derivatives are understudying.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent M. Ervin, Principal Investigator


    Gas phase negative ion chemistry methods are employed to determine enthalpies of formation of hydrocarbon radicals that are important in combustion processes and to investigate the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. Using guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometry, we measure collisional threshold energies of endoergic proton transfer and hydrogen atom transfer reactions of hydrocarbon molecules with negative reagent ions. The measured reaction threshold energies for proton transfer yield the relative gas phase acidities. In an alternative methodology, competitive collision-induced dissociation of proton-bound ion-molecule complexes provides accurate gas phase acidities relative to a reference acid. Combined with the electron affinity of the R {center_dot} radical, the gas phase acidity yields the RH bond dissociation energy of the corresponding neutral molecule, or equivalently the enthalpy of formation of the R{center_dot} organic radical, using equation: D(R-H) = {Delta}{sub acid}H(RH) + EA(R) - IE(H). The threshold energy for hydrogen abstraction from a hydrocarbon molecule yields its hydrogen atom affinity relative to the reagent anion, providing the RH bond dissociation energy directly. Electronic structure calculations are used to evaluate the possibility of potential energy barriers or dynamical constrictions along the reaction path, and as input for RRKM and phase space theory calculations. In newer experiments, we have measured the product velocity distributions to obtain additional information on the energetics and dynamics of the reactions.

  1. Antioxidant properties of Neu2000 on mitochondrial free radicals and oxidative damage. (United States)

    Visavadiya, Nishant P; McEwen, Melanie L; Pandya, Jignesh D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Gwag, Byoung Joo; Springer, Joe E


    Neu2000 [2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4 trifluoromethylbenzylamino) benzoic acid] is a dual-acting neuroprotective agent that functions both as a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and a free radical scavenger. In the present study, we investigated the scavenging activity of Neu2000 on various classes of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) as well as its efficacy for reducing free radicals and oxidative stress/damage induced in spinal cord mitochondrial preparations. Neu2000 exerted scavenging activity against superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals, and efficiently scavenged peroxynitrite. In the mitochondrial studies, Neu2000 markedly inhibited ROS/RNS and hydrogen peroxide levels following antimycin treatment. In addition, Neu2000 effectively scavenged hydroxyl radicals generated by iron(III)-ascorbate, reduced protein carbonyl formation mediated by hydroxyl radicals and peroxynitrite, and prevented glutathione oxidation caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide in isolated mitochondria. Interestingly, incubation of isolated mitochondria with Neu2000 followed by centrifugation and removal of the supernatant also resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation. This observation suggests that Neu2000 enters mitochondria to target free radicals or indirectly affects mitochondrial function in a manner that promotes antioxidant activity. The results of the present study demonstrate that Neu2000 possesses potent in vitro antioxidant activity due, most likely, to its active phenoxy group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetic studies of the radical-scavenging activity of estrogens and antiestrogens. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori


    Quinoids, quinoid radicals and phenoxyl radicals formed from estrogens (estrone; diethylstilbestrol, DES) and antiestrogens (tamoxifen; toremifene) may be responsible for adverse effects such as carcinogenesis. The radical-scavenging activity of estrogens and antiestrogens was determined quantitatively by the induction period method for the polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO) under nearly anaerobic conditions. The inhibition rate constant (k(inh), x10(-3) M(-1)s(-1)) for estrone, DES, tamoxifen, toremifene and 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methyphenol (BHT) was 1-3, 2-4, 6-12, 6-13 and 1-2, respectively. The k(inh) for antiestrogens was two-fold greater than that for estrogens or BHT. In contrast, the stoichiometric factor (n, number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) for estrone, DES, tamoxifen, toremifene and BHT was 1.2-1.5, 1.8-2.4, 0.5-0.9, 0.4- 0.5 and 1.5-1.9, respectively. The fully oxidized n values for estrone, DES and BHT would be 2, whereas that for antiestrogens would be 1. However, the n values for estrone and antiestrogens were markedly less than 2 and 1, respectively, suggesting a complex oxidation process resulting in the formation of quinoids, quinoid radicals and phenoxyl radicals during the induction period.

  3. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. (United States)

    Gülçin, Ilhami


    Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assay, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.

  4. 40 CFR 721.6920 - Butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted... (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butyl acrylate, polymer with... acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane. (a... butyl acrylate, polymer with substituted methyl styrene, methyl methacrylate, and substituted silane...

  5. and triorganotin(IV) complexes of 2-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    of organotin(IV) complexes of phenols are found in literature. 13–17 .... method suggested them to exist as monomers. 3.1 IR spectra. In the IR .... Tert-butyl. Phenolic butyl substituent. Phenolic ring carbon. Phenolic ring substituent Methyl. 119. Sn. Compound group protons protons protons R–Sn –CH3. –C o, m and p Cipso.

  6. 75 FR 44184 - Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al.; Proposed... (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Aluminum tris(O-ethylphosphonate), Butylate, Chlorethoxyfos, Clethodim, et al...-ethylphosphonate) and fenarimol; the herbicides butylate, clethodim, clomazone, fenoxaprop-ethyl, flumetsulam...(O- ethylphosphonate), clethodim, flumetsulam, and fluridone. In addition, EPA will be removing...

  7. Synthesis of Highly Porous Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) Asymmetric Membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Xie, Yihui


    For the first time, self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation was applied to polysulfone-based linear block copolymers, reaching mechanical stability much higher than other block copolymers membranes used in this method, which were mainly based on polystyrene blocks. Poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polysulfone-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate) (PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k) with a low polydispersity of 1.4 was synthesized by combining step-growth condensation and RAFT polymerization. Various advanced electron microscopies revealed that PtBA30k-b-PSU14k-b-PtBA30k assembles into worm-like cylindrical micelles in DMAc and adopts a “flower-like” arrangement with the PSU central block forming the shell. Computational modeling described the mechanism of micelle formation and morphological transition. Asymmetric nanostructured membranes were obtained with a highly porous interconnected skin layer and a sublayer with finger-like macrovoids. Ultrafiltration tests confirmed a water permeance of 555 L m-2 h-1 bar-1 with molecular weight cut-off of 28 kg/mol. PtBA segments on the membrane surface were then hydrolyzed and complexed with metals, leading to cross-linking and enhancement of antibacterial capability.

  8. Impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on reproductive system development in European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarmołowicz


    Full Text Available Phthalic acid, di-n-butyl ester known as di-n-butyl phthalate, is an organic chemical compound that belongs to the group of endocrine disruptor compounds that have a documented negative impact on mammalian endocrine systems. Di-n-butyl phthalate is used widely as a plasticizer in the manufacture of artificial materials, which is why it is found in all types of environmental samples including those from water basins. The aim of the study was to describe the impact of di-n-butyl phthalate on the development of the reproductive system of European pikeperch (Sander lucioperca during the sex differentiation period (age 61–96 days post hatch. A total of 240 fish were divided into 6 groups (40 fish per tank. Treatments consisted of a control group (0 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed and five trial groups with 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 feed, respectively. Histological changes of the fish gonads, sex ratio, survival and growth of fish were evaluated. Di-n-butyl phthalate seriously disturbed sex differentiation process of pikeperch. Histopathological analyses revealed that the administration of 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 significantly affected the sex ratio. The feminization process (intersex gonads at concentrations of 1 g and 2 g di-n-butyl phthalate·kg-1 were observed. All analyzed concentrations delayed testicular development. Phthalate did not have a significant impact on the survival or growth rates of the pikeperch. This is the first report of disruption sex differentiation processes in fish by di-n-butyl phthalate.

  9. Radical distinction: Support for radical left and radical right parties in Europe. (United States)

    Rooduijn, Matthijs; Burgoon, Brian; van Elsas, Erika J; van de Werfhorst, Herman G


    Support for radical parties on both the left and right is on the rise, fueling intuition that both radicalisms have similar underpinnings. Indeed, existing studies show that radical left and right voters have overlapping positions and preferences. In this article, however, we focus on the differences in the voting bases of such parties. We show that radical left and right voters have sharply diverging ideological profiles. When it comes to the historical traditions of the 'left' and 'right', these voters differ radically from each other. Both groups express the traditions associated with their mainstream counterparts-particularly with respect to (non-)egalitarian, (non-)altruistic, and (anti-)cosmopolitan values. Such differences also explain why radical left voters tend to be more, not less, educated than mainstream or radical right voters.

  10. Radical distinction: Support for radical left and radical right parties in Europe (United States)

    Burgoon, Brian; van Elsas, Erika J; van de Werfhorst, Herman G


    Support for radical parties on both the left and right is on the rise, fueling intuition that both radicalisms have similar underpinnings. Indeed, existing studies show that radical left and right voters have overlapping positions and preferences. In this article, however, we focus on the differences in the voting bases of such parties. We show that radical left and right voters have sharply diverging ideological profiles. When it comes to the historical traditions of the ‘left’ and ‘right’, these voters differ radically from each other. Both groups express the traditions associated with their mainstream counterparts—particularly with respect to (non-)egalitarian, (non-)altruistic, and (anti-)cosmopolitan values. Such differences also explain why radical left voters tend to be more, not less, educated than mainstream or radical right voters. PMID:29187802

  11. Spectroscopic Studies of Atmospheric Radical-Radical Reactions (United States)

    Okumura, Mitchio


    The reactions of trace free radicals largely determine the chemical composition of gas phase species in the atmosphere. Reactions between pairs of radicals are very important, but exhibit a high degree of complexity; fundamental studies have revealed the importance of multiple wells, adduct formation, chaperone effects, and nonadiabatic coupling among potential energy surfaces. We have investigated the spectra, kinetics, and dynamics of a number of radical-radical reactions using infrared cavity ringdown, FM diode laser, and action spectroscopic methods. New results will be presented on peroxynitrous acid, HOONO, a minor but significant channel in the OH + NO2 + M reaction, a major sink for HOx and NOx radicals in polluted tropospheric air. These experiments lead to a detailed understanding of HOONO formation and kinetics under thermal conditions. Additional work on peroxyl radical spectroscopy and chemistry, including the role of hydrogen-bonded adducts, will also be discussed.

  12. Catalysis of Radical Reactions: A Radical Chemistry Perspective. (United States)

    Studer, Armido; Curran, Dennis P


    The area of catalysis of radical reactions has recently flourished. Various reaction conditions have been discovered and explained in terms of catalytic cycles. These cycles rarely stand alone as unique paths from substrates to products. Instead, most radical reactions have innate chains which form products without any catalyst. How do we know if a species added in "catalytic amounts" is a catalyst, an initiator, or something else? Herein we critically address both catalyst-free and catalytic radical reactions through the lens of radical chemistry. Basic principles of kinetics and thermodynamics are used to address problems of initiation, propagation, and inhibition of radical chains. The catalysis of radical reactions differs from other areas of catalysis. Whereas efficient innate chain reactions are difficult to catalyze because individual steps are fast, both inefficient chain processes and non-chain processes afford diverse opportunities for catalysis, as illustrated with selected examples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A study of butyl acetate synthesis. 4-reaction kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño


    Full Text Available This work was aimed at studying liquid-phase acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm =0.76 Bar,using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431 as catalyst. The effect of the absence of internal and external mass transport on catalyst particles was established in the research conditions used here. A set of assays to determine the effect of catalyst load (0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w temperature (73°C, 80°C, 87°C and molar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 acid/alcohol on reaction rate was carried out and both LHHW and pseudo-homogeneous kinetic expressions were obtained, these being in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. Interactions between water and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium ionic liquids. (United States)

    Fadeeva, Tatiana A; Husson, Pascale; DeVine, Jessalyn A; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Greenbaum, Steven G; Castner, Edward W


    We report experimental results on the diffusivity of water in two ionic liquids obtained using the pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR method. Both ionic liquids have the same cation, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium, but different trifluoromethyl-containing anions. One has a strongly hydrophobic anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, while the second has a hydrophilic anion, trifluoromethylsulfonate. Transport of water in these ionic liquids is much faster than would be predicted from hydrodynamic laws, indicating that the neutral water molecules experience a very different friction than the anions and cations at the molecular level. Temperature-dependent viscosities, conductivities, and densities are reported as a function of water concentration to further analyze the properties of the ionic liquid-water mixtures. These results on the properties of water in ionic liquids should be of interest to researchers in diverse areas ranging from separations, solubilizing biomass and energy technologies.

  15. Hybrid polymerization of iso-butyl vinyl ether (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Yang, Lixing; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Guanglin; Lin, Libin


    The radiation-induced hybrid polymerization in the presence of the N-alkoxypyridinium salt having relatively stable nonnucleophilic anion (PF 6-) has been investigated in the paper. Based on the analysis of experimental data and the GPC spectrum, the onium salts not only oxidize α-alkoxyalkyl radicals, produced from IBVE in dichloromethane by irradiation, to the corresponding cations, but also give nonnucleophilic anions PF 6- for the polymerization system. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that free radical and cationic polymerization mechanisms occurred simultaneously in IBVE/EMP +PF 6-/CH 2Cl 2 systems on irradiation with γ-ray.

  16. Hydrolysis of tert-butyl formate: Kinetics, products, and implications for the environmental impact of methyl tert-butyl ether (United States)

    Church, Clinton D.; Pankow, James F.; Tratnyek, Paul G.


    Asessing the environmental fate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has become a subject of renewed interest because of the large quantities of this compound that are being used as an oxygenated additive in gasoline. Various studies on the fate of MTBE have shown that it can be degraded to tert-butyl formate (TBF), particularly in the atmosphere. Although it is generally recognized that TBF is subject to hydrolysis, the kinetics and products of this reaction under environmentally relevant conditions have not been described previously. In this study, we determined the kinetics of TBF hydrolysis as a function of pH and temperature. Over the pH range of 5 to 7, the neutral hydrolysis pathway predominates, with kN = (1.0 ± 0.2) × 10−6/s. Outside this range, strong pH effects were observed because of acidic and basic hydrolyses, from which we determined that kA = (2.7 ± 0.5) × 10−3/(M·s) and kB = 1.7 ± 0.3/(M·s). Buffered and unbuffered systems gave the same hydrolysis rates for a given pH, indicating that buffer catalysis was not significant under the conditions tested. The activation energies corresponding to kN, kA, and kBwere determined to be 78 ± 5, 59 ± 4, and 88 ±11 kJ/mol, respectively. In all experiments, tert-butyl alcohol was found at concentrations corresponding to stoichiometric formation from TBF. Based on our kinetics data, the expected half-life for hydrolysis of TBF at pH = 2 and 4°C (as per some standard preservation protocols for water sampling) is 6 h. At neutral pH and 22°C, the estimated half-life is 5 d, and at pH = 11 and 22°C, the value is only 8 min.

  17. Spectroscopic Evidence for Through-Space Arene-Sulfur-Arene Bonding Interaction in m-Terphenyl Thioether Radical Cations. (United States)

    Monney, Nicolas P-A; Bally, Thomas; Yamamoto, Takuhei; Glass, Richard S


    Electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemical calculations of the radical cations of m-terphenyl tert-butyl thioethers, where the S-t-Bu bond is forced to be perpendicular to the central phenyl ring, show the occurrence of through-space [π···S···π](+) bonding interactions which lead to a stabilization of the thioether radical cations. In the corresponding methyl derivatives there is a competition between delocalization of the hole that is centered on a p-AO of the S atom into the π-system of the central phenyl ring or through space into the flanking phenyl groups, which leads to a mixture of planar and perpendicular conformations in the radical cation. Adding a second m-terphenyl tert-butyl thioether moiety does not lead to further delocalization; the spin and charge remain in one of the two halves of the radical cation. These findings have interesting implications with regard to the role of methionines as hopping stations in electron transfer through proteins.

  18. Cooperative Magnetism in Crystalline N-Aryl-Substituted Verdazyl Radicals: First-Principles Predictions and Experimental Results. (United States)

    Eusterwiemann, Steffen; Dresselhaus, Thomas; Doerenkamp, Carsten; Janka, Oliver; Niehaus, Oliver; Massolle, Anja; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer; Neugebauer, Johannes; Studer, Armido


    We report on a series of eight diaryl-6-oxo-verdazyl radicals containing a tert-butyl group at the C(3) position with regard to their crystal structure and magnetic properties by means of magnetic susceptibility measurements in combination with quantum chemical calculations using a first-principles bottom-up approach. The latter method allows for a qualitative prediction and detailed analysis of the correlation between the solid-state architecture and magnetic properties. Although the perturbation in the molecular structure by varying the substituent on the N-aryl ring may appear small, the effects upon the structural parameters controlling intermolecular magnetic coupling interactions are strong, resulting in a wide spectrum of cooperative magnetic behavior. The non-substituted 1,5-diphenyl-tert-butyl-6-oxo-verdazyl radical features a ferromagnetic one-dimensional spin ladder type magnetic network-an extremely rarely observed phenomenon for verdazyl radicals. By varying substituents at the phenyl group, different non-isostructural compounds were obtained with widely different magnetic motifs ranging from linear and zigzag one-dimensional chains to potentially two-dimensional networks, from which we predict magnetic susceptibility data that are in qualitative agreement with experiments and reveal a large sensitivity to packing effects of the molecules. The present study advances the fundamental understanding between solid-state structure and magnetism in organically based radical systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding on Radical Semi-Batch Copolymerization of Butyl Acrylate and 2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jan E S Schier; David Cohen-Sacal; Owen R Larsen; Robin A Hutchinson


    .... The effect of hydrogen bonding on HEA to BA relative incorporation rates during copolymerization, previously seen in low-conversion kinetic studies, was also observed under high-conversion semi-batch conditions...

  20. Thyroid disruption by Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP in Xenopus laevis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouxi Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP, a chemical widely used in many consumer products, is estrogenic and capable of producing seriously reproductive and developmental effects in laboratory animals. However, recent in vitro studies have shown that DBP and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP, the major metabolite of DBP, possessed thyroid hormone receptor (TR antagonist activity. It is therefore important to consider DBP and MBP that may interfere with thyroid hormone system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 51 Xenopus laevis were exposed to DBP and MBP (2, 10 or 15 mg/L separately for 21 days. The two test chemicals decelerated spontaneous metamorphosis in X. laevis at concentrations of 10 and 15 mg/L. Moreover, MBP seemed to possess stronger activity. The effects of DBP and MBP on inducing changes of expression of selected thyroid hormone response genes: thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TRβ, retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRγ, alpha and beta subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHα and TSHβ were detected by qPCR at all concentrations of the compounds. Using mammalian two-hybrid assay in vitro, we found that DBP and MBP enhanced the interactions between co-repressor SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors and TR in a dose-dependent manner, and MBP displayed more markedly. In addition, MBP at low concentrations (2 and 10 mg/L caused aberrant methylation of TRβ in head tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings highlight potential disruption of thyroid signalling by DBP and MBP and provide data for human risk assessment.

  1. Manipulating radicals : Using cobalt to steer radical reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chirilă, A.


    This thesis describes research aimed at understanding and exploiting metallo-radical reactivity and explores reactions mediated by square planar, low-spin cobalt(II) complexes. A primary goal was to uncover novel reactivity of discrete cobalt(III)-bound carbene radicals generated upon reaction of

  2. Phenoxyl radical complexes of gallium, scandium, iron and manganese. (United States)

    Adam, B; Bill, E; Bothe, E; Goerdt, B; Haselhorst, G; Hildenbrand, K; Sokolowski, A; Steenken, S; Weyhermüller, T; Wieghardt, K


    The hexadentate macrocyclic ligands 1,4,7-tris(3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L CH 3H3 ), 1,4,7-tris(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L(Bu) H3 ) and 1,4,7-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methoxy-2-hydroxybenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane (L OCH 3-H3 ) form very stable octahedral neutral complexes LM(III) with trivalent (or tetravalent) metal ions (Ga(III) , Sc(III) , Fe(III) , Mn(III) , Mn(IV) ). The following complexes have been synthesized: [L(Bu) M], where M = Ga (1), Sc (2), Fe (3); [L(Bu) Mn(IV) ]PF6 (4'); [L OCH 3M], where M = Ga (1 a), Sc (2 a), Fe (3 a); [L OCH 3Mn(IV) ]PF6 (4 a'); [L CH 3M], where M = Sc (2 b), Fe (3 b), Mn(III) (4 b); [L CH 3Mn(IV) ]2 (ClO4 )3 (H3 O)(H2 O)3 (4 b'). An electrochemical study has shown that complexes 1, 2, 3, 1 a, 2 a and 3 a each display three reversible, ligand-centred, one-electron oxidation steps. The salts [L OCH 3Fe(III) ]ClO4 and [L OCH 3Ga(III) ]ClO4 , have been isolated as stable crystalline materials. Electronic and EPR spectra prove that these oxidations produce species containing one, two or three coordinated phenoxyl radicals. The Mössbauer spectra of 3 a and [3 a](+) show conclusively that both compounds contain high-spin iron(III) central ions. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that 3 a has an S = 5/2 and [3a](+) an S = 2 ground state. The latter is attained through intramolecular antiferromagnetic exchange coupling between a high-spin iron(III) (S1 = 5/2) and a phenoxyl radical (S2 = 1/2) (H = - 2JS1 S2 ; J = - 80 cm(-1) ). The manganese complexes undergo metal- and ligand-centred redox processes, which were elucidated by spectroelectrochemistry; a phenoxyl radical Mn(IV) complex [Mn(IV) L OCH 3](2+) is accessible. Copyright © 1997 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Grafting of Hindered Phenol Groups onto Ethylene/α-Olefin Copolymer by Nitroxide Radical Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Coiai


    Full Text Available The covalent immobilization of hindered phenol groups, with potential antioxidant activity, onto an ethylene/α-olefin (EOC copolymer was carried out by the nitroxide radical coupling (NRC reaction performed in the melt with a peroxide and the 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (BHB-T. Functionalized EOC (EOC-g-(BHB-T was exposed to photo- and thermo-oxidation. By comparison with some model compounds bearing the (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yloxyl (TEMPO moiety or the hindered phenol unit, it was observed that the grafted BHB-T could effectively help the stabilization of the polymer matrix both under photo- and thermo-oxidation. In addition, the immobilization of BHB-T can effectively increase the service life of the functionalized polymers when polymer films were put in contact with ethanol solution thus simulating a possible application of the modified polymer.

  4. Mechanistic considerations for the degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by sonolysis: effect of argon vs. oxygen saturated solutions. (United States)

    Kim, Duk Kyung; O'Shea, Kevin E; Cooper, William J


    The ultrasonic degradation mechanism of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in aqueous solution is complex because of the competition between hydroxyl radical attack, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis reactions. A detailed investigation of degradation pathways using sonolysis has been performed using reaction byproducts identification. The observed bi-product distributions are rationalized in terms of hydroxyl radical (()OH) mediated processes and pyrolysis. The role of oxygen mediated and pyrolytic pathways were assessed using O(2) and Ar saturated solutions. Chemical destruction by sonolysis is often rationalized using hydroxyl radical chemistry. Pyrolysis is unique to this advanced oxidation process, and is important in the case of MTBE because it transfers into the cavitating bubbles. While α-hydrogen abstraction by ()OH and low temperature pyrolysis was important, it was also shown that β-hydrogen abstraction leads, in some cases, to the same reaction byproducts, which emphasized the importance of α-hydrogen abstraction. High temperature pyrolysis resulted in minor degradation reactions based on the formation of reaction by-products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Free radicals and polarized targets (United States)

    Bunyatova, E. I.


    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.

  6. Free radicals and polarized targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunyatova, E.I. E-mail:


    Many free radicals were added to organic compounds in search of high proton and deuteron polarizations. Few found practical application. A short review is presented, and special attention is given to some stable nitroxyl radicals which have lately been admixed to organic compounds solid at room temperature, in particular to scintillators.


    The paper investigates the distribution on a complex plane of characteristic radicals of stochastic matrices of the n-th order. The results obtained...can be interpreted as theorems on the relative distribution of characteristic radicals of an arbitrary matrix with non-negative elements. (Author)

  8. Endoscopic Injection of a Ruptured Duodenal Varix with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Salgueiro


    Conclusions: The presented case supports endoscopic injection sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate as a treatment option for ruptured duodenal varices that, despite being a rare event, when it occurs, is often fatal.

  9. A comparison of the effect of intranasal desmopressin and intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide combination with intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in acute renal colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol-Reza Kheirollahi


    Full Text Available Background: Patients with acute renal colic usually require immediate diagnosis and treatment. In this clinical trial analgesic effect of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin combination in comparison with hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with acute renal colic induced by urinary stones was assessed. Methods: The study included 114 patients randomly allocated in two groups (A and B. Patients in group A received 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide at admission time and patients in group B received 20 μg of intranasal desmopressin in combination with 20 mg intramuscular hyoscine N-butyl bromide. A visual analogue scale (VAS; a 10-cm horizontal scale ranging from "zero or no pain" to "10 or unbearable pain" was hired to assess the patients′ pain severity at baseline, 30 and 60 minutes after the treatments. Results: On admission, the pain level was similar in both groups (group A: 8.95 ± 0.11 and group B: 8.95 ± 0.12. In group A, the mean of pain level showed a decrease after 30 minutes (group A: 7.26 ± 0.25 and group B: 5.95 ± 0.28 but further decreasing did not occur; however in group B, the pain consistently decreased and the mean after 60 minutes was significantly decreased (group A: 6.80 ± 0.31 and group B: 3.71 ± 0.31. No side effects were detected in this study. Conclusions: The combination of hyoscine N-butyl bromide and desmopressin is more effective than hyoscine N-butyl bromide alone in patients with renal colic. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings and compare the different doses of desmopressin.

  10. The reclaiming of butyl rubber and in-situ compatibilization of thermoplastic elastomer by power ultrasound (United States)

    Feng, Wenlai

    This is a study of the continuous ultrasound aided extrusion process for the in-situ compatibilization of isotactic polypropylene (iPP)/ethylene-propylene diene rubber (EPDM) thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) using a newly developed ultrasonic treatment reactor. The rheological, mechanical properties and morphology of the TPE with and without ultrasonic treatment were studied. In-situ compatibilization in the ultrasonically treated blends was observed as evident by their more stable morphology after annealing, improved mechanical properties and IR spectra. The obtained results indicated that ultrasonic treatment induced the thermo-mechanical degradations and led to the possibility of enhanced molecular transport and chemical reactions at the interfaces. Processing conditions were established for enhanced in situ compatibilization of the PP/EPDM TPE. The ultrasonic treatments of butyl rubber gum and ultrasonic devulcanization of butyl rubber, tire-curing bladder during extrusion using a grooved barrel ultrasonic reactor were carried out. The ultrasonic treatment of gum caused degradation of the polymer main chain leading to lower molecular weight, broader molecular weight distribution, less unsaturation and changes in physical properties. The devulcanization of butyl rubber was successfully accomplished only at severe conditions of ultrasonic treatment. The mechanical properties of vulcanizates prepared from devulcanized butyl rubber are comparable to that of the virgin vulcanizate. The molecular characterization of sol fraction of devulcanized butyl rubber showed the devulcanization and degradation of butyl rubber occurred simultaneously. 1H NMR transverse relaxation was also used to study butyl rubber gum before and after ultrasonic treatment, and ultrasonically devulcanized unfilled butyl rubber. The T2 relaxation decays were successfully described using a two-component model. The recyclability of tire-curing bladder was also investigated. Gel fraction, crosslink

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate)/Silica Aerogel Nanocomposites by in situ AGET ATRP: Investigating Thermal Properties (United States)

    Khezri, Khezrollah; Fazli, Yousef


    Hydrophilic silica aerogel nanoparticles surface was modified with hexamethyldisilazane. Then, the resultant modified nanoparticles were used in random copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate via activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. Conversion and molecular weight determinations were performed using gas and size exclusion chromatography respectively. Addition of modified nanoparticles by 3 wt% results in a decrease of conversion from 68 to 46 %. Molecular weight of copolymer chains decreases from 12,500 to 7,500 g.mol-1 by addition of 3 wt% modified nanoparticles; however, PDI values increase from 1.1 to 1.4. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results indicate that the molar ratio of each monomer in the copolymer chains is approximately similar to the initial selected mole ratio of them. Increasing thermal stability of the nanocomposites is demonstrated by thermal gravimetric analysis. Differential scanning calorimetry also shows a decrease in glass transition temperature by increasing modified silica aerogel nanoparticles.

  12. Control Measures of Sprangletop (Leptochloa chinensis) Resistant Biotype using Propanil Quinclorac and Cyhalofop-butyl

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Motior Rahman; M. Aminul Islam; M. Sofian-Azirun; N.B. Amru; S. Ismail


    ...) sprangletop biotype (Kedah-SB8) but finally regain and exhilarate by use of propanil quinclorac and cyhalofop-butyl at eight-folds the recommended field use rates. The effective dose of propanil cyhalofop-butyl and quinclorac to inhibit plant growth by 50% (ED50) was 0.58 g m-2 0.05 g m-2 and 0.09 g m-2 for the R biotype while forthat of the susceptible (S) b...

  13. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by Kocuria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiković Dragan D.


    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been used to replace the toxic compounds from gasoline and to reduce emission of air pollutants. Due to its intensive use, MTBE has become one of the most important environment pollutants. The aim of this paper is isolation and identification of the bacteria from wastewater sample of “HIP Petrohemija” Pančevo (Serbia, capable of MTBE biodegradation. The results of the investigation showed that only the bacterial isolate 27/1 was capable of growth on MTBE. The result of sequence analyzes of 16S rDNA showed that this bacterial isolate belongs to the Kocuria sp. After the incubation period of 86 days, the degradation rates of initial MTBE concentration of 25 and 125 μg/ml were 55 and 36%, respectively. These results indicated that bacteria Kocuria sp. is successfully adapted on MTBE and can be potentially used in bioremediation of soils and waters contaminated with MTBE.

  14. Embolotherapy using N-butyl cyanoacrylate for abdominal wall bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Kim, Ji Hoon; Cha, Joo Hee; Lee, Eun Hye; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We describe our experience with the use of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) embolization of abdominal wall bleeding and we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the procedure. Embolization was performed in nine patients with abdominal wall bleeding. The sites of embolization were the left first lumbar (n = 1), left second lumbar (n = 1), right inferior epigastric (n 2), left inferior epigastric (n = 3), right circumflex iliac (n = 1), and left circumflex iliac artery (n = 1). A coil was used with NBCA in one patient due to difficulty in selecting only a bleeding focus and anticipated reflux. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:4. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after the embolization procedure, and the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Hemostasis was obtained in six out of the nine patients and technical success was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related complications. Four out of the nine patients died due to rebleeding of a subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 1), multiorgan failure (n = 1), and hepatic failure (n =2) that occurred two to nine days after the embolization procedure. One patient had rebleeding. The five surviving patients had no rebleeding, and the patients continue to visit the clinical on an outpatient basis. NBCA embolization is a clinically safe procedure and is effective for abdominal wall bleeding.

  15. Peroxynitrite-mediated formation of free radicals in human plasma: EPR detection of ascorbyl, albumin-thiyl and uric acid-derived free radicals. (United States)

    Vásquez-Vivar, J; Santos, A M; Junqueira, V B; Augusto, O


    Formation of peroxynitrite by the fast reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion may represent a critical control point in cells producing both species, leading to either down-regulation of the physiological effects of superoxide anion and nitric oxide by forming an inert product, nitrate, or to potentiation of their toxic effects by oxidation of nearby molecules by peroxynitrite. (The term peroxynitrite is used to refer to the sum of all possible forms of peroxynitrite anion and peroxynitrous acid unless otherwise specified.) In this report we demonstrate that, in spite of all the antioxidant defences present in human plasma, its interaction with peroxynitrite leads to generation of free radical intermediates such as (i) the ascorbyl radical, detected by direct EPR, (ii) the albumin-thiyl radical, detected by spin-trapping experiments with both N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), and (iii) a uric acid-derived free radical, detected as the DMPO radical adduct in plasma whose thiol groups were previously blocked with 5,5-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The identity of the latter adduct was confirmed by parallel experiments demonstrating that it is not detectable in plasma pretreated with uricase, whereas it is formed in incubations of peroxynitrite with uric acid. Peroxynitrite-mediated oxidations were also followed by oxygen consumption and ascorbate and plasma-thiol depletion. Our results support the view that peroxynitrite-mediated one-electron oxidation of biomolecules may be an important event in its cytotoxic mechanism. In addition, the data have methodological implications by providing support for the use of EPR methodologies for monitoring both free radical reactions and ascorbate concentrations in biological fluids. PMID:8615782

  16. Propolis in Kenya: Antioxidative and Radical Scavenging Activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dept. of Food Science & Technology


    Jan 1, 2013 ... disease and cancer [1]. Synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole. (BHA), butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), and tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), are widely used in the food industry because they are effective and less expensive than natural antioxidants. Their safety however, has been ...

  17. Free radicals and male reproduction. (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R


    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  18. Synthesis, thermal and optical properties of crosslinked poly(isobornyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate) copolymer films (United States)

    Qu, Jing; Cheng, Jianfang; Wang, Zhonggang; Han, Xiuyou; Zhao, Mingshan


    Novel crosslinked poly(IBOMA-co-BA) copolymers were prepared by free-radical copolymerization from isobornyl methacrylate (IBOMA) and butyl acrylate (BA), using 4,4‧-isopropylidenediphenol dimethacrylate (BD) as crosslinking agent and 2,2‧-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as thermal initiator. The chemical structures, physical and optical properties of the resultant copolymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry analysis, refractive index and birefringence measurements. It was found that the crosslinking modification could effectively improve the resistance to organic solvents, and significantly increase the glass transition temperatures and thermal stability of the copolymers. More importantly, the transparent copolymer films with three-dimensional network structures exhibited very low birefringence. In addition, with the incremental increase of the BD content in copolymers from 15 wt% to 60 wt%, the refractive indices of films could be tunable over a range of 1.475-1.546. The excellent chemical resistance, thermal and optical properties endow this series of polymer materials with promising application in light-waveguide device field.

  19. Protective effect of kombucha tea against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity and cell death in murine hepatocytes. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C


    Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea (BT), is known to have many beneficial properties. In the present study, antioxidant property of KT has been investigated against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) induced cytotoxicity using murine hepatocytes. TBHP, a reactive oxygen species inducer, causes oxidative stress resulting in organ pathophysiology. Exposure to TBHP caused a reduction in cell viability, increased membrane leakage and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries in hepatocytes. TBHP exposure disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptosis as evidenced by flow cytometric analyses. KT treatment, however, counteracted the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented apoptotic cell death of the hepatocytes. BT treatment also reverted TBHP induced hepatotoxicity, however KT was found to be more efficient. This may be due to the formation of antioxidant molecules like D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL) during fermentation process and are absent in BT. Moreover, the radical scavenging activities of KT were found to be higher than BT. Results of the study showed that KT has the potential to ameliorate TBHP induced oxidative insult and cell death in murine hepatocytes more effectively than BT.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Sernyak


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of dissection of the dorsal venous complex without pre-ligation, suturing, or coagulation during radical prostatectomy (RPE in patients with localized prostate cancer (PC on the quality of surgery and the function of urinary retention.Subjects and methods. The data of 42 patients who had undergone posterior and anterior anatomical repair and vesicourethral anastomosis using a V-lock suture after prostatectomy were analyzed. All the patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 consisted of 22 patients in whom the dorsal venous complex was closed using a 3-0 vicryl suture before urethral dissection. Group 2 included 20 patients in whom the urethra was dissected without suturing the venous complex.Results. In group 1, complete urinary retention after catheter removal was noted in 9 (40.9 % and 15 (68 % patients within 24 hours and after 3 months, respectively. Following 12 months, two (9 % patients were observed to have partial mild urinary incontinence (as many as 2 pads per day. Group 2 patients showed complete urinary retention in 17 (85 % cases on the first day after catheter removal; all the patients retained urine 3 months later.Conclusion. In patients with localized PC, dissection of the dorsal venous complex without presuturing during laparoscopic RPE exerts a considerable impact on the preservation of urinary retention, namely 45% more of the patients reported complete urinary retention in early periods and 10 % more did this in later periods. At the same time, there was no statistically significant increase in intraoperative blood loss (p > 0.05, the number of positive edges, or biochemical recurrences.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    8-METHOXYNEORAUTENOL AND RADICAL SCAVENGING FLAVONOIDS FROM. ERYTHRINA ABYSSINICA. Abiy Yenesew1*, Hannington Twinomuhwezi1 ... shown that the plant elaborates alkaloids [1], flavanones, pterocarpans, chalcones and isoflavonoids [1, 3]; some of which have been shown to have antimicrobial ...

  3. Redox Properties of Free Radicals. (United States)

    Neta, P.


    Describes pulse radiolysis as a useful means in studing one-electron redox potentials. This method allows the production of radicals and the determination of their concentration and rates of reaction. (CS)

  4. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail:; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail:; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)


    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  5. Benzene and cyclohexane separation using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate (United States)

    Gonfa, Girma; Ismail, Marhaina; Bustam, Mohamad Azmi


    Cyclohexane is mainly produced by catalytic hydrogenation of benzene. Removal of unreacted benzene from the product stream is very important in this process. However, due to their close boiling points and azeotrope formation, it is very difficult to separate cyclohexane and benzene by conventional distillation. Currently, special separation processes such as processes extractive distillation is commercially used for this separation. However, this extractive distillation suffers from process complexity and higher energy consumption due to their low extractive selectivity of molecular entrainers used. The aim of the present work is to investigate the applicability of ionic liquids as entrainer in extractive distillation of benzene and cyclohexane mixture. In this study, we investigated 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate ([BMIM][SCN]) ionic liquid for separation of benzene and cyclohexane by measuring the Vapor Liquid Equilibrium data of the two components in the presence of the ionic liquid. As green and potential environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids have attracted increasing attention as alternative conventional entrainers in extractive distillation. Isothermal Vapor Liquid Equilibrium for the benzene + cyclohexane + [BMIM][SCN] ternary system was obtained at 353.15 K using a Head Space Gas Chromatography. The addition of [BMIM][SCN] breaks the benzene-cyclohexane azeotrope and increased the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene in the mixture. The effect of [BMIM][SCN] on the relative volatility cyclohexane to benzene was studied at various benzene and cyclohexane compositions and solvent to feed ratios. The performance of [BMIM][SCN] was compared with typical conventional solvents, dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The results show that the relative volatility of cyclohexane to benzene in the presence of [BMIM][SCN] is higher compared that of DMSO and DMF.

