WorldWideScience

Sample records for butterfly wing scales

  1. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales : biological photonic crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron mic

  2. The Effect of Wing Scales on Monarch Butterfly Flight Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela; Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2010-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns in length) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales, which make up approximately 3% of the body weight or less, could play a part in controlling separation and vortex formation in this unsteady, three-dimensional complex flow field. A better understanding of this mechanism may lead to bio-inspired applications for flapping wing micro-air vehicles. In this study, the flight performance of Monarch (Danaus plexippus) butterflies with and without scales was analyzed. Scales were removed from the upper and lower wing surfaces and specimens were videotaped at 600 frames per second. Variation in flapping patterns and flight fitness were observed.

  3. Wing coloration and pigment gradients in scales of pierid butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giraldo, Marco A.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2008-01-01

    Depending on the species, the individual scales of butterfly wings have a longitudinal gradient in structure and reflectance properties, as shown by scanning electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry. White scales of the male Small White, Pieris rapae crucivora, show a strong gradient in both t

  4. Gyroid cuticular structures in butterfly wing scales: biological photonic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a systematic study of the cuticular structure in the butterfly wing scales of some papilionids (Parides sesostris and Teinopalpus imperialis) and lycaenids (Callophrys rubi, Cyanophrys remus, Mitoura gryneus and Callophrys dumetorum). Using published scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, analytical modelling and computer-generated TEM micrographs, we find that the three-dimensional cuticular structures can be modelled by gyroid structures with various filling ...

  5. Structural colors from Morpho peleides butterfly wing scales

    KAUST Repository

    Ding, Yong

    2009-01-01

    A male Morpho peleides butterfly wing is decorated by two types of scales, cover and ground scales. We have studied the optical properties of each type of scales in conjunction with the structural information provided by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and computer simulation. The shining blue color is mainly from the Bragg reflection of the one-dimensional photonic structure, e.g., the shelf structure packed regularly in each ridges on cover scales. A thin-film-like interference effect from the base plate of the cover scale enhances such blue color and further gives extra reflection peaks in the infrared and ultraviolet regions. The analogy in the spectra acquired from the original wing and that from the cover scales suggests that the cover scales take a dominant role in its structural color. This study provides insight of using the biotemplates for fabricating smart photonic structures. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  6. The Microstructures of Butterfly Wing Scales in Northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-yan Wu; Zhi-wu Han; Zhao-mei Qiu; Hui-ying Guan; Lu-quan Ren

    2007-01-01

    There are billions of tiny scales on the butterfly wings,which array regularly as the tiles on the roof.Such tilts can form various colors of the wing and afford the species many abilities to survive and propagate.Morphological experiments on the wing scales of six buttertly species living in northeast of China were conducted.By the optics microscope,the form,geometry dimension and array of the scales were observed generally.By using scanning electron microscope(SEM),the 2D scanning and measurement were carried out and the surface micro configurations of scales were observed.The dimension and microstructure characteristics of the cross section of single scale were achieved through transmission electron microscope(TEM).Finally,by using 3D software,three 3D models were described and the 3D visual effect was achieved.This work can put forward a basic method for the future study on the morphology of biological microstructure.

  7. Combined pigmentary and structural effects tune wing scale coloration to color vision in the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Matsushita, Atsuko; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    Butterflies have well-developed color vision, presumably optimally tuned to the detection of conspecifics by their wing coloration. Here we investigated the pigmentary and structural basis of the wing colors in the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, applying spectrophotometry, scatterometry, light and electron microscopy, and optical modeling. The about flat lower lamina of the wing scales plays a crucial role in wing coloration. In the cream, orange and black scales, the ...

  8. Imaging scatterometry and microspectrophotometry of lycaenid butterfly wing scales with perforated multilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Leertouwer, Hein L.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the structural as well as spatial and spectral reflectance characteristics of the wing scales of lycaenid butterfly species, where the scale bodies consist of perforated multilayers. The extent of the spatial scattering profiles was measured with a newly built scatterometer. The width of

  9. Fine structures of wing scales in Sasakia charonda butterflies as photonic crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková, Jiřina; Shiojiri, S.; Shiojiri, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2 (2009), s. 88-93. ISSN 0022-2720 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Butterfly * field-emission scanning electron microscopy * photonic crystal * Sasakia charonda * wing scale Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.612, year: 2009

  10. X-ray Tomography and Chemical Imaging within Butterfly Wing Scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rainbow like color of butterfly wings is associated with the internal and surface structures of the wing scales. While the photonic structure of the scales is believed to diffract specific lights at different angle, there is no adequate probe directly answering the 3-D structures with sufficient spatial resolution. The NSRRC nano-transmission x-ray microscope (nTXM) with tens nanometers spatial resolution is able to image biological specimens without artifacts usually introduced in sophisticated sample staining processes. With the intrinsic deep penetration of x-rays, the nTXM is capable of nondestructively investigating the internal structures of fragile and soft samples. In this study, we imaged the structure of butterfly wing scales in 3-D view with 60 nm spatial resolution. In addition, synchrotron-radiation-based Fourier transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy was employed to analyze the chemical components with spatial information of the butterfly wing scales. Based on the infrared spectral images, we suggest that the major components of scale structure were rich in protein and polysaccharide

  11. An Ingenious Super Light Trapping Surface Templated from Butterfly Wing Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-08-01

    Based on the super light trapping property of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wings, the SiO2 replica of this bionic functional surface was successfully synthesized using a simple and highly effective synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Firstly, the reflectivity of butterfly wing scales was carefully examined. It was found that the whole reflectance spectroscopy of the butterfly wings showed a lower level (less than 10 %) in the visible spectrum. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly wings possessed a super light trapping effect. Afterwards, the morphologies and detailed architectures of the butterfly wing scales were carefully investigated using the ultra-depth three-dimensional (3D) microscope and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM). It was composed by the parallel ridges and quasi-honeycomb-like structure between them. Based on the biological properties and function above, an exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated through a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. At last, the comparative analysis of morphology feature size and the reflectance spectroscopy between the SiO2 negative replica and the flat plate was conducted. It could be concluded that the SiO2 negative replica inherited not only the original super light trapping architectures, but also the super light trapping characteristics of bio-template. This work may open up an avenue for the design and fabrication of super light trapping materials and encourage people to look for more super light trapping architectures in nature.

  12. An Ingenious Super Light Trapping Surface Templated from Butterfly Wing Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-12-01

    Based on the super light trapping property of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wings, the SiO2 replica of this bionic functional surface was successfully synthesized using a simple and highly effective synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Firstly, the reflectivity of butterfly wing scales was carefully examined. It was found that the whole reflectance spectroscopy of the butterfly wings showed a lower level (less than 10 %) in the visible spectrum. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly wings possessed a super light trapping effect. Afterwards, the morphologies and detailed architectures of the butterfly wing scales were carefully investigated using the ultra-depth three-dimensional (3D) microscope and field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM). It was composed by the parallel ridges and quasi-honeycomb-like structure between them. Based on the biological properties and function above, an exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated through a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. At last, the comparative analysis of morphology feature size and the reflectance spectroscopy between the SiO2 negative replica and the flat plate was conducted. It could be concluded that the SiO2 negative replica inherited not only the original super light trapping architectures, but also the super light trapping characteristics of bio-template. This work may open up an avenue for the design and fabrication of super light trapping materials and encourage people to look for more super light trapping architectures in nature. PMID:26306539

  13. Shiny wing scales cause spec(tac)ular camouflage of the angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Pirih, Primoz; Arikawa, Kentaro; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Pirih, Primož

    2013-01-01

    The angled sunbeam butterfly, Curetis acuta (Lycaenidae), is a distinctly sexually dimorphic lycaenid butterfly from Asia. The dorsal wings of female and male butterflies have a similar pattern, with a large white area in the female and an orange area in the male, framed within brownblack margins. T

  14. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. PMID:26397977

  15. Temperature and saturation dependence in the vapor sensing of butterfly wing scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertész, K., E-mail: kertesz.krisztian@ttk.mta.hu [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary); Piszter, G. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary); Jakab, E. [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P O Box 17 (Hungary); Bálint, Zs. [Hungarian Natural History Museum, H-1088, Budapest, Baross utca 13 (Hungary); Vértesy, Z.; Biró, L.P. [Institute of Technical Physics and Materials Science, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary)

    2014-06-01

    The sensing of gasses/vapors in the ambient air is the focus of attention due to the need to monitor our everyday environment. Photonic crystals are sensing materials of the future because of their strong light-manipulating properties. Natural photonic structures are well-suited materials for testing detection principles because they are significantly cheaper than artificial photonic structures and are available in larger sizes. Additionally, natural photonic structures may provide new ideas for developing novel artificial photonic nanoarchitectures with improved properties. In the present paper, we discuss the effects arising from the sensor temperature and the vapor concentration in air during measurements with a photonic crystal-type optical gas sensor. Our results shed light on the sources of discrepancy between simulated and experimental sensing behaviors of photonic crystal-type structures. Through capillary condensation, the vapors will condensate to a liquid state inside the nanocavities. Due to the temperature and radius of curvature dependence of capillary condensation, the measured signals are affected by the sensor temperature as well as by the presence of a nanocavity size distribution. The sensing materials used are natural photonic nanoarchitectures present in the wing scales of blue butterflies. - Highlights: • We report optical gas sensing on blue butterfly wing scale nanostructures. • The sample temperature decrease effects a reversible break-down in the measured spectra. • The break-down is connected with the vapor condensation in the scales and wing surface. • Capillary condensation occurs in the wing scales.

  16. Temperature and saturation dependence in the vapor sensing of butterfly wing scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensing of gasses/vapors in the ambient air is the focus of attention due to the need to monitor our everyday environment. Photonic crystals are sensing materials of the future because of their strong light-manipulating properties. Natural photonic structures are well-suited materials for testing detection principles because they are significantly cheaper than artificial photonic structures and are available in larger sizes. Additionally, natural photonic structures may provide new ideas for developing novel artificial photonic nanoarchitectures with improved properties. In the present paper, we discuss the effects arising from the sensor temperature and the vapor concentration in air during measurements with a photonic crystal-type optical gas sensor. Our results shed light on the sources of discrepancy between simulated and experimental sensing behaviors of photonic crystal-type structures. Through capillary condensation, the vapors will condensate to a liquid state inside the nanocavities. Due to the temperature and radius of curvature dependence of capillary condensation, the measured signals are affected by the sensor temperature as well as by the presence of a nanocavity size distribution. The sensing materials used are natural photonic nanoarchitectures present in the wing scales of blue butterflies. - Highlights: • We report optical gas sensing on blue butterfly wing scale nanostructures. • The sample temperature decrease effects a reversible break-down in the measured spectra. • The break-down is connected with the vapor condensation in the scales and wing surface. • Capillary condensation occurs in the wing scales

  17. Optical properties of the micro/nano structures of Morpho butterfly wing scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The micro/nano structures of the wing scales in Morpho butterfly are responsible for the structural coloration,with a major part ascribed to interference and diffraction of light.The optical properties of the butterfly wings were investigated by simulating a two-dimensional model using rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique.It is proved that they depend strongly on the structural parameters,incidence angle and refractive index.The peak value and the peak wavelength of the reflection efficiency increase as the vertical periodic thickness increases.The peak value decreases observably,while both of the bandwidth and the peak wavelength increase when the number of the vertical periods decreases.Increase of the horizontal periodic width causes a decrease of the peak value and an increase of the peak wavelength,although the variations are small.The peak value decreases distinctly and the peak wavelength increases as the ambient refractive index increases,which corresponds to the variation in ambient conditions.The research reveals the mechanisms of the brilliant structural color in Morpho butterfly,and is of great significance to the design,manufacture and applications of the bionic micro/nano structures for gas detection.

  18. Structure, function, and self-assembly of single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; Noh, Heeso; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec; Dufresne, Eric R.; Prum, Richard O.

    2010-01-01

    Complex three-dimensional biophotonic nanostructures produce the vivid structural colors of many butterfly wing scales, but their exact nanoscale organization is uncertain. We used small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on single scales to characterize the 3D photonic nanostructures of five butterfly species from two families (Papilionidae, Lycaenidae). We identify these chitin and air nanostructures as single network gyroid (I4132) photonic crystals. We describe their optical function from SAXS...

  19. Domain morphology, boundaries, and topological defects in biophotonic gyroid nanostructures of butterfly wing scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Andrej; Boucheron, Leandra; Dietze, Sebastian H; Jensen, Katharine E; Vine, David; McNulty, Ian; Dufresne, Eric R; Prum, Richard O; Mochrie, Simon G J; Shpyrko, Oleg G

    2016-06-01

    Many organisms in nature have evolved sophisticated cellular mechanisms to produce photonic nanostructures and, in recent years, diverse crystalline symmetries have been identified and related to macroscopic optical properties. However, because we know little about the distributions of domain sizes, the orientations of photonic crystals, and the nature of defects in these structures, we are unable to make the connection between the nanostructure and its development and functionality. We report on nondestructive studies of the morphology of chitinous photonic crystals in butterfly wing scales. Using spatially and angularly resolved x-ray diffraction, we find that the domains are highly oriented with respect to the whole scale, indicating growth from scale boundaries. X-ray coherent diffractive imaging reveals two types of crystalline domain interfaces: abrupt changes between domains emerging from distinct nucleation sites and smooth transitions with edge dislocations presumably resulting from internal stresses during nanostructure development. Our study of the scale structure reveals new aspects of photonic crystal growth in butterfly wings and shows their similarity to block copolymer materials. It opens new avenues to exploration of fundamental processes underlying the growth of biological photonic nanostructures in a variety of species. PMID:27386575

  20. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. PMID:26654884

  1. Light Trapping Effect in Wing Scales of Butterfly Papilio peranthus and Its Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwu Han; Shichao Niu; Lufeng Zhang; Zhenning Liu; Luquan Ren

    2013-01-01

    Broadband light trapping ettect and arrays of sub-wavelength textured sructures based on the butterfly wing scales are applicable to solar cells and stealth technologies.In this paper,the fine optical structures in wing scales of butterfly Papilio peranthus,exhibiting efficient light trapping effect,were carefully examined.First,the reflectivity was measured by reflectance spectrum.Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscope (FESEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were used to observe the coupling morphologies and structures of the scales.Then,the optimized 3D model of the coupling structure was created combining Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and TEM data.Afterwards,the mechanism of the light trapping effect of these structures was analyzed by simulation and theoretical calculations.A multilayer nano-structure of chitin and air was found.These structures are effective in increasing optical path,resulting in that most of the incident light can be trapped and adsorbed within the structure at last.Furthermore,the simulated optical results are consistent with the experimental and calculated ones.This result reliably confirms that these structures induce an efficient light trapping effect.This work can be used as a reference for in-depth study on the fabrication of highly efficient bionic optical devices,such as solar cells,photo detectors,high-contrast,antiglare,and so forth.

  2. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas

  3. Biosynthesis of cathodoluminescent zinc oxide replicas using butterfly (Papilio paris) wing scales as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Wang [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China)], E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn; Fan Tongxiang; Ding Jian; Gu Jiajun [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240, Shanghai (China); Guo Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

    2009-01-01

    Papilio paris butterflies have an iridescent blue color patch on their hind wings which is visible over a wide viewing angle. Optical and scanning electron microscopy observations of scales from the wings show that the blue color scales have very different microstructure to the matt black ones which also populate the wings. Scanning electron micrographs of the blue scales show that their surfaces comprise a regular two-dimensional array of concavities. By contrast the matt black scales have fine, sponge-like structure, between the ridges and the cross ribs in the scales. Using both types of scale as bio-templates, we obtain zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas of the microstructures of the original scales. Room temperature (T = 300 K) cathodoluminescence spectra of these ZnO replicas have also been studied. Both spectra show a similar sharp near-band-edge emission, but have different green emission, which we associate with the different microstructures of the ZnO replicas.

  4. Fabrication of the replica templated from butterfly wing scales with complex light trapping structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Li, Bo; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yang, Meng; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2015-11-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) positive replica templated twice from the excellent light trapping surface of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana wing scales was fabricated by a simple and promising route. The exact SiO2 negative replica was fabricated by using a synthesis method combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. Afterwards, a vacuum-aided process was introduced to make PDMS gel fill into the SiO2 negative replica, and the PDMS gel was solidified in an oven. Then, the SiO2 negative replica was used as secondary template and the structures in its surface was transcribed onto the surface of PDMS. At last, the PDMS positive replica was obtained. After comparing the PDMS positive replica and the original bio-template in terms of morphology, dimensions and reflectance spectra and so on, it is evident that the excellent light trapping structures of butterfly wing scales were inherited by the PDMS positive replica faithfully. This bio-inspired route could facilitate the preparation of complex light trapping nanostructure surfaces without any assistance from other power-wasting and expensive nanofabrication technologies.

  5. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies: curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales

    OpenAIRE

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2011-01-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G. rhamni, and Colias croceus, and in two members of the Colotis group, Hebomoia glaucippe and Colotis regina. Imaging scatterometry demonstrated that the pigmentary colouration is diffuse whereas th...

  6. Microstructure and structural color in wing scales of butterfly Thaumantis diores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN ZhiWu; WU LiYan; QIU ZhaoMei; REN LuQuan

    2009-01-01

    The butterfly Thaumantis diores is a species in the Northeast of China. There are two kinds of scales on its wings, which overlap like roof tiles and completely cover the membrane. The SEM results showed that only Type-Ⅰ scales play a key role in forming the blue structural color. Type-Ⅱ scales have black chemical color. The cross section micro-configuration of scales is achieved by using the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The brilliant blue generated through the multilayer microstructure is ex-plained by the photonic crystal reason. The multilayer microstructure of the ridges is optimized to 1D Bragg stack for simulation. The reflexivity of the wing is measured by a spectrometer, and the ex-perimental graph accord with the simulation curves basically. When this species fly, the wing's color and brightness can change because of the transform between structural color and chemical color. The bionic color-changing design and the significance of this effect in video stealth or other fields are discussed at the end of the paper.

  7. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gy

  8. Spatial reflection patterns of iridescent wings of male pierid butterflies: curved scales reflect at a wider angle than flat scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirih, Primož; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2011-10-01

    The males of many pierid butterflies have iridescent wings, which presumably function in intraspecific communication. The iridescence is due to nanostructured ridges of the cover scales. We have studied the iridescence in the males of a few members of Coliadinae, Gonepteryx aspasia, G. cleopatra, G. rhamni, and Colias croceus, and in two members of the Colotis group, Hebomoia glaucippe and Colotis regina. Imaging scatterometry demonstrated that the pigmentary colouration is diffuse whereas the structural colouration creates a directional, line-shaped far-field radiation pattern. Angle-dependent reflectance measurements demonstrated that the directional iridescence distinctly varies among closely related species. The species-dependent scale curvature determines the spatial properties of the wing iridescence. Narrow beam illumination of flat scales results in a narrow far-field iridescence pattern, but curved scales produce broadened patterns. The restricted spatial visibility of iridescence presumably plays a role in intraspecific signalling. PMID:21744009

  9. Reflectivity of the gyroid biophotonic crystals in the ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.; Stavenga, D.G.

    2010-01-01

    We present a comparison of the computer simulation data of gyroid nanostructures with optical measurements (reflectivity spectra and scattering diagrams) of ventral wing scales of the Green Hairstreak butterfly, Callophrys rubi. We demonstrate that the omnidirectional green colour arises from the gyroid cuticular structure grown in the domains of different orientation. We also show that this three-dimensional structure, operating as a biophotonic crystal, gives rise to various polarization ef...

  10. Photonic Crystal Structure of Butterfly Wing Scales Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková-Plšková, J.; Mika, Filip; Jiwajinda, S.; Dechkrong, P.; Svidenská, S.; Shiojiri, M.

    Praha : Czechoslovak Microscopy Society, 2014. ISBN 978-80-260-6720-7. [International Microscopy Congres /18./. Praha (CZ), 07.09.2014-12.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : butterfly wing * coloration * SEM * TEM * photonic crystal structure Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  11. Color change of Blue butterfly wing scales in an air – Vapor ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic crystals are periodic dielectric nanocomposites, which have photonic band gaps that forbid the propagation of light within certain frequency ranges. The optical response of such nanoarchitectures on chemical changes in the environment is determined by the spectral change of the reflected light, and depends on the composition of the ambient atmosphere and on the nanostructure characteristics. We carried out reflectance measurements on closely related Blue lycaenid butterfly males possessing so-called “pepper-pot” type photonic nanoarchitecture in their scales covering their dorsal wing surfaces. Experiments were carried out changing the concentration and nature of test vapors while monitoring the spectral variations in time. All the tests were done with the sample temperature set at, and below the room temperature. The spectral changes were found to be linear with the increasing of concentration and the signal amplitude is higher at lower temperatures. The mechanism of reflectance spectra modification is based on capillary condensation of the vapors penetrating in the nanostructure. These structures of natural origin may serve as cheap, environmentally free and biodegradable sensor elements. The study of these nanoarchitectures of biologic origin could be the source of various new bioinspired systems.

  12. Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mika, Filip; Matějková-Plšková, J.; Jiwajinda, S.; Dechkrong, P.; Shiojiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 5 (2012), s. 754-771. ISSN 1996-1944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : butterfly scale * structure color * natural photonic crystal * E. mulciber * S. charonda * C. ataxus * T. aeacus Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.247, year: 2012

  13. Brilliant iridescence of Morpho butterfly wing scales is due to both a thin film lower lamina and a multilayered upper lamina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M A; Stavenga, D G

    2016-05-01

    Butterflies belonging to the nymphalid subfamily, Morphinae, are famous for their brilliant blue wing coloration and iridescence. These striking optical phenomena are commonly explained as to originate from multilayer reflections by the ridges of the wing scales. Because the lower lamina of the scales of related nymphalid butterflies, the Nymphalinae, plays a dominant role in the wing coloration, by acting as a thin film reflector, we investigated single blue scales of three characteristic Morpho species: M. epistrophus, M. helenor and M. cypris. The experimental data obtained by spectrophotometry, scatterometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that also in the Morpho genus the lower lamina of both the cover and ground scales acts as an optical thin film reflector, contributing importantly to the blue structural coloration of the wings. Melanin pigment has a contrast-enhancing function in a sub-class of ground scales. PMID:27072662

  14. Inorganic chiral 3-D photonic crystals with bicontinuous gyroid structure replicated from butterfly wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mille, Christian; Tyrode, Eric; Corkery, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional silica photonic crystals with the gyroid minimal surface structure have been synthesized. The butterfly Callophrys rubi was used as a biotemplate. This material represents a significant addition to the small family of synthetic bicontinuous photonic crystals. QC 20110913

  15. Algorithmic Identification for Wings in Butterfly Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, E. A.; Sokolov, D. D.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. Two algorithms of cluster analysis, namely DBSCAN and C-means, have demonstrated their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Here we generalize the method for continuous tracers, give results concerning the migration velocities and presented clusters for 12 - 20 cycles.