  6. N-butyl cyanoacrylate embolotherapy for acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Ho; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koh, Young Hwan; Han, Dae Hee; Cha, Joo Hee; Seong, Chang Kyu; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Various embolic agents have been used for embolization of acute gastrointestinal (GI) arterial bleeding. N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) is not easy to handle, but it is a useful embolic agent. In this retrospective study, we describe our experience with NBCA embolization of acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding. NBCA embolization was performed in seven patients with acute upper GI arterial bleeding; they had five gastric ulcers and two duodenal ulcers. NBCA embolization was done in the left gastric artery (n = 3), right gastric artery (n = 2), gastroduodenal artery (n = 1) and pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 1). Coil was used along with NBCA in a gastric bleeding patient because of difficulty in selecting a feeding artery. NBCA was mixed with Lipiodol at the ratio of 1:1 to 1:2. The blood pressure and heart rate around the time of embolization, the serial hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the transfusion requirements were reviewed to evaluate hemostasis and rebleeding. Technical success was achieved in all the cases. Two procedure-related complications happened; embolism of the NBCA mixture to the common hepatic artery occurred in a case with embolization of the left gastric artery, and reflux of the NBCA mixture occurred into the adjacent gastric tissue, but these did not cause any clinical problems. Four of seven patients did not present with rebleeding, but two had rebleeding 10 and 16 days, respectively, after embolization and they died of cardiac arrest at 2 months and 37 days, respectively. One other patient died of sepsis and respiratory failure within 24 hours without rebleeding. NBCA embolization with or without other embolic agents could be safe and effective for treating acute gastroduodenal ulcer bleeding.

  7. Incorporation of the hydrophobic probe N-t-BOC-L-tyrosine tert-butyl ester to red blood cell membranes to study peroxynitrite-dependent reactions. (United States)

    Romero, Natalia; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Zhang, Hao; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael


    We have previously demonstrated that red blood cells (RBC) are an important sink of intravascularly generated peroxynitrite even in the presence of physiological concentrations of CO2 or other plasmatic biotargets. Once inside erythrocytes, peroxynitrite reacts fast with oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb; k2=2 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4) and isomerizes to nitrate. Herein, we investigated whether, in spite of the fast diffusion and consumption of extracellularly added peroxynitrite by intraerythrocytic oxyHb, peroxynitrite-dependent radical processes could occur at the RBC membrane, focusing on tyrosine nitration. For this purpose, the hydrophobic tyrosine analogue N-t-BOC-L-tyrosine tert-butyl ester (BTBE) was successfully incorporated for the first time to a biological membrane, that is, RBC membrane, with incorporation yields approximately 1-3 x 10(7) molecules per RBC. The membrane integrity of BTBE-containing RBC was not significantly altered after BTBE incorporation as demonstrated by permeability studies. The probe was then used to study peroxynitrite-dependent reactions. The addition of peroxynitrite to BTBE-containing RBC suspensions resulted in BTBE nitration and dimerization to 3-nitro-BTBE and 3,3'-di-BTBE, respectively, indicative of peroxynitrite-derived radicals reactions in the membrane. Peroxynitrite addition to RBC also caused tyrosine nitration of membrane-associated proteins. The free radical nature of the process was also shown by the detection of protein-derived radicals by DMPO-immunospin trapping. While the presence of extracellular CO2 was potently inhibitory of intracellular oxyHb oxidation, membrane protein and BTBE nitration by peroxynitrite at membrane, in spite of the significant peroxynitrite scavenging activity of oxyHb inside the RBC.

  8. Catalase Expression Is Modulated by Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin and Influences the Formation of Free Radicals in Staphylococcus aureus Cultures. (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Hougaard, Anni B; Paulander, Wilhelm; Skibsted, Leif H; Ingmer, Hanne; Andersen, Mogens L


    Detection of free radicals in biological systems is challenging due to their short half-lives. We have applied electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy combined with spin traps using the probes PBN (N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone) and DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide) to assess free radical formation in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus treated with a bactericidal antibiotic, vancomycin or ciprofloxacin. While we were unable to detect ESR signals in bacterial cells, hydroxyl radicals were observed in the supernatant of bacterial cell cultures. Surprisingly, the strongest signal was detected in broth medium without bacterial cells present and it was mitigated by iron chelation or by addition of catalase, which catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This suggests that the signal originates from hydroxyl radicals formed by the Fenton reaction, in which iron is oxidized by hydrogen peroxide. Previously, hydroxyl radicals have been proposed to be generated within bacterial cells in response to bactericidal antibiotics. We found that when S. aureus was exposed to vancomycin or ciprofloxacin, hydroxyl radical formation in the broth was indeed increased compared to the level seen with untreated bacterial cells. However, S. aureus cells express catalase, and the antibiotic-mediated increase in hydroxyl radical formation was correlated with reduced katA expression and catalase activity in the presence of either antibiotic. Therefore, our results show that in S. aureus, bactericidal antibiotics modulate catalase expression, which in turn influences the formation of free radicals in the surrounding broth medium. If similar regulation is found in other bacterial species, it might explain why bactericidal antibiotics are perceived as inducing formation of free radicals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Experimental Validation of the Butyl-Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast-Mitigating Floor Mat (United States)


    Experimental Validation of the Butyl- Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast-Mitigating Floor Mat by Masayuki Sakamoto...MD 20783-1138 ARL-SR-0329 August 2015 Experimental Validation of the Butyl- Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast...SUBTITLE Experimental Validation of the Butyl- Rubber Finite Element (FE) Material Model for the Blast-Mitigating Floor Mat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  10. Electrochemical degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr B. Velichenko


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have examined the performance of PbO2 anodes in the EC degradation of MTBE. It was shown that electrochemical oxidation of MTBE at lead dioxide anodes is effective method of anodic conversion of the organic pollutant to acetic acid as untoxic product. Proposed method is formally reagent treatment of water at the same time it does not need addition of any reagent in reaction media. All needed reagents formed directly from the solvent (water thanks to electrochemical reactions. According to obtained data the main electrochemical stages of the process of anodic conversion of MTBE are formation of hydroxyl-radicals and molecular oxygen. Then formed compounds take part in stages of chemical MTBE oxidation and intermediate species that led to deeper oxidation to form acetic acid as the result. Proposed mechanism of MTBE electrochemical oxidation is in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Dependence of MTBE conversion rate from the nature of micro-doped and composite lead dioxide anodes is explained by difference in hydroxyl-radical bond strength with an electrode surface that determined it reaction ability in secondary chemical reactions of organic compounds oxidation.

  11. The electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate for its application as oil absorbent. (United States)

    Xu, Naiku; Cao, Jipeng; Lu, Yuyao


    Electrospun polystyrene materials have been employed as oil absorbents, but they have visible drawbacks such as poor strength at low temperature and unreliable integrity because of brittleness and insufficient cohesive force among fibers. Butyl acrylate can polymerize into flexible chains, and its polymer can be used as elastomer and adhesive material. Thereby it is possible to obtain the material that has better performance in comparison with electrospun polystyrene material through the electrospinning of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate. In this work, a polymer was synthesized through suspension polymerization by using styrene and butyl acrylate as comonomers. The synthesis of the copolymer of styrene and butyl acrylate was verified through dissolution and hydrolysis experimental data; as well through nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry. The viscous flow activation energy of the solution consisting of copolymer and N, N-dimethylformamide was determined via viscosity method and then adopted to establish the entanglement characteristics of butyl acrylate's chain segments. Finally, in order to electrospin the copolymer solution into fibrous membrane, the effects of monomer feed ratio and spinning parameters were investigated. The prepared fibrous membrane was found to have a potential use as oil absorbent.

  12. Radiation-induced degradation of butyl rubber vulcanized by three different crosslinking systems (United States)

    Scagliusi, Sandra R.; Cardoso, Elisabeth C. L.; Lugao, Ademar B.


    Butyl rubber (IIR) is an isobutylene/isoprene copolymer and is provided with good properties including low permeability to gases, good thermal stability and high resistance to oxygen and ozone action, among others. It is well known that the major effect of ionizing radiations on butyl rubber is chain scission accompanied with a significant reduction in molar mass. This work aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation on the properties of butyl rubbers vulcanized by three different curing systems, such as, the ones based on sulfur, sulfur donor and phenolic resin to identify which curing system is the most stable under irradiation. The butyl rubber vulcanized by three different systems was gamma irradiated with doses of 25 kGy, 50 kGy, 100 kGy, 150 kGy and 200 kGy. Irradiated and non-irradiated samples were characterized by the following techniques: tensile, elongation and hardness. It was observed that doses higher than 150 kGy practically destroy the assessed properties for all butyl compounds, irrespective of the vulcanization system used; however compounds cured with phenolic resin showed a decrease in properties proportional to the dose.

  13. Peroxy radical partitioning during the AMMA radical intercomparison exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Andrés-Hernández


    Full Text Available Peroxy radicals were measured onboard two scientific aircrafts during the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis campaign in summer 2006. This paper reports results from the flight on 16 August 2006 during which measurements of HO2 by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy at low pressure (LIF-FAGE and total peroxy radicals (RO2* = HO2+ΣRO2, R = organic chain by two similar instruments based on the peroxy radical chemical amplification (PeRCA technique were subject of a blind intercomparison. The German DLR-Falcon and the British FAAM-BAe-146 flew wing tip to wing tip for about 30 min making concurrent measurements on 2 horizontal level runs at 697 and 485 hPa over the same geographical area in Burkina Faso. A full set of supporting measurements comprising photolysis frequencies, and relevant trace gases like CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and a wider range of VOCs were collected simultaneously.

    Results are discussed on the basis of the characteristics and limitations of the different instruments used. Generally, no data bias are identified and the RO2* data available agree quite reasonably within the instrumental errors. The [RO2*]/[HO2] ratios, which vary between 1:1 and 3:1, as well as the peroxy radical variability, concur with variations in photolysis rates and in other potential radical precursors. Model results provide additional information about dominant radical formation and loss processes.

  14. Standard Electrode Potentials Involving Radicals in Aqueous Solution: Inorganic Radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, David A.; Huie, Robert E.; Koppenol, Willem H.; Lymar, Sergei V.; Merenyi, Gabor; Neta, Pedatsur; Ruscic, Branko; Stanbury, David M.; Steenken, Steen; Wardman, Peter


    Recommendations are made for standard potentials involving select inorganic radicals in aqueous solution at 25 °C. These recommendations are based on a critical and thorough literature review and also by performing derivations from various literature reports. The recommended data are summarized in tables of standard potentials, Gibbs energies of formation, radical pKa’s, and hemicolligation equilibrium constants. In all cases, current best estimates of the uncertainties are provided. An extensive set of Data Sheets is appended that provide original literature references, summarize the experimental results, and describe the decisions and procedures leading to each of the recommendations

  15. Phenylbutazone radicals inactivate creatine kinase. (United States)

    Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y


    Creatine kinase (CK) was used as a marker molecule to examine the side effect of damage to tissues by phenylbutazone (PB), an effective drug to treat rheumatic and arthritic diseases, with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H(2)O2). PB inactivated CK during its interaction with HRP-H(2) O(2), and inactivated CK in rat heart homogenate. PB carbon-centered radicals were formed during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2. The CK efficiently reduced electron spin resonance signals of the PB carbon-centered radicals. The spin trap agent 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane strongly prevented CK inactivation. These results show that CK was inactivated through interaction with PB carbon-centered radicals. Sulfhydryl groups and tryptophan residues in CK were lost during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2, suggesting that cysteine and tryptophan residues are oxidized by PB carbon-centered radicals. Other enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, but not lactate dehydrogenase, were also inactivated. Sulfhydryl enzymes seem to be sensitive to attack by PB carbon-centered radicals. Inhibition of SH enzymes may explain some of the deleterious effects induced by PB.

  16. Non-specific inhibition of ischemia- and acidosis-induced intracellular calcium elevations and membrane currents by α-phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone, butylated hydroxytoluene and trolox. (United States)

    Katnik, Christopher; Cuevas, Javier


    Ischemia, and subsequent acidosis, induces neuronal death following brain injury. Oxidative stress is believed to be a key component of this neuronal degeneration. Acute chemical ischemia (azide in the absence of external glucose) and acidosis (external media buffered to pH 6.0) produce increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and inward membrane currents in cultured rat cortical neurons. Two α-tocopherol analogues, trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and the spin trapping molecule α-Phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN) were used to determine the role of free radicals in these responses. PBN and BHT inhibited the initial transient increases in [Ca2+]i, produced by ischemia, acidosis and acidic ischemia and increased steady state levels in response to acidosis and the acidic ischemia. BHT and PBN also potentiated the rate at which [Ca2+]i increased after the initial transients during acidic ischemia. Trolox inhibited peak and sustained increases in [Ca2+]i during ischemia. BHT inhibited ischemia induced initial inward currents and trolox inhibited initial inward currents activated by acidosis and acidic ischemia. Given the inconsistent results obtained using these antioxidants, it is unlikely their effects were due to elimination of free radicals. Instead, it appears these compounds have non-specific effects on the ion channels and exchangers responsible for these responses.

  17. Studies on bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone 1-oximato)manganese(II) and its mixed-ligand complexes. (United States)

    Kasumov, Veli T; Köksal, Fevzi


    The synthesis, spectroscopy, and redox-reactivity towards PPh(3) of bis(3,5-di-t-butyl-1,2-benzoquinone 1-oximato)manganese(II), Mn(ox)(2), and its mixed-ligand complexes, Mn(ox)L(x) [L(x)=8-hydroxyquinolinato (L(1)), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) (L(2)), 1,10-Phenanthroline (phen) (L(3)) and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3,5-di-t-butylsalicylaldiminato (L(4))] complexes, are presented. While some complexes exhibit solid-state ESR spectra they were ESR-silent in toluene or CHCl(3) at 300 K. The reduction of all ESR-silent complexes with an excess of PPh(3), independently from the nature of secondary L(x) ligands, results in the appearance of a six-line hyperfine coupling of 55Mn (I=5/2) (A(Mn)=95-100 G) and a seven-line radical signal, which was assigned to phosphiniminophenoxyl type radicals (g=2.0056-2.0075, A(P)=8. 5 G and A(N)=1.875 G).

  18. Spectroscopic analysis of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids: Cation-anion interactions (United States)

    Men, Shuang; Jiang, Jing; Licence, Peter


    In this study, four 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids are analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, together with three 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. A reliable fitting model for the carbon 1s region of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium ionic liquids is modified according to established models. The effect of the anion on the electronic environment of the cation is explored based upon the comparison between measured binding energies of nitrogen 1s and the hydrogen bond acceptor ability. The effect of the cation on the cation-anion interaction is also demonstrated by carefully comparing the hydrogen bond donating ability of different cations, with a definite anion.

  19. Crystal structure of (S)-sec-butyl-ammonium l-tartrate monohydrate. (United States)

    Publicover, Ernlie A; Kolwich, Jennifer; Stack, Darcie L; Doué, Alyssa J; Ylijoki, Kai E O


    The title hydrated mol-ecular salt, C4H12N+·C4H5O6-·H2O, was prepared by deprotonation of enanti-opure l-tartaric acid with racemic sec-butyl-amine in water. Only one enanti-omer was observed crystallographically, resulting from the combination of (S)-sec-butyl-amine with l-tartaric acid. The sec-butyl-ammonium moiety is disordered over two conformations related by rotation around the CH-CH2 bond; the refined occupancy ratio is 0.68 (1):0.32 (1). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked through a network of O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, between the ammonium H atoms, the tartrate hy-droxy H atoms, and the inter-stitial water, forming a three-dimensional supra-molecular structure.

  20. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E


    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  1. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Bove


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We offer an overview of the intra-, peri- and postoperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP with the endpoint to evaluate potential advantages of this approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive Medline literature search (search terms “laparoscopic radical prostatectomy” and “radical prostatectomy” from 1990 until 2007. Only full-length English language articles identified during this search were considered for this analysis. A preference was given to the articles with large series with more than 100 patients. All pertinent articles concerning localized prostate cancer were reviewed. CONCLUSION:Pure LRP has shown to be feasible and reproducible but it is difficult to learn. Potential advantages over open surgery have to be confirmed by longer-term follow-up and adequately designed clinical studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farrokhi ، S. Ahmadizad


    Full Text Available In this study dissolved humic substances and yeast extract were tested in different concentrations for enhancing methyl tert-butyl ether mineralization by isolated microorganisms from a variety of sources. All experiments were conducted at a constant temperature of 25ºC. Vials of 50 mL and 125 mL volume sealed with Teflon-lined Mini-Nert caps was used for microcosm experiments. In all experiments 1% sodium azide were used as control. Samples of bacterial cultures that metabolize methyl tert-butyl ether have been analysed by direct GC analysis using flame ionization detector. Cultures able to metabolize have been found in activated sludge and soils. These microorganisms weregram-positive bacterium. An aerobic microbial consortium was enriched in laboratory for four months. Methyl tert-butyl ether has been shown to biodegrade under aerobic and co-metabolic conditions. A microbial consortium isolated from activated sludges was identified as Cocobacillus. The concentration of the initial attached biomass was about 0.11 g/L of dry weight. The maximum mineralization rate and beneficial effects of stimulator substances on aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether occurred with the culture by combined concentrations of 500 mg/L of yeast extract and 20 mg/L of peat humic growth support of microbial consortium within 216 h and in presence of high oxygen levels and well mixing conditions. It was shown that adding, peat humic and yeast extract together, had better stimulatory effect on methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation. Results clearly showed a stimulatory effect on methyl tert-butyl ether consumption higher than 20%. Consortium was capable of degrading concentrations of ≤1000 mg/L, whereas concentrations of >1000 mg/L, were not degraded.

  3. Synthesis, Radical Reactivity, and Thermochemistry of Monomeric Cu(II) Alkoxide Complexes Relevant to Cu/Radical Alcohol Oxidation Catalysis. (United States)

    Porter, Thomas R; Capitao, Dany; Kaminsky, Werner; Qian, Zhaoshen; Mayer, James M


    Two new monomeric Cu(II) alkoxide complexes were prepared and fully characterized as models for intermediates in copper/radical mediated alcohol oxidation catalysis: Tp(tBuR)Cu(II)OCH2CF3 with Tp(tBu) = hydro-tris(3-tert-butyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate 1 or Tp(tBuMe) = hydro-tris(3-tert-butyl-5-methyl-pyrazol-1-yl)borate 2. These complexes were made as models for potential intermediates in enzymatic and synthetic catalytic cycles for alcohol oxidation. However, the alkoxide ligands are not readily oxidized by loss of H; instead, these complexes were found to be hydrogen atom acceptors. They oxidize the hydroxylamine TEMPOH, 2,4,6-tri-t-butylphenol, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene to the nitroxyl radical, phenoxyl radical, and benzene, with formation of HOCH2CF3 (TFE) and the Cu(I) complexes Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)-MeCN in dichloromethane/1% MeCN or 1/2 [Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 in toluene. On the basis of thermodynamics and kinetics arguments, these reactions likely proceed through concerted proton-electron transfer mechanisms. Thermochemical analyses give lower limits for the "effective bond dissociation free energies (BDFE)" of the O-H bonds in 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 + TFE and upper limits for the free energies associated with alkoxide oxidations via hydrogen atom transfer (effective alkoxide α-C-H BDFEs). These values are summations of the free energies of multiple chemical steps, which include the energetically favorable formation of 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2. The effective alkoxide α-C-H bonds are very weak, BDFE ≤ 38 ± 4 kcal mol(-1) for 1 and ≤44 ± 5 kcal mol(-1) for 2 (gas-phase estimates), because C-H homolysis is thermodynamically coupled to one electron transfer to Cu(II) as well as the favorable formation of the 1/2[Tp(tBuR)Cu(I)]2 dimer. Treating 1 with the H atom acceptor (t)Bu3ArO(•) did not result in the expected alkoxide oxidation to an aldehyde, but rather net 2,2,2-trifluoroethoxyl radical transfer occurred to generate an unusual 2-substituted dienone-ether product. Treating 2

  4. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad


    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  5. The screening of microorganisms capable of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) biodegradation. (United States)

    Wieczorek, Andrzej; Przybulewska, Krystyna; Karpowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Maciej J


    As a result of examinations carried out, 16 strains of microorganisms able to grow on mineral media with methyl tert-butyl ether as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated. Bacteria prevailed among the isolated microorganisms. The growth of microorganisms under laboratory conditions was long and accompanied by low biomass increase. Under the conditions of the experiment, the isolated microorganisms did not show any quantitatively measurable biodegradability of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) under aerobic conditions. This requires far-reaching caution with respect to trading in MTBE-modified petrols in order to protect the natural environment in Poland against contamination with that hard-to-biodegrade substance.

  6. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group


    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO{sub 3} loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  7. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J


    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  8. Exploring the Theories of Radicalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta


    Full Text Available After the London bombings in July 2005, the concern of terrorism scholars and policy makers has turned to “home-grown” terrorism and potential for political violence from within the states. “Radicalization” became a new buzz word. This article follows a number of reviews of the literature on radicalization and offers another angle for looking at this research. First, it discusses the term “radicalization” and suggests the use of the following definition of radicalization as a process by which a person adopts belief systems which justify the use of violence to effect social change and comes to actively support as well as employ violent means for political purposes. Next, it proposes to see the theories of radicalization focusing on the individual and the two dimensions of his/her motivation: whether that motivation is internal or external and whether it is due to personal choice or either internal (due to some psychological traits or external compulsion. Though not all theories fall neatly within these categories, they make it possible to make comparisons of contributions from a variety of different areas thus reflecting on the interdisciplinary nature of the study of terrorism in general and radicalization as a part of it.

  9. [Reprodcutive results of radical trachelectomy]. (United States)

    Martínez-Chapa, Arnulfo; Alonso-Reyes, Nelly; Luna-Macías, Miguel


    Historically, cervical cancer in early stages has been treated with radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy with no option in keeping the uterine-ovarian function. Since two decades ago, evidence shows these cases are candidates for radical trachelectomy, a procedure capable of preserving the fertility without affecting the oncological outcome. To analyze reproductive results among patients treated with radical trachelectomy, in a reference center from the northeast of Mexico. Between March 1999 and December 2013, 27 cases with cervical cancer in early stages were treated with vaginal or abdominal radical trachelectomy in the ISSSTE Regional Hospital in Monterrey, NL (Mexico). We obtained the gynecological, medical and surgical clinical history. Plan of analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Age range was 27-39 years. Main complications were cervical stenosis (n=1) and erosion of cerclaje (n=2). Eighteen patients tried to get pregnant, 8 of them got a spontaneous pregnancy; 1 more patient required assisted reproduction technics and did not succeed. All pregnancies were delivered by cesarean section and were preterm births; 3 underwent premature rupture of membranes. Two pregnancies ended in abortion, one at 10 weeks with severe hemorrhage that needed hysterectomy; the second one, at 1 7 weeks, received a fine uterine curettage. Only 6 cases (33%) got a live birth. Only one third of the attempted pregnancies got a live birth. Assisted reproduction technics play an important role and should be offer to all cases. Cerclaje is an important factor to carry a pregnancy up to the third trimester.

  10. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt...

  11. Radical cyclization approach to spirocyclohexadienones. (United States)

    de Turiso, Felix González-López; Curran, Dennis P


    Cyclization of an aryl radical at the ipso position of a p-O-aryl-substituted acetamide or benzamide generates oxindoles or quinolones bearing spirocyclohexadienone rings. This versatile reaction is applied to formal syntheses of the vasopressin inhibitor SR121463A and aza-galanthamine.

  12. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.


    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of "narrow mental states"; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without…

  13. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, M.


    Compounds (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me[sub 3]Si). Reactions of (MeC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U with (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 2]Hg results in formation of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  14. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weydert, Marc [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Compounds (RC5H4)3U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC5H4)3UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me3Si). Reactions of (MeC5H4)3U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC5H4)3ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC5H4)4U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC5H4)3U with (RC5H4)2Hg results in formation of (RC5H4)4U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  15. Preparation and Performance of Poly(butyl fumarate-Based Material for Potential Application in LED Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang


    Full Text Available A UV-curable poly(butyl fumarate (PBF/poly(propylene fumarate-diacrylate (PPF-DA hybrid material with good performance for LED encapsulation is introduced in the paper. They have been prepared by radical polymerization using PBF and PPF-DA macromers with a UV curing system. PBF and PPF-DA were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR and H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The thermal behavior, optical and mechanical properties of the material were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–vis, and a material testing system mechanical testing machine, respectively. The results indicated that the hybrid material has a suitable refractive index (n = 1.537 and high transmittance (99.64% in visible range before/after thermal aging. With the increasing of the double bond ratio from 0.5 to 2, the water absorption ratios of the prepared encapsulation material were 1.22%, 1.87% and 2.88%, respectively. The mechanical property experiments showed that bonding strength was in the range of 1.86–3.40 MPa, tensile-shear strength ranged from 0.84 MPa to 1.57 MPa, and compression strength was in the range of 5.10–27.65 MPa. The cured PBF/PPF-DA hybrid material can be used as a light-emitting diode (LED encapsulant, owing to its suitable refractive index, high transparency, excellent thermal stability, lower water absorption, and good mechanical properties.

  16. Chemical kinetic study of a novel lignocellulosic biofuel: Di-n-butyl ether oxidation in a laminar flow reactor and flames

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Liming


    The combustion characteristics of promising alternative fuels have been studied extensively in the recent years. Nevertheless, the pyrolysis and oxidation kinetics for many oxygenated fuels are not well characterized compared to those of hydrocarbons. In the present investigation, the first chemical kinetic study of a long-chain linear symmetric ether, di-n-butyl ether (DBE), is presented and a detailed reaction model is developed. DBE has been identified recently as a candidate biofuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The model includes both high temperature and low temperature reaction pathways with reaction rates generated using appropriate rate rules. In addition, experimental studies on fundamental combustion characteristics, such as ignition delay times and laminar flame speeds have been performed. A laminar flow reactor was used to determine the ignition delay times of lean and stoichiometric DBE/air mixtures. The laminar flame speeds of DBE/air mixtures were measured in the stagnation flame configuration for a wide rage of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure and an unburned reactant temperature of 373. K. All experimental data were modeled using the present kinetic model. The agreement between measured and computed results is satisfactory, and the model was used to elucidate the oxidation pathways of DBE. The dissociation of keto-hydroperoxides, leading to radical chain branching was found to dominate the ignition of DBE in the low temperature regime. The results of the present numerical and experimental study of the oxidation of di-n-butyl ether provide a good basis for further investigation of long chain linear and branched ethers. © 2013 The Combustion Institute.

  17. Theoretical study for OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of ethyl acrylate. (United States)

    Sun, Yanhui; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing


    OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of ethyl acrylate (ethyl 2-propenoate, EA) has been investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Optimizations of the reactants, intermediates, transition states and products were carried out at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. Single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The detailed oxidation mechanism was presented and discussed. The results show that the OH addition is more energetically favorable than the H abstraction. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory was used to predict the rate constants over the possible atmospheric temperature range of 180-370 K. The Arrhenius expression adequately describes the total rate constant: k(EA+OH)=(1.71×10(-12))exp(805.42/T)cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). At 298 K, the atmospheric lifetime of ethyl acrylate determined by OH radicals is about 16.2h. In order to find out the effect of alkyl substitution on the reaction activity, rate constants for the reactions of methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate with OH radicals were also discussed. Calculation results show that the reaction activity may increase with the increased electron-donating substitution for electrophilic addition reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liver nuclear ethanol metabolizing systems (NEMS) producing acetaldehyde and 1-hydroxyethyl free radicals. (United States)

    Castro, G D; Delgado de Layño, A M; Castro, J A


    Biotransformation of ethanol by liver nuclei was studied. The formation of acetaldehyde was determined by GC/FID. The 1-hydroxyethyl (1HEt) formation was established by spin trapping of the radical with N-t-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) followed by GC/MS. Liver nuclei, free of endoplasmic reticulum, cytosol or mitochondria, were able to biotransform ethanol to acetaldehyde in the presence of NADPH under air. Only 22% activity was observed in the absence of the cofactor. Twenty-six percent of the NADPH-dependent activity and 47% of the NADPH-independent activity were observable under nitrogen. Aerobic biotransformation was inhibited by CO, SKF 525A, 4-methylpyrazole and by diethyldithiocarbamate. This suggests that CYP2E1 is involved in the process. However, the formation of acetaldehyde was able to proceed under a pure CO atmosphere. The lack of inhibitory effects of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazol and thiobenzamide excludes the potential participation of the NADPH flavin monooxigenase system. The formation of hydroxyl radicals in the process is suggested by the partial inhibitory effect of 5 mM mannitol and 5 mM sodium benzoate and by the fact that the 1HEt was detected. The NADPH-dependent anaerobic ethanol biotransformation pathway was stimulated by FAD and inhibited to some extent by iron chelators. The relevance of a liver nuclear ethanol biotransformation, generating reactive metabolites, such as acetaldehyde and free radicals, nearby DNA, nuclear proteins and lipids is discussed.

  19. Risicogrenzen voor MTBE (Methyl tertiair-Butyl Ether) in bodem, sediment, grondwater, oppervlaktewater en voor drinkwaterbereiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Baars AJ; Fleuren RHLJ; Otte PF; LER


    Recentelijk is politieke commotie ontstaan ten gevolge van de mogelijke schadelijke gezondheidseffecten van Methyl tertiair-Butyl Ether (MTBE). Dit was reden voor het ministerie van VROM om het RIVM te verzoeken risicogrenzen voor MTBE in bodem, sediment, grondwater, oppervlaktewater, drinkwater en

  20. Risicogrenzen voor MTBE (Methyl tertiair-Butyl Ether) in bodem, sediment, grondwater, oppervlaktewater en voor drinkwaterbereiding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes FA; Baars AJ; Fleuren RHLJ; Otte PF; LER


    Recently, possible unacceptable harmful effects from Methyl tertiary-Butyl Ether (MTBE) to humans raised political consternation. For this reason the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment ("VROM") ordered the RIVM to derive solid risk limits for soil, sediment,

  1. Aerobic mineralization of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol by stream-bed sediment microorganisms (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, F.H.


    Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline- contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.Microorganisms indigenous to the stream-bed sediments at two gasoline-contaminated groundwater sites demonstrated significant mineralization of the fuel oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). Up to 73% of [U-14C]-MTBE and 84% of [U-14C]-TBA were degraded to 14CO2 under mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions. No significant mineralization was observed under strictly anaerobic conditions. The results indicate that, under the mixed aerobic/anaerobic conditions characteristic of stream-bed sediments, microbial processes may provide a significant environmental sink for MTBE and TBA delivered to surface water bodies by contaminated groundwater or by other sources.

  2. Process Intensification of Enzymatic Fatty Acid Butyl Ester Synthesis Using a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef; Hidayat, C.; Heeres, Hero


    Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)– water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous

  3. A Case of Successful Ablation of a Gastrophrenic Fistula with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mahajan


    Full Text Available A 79-year-old woman with a fistula between a subphrenic abscess and the fundus of the stomach was successfully treated with n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate. Conservative management had failed. Clinical presentation, treatment progress and imaging findings by computed tomography scan, ultrasound, gastroscopy and fluoroscopy are presented, along with a brief review of the relevant literature.

  4. Energetic Materials Center Report--Small-Scale Safety and Thermal Testing Evaluation of Butyl Nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center; Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center


    Butyl Nitrate (BN) was examined by Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) Testing techniques to determine its sensitivity to impact, friction, spark and thermal exposure simulating handling and storage conditions. Under the conditions tested, the BN exhibits thermal sensitivity above 150 °C, and does not exhibit sensitive to impact, friction or spark.

  5. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.


    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or

  6. Selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal tert-butyl esters of peptides


    Eggen, I.F.; Boeriu, C.G.


    The present invention relates to a process for the selective enzymatic hydrolysis of C-terminal esters of peptide substrates in the synthesis of peptides, comprising hydrolysing C-terminal tert-butyl esters using the protease subtilisin. This process is useful in the production of protected or unprotected peptides.

  7. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.


    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft) (United States)

    EPA released the draft report, Toxicological Review for Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether , that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from ot...

  9. Impact of activation methods on persulfate oxidation of methyl tert-butyl ether. (United States)

    Deng, Dayi; Peng, Libin; Guan, Mengyun; Kang, Yuan


    To provide guidance on the selection of proper persulfate processes for the remediation of MTBE contaminated groundwater, MTBE aqueous solutions were treated with three common field persulfate processes including heat activated persulfate, Fe(III)-EDTA activated persulfate and alkaline persulfate, respectively. The results were compared with MTBE oxidation by Fenton's reagent and persulfate alone at 25°C. The impact of the activating conditions on the fate of MTBE and its daughter products was investigated. Heat activation at 40°C offered the most rapid removal of MTBE and its daughter products, while Fe(III)-EDTA activation showed higher efficiency of MTBE removal but low removal efficiency of its daughter products. On the other hand, alkaline persulfate showed slower kinetics for the removal of MTBE and less accumulation of the daughter products. Furthermore, tert-butyl alcohol and acetone were observed as the main purgeable daughter products along with a small amount of tert-butyl formate in persulfate oxidation of MTBE, while tert-butyl formate, tert-butyl alcohol and acetone were the main products in Fenton oxidation. Mechanistic analysis suggests that degradation of MTBE by persulfate most likely happens via non-oxygen demand pathways, different from the dominant oxygen demand degradation pathways observed in Fenton oxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether (Egbe) (United States)

    This position paper, An Evaluation of the Human Carcinogenic Potential of Ethylene Glycol Butyl Ether, was developed in support of the EPA's evaluation of a petition from the American Chemistry Council requesting to delist EGBE per the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Titl...


    The feasibility of photo-oxidation treatment of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water was investigated in three ways, 1) using a slurry falling film photo-reactor, 2) a batch solar reactor system, and 3) a combination of air-stripping and gas phase photooxidation system. MTBE-c...

  12. (R-N-{2-tert-Butyl-2-[(R-tert-butylsulfonamido]ethylidene}-tert-butanesulfonamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Bin Fan


    Full Text Available The title compound, C14H30N2O2S2, is the product of the monoaddition reaction of tert-butyl magnesium chloride with bis-[(R-N-tert-butanesulfinyl]ethanediimine. There are two almost identical molecules in the asymmetric unit, the molecular conformation of which is stabilized by an intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bond.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of butyl hydroxycinnamates and their inhibitory effects on LDL-oxidation. (United States)

    Vafiadi, Christina; Topakas, Evangelos; Alissandratos, Apostolos; Faulds, Craig B; Christakopoulos, Paul


    The potential of the Aspergillus niger type A feruloyl esterase (AnFaeA) for the synthesis of various phenolic acid esters was examined using a ternary-organic reaction system consisting of a mixture of n-hexane, 1- or 2-butanol and water. Reaction parameters including the type of methyl hydroxycinnamate, the composition of the reaction media, the temperature, and the substrate concentration were investigated to evaluate their effect on initial rate and conversion to butyl esters of sinapic acids. Optimisation of the reaction parameters lead to 78% and 9% yield for the synthesis of 1-butyl and 2-butyl sinapate, respectively. For the first time, a feruloyl esterase was introduced in the reaction system as cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs), after optimisation of the immobilisation procedure, allowing the recycling and reuse of the biocatalyst. The inhibition of copper-induced LDL oxidation by hydroxycinnamic acids and their corresponding butyl esters was investigated in vitro. Kinetic analysis of the antioxidation process demonstrates that sinapate derivatives are effective antioxidants indicating that esterification increases the free acid's antioxidant activity especially on dimethoxylated compounds such as sinapic acid compared to methoxy-hydroxy-compounds such as ferulic acid.

  14. Studies on ethylene-propylene-diene rubber modification by N-chlorothio-N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Datta, Rabin; Talma, Auke; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.


    N-Chlorothiosulfonamides have been used to modify ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM) to enhance the compatibility of EPDM in, e.g., natural rubber (NR)/butadiene rubber (BR)/EPDM blends for ozone resistance. N-Chlorothio-N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide (CTBBS) was selected as a representative for

  15. Iodine catalyzed and tertiary butyl ammonium bromide promoted p reparation of b enzoxazaphosphininyl phenylboronates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Kishore K. Reddy,


    Full Text Available Benzoxazaphosphininyl Phenylboronates were prepared by O-Phosphorylation of potassium salt ofphenylboronic acid with cyclic phosphoromonochloridates in the presence of stoichiometric amount of Iodineand catalytic amount of tertiary butyl ammonium bromide at 50-60 °C in dry toluene.

  16. Carcinogenicity study on butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in Wistar rats exposed in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, P.; Meyer, Otto A.; Bille, N.


    Groups of 60, 40, 40 and 60 F0 Wistar rats of each sex were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in concentrations to provide intakes of 0, 25, 100 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively. The F0 rats were mated and groups of 100, 80, 80 or 100 F1 rats of each se...


    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  18. Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification of waxy and high amylose starch

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wokadala, OC


    Full Text Available Carbohydrate Polymers Vol. 112 Inducing PLA/starch compatibility through butyl-etherification ofwaxy and high amylose starch Obiro Cuthbert Wokadalaa,b, Naushad Mohammad Emmambuxc,Suprakas Sinha Raya,b,c,∗ aDST/CSIR National Centre for Nanostructured...

  19. A new efficient synthesis of isothiocyanates from amines using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Henrik; Hansen, Jon S.; Pittelkow, Michael


    Alkyl and aryl amines are converted smoothly to the corresponding isothiocyanates via the dithiocarbamates in good to excellent yields using di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (Boc(2)O) and 1-3 mol% of DMAP or DABCO as catalyst. As most of the byproducts are volatile, the work-up involves simple evaporation...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of birch wood xylan succinoylated in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Plackett, David


    The chemical modification of birch wood xylan was undertaken in the ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C4mimCl) using three different long-chain succinic anhydrides: n-octenyl succinic anhydride (n-OSA), n-dodecenyl succinic anhydride (n-DDSA) and n-octadecenyl succinic anhydrid...

  1. O conceito de mal radical The concept of radical evil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Correia


    Full Text Available A noção de mal radical aparece em Kant no contexto da discussão da religião nos limites da simples razão e busca dar conta da complexa relação entre o respeito pela lei moral e o amor-próprio na definição do móbil para a ação. Na busca por identificar o fundamento da propensão para o mal no homem, Kant se vê diante da dificuldade de ter de articular natureza e liberdade, e ainda que a noção de mal radical possa conservar algumas ambigüidades, permite conceber uma noção de responsabilidade compatível com uma inata propensão para o mal. Neste texto busco explicitar alguns passos fundamentais na construção do conceito por Kant.The concept of radical evil appears in Kant's theory when he discusses the religion in the limits of the mere reason and aims explain the complex relationship between respect for the moral law and the self-love, for establish the motive of the action. By aiming identify the basis of human inclination to evil, Kant is faced with the trouble of have to put nature and freedom in connection. Despite of the concept of radical evil retain some ambiguity, it allows conceive a notion of responsibility suitable to an inherent inclination to evil. In this paper is my purpose to explain some basic moments of Kantian formulation of that notion.

  2. ["Learning curve" robotic radical hysterectomy compared to standardized laparoscopy assisted radical vaginal and open radical hysterectomy]. (United States)

    Pilka, R; Marek, R; Dzvinčuk, P; Kudela, M; Neubert, D


    To compare intraoperative, pathologic and postoperative outcomes of "learning curve" robotic radical hysterectomy (RRH) with laparoscopy assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy (LARVH) and abdominal radical hysterectomy (ARH) in patients with early stage cervical carcinoma. Comparative study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. The first twenty patients with cervical cancer stages IA2-IIA underwent RRH and were compared with previous twenty LARVH and ARH cases. The procedures were performed at University Hospital Olomouc, Czech Republic between 2004 and 2011. There were no differences between groups for age, body mass index, tumor histology, number of nodes removed or preoperative hemoglobin levels. The median theatre time in the learning period for the robot procedure was reduced from 400 min to less than 223 min and compared well to the 215 min for an open procedure. We found differences between the pre- and postoperative hemoglobin levels (RRH, 14.9 ±7 .6; LARVH, 23.0 ± 8.5; ARH, 28.0 ± 12.4). This difference was statistically significant in favor of RRH group ( p= 0.0012). Mean length of stay was significantly shorter for the RRH group (7.2 versus 8.8 days,p = 0.0005). Mean pelvic lymph node count was similar in the three groups. None of the robotic or laparoscopic procedures required conversion to laparotomy. The differences in major operative complications between the two groups were not significant. Based on our experience, robotic radical hysterectomy showed better results than traditional laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy in early stage cervical carcinoma cases. Introduction of this new technique requires a learning curve of less than 20 cases that will reduce the operating time to a level comparable to open surger.

  3. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants. (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kannan, Pranav; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam


    Resin-based dental sealants (also referred to as pit-and-fissure sealants) have been studied for their contribution to bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in children. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of other potentially toxic chemicals in dental sealants. In this study, the occurrence of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs), including 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-(hydroxyethyl)phenol (BHT-OH), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde (BHT-CHO), 2,6-di-tert-butylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (BHT-Q), 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (BHT-COOH) and 2-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (BHA), was examined in 63 dental sealant products purchased from the U.S. market. BHT was found in all dental sealants at median and maximum concentrations of 56.8 and 1020µg/g, respectively. The metabolites of BHT and BHA were detected in 39-67% of samples, at concentration ranges of shelf-life of the products. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BHT, following sealant placement, based on a worst-case scenario (application on eight teeth at 8mg each tooth), was 930 and 6510ng/kg bw/d for adults and children, respectively. The EDI of BHT from dental sealants was several orders of magnitude lower than the current acceptable daily intake (ADI) proposed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pouzolzia zeylanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Pouzolzia zeylanica was extracted with different solvents (acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether, using different protocols (cold-extraction and Soxhlet extraction. To evaluate the antiradical and antioxidant abilities of the extracts, four in vitro test systems were employed, i.e., DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays and a reducing power assay. All extracts exhibited outstanding antioxidant activities that were superior to that of butylated hydroxytoluene. The ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the most significant antioxidant activities, and cold-extraction under stirring seemed to be the more efficacious method for acquiring the predominant antioxidants. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities and total phenolic (TP content of different extracts followed the same order, i.e., there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP content. The results showed that these extracts, especially the ethyl acetate extracts, could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration.

  5. Fluorescent Brighteners as Visible LED-Light Sensitive Photoinitiators for Free Radical Photopolymerizations. (United States)

    Zuo, Xiaoling; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Graff, Bernadette; Blanchard, Nicolas; Goddard, Jean-Philippe; Lalevée, Jacques


    The photochemical and electrochemical investigations of commercially available, safe, and cheap fluorescent brighteners, namely, triazinylstilbene (commercial name: fluorescent brightener 28) and 2,5-bis(5-tert-butyl-benzoxazol-2-yl)thiophene, as well as their original use as photoinitiators of polymerization upon light emitting diode (LED) irradiation are reported. Remarkably, their excellent near-UV-visible absorption properties combined with outstanding fluorescent properties allow them to act as high-performance photoinitiators when used in combination with diaryliodonium salt. These two-component photoinitiating systems can be employed for free radical polymerizations of acrylate. In addition, this brightener-initiated photopolymerization is able to overcome oxygen inhibition even upon irradiation with low LED light intensity. The underlying photochemical mechanisms are investigated by electron-spin resonance-spin trapping, fluorescence, cyclic voltammetry, and steady-state photolysis techniques. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of functional copolymer/organo-silicate nanoarchitectures through interlamellar complex-radical (coterpolymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The functional copolymers, having a combination of rigid/flexible linkages and an ability of complex-formation with interlayered surface of organo-silicate, and their nanocomposites have been synthesized by interlamellar complex-radical (coterpolymerization of intercalated monomer complexes of maleic anhydride (MA and itaconic acid (IA with dimethyl dodecylamine surface modified montmorillonite (organo-MMT (MA…DMDA-MMT and IA…DMDA-MMT n-butyl methacrylate (BMA and/or BMA/styrene monomer mixtures. The results of nanocomposite structure–composition– property relationship studies indicate that interlamellar complex-formation between anhydride/acid units and surface alkyl amine and rigid/flexible linkage balance in polymer chains are important factors providing the effective intercalation/ exfoliation of the polymer chains into the silicate galleries, the formation of nanostructural hybrids with higher thermal stability, dynamic mechanical behaviour and well dispersed morphology.

  7. The Radical Axis: A Motion Study (United States)

    McGivney, Ray; McKim, Jim


    Interesting problems sometimes have surprising sources. In this paper we take an innocent looking problem from a calculus book and rediscover the radical axis of classical geometry. For intersecting circles the radical axis is the line through the two points of intersection. For nonintersecting, nonconcentric circles, the radical axis still…

  8. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system


    Takahide Fukuyama; Md. Taifur Rahman; Naoya Kamata; Ilhyong Ryu


    Summary Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  9. Radical carbonylations using a continuous microflow system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Fukuyama


    Full Text Available Radical-based carbonylation reactions of alkyl halides were conducted in a microflow reactor under pressurized carbon monoxide gas. Good to excellent yields of carbonylated products were obtained via radical formylation, carbonylative cyclization and three-component coupling reactions, using tributyltin hydride or TTMSS as a radical mediator.

  10. Oxygen free radicals in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Biemond (Pieter)


    textabstractCurrent knowledge strongly suggests that oxygen free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of RA. Additional information about the mechanism of free radical attack is necessary in order to find out if interaction with the mechanism of free radical damage can be used in the treatment

  11. Sphingomyelinase inhibitory and free radical scavenging potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extractsf sphingomyelinase inhibitory potencies were assessed colorimetrically and their free radical scavenging capabilities were assayed by the ability to quench 2,2]diphenyl]1]picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide anion (O2.]) radical. Considering their IC50 (ƒÊg/ml) values, the extracts inhibited the ...

  12. Erectile preservation following radical prostatectomy


    Segal, Robert; Burnett, Arthur L.


    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, representing approximately 25% of all new cancer diagnoses in the USA. For clinically localized prostate cancer, the gold standard for therapy remains radical prostatectomy. One of the main adverse effects of this procedure is erectile dysfunction, which can have a significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. There are several mechanisms of erectile dysfunction postprostatectomy, including arteriogenic, venogenic and neurogenic type...

  13. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy


    Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea


    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence ...

  14. Detecting Social Polarization and Radicalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    This paper proposes a novel system to detect social polarization and to estimate the chances of violent radicalization associated with it. The required processes for such a system are indicated; it is also analyzed how existing technologies can be integrated into the proposed system to fulfill...... the objectives. We propose a scalable design to enable integration and extension of future state of the art technologies into the system....

  15. Geoscientists and the Radical Middle (United States)

    Tinker, S. W.


    Addressing the great challenges facing society requires industry, government, and academia to work together. I call this overlap space, where compromises are made and real solutions determined, the Radical Middle. Radical because it can appear at times as if the loudest and most publicly influential voices lie outside of the actual solution space, content to provoke but not problem-solve. One key area where geoscientists can play a lead role in the Radical Middle is in the overlap between energy, the environment, and the economy. Globally, fossil fuels still represent 85% of the aggregate energy mix. As existing conventional oil and natural-gas reservoir production continues to slowly decline, unconventional reservoirs, led today by shale and other more expensive resources, will represent a growing part of the oil and gas production mix. Many of these unconventional reservoirs require hydraulic fracturing. The positive economic impact of hydraulic fracturing and associated natural gas and oil production on the United States economy is well documented and undeniable. Yet there are environmental concerns about fracking, and some states and nations have imposed moratoria. This energy-environment-economy space is ideal for leadership from the geosciences. Another such overlap space is the potential for geoscience leadership in relations with China, whose economy and global presence continue to expand. Although China is building major hydropower and natural-gas power plants, as well as nuclear reactors, coal is still king—with the associated environmental impacts. Carbon sequestration—onshore in brine and to enhance oil recovery, as well as offshore—could prove viable. It is vital that educated and objective geoscientists from industry, government, and academia leave their corners and work together in the Radical Middle to educate the public and develop and deliver balanced, economically sensible energy and environmental strategies.

  16. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...... bed reactor, was determined using a batch kinetic based approach. The procedure involved modeling of methyl tert-butyl ether removal rates from batch experiments followed by parameter estimations. It was estimated to be 5-14% (w/w) of the measured volatile suspended solids concentration in the reactor....

  17. Oxidative stress, free radicals and protein peroxides. (United States)

    Gebicki, Janusz M


    Primary free radicals generated under oxidative stress in cells and tissues produce a cascade of reactive secondary radicals, which attack biomolecules with efficiency determined by the reaction rate constants and target concentration. Proteins are prominent targets because they constitute the bulk of the organic content of cells and tissues and react readily with many of the secondary radicals. The reactions commonly lead to the formation of carbon-centered radicals, which generally convert in vivo to peroxyl radicals and finally to semistable hydroperoxides. All of these intermediates can initiate biological damage. This article outlines the advantages of the application of ionizing radiations to studies of radicals, with particular reference to the generation of desired radicals, studies of the kinetics of their reactions and correlating the results with events in biological systems. In one such application, formation of protein hydroperoxides in irradiated cells was inhibited by the intracellular ascorbate and glutathione. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Kaya


    Full Text Available The literature on the causes of how terrorist organizations are formed and how counter terrorism measures can be more effective is immense. What is novel in terrorism literature is de-radicalization in terrorist organizations. This paper hopes to shed light on the de-radicalization process in terrorist organizations based in Egypt. In order to achieve that goal, the first part of the paper will deal with the de-radicalization process. The second part will briefly describe the major radical terrorist organizations that are effective in Egypt. The last part will combine the two parts and bring in suggestions on the de-radicalization process itself. Terrorism and de-radicalization are complicated threats to nearly all societies. Therefore, it is important to go beyond security and intelligence approaches and take proactive measures. It is best to view what is de-radicalization and how it can be achieved.

  19. Youth De-Radicalization: A Canadian Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafal (Haval Ahmad


    Full Text Available Youth radicalization leading to violence has become a growing fear among Canadians, as terrorist attacks are carried out in Western states. Although Canada has suffered relatively fewer acts of violence, this fear has intensified and a de-radicalization strategy is needed in the Canadian context. In a qualitative case study methodology, interviews were conducted with school counsellors, religious leaders, and academics to explore solutions to youth radicalization. Youth de-radicalization approaches from the United Kingdom were analyzed and found that community-based initiatives were missing from programming. Social identity theory is used to explain that youth join radicalized groups to feel a sense of belonging and have to be provided an alternative and moderate group identity to de-radicalize. This study found youth de-radicalization in Canada is best served through a community collaboration approach.

  20. Cast Nanostructured Films of Poly(methyl methacrylate-b-butyl acrylate)/Carbon Nanotubes: Influence of Poly(butyl acrylate) Content on Film Evaporation Rate, Morphology, and Electrical Resistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soriano-Corral, F; Ramos-de Valle, L. F; Enríquez-Medrano, F. J; De León-Martínez, P. A; López-Quintanilla, M. L; Cabrera-Álvarez, E. N


      Nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-butyl acrylate)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared from different copolymers synthesized by RITP technique using iodine functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate...

  1. effect of some free radicals on superoxide dismutase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Free radicals are species with unpaired electron in their outermost shell. Most free radicals come from oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Radical species such as superoxide radical, hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electron are called the primary radicals of water radiolysis and can be produced by irradiating water.

  2. Effect of some free radicals on superoxide dismutase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Free radicals are species with unpaired electron in their outermost shell. Most free radicals come from oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Radical species such as superoxide radical, hydroxyl radicals and hydrated electron are called the primary radicals of water radiolysis and can be produced by irradiating water molecule.

  3. Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content of Cassia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    May 16, 2008 ... hydroxyanisole, BHA (18.25 μg/ml). The amount of total phenolic compounds was further ... oxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) because of their .... inflammatory and cancer-preventive activities (Ghiselli et al., 1998; Visioli et al., 1998; Fabiani et al., 2006).

  4. Oxygen radical-scavenging capacities of peptides from swine blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 2, 2010 ... process of the organism and may induce cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease (Gutteridge. 1994 and Tabatabaie et al. 2003). Oxidative ... E-mail: Abbreviations: PSB, Peptides of swine blood; DM, diabetes mellitus; BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; BHT, butylated.

  5. Online radicalization: the net or the netizen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femi Richard Omotoyinbo


    Full Text Available Purpose - Radicalization has gained some unusual prominence in the academic circles; maintaining a generic existence not only in the political sector. And with the advent of the Information Communication Technology (ICT, radicalization has begun to have some virtual dimension even in the remotest of human communities. This study seeks to mobilize a universal awareness on the collective urgency to oppose Online Radicalization (a radicalization that happens through the internet due to its propensity to engendering conflicts. It also aims at identifying the principal cause of online radicalization and steer a clear course for a practical reversal in the systems of online radicalization.Design/methodology/approach - The study is divided into three primary parts. The general notion of radicalization is the focus of the first part; which is further analysed into the levels of online radicalization with its accompanying developments and segments. The second part utilizes analytic and historical method to pinpoint the principal cause of online radicalization amidst the suspected causal factors (the Net and the Netizen. The final part analytically focuses on the Netizen (a user/citizen of the internet as the primary cause of online radicalization, and how the global community can bring about a corresponding change in the Net by the application of some measures on the Netizen.Findings - By virtue of the analytic plus historical methods employed by this study; it was initially identified that radicalization is basically having two versions which are online and offline. Further emphasis on the online version reveals that its existence is only made possible by the availability of the internet (the Net. Since the Net is a global phenomenon online radicalization is considered to be worldwide: a menace of globalization. However, the study later indicated that the Net is a facilitator and a cause of online radicalization. A view was deduced that the Netizen is

  6. Thermochemistry, reaction paths, and kinetics on the tert-isooctane radical reaction with O2. (United States)

    Snitsiriwat, Suarwee; Bozzelli, Joseph W


    Thermochemical properties of tert-isooctane hydroperoxide and its radicals are determined by computational chemistry. Enthalpies are determined using isodesmic reactions with B3LYP density function and CBS QB3 methods. Application of group additivity with comparison to calculated values is illustrated. Entropy and heat capacities are determined using geometric parameters and frequencies from the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) calculations for the lowest energy conformer. Internal rotor potentials are determined for the tert-isooctane hydroperoxide and its radicals in order to identify isomer energies. Recommended values derived from the most stable conformers of tert-isooctane hydroperoxide of are -77.85 ± 0.44 kcal mol(-1). Isooctane is a highly branched molecule, and its structure has a significant effect on its thermochemistry and reaction barriers. Intramolecular interactions are shown to have a significant effect on the enthalpy of the isooctane parent and its radicals on peroxy/peroxide systems, the R• + O2 well depths and unimolecular reaction barriers. Bond dissociation energies and well depths, for tert-isooctane hydroperoxide → R• + O2 are 33.5 kcal mol(-1) compared to values of ∼38 to 40 kcal mol(-1) for the smaller tert-butyl-O2 → R• + O2. Transition states and kinetic parameters for intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer and molecular elimination channels are characterized to evaluate reaction paths and kinetics. Kinetic parameters are determined versus pressure and temperature for the chemically activated formation and unimolecular dissociation of the peroxide adducts. Multifrequency quantum RRK (QRRK) analysis is used for k(E) with master equation analysis for falloff. The major reaction paths at 1000 K are formation of isooctane plus HO2 followed by cyclic ether plus OH. Stabilization of the tert-isooctane hydroperoxy radical becomes important at lower temperatures.

  7. Effect of thyme/cumin essential oils and butylated hydroxyl anisole/butylated hydroxyl toluene on physicochemical properties and oxidative/microbial stability of chicken patties. (United States)

    Sariçoban, Cemalettin; Yilmaz, Mustafa Tahsin


    In this study, effects of thyme/cumin essential oils (EO) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA)/butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) on physicochemical properties and storage stability of chicken patties were compared in different storage periods (0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d). It was found that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between physicochemical properties of patty samples treated with EO and the synthetic antioxidants. The EO showed similar performance to those of BHA and BHT in limiting TBARS values of chicken patty samples. Similarity in performance was also the case for microbial stability (total aerobic mesophilic, psychrotrophic, lactic acid, and coliform bacteria as well as molds and yeasts); namely, their effects were significant (P < 0.05). Effect of thyme EO was significant (P < 0.05) and remarkable, not allowing any coliform bacteria to grow in the samples. Given that EO were obtained from natural sources, the data suggested that the EO might be more useful than their synthetic counterparts, BHA and BHT, as additives for chicken patties to maintain oxidative/microbial stability and increase shelf life.

  8. Process Intensification of Enzymatic Fatty Acid Butyl Ester Synthesis Using a Continuous Centrifugal Contactor Separator. (United States)

    Ilmi, Miftahul; Abduh, Muhammad Y; Hommes, Arne; Winkelman, Jozef G M; Hidayat, Chusnul; Heeres, Hero J


    Fatty acid butyl esters were synthesized from sunflower oil with 1-butanol using a homogeneous Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a biphasic organic (triglyceride, 1-butanol, hexane)- water (with enzyme) system in a continuous setup consisting of a cascade of a stirred tank reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS), the latter being used for integrated reaction and liquid-liquid separation. A fatty acid butyl ester yield up to 93% was obtained in the cascade when operated in a once-through mode. The cascade was run for 8 h without operational issues. Enzyme recycling was studied by reintroduction of the water phase from the CCCS outlet to the stirred tank reactor. Product yield decreased over time to an average of 50% of the initial value, likely due to accumulation of 1-butanol in water phase, loss of enzyme due to agglomeration, and the formation of a separate enzyme layer.

  9. Di-n-butylbis(N-n-butyl-N-ethyldithiocarbamato-κStin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seik Weng Ng


    Full Text Available The Sn atom in the title compound, [Sn(C4H92(C7H14NS22], exists in a tetrahedral C2S2Sn coordination geometry. The geometry is distorted towards skew-trapezoidal-bipyramidal owing to the proximity of the double-bond S atoms [Sn—S = 2.521 (2 and Sn...S = 2.933 (2 Å]. The Sn atom lies on a special position of mm2 site symmetry and the tin-bound n-butyl chain is disordered about a mirror plane. The ethyl and n-butyl groups of the dithiocarbamate unit are disordered about another mirror plane.

  10. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mark H.


    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  11. Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrogen + Tetra-n-Butyl Ammonium Bromide Semi-Clathrate Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Hashimoto


    Full Text Available Thermodynamic stability and hydrogen occupancy on the hydrogen + tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrate were investigated by means of Raman spectroscopic and phase equilibrium measurements under the three-phase equilibrium condition. The structure of mixed gas hydrates changes from tetragonal to another structure around 95 MPa and 292 K depending on surrounding hydrogen fugacity. The occupied amount of hydrogen in the semi-clathrate hydrate increases significantly associated with the structural transition. Tetra-n-butyl ammonium bromide semi-clathrate hydrates can absorb hydrogen molecules by a pressure-swing without destroying the hydrogen bonds of hydrate cages at 15 MPa or over.

  12. Bio-Source of di-n-butyl phthalate production by filamentous fungi (United States)

    Tian, Congkui; Ni, Jinren; Chang, Fang; Liu, Sitong; Xu, Nan; Sun, Weiling; Xie, Yuan; Guo, Yongzhao; Ma, Yanrong; Yang, Zhenxing; Dang, Chenyuan; Huang, Yuefei; Tian, Zhexian; Wang, Yiping


    Although DBP (di-n-butyl phthalate) is commonly encountered as an artificially-synthesized plasticizer with potential to impair fertility, we confirm that it can also be biosynthesized as microbial secondary metabolites from naturally occurring filamentous fungi strains cultured either in an artificial medium or natural water. Using the excreted crude enzyme from the fungi for catalyzing a variety of substrates, we found that the fungal generation of DBP was largely through shikimic acid pathway, which was assembled by phthalic acid with butyl alcohol through esterification. The DBP production ability of the fungi was primarily influenced by fungal spore density and incubation temperature. This study indicates an important alternative natural waterborne source of DBP in addition to artificial synthesis, which implied fungal contribution must be highlighted for future source control and risk management of DBP.

  13. Pulmonary embolism after endoscopic injection with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate for gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Robaina


    Full Text Available Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis

  14. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk...

  15. Penile rehabilitation after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Ohl, Dana A; Ralph, David


    The pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy (RP) is believed to include neuropraxia, which leads to temporarily reduced oxygenation and subsequent structural changes in penile tissue. This results in veno-occlusive dysfunction, therefore, penile rehabilitation programmes...... compared with placebo. The effects of prostaglandin and vacuum erection devices are questionable and high-quality studies are lacking. Better documentation for current penile rehabilitation and/or better rehabilitation protocols are needed. One must be careful not to repeat the statement that penile...... rehabilitation improves erectile function after RP so many times that it becomes a truth even without the proper scientific backing....

  16. Aromatic-radical oxidation chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassman, I.; Brezinsky, K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)


    The research effort has focussed on discovering an explanation for the anomalously high CO{sub 2} concentrations observed early in the reaction sequence of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene. To explain this observation, a number of plausible mechanisms have been developed which now await experimental verification. One experimental technique for verifying mechanisms is to probe the reacting system by perturbing the radical concentrations. Two forms of chemical perturbation of the oxidation of cyclopentadiene were begun during this past year--the addition of NO{sub 2} and CO to the reacting mixture.

  17. Laser spectroscopy of hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    The author reports the application of supersonic jet flash pyrolysis to the specific preparation of a range of organic radicals, biradicals, and carbenes in a skimmed molecular beam. Each species was produced cleanly and specifically, with little or no secondary reactions by the thermal dissociation of appropriately designed and synthesized organic precursors. Photoelectron spectra of the three isomeric C{sub 3}H{sub 2} carbenes, ortho-benzyne, and the {alpha},3-dehydrotoluene biradical, were used to establish adiabatic ionization potentials for use in thermochemical determinations.

  18. Determinismo, Indeterminismo e Behaviorismo Radical


    Carolina Laurenti


    Um dos principais objetivos deste trabalho é argumentar que o tema do determinismo e indeterminismo é ainda central para a ciência psicológica, em especial, para a Análise do Comportamento, e sua filosofia, o Behaviorismo Radical. À primeira vista, o problema parece não se justificar, já que Skinner declara-se determinista. Todavia, um exame mais atento sugere que o texto skinneriano também abre o flanco para uma interpretação indeterminista de seus compromissos científico-filosóficos. Com is...

  19. Is Radical Innovation Management Misunderstood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Jimmi Normann; Gertsen, Frank


    This paper poses a critical view on radical innovation (RI) management research and practice. The study investigates how expected RI performance influences firms’ under- standing of their RI capability. RI performance is often based on output measures such as market shares or fiscal return...... managerial orientations. Coupling a discussion of the literature with case findings from four large international firms, this paper identifies a discrepancy between RI capability-building and RI perfor- mance within literature and practice. This is regarded to be a major contributing factor to RI program...

  20. Radical constructivism: Between realism and solipsism (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alberto


    This paper criticizes radical constructivism of the Glasersfeld type, pointing out some contradictions between the declared radical principles and their theoretical and practical development. These contradictions manifest themselves in a frequent oscillation between solipsism and realism, despite constructivist claims to be an anti-realist theory. The paper also points out the contradiction between the relativism of the radical constructivist principles and the constructivist exclusion of other epistemological or educational paradigms. It also disputes the originality and importance of the radical constructivist paradigm, suggesting the idea of an isomorphism between radical constructivist theory and contemplative realism. In addition, some pedagogical and scientific methodological aspects of the radical constructivist model are examined. Although radical constructivism claims to be a rational theory and advocates deductive thinking, it is argued that there is no logical deductive connection between the radical principles of constructivism and the radical constructivist ideas about scientific research and learning. The paper suggests the possibility of an ideological substratum in the construction and hegemonic success of subjective constructivism and, finally, briefly advances an alternative realist model to epistemological and educational radical constructivism.

  1. Temperature effect on tert-butyl alcohol (TBA biodegradation kinetics in hyporheic zone soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sims Ronald C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Remediation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA in subsurface waters should be taken into consideration at reformulated gasoline contaminated sites since it is a biodegradation intermediate of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE, and tert-butyl formate (TBF. The effect of temperature on TBA biodegradation has not been not been published in the literature. Methods Biodegradation of [U 14C] TBA was determined using hyporheic zone soil microcosms. Results First order mineralization rate constants of TBA at 5°C, 15°C and 25°C were 7.84 ± 0.14 × 10-3, 9.07 ± 0.09 × 10-3, and 15.3 ± 0.3 × 10-3 days-1, respectively (or 2.86 ± 0.05, 3.31 ± 0.03, 5.60 ± 0.14 years-1, respectively. Temperature had a statistically significant effect on the mineralization rates and was modelled using the Arrhenius equation with frequency factor (A and activation energy (Ea of 154 day-1 and 23,006 mol/J, respectively. Conclusion Results of this study are the first to determine mineralization rates of TBA for different temperatures. The kinetic rates determined in this study can be used in groundwater fate and transport modelling of TBA at the Ronan, MT site and provide an estimate for TBA removal at other similar shallow aquifer sites and hyporheic zones as a function of seasonal change in temperature.

  2. The role of n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate in the repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injuries (United States)

    Bas, Gurhan; Ozkan, Orhan Veli; Alimoglu, Orhan; Eryilmaz, Ramazan; Sahin, Mustafa; Okan, Ismail; Cevikbas, Ugur


    Diaphragmatic injuries either by blunt or penetrating trauma require prompt surgical intervention and are often exigent to repair. N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (n-butyl-2-CA) is a tissue adhesive which has gained wide application in many areas of surgery including emergency. To repair the extensive injuries of the diaphragm it may be necessary the use of synthetic mesh by fixing it with sutures or staples. The use of tissue adhesives may circumvent the potential problems associated with mesh fixation. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tissue adhesives usage for mesh fixation in diaphragmatic injury repair. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups each of them containing 8 rats. A 1- cm diaphragmatic defect was created in all rats. The defect was repaired by polypropylene suture in Group I, by mesh fixed with sutures in group II and by mesh fixed with n-butyl-2-CA in group III. The rats were sacrificed after 1 month. The episode of hernia and the adhesions were assessed by adhesion density score. Also, the abscess and inflammation in the repaired tissue were evaluated microscopically. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed for the histopathological analysis. No diaphragmatic hernia was detected in any group. While Group III had higher adhesion density scores than group I (P: 0.027), there were no differences between group III and II (P: 0.317) and group II and I (P = 0.095) regarding adhesion density scores. The inflammation grade was higher in group III than group I and II (P 0.05). Repair of traumatic diaphragmatic injury in penetrating wound, with polypropylene mesh fixed by n-butyl-2-CA in rats appears to be as efficacious and safe as conventional methods in early period. However, further experimental and clinical study are needed to compare the long-term results of adhesive mesh repair with those of the traditional sutured techniques. PMID:26131179

  3. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether


    Obie Farobie; Nur Hasanah


    In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE). The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time) were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict b...

  4. Reverse osmosis performance with solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siler, J.L.


    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reverse osmosis (RO) units at the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) at the Savannah River could be made to process solutions containing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). It was desired to test whether operation at a feed pH other than neutral would improve performance. Test results are discussed in this report and indicate that little improvement in the water flux can be expected at other pH values.

  5. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate)-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites


    M. Mirzataheri


    Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 %) nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate) including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt %) were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 3...

  6. 1-[(E-2-(5-tert-Butyl-2-hydroxyphenyldiazen-1-yl]naphthalen-2-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassiba Bougueria


    Full Text Available The non-H atoms of the title compound, C20H20N2O2, is located on a mirror plane except two methyl groups of the tert-butyl group. Intramolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds exist between the hydroxy and diazenyl groups. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds into supramolecular chains running along the a-axis direction.

  7. Vinyl Acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylate Research of Ternary Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li-guang


    Full Text Available Through the vinyl acetate/butyl acrylate/acrylic acrylic emulsion preparation without soap vinegar, with solid content, gel, emulsion stability and film forming properties and tensile strength as the main index to study the effect of raw materials on the properties of emulsion. Through the infrared spectrometer soap-free emulsion for microscopic analysis research. Study of the ternary soap-free vinegar acrylic emulsion with good performance.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization and Evaluation of the Transformations in Hibiscus sabdariffa-graft-poly(butyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Kaith


    Full Text Available Different reaction parameters for the graft copolymerization of butyl acrylate onto Hibiscus sabdariffa fiber were optimized. Graft copolymers thus obtained were subjected to characterization using XRD, TGA, DTA, SEM and FTIR techniques and were evaluated for physio-chemical changes in the behavior. The percentage crystallinity and crystallinity index were found to decrease with increase in grafting while there was reduction in moisture absorption and increase in chemical, thermal resistance of the graft copolymers.

  9. Thermally Activated Paramagnets from Diamagnetic Polymers of Biphenyl-3,5-diyl Bis(tert-butyl Nitroxides Carrying Methyl and Fluoro Groups at the 2’- and 5’-Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Yoshitake


    Full Text Available Three new biradicals—2’,5’-dimethyl-, 2’-fluoro-5’-methyl-, and 5’-fluoro-2’-methyl- biphenyl-3,5-diyl bis(tert-butyl nitroxides—were synthesized. The magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed their diamagnetism below and around room temperature. The nitroxide groups are located close to each other in an intermolecular fashion to form a weakly covalent head-to-tail (NO2 ring. Biradical molecules are connected on both radical sites, constructing a diamagnetic chain. The dimethyl derivative underwent a structural phase transition at 83 °C, clarified via differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction, and a paramagnetic solid phase with S = 1 irreversibly appeared. The other analogues exhibited a similar irreversible upsurge of the magnetic susceptibility on heating, but the transition was characterized as the melting.

  10. Solvation of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in aqueous ethanol--a green solution for dissolving 'hydrophobic' ionic liquids. (United States)

    Swatloski, R P; Visser, A E; Reichert, W M; Broker, G A; Farina, L M; Holbrey, J D; Rogers, R D


    The relatively hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate has been found to be totally miscible with aqueous ethanol between 0.5 and 0.9 mol fraction ethanol, whereas the ionic liquid is only partially miscible with either pure water or absolute ethanol; the ability to dissolve 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate in a 'green' aqueous solvent system has important implications for cleaning, purification, and separations using ionic liquids.

  11. Tert-butyl alcohol used to fabricate nano-cellulose aerogels via freeze-drying technology (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yang; Jiang, Hua; Song, Yuxuan; Zhou, Zhaobing; Zhao, Hua


    Aerogel, a highly porous material, is attracting increasing attention owing to low thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. Freeze-drying technology has been employed to produce nano-cellulose aerogels; however, the resultant product has low specific surface areas. Here, a modified approach to prepare nano-cellulose aerogels was reported, which involves tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent. Nano-cellulose aerogels were prepared via a spontaneous gelation fashion using calcium chloride solution, followed by tert-butyl alcohol solvent displacement and freeze drying. Addition of calcium chloride (0.25%) accelerated the physical gelation process. The application of tert-butyl alcohol as a solvent contributed to preservation of gel network. The obtained spherical nano-cellulose aerogels had a shrinkage rate of 5.89%. The specific surface area and average pore size was 164. 9666 m2 g-1 and 10.01 nm, respectively. Additionally, nano-cellulose aerogels had a comparable thermal degradation property when compared to microcrystalline cellulose. These biophysical properties make nano-cellulose aerogels as a promising absorption material.

  12. [Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by O3/H2O2]. (United States)

    Hu, Qin-Hai; Mao, Ke-Hui; Zhu, Miao-Jun; Zhang, Xing-Qing; Xiong, Yun-Long; Wang, Juan


    The degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water solution has been studied using the combination of ozone/hydrogen peroxide in a bubble column. Effects of air (containing O3) currents, quantities of H2O2, initial concentrations of MTBE, pH values and temperatures on the oxidation of MTBE have been tested, and it is implicated that under the conditions of initial MTBE concentration of 10 mg x L(-1), air current of 0.5 L x min(-1), pH 6.5, 293 K and 2.4 mg x L(-1) H2O2 addition, MTBE can be reduced by 75.5% and the removal rate of COD reaches 68.0% within 30 min. The main of degradation products identified are tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), acetone (AC) and methyl acetate (MA). On the basis of that, the probable mechanism and pathway of the oxidation of MTBE by ozone/hydrogen peroxide have been proposed.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Gasoline Oxygenate, Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; D'Amico, Teresa; Exline, Jennifer A.


    A laboratory procedure involving the synthesis and characterization of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) is described. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that includes a section on organic chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course. ETBE is prepared by the acid-catalyzed reaction of tert-butyl alcohol with ethyl alcohol. The product is recovered as a low-boiling azeotrope and purified by liquid liquid extraction with water. By using gas chromatography and IR spectroscopy to examine both the crude and the purified products, students can see how much the purity of their sample improves. They can also appreciate the value of these methods (especially GC) as tools to establish purity. Student results are presented. The use of ETBE and its more prominent cousin methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as gasoline oxygenates has become very controversial because they have polluted underground water supplies. This lab permits students to prepare a compound that has a real use and regularly makes headlines in the news. This lab experiment is part of an effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of "Chemistry and the Automobile".

  14. n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Synthesis. A New Quality Step Using Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaquelin Ramos Carriles


    Full Text Available Alkyl cyanoacrylates are interesting products for use in industry because of their properties enabling them to stick together a wide range of substrates. n-Butyl cyanoacrylate is one of the most successfully used tissue adhesives in the field of medicine because it exhibits bacteriostatic and haemostatic characteristics, in addition to its adhesive properties. At present, its synthesis is performed with good yields via Knoevenagel condensation using conventional sources of heating, but this requires a long processing time. The aim of this work was to look for a new way of synthesising n-butyl cyanoacrylate using microwave irradiation as the source of heating. This non-conventional source of heating most likely reduces the process time of the synthesis. In comparison with a conventional heating source, such as an oil bath, the results showed the advantages of this method whereby the n-butyl cyanoacrylate gave the same yield and quality with a reduction in the reaction time by a factor of 3-5-fold.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate. (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M


    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrolysis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). 1. Experimental study with molecular-beam mass spectrometry and tunable synchrotron VUV photoionization. (United States)

    Zhang, Taichang; Wang, Jing; Yuan, Tao; Hong, Xin; Zhang, Lidong; Qi, Fei


    An experimental study of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) pyrolysis (3.72% MTBE in argon) has been performed at low pressure (267 Pa) within the temperature range from 700 to 1420 K. The pyrolysis process was detected with the tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular-beam mass spectrometry (MBMS). About thirty intermediates are identified from near-threshold measurements of photoionization mass spectrum and photoionization efficiency spectrum. Among them, H2, CO, CH4, CH3OH and C4H8 are the major pyrolysis products. The radicals such as methyl, methoxy, propargyl, allyl, C4H5 and C4H7 are detected. The isomers of pyrolysis products are identified as well, i.e., propyne and allene, 1,2,3-butatriene and vinylacetylene, isobutene and 1-butene, propanal and acetone. Furthermore, the mole fractions of the pyrolysis products have been evaluated under various temperatures. Meanwhile, the initial formation temperatures of different pyrolysis products can be obtained. This work is anticipated to present a new experimental method for pyrolysis study and help understand the pyrolysis and combustion chemistry of MTBE and other oxygenated fuels.