  16. Selection on the wing in Heliconius butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Virginie M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Asbtract To what extent population structure favours the establishment of new phenotypes within a species remains a fundamental question in evolutionary studies. By reducing gene flow, habitat fragmentation is a major factor shaping the genetic structuring of populations, favouring isolation of small populations in which drift may rapidly change frequencies of new variants. When these variants provide advantages to individuals, the combined effect of selection and drift can lead to rapid shifts in phenotypes. In a study published in BMC Genetics, Albuquerque de Moura et al. asked whether such a general pattern of population structure can be observed in Heliconius species, which could have strong implication in the evolution of colour pattern diversification in these butterflies. In this commentary we discuss the potential roles of these three processes (drift, selection and dispersal on the evolution of Heliconius wing patterns in regard to the findings of a common fine-scale population structure within the co-mimetic species H. melpomene and H. erato. Indeed, a general pattern of population subdivision in the history of these two species may have provoked the major phenotypical shifts observed in their wing colour patterns. The suggestion that coupled environmental pressures (counter-selection of dispersal and selection on co-evolved traits could be responsible for identical genetic differentiation profiles in H. erato and H. melpomene clearly merits further investigations using both detailed population genetic (including landscape genetic and ecological studies.

  17. Study of nano-architecture of the wings of Paris Peacock butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghate, Ekata; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Kulkarni, G. R.

    Butterflies are one of the most colorful creatures in animal Kingdom. Wings of the male butterfly are brilliantly colored to attract females. Color of the wings plays an important role in camouflage. Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies are important for their biomimic and biophotonic applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light. Paris Peacock or Papilio paris butterfly belongs to the family Papilionidae. The basis of structural color of this butterfly is investigated in the present study. The upper surface of the wings in this butterfly is covered with blue, green and brown colored scales. Nano-architecture of these scales was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). Photomicrographs were analyzed using image analysis software. Goniometric color or iridescence in blue and green colored scales of this butterfly was observed and studied with the help of gonio spectrophotometer in the visible range. No iridescence was observed in brown colored scales of the butterfly. Hues of the blue and green color were measured with spectrophotometer and were correlated with nano-architecture of the wing. Results of electron microscopy and reflection spectroscopy are used to explain the iridescent nature of blue and green scales. Sinusoidal grating like structures of these scales were prominently seen in the blue scales. It is possible that the structure of these wings can act as a template for the fabrication of sinusoidal gratings using nano-imprint technology.

  18. Research on Spectral Reflection Characteristics of Nanostructures in Morpho Butterfly Wing Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Wenjun [Key Lab of Modern Manufacture Quality Engineering, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 30068 (China); Shi Tielin; Liao Guanglan; Zuo Haibo, E-mail: guanglan.liao@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The intricate nanostructure in the scales of Morpho, which is composed of transparent cuticle protein, achieves an extremely high reflectivity in the range of visible light. The brilliant iridescent blue color is not produced by blue pigment but nanostructures. In order to investigate which structural parameters influenced the spectral reflection characteristics and formed the striking brilliance of blue color, a vector diffraction theoretical structural model was established, and simulation using rigorous coupled-wave analysis was carried out. The complex nanostructure was assumed as the diffraction grating structure of arbitrary configuration. The shape and size of the model was set according to the TEM photos of Morpho scale. The structure with irregular asymmetric multilayer lamellae ridge-like grating possessed best capability in reflectivity and color matching. The influence of every structural parameter to spectral reflectivity was cognized by comparing with the original spectrum. The results have revealed the nature of iridescent blue colors and high reflectivity, and enable us to control color and reflectivity by manufacturing nanostructure with specific structural parameter.

  19. AFM Study of Structure Influence on Butterfly Wings Coloration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the structural coloration of the butterfly Vanessa Atalanta wings and shows how the atomic force microscopy (AFM can be applied to the study of wings morphology and wings surface behavior under the temperature. The role of the wings morphology in colors was investigated. Different colors of wings have different topology and can be identified by them. AFM in semi-contact mode was used to study the wings surface. The wing surface area, which is close to the butterfly body, has shiny brown color and the peak of surface roughness is about 600 nm. The changing of morphology at different temperatures is shown.

  20. Interactions between butterfly scales and unsteady flows during flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert; Lang, Amy

    2008-11-01

    Recent research has shown that the highly flexible wings of butterflies in flapping flight develop vortices along their leading and trailing edges. Butterfly scales (approximately 100 microns) have a shingled pattern and extend into the boundary layer. These scales could play a part in controlling separation in this 3-dimensional complex flow field. Biomimetic applications of butterfly scales may aid in the development of flapping wing micro air vehicles. In this study, we observed that the orientation of the scales may relate to the local flow field, and might move or shift during flight. Monarch butterflies were trained to fly in a low speed smoke tunnel for visualization. Scales were removed from the leading and trailing edges and specimens were photographed at 500 frames per second. Variation in flapping pattern and flight fitness are discussed.

  1. A study in biomimetics: nanometer-scale, high-efficiency, dielectric diffractive structures on the wings of butterflies and in the silicon chip factory

    OpenAIRE

    Plattner, Luca

    2003-01-01

    Nature is an invaluable source of inspiration for engineers, who draw upon the solutions evolved by species over millions of years, to design new devices or perfect existing ones. The process of transferring nature's designs into man-made devices is called biomimetics. This thesis reports on a biomimetic study in quantum optics. The microstructure found on the wings of a tropical butterfly holds the secret of its famous structural coloration. The intricate arrangement of low-index dielectric ...

  2. Refractive index dependence of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnaeni, Muslimin, Ahmad Novi; Birowosuto, Muhammad Danang

    2016-02-01

    We have observed and utilized butterfly wings of Papilio Ulysses for refractive index sensor. We noticed this butterfly wings have photonic crystal structure, which causes blue color appearance on the wings. The photonic crystal structure, which consists of cuticle and air void, is approximated as one dimensional photonic crystal structure. This photonic crystal structure opens potential to several optical devices application, such as refractive index sensor. We have utilized small piece of Papilio Ulysses butterfly wings to characterize refractive index of several liquid base on reflectance spectrum of butterfly wings in the presence of sample liquid. For comparison, we simulated reflectance spectrum of one dimensional photonic crystal structure having material parameter based on real structure of butterfly wings. We found that reflectance spectrum peaks shifted as refractive index of sample changes. Although there is a slight difference in reflectance spectrum peaks between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum, the trend of reflectance spectrum peaks as function of sample's refractive index is the similar. We assume that during the measurement, the air void that filled by sample liquid is expanded due to liquid pressure. This change of void shape causes non-similarity between measured spectrum and calculated spectrum.

  3. Structural or pigmentary? Origin of the distinctive white stripe on the blue wing of a Morpho butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Shinya; Kinoshita, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    A few species of Morpho butterflies have a distinctive white stripe pattern on their structurally coloured blue wings. Since the colour pattern of a butterfly wing is formed as a mosaic of differently coloured scales, several questions naturally arise: are the microstructures the same between the blue and white scales? How is the distinctive whiteness produced, structurally or by means of pigmentation? To answer these questions, we have performed structural and optical investigations of the s...

  4. Waterproof and translucent wings at the same time: problems and solutions in butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Goodwyn, Pablo; Maezono, Yasunori; Hosoda, Naoe; Fujisaki, Kenji

    2009-07-01

    Although the colour of butterflies attracts the most attention, the waterproofing properties of their wings are also extremely interesting. Most butterfly wings are considered “super-hydrophobic” because the contact angle (CA) with a water drop exceeds 150°. Usually, butterfly wings are covered with strongly overlapping scales; however, in the case of transparent or translucent wings, scale cover is reduced; thus, the hydrophobicity could be affected. Here, we present a comparative analysis of wing hydrophobicity and its dependence on morphology for two species with translucent wings Parantica sita (Nymphalidae) and Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae). These species have very different life histories: P. sita lives for up to 6 months as an adult and migrates over long distance, whereas P. glacialis lives for less than 1 month and does not migrate. We measured the water CA and analysed wing morphology with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. P. sita has super-hydrophobic wing surfaces, with CA > 160°, whereas P. glacialis did not (CA = 100-135°). Specialised scales were found on the translucent portions of P. sita wings. These scales were ovoid and much thinner than common scales, erect at about 30°, and leaving up to 80% of the wing surface uncovered. The underlying bare wing surface had a remarkable pattern of ridges and knobs. P. glacialis also had over 80% of the wing surface uncovered, but the scales were either setae-like or spade-like. The bare surface of the wing had an irregular wavy smooth pattern. We suggest a mode of action that allows this super-hydrophobic effect with an incompletely covered wing surface. The scales bend, but do not collapse, under the pressure of a water droplet, and the elastic recovery of the structure at the borders of the droplet allows a high apparent CA. Thus, P. sita can be translucent without losing its waterproof properties. This characteristic is likely necessary for the long life and migration

  5. The Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kejun; Feng, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from May 1874 to November 2008 and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989 are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, making the paired wings just and only keep the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, but a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram should bring about an almost same relative phase shift of hemis...

  6. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Jun Li; Hong-Fei Liang; Wen Feng

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities.Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups(or filaments)does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres,and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle,making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator.It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle,demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths,as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram,which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  7. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Jun; Liang, Hong-Fei; Feng, Wen

    2010-11-01

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength.

  8. Phase shifts of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunspot groups observed by the Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from 1874 May to 2008 November and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from 1919 March to 1989 December are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their butterfly diagrams in a cycle, making the paired wings spatially asymmetrical on the solar equator. It is inferred that hemispherical solar activity strength should evolve in a similar way within the paired wings of a butterfly diagram in a cycle, demonstrating the paired wings phenomenon and showing the phase relationship between the northern and southern hemispherical solar activity strengths, as well as a relative phase shift between the paired wings of a butterfly diagram, which should bring about almost the same relative phase shift of hemispheric solar activity strength. (research papers)

  9. The Phase Shifts of the Paired Wings of Butterfly Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Kejun; Liang, Hongfei; Feng, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Sunspot groups observed by Royal Greenwich Observatory/US Air Force/NOAA from May 1874 to November 2008 and the Carte Synoptique solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989 are used to investigate the relative phase shift of the paired wings of butterfly diagrams of sunspot and filament activities. Latitudinal migration of sunspot groups (or filaments) does asynchronously occur in the northern and southern hemispheres, and there is a relative phase shift between the paired wings of their...

  10. Nanofabrication and coloration study of artificial Morpho butterfly wings with aligned lamellae layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sichao; Chen, Yifang

    2015-11-01

    The bright and iridescent blue color from Morpho butterfly wings has attracted worldwide attentions to explore its mysterious nature for long time. Although the physics of structural color by the nanophotonic structures built on the wing scales has been well established, replications of the wing structure by standard top-down lithography still remains a challenge. This paper reports a technical breakthrough to mimic the blue color of Morpho butterfly wings, by developing a novel nanofabrication process, based on electron beam lithography combined with alternate PMMA/LOR development/dissolution, for photonic structures with aligned lamellae multilayers in colorless polymers. The relationship between the coloration and geometric dimensions as well as shapes is systematically analyzed by solving Maxwell’s Equations with a finite domain time difference simulator. Careful characterization of the mimicked blue by spectral measurements under both normal and oblique angles are carried out. Structural color in blue reflected by the fabricated wing scales, is demonstrated and further extended to green as an application exercise of the new technique. The effects of the regularity in the replicas on coloration are analyzed. In principle, this approach establishes a starting point for mimicking structural colors beyond the blue in Morpho butterfly wings.

  11. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  12. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Davis

    Full Text Available The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width, melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  13. Scales affect performance of Monarch butterfly forewings in autorotational flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demko, Anya; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Butterfly wings are characterized by rows of scales (approximately 100 microns in length) that create a shingle-like pattern of cavities over the entire surface. It is hypothesized that these cavities influence the airflow around the wing and increase aerodynamic performance. A forewing of the Monarch butterfly (Danus plexippus) naturally undergoes autorotational flight in the laminar regime. Autorotational flight is an accurate representation of insect flight because the rotation induces a velocity gradient similar to that found over a flapping wing. Drop test flights of 22 forewings before and after scale removal were recorded with a high-speed camera and flight behavior was quantified. It was found that removing the scales increased the descent speed and decreased the descent factor, a measure of aerodynamic efficacy, suggesting that scales increased the performance of the forewings. Funded by NSF REU Grant 1062611.

  14. Differential pressure distribution measurement with an MEMS sensor on a free-flying butterfly wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An insect can perform various flight maneuvers. However, the aerodynamic force generated by real insect wings during free flight has never been measured directly. In this study, we present the direct measurement of the four points of the differential pressures acting on the wing surface of a flying insect. A small-scale differential pressure sensor of 1.0 mm × 1.0 mm × 0.3 mm in size was developed using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and was attached to a butterfly wing. Total weight of the sensor chip and the flexible electrode on the wing was 4.5 mg, which was less than 10% of the wing weight. Four points on the wing were chosen as measurement points, and one sensor chip was attached in each flight experiment. During takeoff, the wing's flapping motion induced a periodic and symmetric differential pressure between upstroke and downstroke. The average absolute value of the local differential pressure differed significantly with the location: 7.4 Pa at the forewing tip, 5.5 Pa at the forewing center, 2.1 Pa at the forewing root and 2.1 Pa at the hindwing center. The instantaneous pressure at the forewing tip reached 10 Pa, which was ten times larger than wing loading of the butterfly. (paper)

  15. Functional significance of butterfly wing morphology variation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shreeve, T.; Konvička, Martin; Van Dyck, H.

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2009 - (Settele, J.; Shreeve, T.; Konvička, M.; Van Dyck, H.), s. 171-188 ISBN 978-0-521-76697-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  16. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling.

    OpenAIRE

    Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Baxter, Simon W.; Pardo-D?az, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J.; Martin, Simon H.; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expres...

  17. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly Using interactivity to excite and educate children about butterflies and the National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lydia

    The National Museum of Play at The Strong's Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden is a tropical rainforest that allows visitors to step into the world of butterflies, but lacks a more comprehensive educational element to teach visitors additional information about butterflies. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly is a thesis project designed to enhance younger visitors' experience of the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden with an interactive educational application that aligns with The Strong's mission of encouraging learning, creativity, and discovery. This was accomplished through a series of fun and educational games and animations, designed for use as a kiosk outside the garden and as a part of The Strong's website. Content, planning, and organization of this project has been completed through research and observation of the garden in the following areas: its visitors, butterflies, best usability practices for children, and game elements that educate and engage children. Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly teaches users about the butterfly's life cycle, anatomy, and characteristics as well as their life in the Dancing Wings Butterfly Garden. Through the use of the design programs Adobe Illustrator, Flash, and After Effects; the programming language ActionScript3.0; a child-friendly user interface and design; audio elements and user takeaways, Flutter-by Interactive Butterfly appeals to children of all ages, interests, and learning styles. The project can be viewed at lydiapowers.com/Thesis/FlutterByButterfly.html

  18. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings deflect bird attacks under low light intensities with UV wavelengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Predators preferentially attack vital body parts to avoid prey escape. Consequently, prey adaptations that make predators attack less crucial body parts are expected to evolve. Marginal eyespots on butterfly wings have long been thought to have this deflective, but hitherto undemonstrated function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that a butterfly, Lopinga achine, with broad-spectrum reflective white scales in its marginal eyespot pupils deceives a generalist avian predator, the blue tit, to attack the marginal eyespots, but only under particular conditions-in our experiments, low light intensities with a prominent UV component. Under high light intensity conditions with a similar UV component, and at low light intensities without UV, blue tits directed attacks towards the butterfly head. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In nature, birds typically forage intensively at early dawn, when the light environment shifts to shorter wavelengths, and the contrast between the eyespot pupils and the background increases. Among butterflies, deflecting attacks is likely to be particularly important at dawn when low ambient temperatures make escape by flight impossible, and when insectivorous birds typically initiate another day's search for food. Our finding that the deflective function of eyespots is highly dependent on the ambient light environment helps explain why previous attempts have provided little support for the deflective role of marginal eyespots, and we hypothesize that the mechanism that we have discovered in our experiments in a laboratory setting may function also in nature when birds forage on resting butterflies under low light intensities.

  19. A Model for Selection of Eyespots on Butterfly Wings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Sekimura

    Full Text Available The development of eyespots on the wing surface of butterflies of the family Nympalidae is one of the most studied examples of biological pattern formation.However, little is known about the mechanism that determines the number and precise locations of eyespots on the wing. Eyespots develop around signaling centers, called foci, that are located equidistant from wing veins along the midline of a wing cell (an area bounded by veins. A fundamental question that remains unsolved is, why a certain wing cell develops an eyespot, while other wing cells do not.We illustrate that the key to understanding focus point selection may be in the venation system of the wing disc. Our main hypothesis is that changes in morphogen concentration along the proximal boundary veins of wing cells govern focus point selection. Based on previous studies, we focus on a spatially two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system model posed in the interior of each wing cell that describes the formation of focus points. Using finite element based numerical simulations, we demonstrate that variation in the proximal boundary condition is sufficient to robustly select whether an eyespot focus point forms in otherwise identical wing cells. We also illustrate that this behavior is robust to small perturbations in the parameters and geometry and moderate levels of noise. Hence, we suggest that an anterior-posterior pattern of morphogen concentration along the proximal vein may be the main determinant of the distribution of focus points on the wing surface. In order to complete our model, we propose a two stage reaction-diffusion system model, in which an one-dimensional surface reaction-diffusion system, posed on the proximal vein, generates the morphogen concentrations that act as non-homogeneous Dirichlet (i.e., fixed boundary conditions for the two-dimensional reaction-diffusion model posed in the wing cells. The two-stage model appears capable of generating focus point distributions

  20. Transcriptome analysis reveals novel patterning and pigmentation genes underlying Heliconius butterfly wing pattern variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hines Heather M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterfly wing pattern diversity offers a unique opportunity to investigate how natural genetic variation can drive the evolution of complex adaptive phenotypes. Positional cloning and candidate gene studies have identified a handful of regulatory and pigmentation genes implicated in Heliconius wing pattern variation, but little is known about the greater developmental networks within which these genes interact to pattern a wing. Here we took a large-scale transcriptomic approach to identify the network of genes involved in Heliconius wing pattern development and variation. This included applying over 140 transcriptome microarrays to assay gene expression in dissected wing pattern elements across a range of developmental stages and wing pattern morphs of Heliconius erato. Results We identified a number of putative early prepattern genes with color-pattern related expression domains. We also identified 51 genes differentially expressed in association with natural color pattern variation. Of these, the previously identified color pattern “switch gene” optix was recovered as the first transcript to show color-specific differential expression. Most differentially expressed genes were transcribed late in pupal development and have roles in cuticle formation or pigment synthesis. These include previously undescribed transporter genes associated with ommochrome pigmentation. Furthermore, we observed upregulation of melanin-repressing genes such as ebony and Dat1 in non-melanic patterns. Conclusions This study identifies many new genes implicated in butterfly wing pattern development and provides a glimpse into the number and types of genes affected by variation in genes that drive color pattern evolution.

  1. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Taira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots us...

  2. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Haley; Solensky, Michelle J; Satterfield, Dara A; Davis, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus), a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed) from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width), which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%). Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high) had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success. PMID:24695643

  3. Does skipping a meal matter to a butterfly's appearance? Effects of larval food stress on wing morphology and color in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Johnson

    Full Text Available In animals with complex life cycles, all resources needed to form adult tissues are procured at the larval stage. For butterflies, the proper development of wings involves synthesizing tissue during metamorphosis based on the raw materials obtained by larvae. Similarly, manufacture of pigment for wing scales also requires resources acquired by larvae. We conducted an experiment to test the effects of food deprivation in the larval stage on multiple measures of adult wing morphology and coloration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, a species in which long-distance migration makes flight efficiency critical. In a captive setting, we restricted food (milkweed from late-stage larvae for either 24 hrs or 48 hrs, then after metamorphosis we used image analysis methods to measure forewing surface area and elongation (length/width, which are both important for migration. We also measured the brightness of orange pigment and the intensity of black on the wing. There were correlations between several wing features, including an unexpected association between wing elongation and melanism, which will require further study to fully understand. The clearest effect of food restriction was a reduction in adult wing size in the high stress group (by approximately 2%. Patterns observed for other wing traits were ambiguous: monarchs in the low stress group (but not the high had less elongated and paler orange pigmentation. There was no effect on wing melanism. Although some patterns obtained in this study were unclear, our results concerning wing size have direct bearing on the monarch migration. We show that if milkweed is limited for monarch larvae, their wings become stunted, which could ultimately result in lower migration success.

  4. Effects of structural flexibility of wings in flapping flight of butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to clarify the effects of structural flexibility of wings of a butterfly in flapping flight. For this purpose, a dynamics model of a butterfly is derived by Lagrange’s method, where the butterfly is considered as a rigid multi-body system. The panel method is employed to simulate the flow field and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. The mathematical model is validated by the agreement of the numerical result with the experimentally measured data. Then, periodic orbits of flapping-of-wings flights are parametrically searched in order to fly the butterfly models. Almost periodic orbits are found, but they are unstable. Deformation of the wings is modeled in two ways. One is bending and its effect on the aerodynamic forces is discussed. The other is passive wing torsion caused by structural flexibility. Numerical simulations demonstrate that flexible torsion reduces the flight instability. (paper)

  5. Flight testing of live Monarch butterflies to determine the aerodynamic benefit of butterfly scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amy; Cranford, Jacob; Conway, Jasmine; Slegers, Nathan; Dechello, Nicole; Wilroy, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    Evolutionary adaptations in the morphological structure of butterfly scales (0.1 mm in size) to develop a unique micro-patterning resulting in a surface drag alteration, stem from a probable aerodynamic benefit of minimizing the energy requirement to fly a very lightweight body with comparably large surface area in a low Re flow regime. Live Monarch butterflies were tested at UAHuntsville's Autonomous Tracking and Optical Measurement (ATOM) Laboratory, which uses 22 Vicon T40 cameras that allow for millimeter level tracking of reflective markers at 515 fps over a 4 m × 6 m × 7 m volume. Data recorded included the flight path as well as the wing flapping angle and wing-beat frequency. Insects were first tested with their scales intact, and then again with the scales carefully removed. Differences in flapping frequency and/or energy obtained during flight due to the removal of the scales will be discussed. Initial data analysis indicates that scale removal in some specimens leads to increased flapping frequencies for similar energetic flight or reduced flight speed for similar flapping frequencies. Both results point to the scales providing an aerodynamic benefit, which is hypothesized to be linked to leading-edge vortex formation and induced drag. Funding from the National Science Foundation (CBET and REU) is gratefully acknowledged.

  6. The Effects of Scales on Autorotation of Monarch Butterfly Forewings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechello, Nicole; Lang, Amy

    2014-11-01

    The wings of Monarch butterflies (Danus plexippus) have scales of approximately 100 micrometers that cover their wings in a roof-shingle pattern, and these scales are hypothesized to help improve flight efficiency for their long migration. The aerodynamic effects of the scales, particularly involving the leading edge vortex formation and resulting lift, were investigated by observing the natural autorotation of forewing specimen when dropped in quiescent air. A high-speed camera recorded drop tests of 32 forewings both with scales and after removal of the scales. It was found that the scales, on average, comprised 17% of the forewing mass. Tracking software was used to analyze the videos for several parameters, including descent speed and radius of rotation. NSF ECE Grant #1358991 supported the first author as an research experience for undergraduate (REU) student.

  7. Replication of polypyrrole with photonic structures from butterfly wings as biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic structures from butterfly wings was synthesized based on a two-step templating and in situ polymerization process. ► The hierarchical structures down to nanometer level were kept in the resultant PPy replicas. ► The PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. ► The PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with common PPy powders as a biosensor. - Abstract: Polypyrrole (PPy) with photonic crystal structures were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings using a two-step templating process. In the first step photonic crystal SiO2 butterfly wings were synthesized from Morpho butterfly wings and in the second step the SiO2 butterfly wings were used as templates for the replication of PPy butterfly wings using an in situ polymerization method. The SiO2 templates were then removed from the PPy butterfly wings using a HF solution. The hierarchical structures down to the nanometer level, especially the photonic crystal structures, were retained in the final PPy replicas, as evidenced directly by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties of the resultant PPy replicas were investigated using reflectance spectroscopy and the PPy replicas exhibit brilliant color due to Bragg diffraction through its ordered periodic structures. The preliminary biosensing application was investigated and it was found that the PPy replicas showed a much higher biological activity compared with PPy powders through their response to dopamine (DA), probably due to the hierarchical structures as well as controlled porosity inherited from Morpho butterfly wings. It is expected that our strategy will open up new avenues for the synthesis of functional polymers with photonic crystal structures, which may form applications as biosensors.

  8. Time-varying wing-twist improves aerodynamic efficiency of forward flight in butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingxiao Zheng

    Full Text Available Insect wings can undergo significant chordwise (camber as well as spanwise (twist deformation during flapping flight but the effect of these deformations is not well understood. The shape and size of butterfly wings leads to particularly large wing deformations, making them an ideal test case for investigation of these effects. Here we use computational models derived from experiments on free-flying butterflies to understand the effect of time-varying twist and camber on the aerodynamic performance of these insects. High-speed videogrammetry is used to capture the wing kinematics, including deformation, of a Painted Lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui in untethered, forward flight. These experimental results are then analyzed computationally using a high-fidelity, three-dimensional, unsteady Navier-Stokes flow solver. For comparison to this case, a set of non-deforming, flat-plate wing (FPW models of wing motion are synthesized and subjected to the same analysis along with a wing model that matches the time-varying wing-twist observed for the butterfly, but has no deformation in camber. The simulations show that the observed butterfly wing (OBW outperforms all the flat-plate wings in terms of usable force production as well as the ratio of lift to power by at least 29% and 46%, respectively. This increase in efficiency of lift production is at least three-fold greater than reported for other insects. Interestingly, we also find that the twist-only-wing (TOW model recovers much of the performance of the OBW, demonstrating that wing-twist, and not camber is key to forward flight in these insects. The implications of this on the design of flapping wing micro-aerial vehicles are discussed.

  9. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard W R Wallbank

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in turn controls red pattern variation across Heliconius. Phylogenetic analysis of the two elements demonstrated that they have distinct evolutionary histories and that novel adaptive morphological variation was created by shuffling these cis-regulatory modules through recombination between divergent lineages. In addition, recombination of modules into different combinations within species further contributes to diversity. Analysis of the timing of diversification in these two regions supports the hypothesis of introgression moving regulatory modules between species, rather than shared ancestral variation. The dennis phenotype introgressed into Heliconius melpomene at about the same time that ray originated in this group, while ray introgressed back into H. elevatus much more recently. We show that shuffling of existing enhancer elements both within and between species provides a mechanism for rapid diversification and generation of novel morphological combinations during adaptive radiation.

  10. Evolutionary Novelty in a Butterfly Wing Pattern through Enhancer Shuffling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbank, Richard W R; Baxter, Simon W; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Hanly, Joseph J; Martin, Simon H; Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Salazar, Camilo; Joron, Mathieu; Nadeau, Nicola; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-01-01

    An important goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic changes underlying novel morphological structures. We investigated the origins of a complex wing pattern found among Amazonian Heliconius butterflies. Genome sequence data from 142 individuals across 17 species identified narrow regions associated with two distinct red colour pattern elements, dennis and ray. We hypothesise that these modules in non-coding sequence represent distinct cis-regulatory loci that control expression of the transcription factor optix, which in turn controls red pattern variation across Heliconius. Phylogenetic analysis of the two elements demonstrated that they have distinct evolutionary histories and that novel adaptive morphological variation was created by shuffling these cis-regulatory modules through recombination between divergent lineages. In addition, recombination of modules into different combinations within species further contributes to diversity. Analysis of the timing of diversification in these two regions supports the hypothesis of introgression moving regulatory modules between species, rather than shared ancestral variation. The dennis phenotype introgressed into Heliconius melpomene at about the same time that ray originated in this group, while ray introgressed back into H. elevatus much more recently. We show that shuffling of existing enhancer elements both within and between species provides a mechanism for rapid diversification and generation of novel morphological combinations during adaptive radiation. PMID:26771987

  11. Low Reynolds Number Drag Alteration Inspired by Butterfly Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforte, Brent; Kronenberger, Courtney; Lang, Amy

    2012-11-01

    Biomimetics is the process of looking towards nature's adaptations for answers to today's engineering obstacles. An age-old engineering dilemma is trying to find new methods to reduce the amount of drag over a body. This research finds inspiration from butterfly scales which are hypothesized to alter surface friction over the wings. Drop testing was performed on axisymmetric, streamlined, teardrop models which were rapid-prototyped such that the surface was covered with either streamwise or transverse cavities modeled after the Monarch butterfly. The drop tank contained silicone oil with a viscosity two hundred times that of water insuring flow similarity between the model cavities (2.5 mm cavity depth) and the butterfly scale structures (about 30 microns cavity depth). A variation in Reynolds number was achieved by altering the model weight such that terminal speeds ranged from 5 to 70 cm/s. Results showed a reduction in surface friction for the transverse cavity configurations based on the roller-bearing effect. These findings suggest that the cavity shape and ratio is directly correlated to the amount of drag alteration. Funded by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  12. Variable multilayer reflection together with long-pass filtering pigment determines the wing coloration of papilionid butterflies of the nireus group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M.; Wilts, Bodo D.; Stavenga, Doekele G.; Vukusic, Peter; Sterke, C. Martijn de

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal wing surfaces of papilionid butterflies of the nireus group are marked by bands of brilliant blue-green-colored cover scales. The thin, cuticular lower lamina of the scales acts as a blue reflector. The thick upper lamina forms a dense two-dimensional cuticular lattice of air cavities wit

  13. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Wataru; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns. PMID:26731532

  14. Butterfly Wings Are Three-Dimensional: Pupal Cuticle Focal Spots and Their Associated Structures in Junonia Butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Taira

    Full Text Available Butterfly wing color patterns often contain eyespots, which are developmentally determined at the late larval and early pupal stages by organizing activities of focal cells that can later form eyespot foci. In the pupal stage, the focal position of a future eyespot is often marked by a focal spot, one of the pupal cuticle spots, on the pupal surface. Here, we examined the possible relationships of the pupal focal spots with the underneath pupal wing tissues and with the adult wing eyespots using Junonia butterflies. Large pupal focal spots were found in two species with large adult eyespots, J. orithya and J. almana, whereas only small pupal focal spots were found in a species with small adult eyespots, J. hedonia. The size of five pupal focal spots on a single wing was correlated with the size of the corresponding adult eyespots in J. orithya. A pupal focal spot was a three-dimensional bulge of cuticle surface, and the underside of the major pupal focal spot exhibited a hollowed cuticle in a pupal case. Cross sections of a pupal wing revealed that the cuticle layer shows a curvature at a focal spot, and a positional correlation was observed between the cuticle layer thickness and its corresponding cell layer thickness. Adult major eyespots of J. orithya and J. almana exhibited surface elevations and depressions that approximately correspond to the coloration within an eyespot. Our results suggest that a pupal focal spot is produced by the organizing activity of focal cells underneath the focal spot. Probably because the focal cell layer immediately underneath a focal spot is thicker than that of its surrounding areas, eyespots of adult butterfly wings are three-dimensionally constructed. The color-height relationship in adult eyespots might have an implication in the developmental signaling for determining the eyespot color patterns.

  15. Preparation of bionic nanostructures from butterfly wings and their low reflectivity of ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z. W.; Niu, S. C.; Li, W.; Ren, L. Q.

    2013-06-01

    This letter presents a bionic study on Parnassius butterfly wings with a prominent ultraviolet (UV)-selective antireflection effect. An accurate SiO2 inverse replica of the nanostructure with a unique optical function from butterfly wings is prepared in multiscale by combining a sol-gel process and subsequent selective etching. It is found that the original nanostructures of biotemplate are well inherited and the excellent UV-antireflection function could be modulated by tunable parameters such as the replica spacing, width, distribution, and shape as well as formation.

  16. Variation in wing characteristics of monarch butterflies during migration: Earlier migrants have redder and more elongated wings

    OpenAIRE

    Satterfield Dara A.; Davis Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in North America has a number of parallels with long-distance bird migration, including the fact that migratory populations of monarchs have larger and more elongated forewings than residents. These characteristics likely serve to optimize flight performance in monarchs, as they also do with birds. A question that has rarely been addressed thus far in birds or monarchs is if and how wing characteristics vary within a migration season. In...

  17. Characterisation and expression of microRNAs in developing wings of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius melpomene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathjen Tina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for studies of adaptive convergent and divergent phenotypic traits. Wing colour patterns are used as signals to both predators and potential mates and are inherited in a Mendelian manner. The underlying genetic mechanisms of pattern formation have been studied for many years and shed light on broad issues, such as the repeatability of evolution. In Heliconius melpomene, the yellow hindwing bar is controlled by the HmYb locus. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that have key roles in many biological processes, including development. miRNAs could act as regulators of genes involved in wing development, patterning and pigmentation. For this reason we characterised miRNAs in developing butterfly wings and examined differences in their expression between colour pattern races. Results We sequenced small RNA libraries from two colour pattern races and detected 142 Heliconius miRNAs with homology to others found in miRBase. Several highly abundant miRNAs were differentially represented in the libraries between colour pattern races. These candidates were tested further using Northern blots, showing that differences in expression were primarily due to developmental stage rather than colour pattern. Assembly of sequenced reads to the HmYb region identified hme-miR-193 and hme-miR-2788; located 2380 bp apart in an intergenic region. These two miRNAs are expressed in wings and show an upregulation between 24 and 72 hours post-pupation, indicating a potential role in butterfly wing development. A search for miRNAs in all available H. melpomene BAC sequences (~ 2.5 Mb did not reveal any other miRNAs and no novel miRNAs were predicted. Conclusions Here we describe the first butterfly miRNAs and characterise their expression in developing wings. Some show differences in expression across developing pupal stages and may have important functions in

  18. Did Adult Diurnal Activity Influence the Evolution of Wing Morphology in Opoptera Butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, C M; Heine, K B

    2016-02-01

    The butterfly genus Opoptera includes eight species, three of which have diurnal habits while the others are crepuscular (the usual activity period for members of the tribe Brassolini). Although never measured in the field, it is presumed that diurnal Opoptera species potentially spend more time flying than their crepuscular relatives. If a shift to diurnal habits potentially leads to a higher level of activity and energy expenditure during flight, then selection should operate on increased aerodynamic and energetic efficiency, leading to changes in wing shape. Accordingly, we ask whether diurnal habits have influenced the evolution of wing morphology in Opoptera. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we confirmed our expectation that the wings of diurnal species have higher aspect ratios (ARs) and lower wing centroids (WCs) than crepuscular congeners. These wing shape characteristics are known to promote energy efficiency during flight. Three Opoptera wing morphotypes established a priori significantly differed in AR and WC values. The crepuscular, cloud forest dweller Opoptera staudingeri (Godman & Salvin) was exceptional in having an extended forewing tip and the highest AR and lowest WC within Opoptera, possibly to facilitate flight in a cooler environment. Our study is the first to investigate how butterfly wing morphology might evolve as a response to a behavioral shift in adult time of activity. PMID:26429581

  19. Imaging scatterometry of butterfly wing scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, D. G.; Leertouwer, H. L.; Pirih, P.; Wehling, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an imaging scatterometer allowing hemispherical reflectance measurements as a function of the angle of incidence. The heart of the scatterometer is an ellipsoidal reflector, which compresses the hemispherical reflection into a cone-shaped beam that can be imaged by a normal optical syste

  20. Flavonoid wing pigments increase attractiveness of female common blue (Polyommatus icarus) butterflies to mate-searching males

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Frank; Knüttel, Helge; Becker, Mechthild; Fiedler, Konrad

    2000-01-01

    Common blue butterflies (Polyommatus icarus) sequester flavonoids from their larval host plants and allocate these UV-absorbing pigments to the wings. In field experiments using dummies constructed from female butterflies, mate-searching males inspected flavonoid-rich dummies more intensively than those with little or no flavonoids. Flavonoid content as signalled by UV-wing pattern may indicate ontogenetically determined female quality or enhance detectability to males.

  1. A randomized trial of winged Vialon cannulae and metal butterfly needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, L; Britton, D; Johnson, I; Higgins, B; Dean, T

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this parallel randomized study was to evaluate whether subcutaneous infusion sites initiated with winged vialon cannulae would have fewer skin reactions and longer site duration than metal butterfly needles and reduce needlestick injuries to staff. Data were collected on 42 hospice inpatients from the time of insertion of the first needle or cannula to the time of the first replacement of that device. A non-parametric survival plot for time (Kaplan-Meier method) was conducted and the survival time to replacement of the Vialon cannula was found to be longer than the metal butterfly needle. During the study period there were a total of four needlestick injuries to staff from metal butterfly needles. The authors conclude that Vialon cannulae reduce the frequency of site changes and are safer for staff to use because of the reduced risk of needlestick injuries. PMID:11051946

  2. Vertical distribution, flight behaviour and evolution of wing morphology in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, P J; Penz, Carla M; Hill, Ryan I

    2010-09-01

    1. Flight is a key innovation in the evolution of insects that is crucial to their dispersal, migration, territoriality, courtship and predator avoidance. Male butterflies have characteristic territoriality and courtship flight behaviours, and females use a characteristic flight behaviour when searching for host plants. This implies that selection acts on wing morphology to maximize flight performance for conducting important behaviours among sexes. 2. Butterflies in the genus Morpho are obvious components of neotropical forests, and many observations indicate that they show two broad categories of flight behaviour and flight height. Although species can be categorized as using gliding or flapping flight, and flying at either canopy or understorey height, the association of flight behaviour and flight height with wing shape evolution has never been explored. 3. Two clades within Morpho differ in flight behaviour and height. Males and females of one clade inhabit the forest understorey and use flapping flight, whereas in the other clade, males use gliding flight at canopy level and females use flapping flight in both canopy and understorey. 4. We used independent contrasts to answer whether wing shape is associated with flight behaviour and height. Given a single switch to canopy habitation and gliding flight, we compared contrasts for the node at which the switch to canopy flight occurred with the distribution of values in the two focal clades. We found significant changes in wing shape at the transition to canopy flight only in males, and no change in size for either sex. A second node within the canopy clade suggests that other factors may also be involved in wing shape evolution. Our results reinforce the hypothesis that natural selection acts differently on male and female butterfly wing shape and indicate that the transition to canopy flight cannot explain all wing shape diversity in Morpho. 5. This study provides a starting point for characterizing evolution

  3. A wing expressed sequence tag resource for Bicyclus anynana butterflies, an evo-devo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Jonathan D

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butterfly wing color patterns are a key model for integrating evolutionary developmental biology and the study of adaptive morphological evolution. Yet, despite the biological, economical and educational value of butterflies they are still relatively under-represented in terms of available genomic resources. Here, we describe an Expression Sequence Tag (EST project for Bicyclus anynana that has identified the largest available collection to date of expressed genes for any butterfly. Results By targeting cDNAs from developing wings at the stages when pattern is specified, we biased gene discovery towards genes potentially involved in pattern formation. Assembly of 9,903 ESTs from a subtracted library allowed us to identify 4,251 genes of which 2,461 were annotated based on BLAST analyses against relevant gene collections. Gene prediction software identified 2,202 peptides, of which 215 longer than 100 amino acids had no homology to any known proteins and, thus, potentially represent novel or highly diverged butterfly genes. We combined gene and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP identification by constructing cDNA libraries from pools of outbred individuals, and by sequencing clones from the 3' end to maximize alignment depth. Alignments of multi-member contigs allowed us to identify over 14,000 putative SNPs, with 316 genes having at least one high confidence double-hit SNP. We furthermore identified 320 microsatellites in transcribed genes that can potentially be used as genetic markers. Conclusion Our project was designed to combine gene and sequence polymorphism discovery and has generated the largest gene collection available for any butterfly and many potential markers in expressed genes. These resources will be invaluable for exploring the potential of B. anynana in particular, and butterflies in general, as models in ecological, evolutionary, and developmental genetics.

  4. Pitching motion control of a butterfly-like 3D flapping wing-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kosuke; Minami, Keisuke; Inamuro, Takaji

    2014-11-01

    Free flights and a pitching motion control of a butterfly-like flapping wing-body model are numerically investigated by using an immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method. The model flaps downward for generating the lift force and backward for generating the thrust force. Although the model can go upward against the gravity by the generated lift force, the model generates the nose-up torque, consequently gets off-balance. In this study, we discuss a way to control the pitching motion by flexing the body of the wing-body model like an actual butterfly. The body of the model is composed of two straight rigid rod connected by a rotary actuator. It is found that the pitching angle is suppressed in the range of +/-5° by using the proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) control for the input torque of the rotary actuator.

  5. Butterfly scales and their local surface drag dependence on flow orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Amy; Jones, Robert

    2011-11-01

    An experimental study was carried out to measure surface drag over embedded cavity models based on the geometry of butterfly wing scales. Monarch (Danaus plexippus) scales, each measuring about 0.1 mm in length, were observed using microscopy to evaluate the microgeometry. Two separate, fabricated models scaled up (300:1) the geometry for dynamically similar testing in a Couette flow oil tank facility. The drag induced over the patterned surfaces was measured using a force gauge. Flow transverse to the rows of scales resulted in a significant drag decrease (>30%), with dependence on Re. This drag reduction is attributed to the formation of embedded vortices forming between the rows of scales resulting in a ``roller bearing'' effect. Flow parallel to the rows, as expected, resulted in larger drag increases, especially at lower Re. Both effects may prove beneficial to the butterfly, during flapping and gliding flight, and will be discussed based on the observed orientation of the scales on real specimens.

  6. The functional basis of wing patterning in Heliconius butterflies: the molecules behind mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronforst, Marcus R; Papa, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Wing-pattern mimicry in butterflies has provided an important example of adaptation since Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace proposed evolution by natural selection >150 years ago. The neotropical butterfly genus Heliconius played a central role in the development of mimicry theory and has since been studied extensively in the context of ecology and population biology, behavior, and mimicry genetics. Heliconius species are notable for their diverse color patterns, and previous crossing experiments revealed that much of this variation is controlled by a small number of large-effect, Mendelian switch loci. Recent comparative analyses have shown that the same switch loci control wing-pattern diversity throughout the genus, and a number of these have now been positionally cloned. Using a combination of comparative genetic mapping, association tests, and gene expression analyses, variation in red wing patterning throughout Heliconius has been traced back to the action of the transcription factor optix. Similarly, the signaling ligand WntA has been shown to control variation in melanin patterning across Heliconius and other butterflies. Our understanding of the molecular basis of Heliconius mimicry is now providing important insights into a variety of additional evolutionary phenomena, including the origin of supergenes, the interplay between constraint and evolvability, the genetic basis of convergence, the potential for introgression to facilitate adaptation, the mechanisms of hybrid speciation in animals, and the process of ecological speciation. PMID:25953905

  7. Fabrication and good ethanol sensing of biomorphic SnO{sub 2} with architecture hierarchy of butterfly wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Fang; Su Huilan; Han Jie; Zhang Di [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chen Zhixin, E-mail: hlsu@sjtu.edu.c, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.c [Engineering Materials Institute, Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW2522 (Australia)

    2009-12-09

    Using super-hydrophobic butterfly wings as templates, we developed an aqueous sol-gel soakage process assisted by ethanol-wetting and followed by calcination to fabricate well-organized porous hierarchical SnO{sub 2} with connective hollow interiors and thin mesoporous walls. The exquisite hierarchical architecture of SnO{sub 2} is faithfully replicated from the lightweight skeleton of butterfly wings at the level from nano- to macro-scales. On the basis of the self-assembly of SnO{sub 2} nanocrystallites with diameter around 7.0 nm, the interconnected tubes (lamellas), the fastigiated hollow tubers (pillars) and the double-layered substrates further construct the biomorphic hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from the small grain size and the unique hierarchical architecture, the biomorphic SnO{sub 2} as an ethanol sensor exhibits high sensitivity (49.8 to 50 ppm ethanol), and fast response/recovery time (11/31 s to 50 ppm ethanol) even at relatively low working temperature (170 {sup 0}C).