  17. Advanced analytical methods for the structure elucidation of polystyrene-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) block copolymers prepared by reverse iodine transfer polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Trevor Gavin; Pfukwa, Helen; Pasch, Harald, E-mail:


    Reverse iodine transfer polymerisation (RITP) is a living radical polymerisation technique that has shown to be feasible in synthesising segmented styrene-acrylate copolymers. Polymers synthesised via RITP are typically only described regarding their bulk properties using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. To fully understand the complex composition of the polymerisation products and the RITP reaction mechanism, however, it is necessary to use a combination of advanced analytical methods. In the present RITP procedure, polystyrene was synthesised first and then used as a macroinitiator to synthesise polystyrene-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PS-b-PBA) block copolymers. For the first time, these PS-b-PBA block copolymers were analysed by a combination of SEC, in situ{sup 1}H NMR and HPLC. {sup 1}H NMR was used to determine the copolymer composition and the end group functionality of the samples, while SEC and HPLC were used to confirm the formation of block copolymers. Detailed information on the living character of the RITP process was obtained. - Highlights: • Comprehensive analysis of novel block copolymers. • Polymers were prepared for the first time by reverse iodine transfer polymerisation. • Combination of SEC, NMR, kinetic NMR, HPLC and comprehensive 2D-HPLC was used. • Detailed information about complex molecular composition and polymerisation kinetics was obtained.

  18. Synthesis and molecular structure of indium complexes based on 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone. Looking for indium(I) o-semiquinolate. (United States)

    Piskunov, Alexandr V; Maleeva, Aryna V; Fukin, Georgii K; Baranov, Evgenii V; Bogomyakov, Artem S; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Abakumov, Gleb A


    The interaction of 3,6-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone (3,6-Q) with indium in toluene leads to the tris-o-semiquinolate derivative (3,6-SQ)(3)In (3,6-SQ - radical-anion of 3,6-Q). According to single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, this complex has a trigonal prismatic structure. Magnetic measurements revealed that the exchange interactions between odd electrons of the paramagnetic ligands in (3,6-SQ)(3)In are antiferromagnetic in character. The treatment of (3,6-SQ)(3)In with 2,2'-dipyridyl (Dipy) causes the displacement of one o-quinone ligand and the formation of the (3,6-SQ)In(Dipy)(3,6-Cat) (3,6-Cat - dianion of 3,6-Q) derivative containing mixed charged o-quinoid ligands. The reaction of InI with (3,6-SQ)K in THF solution is accompanied by a redox process and the potassium-indium(iii) catecholate derivative was obtained as a result. The oxidation of InI with 3,6-Q in THF produces the dimeric In(iii) iodo-catecholate complex [(3,6-Cat)(2)In·2THF]InI(2). The same derivative can be synthesized by the interaction of indium metal with a mixture of I(2) and 3,6-Q.

  19. Fluazifop- p-butyl, an aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide, diminishes renal and hepatic functions and triggers testicular oxidative stress in orally exposed rats. (United States)

    Ore, Ayokanmi; Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde


    Fluazifop- p-butyl (FPB) is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide. Its phytotoxicity mechanism involves inhibition of lipid biosynthesis, free-radical generation, and oxidative stress in vulnerable plants. This study evaluates the impact of orally administered FPB on selected tissues in non-target animal model. Twenty-four male wistar rats (160-180g) were randomized into groups (I-IV). Group-I served as control, while animals in groups II, III, and IV received FPB at 18.75, 37.5, and 75 mg/kg body weight/day p.o., respectively, for 21 days. FPB caused significant ( p control. Significant reductions in testicular ascorbic acid, glutathione, and activities of glutathione-S transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were observed in FPB-treated animals when compared to control, in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increased testicular lipid peroxidation in the treated groups. Furthermore, a significant decrease in testicular acid phosphatase and γ-glutamyl transferase activities was also observed in the FPB-treated groups in a dose-dependent manner compared to control. However, testicular lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly increased in the FPB-treated rats when compared to control. Additionally, histopathological studies revealed severe interstitial oedema and congestion of testicular blood vessels in the FPB-treated groups. Overall, data from this study suggest that FPB induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and oxidative stress-mediated alteration of testicular functions in rat.

  20. Final report of the addendum to the safety assessment of n-butyl alcohol as used in cosmetics. (United States)

    McLain, Valerie C


    n-Butyl Alcohol is a primary aliphatic alcohol historically used as a solvent in nail care cosmetic products, but new concentration of use data indicate that it also is being used at low concentrations in eye makeup, personal hygiene, and shaving cosmetic products. n-Butyl Alcohol has been generally recognized as safe for use as a flavoring substance in food and appears on the 1982 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of inactive ingredients for approved prescription drug products. n-Butyl Alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. n-Butyl Alcohol may be formed by hydrolysis of butyl acetate in the blood, but is rapidly oxidized. The single oral dose LD(50) of n-Butyl Alcohol for rats was 0.79 to 4.36 g/kg. The dermal LD(50) for rabbits was 4.2 g/kg. Inhalation toxicity studies in humans demonstrate sensory irritation of the upper respiratory tract, but only at levels above 3000 mg/m(3). Animal studies demonstrate intoxication, restlessness, ataxia, prostration, and narcosis. Exposures of rats to levels up to 4000 ppm failed to produce hearing defects. High concentrations of n-Butyl Alcohol vapors can be fatal. Ocular irritation was observed for n-Butyl alcohol at 0.005 ml of a 40% solution. The behavioral no-effect dose for n-Butyl Alcohol injected subcutaneously (s.c.) was 120 mg/kg. Fetotoxicity has been demonstrated, but only at maternally toxic levels (1000 mg/kg). No significant behavioral or neurochemical effects were seen in offspring following either maternal or paternal exposure to 3000 or 6000 ppm. n-Butyl Alcohol was not mutagenic in Ames tests, did not induce sister-chromatid exchange or chromosome breakage in chick embryos or Chinese hamster ovary cells, did not induce micronuclei formation in V79 Chinese hamster cells, did not have any chromosome-damaging effects in a mouse micronucleus test, and did not impair chromosome distribution in the course of mitosis. Clinical testing of n-Butyl Alcohol for

  1. Names for inorganic radicals (IUPAC Recommendations 2000)


    W. H. Koppenol


    Introduction: Knowledge of the properties and reactivities of stable inorganic radicals was obtained decades ago through gas-phase studies of various oxides of halogens, sulfur, and nitrogen. More recently, pulse radiolysis and flash photolysis techniques developed in the 1960s made it possible to study short-lived radicals, such as hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms, and hydroxyl radicals. Because of the high time-resolution of these techniques, absorption spectra and redox properties of the...

  2. The Games Radicals Play: Special Issue on Free Radicals and Radical Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Walton


    Full Text Available Chemistry and Physics have aptly been described as “most excellent children of Intellect and Art” [1]. Both these “children” engage with many playthings, and molecules rank as one of their first favorites, especially radicals, which are amongst the most lively and exciting. Checking out radicals dancing to the music of entropy round their potential energy ballrooms is surely both entertaining and enlightening. Radicals’ old favorite convolutions are noteworthy, but the new styles, modes and arrangements appearing on the scene are even more interesting. Some of these are ephemeral and enjoy only a brief appearance, others are retro-types reappearing in new guises, still others are genuinely new and “go viral” in the scientific world. This Special Issue of Molecules contains the observations and reflections of a select group of chemists and physicists fascinated by this spectacle. It contains an eclectic mix reflecting on new modes and advances as well as on permutations and combinations that revive mature themes. [...

  3. Free radical (co)polymerization of methyl methacrylate and styrene in room temperature ionic liquids (United States)

    Zhang, Hongwei

    Conventional free radical polymerizations were carried out in a variety of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Generally, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (St) were used as typical monomers to compare the polymerization behavior both in RTILs and in common volatile organic compound solvents (VOCs). In most cases, it was observed that both yields and molecular weights are enhanced in the RTIL. While we believe the "diffusion-controlled termination" mechanism makes the termination of the radical propagating chains difficult due to the highly viscous nature of RTIL, other researchers have suggested that the rapid polymerization rates are due to the high polarity of these reaction media. By employing more than a dozen RTILs with a wide range of anions and cations, we attempted to correlate the viscosity and polarity of the RTILs with the molecular weights and polymerization rates. This correlation was not successful, suggesting that other parameters may also play a role in affecting the polymerization behavior. Other kinds of polymerizations have also been attempted including nitroxide-mediated living radical polymerizations of St and MMA in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), and redox initiation system initiated polymerization of MMA through redox pair formed by cation of trihexyl-tetradecyl-phosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ([H3TDP] [(PM3) 2P]) and BPO. The formation of PSt-b-PMMA by sequential monomer addition through the standard free radical polymerization mechanism, using BPO as initiator, can be realized in [BMIM]PF6 due to the insolubility of polymerized first block---PSt in [BMIM]PF6. The macroradicals wrapped inside the chain coils have prolonged lifetimes because of the diminished termination, which allow some of these radicals to initiate polymerization of MMA at room temperature to form diblock copolymer. Solvents effects on reactivity ratios for free radical statistical copolymerization have been

  4. Remembering Dutch-Moluccan radicalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz


    This article examines memory politics in relation to radical actions of young Dutch-Moluccans, more specifically a train hijacking in 1977 at the village of De Punt in the Netherlands. The article examines how these historical events were remembered in the drama-documentary television film, De Punt......, as well as in user-generated comments in an online discussion. The television film represented an inclusive memory culture that made room for the difficult memories of all parties involved, including the radicalised, young hijackers. Based on a multidimensional model of mass media reception, the analysis...... of the web debate examines how viewers reacted to this interpretation. The web debate functioned as a participatory forum, where collective and national memories and postcolonial history were intensely discussed, and the debate made room for some degree of reconciliation between viewers of Dutch...

  5. Radical conservatism and Danish imperialism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian Egander


    The article explores the concept of empire or rige in the context of a small nation-state with no immediate claim to imperial greatness and with a rooted self-understanding as anything but an empire. It does this by exploring the concept of empire in the far right movement The Young Denmark...... on the basis of a close reading of their imperialist program in the pamphlet Danmark Udslettes! from 1918. Rige had been a vague term for the larger Danish polity that originated in a pre-national conceptualization of the polity as a realm. The article suggests that rige-as-realm was translated by the radical...... right into a concept of empire. In the process it dramatically changed its emphasis, reorienting itself towards a "horizon of expectation." It became a politically loaded battle concept which then entailed a critique against the dominant liberal conceptualization of the polity and nation. Rige came...

  6. Photoionisation of the tropyl radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin H. Fischer


    Full Text Available We present a study on the photoionisation of the cycloheptatrienyl (tropyl radical, C7H7, using tunable vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. Tropyl is generated by flash pyrolysis from bitropyl. Ions and electrons are detected in coincidence, permitting us to record mass-selected photoelectron spectra. The threshold photoelectron spectrum of tropyl, corresponding to the X+ 1A1’ ← X 2E2” transition, reveals an ionisation energy of 6.23 ± 0.02 eV, in good agreement with Rydberg extrapolations, but slightly lower than the value derived from earlier photoelectron spectra. Several vibrations can be resolved and are reassigned to the C–C stretch mode ν16+ and to a combination of ν16+ with the ring breathing mode ν2+. Above 10.55 eV dissociative photoionisation of tropyl is observed, leading to the formation of C5H5+ and C2H2.

  7. Students' Ideas and Radical Constructivism (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Pedro J.


    In this article, I study, from the point of view of the analytic philosophy of mind, the compatibility of students' ideas studies (SIS) with radical constructivism (RC). I demonstrate that RC is based on a psychology of narrow mental states; that is, the idea that the mental content of an individual can be fully characterised without any reference external to her or him. I show that this fact imposes some severe restrictions to SIS to be incorporated into RC. In particular, I argue that only qualitative studies can comply with the requirement of narrowness. Nevertheless, I propose that quantitative works can be employed as sources of types in order to study token actual students. I use this type-token dichotomy to put forward an outline of a theory of the relation between school contents and mental contents. In this view, token mental contents regarding a given topic can be defined, and probed, only by resorting to typical school contents.

  8. Erectile function after radical prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Frey, Anders; Jakobsen, Henrik


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess postprostatectomy erectile function compared to preoperative status by subjective patient perception and the abbreviated International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study used data from a prospectively...... collected database and a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study in patients following radical prostatectomy. Erectile function was assessed with the IIEF-5 and the question "Is your erectile function as good as before the surgery (yes/no)". Patients were included if they were sexually active before...... surgery and had at least 1 year of follow-up. The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients returning to self-perceived baseline erectile function. Secondary outcome measures included the proportion of patients returning to baseline erectile function according to the IIEF-5 and predictors...

  9. 5-tert-Butyl-2-[5-(5-tert-butyl-1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl-2-thienyl]-1,3-benzoxazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Jian


    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H26N2O2S, was prepared by the reaction of thiophene-2,5-dicarboxylic acid and 2-amino-4-tert-butylphenol. One of the tert-butyl groups is disordered over two conformations, with occupancies of 0.539 (1 and 0.461 (2. The two 1,3-benzoxazole rings are almost planar, with dihedral angles of 0.83 (18 and 1.64 (17° between the five- and six-membered rings. The thiophene ring makes dihedral angles of 21.54 (19 and 4.49 (18° with the planes of the five-membered oxazole rings. The crystal packing is controlled by π–π stacking interactions involving the thiophene and benzene rings, with a centroid–centroid distance of 3.748 (2 Å.

  10. Free radical scavenging activity of Lafoensia pacari. (United States)

    Solon, S; Lopes, L; Teixeira de Sousa, P; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G


    The methanolic extract of the stem bark of Lafoensia pacari (Lythraceae) showed free radical scavenging activity in the diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH) decoloration assay and inhibited the enzyme xanthine oxidase 'in vitro'. Bioassay-guided isolation led to ellagic acid (EA) as the main active compound of Brazilian and Paraguayan collections of the plant.

  11. Victimology: A Consideration of the Radical Critique. (United States)

    Friedrichs, David O.


    Discusses the emergence of a new radical model in criminology and a new subdisciplinary area of concern, victimology, with roots in Marx and Engels' original formulations. Argues that the radical understanding of victimization provides an important corrective to mainstream approaches and broadens the focus of the concept of victimization. (JAC)

  12. Self-Terminating, Oxidative Radical Cyclizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Wille


    Full Text Available The recently discovered novel concept of self-terminating, oxidative radical cyclizations, through which alkynes can be converted into carbonyl compounds under very mild reaction conditions using O-centered inorganic and organic radicals as oxidants, is described

  13. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov...

  14. Controlling the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations. (United States)

    Ishibashi, Hiroyuki


    This review describes the results of our recent studies on the control of the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations. N-vinylic alpha-chloroacetamides generally cyclized in a 5-endo-trig manner to give five-membered lactams, whereas 4-exo-trig cyclization occurred when the cyclized radical intermediates were highly stabilized by an adjacent phenyl or phenylthio group to afford beta-lactams. The 5-exo or 6-exo cyclization of aryl radicals onto the alkenic bond of enamides could be shifted to the corresponding 6-endo or 7-endo mode of cyclization by a positional change of the carbonyl group of enamides. The 6-endo- and 7-endo-selective aryl radical cyclizations were applied to radical cascades for the synthesis of alkaloids such as phenanthroindolizidine, cephalotaxine skeleton, and lennoxamine. The 5-exo-trig cyclization of an alkyl radical onto the alkenyl bond of enamides could also be shifted to the 6-endo mode by a positional change of the carbonyl group of enamides. The 6-endo- selective cyclization was applied to the radical cascade to afford a cylindricine skeleton. Other examples of controlling the regiochemistry of radical cyclizations and their applications to the synthesis of natural products are also discussed. (c) 2006 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Free Radical Mechanisms in Autoxidation Processes. (United States)

    Simic, Michael G.


    Discusses the use of steady-state radiation chemistry and pulse radiolysis for the generation of initial free radicals and formation of peroxy radicals in the autoxidation process. Provides information regarding the autoxidation process. Defines autoxidation reactions and antioxidant action. (CS)

  16. Radical Behaviorism and Buddhism: Complementarities and Conflicts (United States)

    Diller, James W.; Lattal, Kennon A.


    Comparisons have been made between Buddhism and the philosophy of science in general, but there have been only a few attempts to draw comparisons directly with the philosophy of radical behaviorism. The present review therefore considers heretofore unconsidered points of comparison between Buddhism and radical behaviorism in terms of their…

  17. Allylthioketone Mediated Free Radical Polymerization of Methacrylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhong


    Full Text Available By combination of high trapping free radical efficiency of the thioketone and resonance of the allylic radical, a new type of mediating agent, 1,3,3-triphenylprop-2-ene-1-thione (TPPT has been successfully synthesized, and then is used to study controlled free radical polymerization of methacrylates. Very stable TPPT radicals at the end of poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA are detected in the polymerization of MMA using TPPT and AIBN as the control agent and initiator. The MALDI-TOF MS spectra are used to identify terminal groups of the resultant poly(glycidyl methacrylate (PGMA, and major component of the obtained polymer has the structure, (CH32(CNC-PGMA-C7H9O3. Chain extension reaction tests ascertain formation of the dead polymers during the polymer storage and purification process of the polymers. Owing to very slow fragmentation reaction of the TPPT-terminated polymethacrylate radical and addition reaction of this radical with a primary radical, the growing chain radicals are difficult to be regenerated, leading to an unobvious change of the molecular weight with monomer conversion. The molecular weights of polymers can be controlled by the ratios of monomer/initiator and TPPT/initiator. However, the first order kinetics of the polymerization and the polymers with narrow polydispersity are obtained, and these phenomena are discussed. This study provides useful information on how to design a better controlling agent.

  18. Ideals Adrift: An Educational Approach to Radicalization (United States)

    van San, Marion; Sieckelinck, Stijn; de Winter, Micha


    These days, the radicalization of young people is above all viewed as a security risk. Almost all research into this phenomenon has been carried out from a legal, criminological or socio-psychological perspective with a focus on detecting and containing the risks posed by radicalization. In the light of the political developments since September…

  19. Radical scavenging compounds from Ethiopian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the secondary metabolites isolated from these active fractions were found to exhibit significant antioxidant activity, as judged by scavenging stable DPPH free radicals. However, the flavonol glycoside rutin figured as the most active radical scavenger with an IC50 value of 9.5 mM. Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal Vol.

  20. Lipid peroxidation induced by phenylbutazone radicals. (United States)

    Miura, Toshiaki; Muraoka, Sanae; Fujimoto, Yukio


    Lipid peroxidation was investigated to evaluate the deleterious effect on tissues by phenylbutazone (PB). PB induced lipid peroxidation of microsomes in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H2O2). The lipid peroxidation was completely inhibited by catalase but not by superoxide dismutase. Mannitol and dimethylsulfoxide had no effect. These results indicated no paticipation of superoxide and hydroxyl radical in the lipid peroxidation. Reduced glutathione (GSH) efficiently inhibited the lipid peroxidation. PB radicals emitted electron spin resonance (ESR) signals during the reaction of PB with HRP-H2O2. Microsomes and arachidonic acid strongly diminished the ESR signals, indicating that PB radicals directly react with unsaturated lipids of microsomes to cause thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. GSH sharply diminished the ESR signals of PB radicals, suggesting that GSH scavenges PB radicals to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Also, 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropan strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation. R-Phycoerythrin, a peroxyl radical detector substance, was decomposed by PB with HRP-H2O2. These results suggest that lipid peroxidation of microsomes is induced by PB radicals or peroxyl radicals, or both.

  1. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    of the preferred loci of radical formation. The formation of these thiyl and tryptophan-derived radicals does not lead to significant aggregation or fragmentation of the protein, though it does result in a dramatic enhancement in the susceptibility of the oxidised protein to proteolytic degradation by a range...

  2. EPR spin trapping of protein radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Michael Jonathan; Hawkins, Clare Louise


    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping was originally developed to aid the detection of low-molecular-mass radicals formed in chemical systems. It has subsequently found widespread use in biology and medicine for the direct detection of radical species formed during oxidative stress...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the Conference is “Religion, Politics,. Community and Radical Orthodoxy in South Africa”. And I would also ... doctoral thesis attempted a conversation with Jacques. Derrida from a Radical Orthodox perspective. For the ..... mechanical kind of way, at all! And equally, the question of “Does truth need a truth maker?

  4. Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidative damage of DNA and 2'-deoxyguanosine by model compounds of lipid hydroperoxides: involvement of peroxyl radicals. (United States)

    Adam, W; Kurz, A; Saha-Möller, C R


    The peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of 3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (1), 2,3-dimethyl-3-hydroperoxy-1-butene (2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide (3), ethyl oleate hydroperoxide 4, and linoleic acid hydroperoxide 5 was applied as a chemical model system to assess whether lipid hydroperoxides may cause DNA damage under peroxidase catalysis. For this purpose, the Coprinus peroxidase (CIP), horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the physiologically important lactoperoxidase (LP) were tested. Indeed, hydroperoxides 1-5 induce strand breaks in pBR 322 DNA upon peroxidase catalysis. For the nucleoside dG, the enzymatic decomposition of hydroperoxides 1-4 led to significant amounts of 4, 8-dihydro-4-hydroxy-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (4-HO-8-oxo-dG) and guanidine-releasing products (GRP), whereas 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) was not obtained. In isolated calf thymus DNA, the efficient conversion of the guanine base (Gua) was observed. Peroxyl radicals, which are generated in situ from the hydroperoxides by one-electron oxidation with the peroxidases, are proposed as the active oxidants on the basis of the following experimental facts. (i) Radical scavengers strongly inhibit the guanine oxidation in dG and DNA and strand-break formation in the latter. (ii) EPR spectral studies with 5, 5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trap confirmed the formation of peroxyl radicals. (iii) The release of molecular oxygen was demonstrated, produced through the disproportionation of peroxyl radicals. The biological relevance of these findings should be seen in the potential role of the combined action of lipid hydroperoxides and peroxidases in damaging cellular DNA through peroxyl radicals.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic compounds via radical cyclizations of benzannulated enyne-allenes derived from Ireland-Claisen rearrangement. (United States)

    Yang, Yonghong; Petersen, Jeffrey L; Wang, Kung K


    A new synthetic sequence involving the use of Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of propargylic acetates to form the corresponding benzannulated enyne-allenes followed by Schmittel cyclization to generate benzofulvene biradicals for radical cyclizations leading to polycyclic aromatic compounds was established. Treatment of 9-fluorenone (8) with the lithium acetylide 9 followed by acetic anhydride produced the propargylic acetate 10. A sequence of reactions occurred after 10 was converted to the corresponding silyl ketene acetal 11. An initial Ireland-Claisen rearrangement produced the benzannulated enyne-allene 12, which then underwent a Schmittel cyclization reaction to generate the benzofulvene biradical 13. A subsequent intramolecular radical-radical coupling then produced the formal Diels-Alder adduct 14, which in turn underwent a prototropic rearrangement to give the silyl ester 15 and, after hydrolysis, the carboxylic acid 16 in 57% overall yield from 10 in a single operation. An intramolecular acylation reaction of 16 produced the ketone 17. The carboxylic acids 24-26 were likewise prepared from the diaryl ketones 18-20, respectively. However, the intramolecular [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of the benzannulated enyne-allene 33 having a tert-butyl group at the allenic terminus occurred preferentially, producing the 1H-cyclobut[a]indenyl acetic acid 35 as the predominant product.

  6. Alpha- and beta-thujone radical rearrangements and isomerizations. A new radical clock. (United States)

    He, Xiang; Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R


    Radical clocks have been extensively used in chemical and biochemical mechanistic studies. The C4 radicals of alpha- and beta-thujone can undergo two distinct rearrangement reactions that could, in principle, serve as simultaneous but independent radical clocks. We have therefore generated these C4 radicals by photolysis of the corresponding N-hydroxypyridine-2-thione ester precursors and have investigated their fates and lifetimes. Photolysis of either alpha- or beta-thujone generates the same 6:100 mixture of alpha- and beta-thujone when the radicals are quenched by thiophenol. Hydrogen atom transfer from thiophenol to the radical thus occurs preferentially from the less sterically hindered alpha-face to give beta-thujone. The third product formed in the photolysis via opening of the cyclopropyl ring is 2-methyl-5-isopropylcyclopent-2-enone. The ratio of ring opened to unopened products gives very similar values of kralpha = 4.4 x 10(7) s(-1) and krbeta = 1.0 x 10(8) s(-1) for ring opening of the radicals generated from alpha- and beta-thujone, respectively. If the C4 cation rather than radical is generated, it is converted to carvacrol, a phenol that is not obtained in the radical reactions. Thujone therefore differentiates between radical and cation pathways and provides a measure of the radical lifetime. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  7. Synthesis of t-Butyl (2R)-Hydroxyisovalerate, A Precursor of Aureobasidin B (United States)

    Maharani, R.; Puspitasari, D.; Taufiqqurahman; Huspa, D. H. P.; Hidayat, A. T.; Sumiarsa, D.; Hidayat, I. W.


    Aureobasidins are a family of cyclodepsipeptides have antifungal properties. They were isolated from the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans R106 and over 30 derivatives have been successfully characterized. There are few publications reporting the total synthesis of aureobasidins. The limited reports of the synthesis of the aureobasidin derivatives are due to the difficult access to the preparations of precursors. The aim of this research is to synthesise a precursor of aureobasidin B, t-butyl (2R)-hydroxyisovalerate (t-Bu-Hiv), that is prepared for the total synthesis of aureobasidin B. The synthesis of AbB is planned to be undertaken by using a solid phase method, so the ester formation between t-Bu-Hiv and the Fmoc-β-hydroxymethylvaline will be carried out in solution phase to form depsidipeptide. The t-butyl group was used as protecting agent that is due to the straightforward elimination of the protecting group from the Fmoc-depsidipeptide. The t-Bu-Hiv acid was prepared from D-valine through diazotisation to form (2R)-acetyloxyisovaleric acid in 62.7% yield. Product of the first step was then protected by t-butyl group by using Boc-anhydride in t-butanol to give t-butil (2R)-acetyloxyisovalerate in 44% yield. In the last step, the acetyloxy group was eliminated by using potassium carbonate in methanol/water to give the desired product, t-Bu-Hiv in 33.5% yield. The t-Bu-Hiv is ready to be combined with Fmoc-β-hydroxymethylvaline to result in depsidipeptide that will be attached to the resin in the total synthesis of AbB. Each stage of this synthesis was controlled by thin layer chromatography and all products were purified by open column chromatography. All the synthesized products were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques, including infrared spectrophotometer, mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  8. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Dodonaea viscosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz Tauheeda


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Methanolic extract of the plant was dissolved in distilled water and partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and nbutanol sequentially. Phytochemical screening showed presence of phenolics, flavonoides and cardiac glycosides in large amount in chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fraction. The antioxidant potential of all these fractions and remaining aqueous fraction was evaluated by four methods: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP assay and ferric thiocyanate assay along with determination of their total phenolics. The results revealed that ethyl acetate soluble fraction exhibited highest percent inhibition of DPPH radical as compared to other fractions. It showed 81.14 ± 1.38% inhibition of DPPH radical at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. The IC50 of this fraction was found to be 33.95 ± 0.58 μg/ml, relative to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, having IC50 of 12.54 ± 0.89 μg/mL. It also showed highest FRAP value (380.53 ± 0.74 μM of trolox equivalents as well as highest total phenolic contents (208.58 ± 1.83 GAE μg/g and highest value of inhibition of lipid peroxidation (58.11 ± 1.49% at concentration of 500 μg/ml as compared to the other studied fractions. The chloroform fraction showed highest total antioxidant activity i.e.1.078 ± 0.59 (eq. to BHT.

  9. Uranium stripping from tri-n-butyl phosphate by hydrogen peroxide solutions


    Smirnov, A. L.; Skripchenko, S. Y.; Rychkov, V. N.; Pastukhov, A. M.; Shtutsa, M. G.


    The processes of uranium stripping from 30% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) in "odorless" kerosene by H2O2 solutions both with and without NH4OH added were investigated in the temperature range of 20-50 C and with a volumetric ratio of 1 between the organic and aqueous phases. The uranium was selectively precipitated in the form of uranium peroxide during stripping from the organic phase by hydrogen peroxide. The stripping of uranium increased with increasing H2O2 content, increasing temperature ...

  10. Photo catalytic degradation of methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) from contaminated water: complete mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami, A.; Nasseri, S.; Maleki, A.; Aghvami, T.


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been commercially used as an octane enhancer to replace tetraethyl lead in gasoline since 1979. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with MTBE may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this investigation the degradation of aqueous MTBE at relatively high concentrations was studied by UV-vis/TiO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} photo catalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as ph, oxygen flow, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. (Author)

  11. A coarse-grained polarizable force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (United States)

    Zeman, Johannes; Uhlig, Frank; Smiatek, Jens; Holm, Christian


    We present a coarse-grained polarizable molecular dynamics force field for the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIm][PF6]). For the treatment of electronic polarizability, we employ the Drude model. Our results show that the new explicitly polarizable force field reproduces important static and dynamic properties such as mass density, enthalpy of vaporization, diffusion coefficients, or electrical conductivity in the relevant temperature range. In situations where an explicit treatment of electronic polarizability might be crucial, we expect the force field to be an improvement over non-polarizable models, while still profiting from the reduction of computational cost due to the coarse-grained representation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Young


    Full Text Available Background: The objectivity in management of renal bleeding is to preserve a significant renal parenchyma tissue and prevent associated morbidities like anemic shock or renal impairment from substantial nephron demise or obstructed uropathy. Trans-arterial embolization therapy by interventional radiology offers a high success rate with potential of reserving normal renal tissue. The selection material for renal arterial embolization largely depends on vasculature anatomy and end-point of procedure. N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue in our experience is applied in lesion supplied by small size of end-artery. 

  13. Oxidation of heteroleptic diarylpalladium compounds with tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Substituent effects in aromatic oxidation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koten, G. van; Valk, J.-M.; Boersma, J.


    A series of heteroleptic diarylpalladium compounds, containing both a naphthyl (1-C10H6CH2NMe2-2 or 1-C10H5CH2NMe2-2-Me-3) and a phenyl (1-C6H4CH2NMe2-2 or 1-C6H3CH2NMe2-2-Me-x, x = 3, 5, 6) monoanionic C,N-bidentate ligand, was reacted with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) to give selective oxygen

  14. tert-Butyl 2-(3-acetylamino-2-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1-pyridylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Healy


    Full Text Available The title compound, C13H18N2O4, crystallizes as discrete molecules associated as N—H...O hydrogen-bonded dimers disposed about a crystallographic inversion centre. The structure is the first solid-state structure for a 3-acetylpyridone without C-4 to C-6 substituents. The amide subsituent at C-3 is coplanar with the pyridone ring, while the tert-butyl ester group is orthogonal to the pyridine ring. The amide and ester carbonyl O atoms are not involved in strong hydrogen bonding with only a number of intramolecular and intermolecular C—H...O interactions apparent in the structure.

  15. Butylated hydroxyanisole sebagai Bahan Aditif Antioksidan pada Makanan dilihat dari Perspektif Kesehatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Fitri


    Full Text Available Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA is widely used since 1947 as antioxidant food additives used to prevent oils, fats and shortenings from oxidative deterioration and rancidity. It has been extensively studied for potential activities and its toxicities. This review summarized experimental studies that had been carried out on animals and humans as well. We also briefly reviewed about its absorptions, metabolisms, excretions and carcinogenicity from health perspective. At present there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of BHA, but there is hardly any indication that BHA is genotoxic.

  16. One-electron redox reaction of di-tert-butyl nitroxide at platinum electrode in acetonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishioka, Shin-ya; Yamada, Akifumi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata (Japan). Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering


    The electrochemical oxidation of di-tert-butyl nitroxide (DTBN) at a platinum electrode in acetonitrile was examined. The cyclic voltammogram indicated an irreversible response during a normal time scale measurement, whereas chemically reversible voltammograms were obtained during a shorter time using a micro disk electrode with relatively fast sweep rates. The apparent formal redox potential and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant were estimated to be 0.218 V (versus Fc{sup +}Fc) and 0.035 {+-} 0.015 cms{sup -1} from the digital simulation analysis. (author)

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Butyl acetate, Ethyl acetate and Isopropyl alcohol on undesirable microorganisms in cosmetic products. (United States)

    Lens, C; Malet, G; Cupferman, S


    The microbiological contamination risk of a cosmetic product has to be assessed by the manufacturer, according to the composition, to determine whether microbiological testing is required. Certain ingredients in cosmetic formulations help to create an environment hostile towards microbial growth. In this study, the influence on microbial survival of some solvents used in nail varnishes was evaluated. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to define the thresholds to be considered for the exemption of products from microbiological testing. The second was to assess the cross-contamination risk linked to the use on successive consumers of solvent-based products in beauty salons. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum were exposed to various concentrations of ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol in culture medium to estimate their MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). These strains are relevant to cosmetic products as they are associated with skin and nail infections. Mixtures of the three solvents, which are characteristic of nail varnish compositions, were also tested for their cidal activity. Ethyl and butyl acetates had a stronger impact than isopropyl alcohol: the MIC of ethyl and butyl acetate is ≤5% for all of the tested strains, whereas that of isopropyl alcohol is ≤10%. Various combinations of the three solvents tested showed a significant effect on both fungal and bacterial strains (greater than 3 log reduction in 15 min for the bacterial test strains and in 30 min for T. rubrum). Products containing more than 5% ethyl or butyl acetate or more than 10% isopropyl alcohol are hostile towards microbial growth. These products can therefore be considered as microbiologically low risk during both production and use, and so do not require microbiological testing (challenge test and end-product testing). Moreover, the nine tested mixtures of these three

  18. High Solid Contents Copoly (Styrene/Butyl Acrylate-Cloisite 30B Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzataheri


    Full Text Available Higher solid contents (20 % and 40 % nanocomposites of poly (styrene-co-butyl acrylate including higher content of Cloisite 30B (7 wt% and 10 wt % were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization. Stability of the final latexes proved outstanding combination of polymerization procedure and surfactants. Morphological studies revealed by TEM, SAX and XRD showed three structures of core-shell, armored and individual dispersion of clay layers within the polymer particles. The effect of Cloisite 30B content on the barrier properties presents excellent and wide use of these films for packaging and nanocoatings industries.

  19. 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-(methoxy-meth-yl)phenol. (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Sun, Ju-Feng


    The title compound, C(16)H(26)O(2), was easily obtained in high yield when 4-bromo-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol was reacted with methanol. There are two independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The meth-oxy group in each of the independent mol-ecules was found to be disordered, with site-occupation factors of 0.8728 (18)/0.1272 (18) and 0.8781 (17)/0.1219 (17).

  20. Degradation of a recalcitrant xenobiotic compound: methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) metabolism by mycobacterium austroafricanum; Degradation d'un compose xenobiotique recalcitrant: metabolisme du methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) par mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, A.


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is introduced up to 15% (vol/vol) in gasoline in order to obtain a good octane number and to prevent carbon monoxide emissions. However, as a consequence of storage tanks leakage, MTBE became one of the major pollutants of aquifers because of its very low biodegradability. The present study aimed at investigating the biodegradation of MTBE by Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012. The MTBE metabolic pathway was partially elucidated owing to the identification of some intermediates (tert-butyl formate (TBF), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), a-hydroxy-isobutyric acid and acetone) and some enzymatic activities (MTBE/TBA monooxygenase (non hemic and inducible), TBF esterase, 2-propanol: NDMA oxidoreductase and another monooxygenase involved in acetone degradation). The involvement of TBF and the requirement of cobalt could be explanations for the low natural attenuation of MTBE; whereas the methoxy group does not seem to be implicated. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar


    Full Text Available Objective: to study orgasmic function (OF in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RPE.Subjects and methods. Seventy-nine patients who had undergone RPE for locally advanced prostate cancer without hormone and radiation therapies were examined. The patients’ mean age was 59.3 years. The mean EF-IIEF domain score was 24.4. OF was estimated by IIEF question 10 and the authors’ questionnaire. The Spearman rank correction coefficient and Mann-Whitney U-Wilcoxon tests were used.Results. After RPE, there was a reduction in the mean IIEF question 10 score from 3.9 (confidence interval 3.7–4.1 to 3.3 (3–3.5 (p = 0.000. The following changes were found in orgasm intensity: no changes in 43 %, mild worsening in 42 %, severe worsening in 8 %, and enhancement in 4 %; orgasm could not be achieved in 4 % of the patients. Pain usually of low intensity was reported by 8.8 %. The poor factors for preserving OF were its low baseline level, elderly age, or severe post-RPE erectile dysfunction.Conclusion. There were significant OF changes after RPE, which should be kept in mind while treating this category of patients.

  2. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea


    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. PMID:28459142

  3. Involvement of free radicals in breast cancer. (United States)

    Ríos-Arrabal, Sandra; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; León, Josefa; Román-Marinetto, Elisa; Del Mar Salinas-Asensio, María; Calvente, Irene; Núñez, Maria Isabel


    Researchers have recently shown an increased interest in free radicals and their role in the tumor microenvironment. Free radicals are molecules with high instability and reactivity due to the presence of an odd number of electrons in the outermost orbit of their atoms. Free radicals include reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which are key players in the initiation and progression of tumor cells and enhance their metastatic potential. In fact, they are now considered a hallmark of cancer. However, both reactive species may contribute to improve the outcomes of radiotherapy in cancer patients. Besides, high levels of reactive oxygen species may be indicators of genotoxic damage in non-irradiated normal tissues. The purpose of this article is to review recent research on free radicals and carcinogenesis in order to understand the pathways that contribute to tumor malignancy. This review outlines the involvement of free radicals in relevant cellular events, including their effects on genetic instability through (growth factors and tumor suppressor genes, their enhancement of mitogenic signals, and their participation in cell remodeling, proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy processes; the possible relationship between free radicals and inflammation is also explored. This knowledge is crucial for evaluating the relevance of free radicals as therapeutic targets in cancer.

  4. 'Living'-chain radical polymerisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, Gennadii V; Marchenko, A P [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)


    The review is devoted to various types of compounds used as agents for 'living' radical polymerisation, such as alkoxyamines formed upon addition of the chain carrier radicals, R{sup .}, to stable nitroxyl radicals, as well as products of the addition of the radicals to transition metal complexes with different ligands, etc. In all cases, the mechanism of the action of these agents consists in their reversible dissociation ArightleftarrowsR{sup .} + X{sup .}, where X{sup .} is a stable free radical or a metal-containing complex which can accept radicals R{sup .} (R{sup .} + X{sup .}{yields}A) and thus compete with the quadratic chain termination. Particular attention is paid to the studies which allowed a quantitative formulation of the mechanism of 'living' radical polymerisation in the form of a mathematical model suitable for predicting both the parameters of the polymerisation and the properties of the resulting polymer (molecular mass and polydispersity). The bibliography includes 359 references.

  5. Magnetic fields, radicals and cellular activity. (United States)

    Montoya, Ryan D


    Some effects of low-intensity magnetic fields on the concentration of radicals and their influence on cellular functions are reviewed. These fields have been implicated as a potential modulator of radical recombination rates. Experimental evidence has revealed a tight coupling between cellular function and radical pair chemistry from signaling pathways to damaging oxidative processes. The effects of externally applied magnetic fields on biological systems have been extensively studied, and the observed effects lack sufficient mechanistic understanding. Radical pair chemistry offers a reasonable explanation for some of the molecular effects of low-intensity magnetic fields, and changes in radical concentrations have been observed to modulate specific cellular functions. Applied external magnetic fields have been shown to induce observable cellular changes such as both inhibiting and accelerating cell growth. These and other mechanisms, such as cell membrane potential modulation, are of great interest in cancer research due to the variations between healthy and deleterious cells. Radical concentrations demonstrate similar variations and are indicative of a possible causal relationship. Radicals, therefore, present a possible mechanism for the modulation of cellular functions such as growth or regression by means of applied external magnetic fields.

  6. An experimental and theoretical kinetic study of the reaction of OH radicals with tetrahydrofuran

    KAUST Repository

    Giri, Binod


    Tetrahydrofuran (CHO, THF) and its alkylated derivatives of the cyclic ether family are considered to be promising future biofuels. They appear as important intermediates during the low-temperature oxidation of conventional hydrocarbon fuels and of heavy biofuels such as long-chain fatty acid methyl esters. The reaction of tetrahydrofuran with OH radicals was investigated in a shock tube, over a temperature range of 800-1340 K and at pressures near 1.5 bar. Hydroxyl radicals were generated by the rapid thermal decomposition of tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and a UV laser absorption technique was used to monitor the mole fraction of OH radicals. High-level CCSD(T)/cc-pV(D,T)Z//MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ quantum chemical calculations were performed to explore the chemistry of the THF+OH reaction system. Our calculations reveal that the THF+OH (R1) reaction proceeds via either direct or indirect H-abstraction from various sites, leading to the formation of tetrahydrofuran-2-yl (THF-R2) or tetrahydrofuran-3-yl (THF-R3) radicals and water. Theoretical kinetic analysis revealed that both channels are important under conditions relevant to combustion. To our knowledge, this is the first direct experimental and theoretical kinetic study of the reaction of tetrahydrofuran with OH radicals at high temperatures. The following theoretical rate expressions (in units of cmmols) are recommended for combustion modeling in the temperature range 800-1350 K: . k1(T)=4.11×1040.16em0ex(TK)2.69exp(1316.80.16em0exKT)2.em0ex0.16em0ex(THF+OH→Products) . k2(T)=6.930.16em0ex×10110.16em0ex(TK)0.41exp(-106.80.16em0exKT)2.em0ex0.16em0ex(THF+OH→THF-R20.16em0ex+H2O) . k3(T)=4.120.16em0ex×1030.16em0ex(TK)3.02exp(456.90.16em0exKT)2.em0ex0.16em0ex(THF+OH→THF-R30.16em0ex+H2O) . .

  7. Localization versus delocalization in diamine radical cations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Wiering, P.G.; Zwier, J.M.


    The optical absorption spectrum of the radical cation of 1,4-diphenylpiperazine 2a shows a strong transition in the near-IR, and only a weak band at 445 nm, in the region where aniline radical cations normally absorb strongly. This indicates that the charge and spin are delocalized over the two...... of coexistence of localized and delocalized radical cations of diphenylpiperazine and its derivatives cannot be ruled out at present. If that were the case, the effect of the methoxy substituents is to shift the equilibrium towards the localized species....

  8. Editorial: From Radicalism to Minority Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor Al-Jami'ah Journal of Islamic Studies


    Full Text Available This edition presents contemporary themes around Islam and Muslims in Indonesia from the issues of radicalism, online media, a Dutch scholar during colonial era, women’s resistance to shariatization, local practice of Islamic sufism, minority group, to broader theme of the relation of religion and science. To begin with, James Adam Fenton sheds light on the way in which Indonesian society has responded to radical ideology. He argues that dialogue in open society with democratic spirit helps the society to disengage from radicalism.

  9. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla


    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order...... to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta......, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben...

  10. Enzymes and genes involved in the aerobic biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). (United States)

    Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas; Malandain, Cédric; Fayolle-Guichard, Françoise


    Fuel oxygenates, mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) but also ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), are added to gasoline in replacement of lead tetraethyl to enhance its octane index. Their addition also improves the combustion efficiency and therefore decreases the emission of pollutants (CO and hydrocarbons). On the other hand, MTBE, being highly soluble in water and recalcitrant to biodegradation, is a major pollutant of water in aquifers contaminated by MTBE-supplemented gasoline during accidental release. MTBE was shown to be degraded through cometabolic oxidation or to be used as a carbon and energy source by a few microorganisms. We have summarized the present state of knowledge about the microorganisms involved in MTBE degradation and the MTBE catabolic pathways. The role of the different enzymes is discussed as well as the rare and recent data concerning the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the MTBE pathway. The phylogeny of the microorganisms isolated for their capacity to grow on MTBE is also described.

  11. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by Enterobacter sp. NKNU02. (United States)

    Chen, Ssu Ching; Chen, Colin S; Zhan, Kai-Van; Yang, Kai-Hsing; Chien, Chih-Ching; Shieh, Bao-Sen; Chen, Wen-Ming


    We previously isolated and identified Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 as a methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading bacterial strain from gasoline-contaminated water. In this study, tert-butyl alcohol, acetic acid, 2-propanol, and propenoic acid were detected using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry when MTBE was degraded by rest cells of Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 cells. We also found that biodegradation of MTBE was decreased, but not totally inhibited in mixtures of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene. The effects of MTBE on the biology of Enterobacter sp. NKNU02 were elucidated using 2D proteomic analysis. The cytoplasmic proteins isolated from these MTBE-treated and -untreated cells were carried out for proteomic analysis. Results showed that there were 6 differential protein spots and 8 differential protein spots, respectively, as compared to their corresponding control (without MTBE addition), at the indicated incubation times when 40% and 60% of 100 mg/L of MTBE had been removed, Among these proteins, nine were successfully identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry. Proteins identified included extracellular solute-binding protein, periplasmic-binding protein ytfQ, cationic amino acid ABC transporter, isocitrate dehydrogenase, cysteine synthase A, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC), transaldolase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. Based on these differential proteins, we discuss the bacterial responses to MTBE at the molecular level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Community characterization of anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-degrading enrichment cultures. (United States)

    Youngster, Laura K G; Kerkhof, Lee J; Häggblom, Max M


    Use of the fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has led to widespread environmental contamination. Anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE observed under different redox conditions is a potential means for remediation of contaminated aquifers; however, no responsible microorganisms have been identified as yet. We analyzed the bacterial communities in anaerobic-enriched cultures originating from three different contaminated sediments that have retained MTBE-degrading activity for over a decade. MTBE was transformed to tert-butyl alcohol and the methyl group used as a carbon and energy source. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the MTBE-utilizing microcosms established from different sediment sources had substantially different community profiles, suggesting that multiple species are capable of MTBE biodegradation. The 16S rRNA genes from one enrichment culture were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed a diverse community, with phylotypes belonging to the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Thermotogae. Continued enrichment on MTBE further reduced the community to three predominant phylotypes, as evidenced by T-RFLP analysis, which were most closely related to the Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi. These three common operational taxonomic units were detectable in the enrichments from Atlantic and Pacific coastal samples. Identification of the microorganisms important in mediating anaerobic MTBE transformation will provide the foundation for developing tools for site assessment and bioremediation monitoring.

  13. Production of fatty acid butyl esters using the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase. (United States)

    Su, Erzheng; Wei, Dongzhi


    In this work, the low cost naturally immobilized Carica papaya lipase (CPL) was investigated for production of fatty acid butyl esters (FABE) to fulfill the aim of reducing the lipase cost in the enzymatic butyl-biodiesel process. The CPL showed specificities to different alcohol acyl acceptors. Alcohols with more than three carbon atoms did not have negative effects on the CPL activity. The CPL catalyzed butanolysis for FABE production was systematically investigated. The reaction solvent, alcohol/oil molar ratio, enzyme amount, reaction temperature, and water activity all affected the butanolysis process. Under the optimized conditions, the highest conversion of 96% could be attained in 24 h. These optimal conditions were further applied to CPL catalyzed butanolysis of other vegetable oils. All of them showed very high conversion. The CPL packed-bed reactor was further developed, and could be operated continuously for more than 150 h. All of these results showed that the low cost Carica papaya lipase can be used as a promising lipase for biodiesel production.

  14. New blends of ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymers with thermoplastic starch. Characterization and bacterial biodegradation. (United States)

    Morro, A; Catalina, F; Corrales, T; Pablos, J L; Marin, I; Abrusci, C


    Ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBA) with 13% of butyl acrylate content was used to produce blends with 10, 30 and 60% of thermoplastic starch (TPS) plasticized with glycerol. Ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer (EAA) was used as compatibilizer at 20% content with respect to EBA. The blends were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ATR-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), water-Contact Angle measurements (CA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Stress-strain mechanical tests. Initiated autoxidation of the polymer blends was studied by chemiluminescence (CL) confirming that the presence of the polyolefin-TPS interphase did not substantially affect the oxidative thermostability of the materials. Three bacterial species have been isolated from the blend films buried in soil and identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus borstelensis and Bacillus licheniformis. Biodegradation of the blends (28days at 45°C) was evaluated by carbon dioxide measurement using the indirect impedance technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biodegradation of methyl t-butyl ether by pure bacterial cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, K. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Lora, C.O. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Wanken, A.E. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Javanmardian, M. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Yang, X. [Amoco Research Center, Naperville, IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences


    Three pure bacterial cultures degrading methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) were isolated from activated sludge and fruit of the Gingko tree. They have been classified as belonging to the genuses Methylobacterium, Rhodococcus, and Arthrobacter. These cultures degraded 60 ppm MTBE in 1-2 weeks of incubation at 23-25 C. The growth of the isolates on MTBE as sole carbon source is very slow compared with growth on nutrient-rich medium. Uniformly-labeled [{sup 14}C]MTBE was used to determine {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution. Within 7 days of incubation, about 8% of the initial radioactivity was evolved as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. These strains also grow on t-butanol, butyl formate, isopropanol, acetone and pyruvate as carbon sources. The presence of these compounds in combination with MTBE decreased the degradation of MTBE. The cultures pregrown on pyruvate resulted in a reduction in {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from [{sup 14}C]MTBE. The availability of pure cultures will allow the determination of the pathway intermediates and the rate-limiting steps in the degradation of MTBE. (orig.)

  16. Biodegradation of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether by Co-Metabolism with a Pseudomonas sp. Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li


    Full Text Available Co-metabolic bioremediation is supposed to be an impressive and promising approach in the elimination technology of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, which was found to be a common pollutant worldwide in the ground or underground water in recent years. In this paper, bacterial strain DZ13 (which can co-metabolically degrade MTBE was isolated and named as Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 based on the result of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Strain DZ13 could grow on n-alkanes (C5-C8, accompanied with the co-metabolic degradation of MTBE. Diverse n-alkanes with different carbon number showed a significant influence on the degradation rate of MTBE and accumulation of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA. When Pseudomonas sp. DZ13 co-metabolically degraded MTBE with n-pentane as the growth substrate, a higher MTBE-degrading rate (Vmax = 38.1 nmol/min/mgprotein, Ks = 6.8 mmol/L and lower TBA-accumulation was observed. In the continuous degradation experiment, the removal efficiency of MTBE by Pseudomonas sp. Strain DZ13 did not show an obvious decrease after five times of continuous addition.

  17. Butyl 2-(5-iodo-3-methylsulfinyl-1-benzofuran-2-ylacetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk Lee


    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H17IO4S, the O atom and the methyl group of the methylsulfinyl substituent lie on opposite sides of the plane of the benzofuran fragment. The crystal structure is stabilized by weak intermolecular C—H...π interactions between a methyl H atom of the methylsulfinyl group and the benzene ring of the benzofuran system, and by an I...O halogen bond of 3.173 (3 Å and a nearly linear C—I...O angle of 171.7 (1°. In addition, the crystal structure exhibits weak intermolecular C—H...O hydrogen bonds. The O atom of the carbonyl group and the butyl chain are both disordered over two positions with site-occupancy factors from refinement of 0.55 (4 and 0.45 (4 (for the O atom, and 0.76 (2 and 0.24 (2 (for the butyl group.

  18. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate by bacterial consortium LV-1 enriched from river sludge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    Full Text Available A stable bacterial consortium (LV-1 capable of degrading di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP was enriched from river sludge. Community analysis revealed that the main families of LV-1 are Brucellaceae (62.78% and Sinobacteraceae (14.83%, and the main genera of LV-1 are Brucella spp. (62.78% and Sinobacter spp. (14.83%. The optimal pH and temperature for LV-1 to degrade DBP were pH 6.0 and 30°C, respectively. Inoculum size influenced the degradation ratio when the incubation time was < 24 h. The initial concentration of DBP also influenced the degradation rates of DBP by LV-1, and the degradation rates ranged from 69.0-775.0 mg/l/d in the first 24 h. Degradation of DBP was best fitted by first-order kinetics when the initial concentration was < 300 mg/l. In addition, Cd2+, Cr6+, and Zn2+ inhibited DBP degradation by LV-1 at all considered concentrations, but low concentrations of Pb2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+ enhanced DBP degradation. The main intermediates (mono-ethyl phthalate [MEP], mono-butyl phthalate [MBP], and phthalic acid [PA] were identified in the DBP degradation process, thus a new biochemical pathway of DBP degradation is proposed. Furthermore, LV-1 also degraded other phthalates with shorter ester chains (DMP, DEP, and PA.

  19. Day case laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abboudi


    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the feasibility of performing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP as a day case procedure while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. Herein we report our experience, selection criteria, and discharge criteria for day case LRP. Methods: We performed a prospective study with 32 patients undergoing extraperitoneal LRP. These patients were counselled before the procedure that they would go home the same evening of the procedure. Pain scores and quality of life data were recorded day 1 postoperatively via a telephone consultation. The patients underwent routine blood tests on day 2 and an outpatient review on day 7 and regularly thereafter via an assigned key worker. Socio-demographic data, comorbidities, and outcomes were collected for analysis. Results: All patients were successfully discharged the same day of surgery. Mean patient age was 62 years with a mean body mass index of 25. Mean operative time was 147 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 101 ml. Three patients were treated for post operative urinary tract infections; two patients developed infected lymphoceles which required percutaneous drainage and one patient required re-catheterisation due to a burst catheter balloon. Of these six complications four patients required re-admission. Post-operative pain, nausea and vomiting were low whilst patient satisfaction scores were unanimously high in all patients surveyed. Conclusions: The early experience with extraperitoneal LRP as a same day surgery is promising although patients who are at high risk of lymphocele should be excluded. Preoperative patient counselling and selection is paramount. Patient satisfaction is not adversely affected by the shortened stay. Surgeon experience, a well-motivated patient, meticulous attention to detail through an integrated pathway, a multidisciplinary team and adequate postoperative assessment are essential.

  20. Orgasmic Dysfunction after Radical Prostatectomy. (United States)

    Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea


    In addition to urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, several other impairments of sexual function potentially occurring after radical prostatectomy (RP) have been described; as a whole, these less frequently assessed disorders are referred to as neglected side effects. In particular, orgasmic dysfunctions (ODs) have been reported in a non-negligible number of cases, with detrimental impacts on patients' overall sexual life. This review aimed to comprehensively discuss the prevalence and physiopathology of post-RP ODs, as well as potential treatment options. Orgasm-associated incontinence (climacturia) has been reported to occur in between 20% and 93% of patients after RP. Similarly, up to 19% of patients complain of postoperative orgasm-associated pain, mainly referred pain at the level of the penis. Moreover, impairment in the sensation of orgasm or even complete anorgasmia has been reported in 33% to 77% of patients after surgery. Clinical and surgical factors including age, the use of a nerve-sparing technique, and robotic surgery have been variably associated with the risk of ODs after RP, although robust and reliable data allowing for a proper estimation of the risk of postoperative orgasmic function impairment are still lacking. Likewise, little evidence regarding the management of postoperative ODs is currently available. In general, physicians should be aware of the prevalence of ODs after RP, in order to properly counsel all patients both preoperatively and immediately post-RP about the potential occurrence of bothersome and distressful changes in their overall sexual function. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  1. Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kavanagh, D O


    Whipple\\'s procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple\\'s procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple\\'s procedure during a 15-year period (1987-2002) were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%). One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30-75). The major presenting features included jaundice (five), pain (two), gastric outlet obstruction (one), and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one). Investigations included ultrasound (eight), computerised tomography (eight), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology), and endoscopic ultrasound (two). The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two), chronic pancreatitis (two), choledochal cyst (one), inflammatory pseudotumour (one), cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one), duodenal angiodysplasia (one), and granular cell neoplasm (one). There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one), anastomotic leak (one), liver abscess (one), and myocardial infarction (one). All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple\\'s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA) may reduce the need for Whipple\\'s operation

  2. Radical Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Benign Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kavanagh


    Full Text Available Whipple's procedure is the treatment of choice for pancreatic and periampullary malignancies. Preoperative histological confirmation of malignancy is frequently unavailable and some patients will subsequently be found to have benign disease. Here, we review our experience with Whipple's procedure for patients ultimately proven to have benign disease. The medical records of all patients who underwent Whipple's procedure during a 15-year period (1987–2002 were reviewed; 112 patients underwent the procedure for suspected malignancy. In eight cases, the final histology was benign (7.1%. One additional patient was known to have benign disease at resection. The mean age was 50 years (range: 30–75. The major presenting features included jaundice (five, pain (two, gastric outlet obstruction (one, and recurrent gastrointestinal haemorrhage (one. Investigations included ultrasound (eight, computerised tomography (eight, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (seven; of these, four patients had a stent inserted and three patients had sampling for cytology, and endoscopic ultrasound (two. The pathological diagnosis included benign biliary stricture (two, chronic pancreatitis (two, choledochal cyst (one, inflammatory pseudotumour (one, cystic duodenal wall dysplasia (one, duodenal angiodysplasia (one, and granular cell neoplasm (one. There was no operative mortality. Morbidity included intra-abdominal collection (one, anastomotic leak (one, liver abscess (one, and myocardial infarction (one. All patients remain alive and well at mean follow-up of 41 months. Despite recent advances in diagnostic imaging, 8% of the patients undergoing Whipple'’s procedure had benign disease. A range of unusual pathological entities can mimic malignancy. Accurate preoperative histological diagnosis may have allowed a less radical operation to be performed. Endoscopic ultrasound–guided fine needle aspirate (EUS-FNA may reduce the need for Whipple's operation in

  3. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter


    Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...... a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC...

  4. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of tert-Butyl 2-(1-Hydroxyethylphenylcarbamate, A Key Intermediate to Chiral Organoselenanes and Organotelluranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Piovan


    Full Text Available The enzymatic kinetic resolution of tert-butyl 2-(1-hydroxyethyl phenylcarbamate via lipase-catalyzed transesterification reaction was studied. We investigated several reaction conditions and the carbamate was resolved by Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B, leading to the optically pure (R- and (S-enantiomers. The enzymatic process showed excellent enantioselectivity (E > 200. (R- and (S-tert-butyl 2-(1-hydroxyethylphenylcarbamate were easily transformed into the corresponding (R- and (S-1-(2-aminophenylethanols.

  5. Use of a continuous-flow microreactor for thiol-ene functionalization of RAFT-derived poly(butyl acrylate)


    Vandenbergh, Joke; Junkers, Thomas


    This study describes the synthesis of functionalized RAFT-derived poly(n-butyl acrylate) polymers via the use of a continuous-flow microreactor, in which aminolysis as well as thiol-ene reactions are executed in reaction times of just 20 minutes. Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (M-n = 3800 g mol(-1), PDI = 1.10) with a trithiocarbonate end group was prepared via a conventional RAFT process. The polymer was then functionalized via aminolysis/thiol-ene reactions in the micro-flow reactor with isobornyl ...

  6. Diisobutyl phthalate has comparable anti-androgenic effects to di-n-butyl phthalate in fetal rat testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Vinggaard, Anne


    Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in various consumer products and building materials. Some of the phthalates are known to interfere with male reproductive development in rats, and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) were recently...... banned for use in toys in the EU mainly due to their reproductive toxicity. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) has similar structural and application properties as DBP. and is being used as a substitute for DBR However, knowledge on male reproductive effects of DiBP in experimental animals is lacking, Methods...

  7. Radical-Local Teaching and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mariane; Chaiklin, Seth

    Radical-Local Teaching and Learning presents a theoretical perspective for analyzing and planning educational programmes for schoolchildren. To realize both general societal interests and worthwhile personal development, the content of educational programmes for children must be grounded...... radical-local teaching and learning approach. The first half of the book introduces the idea of radical-local teaching and learning and develops the theoretical background for this perspective, drawing on the cultural-historical research tradition, particularly from Vygotsky, El'konin, Davydov......, and Aidarova. The second half of the book addresses the central concern of radical-local teaching and learning - how to relate educational practices to children's specific historical and cultural conditions. The experiment was conducted for an academic year in an afterschool programme in the East Harlem...

  8. Adult Women's Education: A Radical Critique (United States)

    Merideth, Elizabeth; Merideth, Robert


    The authors propose alternative measures to meet the needs of women in universities. Individual efforts by individual women must be facilitated by social innovation brought about by radical experiments with alternative living arrangements and open universities. (BY)

  9. User involvement competence for radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher


    One important market related capability for firms which seek to develop radical innovations is the competence to involve the 'right' users at the 'right' time in the 'right' form. While former studies have identified a rather passive role of users in the radical innovation process, this paper...... focuses on the involvement of such users that are in the position to play an active role as inventors and (co)-developers. A multiple case study analysis was conducted in the field of medical technology. Five radical innovation projects within four firms were selected including medical robots and computer......-assisted navigation systems. The case study analysis reveals that firms who closely interact with specific users benefit significantly for their radical innovation work. These users have a high motivation toward new solutions, are open to new technologies, possess diverse competencies, and are embedded into a very...

  10. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement. (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino


    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  11. Fast beam studies of free radical photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumark, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)


    The authors have developed a novel technique for studying the photodissociation spectroscopy and dynamics of free radicals. In these experiments, radicals are generated by laser photodetachment of a fast (6-8 keV) mass-selected negative ion beam. The resulting radicals are photodissociated with a second laser, and the photofragments are collected and detected with high efficiency using a microchannel plate detector. The overall process is: ABC{sup -} {yields} ABC + e{sup -} {yields} A + BC, AB + C. Two types of fragment detection schemes are used. To map out the photodissociation cross-section of the radical, the photodissociation laser is scanned and the total photofragment yield is measured as a function of wavelength. In other experiments, the photodissociation frequency is fixed and the photofragment masses, kinetic energy release, and scattering angle is determined for each photodissociation event.

  12. A radical pathway in catecholase activity with nickel(II) complexes of phenol based "end-off" compartmental ligands. (United States)

    Ghosh, Totan; Adhikary, Jaydeep; Chakraborty, Prateeti; Sukul, Pradip K; Jana, Mahendra Sekhar; Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis


    Seven dinuclear and one dinuclear based dicyanamide bridged polymeric Ni(II) complexes of phenol based compartmental ligands (HL(1)-HL(4)) have been synthesized with the aim to investigate their catecholase-like activity and to evaluate the most probable mechanistic pathway involved in this process. The complexes have been characterized by routine physicochemical studies as well as by X-ray single crystal structure analyses namely [Ni2(L(2))(SCN)3(H2O)(CH3OH)] (), [Ni2(L(4))(SCN)3(CH3OH)2] (), [Ni2(L(2))(SCN)2(AcO)(H2O)] (), [Ni2(L(4))(SCN)(AcO)2] (), [Ni2(L(2))(N3)3(H2O)2] (), [Ni2(L(4))(N3)3(H2O)2] (), [Ni2(L(1))(AcO)2(N(CN)2)]n () and [Ni2(L(3))(AcO)2(N(CN)2)] (), [SCN = isothiocyanate, AcO = acetate, N3 = azide, and N(CN)2 = dicyanamide anion; L(1-4) = 2,6-bis(R2-iminomethyl)-4-R1-phenolato, where R1 = methyl and tert-butyl, R2 = N,N-dimethyl ethylene for L(1-2) and R1 = methyl and tert-butyl, R2 = 2-(N-ethyl) pyridine for L(3-4)]. A UV-vis spectrophotometric study using 3,5-di-tert butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) reveals that all the complexes are highly active in catalyzing the aerobic oxidation of (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylbenzoquinone (3,5-DTBQ) in methanol medium with the formation of hydrogen peroxide. An EPR study confirms the generation of radicals during the catalysis. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the complexes in the presence and absence of 3,5-DTBC have been performed. Reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(I) and that of the imine bond of the ligand system have been detected at ∼-1.0 V and ∼-1.5 V, respectively. Coulometric separation of the species at -1.5 V followed by the EPR study at 77 K confirms the species as an organic radical and thus most probably reduced imine species. Spectroelectrochemical analysis at -1.5 V clearly indicates the oxidation of 3,5-DTBC and thus suggests that the radical pathway is supposed to be responsible for the catecholase-like activity exhibited by the nickel complexes. The ligand centred radical generation has further been

  13. From Living Carbocationic to Living Radical Polymerization. (United States)


    one another because of electrostatic repulsions. On the other hand, free radicals, which are the growing species in radical polymerization, very easily...1) degrees of polymerization will be observed. In ionic reactions, active species with various reactivities coexist ( free ions, ion pairs...between the active and dormant speches Is fast. In real systems, chain-breaking reactions do occur and cannot be entirely b avoided; bimolecular

  14. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira


    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  15. Kinetic evaluation of polyamines as radical scavengers. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori


    To clarify whether polyamines scavenge alkyl (carbon-centered) and peroxy (oxygen-centered) radicals, we analyzed their effects on the kinetics of polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) induced by 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN, a R* radical) and benzoyl peroxide (BPO, a PhCOO* radical) under nearly anaerobic conditions. Stoichiometric factors (n; number of free radicals trapped by one mole of antioxidant moiety) were determined by the induction period method. The n value for polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) was 0.1-0.7, whereas that for conventional synthetic antioxidants, BHA and BHT, was about 2. These n values were not different between the AIBN and BPO systems. The n value for polyamines declined in the order spermine > spermidine > putrescine. The K(inh)/K(p) value for polyamines (20-115) was greater than that (4-7) for BHT or BHA. Radical-scavenging activity largely depends on the stoichiometric factor of antioxidants rather than their effects on initial rate of polymerization, a rate of propagation. Polyamines may scavenge alkyl or peroxy radicals derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids in biological systems.

  16. Deceleration of molecular beams of NO radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klenner, Alexander; Kirste, Moritz; Schewe, Christian; Scharfenberg, Ludwig; Meijer, Gerard; Meerakker, Sebastian Y.T. van de [Fritz-Haber-Institut, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin (Germany)


    The motion of neutral molecules in a beam can be manipulated with inhomogeneous electric and magnetic fields. Time-varying fields can be used to decelerate or accelerate beams of molecules to any desired velocity. Molecular beams with a tunable velocity find applications in experiments such as the production and investigation of cold molecules or crossed beam collision studies. Molecules with an open shell structure like the OH(X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2) radical are of special interest and have often been used. The NO (X2{pi}1/2,J=1/2) radical would be the ideal molecule in these experiments, as beams of NO can be produced with superior number densities and can be detected more sensitively than OH. But Stark deceleration of NO radicals appears only feasible in the X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2 state, that is not populated under normal conditions. We present the production of intense beams of NO radicals in the X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2 state by stimulated emission pumping of ground-state NO(X2{pi}1/2,J=1/2) radicals via the A 2{sigma}{sup -} state. This state also has a large magnetic dipole moment, and we discuss the prospects for the Zeeman deceleration of NO(X2{pi}3/2,J=3/2) radicals.

  17. Radical and Not So Radical Transgressions: Invading Backstage Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lada Čale Feldman


    Full Text Available Featuring as one of the privileged metaphors in humanities and social sciences, theatre provides primarily an image of a circumscribed space whose spatial syntax and modes of human engagement take place within and with respect to the larger space of the city, the world, and, as in Calderon’s Gran teatro del mundo, the universe. It is precisely as a special organization of spatiality that theatre reached the status of Foucault’s radical hetero-topos, flexible as it proved to be as a model for not only counter-representing all the human dealings in the external space, but also of conceptualizing, as in Freud’s psychoanalysis, man’s inner world, his psychic topography. But theatre is above all a concrete place, a built form with its own spatial history, its changing social and ideological functions, and its ways of bestowing to the bodies that enter into it actual or phantasm identities, thoughts, sensations, feelings and memories.My intervention will deal with one of the ruling borders/dichotomies/barriers of theatrical space, the one dividing “front stage” from “backstage” regions. In his detailed analysis of the latter in an individual and concrete theatre building, Andrew Filmer relies among others on Edward Soja’s “trialectics of being”, and thus also on Lefebvre’s categories of perceptual, conceptual and lived aspects of spatiality which Soja evokes, which will here be of particular interest. In contrast to the repercussions of such an analytical triad for the ethnographic study of concrete theatrical sites, I will ask how it pertains to potential manipulations of the aforementioned division of front-stage and backstage within contemporary performance practice. The temporal aspect of this manipulation should also be emphasized, having in mind the historical provenance of a whole backstage mythology – evidenced in numerous novels, plays and films situated in the backstage world - in the elaborated architectural

  18. Preparation and physico-chemical study of nitroxide radicals. Isotopic marking with carbon 13 and deuterium; Preparations et etudes physico-chimiques de radicaux nitroxydes. Marquage isotopique au carbone 13 et au deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapelet-Letourneux, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    N-t-butyl-N-phenyl nitroxide is obtained by: a) action of t-butyl-magnesium chloride on nitrobenzene, or of phenyl-magnesium bromide on nitro-t-butane, b) oxidation of N-t-butyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine, c) oxidation of N-t-butylaniline. In these latter two cases, it has been possible to isolate the pure radical and to study it using UV, IR and EPR. It decomposes to give N-t-butylaniline and the N-oxide of N-t-butyl-p-quinon-imine. The action of peracids such as p-nitro-perbenzoic or m-chloro-perbenzoic acids on amines or hydroxylamines leads to the formation of stable or unstable nitroxide radicals easily observable by EPR. Finally, with a view to obtaining definite values for the coupling between the free electron of a nitroxide and carbon 13, the preparation of such radicals marked with {sup 13}C in the {alpha} or {beta} position of the nitroxide function has been carried out. The coupling with an {alpha} carbon 13 is negative and does not appear to vary with the spin density on the nitrogen. The interaction with the p nuclei of the nitrogen depends on the nature of the substituents: the two benzyl protons have a hyperfine splitting a{sub H} which is always less than that of the ethyl. On the other hand, the {sup 13}C coupling is greater in the first case. The usually adopted conformations for the compounds having the carbonyl group cannot account for the observed values of the {beta} couplings. (author) [French] Le N-t-butyl-N-phenyl nitroxyde est obtenu par: a) action du chlorure de t-butylmagnesium sur le nitrobenzene, ou du bromure de phenylmagnesium sur le nitro-t-butane, b) oxydation de la N-t-butyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine, c) oxydation de la N-t-butylaniline. Dans ces deux derniers cas, le radical a pu etre isole pur et etudie par UV, IR et RPE. Il se decompose en N-t-butylaniline et N-oxyde de N-t-butyl-p-quinonimine. L'action de peracides (p-nitroperbenzoique ou m-chloroperbenzoique) sur des amines ou des hydroxylamines conduit a des radicaux nitroxydes

  19. Kinetic radical-scavenging activity of melatonin. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori; Ishihara, Mariko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Yokoe, Ichiro


    Carbon-centred free radicals can be involved in damage to biological systems under hypoxiclanoxic conditions as well as in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The antioxidant activities of melatonin against carbon-centred radicals are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of melatonin against carbon-centred radicals in a biomimetic model system consisting of growing methyl methacrylate (MMA) radicals (poly-MMA radicals, PMMA*). The kinetics of the polymerization of MMA initiated by thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN; R* radical) or benzoyl peroxide (BPO; PhCOO* radical) in the presence of melatonin were investigated by the induction period method under nearly anaerobic conditions. As melatonin concentrations increased, the length of the induction period (IP) increased, but for the BPO system the IP reached a plateau at a molar ratio of BPO to melatonin of 5:1, indicating that the oxidation of melatonin by PhCOO* was limited. At low concentrations of melatonin, the stoichiometric factor (n, the number of free radicals trapped by the antioxidant moiety) for melatonin was approximately 2, but as the melatonin concentration increased the n value decreased markedly to 0.1. These observations suggest that melatonin may possess catalytic activity contributing to radical avoidance. The initial rate of polymerization (Rp) in the BPO system was markedly suppressed by high concentrations of melatonin, suggesting a strong interaction between oxidative end-products formed from melatonin and PMMA*. Under conditions where n was about 2, the kinh values for melatonin in the BPO system and the AIBN system were 6.58 x 10(4) M(-1)S(-1) and 2.49 x 10(3) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. In the BPO system, the kinh of melatonin was of a similar magnitude to that of a-tocopherol, whereas in the AIBN system the kinh of melatonin was 100-fold greater than that of tocopherol. The present findings suggest that melatonin may be

  20. Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves. (United States)

    Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R


    This paper describes the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) permeation through gloves used in microelectronics fabrication facilities. One type of butyl-rubber glove (North B161), two types of natural-rubber gloves (Edmont Puretek and Ansell Pacific White), and a natural rubber/nitrile/neoprene-blend glove (Pioneer Trionic) were tested at four temperatures from 25-50 degrees C using the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method. The butyl-rubber glove showed no breakthrough after four hours of exposure at any temperature. The variations with temperature of measured breakthrough times (BT) and steady-state permeation rates (SSPR) for the other gloves were described well by Arrhenius relationships, with BT values decreasing by factors of 7-10 and SSPR values increasing by factors of 4-6 over the temperature range studied. Extrapolation to 70 and 93 degrees C, the temperatures at which degreasing is often performed, yielded BT values of < 2 min and < 0.5 min, respectively, in all cases. With the exception of the butyl-rubber glove, following an initial exposure at 25 degrees C and air drying overnight, low levels of NMP vapor were detected off-gassing from the inner surfaces of the gloves. Experimental results were then compared to those expected from several permeation models. Estimates of the equilibrium solvent solubility, S, were calculated using a model based on three-dimensional solubility parameters. Estimates of the solvent diffusion coefficient, D, were obtained from correlations with either the solvent kinematic viscosity or the product of the Flory interaction parameter, chi, and the solvent molar volume. Combining these values of D and S in Fickian diffusion equations gave modeled BT estimates that were within 23% of experimental values over the temperature range examined. Modeled SSPR values were within 50% (typically within 25%) of experimental values. Another model based on a generalized Arrhenius relationship also provided useful but

  1. Application of artificial neural networks for modeling of the treatment of wastewater contaminated with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) by UV/H2O2 process. (United States)

    Salari, D; Daneshvar, N; Aghazadeh, F; Khataee, A R


    During the last two decades, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been widely used as an additive to gasoline (up to 15%) both to increase the octane number and as a fuel oxygenate to improve air quality by reducing the level of carbon monoxide in vehicle exhausts. The present work mainly deals with photooxidative degradation of MTBE in the presence of H2O2 under UV light illumination (30W). We studied the influence of the basic operational parameters such as initial concentration of H2O2 and irradiation time on the photodegradation of MTBE. The oxidation rate of MTBE was low when the photolysis was carried out in the absence of H2O2 and it was negligible in the absence of UV light. The addition of proper amount of hydrogen peroxide improved the degradation, while the excess hydrogen peroxide could quench the formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH). The semi-log plot of MTBE concentration versus time was linear, suggesting a first order reaction. Therefore, the treatment efficiency was evaluated by figure-of-merit electrical energy per order (E(Eo)). Our results showed that MTBE could be treated easily and effectively with the UV/H2O2 process with E(Eo) value 80 kWh/m3/order. The proposed model based on artificial neural network (ANN) could predict the MTBE concentration during irradiation time in optimized conditions. A comparison between the predicted results of the designed ANN model and experimental data was also conducted.