  8. Fabrication and good ethanol sensing of biomorphic SnO2 with architecture hierarchy of butterfly wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using super-hydrophobic butterfly wings as templates, we developed an aqueous sol-gel soakage process assisted by ethanol-wetting and followed by calcination to fabricate well-organized porous hierarchical SnO2 with connective hollow interiors and thin mesoporous walls. The exquisite hierarchical architecture of SnO2 is faithfully replicated from the lightweight skeleton of butterfly wings at the level from nano- to macro-scales. On the basis of the self-assembly of SnO2 nanocrystallites with diameter around 7.0 nm, the interconnected tubes (lamellas), the fastigiated hollow tubers (pillars) and the double-layered substrates further construct the biomorphic hierarchical architecture. Benefiting from the small grain size and the unique hierarchical architecture, the biomorphic SnO2 as an ethanol sensor exhibits high sensitivity (49.8 to 50 ppm ethanol), and fast response/recovery time (11/31 s to 50 ppm ethanol) even at relatively low working temperature (170 0C).

  9. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  10. Bioinspired fabrication of magneto-optic hierarchical architecture by hydrothermal process from butterfly wing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a green solution to incorporate nano-Fe3O4 into the hierarchical architecture of a natural butterfly wing, thus obtaining unique magneto-optic nanocomposites with otherwise unavailable photonic features. Morphological characterization and Fourier Transform Infrared-Raman Spectroscope measurements indicate the assembly of Fe3O4 nanocrystallites. The magnetic and optical responses of Fe3O4/wing show a coupling effect between the biological structure and magnetic material. The saturation magnetization and coercivity values of the as-prepared magneto-optic architecture varied with change of subtle structure. Such a combination of nano-Fe3O4 and natural butterfly wing might create novel magneto-optic properties, and the relevant ideas could inspire the investigation of magneto-optical devices. - Highlights: → We develop a green, easy controlled hydrothermal process to synthesize magnetite hierarchical architecture. → The optical response of Fe3O4/wing exhibits a coupling effect between the structure and material. → The saturation magnetization value is mediated by shape anisotropy and the stress of different subtle structure, which has provided unique insights into studying the mysterious magnetic property of magnetite.

  11. The natural transparency and piezoelectric response of the Greta oto butterfly wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Valerie R; Schiffman, Jessica D; Leaffer, Oren D; Spanier, Jonathan E; Schauer, Caroline L

    2009-04-01

    The Greta oto, or the "glasswing butterfly", is a member of the Ithomiini tribe. Although rare among lepidopteran, the G. oto's wings are naturally transparent. To understand the material properties of natural transparency, the various structures on the surface of the wings, both the transparent and brown "veins" and wing parameter regions were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), reflectance spectrometry, transmission spectrometry and scanning probe microscopy (SPM) in order to investigate their local structure, periodic character, and electromechanical response. Nanosized protuberances in a highly ordered array were found on the surface of the transparent part similar to that of the "corneal nipple array" found in other insects as an antireflective device. PMID:20023733

  12. Iridescence and spectral filtering of the gyroid-type photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamin

  13. Variation in wing characteristics of monarch butterflies during migration: Earlier migrants have redder and more elongated wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satterfield Dara A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The migration of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in North America has a number of parallels with long-distance bird migration, including the fact that migratory populations of monarchs have larger and more elongated forewings than residents. These characteristics likely serve to optimize flight performance in monarchs, as they also do with birds. A question that has rarely been addressed thus far in birds or monarchs is if and how wing characteristics vary within a migration season. Individuals with superior flight performance should migrate quickly, and/or with minimal stopovers, and these individuals should be at the forefront of the migratory cohort. Conversely, individuals with poor flight performance and/or low endurance would be more likely to fall behind, and these would comprise the latest migrants. Here we examined how the wing morphology of migrating monarchs varies to determine if wing characteristics of early migrants differ from late migrants. We measured forewing area, elongation (length/width, and redness, which has been shown to predict flight endurance in monarchs. Based on a collection of 75 monarchs made one entire season (fall 2010, results showed that the earliest migrants (n = 20 in this cohort had significantly redder and more elongated forewings than the latest migrants (n = 17. There was also a non-significant tendency for early migrants to have larger forewing areas. These results suggest that the pace of migration in monarchs is at least partly dependent on the properties of their wings. Moreover, these data also raise a number of questions about the ultimate fate of monarchs that fall behind

  14. Why Small Is Beautiful: Wing Colour Is Free from Thermoregulatory Constraint in the Small Lycaenid Butterfly, Polyommatus icarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rien De Keyser

    Full Text Available We examined the roles of wing melanisation, weight, and basking posture in thermoregulation in Polyommatus Icarus, a phenotypically variable and protandrous member of the diverse Polyommatinae (Lycaenidae. Under controlled experimental conditions, approximating to marginal environmental conditions for activity in the field (= infrequent flight, long duration basking periods, warming rates are maximised with fully open wings and maximum body temperatures are dependent on weight. Variation in wing melanisation within and between sexes has no effect on warming rates; males and females which differ in melanisation had similar warming rates. Posture also affected cooling rates, consistent with cooling being dependent on convective heat loss. We hypothesise that for this small sized butterfly, melanisation has little or no effect on thermoregulation. This may be a factor contributing to the diversity of wing colours in the Polyommatinae. Because of the importance of size for thermoregulation in this small butterfly, requirements for attaining a suitable size to confer thermal stability in adults may also be a factor influencing larval feeding rates, development time and patterns of voltinism. Our findings indicate that commonly accepted views of the importance of melanisation, posture and size to thermoregulation, developed using medium and large sized butterflies, are not necessarily applicable to small sized butterflies.

  15. Butterfly scales as bionic templates for complex ordered nanophotonic materials: A pathway to biomimetic plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, Zoran; Pantelić, Dejan; Sarajlić, Milija; Savić-Šević, Svetlana; Matović, Jovan; Jelenković, Branislav; Vasiljević-Radović, Dana; Ćurčić, Srećko; Vuković, Slobodan; Pavlović, Vladimir; Buha, Jelena; Lačković, Vesna; Labudović-Borović, Milica; Ćurčić, Božidar

    2013-08-01

    In this paper we propose a possible use of butterfly scales as templates for ordered 2D or 3D nanophotonic materials, with complexity not easily reproducible by conventional micro/nanofabrication methods. Functionalization through laminar nanocompositing is utilized to impart novel properties to the biological scaffold. An extremely wide variability of butterfly scale forms, shapes, sizes and fine structures is observed in nature, many of them already possessing peculiar optical properties. Their nanophotonic functionalization ensures a large choice of forms and functions, including enhanced light localization, light and plasmon waveguiding and general metamaterial behavior, to mention a few. We show that one is able to achieve a combination of plasmonics and bionics, resulting in functionalities seldom if ever met in nature. As an illustration we have analyzed the photonic properties of the nanostructured scales on the wings of Purple Emperor butterflies Apatura ilia, Apatura iris and Sasakia charonda. Their intricate nanometer-sized structures produce remarkable ultraviolet-blue iridescence, spectrally and directionally narrow. We present our analysis of their plasmonic/nanophotonic functionalization including preliminary calculations and initial experimental results. As a simple example, we used radiofrequent sputtering to produce nanoaperture-based plasmonic structures at a fraction of the cost and necessary engineering efforts compared to the conventional top-down methods. We conclude that the described pathway to biomimetic plasmonics offers potentials for significant expansion of the nanophotonic and nanoplasmonic material toolbox.

  16. Polarization-sensitive color in butterfly scales: polarization conversion from ridges with reflecting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Tang, Yiwen; Meng, Jinsong; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Han; Fan, Tongxiang; Zhang, Di

    2014-11-01

    Polarization-sensitive color originates from polarization-dependent reflection or transmission, exhibiting abundant light information, including intensity, spectral distribution, and polarization. A wide range of butterflies are physiologically sensitive to polarized light, but the origins of polarized signal have not been fully understood. Here we systematically investigate the colorful scales of six species of butterfly to reveal the physical origins of polarization-sensitive color. Microscopic optical images under crossed polarizers exhibit their polarization-sensitive characteristic, and micro-structural characterizations clarify their structural commonality. In the case of the structural scales that have deep ridges, the polarization-sensitive color related with scale azimuth is remarkable. Periodic ridges lead to the anisotropic effective refractive indices in the parallel and perpendicular grating orientations, which achieves form-birefringence, resulting in the phase difference of two different component polarized lights. Simulated results show that ridge structures with reflecting elements reflect and rotate the incident p-polarized light into s-polarized light. The dimensional parameters and shapes of grating greatly affect the polarization conversion process, and the triangular deep grating extends the outstanding polarization conversion effect from the sub-wavelength period to the period comparable to visible light wavelength. The parameters of ridge structures in butterfly scales have been optimized to fulfill the polarization-dependent reflection for secret communication. The structural and physical origin of polarization conversion provides a more comprehensive perspective on the creation of polarization-sensitive color in butterfly wing scales. These findings show great potential in anti-counterfeiting technology and advanced optical material design. PMID:25401892

  17. Iridescence and spectral filtering of the gyroid-type photonic crystals in Parides sesostris wing scales

    OpenAIRE

    WILTS, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; De Raedt, Hans; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2011-01-01

    The cover scales on the wing of the Emerald-patched Cattleheart butterfly, Parides sesostris, contain gyroid-type biological photonic crystals that brightly reflect green light. A pigment, which absorbs maximally at approximately 395 nm, is immersed predominantly throughout the elaborate upper lamina. This pigment acts as a long-pass filter shaping the reflectance spectrum of the underlying photonic crystals. The additional effect of the filtering is that the spatial distribution of the scale...

  18. Wing Color of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus in Eastern North America across Life Stages: Migrants Are “Redder” than Breeding and Overwintering Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies are famous among insects for their unique migration in eastern North America to overwinter sites in Mexico and their bright orange wing color, which has an aposematic function. While capturing migrating monarchs in northeast Georgia, USA, I noticed that many appeared to have unusually deep orange wings. I initiated the current study to compare wing hues (obtained using image analysis of scanned wings of migrants (captured in 2005 and 2008 to samples of breeding and overwintering monarchs. Consistent with initial observations, migrants had significantly lower orange hues (reflecting deeper, redder orange colors than breeding and overwintering monarchs. There was also a difference in hue between sexes and a relationship with wing size, such that larger monarchs had deeper, redder hues. The reasons for the color difference of migrants are not apparent, but one possibility is that the longer-lived migrant generation has denser scalation to allow for scale loss over their lifespan. Alternatively, this effect could be confined to the subpopulation of monarchs in the Southeastern United States, which may not be well represented at the Mexican overwintering sites. In any case, this discovery highlights the many questions emerging on the significance of wing color variation in this species.

  19. Highly conserved gene order and numerous novel repetitive elements in genomic regions linked to wing pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halder Georg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With over 20 parapatric races differing in their warningly colored wing patterns, the butterfly Heliconius erato provides a fascinating example of an adaptive radiation. Together with matching races of its co-mimic Heliconius melpomene, H. erato also represents a textbook case of Müllerian mimicry, a phenomenon where common warning signals are shared amongst noxious organisms. It is of great interest to identify the specific genes that control the mimetic wing patterns of H. erato and H. melpomene. To this end we have undertaken comparative mapping and targeted genomic sequencing in both species. This paper reports on a comparative analysis of genomic sequences linked to color pattern mimicry genes in Heliconius. Results Scoring AFLP polymorphisms in H. erato broods allowed us to survey loci at approximately 362 kb intervals across the genome. With this strategy we were able to identify markers tightly linked to two color pattern genes: D and Cr, which were then used to screen H. erato BAC libraries in order to identify clones for sequencing. Gene density across 600 kb of BAC sequences appeared relatively low, although the number of predicted open reading frames was typical for an insect. We focused analyses on the D- and Cr-linked H. erato BAC sequences and on the Yb-linked H. melpomene BAC sequence. A comparative analysis between homologous regions of H. erato (Cr-linked BAC and H. melpomene (Yb-linked BAC revealed high levels of sequence conservation and microsynteny between the two species. We found that repeated elements constitute 26% and 20% of BAC sequences from H. erato and H. melpomene respectively. The majority of these repetitive sequences appear to be novel, as they showed no significant similarity to any other available insect sequences. We also observed signs of fine scale conservation of gene order between Heliconius and the moth Bombyx mori, suggesting that lepidopteran genome architecture may be conserved

  20. Wing Color of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in Eastern North America across Life Stages: Migrants Are “Redder” than Breeding and Overwintering Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.

    2009-01-01

    Monarch butterflies are famous among insects for their unique migration in eastern North America to overwinter sites in Mexico and their bright orange wing color, which has an aposematic function. While capturing migrating monarchs in northeast Georgia, USA, I noticed that many appeared to have unusually deep orange wings. I initiated the current study to compare wing hues (obtained using image analysis of scanned wings) of migrants (captured in 2005 and 2008) to samples of breeding and over...

  1. Replication of butterfly wing and natural lotus leaf structures by nanoimprint on silica sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An original and low cost method for the fabrication of patterned surfaces bioinspired from butterfly wings and lotus leaves is presented. Silica-based sol-gel films are thermally imprinted from elastomeric molds to produce stable structures with superhydrophobicity values as high as 160 deg. water contact angle. The biomimetic surfaces are demonstrated to be tuned from superhydrophobic to superhydrophilic by annealing between 200 deg. C and 500 deg. C

  2. A simple and effective approach towards biomimetic replication of photonic structures from butterfly wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general sonochemical process is reported for the replication of photonic structures from Morpho butterfly wings in several hours. By selecting appropriate precursors, we can achieve exact replications of photonic structures in a variety of transparent metal oxides, such as titania, tin oxide and silica. The exact replications at the micro- and nanoscales were characterized by a combination of FE-SEM, TEM, EDX and Raman measurements. The optical properties of the replicas were investigated by using reflectance spectroscopy, and it was found that the interesting chromaticity of the reflected light could be adjusted simply by tuning the replica materials. An ultrasensitive SnO2-based chemical sensor was prepared from the SnO2 replica. The sensor has a sensitivity of 35.3-50 ppm ethanol at 300 0C, accompanied by a rapid response and recovery (around 8-15 s), owing to its large surface area and photonic structure. Thus, this process could be developed to produce photonic structural ceramics which could be used in many passive and active infrared devices, especially high performance optical components and sensors.

  3. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. PMID:26688277

  4. The effect of butterfly-scale inspired patterning on leading-edge vortex growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jacob; Lang, Amy

    2015-11-01

    Leading edge vortices (LEVs) are important for generating thrust and lift in flapping flight, and the surface patterning (scales) on butterfly wings is hypothesized to play a role in the vortex formation of the LEV. To simplify this complex flow problem, an experiment was designed to focus on the alteration of 2-D vortex development with a variation in surface patterning. Specifically, the secondary vorticity generated by the LEV interacting at the patterned surface was studied and the subsequent affect on the growth rate of the circulation in the LEV. For this experiment we used butterfly inspired grooves attached to a flat plate and compared the vortex formation to a smooth plate case as the plate moved vertically. The plate is impulsively started in quiescent water and flow fields at Re = 1500, 3000, and 6000 are examined using Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). The vortex formation time is 3.0 and is based on the flat plate travel length and chord length. We would like to thank the National Science Foundation REU Site Award 1358991 for funding this research.

  5. Biomimetic fabrication of 2D photonic Y_2O_3:Eu~(3+) phosphor templated from butterfly wing scales%蝶翅二维光子晶体结构Y_2O_3:Eu~(3+)的仿生制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于奎龙; 范同祥

    2012-01-01

    以自然界中多种多样、复杂精细的生物结构为模板,即通过生物模板法,可制备出具有类似结构的人工材料以提高材料性能或探索材料新的性质。本研究以具有精细二维光子晶体结构的绿斑德凤蝶(Papilio epiphorbas)鳞片为模板,采用以水溶胶凝胶为前驱体的生物模板法成功制备出具有精细二维光子晶体结构的Y2O3:Eu3+荧光体。场发射扫描电镜对仿生Y2O3:Eu3+进行了结构表征,证明仿生Y2O3:Eu3+可以完好地复制蝴蝶鳞片的二维光子晶体结构;采用激光共聚焦显微拉曼光谱仪对仿生Y2O3:Eu3+进行了光致发光测试,证明Eu3+充分掺杂使荧光体产生了特征荧光。通过水溶胶前驱体工艺和水溶液前驱体工艺的对比研究,证明了以水溶胶为前驱体的生物模板法在制备精细结构材料上的优势,对精细结构材料的生物模板法制备具有重要参考价值。%Using the natural intricate and delicate structures in biology as templates,i.e.biotemplation,the artificial analogue could be fabricated for improving the properties of novel materials.The green wing scales of the butterfly Papilio epiphorbas with intricate two dimensional photonic crystal(2D PhC) structure were adopted as templates to fabricate the 2D PhC Y2O3:Eu3+ phosphor through the aqueous sol-gel method.Field emission scanning electron microscopy(FE-SEM) demonstrated that the biomimetic Y2O3:Eu3+ could well duplicate the 2D PhC structure of butterfly scales.Emission spectra of the biomimetic Y2O3:Eu3+ tested via Laser-focused Raman microspectrometer confirmed that Eu3+ was efficiently dopped into the Y2O3 matrix and the target biomimetic material was obtained.The experimental contrast of fabrication routes with aqueous sol-gel precursor and water solution precursor indicated the advantages of the aqueous sol-gel method in fabricating delicate materials through biotemplation and thus could

  6. Magnetron sputtering in the creation of photonic nanostructures derived from Sasakia Charonda Formosana-butterfly wings for applied in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haihong; Zhou, Ru; Cheng, Cong; Zhang, Gonghai; Hu, Yu; Huang, Bin; Zhang, Shouwei; Shang, Xin; Xia, Mei; Xu, Jinzhang

    2016-09-01

    Creating new functional materials derived from the structures seen on butterfly wings has achieved interest in a variety of research topics. However, there need a concision approach could result in a high-quality, precise, and convenient process for the fabrication of complex nanostructures replication with unique functionalities based on the butterfly wings. Here we developed a pithy approach based on a magnetron sputtering metal Ti process for biotemplating used to refine hierarchically porous titanium dioxide photonic crystal nanostructures (TiO2sbnd PCN), themselves derived from nanostructures present on the wings of Sasakia Charonda Formosana (S. Charonda) butterflies. For the first time, the TiO2sbnd PCN were deposited on the top of the P25 active layer and were used to fabricate DSSCs as the light-scattering layers of photoanodes with power conversion efficiencies of up to 8.7%. Remarkably, a much enhanced photocurrent density and a prominent photoelectrochemical conversion capability have been achieved, which are exceeding most of the previously reported photoanodes as well as a similar butterflies replication-based device structure. Our study suggests many exciting opportunities of developing artificially engineered butterfly wing-based solar-to-fuel conversion.

  7. Fluid Dynamics of Clap-and-Fling with Highly Flexible Wings inspired by the Locomotion of Sea Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuoyu; Shoele, Kourosh; Adhikari, Deepak; Yen, Jeannette; Webster, Donald; Mittal, Rajat; Johns Hopkins University Team; Georgia Institute of Technology Team

    2015-11-01

    This study is motivated by the locomotion of sea butterflies (L. Helicina) which propel themselves in the water column using highly flexible wing-like parapodia. These animals execute a complex clap-and-fling with their highly flexible wings that is different from that of insects, and the fluid dynamics of which is not well understood. We use two models to study the fluid dyamics of these wings. In the first, we use prescribed wing kinematics that serve as a model of those observed for these animals. The second model is a fluid-structure interaction model where wing-like parapodia are modeled as flexible but inextensible membranes. The membrane properties, such as bending and stretching stiffness are modified such that the corresponding motion qualitatively matches the kinematics of L. helicina. Both models are used to examine the fluid dynamics of the clap-and-fling and its effectiveness in generating lift for these animals. Acknowledgement - research is supported by a grant from NSF.

  8. Fine Structure of Wing Scales in Chrysozephyrus Ataxus Butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějková-Plšková, J.; Mika, Filip; Shiojiri, S.; Shiojiri, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2011), s. 297-303. ISSN 1345-9678 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/09/P543 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : thermozephyrus ataxus * photonic crystal * field-emission scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2011

  9. A lack of Wolbachia-specific DNA in samples from apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    Various insects contain maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria which can cause reproductive alterations, modulation of some physiological responses (like immunity, heat shock response, and oxidative stress response), and resistance to viral infections. In butterflies, Wolbachia sp. is the most frequent endosymbiont from this group, occurring in about 30 % of species tested to date. In this report, the presence of Wolbachia-specific DNA has been detected in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo). In the isolated population of this insect occurring in Pieniny National Park (Poland), malformed individuals with deformed or reduced wings appear with an exceptionally high frequency. Interestingly, while total DNA isolated from most (about 85 %) normal insects contained Wolbachia-specific sequences detected by PCR, such sequences were absent in a large fraction (70 %) of individuals with deformed wings and in all tested individuals with reduced wings. These results indicate for the first time the correlation between malformation of wings and the absence of Wolbachia sp. in insects. Although the lack of the endosymbiotic bacteria cannot be considered as the sole cause of the deformation or reduction of wings, one might suggest that Wolbachia sp. could play a protective role in the ontogenetic development of apollo butterfly. PMID:26423782

  10. Design of Insect-Scale Flapping Wing Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Nabawy, Mostafa Ramadan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the state of the art in integrated design of insect-scale piezoelectric actuated flapping wing vehicles through the development of novel theoretical models for flapping wing aerodynamics and piezoelectric actuator dynamics, and integration of these models into a closed form design process.A comprehensive literature review of available engineered designs of miniature rotary and flapping wing vehicles is provided. A novel taxonomy based on wing and actuator kinematics...