  2. Effect of tert-Butyl Functionalization on the Photoexcited Decay of a Fe(II)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pápai, Mátyás Imre; Penfold, Thomas J.; Møller, Klaus Braagaard


    . This occurs because the tert-butyl functionalization stabilizes the 1MC states, enabling the 1,3MLCT → 1MC population transfer to occur close to the Franck-Condon geometry, making the conversion very efficient. Subsequently, a spin cascade occurs within the MC manifold, leading to the population of triplet...

  3. Ultrasonic promoted catalyst-free N-formylation of amines in neutral ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod T. Kamble


    Full Text Available A catalyst-free, simple and efficient protocol for N-formylation of alkyl, aryl, and heteroaryl amines with formic acid under ultrasonic irradiation at room temperature using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [Bmim]BF4 as a neutral medium is described.

  4. Nonlinear viscoelastic response of carbon black-filled butyl rubber and implications for o-ring aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adolf, D.


    Butyl rubber, unfortunately, has pronounced nonlinear viscoelastic behavior, which may be modelled by a separable KBKZ formalism. While these effects seem to have minimal impact on accelerated sealing force measurements, they do severely impact compression set tests. Therefore, a new test is suggested for evaluating field-return o-rings which is free from such confounding effects.

  5. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, R.J.; Scott, M.P.; Giddings, A.M.; Walters, D.G.; Stierum, R.H.; Meredith, C.; Lake, B.G.


    1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200

  6. Di-iso-Butyl Phthalate MATERNAL AND FETAL DATA FROM THE LE GRAY RESEARCH TEAM FOR NCEA June 15 2016 (United States)

    this file contains the raw data on the effects of in utero administration of di-iso-butyl phthalate on maternal weight gain during dosing and the numbers of fetuses and fetal resorptions. The data have all been previously published, as described on the file metadata sheet.

  7. Crystal structure of 2-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazolo[4,5-b]pyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. El-Hiti


    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H12N2S, does not contain any strong hydrogen-bond donors but two long C—H...N contacts are observed in the crystal structure, with the most linear interaction linking molecules along [010]. The ellipsoids of the tert-butyl group indicate large librational motion.

  8. Antagonism of free-radical-induced damage of adlay seed and its antiproliferative effect in human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells. (United States)

    Kuo, C C; Shih, M C; Kuo, Y H; Chiang, W


    The goal of our current research was to investigate the antioxidative effects of methanolic extracts from different parts of adlay seed and their antiproliferative activity in malignant human cells. The methanolic extracts from different parts of adlay seeds were from the hull (AHM), testa (ATM), bran (ABM), and polished adlay (PAM). AHM exhibited greater capacity to scavenge superoxide anion radicals in the PMS-NADH system than ATM, ABM, or PAM. The scavenging capacities of AHM and ATM on hydrogen peroxides were about 20% at a dose of 250 microg/mL. Using the method of deoxyribose degradation to assess damage caused by hydroxyl radicals, AHM was found to inhibit damage in deoxyribose at a higher concentration. However, ATM, ABM, and PAM exhibited prooxidative activity at the same concentration. The inhibitory effect on enzymatic oxidation of xanthine to uric acid was found to follow the order AHM > ATM =. ABM. However, PAM was inactive. All test samples were positive for inhibition of TPA-induced free radical formation on neutrophil-like leukocytes and were found to follow the order AHM > ATM > ABM > PAM. When human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, AHM protected the cells against the cytotoxicity caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. In addition, AHM exhibited antiproliferative activity against human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells in a dose-dependent manner. The antiproliferative properties of AHM appear to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death as determined by flow cytometry. These results show that AHM displays multiple antioxidant effects and induces apoptosis of malignant human cells.

  9. Biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in bioaugmented bioslurry phase reactor. (United States)

    Shailaja, S; Ramakrishna, M; Venkata Mohan, S; Sarma, P N


    Bioremediation of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) in soil was studied with various concentrations in a bioslurry phase batch reactor operated in sequenting batch mode (bioaugmented with effluent treatment plant (ETP) microflora) for a total cycle period of 96h. Process performance during the reactor operation was assessed by monitoring DnBP concentration and biochemical process parameters viz., pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), colony forming units (CFU) and oxygen uptake rate (OUR), during the sequence phase operation. The degradation rate was observed to be rapid at lower substrate concentrations and found to be slow as the substrate concentration increased. The potent bacterial strain was also isolated from the slurry phase reactor. Metabolites formed during the degradation of DnBP in the slurry phase reactor were identified. Studies on the kinetics and half-life of the reaction revealed that the degradation process followed zero-order kinetic model.

  10. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process (United States)

    Vlad, Elena; Bozga, Grigore


    Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics. PMID:23365512

  11. Epidemiology, toxicokinetics, and health effects of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). (United States)

    Phillips, Scott; Palmer, Robert B; Brody, Aaron


    This paper reviews the published information assessing the kinetics and potential for adverse health effects related to exposure to the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Data were obtained from previously published reports, using human data where possible. If human data were not available, animal studies were cited. The kinetic profile of MTBE in humans is similar for ingestion and inhalation. The concentrations of MTBE to which the general public is expected to be exposed are orders of magnitude below concentrations that have caused adverse health effects in animals. Controlled human studies have not replicated early epidemiology studies that suggested, but did not confirm, a possible association between MTBE exposure and nonspecific health complaints.

  12. Barrierity of hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and butyl rubber after exposure to organic solvents. (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M


    Resistance of antichemical clothing primarily depends on the type of material it is made from, in particular on the type of polymer used for coating the fabric carrier. This paper reports on systematic investigations on the influence of the cross-linking density of an elastomer and the composition of a cross-linked elastomer on its resistance to permeation of selected organic solvents. Tests of barrier material samples made from nonpolar butyl rubber (IIR) and polar hydrogenated butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber (HNBR) showed that (a) in rubber-solvent systems with medium thermodynamic affinity, cross-linking density influenced resistance to permeation and (b) the polarity of the system had a significant influence on barrierity.

  13. Crystal structure of (1,3-di-tert-butyl-η5-cyclopentadienyltrimethylhafnium(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Pérez-Redondo


    Full Text Available The molecule of the title organometallic hafnium(IV compound, [Hf(CH33(C13H21] or [HfMe3(η5-C5H3-1,3-tBu2], adopts the classical three-legged piano-stool geometry for monocyclopentadienylhafnium(IV derivatives with the three methyl groups bonded to the Hf(IV atom at the legs. The C atoms of the two tert-butyl group bonded to the cyclopentadienyl (Cp ring are 0.132 (5 and 0.154 (6 Å above the Cp least-squares plane. There are no significant intermolecular interactions present between the molecules in the crystal structure.

  14. FE-SEM observation of swelled seaweed using hydrophilic ionic liquid; 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. (United States)

    Takahashi, Chisato; Shirai, Takashi; Fuji, Masayoshi


    The method to observe the exact morphology of swelled seaweed as an example of biological material by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with the aid of hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL); 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate is reported. Seaweed was first swelled in 3.5% NaCl solution and then treated with the IL and water mixture in 1:7 weight ratios and centrifuged to remove the excess IL solution. Thus treated seaweed maintained its morphology even at high magnification and did not show drying in the FE-SEM chamber. This observation technique might be useful for various kinds of biological materials to be observed under FE-SEM. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Linear Viscoelasticity of Spherical SiO 2 Nanoparticle-Tethered Poly(butyl acrylate) Hybrids

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Vivek


    The melt state linear viscoelastic properties of spherical silica nanoparticles with grafted poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains of varying molecular weight were probed using linear small amplitude dynamic oscillatory measurements and complementary linear stress relaxation measurements. While the pure silica-tethered-polymer hybrids with no added homopolymer exhibit solid-like response, addition of matched molecular weight free matrix homopolymer chains to this hybrid, at low concentrations of added homopolymer, maintains the solid-like response with a lowered modulus that can be factored into a silica concentration dependence and a molecular weight dependence. While the silica concentration dependence of the modulus is strong, the dependence on molecular weight is weak. On the other hand, increasing the amount of added homopolymer changes the viscoelastic response to that of a liquid with a relaxation time that scales exponentially with hybrid concentration. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.


    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  17. Microbial dynamics in anaerobic enrichment cultures degrading di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trably, Eric; Batstone, Damien J.; Christensen, Nina


    Although anaerobic biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalic acid ester (DBP) has been studied over the past decade, only little is known about the microorganisms involved in the biological anaerobic degradation pathways. The aim of this work is to characterize the microbial community dynamics...... losses were observed in the sterile controls (20-22%), substantial DBP biodegradation was found in the enrichment cultures (90-99%). In addition, significant population changes were observed. The dominant bacterial species in the DBP-degrading cultures was affiliated to Soehngenia saccharolytica......, a microorganism described previously as an anaerobic benzaldehyde degrader. Within the archaeal community, there was a shift between two different species of the genus Methanosaeta sp., indicating a highly specific impact of DBP or degradation products on archaeal species. RNA-directed probes were designed from...

  18. Volumetric properties of binary mixtures of alkoxyethanols with ethyl tert-butyl ether at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinart, Cezary M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 163 (Poland)]. E-mail:; Nowak, Katarzyna [Department of Chemistry, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, Pomorska 163 (Poland); Kinart, Wojciech J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Lodz, 90-136 Lodz, Narutowicza 68 (Poland)


    Densities at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K in the binary liquid mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether with 2-methoxyethanol, 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol or 2-{l_brace}2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy{r_brace}ethanol have been measured over the entire mixture compositions. These data have been used to compute the excess molar volumes. The excess molar volumes are negative over the entire range of composition for all mixtures. The changes of V{sup E} with variations of the composition and the chain-length of the alkyl groups in the alkoxyethanol molecules are discussed in terms of intermolecular interactions.

  19. [n-Butyl Alcohol-soluble Chemical Constituents of Psidium guajava Leaves]. (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Wan, Kai-hua; Fu, Hui-zheng; Yan, Qing-wei


    To study the chemical constituents of the leaves of Psidium guajava. The chemical constituents were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MPLC. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of special analysis. Seven compounds were isolated from n-butyl alcohol fraction, whose structures were elucidated as morin-3-O-α-L-arabopyranoside (1), morin-3-O-α-L-iyxopyranoside (2), 2,6-dihydroxy-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-benzophenone (3), casuarictin (4),2,6-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethyl-4-O-(6"-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-benzophenone(5), globulusin A(6), and kaempferol-3-O-β-D-(6"-galloyl) galactopyranoside (7). Compounds 3 and 5 ~ 7 are isolated from this plant for the first time.

  20. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chen; Lingling, Xu; Hongbo, Shang; Zhibin, Zhang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m. (author)

  1. Microencapsulation of butyl stearate as a phase change material by interfacial polycondensation in a polyurea system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Liang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail:; Xu Lingling; Shang Hongbo; Zhang Zhibin [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)


    For the last 20 years, microencapsulated phase change materials (MicroPCMs), which combine microencapsulation technology and phase change material, have been attracted more and more interest. By overcoming some limitations of the PCMs, the MicroPCMs improve the efficiency of PCMs and make it possible to apply PCMs in many areas. In this experiment, polyurea microcapsules containing phase change materials were prepared using interfacial polycondensation method. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) and ethylenediamine (EDA) were chosen as monomers. Butyl stearate was employed as a core material. The MicroPCMs' properties have been characterized by dry weight analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform IR spectra analysis and optical microscopy. The results show that the MicroPCMs were synthesized successfully and that, the phase change temperature was about 29 deg. C, the latent heat of fusion was about 80 J g{sup -1}, the particle diameter was 20-35 {mu}m.

  2. Determining the primary nucleation and growth mechanism of cloxacillin sodium in methanol-butyl acetate system (United States)

    Zhi, Minjie; Wang, Yongli; Wang, Jingkang


    The primary nucleation and growth mechanism of cloxacillin sodium in methanol-butyl acetate system are determined on the basis of induction time measurements. The induction time of cloxacillin sodium is experimentally determined by the laser scattering method at different supersaturations and temperatures. The measured induction times are then treated using the models of mononuclear and polynuclear mechanisms. It is discovered that the primary nucleation mechanism of cloxacillin sodium is identified as polynuclear mechanism, which relates the induction time and the supersaturation for various growth mechanisms. On the basis of these analyses, the growth mechanism of cloxacillin sodium is two-dimensional nucleation-mediated growth at 285 K, and changes into spiral growth with increasing temperature (at 291 and 297 K).

  3. Structure and Supersaturation of Highly Concentrated Solutions of Buckyball in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fileti, E. E.; Chaban, V. V.


    Solubilization of fullerenes is of high interest because of their wide usage in both fundamental research and numerous applications. This paper reports molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of saturated and supersaturated solutions of C-60 in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM......-long real-time dynamics. The ion-molecular structure patterns in saturated and supersaturated solutions are distinguished in terms of radial distribution functions and cluster analysis of the solute particles. The cation separated solute pair is found to be a common structure in both saturated......][BF4], room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL). The simulations cover a wide range of temperatures between 280 and 500 K at ambient pressure. Unlike in simpler solvents, C-60 in [C4C1IM][BF4] forms highly supersaturated solutions, whose internal arrangement remains unaltered during nearly a microsecond...

  4. Inhibition Effect of 1-Butyl-4-Methylpyridinium Tetrafluoroborate on the Corrosion of Copper in Phosphate Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scendo


    Full Text Available The influence of the concentration of 1-Butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (4MBPBF4 as ionic liquid (IL on the corrosion of copper in 0.5 M PO43− solutions of pH 2 and 4 was studied. The research involved electrochemical polarization method, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM technique. The results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency of corrosion of copper increases with an increase in the concentration of 4MBPBF4 but decreases with increasing temperature. The thermodynamic functions of corrosion analysis and adsorptive behavior of 4MBPBF4 were carried out. During the test, the adsorption of the inhibitor on the copper surface in the phosphate solutions was found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and had a physical mechanism.

  5. Bronchoscopic management of bronchopleural fistula with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh K Chawla


    Full Text Available Context: Bronchopleural fistula (BPF is a communication between the pleural space and bronchial tree. Materials and Methods: A series of 9 cases are reported where BPF was identified and managed with intrabronchial instillation of glue (N-butyl-cyanoacrylate through a video bronchoscope. Results: Out of 9 patients the BPF was successfully sealed in 8 cases (88.88%. In 1 patient of postpneumonectomy, the fistula was big, that is >8 mm who had a recurrence after the procedure. In one case of pyopneumothorax the leak reduced slowly and it took us 14 days to remove the intercostal drainage tube. Rest of the patients had a favorable outcome. No complications were observed in a follow-up of 6 months. Conclusions: In our opinion, it is a cost-effective, viable, and safe alternative compared with costly, time-consuming, and high-risk surgical procedures.

  6. Design and Control of Glycerol-tert-Butyl Alcohol Etherification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vlad


    Full Text Available Design, economics, and plantwide control of a glycerol-tert-butyl alcohol (TBA etherification plant are presented. The reaction takes place in liquid phase, in a plug flow reactor, using Amberlyst 15 as a catalyst. The products' separation is achieved by two distillation columns where high-purity ethers are obtained and a section involving extractive distillation with 1,4-butanediol as solvent, which separates TBA from the TBA/water azeotrope. Details of design performed in AspenPlus and an economic evaluation of the process are given. Three plantwide control structures are examined using a mass balance model of the plant. The preferred control structure fixes the fresh glycerol flow rate and the ratio glycerol + monoether : TBA at reactor-inlet. The stability and robustness in the operation are checked by rigorous dynamic simulation in AspenDynamics.

  7. A Validated HPLC Method for the Determination of Vanillyl Butyl Ether in Cosmetic Preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ríos


    Full Text Available A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and an ultraviolet (UV detector. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (Na2HPO4 20 mM in water (30:70 v/v with a variable flow rate. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and reproducibility, specificity and linearity. The procedure described here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests of commercially available cosmetic products.

  8. Pressure effect on water dynamics in tert-butyl alcohol/water solutions (United States)

    Calandrini, Vania; Deriu, Antonio; Onori, Giuseppe; Paciaroni, Alessandro; Telling, Mark T. F.


    We report here a quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) investigation of the effect of pressure on the diffusivity properties of water in a dilute aqueous solution of hydrophobic molecules (tert-butyl alcohol, TBA). The experiment was performed at fixed TBA concentration (0.02 molar fraction) by varying pressure from 1 to 2000 bar at two different temperatures (268 and 278 K). The quasi-elastic line-shapes have been analysed in terms of a model based on the memory function formalism. Our data indicate that, on increasing pressure up to 2000 bar, the diffusion coefficient of water in the TBA/water mixture exhibits a relative increase larger than that of pure water under the same thermodynamic conditions. The extent of this effect increases with decreasing temperature. The observed behaviour is described in terms of pressure-induced distortions of the H-bonded random network of liquid water.

  9. Degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether by photochemical, biological, and their combined processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Asadi


    Full Text Available The degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE at relatively high concentrations was investigated by various photo-induced oxidation processes such as UV/H2O2 and UV/TiO2 as well as biological processes and their combination. It was shown that the degradation of MTBE by UV/H2O2 and TiO2 photocatalytic followed a first-order model with apparent rate constant of 1.31×10−1 and 1.21×10−2 min-1, respectively. It was observed that UV/H2O2/TiO2 process did not have any advantages over each of the other processes alone. The biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE was evaluated using aerobic mixed culture with three different approaches, including ultimate biological oxygen demand (BODU assessment, nonacclimated, and acclimated mixed cultures. The apparent rate constant for the biodegradation of MTBE by nonacclimated mixed culture was 4.36×10−2 day-1. It was shown that the acclimatization of the mixed cultures enhanced the rate of biodegradation of MTBE to 3.24×10−1mg L-1h-1. Finally, the effects of the photocatalytic pretreatment of aqueous MTBE on its subsequent biological treatment were studied. It was observed that the rate of bioreaction was not enhanced and the photocatalytic pretreatment had adverse effects on its biological treatment so that the apparent rate constant decreased to 2.83×10−1 mg L-1h-1.

  10. Cooperative Effects on Radical Recombination in CYP3A4-Catalyzed Oxidation of the Radical Clock β-Thujone** (United States)

    Jiang, Yongying


    The oxidation of hydrocarbons by cytochrome P450 enzymes is commonly thought to involve hydrogen atom abstraction by a ferryl species comparable to that of peroxidase Compound I, followed by radical recombination of the resulting carbon radical with the equivalent of an iron-bound hydroxyl radical.1,2 This radical rebound mechanism, first proposed in 1978, is supported by a variety of experimental results, including (a) rearrangement and inversion reactions prior to the radical recombination step, (b) the large magnitude (up to kH/kD ~ 13) of the intrinsic isotope effect for hydrogen abstraction, and (c) computational modeling of the reaction pathway. However, radical clock substrates, in which the radical undergoes a rearrangement at a known rate prior to radical recombination, have provided conflicting evidence on the radical lifetime. Although several radical clocks support a radical recombination mechanism, so-called ultrafast radical clocks yield radical lifetime estimates more consistent with a transition state than an actual intermediate.3 This discrepancy has led to postulates that hydroxylation may involve concerted insertion into the C-H bond or the involvement of multiple oxidizing species. An alternative explanation is provided by computational studies that invoke a reaction manifold with a radical intermediate that exists in two different spin states.4 A further possible explanation is provided by the observation that ultrafast radical clocks generally involve primary radical rearrangements, whereas slower radical clocks generally involve secondary radical rearrangements. The recombination rates of primary and secondary radicals may be differentially susceptible to modulation by interactions with the active site and the iron-oxo species. However, there is little direct evidence that the radical complex exists in two different spin states, or that the radical recombination rates can be influenced by the active site environment. PMID:19189363

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Ethylenedithio-MPTTF-PTM Radical Dyad as a Potential Neutral Radical Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souto, Manuel; Bendixen, Dan; Jensen, Morten


    During the last years there has been a high interest in the development of new purely-organic single-component conductors. Very recently, we have reported a new neutral radical conductor based on the perchlorotriphenylmethyl (PTM) radical moiety linked to a monopyrrolo-tetrathiafulvalene (MPTTF...

  12. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs)-2. Are free hydroxyl radicals generated in aqueous solutions? (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lavrent; Dellinger, Barry


    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: (1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, (2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and (3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 μg/mL EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 μL phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Free radical scavenging by brain homogenate: implication to free radical damage and antioxidant defense in brain. (United States)

    Mori, A; Liu, J; Wang, X; Kawai, M


    To study the mechanisms of free radical-induced brain damage and the antioxidant defense in the brain, we quantified the superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging effects of brain homogenate using electron spin resonance spectrometry. Brain homogenate was found to scavenge both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in concentration-dependent fashion. Heat denaturation significantly decreased these scavenging effects. The ability of brain homogenate to scavenge free radicals implies that brain damage can be induced by free radicals since they are known to react virtually with any type of molecule such as nucleic acids, membrane lipids, and proteins in the brain. On the other hand, some molecules which can be regenerated or repaired after free radical scavenging are considered to be antioxidants which include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Measurement of the decrease in antioxidant activity following heat denaturation suggests that the contribution of enzymatic antioxidants is about 20-40% in scavenging superoxide radicals and about 10-20% in scavenging hydroxyl radicals.

  14. Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) - 2. Are Free Hydroxyl Radicals Generated in Aqueous Solutions? (United States)

    Khachatryan, Lavrent


    A chemical spin trap, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was employed to measure the production of hydroxyl radical (.OH) in aqueous suspensions of 5% Cu(II)O/silica (3.9% Cu) particles containing environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP). The results indicate: 1) a significant differences in accumulated DMPO-OH adducts between EPFR containing particles and non-EPFR control samples, 2) a strong correlation between the concentration of DMPO-OH adducts and EPFRs per gram of particles, and 3) a slow, constant growth of DMPO-OH concentration over a period of days in solution containing 50 μg/ml EPFRs particles + DMPO (150 mM) + reagent balanced by 200 μl phosphate buffered (pH = 7.4) saline. However, failure to form secondary radicals using standard scavengers, such as ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide, sodium formate, and sodium azide, suggests free hydroxyl radicals may not have been generated in solution. This suggests surface-bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals were generated by a surface catalyzed-redox cycle involving both the EPFRs and Cu(II)O. Toxicological studies clearly indicate these bound free radicals promote various types of cardiovascular and pulmonary disease normally attributed to unbound free radicals; however, the exact chemical mechanism deserves further study in light of the implication of formation of bound, rather than free, hydroxyl radicals. PMID:21942783

  15. How to counter radical narratives: Dutch deradicalization policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demant, F.; de Graaf, B.


    This article deals with the role of government in encouraging the decline of radical movements. The question posed is: "Which story can the government tell to encourage the decline of radical groups and the disengagement of their members?" The article makes use of the survey of factors promoting

  16. DFT and ENDOR Study of Bixin Radical Cations and Neutral Radicals on Silica-Alumina. (United States)

    Tay-Agbozo, Sefadzi S; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Bowman, Michael K; Street, Shane; Kispert, Lowell D


    Bixin, a carotenoid found in annatto (Bixa orellana), is unique among natural carotenoids by being water-soluble. We stabilized free radicals from bixin on the surface of silica-alumina (Si-Al) and characterized them by pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). DFT calculations of unpaired electron spin distribution for various bixin radicals predict the EPR hyperfine couplings. Least-square fitting of experimental ENDOR spectra by spectra calculated from DFT hyperfine couplings characterized the radicals trapped on Si-Al. DFT predicts that the trans bixin radical cation is more stable than the cis bixin radical cation by 1.26 kcal/mol. This small energy difference is consistent with the 26% trans and 23% cis radical cations in the ENDOR spectrum. The remainder of the ENDOR spectrum is due to several neutral radicals formed by loss of a H(+) ion from the 9, 9', 13, or 13' methyl group, a common occurrence in all water-insoluble carotenoids previously studied. Although carboxyl groups of bixin strongly affect its solubility relative to other natural carotenoids, they do not alter properties of its free radicals based on DFT calculations and EPR measurements which remain similar to typical water-insoluble carotenoids.

  17. Kinetics and mechanisms of cylindrospermopsin destruction by sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes. (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; O'Shea, Kevin E; Dionysiou, Dionysios D


    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a potent cyanobacterial toxin frequently found in water bodies worldwide raising concerns over the safety of drinking and recreational waters. A number of technologies have been investigated to remove and/or degrade cyanotoxins with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) being among the most promising and effective for water detoxification. In this study, the degradation of CYN by sulfate radical-based UV-254 nm-AOPs was evaluated. The UV/S2O8(2-) (UV/peroxydisulfate) was more efficient than UV/HSO5(-) (UV/peroxysulfate) and UV/H2O2 (UV/hydrogen peroxide) processes when natural water samples were used as reaction matrices. The observed UV fluence based pseudo-first-order rate constants followed the expected order of radical quantum yields. The presence of 200 μM natural organic matter (NOM) as carbon slightly inhibited the destruction of CYN; 1.24 mg L(-1)NO3(-) (nitrate) had no significant influence on the removal efficiency and 50 μg L(-1) Fe(2+) [iron (2+)] or Cu(2+) [copper (2+)] improved the performance of UV/S2O8(2-). The addition of tert-butyl alcohol (t-BuOH; hydroxyl radical scavenger) in the reaction yielded byproducts that indicated specific sites in CYN preferentially attacked by sulfate radicals (SRs). The predominant CYN degradation byproduct was P448 consistent with fragmentation of the C5C6 bond of the uracil ring. The subsequent formation of P420 and P392 through a stepwise loss of carbonyl group(s) further supported the fragmentation pathway at C5C6. The byproduct P432 was identified exclusively as mono-hydroxylation of CYN at tricyclic guanidine ring, whereas P414 was detected as dehydrogenation at the tricyclic ring. The elimination of sulfate group and the opening of tricyclic ring were also observed. The possible degradation pathways of CYN by SR-AOP were presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scavenging Effects of Dexrazoxane on Free Radicals (United States)

    Junjing, Zhang; Yan, Zhao; Baolu, Zhao


    Dexrazoxane (ICRF-187) has been clinically used to reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity for more than 20 years. It has been proposed that dexrazoxane may act through its rings-opened hydrolysis product ADR-925, which can either remove iron from the iron-doxorubicin complex or bind to free iron, thus preventing iron-based oxygen radical formation. However, it is not known whether the antioxidant actions of dexrazoxane are totally dependent on its metabolization to its rings-opened hydrolysis product and whether dexrazoxane has any effect on the iron-independent oxygen free radical production. In this study, we examined the scavenging effect of dexrazoxane on hydroxyl, superoxide, lipid, DPPH and ABTS+ free radicals in vitro solution systems. The results demonstrated that dexrazoxane was an antioxidant that could effectively scavenge these free radicals and the scavenging effects of dexrazoxane did not require the enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, dexrazoxane was capable to inhibit the generation superoxide and hydroxyl radicals in iron free reaction system, indicating that the antioxidant properties of dexrazoxane were not solely dependent on iron chelation. Thus the application of dexrazoxane should not be limited to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Instead, as an effective antioxidant that has been clinically proven safe, dexrazoxane may be used in a broader spectrum of diseases that are known to be benefited by antioxidant treatments. PMID:21103033

  19. Evolution of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. (United States)

    Orvieto, M A; Patel, V R


    Open radical prostatectomy (RRP) is the gold standard and most widespread treatment for clinically localized prostate cancer. However, in recent years robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RARP) is rapidly gaining acceptance among urologists worldwide. We sought to outline our surgical technique of robotic radical prostatectomy and provide practical recommendations based on available reports and personal experience. We also critically review the current experience on RARP worldwide and compare the available data with the gold standard open RRP series. A systematic review of the literature was performed for all published manuscripts between 1997 and 2008 using the keywords - 'robotic radical prostatectomy, 'robot-assisted radical prostatectomy', 'laparoscopic radical prostatectomy' and 'robotic' using the Medline database. A total of 226 original manuscripts on RARP were identified. Manuscripts were selected according to their relevance to the current topic (i.e. original articles, number of patients in the series, prospective data collection) and incorporated into this review. Eight years after the first RARP, multiple series are mature enough to demonstrate safety, efficiency and reproducibility of the procedure, as well as oncologic and functional outcomes comparable to its open counterpart. Further prospective, randomized studies comparing both surgical techniques are necessary in order to draw more definitive conclusions.

  20. Hydroxyl radical formation in human gastric juice. (United States)

    Nalini, S; Ramakrishna, B S; Mohanty, A; Balasubramanian, K A


    The hydroxyl radical is the most potent free radical derived from oxygen, and has been implicated in damage caused to the gastroduodenal mucosa. The ability of human gastric juice to generate hydroxyl radicals has been investigated in 54 adults with endoscopically normal gastroduodenal mucosa and in 39 patients with chronic duodenal ulcer. Hydroxyl radical production was measured by the formation of formaldehyde from dimethylsulfoxide. Unlike other body fluids, this reaction could proceed without the extraneous addition of catalysts such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbate and iron. Measurement of H2O2, iron and ascorbate showed that these catalysts are already present in the gastric juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of these components in gastric juice between normal subjects and patients with duodenal ulcer, except that H2O2 levels were slightly higher in duodenal ulcer patients. Although generation of free radicals has been investigated in other body fluids, this is the first reported case regarding the production of these active species in normal human gastric juice. Since hydroxyl production is not significantly enhanced in duodenal ulcer, we suggest that attention may be turned to mucosal antioxidant defences in this disease.

  1. Modeling Radicalization Phenomena in Heterogeneous Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Galam

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of radicalization is investigated within a mixed population composed of core and sensitive subpopulations. The latest includes first to third generation immigrants. Respective ways of life may be partially incompatible. In case of a conflict core agents behave as inflexible about the issue. In contrast, sensitive agents can decide either to live peacefully adjusting their way of life to the core one, or to oppose it with eventually joining violent activities. The interplay dynamics between peaceful and opponent sensitive agents is driven by pairwise interactions. These interactions occur both within the sensitive population and by mixing with core agents. The update process is monitored using a Lotka-Volterra-like Ordinary Differential Equation. Given an initial tiny minority of opponents that coexist with both inflexible and peaceful agents, we investigate implications on the emergence of radicalization. Opponents try to turn peaceful agents to opponents driving radicalization. However, inflexible core agents may step in to bring back opponents to a peaceful choice thus weakening the phenomenon. The required minimum individual core involvement to actually curb radicalization is calculated. It is found to be a function of both the majority or minority status of the sensitive subpopulation with respect to the core subpopulation and the degree of activeness of opponents. The results highlight the instrumental role core agents can have to hinder radicalization within the sensitive subpopulation. Some hints are outlined to favor novel public policies towards social integration.

  2. Self-initiation mechanism in spontaneous thermal polymerization of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate: a theoretical study. (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sriraj; Lee, Myung Won; Grady, Michael C; Soroush, Masoud; Rappe, Andrew M


    In this study, the mechanism of self-initiation in spontaneous thermal polymerization of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate is explored using first-principles calculations. Density functional theory (with B3LYP functional and 6-31G* basis set) was used to study [4 + 2] and [2 + 2] cycloaddition reactions on the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces. Diels-Alder (DA) dimers of ethyl acrylate [6-ethoxy-2-ethoxycarbonyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (EDP)] and of n-butyl acrylate [6-butoxy-2-butoxycarbonyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran (BDP)] were found to form on the singlet surface via the concerted pathway proposed by Mayo. The formation of diethyl cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DECD) and dibutyl cyclobutane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DBCD) via a nonconcerted pathway was identified on the singlet surface of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate, respectively. The presence of a diradical transition state for the formation of the DECD and DBCD was predicted. Triplet potential energy surfaces for the formation of diradical dimer of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate were computed, and the presence of a triplet diradical intermediate was identified for each of the monomers. A low energy monoradical generation mechanism was identified to be involving hydrogen abstraction by a third acrylate monomer from the triplet diradical species. The molecular structure of the computed monoradical species was found to correlate with chain initiating species of the dominant series of peaks in previously reported electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass spectra of spontaneously polymerized samples of ethyl and n-butyl acrylate. In view of these observations, it is concluded that this self-initiation mechanism is most likely the initiating mechanism in spontaneous thermal polymerization of alkyl acrylates.

  3. Simultaneous analysis of tert-butylhydroquinone, tert-butylquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol in edible oils by normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Li, Jun; Bi, Yanlan; Sun, Shangde; Peng, Dan


    A normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of tert-butylhydroquinone, tert-butylquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol in edible oils was investigated. A silica column was used to separate the analytes with the gradient elution. An ultraviolet-visible detector was set at dual wavelengths mode (280 and 310nm). The column temperature was 30°C. The analytes were directly extracted with methanol. Results showed that the normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method performed well with wide liner ranges (0.10∼500.00μg/mL, R2>0.9998), low limits of detection and quantitation (below 0.40 and 1.21μg/mL, respectively), and good recoveries (81.38∼102.34% in soybean oils and 83.03∼100.79% in lard, respectively). The reduction of tert-butylquinone caused by the reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography during the injection was avoided with the current normal-phase method. The two isomers of butylated hydroxyanisole can also be separated with good resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radical kinetics and characterization of the free radicals in gamma irradiated red pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, M. E-mail:; Polat, M


    Kinetic behaviors and characterization of the natural and {gamma}-induced radicals in irradiated red pepper have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to explore the possibility of using this technique in detecting irradiated red pepper and to evaluate the eventual dosimetric features of this widely used food. Unirradiated samples exhibited a single resonance line centered at g=2.0050{+-}0.0005. Photo-exposure of the samples was found to increase the signal intensity. An increase in temperature created a drastic decrease in the concentration of natural radicals responsible for the single resonance line. Irradiation was observed to induce increases in the intensity of single resonance line (signal I) and a radiation specific doublet and/or triplet (signal II) also centered at g=2.0050 but detectable only at high spectrometer gains. The intensities of both signals increased with increasing radiation dose. The signals I and II were found to decay with different rates depending on the temperature. The results of a fitting procedure applied to the experimental signal decay curves and those obtained from room temperature spectra simulation calculations were used together to determine radical species and their spectral characteristics giving rise to the observed experimental spectra. Four radical species, three carbohydrate and one semiquinone radical assigned as radicals A, B, C and D, respectively, were found to best explain the experimental results. All the radicals show large g and hyperfine splitting anisotropies varying between g=2.0028-2.0062 and 1.07-2.58 mT, respectively. The half lives of the radicals were found to depend strongly on temperature. The activation energy calculated using temperature dependent half-life data were the highest for radical A (33.68 kcal/mol) and smallest for radical C (11.83 kcal/mol)

  5. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R.M. [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Getoff, Nikola [Section Radiation Biology, Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, UZAII, Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:


    Trans-resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  6. Scavenging of superoxide anion radical by chaparral. (United States)

    Zang, L Y; Cosma, G; Gardner, H; Starks, K; Shi, X; Vallyathan, V


    Chaparral is considered to act as an antioxidant. However, the inhibitory effects of chaparral on specific radical species are not well understood. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with spin trapping techniques, we have found that chaparral scavenges superoxide anion radical (O2*-) in a dose-dependent manner. 5,5-dimethyl-lpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) was used as a spin trapping agent and the reaction of xanthine and xanthine oxidase as a source of O2*-. The kinetic parameters, IC50 and Vmax, for chaparral scavenging of O2*- were found to be 0.899 microg/mL and 8.4 ng/mL/sec, respectively. The rate constant for chaparral scavenging O2*- was found to be 1.22 x 10(6) g(-1) s(-1). Our studies suggest that the antioxidant properties of chaparral may involve a direct scavenging effect of the primary oxygen radical, O2*-.

  7. Formation and stabilization of persistent free radicals (United States)

    Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Khachatryan, Lavrent; Maskos, Zofia; Hall, Randall W.; Adounkpe, Julien; McFerrin, Cheri; Truong, Hieu


    We demonstrate that stable and relatively unreactive “environmentally persistent free radicals (PFRs)” can be readily formed in the post-flame and cool-zone regions of combustion systems and other thermal processes. These resonance-stabilized radicals, including semiquinones, phenoxyls, and cyclopentadienyls, can be formed by the thermal decomposition of molecular precursors including catechols, hydroquinones and phenols. Association with the surfaces of fine particles imparts additional stabilization to these radicals such that they can persist almost indefinitely in the environment. A mechanism of chemisorption and electron transfer from the molecular adsorbate to a redox-active transition metal or other receptor is shown through experiment, and supported by molecular orbital calculations, to result in PFR formation. Both oxygen-centered and carbon-centered PFRs are possible that can significantly affect their environmental and biological reactivity. PMID:25598747

  8. Customers as Partners in Radical Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh


      Purpose- The main purpose of this paper is to investigate customer involvement and related challenges in radical service innovations in engineering consulting services Design/methodology/approach - The paper uses a case study approach and so called rich descriptions to investigate customer...... involvement, roles and related challenges and conditions in radical service innovations.Findings- One main finding is that customers can engage in radical service innovations in engineering consultancy services and may play a decisive role. In doing this they most likely take on all the three user involvement...... roles defined in the literature of New Service and New Product Development. Also a number of conditions are found to be necessary in order for this collaboration to succeed. The conclusion is that another understanding and handling of the customer/supplier relation is needed along with a need...

  9. Resveratrol products resulting by free radical attack (United States)

    Bader, Yvonne; Quint, R. M.; Getoff, Nikola


    Trans-resveratrol ( trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES), which is contained in red wine and many plants, is one of the most relevant and extensively investigated stilbenes with a broad spectrum of biological activities. Among other duties, RES has been reported to have anti-carcinogenetic activities, which could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. The degradation of RES was studied under various conditions. The products (aldehydes, carboxylic acids, etc.) generated from RES by the attack of free radicals were registered as a function of the radical concentration (absorbed radiation dose). Based on the obtained data it appears that the OH radicals are initiating the rather complicated process, which involves of the numerous consecutive reactions. A possible starting reaction mechanism is presented.