  11. Composite organic-inorganic butterfly scales: production of photonic structures with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, Davy P; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Wagner, Brent K; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Summers, Christopher J

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in the photonics and optics industries have produced great demand for ever more sophisticated optical devices, such as photonic crystals. However, photonic crystals are notoriously difficult to manufacture. Increasingly, therefore, researchers have turned towards naturally occurring photonic structures for inspiration and a wide variety of elaborate techniques have been attempted to copy and harness biological processes to manufacture artificial photonic structures. Here, we describe a simple, direct process for producing an artificial photonic device by using a naturally occurring structure from the wings of the butterfly Papilio blumei as a template and low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 to create a faithful cast of the structure. The optical properties of the organic-inorganic diffraction structures produced are assessed by normal-incidence specular reflectance and found to be well described by multilayer computation method using a two-dimensional photonic crystal model. Depending on the structural integrity of the initially sealed scale, it was found possible not only to replicate the outer but also the inner and more complex surfaces of the structure, each resulting in distinct multicolor optical behavior as revealed by experimental and theoretical data. In this paper, we also explore tailoring the process to design composite skeleton architectures with desired optical properties and integrated multifunctional (mechanical, thermal, optical, fluidic) properties. PMID:18851080

  12. A Single-Wing Removal Method to Assess Correspondence Between Gene Expression and Phenotype in Butterflies: The Case of Distal-less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kiran; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    It is often desirable but difficult to retrieve information on the mature phenotype of an immature tissue sample that has been subjected to gene expression analysis. This problem cannot be ignored when individual variation within a species is large. To circumvent this problem in the butterfly wing system, we developed a new surgical method for removing a single forewing from a pupa using Junonia orithya; the operated pupa was left to develop to an adult without eclosion. The removed right forewing was subjected to gene expression analysis, whereas the non-removed left forewing was examined for color patterns. As a test case, we focused on Distal-less (Dll), which likely plays an active role in inducing elemental patterns, including eyespots. The Dll expression level in forewings was paired with eyespot size data from the same individual. One third of the operated pupae survived and developed wing color patterns. Dll expression levels were significantly higher in males than in females, although male eyespots were smaller in size than female eyespots. Eyespot size data showed weak but significant correlations with the Dll expression level in females. These results demonstrate that a single-wing removal method was successfully applied to the butterfly wing system and suggest the weak and non-exclusive contribution of Dll to eyespot size determination in this butterfly. Our novel methodology for establishing correspondence between gene expression and phenotype can be applied to other candidate genes for color pattern development in butterflies. Conceptually similar methods may also be applicable in other developmental systems. PMID:26853864

  13. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Katie; Senthilarasu, S.; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-07-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficiency but are both heavy and bulky, severely limiting their deployment. Here, we show that the attachment of butterfly wings to a solar cell increases its output power by 42.3%, proving that the wings are indeed highly reflective. Importantly, and relative to current concentrators, the wings improve the power to weight ratio of the overall structure 17-fold, vastly expanding their potential application. Moreover, a single mono-layer of scale cells removed from the butterflies’ wings maintained this high reflectivity showing that a single layer of scale cell-like structures can also form a useful coating. As predicted, the wings increased the temperature of the butterflies’ thorax dramatically, showing that the V-shaped basking posture of white butterflies has indeed evolved to increase the temperature of their flight muscles prior to take-off.

  14. Lesions in the wingless gene of the Apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) individuals with deformed or reduced wings, coming from the isolated population in Pieniny (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Sanak, Marek; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-02-01

    Parnassius apollo (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) is a butterfly species which was common in Europe in 19th century, but now it is considered as near threatened. Various programs devoted to protect and save P. apollo have been established, between others the one in Pieniny National Park (Poland). An isolated population of this butterfly has been restored there from a small group of 20-30 individuals in early 1990s. However, deformations or reductions of wings occur in this population in a relatively large number of insects, and the cause of this phenomenon is not known. In this report, the occurrence of lesions in the wingless (wg) gene is demonstrated in most of tested butterflies with deformed or reduced wings, but not in normal insects. Although the analyses indicated that wg lesion(s) cannot be the sole cause of the deformed or reduced wings in the population of P. apollo from Pieniny, the discovery that this genetic defect occurs in most of malformed individuals, can be considered as an important step in understanding this phenomenon. PMID:26581509

  15. Wing-click sounds of Heliconius cydno alithea (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae) butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild Heliconius cydno Doubleday females were observed producing short trains of 3-10 wing-clicks at the rate of about 10 clicks/s. Sounds were recorded at roosting time and during the day in encounters between conspecifics. The individual clicks had a mean duration of 1.48 ms and a broad frequency...

  16. Preserving and vouchering butterflies and moths for large-scale museum-based molecular research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Samantha W.; Mitter, Kim; Hamilton, Chris A.; Plotkin, David; Mitter, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) comprise significant portions of the world’s natural history collections, but a standardized tissue preservation protocol for molecular research is largely lacking. Lepidoptera have traditionally been spread on mounting boards to display wing patterns and colors, which are often important for species identification. Many molecular phylogenetic studies have used legs from pinned specimens as the primary source for DNA in order to preserve a morphological voucher, but the amount of available tissue is often limited. Preserving an entire specimen in a cryogenic freezer is ideal for DNA preservation, but without an easily accessible voucher it can make specimen identification, verification, and morphological work difficult. Here we present a procedure that creates accessible and easily visualized “wing vouchers” of individual Lepidoptera specimens, and preserves the remainder of the insect in a cryogenic freezer for molecular research. Wings are preserved in protective holders so that both dorsal and ventral patterns and colors can be easily viewed without further damage. Our wing vouchering system has been implemented at the University of Maryland (AToL Lep Collection) and the University of Florida (Florida Museum of Natural History, McGuire Center of Lepidoptera and Biodiversity), which are among two of the largest Lepidoptera molecular collections in the world. PMID:27366654

  17. Light-emitting nanocasts formed from bio-templates: FESEM and cathodoluminescent imaging studies of butterfly scale replicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocasts comprising of red-light-emitting cubic Y2O3:Eu phosphors were made from butterfly wing scale bio-templates. We report herein the first cathodoluminescent images made from such nanocasts and show that valuable insights into the nature of the internal structure of the casts can be gained by the use of this technique. The casts faithfully reproduced the fine sub-micrometre size detail of the scales, as was made evident by both FESEM and cathodoluminescent images that were collected from the same sample areas using a hyphenated FESEM-CL instrument. There was excellent agreement between the FESEM and cathodoluminescent images, the image quality of the latter indicating that the Eu3+ activator ions were evenly dispersed in the Y2O3:Eu phosphor on a sub-micrometre scale. The casts were made by infilling the natural moulds with a Y2O3:Eu precursor solution that was subsequently dried and fired to convert it into the phosphor material. This method provides a simple, low cost route for fabricating nanostructures having feature dimensions as small as 20 nm in size, and it has the potential to be applied to other metal oxide systems for producing nano-and micro-components for electronic, magnetic or photonic integrated systems

  18. On the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Shnirelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The term "butterfly effect" means an extreme sensitivity of a dynamical system to small perturbations: "The beating of a butterfly wing in South America can result in the considerable change of positions and force of a tropical cyclon in Atlantic 2 weeks later". Numerical simulations of R.Robert show the absence of the butterfly effect in some simple flows of 2-d ideal incompressible fluid which is a model of the atmosphere. In this work a more complicated flow is considered. Numerical simulation demonstrates the butterfly effect in the strongest form. The effect is robust, and the experiment is 100% reproducible.

  19. Drawing butterfly wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Maurizio

    This work is based on a statistical analysis of sunspot data over three solar cycles. It shows evidence for significant poleward jumps of the sunspots during their equatorward migration with the increasing phase of the solar cycle.

  20. Reproduction in Flame Azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum, Ericaceae): A Rare Case of Insect Wing Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Mary Jane; Allison, Suzanne E; Wolfe, Lorne M

    2015-08-01

    Although many angiosperms are serviced by flying pollinators, reports of wings as pollen vectors are rare. Flame azalea (Rhododendron calendulaceum) is visited by diverse insects, yet previous observations suggested that only butterfly wings may transfer pollen to stigmas. We used an experimental approach to determine whether butterfly wings are the primary vehicle of pollination in flame azalea. Over two seasons of observations, only butterflies (Papilio glaucus and Speyeria cybele) contacted both anthers and stigmas, yet because of differences in wing-flapping behavior, P. glaucus transferred pollen most efficiently. In contrast, bee species specialized either on pollen or nectar but did not contact both anthers and stigmas. A field experiment revealed that flowers excluding butterflies experienced almost complete fruit failure, whereas fruit set in open flowers did not differ from those that were hand pollinated. Additionally, butterflies had 56-fold more azalea pollen on their wings than bodies, while azalea stigmas bore both pollen and wing scales. These results suggest that plants with many visitors contacting reproductive organs may still specialize on a single guild of visitors for pollination and that wing-borne pollen transfer is a key mode of flame azalea pollination. PMID:26655157

  1. Characterization of Structural and Pigmentary Colors in Common Emigrant (Catopsilia Pomona) Butterfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study of structural colors in case of insects and butterflies is important for their biomimic and biophotonics applications. Structural color is the color which is produced by physical structures and their interaction with light while pigmentary color is produced by absorption of light by pigments. Common Emigrant butterfly is widely distributed in India. It is of moderate size with wing span of about 60-80 mm. The wings are broadly white with yellow or sulphur yellow coloration at places as well as few dark black patches. It belongs to family Pieridae. A study of structural color in case of Common Emigrant butterfly has been carried out in the present work. The characterization of wing color was performed using absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopic study of the wings of Common Emigrant butterfly showed that three different types of scales are present on the wing surface dorsally. Diffracting structures are present in certain parts of the surfaces of the various scales. Bead like structures are embedded in the intricate structures of the scales. Absorption spectra revealed that a strong absorption peak is seen in the UV-range. Crystalline structure of beads was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction analysis.

  2. A brachypterous butterfly?

    OpenAIRE

    Viloria, Angel L; Pyrcz, Tomasz W; Wojtusiak, Janusz; Ferrer-Paris, José R.; Beccaloni, George W; Sattler, Klaus; Lees, David C

    2003-01-01

    Butterflies of the genus Redonda Adams & Bernard (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) are endemic to the Andes of Venezuela. They comprise a monophyletic group of five allopatric taxa, females of which show various degrees of wing reduction and ability to fly. The female of Redonda bordoni Viloria & Pyrcz sp. nov. appears to be brachypterous and incapable of sustained flight, a phenomenon previously unknown within the Rhopalocera.

  3. Scaling law and enhancement of lift generation of an insect-size hovering flexible wing

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Chang-kwon; Shyy, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We report a comprehensive scaling law and novel lift generation mechanisms relevant to the aerodynamic functions of structural flexibility in insect flight. Using a Navier–Stokes equation solver, fully coupled to a structural dynamics solver, we consider the hovering motion of a wing of insect size, in which the dynamics of fluid–structure interaction leads to passive wing rotation. Lift generated on the flexible wing scales with the relative shape deformation parameter, whereas the optimal l...

  4. Changes is genes coding for laccases 1 and 2 may contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from the isolated population in Pieniny National Park (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiewicz, Kinga; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    An isolated population of apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo, Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) occurs in Pieniny National Park (Poland). Deformations and reductions of wings in a relatively large number of individuals from this population is found, yet the reasons for these defects are unknown. During studies devoted to identify cause(s) of this phenomenon, we found that specific regions of genes coding of enzymes laccases 1 and 2 could not be amplified from DNA samples isolated from large fractions of malformed insects while expected PCR products were detected in almost all (with one exception) normal butterflies. Laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductases) are oxidases containing several copper atoms. They catalyse single-electron oxidations of phenolic or other compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. In insects, their enzymatic activities were found previously in epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, salivary glands, and reproductive tissues. Therefore, we suggest that defects in genes coding for laccases might contribute to deformation and reduction of wings in apollo butterflies, though it seems obvious that deficiency in these enzymes could not be the sole cause of these developmental improperties in P. apollo from Pieniny National Park. PMID:26523407

  5. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroto [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, 60 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shimoyama, Isao, E-mail: isao@i.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechano-Informatics, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  6. Forward flight of swallowtail butterfly with simple flapping motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlike other flying insects, the wing motion of swallowtail butterflies is basically limited to flapping because their fore wings partly overlap their hind wings, structurally restricting the feathering needed for active control of aerodynamic force. Hence, it can be hypothesized that the flight of swallowtail butterflies is realized with simple flapping, requiring little feedback control of the feathering angle. To verify this hypothesis, we fabricated an artificial butterfly mimicking the wing motion and wing shape of a swallowtail butterfly and analyzed its flights using images taken with a high-speed video camera. The results demonstrated that stable forward flight could be realized without active feathering or feedback control of the wing motion. During the flights, the artificial butterfly's body moved up and down passively in synchronization with the flapping, and the artificial butterfly followed an undulating flight trajectory like an actual swallowtail butterfly. Without feedback control of the wing motion, the body movement is directly affected by change of aerodynamic force due to the wing deformation; the degree of deformation was determined by the wing venation. Unlike a veinless wing, a mimic wing with veins generated a much higher lift coefficient during the flapping flight than in a steady flow due to the large body motion.

  7. Scaling law and enhancement of lift generation of an insect-size hovering flexible wing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-kwon; Shyy, Wei

    2013-08-01

    We report a comprehensive scaling law and novel lift generation mechanisms relevant to the aerodynamic functions of structural flexibility in insect flight. Using a Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully coupled to a structural dynamics solver, we consider the hovering motion of a wing of insect size, in which the dynamics of fluid-structure interaction leads to passive wing rotation. Lift generated on the flexible wing scales with the relative shape deformation parameter, whereas the optimal lift is obtained when the wing deformation synchronizes with the imposed translation, consistent with previously reported observations for fruit flies and honeybees. Systematic comparisons with rigid wings illustrate that the nonlinear response in wing motion results in a greater peak angle compared with a simple harmonic motion, yielding higher lift. Moreover, the compliant wing streamlines its shape via camber deformation to mitigate the nonlinear lift-degrading wing-wake interaction to further enhance lift. These bioinspired aeroelastic mechanisms can be used in the development of flapping wing micro-robots. PMID:23760300

  8. Monitoring of a Full-Scale Wing Fatigue Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, Jaap; Hwang, Jason

    2014-01-01

    A wing of a decommissioned aircraft of the Royal Netherlands Air Force (RNLAF) was fatigue tested to more than two times the design life. Part of the test was the evaluation of load monitoring and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) techniques. For load monitoring the data of conventional resistance

  9. Dancing With the Poetic Wings of Butterflies ---On the Butterfly Image Literary And Artistic Works%舞动着诗意翅膀的蝴蝶——试论文艺作品中的蝴蝶意象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文艳

    2012-01-01

    意象是构成意境的重要元素,是物象的人化,是情志的物化。在众多的动植物意象中,蝴蝶以其独特的生长历程及其绚丽的外表,给千百年来的文艺家们,带来了无穷的联想与思索。文章从哲思之蝶、情谊之蝶两个视角,初步探讨文艺作品中蝴蝶意象的审美特征,从而真正领悟其深刻的文化内涵。%Imagery, which is the humanization of materials and the materialization of emotions, is an important element to constitute an artistic conception. In many plant and animal imagery, the butterfly with its unique growth process and its brilliant appearance, has brought endless associations and thinking to the writers and artists for thousands of years. From the two perspectives of philosophizing butterfly and the feelings of butterflies, the paper explores the aesthetic characteristics of the butterfly imagery in literary and artistic works, in order to truly comprehend its profound cultural connotation.

  10. Aerodynamics, sensing and control of insect-scale flapping-wing flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, Wei; Kang, Chang-kwon; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ravi, Sridhar; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    There are nearly a million known species of flying insects and 13 000 species of flying warm-blooded vertebrates, including mammals, birds and bats. While in flight, their wings not only move forward relative to the air, they also flap up and down, plunge and sweep, so that both lift and thrust can be generated and balanced, accommodate uncertain surrounding environment, with superior flight stability and dynamics with highly varied speeds and missions. As the size of a flyer is reduced, the wing-to-body mass ratio tends to decrease as well. Furthermore, these flyers use integrated system consisting of wings to generate aerodynamic forces, muscles to move the wings, and sensing and control systems to guide and manoeuvre. In this article, recent advances in insect-scale flapping-wing aerodynamics, flexible wing structures, unsteady flight environment, sensing, stability and control are reviewed with perspective offered. In particular, the special features of the low Reynolds number flyers associated with small sizes, thin and light structures, slow flight with comparable wind gust speeds, bioinspired fabrication of wing structures, neuron-based sensing and adaptive control are highlighted. PMID:27118897

  11. Wetting Characteristics of Insect Wing Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Doyoung Byun; Jongin Hong; Saputra; Jin Hwan Ko; Young Jong Lee; Hoon Cheol Park; Bong-Kyu Byun; Jennifer R. Lukes

    2009-01-01

    Biological tiny structures have been observed on many kinds of surfaces such as lotus leaves, which have an effect on the coloration of Morpho butterflies and enhance the hydrophobicity of natural surfaces. We investigated the micro-scale and nano-scale structures on the wing surfaces of insects and found that the hierarchical multiple roughness structures help in enhancing the hydrophobicity. After examining 10 orders and 24 species of flying Pterygotan insects, we found that micro-scale and nano-scale structures typically exist on both the upper and lower wing surfaces of flying insects. The tiny structures such as denticle or setae on the insect wings enhance the hydrophobicity, thereby enabling the wings to be cleaned more easily. And the hydrophobic insect wings undergo a transition from Cassie to Wenzel states at pitch/size ratio of about 20. In order to examine the wetting characteristics on a rough surface, a biomimetic surface with micro-scale pillars is fabricated on a silicon wafer,which exhibits the same behavior as the insect wing, with the Cassie-Wenzel transition occurring consistently around a pitch/width value of 20.

  12. Wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL aircraft model with wing root and wing thrust augmentors. [Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, K.; Aiken, T. N.

    1979-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale V/STOL aircraft model with thrust augmentors. The model had a double-delta wing of aspect ratio 1.65 with augmentors located in the wing root and the wing trailing edge. The supply air for the augmentor primary nozzles was provided by the YJ-97 turbojet engine. The airflow was apportioned approximately 74 percent to the wing root augmentor and 24 percent to wing augmentor. Results were obtained at several trailing-edge flap deflections with the nozzle jet-momentum coefficients ranging from 0 to 7.9. Three-component longitudinal data are presented with the agumentor operating with and without the horizontal tail. A limited amount of six component data are also presented.

  13. Nanoarchitecture in the black wings of Troides magellanus: a natural case of absorption enhancement in photonic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Aline; Deparis, Olivier; Simonis, Priscilla; Vigneron, Jean Pol

    2013-01-01

    The birdwings butterfly Troides magellanus possesses interesting properties for light and thermal radiation management. The black wings of the male exhibit strong (98%) absorption of visible light as well as two strong absorption peaks in the infrared both due to chitin. These peaks are located in the spectral region where the black body emits at 313K. The study of absorption enhancement in this butterfly could be helpful to design highly absorbent biomimetic materials. Observations of the wings using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) reveal that the scales covering the wings are deeply nanostructured. A periodic three-dimensional (3D) model of the scale nanoarchitecture is elaborated and used for numerical transfer-matrix simulations of the absorption spectrum. The complex refractive index of the wing material is approximated by a multi-oscillator Lorentz model, leading to a broad absorption in the visible range as well as two peaks in the infrared. The absorption peak intensities turn out to be dependent...

  14. Structural color of Morpho butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2009-11-01

    Structural color is caused by wavelength-selective scattering of light by microscopic features, such as those on the scales of some insects. The brilliant blue displayed by some male Morpho butterflies is a classic example of this phenomenon. In this paper, experiments used to distinguish structural color from color due to pigmentation are reviewed. A simple electromagnetic model is developed for the structural scattering from Morpho butterfly scales, and the blue color and iridescence normally seen for these butterflies are predicted by this model. The analysis is based on topics usually discussed in courses on electromagnetism and optics and can be used as an example to supplement classroom discussions of these topics.

  15. Effect of Interfacial Debonding on the Strength of Composite Structure-Similarity Scale Model for the Wing-Box

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyong Sun; Rui Yang; Zibin Yan; Wei Qian

    2015-01-01

    Based on the wing-box structure, a model was established to analyze the strength of the scale model for the composite wing. Firstly, different failure criteria were set to determine damage onset of the components. The continuum damage variables were adopted in the stiffness degradation rule. Secondly, the interface elements were placed along the interface between the beam flange and the skin to investigate the effects of bonding strength on the ultimate load-carrying capacity of the wing-box....

  16. The real butterfly effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historical evidence is reviewed to show that what Ed Lorenz meant by the iconic phrase ‘the butterfly effect’ is not at all captured by the notion of sensitive dependence on initial conditions in low-order chaos. Rather, as presented in his 1969 Tellus paper, Lorenz intended the phrase to describe the existence of an absolute finite-time predicability barrier in certain multi-scale fluid systems, implying a breakdown of continuous dependence on initial conditions for large enough forecast lead times. To distinguish from ‘mere’ sensitive dependence, the effect discussed in Lorenz's Tellus paper is referred to as ‘the real butterfly effect’. Theoretical evidence for such a predictability barrier in a fluid described by the three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations is discussed. Whilst it is still an open question whether the Navier–Stokes equation has this property, evidence from both idealized atmospheric simulators and analysis of operational weather forecasts suggests that the real butterfly effect exists in an asymptotic sense, i.e. for initial-time atmospheric perturbations that are small in scale and amplitude compared with (weather) scales of interest, but still large in scale and amplitude compared with variability in the viscous subrange. Despite this, the real butterfly effect is an intermittent phenomenon in the atmosphere, and its presence can be signalled a priori, and hence mitigated, by ensemble forecast methods. (invited article)

  17. A novel pentiptycene bis(crown ether)-based [2](2)rotaxane whose two DB24C8 rings act as flapping wings of a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Xian; Meng, Zheng; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2014-04-01

    A novel [2](2)rotaxane based on pentiptycene-derived bis(crown ether) can be efficiently synthesized via a "click chemistry" method and the subsequent N-methylation. Due to the different affinities of DB24C8 with the ammonium and triazolium stations, the wing-flapping movement of the DB24C8 "wings" in the [2](2)rotaxane can be easily achieved by acid/base stimulus. PMID:24635015

  18. Design of Hybrid Passive and Active Mechanisms for Control of Insect-Scale Flapping-Wing Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Teoh, Zhi Ern

    2015-01-01

    Flying insects exhibit a remarkable ability to fly in environments that are small, cluttered and highly dynamic. Inspired by these animals, scientist have made great strides in understanding the aerodynamic mechanisms behind insect-scale flapping-wing flight. By applying these mechanisms together with recent advances in meso-scale fabrication techniques, engineers built an insect-scale flapping-wing robot and demonstrated hover by actively controlling the robot about its roll and pitch axes....