  10. Exploring how lead users develop radical innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettl, Christopher; Gemuenden, Hans Georg; Hienerth, C.


    In this study, we explore how lead users develop radical innovations outside of manufacturing firms. We analyze the transition from a very early stage of activities to the ultimate commercialization of these innovations. The focus in this context is on the initiatives undertaken by lead users...... in order to transform their radically new solutions into functional prototypes and then to convince established manufacturers of the technological and market potential of their innovations. Using a comparative case study design in the high-tech field of medical equipment technology, we find that individual...... lead users as surgeons launch entrepreneurial activities and bridge periods in which established medical equipment manufacturers would not risk investing in radical innovations. By doing so, lead users create the conditions usually provided in manufacturer-initiated lead user projects, including...

  11. Nitrene Radical Intermediates in Catalytic Synthesis. (United States)

    Kuijpers, Petrus F; van der Vlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; de Bruin, Bas


    Nitrene radical complexes are reactive intermediates with discrete spin density at the nitrogen-atom of the nitrene moiety. These species have become important intermediates for organic synthesis, being invoked in a broad range of C-H functionalization and aziridination reactions. Nitrene radical complexes have intriguing electronic structures, and are best described as one-electron reduced Fischer type nitrenes. They can be generated by intramolecular single electron transfer to the "redox non-innocent" nitrene moiety at the metal. Nitrene radicals generated at open-shell cobalt(II) have thus far received most attention in terms of spectroscopic characterization, reactivity screening, catalytic nitrene-transfer reactions and (computational and experimental) mechanistic studies, but some interesting iron and precious metal catalysts have also been employed in related reactions involving nitrene radicals. In some cases, redox-active ligands are used to facilitate intramolecular single electron transfer from the complex to the nitrene moiety. Organic azides are among the most attractive nitrene precursors in this field, typically requiring pre-activated organic azides (e.g. RSO2 N3 , (RO)2 P(=O)N3 , ROC(=O)N3 and alike) to achieve efficient and selective catalysis. Challenging, non-activated aliphatic organic azides were recently added to the palette of reagents useful in synthetically relevant reactions proceeding via nitrene radical intermediates. This concept article describes the electronic structure of nitrene radical complexes, emphasizes on their usefulness in the catalytic synthesis of various organic products, and highlights the important developments in the field. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  12. Progress in Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization Spectroscopy of Transient Free Radicals (United States)

    Hudgens, Jeffrey W.

    The following sections are included: * IntroductioN * An Overview of Rehpi Spectroscopy * A Brief History * The Rempi Mechanism * Multiphoton Selection Rules * Characteristics of Rydberg States * Experimental Elements * Apparatus * Identification of Spectral Carriers * The Unique Role of Mass Spectrometry * REMPI Mass Spectra of Free Radicals Show Little Fragmentation * Determination of the Photon Order of the Resonant State * Summary of Transient Radicals Studied By Rempi Spectroscopy * Diatomic Radicals * CF Radical * CH Radical * REMPI Spectra of ClO and BrO Radicals * ClO * BrO * CCl Radical * NH (a1 Δ) Radical * PH (b 1Σ+) Radical * PO Radical * SiF Radical * Triatomic Radicals * CCO Radical * NH2 Radical * HCO Radical * SiF2 Radical * Methyl Radical * One Photon Resonance Enhanced Ionization * Three Photon REMPI of Methyl radicals * Two Photon Spectroscopy * The np ^{2}A^{primeprime}_{2}l←l← tildeX ^{2}A^{primeprime}_{2} Bands * The nf ^{2}E^{prime} l← l← tildeX ^{2}A^{primeprime}_{2} Bands * Substituted Methyl Radicals * CH2F Radical * CHCl2 Radical * CH2OH Radical * CF3 Radical * Other Polyatomic Radicals * Allyl and 2-Methvlallyl Radicals * Substituted Allyl Radicals * Benzyl Radical * Cyclohexanyl radicals * Ethyl Radical * Methoxy Radical * Acknowledgments * References

  13. Resonance ionization detection of combustion radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cool, T.A. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)


    Fundamental research on the combustion of halogenated organic compounds with emphasis on reaction pathways leading to the formation of chlorinated aromatic compounds and the development of continuous emission monitoring methods will assist in DOE efforts in the management and disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Selective laser ionization techniques are used in this laboratory for the measurement of concentration profiles of radical intermediates in the combustion of chlorinated hydrocarbon flames. A new ultrasensitive detection technique, made possible with the advent of tunable VUV laser sources, enables the selective near-threshold photoionization of all radical intermediates in premixed hydrocarbon and chlorinated hydrocarbon flames.

  14. Radical Islamism and Migrant Integration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goli, Marco; Rezaei, Shahamak


    It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate for – or c......It has been suggested that alienation and failed integration may be causes of “Homegrown Radical Islamism” in Western societies. Western countries often expect that migrants and their descendants residing there as citizens will embrace or support common democratic ideals as a predicate...

  15. Update on Robotic Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett S. Matsunaga


    Full Text Available The da Vinci surgical robot has been shown to help shorten the learning curve for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP for both laparoscopically skilled and na surgeons[1,2]. This approach has shown equal or superior outcomes to conventional laparoscopic prostatectomy with regard to ease of learning, initial complication rates, conversion to open, blood loss, complications, continence, potency, and margin rates. Although the data are immature to compare oncologic and functional outcomes to open prostatectomy, preliminary data are promising.Herein, we review the technique and outcomes of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP.

  16. Mechanisms of radical removal by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Lund; Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul


    It is well established from experiments in premixed, laminar flames, jet-stirred reactors, flow reactors, and batch reactors that SO2 acts to catalyze hydrogen atom removal at stoichiometric and reducing conditions. However, the commonly accepted mechanism for radical removal, SO2 + H(+M) reversi......It is well established from experiments in premixed, laminar flames, jet-stirred reactors, flow reactors, and batch reactors that SO2 acts to catalyze hydrogen atom removal at stoichiometric and reducing conditions. However, the commonly accepted mechanism for radical removal, SO2 + H...

  17. Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy: our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Meglič


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe second most common cancer in women up to 65 years of age is cervical cancer. Same cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological deseases worldwide.The standard procedure for cervical cancer treatment with FIGO stage including  IB2 is radical hysterectomy sec. Wertheim-Meigs-Novak with or without adnexa with radical pelvic lymphadenectomy and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. In the last two decades has with the development of laparoscopy also developed  laparoscopic radical hysterectomy .Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes dissection was performed for the first time by Nezhat with coworkers in 1989.Laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphnode dissection in treatement of cervical cancer including FIGO stage IB1 is performed at Dep Ob/Gyn UKC Ljubljana since 2013. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the morbidity and safety of the procedure. MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with cervical cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical histerectomy with pelvic and/or paraaortic lymphadenectomy from April 2013 to May 2016. Results34 patient were included, 32 patients with CC FIGO stage IB1, 1 patient with CC FIGO stage IB2, 1 patient with CC FIGO stage IIB.There were four (11,8% bladder lesions, all of them were corrected during the surgery, but no ureteral lesion! There was one (2,9% surgical revision right after the surgery due to assumption of bleeding (though there was no active bleeding found.Three patients (8,8% had permanent urinary dysfunction – retention. One patient (2,9% had dehiscence of vaginal vault after 4 months (after sexual intercourseThere was no ureterovaginal/vesicovaginl fistula after surgery! The mean operating time was 2 hours 55 min, mean admission time after surgery was 8,7 days, mean blood loss during operation was 291 ml. ConclusionsLaparoscopic radical hysterectomy is the method of choice in

  18. Sulfate radical degradation of acetaminophen by novel iron-copper bimetallic oxidation catalyzed by persulfate: Mechanism and degradation pathways (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanchun; Zhang, Qian; Hong, Junming


    A novel iron coupled copper oxidate (Fe2O3@Cu2O) catalyst was synthesized to activate persulfate (PS) for acetaminophen (APAP) degradation. The catalysts were characterized via field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The effects of the catalyst, PS concentration, catalyst dosage, initial pH, dissolved oxygen were analyzed for treatment optimization. Results indicated that Fe2O3@Cu2O achieved higher efficiency in APAP degradation than Fe2O3/PS and Cu2O/PS systems. The optimal removal efficiency of APAP (90%) was achieved within 40 min with 0.6 g/L PS and 0.3 g/L catalyst. To clarify the mechanism for APAP degradation, intermediates were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three possible degradation pathways were identified. During reaction, Cu(I) was found to react with Fe(III) to generate Fe(II), which is the most active phase for PS activation. Through the use of methanol and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) as radical trappers, SO4rad - was identified as the main radical species that is generated during oxidation.

  19. Radiosensitivities of parabens and characterization of the radical species induced in this class of antimicrobial agents after gamma irradiation (United States)

    Üstündaǧ, Ilknur; Korkmaz, Özden

    Radiosensitivities of methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl parabens and sodium salts of methyl and propyl parabens (hereafter, MP, EP, PP, BP, SMP and SPP, respectively) were investigated by monitoring, through electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, the evolution under different experimental conditions of characteristic features of the radicalic species produced upon irradiation by gamma radiation. While ESR spectra of the studied parabens consisted of the sum of broad and narrow resonance lines of different microwave saturation and thermal characteristics, those of sodium salts appeared to consist of the sum of two overlapping narrow resonance lines. Radical species presented different room and high-temperature decay characteristics, depending on the extent of the cage effect created by the lattice networks on these species. A model based on the presence of two radical species presenting different spectroscopic and kinetic features described best the experimental data collected for parabens and their sodium salts. Radiation yields of the studied parabens towards gamma radiation were calculated to be low (G≤10-2), providing the opportunity of using these antimicrobial agents in food, cosmetics and drugs to be sterilized by radiation without much loss from their antimicrobial activities.

  20. Competing with the radical right. Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffe, H.R.


    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs’ and other parties’ stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of

  1. Competing with the radical right: Distances between the European radical right and other parties on typical radical right issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, T.; Lubbers, M.; Coffé, H.


    The popularity of European Radical Right Populist parties (RRPs) has led to investigations into the distances between RRPs' and other parties' stances regarding immigration. This article adds to this literature by investigating the distance between RRPs and the other parties on a wider variety of

  2. (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline: two conformationally distinct proline amino acids for sensitive application in 19F NMR. (United States)

    Tressler, Caitlin M; Zondlo, Neal J


    (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline were synthesized (as Fmoc-, Boc-, and free amino acids) in 2-5 steps. The key step of each synthesis was a Mitsunobu reaction with perfluoro-tert-butanol, which incorporated a perfluoro-tert-butyl group, with nine chemically equivalent fluorines. Both amino acids were incorporated in model α-helical and polyproline helix peptides. Each amino acid exhibited distinct conformational preferences, with (2S,4R)-perfluoro-tert-butyl 4-hydroxyproline promoting polyproline helix. Peptides containing these amino acids were sensitively detected by (19)F NMR, suggesting their use in probes and medicinal chemistry.

  3. Glutathione--hydroxyl radical interaction: a theoretical study on radical recognition process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Fiser

    Full Text Available Non-reactive, comparative (2 × 1.2 μs molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to characterize the interactions between glutathione (GSH, host molecule and hydroxyl radical (OH(•, guest molecule. From this analysis, two distinct steps were identified in the recognition process of hydroxyl radical by glutathione: catching and steering, based on the interactions between the host-guest molecules. Over 78% of all interactions are related to the catching mechanism via complex formation between anionic carboxyl groups and the OH radical, hence both terminal residues of GSH serve as recognition sites. The glycine residue has an additional role in the recognition of OH radical, namely the steering. The flexibility of the Gly residue enables the formation of further interactions of other parts of glutathione (e.g. thiol, α- and β-carbons with the lone electron pair of the hydroxyl radical. Moreover, quantum chemical calculations were carried out on selected GSH/OH(• complexes and on appropriate GSH conformers to describe the energy profile of the recognition process. The relative enthalpy and the free energy changes of the radical recognition of the strongest complexes varied from -42.4 to -27.8 kJ/mol and from -21.3 to 9.8 kJ/mol, respectively. These complexes, containing two or more intermolecular interactions, would be the starting configurations for the hydrogen atom migration to quench the hydroxyl radical via different reaction channels.

  4. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase-driven free radical modifications: copper- and carbonate radical anion-initiated protein radical chemistry. (United States)

    Ramirez, Dario C; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Corbett, Jean T; Deterding, Leesa J; Tomer, Kenneth B; Mason, Ronald P


    The understanding of the mechanism, oxidant(s) involved and how and what protein radicals are produced during the reaction of wild-type SOD1 (Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase) with H2O2 and their fate is incomplete, but a better understanding of the role of this reaction is needed. We have used immuno-spin trapping and MS analysis to study the protein oxidations driven by human (h) and bovine (b) SOD1 when reacting with H2O2 using HSA (human serum albumin) and mBH (mouse brain homogenate) as target models. In order to gain mechanistic information about this reaction, we considered both copper- and CO3(*-) (carbonate radical anion)-initiated protein oxidation. We chose experimental conditions that clearly separated SOD1-driven oxidation via CO(*-) from that initiated by copper released from the SOD1 active site. In the absence of (bi)carbonate, site-specific radical-mediated fragmentation is produced by SOD1 active-site copper. In the presence of (bi)carbonate and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid) (to suppress copper chemistry), CO(*-) produced distinct radical sites in both SOD1 and HSA, which caused protein aggregation without causing protein fragmentation. The CO(*-) produced by the reaction of hSOD1 with H2O2 also produced distinctive DMPO (5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide) nitrone adduct-positive protein bands in the mBH. Finally, we propose a biochemical mechanism to explain CO(*-) production from CO2, enhanced protein radical formation and protection by (bi)carbonate against H2O2-induced fragmentation of the SOD1 active site. Our present study is important for establishing experimental conditions for studying the molecular mechanism and targets of oxidation during the reverse reaction of SOD1 with H2O2; these results are the first step in analysing the critical targets of SOD1-driven oxidation during pathological processes such as neuroinflammation.

  5. Three-dimensional porous metal-radical frameworks based on triphenylmethyl radicals. (United States)

    Datcu, Angela; Roques, Nans; Jubera, Véronique; Maspoch, Daniel; Fontrodona, Xavier; Wurst, Klaus; Imaz, Inhar; Mouchaham, Georges; Sutter, Jean-Pascal; Rovira, Concepció; Veciana, Jaume


    Lanthanide coordination polymers {[Ln(PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O]·x H(2)O, y EtOH} [Ln=Tb (1), Gd (2), and Eu (3)] and {[Ln(αH-PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O]·x H(2)O, y EtOH} [Ln=Tb (1'), Gd (2'), and Eu (3')] have been prepared by reacting Ln(III) ions with tricarboxylate-perchlorotriphenylmethyl/methane ligands that have a radical (PTMTC(3-)) or closed-shell (αH-PTMTC(3-)) character, respectively. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal 3D architectures that combine helical 1D channels and a fairly rare (6,3) connectivity described with the (4(2).8)·(4(4).6(2).8(5).10(4)) Schäfli symbol. Such 3D architectures make these polymers porous solids upon departure of the non-coordinated guest-solvent molecules as confirmed by the XRD structure of the guest-free [Tb(PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O] and [Tb(αH-PTMTC)(EtOH)(2)H(2)O] materials. Accessible voids represent 40% of the cell volume. Metal-centered luminescence was observed in Tb(III) and Eu(III) coordination polymers 1' and 3', although the Ln(III)-ion luminescence was quenched when radical ligands were involved. The magnetic properties of all these compounds were investigated, and the nature of the {Ln-radical} (in 1 and 2) and the {radical-radical} exchange interactions (in 3) were assessed by comparing the behaviors for the radical-based coordination polymers 1-3 with those of the compounds with the diamagnetic ligand set. Whilst antiferromagnetic {radical-radical} interactions were found in 3, ferromagnetic {Ln-radical} interactions propagated in the 3D architectures of 1 and 2. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Radical scavenging activity of crude polysaccharides from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Fan


    Full Text Available A preparation of crude polysaccharides (TPS was isolated from Camellia sinensis by precipitation and ultrafiltration. TPS1, TPS2, and TPS3 had molecular weights of 240, 21.4, and 2.46 kDa, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of TPS were evaluated by DPPH free radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide radical scavenging. These results revealed that TPS exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner. TPS3 with lowest molecular weight showed a higher radical scavenging activity.

  7. Quantification of Radicals Generated in a Sonicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Badmus


    Full Text Available The hydroxyl radical (OH• is a powerful oxidant produced as a consequence of cavitation in water. It can react nonspecifically in breaking down persistent organic pollutants in water into their mineral form. It can also recombine to form hydrogen peroxide which is very useful in water treatment. In this study, terephthalic acid (TA and potassium iodide dosimetry were used to quantify and investigate the behaviour of the generated OH radical in a laboratory scale sonicator. The 2-hydroxyl terephthalic acid (HTA formed during terephthalic acid dosimetry was determined by optical fibre spectrometer. The production rate of HTA served as a means of evaluating and characterizing the OH• generated over given time in a sonicator. The influence of sonicator power intensity, solution pH and irradiation time upon OH• generation were investigated. Approximately 2.2 ´ 10-9 M s-1 of OH radical was generated during the sonication process. The rate of generation of the OH radicals was established to be independent of the concentration of the initial reactant. Thus, the rate of generation of OH• can be predicted by zero order kinetics in a sonicator.

  8. Radical Feminism and the Subject of Writing. (United States)

    Rhodes, Jacqueline

    The radical feminists of the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as their online counterparts today, offer provocative examples of networked textuality, a discourse dependent on the constant and visible contextualization of self and writing within the discourses of hegemony. Given its potential use for liberatory writing pedagogies, it seems…

  9. Radical recombinations in acetylene-air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, P.J.Th.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    In this paper an analysis is given of the behaviour of excess radical concentrations, H, OH and O as a function of height above the reaction zone in premixed acetylene-air flames at 2–200° to 2400°K and 1 atmosphere pressure. The intensity was measured of the Li resonance line which is related to

  10. Neo-liberal Governing of 'Radicals'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindekilde, Lasse


    and intervention, and anti-discrimination. It aims to prevent radicalization by transforming, shaping, and disciplining illiberal and violence-prone “radicals” into active, liberal citizens. Prolonged fieldwork and in-depth interviews with seventeen Muslims from a targeted milieu reveal skepticism about...

  11. Short Communication Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT. Cassia arereh is traditionally used as a fish poison and to manage different disease conditions including gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders, infertility, diabetes, insect bite, and infections. Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of chronic diseases; and many medicinal plants are ...

  12. Improving postoperative radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lipman, D.; Pieters, B. R.; de Reijke, Theo M.


    Prostate cancer has one of the highest incidences in the world, with good curative treatment options like radiotherapy and radical prostatectomy. Unfortunately, about 30% of the patients initially treated with curative intent will develop a recurrence and need adjuvant treatment. Five randomized

  13. Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones, phenolics, alkaloids, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Qualitatively screening for free radical scavenging compounds using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) was carried ...

  14. Albert Einstein: Radical Pacifist and Democrat (United States)

    Jayaraman, T.

    We draw attention here to the radical political grounding of Einstein's pacifism. We also drescribe some less commonly known aspects of his commitment to civil liberties, particularly in the context of the anti-l hysteria and anti-racism current in the United States of the late 1940s and 1950s. We also examine briefly his views on socialism.

  15. Radical Scavenging, Antimicrobial and Insecticidal Efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lichens are self-supporting symbiotic association of mycobiont and photobiont. The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial, insecticidal and radical scavenging potential of methanol extract of two macrolichens viz. Parmotrema cristiferum (Taylor) Hale and Dirinaria applanata (Fée) D.D. Awasthi.

  16. Free radicals in adolescent varicocele testis. (United States)

    Romeo, Carmelo; Santoro, Giuseppe


    We examine the relationship between the structure and function of the testis and the oxidative and nitrosative stress, determined by an excessive production of free radicals and/or decreased availability of antioxidant defenses, which occur in the testis of adolescents affected by varicocele. Moreover, the effects of surgical treatment on oxidative stress were provided. We conducted a PubMed and Medline search between 1980 and 2014 using "adolescent," "varicocele," "free radicals," "oxidative and nitrosative stress," "testis," and "seminiferous tubules" as keywords. Cross-references were checked in each of the studies, and relevant articles were retrieved. We conclude that increased concentration of free radicals, generated by conditions of hypoxia, hyperthermia, and hormonal dysfunction observed in adolescent affected by varicocele, can harm germ cells directly or indirectly by influencing nonspermatogenic cells and basal lamina. With regard to few available data in current literature, further clinical trials on the pre- and postoperative ROS and RNS levels together with morphological studies of the cellular component of the testis are fundamental for complete comprehension of the role played by free radicals in the pathogenesis of adolescent varicocele and could justify its pharmacological treatment with antioxidants.

  17. Pregnancy after radical trachelectomy: a real option?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boss, E.A.; Golde, R.J.T. van; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.


    INTRODUCTION: Radical trachelectomy is a surgical procedure for early-stage cervical carcinoma with preservation of the childbearing capacity. The current article presents a review of studies describing the results and complications of pregnancies after this procedure. METHODS: Sixteen studies were


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DFT) were applied to calculate the adiabatic ionization potential (IP), bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) and other radical scavenging properties of antioxidant systems [5-11]. The ... scavenging processes of chain-breaking antioxidant (ArOH) [14, 15]. Both the mechanisms are significant for the scavenging activity of reactive ...

  19. Radical Scavenging Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the possible presence of anthraquinones, carbohydrates, deoxy-sugars, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids. It can be concluded that pods of C. arereh may contain medicinally relevant constituents such as terpenoids and displayed strong radical scavenging activity, ...

  20. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)


    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  1. short communication synthesis, characterization and radical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    tested for antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity. All the synthesized ... conditions of the large bowel leading to impairment of intestinal functions [1-3]. The unknown ..... chloroaniline, p-anisidine and naphthylamine) were conjugated as inert carriers to the active.

  2. Radical production inside an acoustically driven microbubble

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stricker, L.; Lohse, Detlef


    The chemical production of radicals inside acoustically driven bubbles is determined by the local temperature inside the bubbles and by their composition at collapse. By means of a previously validated ordinary differential equations (ODE) model [L. Stricker, A. Prosperetti, D. Lohse, Validation of

  3. Radical Negativity: Music Education for Social Justice (United States)

    McLaren, Peter


    According to Hedges (2010), the real enemies of the liberal class are radical thinkers such as Noam Chomsky and Ralph Nader, iconoclastic intellectuals who possess the moral autonomy to defy the power elite. While this author agrees with Hedges, he would take this argument even further. In this article, the author argues that the real enemy of…

  4. Long term complications after radical cystoprostatectomy with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many diversions are available after radical cystectomy; the most attractive for the patients is orthotopic diversion due to better quality of life associated with this ... in two patients (4.5%), uretero enteric anastomotic stricture in two patients (4.5%), recurrent UTI was recorded in 10 cases (23%), uremia and dialysis in 9.2% of ...

  5. Hydroxyl Radical Dosimetry for High Flux Hydroxyl Radical Protein Footprinting Applications Using a Simple Optical Detection Method (United States)

    Xie, Boer; Sharp, Joshua S.


    Hydroxyl radical protein footprinting (HRPF) by Fast Photochemical Oxidation of Proteins (FPOP) is a powerful benchtop tool used to probe protein structure, interactions, and conformational changes in solution. However, the reproducibility of all HRPF techniques is limited by the ability to deliver a defined concentration of hydroxyl radicals to the protein. This ability is impacted by both the amount of radical generated and the presence of radical scavengers in solution. In order to compare HRPF data from sample to sample, a hydroxyl radical dosimeter is needed that can measure the effective concentration of radical that is delivered to the protein, after accounting for both differences in hydroxyl radical generation and non-analyte radical consumption. Here, we test three radical dosimeters (Alexa Fluor 488, terepthalic acid, and adenine) for their ability to quantitatively measure the effective radical dose under the high radical concentration conditions of FPOP. Adenine has a quantitative relationship between UV spectrophotometric response, effective hydroxyl radical dose delivered, and peptide and protein oxidation levels over the range of radical concentrations typically encountered in FPOP. The simplicity of an adenine-based dosimeter allows for convenient and flexible incorporation into FPOP applications, and the ability to accurately measure the delivered radical dose will enable reproducible and reliable FPOP across a variety of platforms and applications. PMID:26455423

  6. Pertinent issues related to laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abreu Sidney C.


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We describe the critical steps of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP technique and discuss how they impact upon the pertinent issues regarding prostate cancer surgery: blood loss, potency and continence. RESULTS: A major advantage of LRP is the reduced operative blood loss. The precise placement of the dorsal vein complex stitch associated with the tamponading effect of the CO2 pneumoperitoneum significantly decrease venous bleeding, which is the main source of blood loss during radical prostatectomy. At the Cleveland Clinic, the average blood loss of our first 100 patients was 322.5 ml, resulting in low transfusion rates. The continuous venous bleeding narrowed pelvic surgical field and poor visibility can adversely impact on nerve preservation during open radical prostatectomy. Laparoscopy, with its enhanced and magnified vision in a relatively bloodless field allows for excellent identification and handling of the neurovascular bundles. During open retropubic radical prostatectomy, the pubic bone may impair visibility and access to the urethral stump, and the surgeon must tie the knots relying on tactile sensation alone. Consequently, open prostatectomy is associated with a prolonged catheterization period of 2 - 3 weeks. Comparatively, during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy all sutures are meticulously placed and each is tied under complete visual control, resulting in a precise mucosa-to-mucosa approximation. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach may represent a reliable less invasive alternative to the conventional open approach. Despite the encouraging preliminary anatomical and functional outcomes, prospective randomized comparative trials are required to critically evaluate the role of laparoscopy for this sophisticated and delicate operation.

  7. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration (X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  8. Temperature Coefficients of Electrical Conductivity and Conduction Mechanisms in Butyl Rubber-Carbon Black Composites (United States)

    Alzamil, M. A.; Alfaramawi, K.; Abboudy, S.; Abulnasr, L.


    Electrical properties of butyl rubber filled with General Purpose Furnace (GPF) carbon black were studied. The carbon black concentration ( X) in the compound was X = 40, 60, 70, 80, and 100 parts by weight per hundred parts by weight of rubber (phr). The corresponding volume fractions of GPF carbon black were 0.447 ± 0.022, 0.548 ± 0.027, 0.586 ± 0.029, 0.618 ± 0.031 and 0.669 ± 0.034, respectively. The concentration dependence of conductivity ( σ ) at constant temperature showed that σ follows a percolation theory; σ ∝ ( {X - Xo } )^{γ } , where X o is the concentration at percolation threshold. The exponent γ was found as 6.6 (at room temperature 30°C). This value agrees with other experimental values obtained by many authors for different rubber-carbon black systems. Electron tunneling between the aggregates, which are dispersed in the insulator rubber, was mainly the conduction process proposed at constant temperature in the butyl-GPF carbon black composites. Temperature dependence of conductivity was investigated in the temperature range from 30°C up to 120°C. All samples exhibit negative temperature coefficients of conductivity (NTCC). The values obtained are - 0.130°C-1, - 0.019°C-1, - 0.0082°C-1, - 0.0094°C-1, and - 0.072°C-1 for carbon black concentrations of 40 phr, 60 phr, 70 phr, 80 phr, and 100 phr, respectively. The samples of concentrations 40 phr and 60 phr have also positive temperature coefficients of conductivity (PTCC) of values + 0.031 and + 0.013, respectively. Electrical conduction at different temperatures showed various mechanisms depending on the carbon black concentration and/or the interval of temperature. The hopping conduction mechanism was noticed at the lower temperature region while carrier thermal activation mechanisms were recorded at the higher temperature range.

  9. Radical cations of quadricyclane and norbornadiene in polar ZSM-5 matrices: Radical cation photochemical transformations without photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnabas, M.V.; Trifunac, A.D.


    Radical cations of quadricyclane (Q) and norbornadiene (NBD) are produced by {gamma}-radiolysis in zeolites. In polar ZSM-5, only one radical cation is initially observed below 100K. Increasing the temperature above 200K gives rise to the cyclopentadiene radical cation. Higher temperatures (>360K) give rise to the cyclopenten-4-yl radical. The observation of cyclopentadiene radical cation implies the occurrence of the reverse Diels-Alder reaction. This is a thermally forbidden, photochemically allowed, process, which is made possible by the interaction of the polar zeolite matrix sites with parent NBD and Q radical cations.

  10. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate. (United States)

    Domańska, Urszula; Marciniak, Andrzej


    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gamma 13 (infinity) for 32 solutes: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofurane, tert-butyl methyl ether, and water in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate [BMIM][CF3SO3] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at the temperatures from 298.15 to 368.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values Delta H 1 (E,infinity) were calculated from the experimental gamma 13 (infinity) values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for the hexane/benzene, cyclohexane/benzene, n-hexane/thiophene, n-decane/thiophene, cyclohexane/thiophene, toluene/thiophene, and oct-1-ene/thiophene separation problems were calculated from the gamma 13 (infinity). Obtained values were compared to the literature values for the other ionic liquids, NMP, and sulfolane.

  11. Kinetics of Methyl t-Butyl Ether Cometabolism at Low Concentrations by Pure Cultures of Butane-Degrading Bacteria (United States)

    Liu, Catherine Y.; Speitel, Gerald E.; Georgiou, George


    Butane-oxidizing Arthrobacter (ATCC 27778) bacteria were shown to degrade low concentrations of methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE; range, 100 to 800 μg/liter) with an apparent half-saturation concentration (Ks) of 2.14 mg/liter and a maximum substrate utilization rate (kc) of 0.43 mg/mg of total suspended solids per day. Arthrobacter bacteria demonstrated MTBE degradation activity when grown on butane but not when grown on glucose, butanol, or tryptose phosphate broth. The presence of butane, tert-butyl alcohol, or acetylene had a negative impact on the MTBE degradation rate. Neither Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b nor Streptomyces griseus was able to cometabolize MTBE. PMID:11319100

  12. Evaluation of the radical scavenging activity of a series of synthetic hydroxychalcones towards the DPPH radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sixteen hydroxychalcones were synthesized in sufficient purity by the Claisen–Schmidt condensation between appropriate acetophenones and aromatic aldehydes. All the compounds were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the stable free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. Important structure–activity relationships were observed that strongly contribute to the knowledge for the design of DPPH radical scavenging chalcones. Relevant theoretical parameters were computed in an attempt to understand and explain the obtained experimental results.

  13. Induction of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)-Oxidizing Activity in Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 by MTBE


    Johnson, Erika L.; Smith, Christy A.; O'Reilly, Kirk T.; Hyman, Michael R.


    Alkane-grown cells of Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 cometabolically degrade the gasoline oxygenate methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) through the activities of an alkane-inducible monooxygenase and other enzymes in the alkane oxidation pathway. In this study we examined the effects of MTBE on the MTBE-oxidizing activity of M. vaccae JOB5 grown on diverse nonalkane substrates. Carbon-limited cultures were grown on glycerol, lactate, several sugars, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, both ...

  14. Surfactant and counter-ion distribution in styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid dry latex submonolayers


    Keslarek Amauri José; Leite Carlos Alberto P; Galembeck Fernando


    Styrene-butyl acrylate-acrylic acid latex submonolayers prepared using a non-reactive phosphate surfactant together with a reactive sulfonate surfactant were examined in a transmission microscope using electron energy loss spectroscopy imaging (ESI-TEM). Phosphorus is nearly absent from the particles core but it is detected in a thick shell and in unusual, strongly scattering structures with a low carbon content, and largely made out of inorganic phosphate. P is also dispersed outside the par...

  15. When does the fluazifop-P-butyl degradate, TFMP, leach through an agricultural loamy soil to groundwater?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Norgaard, Trine; Olsen, Preben


    In intensely cultivated regions, it is crucial to have knowledge of the leaching potential related to pesticides in agricultural production. This is especially true in countries, like Denmark, that base its drinking water supply on untreated groundwater. Since fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is applied...... value for drinking water applies to them, having its leaching potential regulatory assessed based on high quality estimations of their persistence, and be exposed to an assessment of the risk to consumers of drinking contaminated groundwater....

  16. Nitroxyl radicals remarkably enhanced the superoxide anion radical-induced chemiluminescence of Cypridina luciferin analogues. (United States)

    Takeshita, Keizo; Okazaki, Shoko; Itoda, Akiko


    Measuring the superoxide anion radical (superoxide) with high sensitivity is necessary to clarify the mechanisms of diseases for the development of methods for their prophylaxes, diagnoses, and therapies. The chemiluminescence technique using Cypridina luciferin analogues such as MCLA and CLA is currently the most sensitive method available. Using large concentrations of these reagents, however, leads to increases in background levels due to spontaneous luminescence of the reagent, which is a limitation of this method. This study demonstrated that the superoxide-induced chemiluminescence of MCLA or CLA was markedly enhanced by adding a cyclic nitroxyl radical to the reaction medium. When MCLA was measured spectrophotometrically, the nitroxyl radical was shown to increase the reaction rate of superoxide and MCLA without altering their stoichiometry, whereas consumption of the nitroxyl radical was negligible, as determined by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. These observations indicate that the nitroxyl radical catalytically enhanced the reaction between superoxide and MCLA, resulting in an enhancement in superoxide-dependent MCLA chemiluminescence. This method is applicable to biological systems such as superoxide-generation by neutrophils. The inclusion of the cyclic nitroxyl radical in a sample solution contributed to reductions in the concentration of the chemiluminescence reagent, thereby decreasing background levels. The catalytic mechanism was also discussed.

  17. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of solubilized C60 and its conjugates with butylated hydroxytoluene


    Nunes, A. S.; Matias, A.; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Graça, Anabela; Simplício, Ana Luísa


    It has been described that fullerenes (C60) present interesting properties with potential application in clinical conditions related to oxidative stress. One of the most prominent features of fullerenes is the ability to quench free radicals. However, because of its poor solubility, this has been studied mostly in organic solutions, while the antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of fullerenes and their derivates in aqueous medium is not well characterized. The antioxidant capacity of s...

  18. Bithiophene radical cation: Resonance Raman spectroscopy and molecular orbital calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grage, M.M.-L.; Keszthelyi, T.; Offersgaard, J.F.


    The resonance Raman spectrum of the photogenerated radical cation of bithiophene is reported. The bithiophene radical cation was produced via a photoinduced electron transfer reaction between excited bithiophene and the electron acceptor fumaronitrile in a room temperature acetonitrile solution a...

  19. Market Feedback and Team Commitment in Radical Product Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Berchicci (Luca); C.L. Tucci (Christopher)


    textabstractPrevious research has considered how exploratory market learning processes moderate market and technological uncertainty in radical product development. Scholars argue that new product development (NPD) teams may increase the chances of success of radically new projects by acquiring,

  20. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing (United States)

    De Poorter, Gerald L.; Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K.


    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  1. Kinetics of the Reactions of NO3Radical with Methacrylate Esters. (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Ravishankara, A R; Brown, Steven S; Idir, Mahmoud; Zarzana, Kyle J; Daële, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid


    Two different experimental methods (relative rate and absolute rate methods) were used to measure the rate coefficients for the reactions of NO 3 radical with six methacrylate esters: methyl methacrylate (MMA, k 1 ), ethyl methacrylate (EMA, k 2 ), propyl methacrylate (PMA, k 3 ), isopropyl methacrylate (IPMA, k 4 ), butyl methacrylate (BMA, k 5 ), and isobutyl methacrylate (IBMA, k 6 ). In the relative rate method, the loss of the esters relative to that of a reference compound was followed in a 7300 L Teflon-walled chamber at 298 ± 2 K and 1000 ± 5 hpa. In the absolute method, the temporal profiles of NO 3 and N 2 O 5 were followed by using a dual channel cavity ring-down spectrometer in the presence of an excess of ester in the 7300 L chamber. The rate coefficients from these two methods (weighted averages) in the units of 10 -15 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 298 K are k 1 = 2.98 ± 0.35, k 2 = 4.67 ± 0.49, k 3 = 5.23 ± 0.60, k 4 = 7.9 1 ± 1.0 0 , k 5 = 5.91 ± 0.58, and k 6 = 6.24 ± 0.66. The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ level and include estimated systematic errors. Unweighted averages are also reported. In addition, the rate coefficient k 7 for the reaction of NO 3 radical with deuterated methyl methacrylate (MMA-d 8 ) was measured by using the relative rate method to be essentially the same as k 1 . The trends in the measured rate coefficient with the length and nature of the alkyl group, along with the equivalence of k 1 and k 7 , strongly suggest that the reaction of NO 3 with the methacrylate esters proceeds via addition to the double bond on the methacrylate group. The present results are compared with those from previous studies. Using the measured values of the rate coefficients, along with those for reactions of these esters with OH, O 3 , and chlorine atoms, we calculated the atmospheric lifetimes of methacrylate esters. We suggest that NO 3 radicals do contribute to the atmospheric loss of these unsaturated esters, but to a lesser extent

  2. Adsorption of methyl tert-butyl ether using granular activated carbon : equilibrium and kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.Z.; Chen, J.M. [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Biological and Environmental Engineering; Zhang, J.X. [Yuhuan County Environmental Protection Bureau, Yuhuan (China)


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is used in gasoline as a replacement for lead in order to promote combustion efficiency. However, MTBE is one of the most frequently detected underground water pollutants caused by leaks in underground fuel storage tanks, and has been classified as a potential human carcinogen. This study investigated that adsorption of MTBE through a granular activated carbon filter. Pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order equation and intraparticle diffusion equation kinetic models were used to predict the constant rate of adsorption. The study showed that the pseudo-second order model accurately described the adsorption kinetics for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution onto granular activated carbon. The Lagergren first-order rate constant k{sub 1} and the pseudo-second order rate constant k{sub 2} decreased with initial increases of MTBE. A Boyd plot was used to demonstrate that external mass transfer is the principal rate-limiting step during the initial stages of adsorption. Results of the study indicated that granular activated carbon is an effective adsorbent for MTBE. 34 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. Impetigo herpetiformis occurring during N-butyl-scopolammonium bromide therapy in pregnancy: case report. (United States)

    Guerriero, C; Lanza Silveri, S; Sisto, T; Rosati, D; De Simone, C; Fossati, B; Pomini, F; Rotoli, M; Amerio, P; Capizzi, R


    Impetigo herpetiformis (IH) is a rare dermatosis arising during the third trimester of pregnancy which is generally considered as a form of pustular psoriasis of unknown aetiology. Clinically it is characterized by erythematous plaques surrounded by sterile pustules associated with fever, diarrhea, sweating and increasing risk of stillbirth for placental insufficiency. We describe a case of developed erythematous plaques surrounded by pustules localised initially to the trunk of a 35-year-old woman at the 34th week of gestation after 5 days of treatment with N-Butyl-Scopolammonium, and which later involved the upper and lower limbs. Skin histology confirmed the diagnosis of generalised pregnancy pustular psoriasis (impetigo herpetiformis). IH is reported to be associated with hypocalcemia, hypoparathyroidism, use of oral contraceptives and bacterial infections. This is the first report suggesting the potential role of drugs other than oral contraceptives in the pathogenetic mechanism of this disease. In this case an adverse cutaneous reaction to BB could be the cause of the development of Koebner isomorphism.