  19. Blame it on the butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kate

    2009-08-01

    Last year at a science networking event in a Central London pub, I was cornered by the manager of an "alternative healing centre", who regaled me with stories about her patients' miraculous recoveries from ailments that modern medicine had been unable to address. "After all," she said, leaning forward with the air of someone confiding an esoteric, but unassailable, argument, "if a butterfly flapping its wings in a forest can cause a hurricane, imagine what a positive attitude can do!"

  20. Mutant butterflies discovered at Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese study has shown that malformations are more and more common in butterflies (Zizeeria maha specie) leaving near the damaged nuclear plant of Fukushima Daiichi. A population of 144 butterflies were caught in 10 villages in a radius of 200 km around Fukushima in may 2011, the ratio of malformations was 12.4%. Obvious malformations were withered antennas and wings. In september 2011 a population of 238 butterflies were caught in the same places and the ratio of malformations was then 28.1%. The increase of the malformation ratio could be explained by a cumulative effect of the radiation exposition. In a second experiment, a population of butterflies was caught in a region non-affected by the radioactive contamination and was submitted in laboratory to radiations similar to that of the contamination around Fukushima and similar malformations appeared. The conclusion of the study is that radionuclides released during the Fukushima accident have caused genetic and physiological damages to this butterfly specie. (A.C.)

  1. Preliminary study of wing interference patterns (WIPs in some species of soft scale (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea, Coccidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Simon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The fore wings of scale insect males possess reduced venation compared with other insects and the homologies of remaining veins are controversial. The hind wings are reduced to hamulohalterae. When adult males are prepared using the standard methods adopted to females and nymphs, i.e. using KOH to clear the specimens, the wings become damaged or deformed, an so these structures are not usually described or illustrated in publications. The present study used dry males belonging to seven species of the family Coccidae to check the presence of stable, structural colour patterns of the wings. The visibility of the wing interference patterns (WIP, discovered in Hymenoptera and Diptera species, is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. This frequently occurring taxonomically specific pattern is caused by uneven membrane thickness and hair placement, and also is stabilized and reinforced by microstructures of the wing, such as membrane corrugations and the shape of cells. The semitransparent scale insect’s fore wings possess WIPs and they are taxonomically specific. It is very possible that WIPs will be an additional and helpful trait for the identification of species, which in case of males specimens is quite difficult, because recent coccidology is based almost entirely on the morphology of adult females.

  2. Aerodynamic performance of two-dimensional, chordwise flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale in hover flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Madhu; Kang, Chang-kwon

    2015-06-01

    Fruit flies have flexible wings that deform during flight. To explore the fluid-structure interaction of flexible flapping wings at fruit fly scale, we use a well-validated Navier-Stokes equation solver, fully-coupled with a structural dynamics solver. Effects of chordwise flexibility on a two dimensional hovering wing is studied. Resulting wing rotation is purely passive, due to the dynamic balance between aerodynamic loading, elastic restoring force, and inertial force of the wing. Hover flight is considered at a Reynolds number of Re = 100, equivalent to that of fruit flies. The thickness and density of the wing also corresponds to a fruit fly wing. The wing stiffness and motion amplitude are varied to assess their influences on the resulting aerodynamic performance and structural response. Highest lift coefficient of 3.3 was obtained at the lowest-amplitude, highest-frequency motion (reduced frequency of 3.0) at the lowest stiffness (frequency ratio of 0.7) wing within the range of the current study, although the corresponding power required was also the highest. Optimal efficiency was achieved for a lower reduced frequency of 0.3 and frequency ratio 0.35. Compared to the water tunnel scale with water as the surrounding fluid instead of air, the resulting vortex dynamics and aerodynamic performance remained similar for the optimal efficiency motion, while the structural response varied significantly. Despite these differences, the time-averaged lift scaled with the dimensionless shape deformation parameter γ. Moreover, the wing kinematics that resulted in the optimal efficiency motion was closely aligned to the fruit fly measurements, suggesting that fruit fly flight aims to conserve energy, rather than to generate large forces. PMID:25946079

  3. Discovery of the surface polarity gradient on iridescent Morpho butterfly scales reveals a mechanism of their selective vapor response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Starkey, Timothy A; Vukusic, Peter; Ghiradella, Helen; Vasudev, Milana; Bunning, Timothy; Naik, Rajesh R; Tang, Zhexiong; Larsen, Michael; Deng, Tao; Zhong, Sheng; Palacios, Manuel; Grande, James C; Zorn, Gilad; Goddard, Gregory; Zalubovsky, Sergey

    2013-09-24

    For almost a century, the iridescence of tropical Morpho butterfly scales has been known to originate from 3D vertical ridge structures of stacked periodic layers of cuticle separated by air gaps. Here we describe a biological pattern of surface functionality that we have found in these photonic structures. This pattern is a gradient of surface polarity of the ridge structures that runs from their polar tops to their less-polar bottoms. This finding shows a biological pattern design that could stimulate numerous technological applications ranging from photonic security tags to self-cleaning surfaces, gas separators, protective clothing, sensors, and many others. As an important first step, this biomaterial property and our knowledge of its basis has allowed us to unveil a general mechanism of selective vapor response observed in the photonic Morpho nanostructures. This mechanism of selective vapor response brings a multivariable perspective for sensing, where selectivity is achieved within a single chemically graded nanostructured sensing unit, rather than from an array of separate sensors. PMID:24019497

  4. The gene cortex controls mimicry and crypsis in butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Pardo-Diaz, Carolina; Whibley, Annabel; Supple, Megan A; Saenko, Suzanne V; Wallbank, Richard W R; Wu, Grace C; Maroja, Luana; Ferguson, Laura; Hanly, Joseph J; Hines, Heather; Salazar, Camilo; Merrill, Richard M; Dowling, Andrea J; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Llaurens, Violaine; Joron, Mathieu; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2016-06-01

    The wing patterns of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) are diverse and striking examples of evolutionary diversification by natural selection. Lepidopteran wing colour patterns are a key innovation, consisting of arrays of coloured scales. We still lack a general understanding of how these patterns are controlled and whether this control shows any commonality across the 160,000 moth and 17,000 butterfly species. Here, we use fine-scale mapping with population genomics and gene expression analyses to identify a gene, cortex, that regulates pattern switches in multiple species across the mimetic radiation in Heliconius butterflies. cortex belongs to a fast-evolving subfamily of the otherwise highly conserved fizzy family of cell-cycle regulators, suggesting that it probably regulates pigmentation patterning by regulating scale cell development. In parallel with findings in the peppered moth (Biston betularia), our results suggest that this mechanism is common within Lepidoptera and that cortex has become a major target for natural selection acting on colour and pattern variation in this group of insects. PMID:27251285

  5. Challenges for micro-scale flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert J.; Finio, Benjamin; Karpelson, Michael; Pérez-Arancibia, Nestor O.; Sreetharan, Pratheev; Whitney, John P.

    2012-06-01

    The challenges for successful flight of insect-scale micro air vehicles encompass basic questions of fabrication, design, propulsion, actuation, control, and power - topics that have in general been answered for larger aircraft. When developing a flying robot on the scale of flies and bees, all hardware must be developed from scratch as there are no "off-the-shelf" sensors, actuators, or microcontrollers that can satisfy the extreme mass and power limitations imposed by such vehicles. Similar challenges exist for fabrication and assembly of the structural and aeromechanical components of insect-scale micro air vehicles that neither macro-scale techniques nor MEMS can adequately solve. With these challenges in mind, this paper presents progress in the essential technologies for micro-scale flapping-wing robots.

  6. Extended season for northern butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Bengt

    2014-07-01

    Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.

  7. Stiffness of desiccating insect wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengesha, T E; Vallance, R R [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall, 801 22nd St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Mittal, R, E-mail: vallance@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 126 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The stiffness of insect wings is typically determined through experimental measurements. Such experiments are performed on wings removed from insects. However, the wings are subject to desiccation which typically leads to an increase in their stiffness. Although this effect of desiccation is well known, a comprehensive study of the rate of change in stiffness of desiccating insect wings would be a significant aid in planning experiments as well as interpreting data from such experiments. This communication presents a comprehensive experimental analysis of the change in mass and stiffness of gradually desiccating forewings of Painted Lady butterflies (Vanessa cardui). Mass and stiffness of the forewings of five butterflies were simultaneously measured every 10 min over a 24 h period. The averaged results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 21.1% over this time period with a time constant of 9.8 h, while wing stiffness increased linearly by 46.2% at a rate of 23.4 {mu}N mm{sup -1} h{sup -1}. For the forewings of a single butterfly, the experiment was performed over a period of 1 week, and the results show that wing mass declined exponentially by 52.2% with a time constant of 30.2 h until it reached a steady-state level of 2.00 mg, while wing stiffness increased exponentially by 90.7% until it reached a steady-state level of 1.70 mN mm{sup -1}. (communication)

  8. Variation of foraging rate and wing loading, but not resting metabolic rate scaling, of insect pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, John S.; Anderson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Morphological, physiological and behavioural variation with body size (i.e. scaling) may affect costs of living in a particular environment for insects and, ultimately, pollination or foraging success. However, few studies have directly assessed the scaling of these traits at the species level. Using two similar-sized pollinator species (the hawkmoth Macroglossum trochilus and the fly Moegistorhynchus longirostrus), we compare intraspecific scaling relationships of resting metabolic rate (RMR), foraging rate (FR) and wing loading (WL) to address this paucity of data. Scaling of RMR was similar for both taxa although the intercepts for the relationships differed. However, these two species showed variation in WL scaling relationships and fundamentally different FR scaling. For M. longirostrus, FR scaling was positive but non-significantly related to body mass while for M. trochilus FR scaling was negative. This suggests that variation in FR and WL, but not RMR scaling, among these flies and hawkmoths may impose significant energetic costs which could affect animal-plant interactions in the wild.

  9. A Parallel Butterfly Algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Poulson, Jack

    2014-02-04

    The butterfly algorithm is a fast algorithm which approximately evaluates a discrete analogue of the integral transform (Equation Presented.) at large numbers of target points when the kernel, K(x, y), is approximately low-rank when restricted to subdomains satisfying a certain simple geometric condition. In d dimensions with O(Nd) quasi-uniformly distributed source and target points, when each appropriate submatrix of K is approximately rank-r, the running time of the algorithm is at most O(r2Nd logN). A parallelization of the butterfly algorithm is introduced which, assuming a message latency of α and per-process inverse bandwidth of β, executes in at most (Equation Presented.) time using p processes. This parallel algorithm was then instantiated in the form of the open-source DistButterfly library for the special case where K(x, y) = exp(iΦ(x, y)), where Φ(x, y) is a black-box, sufficiently smooth, real-valued phase function. Experiments on Blue Gene/Q demonstrate impressive strong-scaling results for important classes of phase functions. Using quasi-uniform sources, hyperbolic Radon transforms, and an analogue of a three-dimensional generalized Radon transform were, respectively, observed to strong-scale from 1-node/16-cores up to 1024-nodes/16,384-cores with greater than 90% and 82% efficiency, respectively. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  10. Teaching and Learning with Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Saul

    1996-01-01

    Presents butterflies as an introduction to natural history. Describes observation tips and metamorphosis of butterflies in the classroom. Includes butterfly resources for naturalists and educators. (AIM)

  11. The Butterfly Diagram Internal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time-latitude diagram, where the spotgroup area is taken into account, is presented for cycles 12 through 23. The results show that the spotted area is concentrated in few, small portions (knots) of the Butterfly Diagram (BD). The BD may be described as a cluster of knots. Knots are distributed in the butterfly wings in a seemingly randomly way. A knot may appear at either lower or higher latitudes than previous ones, in spite of the prevalent tendency to appear at lower and lower latitudes. Accordingly, the spotted area centroid, far from continuously drifting equatorward, drifts poleward or remains stationary in any hemisphere for significant fractions (≈ 1/3) of the cycle total duration. In a relevant number of semicycles, knots seem to form two roughly parallel, oblique chains, separated by an underspotted band. This picture suggests that two (or more) ''activity streams'' approach the equator at a rate higher than the spot zone as a whole.

  12. Pattern formation of scale cells in Lepidoptera by differential origin-dependent cell adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Sekimura, T.; Zhu, M.; Cook, J.; Maini, P. K.

    1999-01-01

    We present a model for the formation of parallel rows of scale cells in the developing adult wing of moths and butterflies. Precursors of scale cells differentiate throughout each epithelial monolayer and migrate into rows that are roughly parallel to the body axis. Grafting experiments have revealed what appears to be a gradient of adhesivity along the wing. What is more, cell adhesivity character is maintained after grafting. Thus we suggest that it is a cell’s location prior to migration t...

  13. Differences in the climatic debts of birds and butterflies at a continental scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devictor, V.; Swaay, van C.; Brereton, T.; Brotons, L.; Chamberlain, D.; Heliölä, J.; Herrando, S.; Julliard, R.; Kuussaari, M.; Lindström, A.; Reif, J.; Roy, D.B.; Schweiger, O.; Settele, J.; Stefanescu, C.; Strien, van A.; Turnhout, van C.; Vermouzek, Z.; Wallis de Vries, M.F.; Wynhoff, I.; Jiguet, F.

    2012-01-01

    Climate changes have profound effects on the distribution of numerous plant and animal species(1-3). However, whether and how different taxonomic groups are able to track climate changes at large spatial scales is still unclear. Here, we measure and compare the climatic debt accumulated by bird and

  14. Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO{sub 2} hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yu, E-mail: chenyu_8323@csu.edu.cn [School of Physics Science and Electronics Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Gu Jiajun, E-mail: gujiajun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhu Shenmin; Su Huilan [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Di, E-mail: zhangdi@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng Chuanliang [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhuang Leyan [Measurement Center of Anti-Counterfeiting Technical Products, Shanghai (China)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Naturally cross-linked ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes with {approx}2.4 {mu}m in length, {approx}35 nm in diameter and {approx}12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The achieved hollow ZrO{sub 2} nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than {approx}50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real 'nano scale'. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO{sub 2} nanowires with {approx}2.4 {mu}m in length, {approx}35 nm in diameter and {approx}12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO{sub 2} nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

  15. Comparative population genetics of mimetic Heliconius butterflies in an endangered habitat; Brazil's Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Márcio Z

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil's Atlantic Forest is a biodiversity hotspot endangered by severe habitat degradation and fragmentation. Habitat fragmentation is expected to reduce dispersal among habitat patches resulting in increased genetic differentiation among populations. Here we examined genetic diversity and differentiation among populations of two Heliconius butterfly species in the northern portion of Brazil's Atlantic Forest to estimate the potential impact of habitat fragmentation on population connectivity in butterflies with home-range behavior. Results We generated microsatellite, AFLP and mtDNA sequence data for 136 Heliconius erato specimens from eight collecting locations and 146 H. melpomene specimens from seven locations. Population genetic analyses of the data revealed high levels of genetic diversity in H. erato relative to H. melpomene, widespread genetic differentiation among populations of both species, and no evidence for isolation-by-distance. Conclusions These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the extensive habitat fragmentation along Brazil's Atlantic Forest has reduced dispersal of Heliconius butterflies among neighboring habitat patches. The results also lend support to the observation that fine-scale population genetic structure may be common in Heliconius. If such population structure also exists independent of human activity, and has been common over the evolutionary history of Heliconius butterflies, it may have contributed to the evolution of wing pattern diversity in the genus.

  16. Time-scale dependency of host plant biomass- and trait-mediated indirect effects of deer herbivory on a swallowtail butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Shun; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    Despite recent attempts to quantify the relative strength of density- and trait-mediated indirect effects, rarely has the issue been properly addressed at the population level. Most research is based on short-term small-scale experiments in which behavioural and/or physiological responses prevail. Here, we estimated the time-scales during which density- and trait-mediated effects manifest, as well as the strength of these effects, using an interaction chain with three organisms (deer-plant-butterfly). A hierarchical Bayesian model was performed by using a long-term data set of deer density in the Boso Peninsula, central Japan (where local densities differ spatially and temporally) as well as densities of the swallowtail butterfly Byasa alcinous and its host plant Aristolochia kaempferi. The time-scale effect of deer on plant quantity and quality was estimated according to the degree of carry-over effects. The negative influence on leaf density showed a temporal saturation pattern over the long term, while the positive influence on leaf quality due to resprouting of leaves after deer browsing showed no clear temporal trend. The net indirect effect changed from positive to negative with time, with the negative density-mediated effect becoming prominent in the long term. Our novel approach is widely applicable in assessing the dynamic impacts of wildlife if the spatio-temporal variability of expansion and/or invasion history is known. PMID:26114858

  17. Oviposition site selection of an endangered butterfly at local spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnløv, Rune Skjold; Kissling, W. Daniel; Barnagaud, Jean-Yves; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Høye, Toke Thomas

    2015-01-01

    environmental variables (soil temperature, air temperature and soil moisture) across four of the sites. This showed that larval webs were located in the densest parts of the host plant patches. Given the low mobility of pre-hibernating larvae (<0.5 m), our results suggest that females select dense parts within......As pre-hibernating larvae of the marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia) have limited mobility essential resources need to be available at a very local scale. We surveyed larval webs (2011–2013), the host plant devil’s bit scabious (Succisa pratensis) (2012), and derived variables from digital....... Two-component hurdle models indicated that host plant abundance was the only important predictor of presence–absence and abundance of larval webs across the seven sites. The strength of the host plant effect on larval web prevalence increased when enlarging spatial grain size. For presence...

  18. AC1 Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian DOBRE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The AC1 wing replaces the old wing of the wind tunnel model AEROTAXI, which has been made at scale 1:9. The new wing is part of CESAR program and improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the old one. The geometry of the whole wing was given by FOI Sweden and position of AC1 wing must coincide with the structure of the AEROTAXI model.

  19. AC1 Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian DOBRE

    2010-01-01

    The AC1 wing replaces the old wing of the wind tunnel model AEROTAXI, which has been made at scale 1:9. The new wing is part of CESAR program and improves the aerodynamic characteristics of the old one. The geometry of the whole wing was given by FOI Sweden and position of AC1 wing must coincide with the structure of the AEROTAXI model.

  20. Temperature-compensated strain measurement of full-scale small aircraft wing structure using low-cost FBG interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. H.; Lee, Y. G.; Park, Y.; Kim, C. G.

    2013-04-01

    Recently, health and usage monitoring systems (HUMS) are being studied to monitor the real-time condition of aircrafts during flight. HUMSs can prevent aircraft accidents and reduce inspection time and cost. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are widely used for aircraft HUMSs with many advantages such as light weight, small size, easy-multiplexing, and EMI immunity. However, commercial FBG interrogators are too expensive to apply for small aircrafts. Generally the cost of conventional FBG interrogators is over 20,000. Therefore, cost-effective FBG interrogation systems need to be developed for small aircraft HUMSs. In this study, cost-effective low speed FBG interrogator was applied to full-scale small aircraft wing structure to examine the operational applicability of the low speed FBG interrogator to the monitoring of small aircrafts. The cost of the developed low speed FBG interrogator was about 10,000, which is an affordable price for a small aircraft. 10 FBG strain sensors and 1 FBG temperature sensor were installed on the surface of the full-scale wing structure. Load was applied to the tip of the wing structure, and the low speed interrogator detected the change in the center wavelength of the FBG sensors at the sampling rate of 10Hz. To assess the applicability of the low-cost FBG interrogator to full-scale small aircraft wing structure, a temperature-compensated strain measurement algorithm was verified experimentally under various loading conditions of the wing structure with temperature variations.

  1. Underwater flight by the planktonic sea butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David W; Adhikari, Deepak; Webster, Donald R; Yen, Jeannette

    2016-02-01

    In a remarkable example of convergent evolution, we show that the zooplanktonic sea butterfly Limacina helicina 'flies' underwater in the same way that very small insects fly in the air. Both sea butterflies and flying insects stroke their wings in a characteristic figure-of-eight pattern to produce lift, and both generate extra lift by peeling their wings apart at the beginning of the power stroke (the well-known Weis-Fogh 'clap-and-fling' mechanism). It is highly surprising to find a zooplankter 'mimicking' insect flight as almost all zooplankton swim in this intermediate Reynolds number range (Re=10-100) by using their appendages as paddles rather than wings. The sea butterfly is also unique in that it accomplishes its insect-like figure-of-eight wing stroke by extreme rotation of its body (what we call 'hyper-pitching'), a paradigm that has implications for micro aerial vehicle (MAV) design. No other animal, to our knowledge, pitches to this extent under normal locomotion. PMID:26889002

  2. Identifying Large- and Small-Scale Habitat Characteristics of Monarch Butterfly Migratory Roost Sites with Citizen Science Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Elizabeth Howard

    2012-01-01

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America must make frequent stops to rest and refuel during their annual migration. During these stopovers, monarchs form communal roosts, which are often observed by laypersons. Journey North is a citizen science program that compiles roost observations, and we examined these data in an attempt to identify habitat characteristics of roosts. From each observation we extracted information on the type of vegetation used, and we used GIS and...

  3. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus): Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear?

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Andrew K.; Holden, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Optimal flight in butterflies depends on structural features of the wings and body, including wing size, flight muscle size, and wing loading. Arguably, there is no butterfly for which flight is more important than the monarch (Danaus plexippus), which undergoes long-distance migrations in North America. We examined morphological features of monarchs that would explain the apparent higher migratory success and flight ability of females over males. We examined 47 male and 45 female monarch spe...