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picel, Andrew C., E-mail: [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States); Koo, Sonya J. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Roberts, Anne C. [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology (United States)


    PurposeThe purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).Materials and methodsA retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %).ResultsEmbolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization.ConclusionsTAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  5. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for the Treatment of Acquired Uterine Vascular Malformations. (United States)

    Picel, Andrew C; Koo, Sonya J; Roberts, Anne C


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the technique and outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of acquired uterine arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). A retrospective review identified five women treated for suspected acquired uterine AVMs with TAE at our institution. Four women (80 %) presented with heavy or intermittent vaginal bleeding after obstetric manipulation. One woman (20 %) was treated for an incidental AVM discovered on ultrasound after an uncomplicated cesarean section. Three women underwent one embolization procedure and two women required two procedures. Embolization material included NBCA in six procedures (80 %) and gelatin sponge in one procedure (20 %). Embolization resulted in angiographic stasis of flow in all seven procedures. Four women (80 %) presented with vaginal bleeding which was improved after treatment. One woman returned 24 days after unilateral embolization with recurrent bleeding, which resolved after retreatment. One woman underwent two treatments for an asymptomatic lesion identified on ultrasound. There were no major complications. Three women (60 %) experienced mild postembolization pelvic pain that was controlled with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Three women (60 %) had pregnancies and deliveries after embolization. TAE is a safe alternative to surgical therapy for acquired uterine AVMs with the potential to maintain fertility. Experience from this case series suggests that NBCA provides predictable and effective occlusion.

  6. Antioxidant effect of mango seed extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in bologna-type mortadella during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira


    Full Text Available The effects of mango seed extract (MSE and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT on pH, lipid oxidation, and color of Bologna-type mortadella during refrigerated storage for 21 days were studied. Bologna-type mortadella samples were formulated to contain 0.1% MSE, 0.2% MSE, or 0.01% BHT. After 14 days of storage, the products containing MSE 0.1 or 0.2% had higher pH values than those containing BHT 0.01%. Lipid oxidation values increased with storage time but were not affected by the type of antioxidant. The highest values for color parameter L* were observed for mortadella containing BHT 0.01% after 7, 14, and 21 days of storage. Values for the color parameters a* and b* tended to decrease during mortadella storage. Products containing 0.1 or 0.2% MSE showed higher values for color parameter a* and lower values for color parameter b* compared to those containing 0.01% BHT. It can be concluded that MSE can be used in 0.1 or 0.2% levels in Bologna-type mortadella with similar or better antioxidant effects than those of BHT 0.01%.

  7. Mediating electrostatic binding of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride to enzyme surfaces improves conformational stability. (United States)

    Nordwald, Erik M; Kaar, Joel L


    We have recently developed a general approach to improve the utility of enzymes in ionic liquids (ILs) via tuning of the ratio of enzyme-containing positive to negative surface charges. In this work, the impact of enzyme surface charge ratio on the biophysical interaction of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]) with chymotrypsin and lipase was investigated to understand this approach at the molecular level. Results of fluorescence quenching assays indicated that the extent of binding of the [BMIM] cation decreased (7- and 3.5-fold for chymotrypsin and lipase, respectively) as a function of increasing ratio of positive to negative surface charges. Conformational stability assays further showed a close correlation between thermodynamic stabilization and enzyme surface charge ratio as well as [BMIM] binding. As evidence of this correlation, succinylation and acetylation resulted in the stabilization of chymotrypsin in 10% (v/v) [BMIM][Cl] by 17.0 and 6.6 kJ/mol, respectively, while cationization destabilized chymotrypsin by 3.6 kJ/mol. Combined, these results indicate that altering the surface charge ratio mediates the organization of IL molecules, namely, [BMIM] and [Cl], around the enzymes. Preferential exclusion of [Cl], in particular, via lowering of the ratio of positive to negative surface charges, correlated with increased enzyme stability. Accordingly, these results more broadly provide insight into the mechanism of stabilization in ILs via charge modification.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar


    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  9. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on dog sperm longevity in chilling storage and cryopreservation. (United States)

    Sahashi, Yu; Otsuki, Tsubasa; Higaki, Shogo; Nagano, Masashi; Yamashita, Yasuhisa; Hishinuma, Mitsugu


    This study evaluated the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble antioxidant, on dog sperm in chilling storage and cryopreservation. In Experiment 1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mM BHT were added to egg yolk Tris extender (EYT), and sperm were stored at 4°C for 96 hr. Sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity and morphological abnormality in the BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control (0 mM BHT). In Experiment 2, the effect of BHT in EYT containing 0.75% Equex STM paste and 5% glycerol on survivability of cryopreserved sperm was examined after culture at 39°C for 3 hr. Sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity in the 0.2 to 0.8 mM BHT treatment groups were not different from those of the control. However, sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity decreased when 1.6 mM BHT was added to the extender (Pchilling storage and cryopreservation. Supplementation of 1.6 mM BHT did not affect characteristics of chilled sperm but impaired longevity of cryopreserved sperm in the dog.

  10. Exposure to methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in rat. (United States)

    Saeedi, Arastoo; Omidi, Mahmoud; Khoshnoud, Mohammad Javad; Mohammadi-Bardbori, Afshin


    1. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly used as an octane booster and oxygenate additive to gasoline. The assumed toxic effects of MTBE on human health are a matter of great debate. Exposure to MTBE has been shown to induce oxidative damage and no mechanistic explanation is available so far. Our goals were to determine whether MTBE is a mitochondrial toxicant, if so, what mechanism(s) is involved. 2. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were received MTBE in drinking water for 3 months. At the end of treatments, animals were killed, liver and blood samples were collected for biochemical and histopathological studies, and oxidative stress biomarkers. The rat liver mitochondria were isolated and several mitochondrial indices were measured. 3. We found that zinc plasma levels were remarkably declined with MTBE and N, N, N', N'-Tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN; a zinc chelator) exposure. MTBE induced oxidative damage and caused mitochondrial dysfunctions in rats. Supplementation with zinc was able to protect against MTBE-induced cellular and sub-cellular toxicity. 4. Our results demonstrated that long-term exposure to MTBE is associated with zinc deficiency, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial energy failure in rat.

  11. Toxicity and biofilm-based selection for methyl tert-butyl ether bioremediation technology. (United States)

    Guisado, I M; Purswani, J; Catón-Alcubierre, L; González-López, J; Pozo, C


    Extractive membrane biofilm reactor (EMBFR) technology offers productive solutions for volatile and semi-volatile compound removal from water bodies. In this study, the bacterial strains Paenibacillus etheri SH7(T) (CECT 8558), Agrobacterium sp. MS2 (CECT 8557) and Rhodococcus ruber strains A5 (CECT 8556), EE6 (CECT 8612) and EE1 (CECT 8555), previously isolated from fuel-contaminated sites, were tested for adherence on tubular semipermeable membranes in laboratory-scale systems designed for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) bioremediation. Biofilm formation on the membrane surface was evaluated through observation by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) as well as the acute toxicity (as EC50) of the bacterial growth media. Moreover, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production for each strain under different MTBE concentrations was measured. Strains A5 and MS2 were biofilm producers and their adherence increased when the MTBE flowed through the inner tubular semipermeable membrane. No biofilm was formed by Paenibacillus etheri SH7(T), nevertheless, the latter and strain MS2 exhibited the lowest toxicity after growth on the EMBFR. The results obtained from FESEM and toxicity analysis demonstrate that bacterial strains R. ruber EE6, A5, P. etheri SH7(T) and Agrobacterium sp. MS2 could be excellent candidates to be used as selective inocula in EMBFR technology for MTBE bioremediation.

  12. Mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of poly(lactic acid)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer nanocomposites (United States)

    Wacharawichanant, S.; Hoysang, P.; Ratchawong, S.


    This paper reports a melt blend of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/ethylene-butyl acrylate copolymer (EBAC) with organoclay content at 3 phr. The mechanical, thermal and morphological properties of PLA/EBAC blends and nanocomposites were investigated. The morphological analysis revealed EBAC phase dispersed as a spherical domain in PLA matrix and the domain size of EBAC dispersed phase increased with increasing EBAC content. The addition of organoclay could improve the miscibility of PLA/EBAC blends due to the decrease of domain size of EBAC dispersed phase. The mechanical properties indicated that the strain at break and impact strength of PLA increased when added EBAC, but Young’s modulus and tensile strength decreased. Storage modulus increased with the addition of organoclay to the PLA/EBAC blends. The thermal properties found that the incorporation of organoclay in the PLA/EBAC blends did not effect on the glass transition temperature and melting temperature values relative to PLA. The degradation temperature of PLA improved with the addition of EBAC. This indicated that EBAC has more thermal stability and degradation temperature than PLA. From X-ray diffraction patterns displayed the characteristic peak in PLA/EBAC/organoclay nanocomposites appeared at the lower angle, which indicated the dispersed clay is intercalated in the polymer matrix. However, second-order diffraction peak appeared at the higher angle indicated that there was partially the conventional composite.

  13. [Effects of O-(4-ethoxyl-butyl)-berbamine on isolated frog hearts]. (United States)

    Zheng, G H; Chen, Z L; Jiang, J H


    To study the effects of O-(4-ethoxyl-butyl)-berbamine (EBB) on isolated frog heart. The isolated frog hearts were prepared with Straub's method; heart contractions were recorded using LMS-2A recorder by tonotransducer. EBB 1-100 mumol.L-1 caused concentration-dependent increase in systolic and diastolic activities, but did not alter the heart rate. EBB 250-500 mumol.L-1 slowed the heart beats and caused ventricular asystole. Cimetidine 10 mumol.L-1 or prazosin 100 mumol.L-1 did not inhibit the positive inotropic action of EBB. Whereas verapamil 0.01 mumol.L-1 antagonized the positive inotropic action of EBB. EBB enhanced positive inotropic action of CaCl2. The action of EBB was slower but longer than caffeine or isoproterenol. At room temperature (21.0 +/- 0.5) degree C, however, the onset of oubain was slower, but the duration of its peak action was longer, than EBB. The positive inotropic action of EBB was, at least partially, via promoting the inward current of [Ca2+]o, rather than increasing the intracellular Ca2+ release.

  14. Selective arterial embolization of 36 aneurysmal bone cysts of the skeleton with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Giuseppe [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Interventional Angiographic Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio; Vanel, Daniel [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Bartalena, Tommaso [University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Gerardi, Antonio [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Anatomical Human Science and Physiopathology of the Musculoskeletal System, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, Marco [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Department of Pathological Anatomy, Bologna (Italy); Staals, Eric Lodwijk; Errani, Costantino; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Toscano, Angelo; Mercuri, Mario [Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, V Division of Musculoskeletal Tumors, Bologna (Italy)


    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a lytic benign bone lesion representing about 1% of all primary bone tumors. The lesion causes pain and swelling, which are generally present for less than 3 months. From April 2003 to April 2008 36 patients affected by aneurysmal bone cysts were treated by selective arterial embolization with N-2-butyl cyanoacrylate. The study population comprised 20 male and 16 female patients with an age range of 3.3-60.8 years. Nine lesions were localized in the appendicular skeleton (1 in the upper and 8 in the lower limb), 4 in the thoracic cage (1 rib lesion and 3 scapular lesions), 17 in the pelvis and 6 in the spine (1 thoracic and 5 sacral localizations). A total of 55 embolizations were performed: in 22 cases (61%) only one embolization was needed, whilst two embolizations were necessary in 9 cases (25%) and 3 in the remaining 5 patients (14%). The treatment was effective in 32 patients (94%): follow-up was 0.9-5 years. In one patient, previously surgically treated, only the cyanoacrylate embolization turned out to be useful for healing the lesion. Another 7 patients underwent surgery during the study period. In the 55 procedures we performed we had 3 complications (5%): 2 cases of skin necrosis and 1 of transient paresis. Arterial embolization with cyanoacrylate may be the treatment of choice for aneurysmal bone cysts. Embolization is a less invasive, lower cost, simpler procedure than surgery and is easily repeatable. (orig.)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hamidova


    Full Text Available Abstract Pressure-density-temperature (p, ρ ,T data of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide [BMIM][NTF2] at T = (273.15 to 413.15 K and pressures up to p =140 MPa are reported with an estimated experimental relative combined standard uncertainty of Δ ρ / ρ = ±(0.01 to 0.08% in density. The measurements were carried out with a newly constructed Anton-Paar DMA HPM vibration-tube densimeter. The system was calibrated using double-distilled water, aqueous NaCl solution, methanol, toluene and acetone. An empirical equation of state for fitting the (p, ρ ,T data of [BMIM][NTF2] has been developed as a function of pressure and temperature. This equation is used for the calculation of the thermophysical properties of the ionic liquid, such as isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansibility, thermal pressure coefficient, internal pressure, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, speed of sound and isentropic expansibility.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid pathways from cisterns to ventricles in N-butyl cyanoacrylate-induced hydrocephalic rats. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hyuk; Park, Yong-Sook; Suk, Jong-Sik; Park, Seung-Won; Hwang, Sung-Nam; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Kim, Young-Baeg; Lee, Won-Bok


    Cerebrospinal fluid typically enters the subarachnoid space from the ventricles via the fourth ventricular foramina. However, there is clinical evidence that CSF also flows in the opposite direction. Ventricular reflux of CSF from a cistern is a well-known phenomenon in radioisotope studies in patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Additionally, the presence of ventricular blood in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently observed. The goal of this investigation was to examine the potential CSF pathways from cisterns to ventricles. The authors examined pathways in rat models in which they occluded the fourth ventricular outlets and injected a tracer into the subarachnoid space. The model for acute obstructive hydrocephalus was induced using N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) in 10 Sprague-Dawley rats. After 3 days, cationized ferritin was infused into the lumbar subarachnoid space to highlight retrograde CSF flow pathways. The animals were sacrificed at 48 hours, and the brains were prepared. The CSF flow pathway was traced by staining the ferritin with ferrocyanide. Ferritin was observed in the third ventricle in 7 of 8 rats with hydrocephalus and in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricles in 4 of 8 rats with hydrocephalus. There was no definite staining in the aqueduct, which suggests that the ventricular reflux originated from routes other than through the fourth ventricular outlets. The interfaces between the quadrigeminal cistern and third ventricle and those between the ambient cistern and lateral ventricle appear to be potential sites of CSF reflux from cisterns to ventricles in obstructive hydrocephalus.

  17. Toxicity of methyl tertiary butyl ether to Daphnia magna and photobacterium phosphoreum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, G.; Lin, Y.J. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States)


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a liquid organic compound added to gasoline to increase its oxygen content and to reduce the emission of carbon monoxide during combustion in many urban areas. In order to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments, gasoline must contain 2.7% oxygen (by weight) or 15% (by volume) of MTBE in gasoline to meet the regulations for the control of carbon monoxide emissions. Health effects caused by inhalation of MTBE include headaches, dizziness, irritated eyes and nausea; MTBE is one of cancer--causing chemicals. Intracaval injection of MTBE (0.2 mg/kg) caused the highest mortality (100%) in rats. General anesthetic effect induced by MTBE was found at or above 1200 mg/kg body weight; Rosenkranz and Klopman (1991) predicted that MTBE is neither a genotoxicant nor a carcinogen. Nevertheless, the safety of using MTBE in oxygenated fuels is now being questioned from its potential as groundwater pollutant. This study measures the toxicity of MTBE to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum. 13 refs.

  18. Acute toxicity and cancer risk assessment values for tert-butyl acetate. (United States)

    Budroe, John D; Brown, Joseph P; Salmon, Andrew G; Salsmon, Andrew G; Marty, Melanie A


    tert-Butyl acetate (TBAc) is an industrial chemical with potential uses as a degreaser and in architectural coatings. Limited chronic toxicity data exist for TBAc. However, acute inhalation exposure data are available for TBAc. Additionally, TBAc has been demonstrated to be substantially metabolized to tert-butanol (TBA) in rats, and a positive TBA genotoxicity study suggests that TBA may cause oxidative DNA damage. TBA has been shown to induce tumors in both rats and mice, and the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has calculated an oral cancer potency factor (CSF) for TBA of 3 x 10(-3)(mg/kg-day)(-1). Therefore, TBAc should be considered to pose a potential cancer risk to humans because of the metabolic conversion to TBA. An acute 1-h reference exposure level of 1 mg/m3 can be calculated from the extrapolated no observed adverse effect level of 50 mg/m3. A CSF of 0.002(mg/kg-day)(-1) can be derived for TBAc, assuming 100% metabolism of TBAc to TBA. An inhalation unit risk value for TBAc of 4 x 10(-7)(microg/m(3))(-1) can then be derived from the CSF value for TBAc by assuming a human breathing rate of 20 m3/day, 70% fractional absorption, and an average human body weight of 70 kg.

  19. Electrochemical Studies on Uranyl Chloride Complexes in 1-Butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Based Ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhisa Ikeda; Katsuyuki Hiroe; Nobutaka Ohta; Masanobu Nogami; Atsushi Shirai [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Noriko Asanuma [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Tokai University 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)


    Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-nH{sub 2}O or Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} into 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BMICl). Their UV-visible absorption spectra showed that uranyl species in BMICl exist as [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}. Cyclic voltammograms were measured using a glassy carbon working electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a liquid junction filled with BMIBF{sub 4} at 80 {+-} 1 deg. C in glove box under an Ar atmosphere. Peaks of one redox couple were observed at around -0.73 V and -0.65 V on both systems. Potential differences between two peaks ({delta}E{sub p}) at scan rates in the range of 10 to 50 mV/s are 70 - 80 mV, which are almost consistent with theoretical {delta}E{sub p} value (67 mV) for the reversible one electron transfer reaction at 80 deg. C. From these results, it is concluded that [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-} in BMICl is reduced quasi-reversibly to [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. (authors)

  20. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.


    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  1. Di (n-butyl) phthalate inhibits testosterone synthesis through a glucocorticoid-mediated pathway in rats. (United States)

    Xiao-feng, Zhang; Nai-qiang, Qu; Jing, Zheng; Zi, Li; Yang, Zhang


    The present study focused on investigating whether the inhibitory effect of di (n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) on testosterone (T) biosynthesis was mediated by the glucocorticoid (GC) pathway in prepubertal male rats and T production after the exposure to DBP ceased. Prepubertal male rats were administered DBP in corn oil orally at 0, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg daily for 30 days. Serum T and GC were measured by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The responses, including glucocorticoid receptor (GR), type I 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD1), and steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the testes tissues, were determined by Western blotting and reverse transcriptase PCR. DBP exposure resulted in testicular toxicity, such as seminiferous tubule degeneration and a decrease in the number of spermatogenic cells. T was decreased and GC was increased in a DBP concentration-dependent manner in the exposure group. The expression of GR and 11beta-HSD1 was significantly increased, with an associated decrease in expression of StAR. Neither the expression of the GR nor 11beta-HSD1 and StAR were statistically significantly different in the postexposure group compared with the control. However, the weight and morphology of the testes did not recover in the postexposure group. These data suggest that DBP inhibits testosterone production through a GC-mediated pathway in prepubertal male rats, and after exposure to DBP ceases, testosterone biosynthesis returns.

  2. (RSS)-[N-Hydroxyethyloxy]-hexafluoroVal-MeLeu-Ala tert-butyl ester. (United States)

    Eberle, Marcel K; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen; Keese, Reinhart


    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (2S,5S,8R)-tert-butyl 8-(1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-yl)-12-hydroxy-5-isobutyl-2,6-dimethyl-4,7-dioxo-10-oxa-3,6,9-triazadodecanoate], C(21)H(36)F(6)N(3)O(6), is a tripeptide crystallizing in the chiral ortho-rhom-bic spacegroup P2(1)2(1)2(1). The absolute configuration (R) of the chiral center in the hexa-fluoro-valine unit is based on the known stereochemistry of MeLeu and Ala (SS). The N-hydroxy-ethyl-oxy substituent of hexa-fluoro-valine is positionally disordered [occupancy ratio 0.543 (9):0.457 (9)]. In the solid state structure there are N-H⋯F and N-H⋯O intra-molecular hydrogen bonds supporting the coiled structure of this tripeptide with the three hydro-phobic substituents on the outside.

  3. (GaIn)(NAs) growth using di-tertiary-butyl-arsano-amine (DTBAA) (United States)

    Sterzer, E.; Ringler, B.; Nattermann, L.; Beyer, A.; von Hänisch, C.; Stolz, W.; Volz, K.


    III/V semiconductors containing small amounts of Nitrogen (N) are very interesting for a variety of optoelectronic applications. Unfortunately, the conventionally used N precursor 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (UDMHy) has an extremely low N incorporation efficiency in GaAs when grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Alloying Ga(NAs) with Indium (In) even leads to an exponential reduction of N incorporation. The huge amount of UDMHy in turn changes drastically the growth conditions. Furthermore, the application of this material is still hampered by the large carbon incorporation, most probably originating from the metal organic precursors. Hence, novel precursors for dilute nitride growth are needed. This paper will show (GaIn)(NAs) growth studies with the novel precursor di-tertiary-butyl-arsano-amine in combination with tri-ethyl-gallium and tri-methyl-indium. We show an extremely high N incorporation efficiency in the In containing (GaIn)(NAs). The (GaIn)(NAs) samples investigated in this study have been examined using high resolution X-Ray diffraction, room temperature photoluminescence and atomic force microscope measurements as well as secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jung, Ah Young; Lee, Whal; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Between March 1999 and December 2002, TAE for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding was performed in 93 patients. The endoscopic approach had failed or was discarded as an approach for control of bleeding in all study patients. Among the 93 patients NBCA was used as the primary embolic material for TAE in 32 patients (28 men, four women; mean age, 59.1 years). The indications for choosing NBCA as the embolic material were: inability to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and effective wedging of the microcatheter into the bleeding artery. TAE was performed using 1:1 1:3 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil. The angiographic and clinical success rate, recurrent bleeding rate, procedure related complications and clinical outcomes were evaluated. The angiographic and clinical success rates were 100% and 91% (29/32), respectively. There were no serious ischemic complications. Recurrent bleeding occurred in three patients (9%) and they were managed with emergency surgery (n = 1) and with a successful second TAE (n = 2). Eighteen patients (56%) had a coagulopathy at the time of TAE and the clinical success rate in this group of patients was 83% (15/18). TAE with NBCA is a highly effective and safe treatment modality for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, especially when it is not possible to advance the microcatheter to the bleeding site and when the patient has a coagulopathy.

  5. A study of butyl acetate synthesis 3. Analysing adsorption on catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño


    Full Text Available Reactive system (acetic acid-n-butanol-butyl acetate-water, in liquid phase, 0.76 Bar pressure adsorption on a cationic exchange resin (Bayer Lewatit K-2431 was studied in this work. Solid particle size distribution was verified and low dispersion was noticed with 86% of total mass between 20 and 30 mesh. The dried solid showed a bi- nodal distribution with 40% above 25 mesh and 45% between 25 and 45 mesh. Resin swelling assays were carried out on pure components and non-reactive binary mixtures and increased matrix volume was observed (2.2 to 3 times higher. Selective adsorption on the reactive system was observed in the sequence: water > n-butanol acid> acetate. Both ideal and non-ideal models were tested for calculating adsorption using a composite isotherm, demonstrating these models’ weakness in representing adsorption on ionic polymer matrices. Calorimetric characterisation assays were carried out on swelled catalyst and a change in solid structure caused by thermal treatment was recognised using infrared scanning.

  6. Artificial Neural Network Approach to Predict Biodiesel Production in Supercritical tert-Butyl Methyl Ether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obie Farobie


    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time artificial neural network was used to predict biodiesel yield in supercritical tert-butyl methyl ether (MTBE. The experimental data of biodiesel yield conducted by varying four input factors (i.e. temperature, pressure, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio, and reaction time were used to elucidate artificial neural network model in order to predict biodiesel yield. The main goal of this study was to assess how accurately this artificial neural network model to predict biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition. The result shows that artificial neural network is a powerful tool for modeling and predicting biodiesel yield conducted under supercritical MTBE condition that was proven by a high value of coefficient of determination (R of 0.9969, 0.9899, and 0.9658 for training, validation, and testing, respectively. Using this approach, the highest biodiesel yield was determined of 0.93 mol/mol (corresponding to the actual biodiesel yield of 0.94 mol/mol that was achieved at 400 °C, under the reactor pressure of 10 MPa, oil-to-MTBE molar ratio of 1:40 within 15 min of reaction time.

  7. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.


    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  8. Bioremediation of endocrine disruptor di-n-butyl phthalate ester by Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Sen; Chen, Lung-Chieh; Chen, Bing-Sheng; Lin, Sin-Hsien


    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is a group of phthalate esters (PAEs) that are widely used in cosmetics, perfumes, and plasticizers. Due to its high production and application figures, DBP is commonly found in wastewater, sewage sludge, and aquatic environments. It has been classified as suspected endocrine disruptors by most countries. In this study, we isolated two DBP degradable strains from activated sludge. The strains were identified with their 16S rRNA as Deinococcus radiodurans and Pseudomonas stutzeri. We constructed the optimal condition of DBP degradation by using different kinds of incubation factors such as temperature, initial pH, yeast extract and surfactants. The optimal conditions of DBP degradation for these two strains are: 30 degrees C, pH 7.5 and static culture. Besides, addition of 0.23 mM of Triton X-100 could enhance the DBP degradation for D. radiodurans. In the end, we amended these two strains into the origin activated sludge and analyzed the whole microbial community structure of mixed cultures by PCR-DGGE technique. The result showed that only D. radiodurans could survive in the activated sludge after 7d of incubation. Based on this work, we hope that these findings could provide some useful information for applying the bioremediation of DBP in our environment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Electrochemistry of TiF{sub 4} in 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriyko, Yuriy, E-mail: yuriy.andriyko@cest.a [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Andriiko, Alexander [National Technical University of Ukraine ' Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' , Prospect Peremogy 37, 03057 Kyiv (Ukraine); Babushkina, Olga B. [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Nauer, Gerhard E. [Centre of Electrochemical Surface Technology (CEST), Viktor Kaplan-Strasse 2, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Vienna University, Faculty of Chemistry, Waehringer Strasse 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria)


    Electrochemical behaviour of Ti(IV) species in the ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMMImBF{sub 4}) was studied by means of chronopotentiometry (CP) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) in melts with different concentrations of TiF{sub 4} (2-35 mol%) within a temperature range of 65-180 deg. C. The electrochemical reduction of Ti(IV) was suggested to proceed via the sequence of one-electron steps with the formation of poorly soluble low valence intermediates (LVI). LVIs undergo further solid-state electrochemical reduction to Ti metal. Thin Ti coatings on a Pt substrate were thus obtained and characterized by ESEM method. FTIR spectroscopy was used for identification of the electrochemical active species of Ti(IV). The reaction 2BF{sub 4}{sup -} + TiF{sub 4} reversible TiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} + 2BF{sub 3}arrow up takes place in the concentrated solutions of TiF{sub 4} at elevated temperatures.

  10. Adsorption of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether on Granular Zeolites: Batch and Column Studies (United States)

    Abu-Lail, Laila; Bergendahl, John A.; Thompson, Robert W.


    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be readily removed from water with powdered zeolites, but the passage of water through fixed beds of very small powdered zeolites produces high friction losses not encountered in flow through larger sized granular materials. In this study, equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of MTBE onto granular zeolites, a coconut shell granular activated carbon (CS-1240), and a commercial carbon adsorbent (CCA) sample was evaluated. In addition, the effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on MTBE adsorption was evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments determined that ZSM-5 was the most effective granular zeolite for MTBE adsorption. Further equilibrium and kinetic experiments verified that granular ZSM-5 is superior to CS-1240 and CCA in removing MTBE from water. No competitive-adsorption effects between NOM and MTBE were observed for adsorption to granular ZSM-5 or CS-1240, however there was competition between NOM and MTBE for adsorption onto the CCA granules. Fixed-bed adsorption experiments for longer run times were performed using granular ZSM-5. The bed depth service time model (BDST) was used to analyze the breakthrough data. PMID:20153106

  11. Cometabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether by a new microbial consortium ERS. (United States)

    Li, Shanshan; Li, Danni; Yan, Wei


    The release of methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) into the environment has increased the worldwide concern about the pollution of MTBE. In this paper, a microbial consortium was isolated from the soil sample near an oil station, which can degrade MTBE directly with a low biomass yield and MTBE degrading efficiency. Further research has indicated that this consortium can degrade MTBE efficiently when grown on n-octane as the cometabolic substrate. The results of 16S rDNA based on phylogenetic analysis of the selected operating taxonomic units (OTUs) involved in the consortium revealed that one OTU was related to Pseudomonas putida GPo1, which could cometabolically degrade MTBE on the growth of n-octane. This may help explain why n-octane could be the optimal cometabolic substrate of the consortium for MTBE degradation. Furthermore, the degradation of MTBE was observed along with the consumption of n-octane. Different K s values for MTBE were observed for cells grown with or without n-octane, suggesting that different enzymes are responsible for the oxidation of MTBE in cells grown on n-octane or MTBE. The results are discussed in terms of their impacts on our understanding of MTBE biodegradation and cometabolism.

  12. Studying the Kinetics of n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Tissue Adhesive and Its Oily Mixtures (United States)

    Nedvedova, Marie; Kresalek, Vojtech; Vaskova, Hana; Provaznik, Ivo


    This study deals with the measurement of the kinetics of tissue adhesives used for supporting the hemostasis and wound closure during surgical intervention. There are available several types of adhesives of different composition which is closely related with their application. When selecting an appropriate adhesive, the time of curing could play an important role because some applications may require very fast polymerization for prompt vessel or wound closure; conversely, some situations need slower solidification because of longer manipulation with the glue during surgery. The terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is used for studying the kinetics of the n-butyl-cyanoacrylate glue in this study. An oily substance is added to the glue samples to slow the reaction rate. The technique of attenuated total reflection is used in this application; the defined amount of glue sample or its mixture is applied on the silicon crystal and the terahertz response is measured in time. This time dependences are analyzed to find time constants for mathematical description of the glue kinetics. Further, the investigated samples were analyzed using light microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for description of the structures and compositions.

  13. Study of the PVA hydrogel behaviour in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ionic liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The present paper aims at studying the behaviour of the poly(vinyl alcohol [PVA] cryogel in the presence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([BMIM]+[BF4]– aqueous solutions with various concentrations. The gravimetric method showed that the swollen PVA cryogels exhibit mechanically active behaviour. PVA cryogels showed shrinking in the presence of ionic liquid, (IL, and re-swelling in the presence of distilled water. The re-swelling is not completely reversible, due to the influence of the IL ions on the gel morphology. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra have indicated no chemical interaction between the PVA and the studied IL, but highlighted the gel crystallinity change as a function of IL concentration, as well as changes in the bound water amount. Rheological analyses showed dominating plastifying effect of the cation at a lower IL concentration and dominating kosmotropic effect of the anion at a higher IL concentration. A phenomenological kinetic equation that takes into account both fluxes of matters, in and out of the gel, is proposed, explaining the alteration of the gel properties when it comes in contact with BMIMBF4 solutions.

  14. Esterification for butyl butyrate formation using Candida cylindracea lipase produced from palm oil mill effluent supplemented medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Salihu


    Full Text Available The ability of Candida cylindracea lipase produced using palm oil mill effluent (POME as a basal medium to catalyze the esterification reaction for butyl butyrate formation was investigated. Butyric acid and n-butanol were used as substrates at different molar ratios. Different conversion yields were observed according to the affinity of the produced lipase toward the substrates. The n-butanol to butyric acid molar ratio of 8 and lipase concentration of 75 U/mg gave the highest butyl butyrate formation of 63.33% based on the statistical optimization using face centered central composite design (FCCCD after 12 h reaction. The esterification potential of the POME based lipase when compared with the commercial lipase from the same strain using the optimum levels was found to show a similar pattern. It can be concluded therefore that the produced lipase possesses appropriate characteristics to be used as a biocatalyst in the esterification reactions for butyl butyrate formation.

  15. Structure and properties of oil palm-based nanocellulose reinforced chitosan nanocomposite for efficient synthesis of butyl butyrate. (United States)

    Elias, Nursyafiqah; Chandren, Sheela; Attan, Nursyafreena; Mahat, Naji Arafat; Razak, Fazira Ilyana Abdul; Jamalis, Joazaizulfazli; Wahab, Roswanira Abdul


    In this study, nanocellulose (NC) was successfully extracted from oil palm frond leaves (OPFL) using a combination of bleaching, alkaline treatment and acid hydrolysis. X-ray diffractogram revealed the extracted NC was crystalline with a crystallinity index of 70.2%. This indicates its suitability as nano-fillers for preparing the chitosan/nanocellulose (CS-NC) supports to immobilize Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) to produce the CRL/CS-NC biocatalysts. FTIR, FESEM and TGA characterizations of the CRL/CS-NC confirm the CRLs were successfully conjugated to the CS-NC supports. The air-dried CS-NC supports gave satisfactory immobilization of the CRLs (5.2mg/g) with the resultant CRL/CS-NCs catalysed conversions of ≥80% of butyl butyrate within 6h. Time course reaction profile revealed that 76.3% butyl butyrate conversion was achieved at 4h immobilization time using 3mg/mL of CRL/CS-NCs. NMR analyses on the purified butyl butyrate confirmed that the ester was successfully synthesized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Free Radical Scavenging Properties of Annona squamosa (United States)

    Vikas, Biba; Akhil B, S; P, Remani; Sujathan, K


    Annona squamosa has extensively been used in the traditional and folkloric medicine and found to possess many biological activities. Different solvents, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa seeds (ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME) have been used to prepare plant extracts. The present investigations dealt with the free radical scavenging activity of four extracts using various techniques such as total reducing power estimation, total phenolic count, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, evaluation of ABTS cation decolorisation capacity, FRAP assay, hdroxyl radical scavenging assay, super oxide assay and Nitric oxide radical scavenging assay of the extracts. The results showed that the four extracts of Annona squamosa showed significant reducing power in four extracts. The total phenolic contents in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol extracts and positive control were 0.64±0.17, 0.54±0.27, 0.49±0.24, 0.57±0.22 and 0.66±0.33. The antioxidant capacity by ABTS assay of ASPE, ASCH, ASEA, ASME and positive control, trolox showed 77.75±0.5,73.25±1.7,78.5± 1.2 , 80 ± 0.8 μg/ml and 94.2 ± 0.9 respectively. The (50 % scavenging activity) SA50 of ASPE and ASCH, ASEA and ASME was found to be 34.4 μg/ml, 43.8 μg/ml 34.7 μg/m and 28.8 μg/ml respectively by DPPH assay. The percentage of hydroxyl radical scavenging increased with the increasing concentration of the extracts. ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME showed superoxide radical scavenging activity, as indicated by their values 66 ± 0.5, 68 ± 1 ,63 ± 1 and 70 ± 0.5 μg/ml respectively compared to gallic acid which was 97 ± 0.5 μg/ml. The values for scavenging of nitric oxide for ASPE, ASCH, ASEA and ASME were 91.0 ± 1.0, 66.75 ± 0.5, 71.75 ± 1.1 and 75.75 ± 1.15 μg/ml while value for standard ascorbic acid was 91.0 ± 1.0 μg/ml. The results revealed strong antioxidants in four extracts may lead to the development of potent

  17. Electron Transfer from Azide Radical to Histidine Generates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The formation of histidinyl radical (HR), which is a product of electron transfer reaction between histidine and some free radicals, was studied by pulse radiolysis. The reaction between histidine and azide radicals was found to produce HR, which has a distinct absorption spectrum with peaks at 300, 480 and 520 nm.

  18. Formation and behaviour of coal free radicals in relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant changes in radical concentration and in the chemical nature of the coals are observed as pyrolysis temperature is increased. The implications of free radicals in coal liquefaction are examined. A gradual reduction in the number of free radicals over the temperature range (370 – 4200C) was observed in the liquid ...

  19. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, R T; Fu, S; Stocker, R


    Radical-mediated damage to proteins may be initiated by electron leakage, metal-ion-dependent reactions and autoxidation of lipids and sugars. The consequent protein oxidation is O2-dependent, and involves several propagating radicals, notably alkoxyl radicals. Its products include several catego...

  20. Hybrid radical energy storage device and method of making (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Ginley, David S; Braunecker, Wade; Ban, Chunmei; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw


    Hybrid radical energy storage devices, such as batteries or electrochemical devices, and methods of use and making are disclosed. Also described herein are electrodes and electrolytes useful in energy storage devices, for example, radical polymer cathode materials and electrolytes for use in organic radical batteries.