  4. Experimental investigation on color variation mechanisms of structural light in Papilio maackii ménétriès butterfly wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The body color in animals results from billions of years of their natural evolution in order to evade natural enemies, catch quarries or display themselves beauty, in-vestigation on mechanisms of structural light is an important aspect of bionics. Based on the phenomenon of Papilio maackii ménétriès’ blue scales changing into green ones immediately after dropping some alcohol aqua on the underwing sur-face and soon returning back to the original color, the relationship between micro-structure, optics characteristic of scales and changing color effect were studied using the Olympus Stereomicroscope, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Ultraviolet (UV)-Visible Spectropho-tometer. The color variation mechanisms of blue scales of Papilio maackii mé-nétriès in Chinese Northeast were revealed in this paper. When visible lights trav-eled through the concaver structure with multilayer reflector and the filled medium with different refractive indices, the reflected lights in definite wavelengths pro-duced interference and color at that wavelength came into being. It has important academic reference value to biomimetics design of video stealth materials.

  5. Deformed Shape Calculation of a Full-Scale Wing Using Fiber Optic Strain Data from a Ground Loads Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Ko, William L.; Stephens, Craig A.; Bakalyar, John A.; Richards, W. Lance

    2011-01-01

    A ground loads test of a full-scale wing (175-ft span) was conducted using a fiber optic strain-sensing system to obtain distributed surface strain data. These data were input into previously developed deformed shape equations to calculate the wing s bending and twist deformation. A photogrammetry system measured actual shape deformation. The wing deflections reached 100 percent of the positive design limit load (equivalent to 3 g) and 97 percent of the negative design limit load (equivalent to -1 g). The calculated wing bending results were in excellent agreement with the actual bending; tip deflections were within +/- 2.7 in. (out of 155-in. max deflection) for 91 percent of the load steps. Experimental testing revealed valuable opportunities for improving the deformed shape equations robustness to real world (not perfect) strain data, which previous analytical testing did not detect. These improvements, which include filtering methods developed in this work, minimize errors due to numerical anomalies discovered in the remaining 9 percent of the load steps. As a result, all load steps attained +/- 2.7 in. accuracy. Wing twist results were very sensitive to errors in bending and require further development. A sensitivity analysis and recommendations for fiber implementation practices, along with, effective filtering methods are included

  6. Comparison on different insects' wing displacements using high speed digital holographic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza; de La Torre-I, Manuel H.; Salas-Araiza, Manuel D.; Caloca-Mendez, Cristian

    2011-06-01

    In-flight insect wing motion behavior depends on a wide variety of conditions. They have a complex structural system and what seems to be a rather complicated motion. Researchers in many fields have endeavoured to study and reproduce these wing movements with the aim to apply the gained knowledge in their fields and for the benefit of avionic technological improvements and insect migration studies, among many other themes. The study of in-flight insect wing motion and its measurement is a relevant issue to understand and reproduce its functionality. Being capable of measuring the wing flapping using optical noninvasive methods adds scientific and technological value to the fundamental research in the area. Four different types of butterflies found widely in Mexico's forests are used to compare their wing flapping mechanisms. An out-of-plane digital holographic interferometry system is used to detect and measure its wingmicro deformations. Displacement changes from in vivo flapping wings are registered with a CMOS high speed camera yielding full field of view images depicting these insects' wing motion. The results have a resolution in the scale of hundreds of nanometers over the entire wing surface.

  7. Comparison on different insects' wing displacements using high speed digital holographic interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Daniel D; Santoyo, Fernando Mendoza; De la Torre-I, Manuel H; Salas-Araiza, Manuel D; Caloca-Mendez, Cristian

    2011-06-01

    In-flight insect wing motion behavior depends on a wide variety of conditions. They have a complex structural system and what seems to be a rather complicated motion. Researchers in many fields have endeavoured to study and reproduce these wing movements with the aim to apply the gained knowledge in their fields and for the benefit of avionic technological improvements and insect migration studies, among many other themes. The study of in-flight insect wing motion and its measurement is a relevant issue to understand and reproduce its functionality. Being capable of measuring the wing flapping using optical noninvasive methods adds scientific and technological value to the fundamental research in the area. Four different types of butterflies found widely in Mexico's forests are used to compare their wing flapping mechanisms. An out-of-plane digital holographic interferometry system is used to detect and measure its wingmicro deformations. Displacement changes from in vivo flapping wings are registered with a CMOS high speed camera yielding full field of view images depicting these insects' wing motion. The results have a resolution in the scale of hundreds of nanometers over the entire wing surface. PMID:21721806

  8. Noise Scaling and Community Noise Metrics for the Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Casey L.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Doty, Michael J.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Nickol, Craig L.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Pope, D. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft system noise assessment was performed for the hybrid wing body aircraft concept, known as the N2A-EXTE. This assessment is a result of an effort by NASA to explore a realistic HWB design that has the potential to substantially reduce noise and fuel burn. Under contract to NASA, Boeing designed the aircraft using practical aircraft design princip0les with incorporation of noise technologies projected to be available in the 2020 timeframe. NASA tested 5.8% scale-mode of the design in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel to provide source noise directivity and installation effects for aircraft engine and airframe configurations. Analysis permitted direct scaling of the model-scale jet, airframe, and engine shielding effect measurements to full-scale. Use of these in combination with ANOPP predictions enabled computations of the cumulative (CUM) noise margins relative to FAA Stage 4 limits. The CUM margins were computed for a baseline N2A-EXTE configuration and for configurations with added noise reduction strategies. The strategies include reduced approach speed, over-the-rotor line and soft-vane fan technologies, vertical tail placement and orientation, and modified landing gear designs with fairings. Combining the inherent HWB engine shielding by the airframe with added noise technologies, the cumulative noise was assessed at 38.7 dB below FAA Stage 4 certification level, just 3.3 dB short of the NASA N+2 goal of 42 dB. This new result shows that the NASA N+2 goal is approachable and that significant reduction in overall aircraft noise is possible through configurations with noise reduction technologies and operational changes.

  9. The Return of the Blue Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Anabela

    2014-05-01

    laying eggs. Each female lays an average of 60 eggs. Larva must grow in a plant near an anthill of Myrmica aloba species. This is important because butterfly larvae are myrmecophilous, living with ants that feed the butterfly larvae for 11 months, because the ants think the butterfly larvae are ant larvae. In early summer the larvae pupate in the nest of ants. Before expanding their wings, they have to leave quickly to avoid being killed by ants when the ants discover have been deceived. My students became aware of this research; we studied and prepared in order to carry out fieldwork. Thus students learn the content and curricular in a scientifically fun way, first with group work in the classroom with my guidance and in a second stage carry knowledge to the field under the guidance of Dra Paula Seixas Arnaldo. We know where we started ... where we arrives is success!

  10. Structural color of a lycaenid butterfly: analysis of an aperiodic multilayer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the structural color of the green wing of the lycaenid butterfly Chrysozephyrus brillantinus. Electron microscopy revealed that the bottom plate of the cover scale on the wing consists of an alternating air–cuticle multilayer structure. However, the thicknesses of the layers were not constant but greatly differed depending on the layer, unlike the periodic multilayer designs often adopted for artificial laser-reflecting mirrors. The agreement between the experimentally determined and theoretically calculated reflectance spectra led us to conclude that the multilayer interference in the aperiodic system is the primary origin of the structural color. We analyzed optical interference in this aperiodic system using a simple analytical model and found that two spectral peaks arise from constructive interference among different parts of the multilayer structure. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the aperiodic system over a periodic one. (paper)

  11. Unsteady Flow and Force Control in Butterfly Take-off Flight

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian; Yun, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    In this work, high-resolution, high-speed videos of a Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in take-off flight were obtained using a photogrammetry system. Using a 3D subdivision surface reconstruction methodology, the butterfly's body/wing deformation and kinematics were modeled and reconstructed from those videos. High fidelity simulations were then carried out in order to understand vortex formation in both near-field and far-field of butterfly wings and examine the associated aerodynamic performance. A Cartesian grid based sharp interface immersed boundary solver was used to handle such flows in all their complexity.

  12. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  13. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J =0.89 ) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J =0.17 ) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  14. Optical lattices on wings of Apatura butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krizek, G.O.; Hagen, G.M.; Křížek, P.; Havlová, M.; Křížek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 3 (2014), s. 176-185. ISSN 0013-872X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : photonic nanostructures * iridescence * optical lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2014 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.3157/021.124.0302

  15. Mechanical design and manufacturing of an insect-scale flapping-wing robot

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Kevin Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of insect flight as a form of locomotion in nature, manmade aerial systems have yet to match the aerial prowess of flying insects. Within a tiny body volume, flying insects embody the capabilities to flap seemingly insubstantial wings at very high frequencies and sustain beyond their own body weight in flight. A precise authority over their wing motions enables them to respond to obstacles and threats in flight with unrivaled speed and grace. Motivated by a desire ...

  16. Overview of Low-Speed Aerodynamic Tests on a 5.75% Scale Blended-Wing-Body Twin Jet Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Dickey, Eric; Princen, Norman; Beyar, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project sponsored a series of computational and experimental investigations of the propulsion and airframe integration issues associated with Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) or Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) configurations. NASA collaborated with Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to conduct this research on a new twin-engine Boeing BWB transport configuration. The experimental investigations involved a series of wind tunnel tests with a 5.75-percent scale model conducted in two low-speed wind tunnels. This testing focused on the basic aerodynamics of the configuration and selection of the leading edge Krueger slat position for takeoff and landing. This paper reviews the results and analysis of these low-speed wind tunnel tests.

  17. Insights into Airframe Aerodynamics and Rotor-on-Wing Interactions from a 0.25-Scale Tiltrotor Wind Tunnel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L. A.; Lillie, D.; McCluer, M.; Yamauchi, G. K.; Derby, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    A recent experimental investigation into tiltrotor aerodynamics and acoustics has resulted in the acquisition of a set of data related to tiltrotor airframe aerodynamics and rotor and wing interactional aerodynamics. This work was conducted in the National Full-scale Aerodynamics Complex's (NFAC) 40-by-80 Foot Wind Tunnel, at NASA Ames Research Center, on the Full-Span Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM). The full-span TRAM wind tunnel test stand is nominally based on a quarter-scale representation of the V-22 aircraft. The data acquired will enable the refinement of analytical tools for the prediction of tiltrotor aeromechanics and aeroacoustics.

  18. Identifying Large- and Small-Scale Habitat Characteristics of Monarch Butterfly Migratory Roost Sites with Citizen Science Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus in eastern North America must make frequent stops to rest and refuel during their annual migration. During these stopovers, monarchs form communal roosts, which are often observed by laypersons. Journey North is a citizen science program that compiles roost observations, and we examined these data in an attempt to identify habitat characteristics of roosts. From each observation we extracted information on the type of vegetation used, and we used GIS and a national landcover data set to determine land cover characteristics within a 10 km radius of the roost. Ninety-seven percent of roosts were reported on trees; most were in pines and conifers, maples, oaks, pecans and willows. Conifers and maples were used most often in northern flyway regions, while pecans and oaks were more-frequently used in southern regions. No one landcover type was directly associated with roost sites, although there was more open water near roost sites than around random sites. Roosts in southern Texas were associated primarily with grasslands, but this was not the case elsewhere. Considering the large variety of tree types used and the diversity of landcover types around roost sites, monarchs appear highly-adaptable in terms of roost site selection.

  19. The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, Conrad C.; Yang, Qiang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.; Hotton, Carol L.; Monteiro, Antónia; Wang, Yong-Jie; Goreva, Yulia; Shih, ChungKun; Siljeström, Sandra; Rose, Tim R.; Dilcher, David L.; Ren, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80–70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in northeastern China to unravel a surprising array of similar morphological and ecological features in these two, unrelated clades. We used polarized light and epifluorescence photography, SEM imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine kalligrammatid fossils and their environment. We mapped the evolution of specific traits onto a kalligrammatid phylogeny and discovered that these extinct lacewings convergently evolved wing eyespots that possibly contained melanin, and wing scales, elongate tubular proboscides, similar feeding styles, and seed–plant associations, similar to butterflies. Long-proboscid kalligrammatid lacewings lived in ecosystems with gymnosperm–insect relationships and likely accessed bennettitalean pollination drops and pollen. This system later was replaced by mid-Cretaceous angiosperms and their insect pollinators. PMID:26842570

  20. The evolutionary convergence of mid-Mesozoic lacewings and Cenozoic butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labandeira, Conrad C; Yang, Qiang; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A; Hotton, Carol L; Monteiro, Antónia; Wang, Yong-Jie; Goreva, Yulia; Shih, ChungKun; Siljeström, Sandra; Rose, Tim R; Dilcher, David L; Ren, Dong

    2016-02-10

    Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80-70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in northeastern China to unravel a surprising array of similar morphological and ecological features in these two, unrelated clades. We used polarized light and epifluorescence photography, SEM imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine kalligrammatid fossils and their environment. We mapped the evolution of specific traits onto a kalligrammatid phylogeny and discovered that these extinct lacewings convergently evolved wing eyespots that possibly contained melanin, and wing scales, elongate tubular proboscides, similar feeding styles, and seed-plant associations, similar to butterflies. Long-proboscid kalligrammatid lacewings lived in ecosystems with gymnosperm-insect relationships and likely accessed bennettitalean pollination drops and pollen. This system later was replaced by mid-Cretaceous angiosperms and their insect pollinators. PMID:26842570

  1. Cluster analysis for pattern recognition in solar butterfly diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illarionov, E.; Sokoloff, D.; Arlt, R.; Khlystova, A.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate to what extent the wings of solar butterfly diagrams can be separated without an explicit usage of Hale's polarity law as well as the location of the solar equator. We apply two algorithms of cluster analysis for this purpose, namely DBSCAN and C-means, and demonstrate their ability to separate the wings of contemporary butterfly diagrams based on the sunspot group density in the diagram only. Then we apply the method to historical data concerning the solar activity in the 18th century (Staudacher data). The method separates the two wings for Cycle 2, but fails to separate them for Cycle 1. In our opinion, this finding supports the interpretation of the Staudacher data as an indication of the unusual nature of the solar cycle in the 18th century.

  2. Cool Bands: Wing bands decrease rate of heating, but not equilibrium temperature in Anartia fatima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashears, Jake; Aiello, Annette; Seymoure, Brett M

    2016-02-01

    Butterflies regulate their internal thoracic temperature in order to optimize performance activities (e.g. flight, foraging). Previous research has shown that butterfly wings, particularly the innermost portions, play a role in thermoregulation. We investigated to see whether a lightly colored wing band would alter the thermal properties of the banded peacock butterfly (Anartia fatima) with two within subject experiments in a laboratory setting: (1) band color manipulation in which euthanized individuals were heated to thermal equilibrium with the band unaltered and then again with the wing darkened; (2) wing ablation in which individuals already run through experiment 1 were heated to equilibrium two more times; once with the outer portion of the wing including the band removed and then with the entire wing removed. Individuals were spread so that the dorsal surface of the wing was exposed to illumination from a lamp suspended above. Twelve Anartia fatima males were collected in Panama and were run through experiment one. Four individuals were run through experiment two. We found no effect of darkening the band on the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature, but the darkened band did increase the rate of heating. The wing ablation experiment revealed that wing removal lowered the internal thoracic equilibrium temperature but did not affect the heating rate. Therefore we show that butterfly bands may be important in butterfly thermoregulation and we discuss the importance of the wing band on thermoregulatory abilities in Anartia fatima with respect to the butterfly's natural history. We conclude that the wing band may allow butterflies to reduce heat stress induced by their warm environments. PMID:26857983

  3. Prey survival by predator intimidation: an experimental study of peacock butterfly defence against blue tits

    OpenAIRE

    Vallin, Adrian; Jakobsson, Sven; Lind, Johan; Wiklund, Christer

    2005-01-01

    Long-lived butterflies that hibernate as adults are expected to have well-developed antipredation devices as a result of their long exposure to natural enemies. The peacock butterfly, Inachis io, for instance, is a cryptic leaf mimic when resting, but shifts to active defence when disturbed, performing a repeated sequence of movements exposing major eyespots on the wings accompanied by a hissing noise. We studied the effect of visual and auditory defence by staging experiments in which wild-c...

  4. The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: Butterfly mimicry for defense?

    OpenAIRE

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-01-01

    I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also ...

  5. Deimatic display in the European swallowtail butterfly as a secondary defence against attacks from great tits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Olofsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many animals reduce the risk of being attacked by a predator through crypsis, masquerade or, alternatively, by advertising unprofitability by means of aposematic signalling. Behavioural attributes in prey employed after discovery, however, signify the importance of also having an effective secondary defence if a predator uncovers, or is immune to, the prey's primary defence. In butterflies, as in most animals, secondary defence generally consists of escape flights. However, some butterfly species have evolved other means of secondary defence such as deimatic displays/startle displays. The European swallowtail, Papilio machaon, employs what appears to be a startle display by exposing its brightly coloured dorsal wing surface upon disturbance and, if the disturbance continues, by intermittently protracting and relaxing its wing muscles generating a jerky motion of the wings. This display appears directed towards predators but whether it is effective in intimidating predators so that they refrain from attacks has never been tested experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we staged encounters between a passerine predator, the great tit, Parus major, and live and dead swallowtail butterflies in a two-choice experiment. Results showed that the dead butterfly was virtually always attacked before the live butterfly, and that it took four times longer before a bird attacked the live butterfly. When the live butterfly was approached by a bird this generally elicited the butterfly's startle display, which usually caused the approaching bird to flee. We also performed a palatability test of the butterflies and results show that the great tits seemed to find them palatable. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the swallowtail's startle display of conspicuous coloration and jerky movements is an efficient secondary defence against small passerines. We also discuss under what conditions predator-prey systems are likely to

  6. Full-scale semispan tests of a business-jet wing with a natural laminar flow airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, David E.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A full-scale semispan model was investigated to evaluate and document the low-speed, high-lift characteristics of a business-jet class wing that utilized the HSNLF(1)-0213 airfoil section and a single-slotted flap system. Also, boundary-layer transition effects were examined, a segmented leading-edge droop for improved stall/spin resistance was studied, and two roll-controlled devices were evaluated. The wind-tunnel investigation showed that deployment of single-slotted, trailing-edge flap was effective in providing substantial increments in lift required for takeoff and landing performance. Fixed-transition studies to investigate premature tripping of the boundary layer indicated no adverse effects in lift and pitching-moment characteristics for either the cruise or landing configuration. The full-scale results also suggested the need to further optimize the leading-edge droop design that was developed in the subscale tests.

  7. Butterflies of Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document talks about species and habits of Myanmar butterflies that were mentioned by the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division of the Forest Department under the Ministry of Forestry in Myanmar

  8. The mechanism of body rotation in the flapping flight of butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2013-11-01

    The aerodynamic effects of the body rotation on the flapping flying of butterflies are experimentally and numerically investigated. We first observe and record the flying motion of a butterfly (Kallima inachus) in free flight, focusing especially on the body rotation, via two high speed video cameras and PIV. The body rotation is found in phase with wing flapping while the abdomen is out of phase with wing flapping. Further, we establish the model of flexible wings of a butterfly and exploit the fluid dynamics analysis via the dynamic mesh technique to study the contribution of body rotation to the lift. The results reveal that the body rotation is capable of strengthening the vortex ring structure and correspondingly enhancing the efficiency of lift production. Our simulation model shows the body rotation contributes 15% of total lift. The results of this study may serve as a useful guide for designing insect-like MAVs in the future.

  9. Chasing the Hofstadter Butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Indu

    2014-03-01

    The experimental observation of the Hofstadter butterfly, the fascinating quantum fractal that also encodes the Chern numbers associated with quantum Hall state, continues to remain a challenging task. It may be possible to observe the fine structure of the butterfly, consisting of small gaps of the spectrum characterized by topological invariants greater than unity, with a resolution matching that of the Chern-1 gaps that form the skeleton of the butterfly. The tiny gaps of the butterfly emanating from a rational flux p / q are found to be associated with infinity of possible solutions (of Diophantine equation)for the rational flux. Not supported by the simple square lattice nearest-neighbor hopping model of the Hofstadter system, these solutions are found to be hiding in neighborhood of these fluxes. By perturbing this simple system, it is possible to ``amplify'' these small gaps corresponding to higher Chern states where they replace the Chern 1 gap of the Hofstadter butterfly. In other words, by tuning a parameter, it is possible to induce topological quantum phase transitions where the finer gaps become the new major gaps that dominate the spectrum. This may provide a possible pathway to see the topological landscape of the Hofstadter butterfly fractal in its entirety.

  10. The Effect of the Wings of Single Engine Airplanes on Propulsive Efficiency as Shown by Full Scale Wind Tunnel Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Fred E; Wood, Donald H

    1929-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the wings on propulsive efficiency. The wings are shown to cause a reduction of 1 percent to 3 percent in propulsive efficiency, which is about the same for monoplane as well as biplane wings.

  11. Delving into Delias Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pireridae): fine-scale biogeography, phylogenetics and systematics of the world’s largest butterfly genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, C. J.; Matos Maravi, Pavel F.; Beheregaray, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2013), s. 881-893. ISSN 0305-0270 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterflies * DEC model * historical biogeography Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.969, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jbi.12040/pdf

  12. Attack risk for butterflies changes with eyespot number and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sebastian; Schachat, Sandra R; Piel, William H; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are known to function in predator deflection and predator intimidation, but it is still unclear what factors cause eyespots to serve one function over the other. Both functions have been demonstrated in different species that varied in eyespot size, eyespot number and wing size, leaving the contribution of each of these factors to butterfly survival unclear. Here, we study how each of these factors contributes to eyespot function by using paper butterfly models, where each factor is varied in turn, and exposing these models to predation in the field. We find that the presence of multiple, small eyespots results in high predation, whereas single large eyespots (larger than 6 mm in diameter) results in low predation. These data indicate that single large eyespots intimidate predators, whereas multiple small eyespots produce a conspicuous, but non-intimidating signal to predators. We propose that eyespots may gain an intimidation function by increasing in size. Our measurements of eyespot size in 255 nymphalid butterfly species show that large eyespots are relatively rare and occur predominantly on ventral wing surfaces. By mapping eyespot size on the phylogeny of the family Nymphalidae, we show that these large eyespots, with a potential intimidation function, are dispersed throughout multiple nymphalid lineages, indicating that phylogeny is not a strong predictor of eyespot size. PMID:26909190

  13. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Ebel, ER; Dacosta, JM; Sorenson, MD; Hill, RI; Briscoe, AD; Willmott, KR; Mullen, SP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adel...

  14. Limited-view iridescence in the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vukusic, P.; Sambles, J R; Lawrence, C. R.; Wootton, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Few mechanisms exist in nature that effect colour reflectivity, simultaneously high in spectral purity and in intensity, over a strictly limited portion of solid angle above a surface. Fewer still bring about such colour reflectivity with an angle dependence that is distinct from the colour transition associated with conventional multilayer interference. We have discovered that the ventral wings of the butterfly Ancyluris meliboeus exhibit these optical effects, and that they result from rema...

  15. External Morphology of Adult Citrus Butterfly, Papilio memnon (Linnaeus, 1758) and Seasonal Abundance of the Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexual dimorphism is obvious in Papilio memnon. The female adult resembles that of Papilio polytes another citrus butterfly species. However, marked difference is observed in the size and red spots on the base of the forewing. The adult male P. memnon is blue black in colour and red spots are present on the base of the underside of both for and hind wings. The win span of sexes ranges from 120mm to 150mm. The breeding season is from end of June to early part of January, the peak being in the month of November. The recorded diagnostic external features of this studied species are described supported by scaled photographs. Seasonal abundance of this species is also mentioned. It is learnt through the internet that a mounted specimen of this species fetched $2.95 in Malaysia. It is therefore concluded that successful rearing of this species in captivity could be of benefit to the country.

  16. Butterfly valves for seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently in thermal and nuclear power stations and chemical plants which have become large capacity, large quantity of cooling water is required, and mostly seawater is utilized. In these cooling water systems, considering thermal efficiency and economy, the pipings become complex, and various control functions are demanded. For the purpose, the installation of shut-off valves and control valves for pipings is necessary. The various types of valves have been employed, and in particular, butterfly valves have many merits in their function, size, structure, operation, maintenance, usable period, price and so on. The corrosion behavior of seawater is complicated due to the pollution of seawater, therefore, the environment of the valves used for seawater became severe. The structure and the features of the butterfly valves for seawater, the change of the structure of the butterfly valves for seawater and the checkup of the butterfly valves for seawater are reported. The corrosion of metallic materials is complicatedly different due to the locating condition of plants, the state of pipings and the condition of use. The corrosion countermeasures for butterfly valves must be examined from the synthetic viewpoints. (K.I.)

  17. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Beldade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of

  18. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  19. Wing-dimorphism and population expansion of Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger, 1798 at small and large scales in central Alberta, Canada (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Bourassa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A study spanning ten years revealed changes in wing-morph ratios corroborating the hypothesis that the wing-dimorphic introduced carabid, Pterostichus melanarius Ill., is spreading through flight, from the city of Edmonton, Canada and establishing populations in natural aspen forest of more rural areas 45-50 km to the East. Comparison of wing-morph ratios between P. melanarius and the native wing dimorphic species Agonum retractum LeConte suggests that the spatial variation in ratios for P. melanarius does not reflect underlying environmental variation, but instead the action of selective forces on this wing-dimorphic species. About ten years after its earliest detection in some rural sites the frequency of macropterous individuals in P. melanarius has decreased c. five-fold, but it is still above the level seen in European populations in which the two wing-morphs are thought to exist in equilibrium. P. melanarius is expanding its range in native aspen forest much faster than three other introduced species Clivina fossor L., Carabus granulatus O.F. Müller and Clivina fossor L also encountered in this study. The two Carabus species are flightless, but C. fossor can be dimorphic. Although these four non-native ground beetle species comprise >85% of the carabids collected at sites in urban Edmonton, activity-density of native carabids was similar across the urban-rural gradient, suggesting little direct impact of introduced species on the local abundance of native species. In a second study conducted at a smaller scale near George Lake, Alberta, macropterous individuals of P. melanarius have penetrated furthest and most rapidly into native aspen forest. Furthermore, the percentage of micropterous individuals has increased markedly in areas first colonized a decade previously. Overall, these studies support the idea that macropterous beetles in wing-d dimorphic species are important vanguards for early colonization of unexploited territory, but

  20. Problems in cross-cultural use of the hospital anxiety and depression scale: "no butterflies in the desert".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma A Maters

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS is widely used to screen for anxiety and depression. A large literature is citable in support of its validity, but difficulties are increasingly being identified, such as inexplicably discrepant optimal cutpoints and inconsistent factor-structures. This article examines whether these problems could be due to the construction of the HADS that poses difficulties for translation and cross-cultural use. METHODS: Authors' awareness of difficulties translating the HADS were identified by examining 20% of studies using the HADS, obtained by a systematic literature search in Pubmed and PsycINFO in May 2012. Reports of use of translations and validation studies were recorded for papers from non-English speaking countries. Narrative and systematic reviews were examined for how authors dealt with different translations. RESULTS: Of 417 papers from non-English speaking countries, only 45% indicated whether a translation was used. Studies validating translations were cited in 54%. Seventeen reviews, incorporating data from diverse translated versions, were examined. Only seven mentioned issues of language and culture, and none indicated insurmountable problems in integrating results from different translations. CONCLUSION: Initial decisions concerning item content and response options likely leave the HADS difficult to translate, but we failed to find an acknowledgment of problems in articles involving its translation and cross-cultural use. Investigators' lack of awareness of these issues can lead to anomalous results and difficulties in interpretation and integration of these results. Reviews tend to overlook these issues and most reviews indiscriminately integrate results from studies performed in different countries. Cross-culturally valid, but literally translated versions of the HADS may not be attainable, and specific cutpoints may not be valid across cultures and language. Claims about rates

  1. Looking inside the butterfly diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, M.

    2007-12-01

    The suitability of Maunder's butterfly diagram to give a realistic picture of the photospheric magnetic flux large scale distribution is discussed. The evolution of the sunspot zone in cycle 20 through 23 is described. To reduce the noise which covers any structure in the diagram, a smoothing algorithm has been applied to the sunspot data. This operation has eliminated any short period fluctuation, and given visibility to long duration phenomena. One of these phenomena is the fact that the equatorward drift of the spot zone center of mass results from the alternation of several prograde (namely, equatorward) segments with other stationary or poleward segments. The long duration of the stationary/retrograde phases as well as the similarities among the spot zone alternating paths in the cycles under examination prevent us from considering these features as meaningless fluctuations, randomly superimposed on the continuous equatorward migration. On the contrary, these features should be considered physically meaningful phenomena, requiring adequate explanations. Moreover, even the smoothed spotted area markedly oscillates. The compared examination of area and spot zone evolution allows us to infer details about the spotted area distribution inside the butterfly diagram. Links between the changing structure of the spot zone and the tachocline rotation rate oscillations are proposed.

  2. Lieb-Robinson and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    As experiments are increasingly able to probe the quantum dynamics of systems with many degrees of freedom, it is interesting to probe fundamental bounds on the dynamics of quantum information. We elaborate on the relationship between one such bound---the Lieb-Robinson bound---and the butterfly effect in strongly-coupled quantum systems. The butterfly effect implies the ballistic growth of local operators in time, which can be quantified with the "butterfly" velocity $v_B$. Similarly, the Lieb-Robinson velocity places a state independent ballistic upper bound on the size of time evolved operators in non-relativistic lattice models. Here, we argue that $v_B$ is a state-dependent effective Lieb-Robinson velocity. We study the butterfly velocity in a wide variety of quantum field theories using holography and compare with free particle computations to understand the role of strong coupling. We find that, depending on the way length and time scale, $v_B$ acquires a temperature dependence and decreases towards the...

  3. Bonjour Papillon (Hello Butterfly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Donald G.; Ogrydziak, Dan

    This story in French about a butterfly who talks to children is presented in comic-book style and is intended for use in a bilingual education setting. Words and expressions peculiar to the Franco-American idiom are marked and translated into standard French. The drawings are in black and white. (AMH)

  4. The IBS Butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Lomolino, Mark V.

    2009-01-01

    cover: Butterfly logo designed by Mark V. Lomolino for the original Frontiers of Biogeography book , which we are adopting as the logo of this new journal. See the editorial From the Foundations to the Frontiers of Biogeography for further details.

  5. Genome-wide SNPs reveal fine-scale differentiation among wingless alpine stonefly populations and introgression between winged and wingless forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nicolas; Chuah, Aaron; Waters, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Insect flight loss is a repeated phenomenon in alpine habitats, where wing reduction is thought to enhance local recruitment and increase fecundity. One predicted consequence of flight loss is reduced dispersal ability, which should lead to population genetic differentiation and perhaps ultimately to speciation. Using a dataset of 15,123 SNP loci, we present comparative analyses of fine-scale population structure in codistributed Zelandoperla stonefly species, across three parallel altitudinal transects in New Zealand's Rock and Pillar mountain range. We find that winged populations (altitude 200-500 m; Zelandoperla decorata) show no genetic structuring within or among streams, suggesting substantial dispersal mediated by flight. By contrast, wingless populations (Zelandoperla fenestrata; altitude 200-1100 m) exhibit distinct genetic clusters associated with each stream, and additional evidence of isolation by distance within streams. Our data support the hypothesis that wing-loss can initiate diversification in alpine insect populations over small spatial scales. The often deep phylogenetic placement of lowland Z. fenestrata within their stream-specific clades suggests the possibility of independent alpine colonization events for each stream. Additionally, the detection of winged, interspecific hybrid individuals raises the intriguing possibility that a previously flightless lineage could reacquire flight via introgression. PMID:26614689

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in the range-margin population of the lycaenid butterfly Zizeeria maha

    OpenAIRE

    Otaki Joji M; Hiyama Atsuki; Iwata Masaki; Kudo Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Many butterfly species have been experiencing the northward range expansion and physiological adaptation, probably due to climate warming. Here, we document an extraordinary field case of a species of lycaenid butterfly, Zizeeria maha, for which plastic phenotypes of wing color-patterns were revealed at the population level in the course of range expansion. Furthermore, we examined whether this outbreak of phenotypic changes was able to be reproduced in a laboratory. Resul...

  7. Large-scale static investigation of circulation-control-wing concepts applied to upper surface-blowing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovlin, M. D.; Englar, R. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a circulation control to deflect turbofan engine thrust beyond 90 deg. has been proven in full-scale static ground tests of the circulation-control-wing/upper-surface-blowing (CCW/USB) concept. This powered high-lift system employs a circular, blown trailing edge to replace the USB mechanical flaps to entrain engine-exhaust flow, and to obtain both a vertical-thrust component and an augmented circulation lift for short takeoff and landing (STOL) applications. Previous tests (Phase 1), done in 1982, of a basic configuration installed on the Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft confirmed these CCW/USB systems capabilities. A second phase (Phase 2) of full-scale, static, thrust-deflection investigations has reconfirmed the ability to deflect engine thrust from 40 to 102 deg., depending on thrust level. Five new configurations were evaluated and performance improvements noted for those configurations with larger blown span, fences or favorable engine interactions, smaller slot height, and larger radii with less than 180 deg. of CCW surface arc. In general, a 90 deg. circular arc with a smaller slot height provided the best performance, demonstrating that adequate thrust turning can be produced by a trailing-edge shape which may have minimal cruise-performance penalty. Thrust deflections were achieved at considerably lower blowing momentum than was required for the baseline case of Phase 1. Improved performance and versatility were thus confirmed for the CCW/USB system applied to STOL aircraft, where the potential for developing a non-moving-parts pneumatic thrust deflector to rapidly vary horizontal force from thrust to drag, while maintaining constant vertical force, appears quite promising. The conversion from high-lift to lower-drag cruise mode by merely terminating the blowing provides an effective STOL aircraft system.

  8. Land-use changes, farm management and the decline of butterflies associated with semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Sven G.; Markus Franzén; Lars Pettersson

    2013-01-01

    Currently, we are experiencing biodiversity loss on different spatial scales. One of the best studied taxonomic groups in decline is the butterflies. Here, we review evidence for such declines using five systematic studies from southern Sweden that compare old butterfly surveys with the current situation. Additionally, we provide data on butterfly and burnet moth extinctions in the region’s counties. In some local areas, half of the butterfly fauna has been lost during the last 60-100 y...

  9. Adaptive control of a millimeter-scale flapping-wing robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Ma, Kevin Y; Wood, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Challenges for the controlled flight of a robotic insect are due to the inherent instability of the system, complex fluid-structure interactions, and the general lack of a complete system model. In this paper, we propose theoretical models of the system based on the limited information available from previous work and a comprehensive flight controller. The modular flight controller is derived from Lyapunov function candidates with proven stability over a large region of attraction. Moreover, it comprises adaptive components that are capable of coping with uncertainties in the system that arise from manufacturing imperfections. We have demonstrated that the proposed methods enable the robot to achieve sustained hovering flights with relatively small errors compared to a non-adaptive approach. Simple lateral maneuvers and vertical takeoff and landing flights are also shown to illustrate the fidelity of the flight controller. The analysis suggests that the adaptive scheme is crucial in order to achieve millimeter-scale precision in flight control as observed in natural insect flight. PMID:24855052

  10. Analytical model for instantaneous lift and shape deformation of an insect-scale flapping wing in hover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-kwon; Shyy, Wei

    2014-12-01

    In the analysis of flexible flapping wings of insects, the aerodynamic outcome depends on the combined structural dynamics and unsteady fluid physics. Because the wing shape and hence the resulting effective angle of attack are a priori unknown, predicting aerodynamic performance is challenging. Here, we show that a coupled aerodynamics/structural dynamics model can be established for hovering, based on a linear beam equation with the Morison equation to account for both added mass and aerodynamic damping effects. Lift strongly depends on the instantaneous angle of attack, resulting from passive pitch associated with wing deformation. We show that both instantaneous wing deformation and lift can be predicted in a much simplified framework. Moreover, our analysis suggests that resulting wing kinematics can be explained by the interplay between acceleration-related and aerodynamic damping forces. Interestingly, while both forces combine to create a high angle of attack resulting in high lift around the midstroke, they offset each other for phase control at the end of the stroke. PMID:25297319

  11. Fog spontaneously folds mosquito wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Liu, Xing; Zhu, Ting; Hu, David L.

    2015-02-01

    The flexibility of insect wings confers aerodynamic benefits, but can also present a hazard if exposed to fog or dew. Fog can cause water to accumulate on wings, bending them into tight taco shapes and rendering them useless for flight. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed video to film the spontaneous folding of isolated mosquito wings due to the evaporation of a water drop. We predict shapes of the deformed wing using two-dimensional elastica theory, considering both surface tension and Laplace pressure. We also recommend fold-resistant geometries for the wings of flapping micro-aerial vehicles. Our work reveals the mechanism of insect wing folding and provides a framework for further study of capillarity-driven folding in both natural and biomimetic systems at small scales.

  12. Universal Charge Diffusion and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Blake, Mike

    2016-01-01

    We study charge diffusion in holographic scaling theories with a particle-hole symmetry. We show that these theories have a universal regime in which the diffusion constant is given by $D_c = C v_B^2/ (2 \\pi T)$ where $v_B$ is the velocity of the butterfly effect. The constant of proportionality, $C$, depends only on the scaling exponents of the infra-red theory. Our results suggest an unexpected connection between transport at strong coupling and quantum chaos.

  13. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus: Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal flight in butterflies depends on structural features of the wings and body, including wing size, flight muscle size, and wing loading. Arguably, there is no butterfly for which flight is more important than the monarch (Danaus plexippus, which undergoes long-distance migrations in North America. We examined morphological features of monarchs that would explain the apparent higher migratory success and flight ability of females over males. We examined 47 male and 45 female monarch specimens from a project where monarchs were reared under uniform conditions. We weighed individual body parts, including the thorax (flight muscle and wings, and computed wing loading and wing thickness for all specimens. When we compared each morphological trait between sexes, we found that females did not differ from males in terms of relative thorax (wing muscle size. Females were generally smaller than males, but females had relatively thicker wings than males for their size, which suggests greater mechanical strength. Importantly, females had significantly lower wing loading than males (7% lower. This would translate to more efficient flight, which may explain their higher migratory success. Results of this work should be useful for interpreting flight behavior and/or migration success in this and other Lepidopteran species.

  14. Forward flight of a model butterfly: Simulation by equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hua; Sun, Mao

    2012-12-01

    The forward flight of a model butterfly was studied by simulation using the equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations. The model butterfly moved under the action of aerodynamic and gravitational forces, where the aerodynamic forces were generated by flapping wings which moved with the body, allowing the body oscillations of the model butterfly to be simulated. The main results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force produced by the wings is approximately perpendicular to the long-axis of body and is much larger in the downstroke than in the upstroke. In the downstroke the body pitch angle is small and the large aerodynamic force points up and slightly backward, giving the weight-supporting vertical force and a small negative horizontal force, whilst in the upstroke, the body angle is large and the relatively small aerodynamic force points forward and slightly downward, giving a positive horizontal force which overcomes the body drag and the negative horizontal force generated in the downstroke. (2) Pitching oscillation of the butterfly body plays an equivalent role of the wing-rotation of many other insects. (3) The body-massspecific power of the model butterfly is 33.3 W/kg, not very different from that of many other insects, e.g., fruitflies and dragonflies.

  15. Forward flight of a model butterfly: Simulation by equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Huang; Mao Sun

    2012-01-01

    The forward flight of a model butterfly was studied by simulation using the equations of motion coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations.The model butterfly moved under the action of aerodynamic and gravitational forces,where the aerodynamic forces were generated by flapping wings which moved with the body,allowing the body oscillations of the model butterfly to be simulated.The main results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force produced by the wings is approximately perpendicular to the long-axis of body and is much larger in the downstroke than in the upstroke.In the downstroke the body pitch angle is small and the large aerodynamic force points up and slightly backward,giving the weight-supporting vertical force and a small negative horizontal force,whilst in the upstroke,the body angle is large and the relatively small aerodynamic force points forward and slightly downward,giving a positive horizontal force which overcomes the body drag and the negative horizontal force generated in the downstroke.(2) Pitching oscillation of the butterfly body plays an equivalent role of the wing-rotation of many other insects.(3) The body-massspecific power of the model butterfly is 33.3 W/kg,not very different from that of many other insects,e.g.,fruitflies and dragonflies.

  16. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Joseph James; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke Reisner;

    2015-01-01

    The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body...... species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change....... size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500...

  17. Cavitation noise from butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitation in valves can produce levels of intense noise. It is possible to mathematically express a limit for a design level of cavitation noise in terms of the cavitation parameter sigma. Using the cavitation parameter or limit, it is then possible to calculate the flow conditions at which a design level of cavitation noise will occur. However, the intensity of cavitation increases with the upstream pressure and valve size at a constant sigma. Therefore, it is necessary to derive equations to correct or scale the cavitation limit for the effects of different upstream pressures and valve sizes. The following paper discusses and presents experimental data for the caviation noise limit as well as the cavitation limits of incipient, critical, incipient damage, and choking cavitation for butterfly valves. The main emphasis is on the design limit of caviation noise, and a noise level of 85 decibels was selected as the noise limit. Tables of data and scaling exponents are included for applying the design limits for the effects of upstream pressure and valve size. (orig.)

  18. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  19. Design integration and noise studies for jet STOL aircraft. Task 7C: Augmentor wing cruise blowing valveless system. Volume 2: Small-scale development testing of augmentor wing critical ducting components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, J. N.; Gupfa, A.

    1973-01-01

    Augmentor wing ducting system studies conducted on a valveless system configuration that provides cruise thrust from the augmentor nozzles have shown that most of the duct system pressure loss would occur in the strut-wing duct y-junction and the wing duct-augmentor lobe nozzles. These components were selected for development testing over a range of duct Mach numbers and pressure ratios to provide a technical basis for predicting installed wing thrust loading and for evaluating design wing loading of a particular wing aspect ratios. The flow characteristics of ducting components with relatively high pressure loss coefficients were investigated. The turbulent pressure fluctuations associated with flows at high Mach numbers were analyzed to evaluate potential duct fatigue problems.

  20. Butterflies and topological quantum numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Avron, J. E.; Osadchy, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Hofstadter model illustrates the notion of topological quantum numbers and how they account for the quantization of the Hall conductance. It gives rise to colorful fractal diagrams of butterflies where the colors represent the topological quantum numbers.

  1. Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This recovery plan has been prepared by the Karner Blue Butterfly Recovery Team under the leadership of Dr. David Andow, University of Minnesota-St. Paul. Dr. John...

  2. Comparative study of Butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work tries to justify the hydrodynamic butterfly valves performance, using the EPRI tests, results carried out in laboratory and in situ. This justification will be possible if: - The valves to study are similar - Their performance is calculated using EPRI's methodology Looking for this objective, the elements of the present work are: 1. Brief EPRI butterfly valve description it wild provide the factors which are necessary to define the butterfly valves similarity. 2. EPRI tests description and range of validation against test data definition. 3. Description of the spanish butterfly analyzed valves, and comparison with the EPRI performance results, to prove that this valves are similar to the EPRI test valves. In this way, it will not be necessary to carry out particular dynamic tests on the spanish valves to describe their hydrodynamic performance. (Author)

  3. High-Arctic butterflies become smaller with rising temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Joseph J; Eskildsen, Anne; Hansen, Rikke R; Olsen, Kent; Kurle, Carolyn M; Høye, Toke T

    2015-10-01

    The response of body size to increasing temperature constitutes a universal response to climate change that could strongly affect terrestrial ectotherms, but the magnitude and direction of such responses remain unknown in most species. The metabolic cost of increased temperature could reduce body size but long growing seasons could also increase body size as was recently shown in an Arctic spider species. Here, we present the longest known time series on body size variation in two High-Arctic butterfly species: Boloria chariclea and Colias hecla. We measured wing length of nearly 4500 individuals collected annually between 1996 and 2013 from Zackenberg, Greenland and found that wing length significantly decreased at a similar rate in both species in response to warmer summers. Body size is strongly related to dispersal capacity and fecundity and our results suggest that these Arctic species could face severe challenges in response to ongoing rapid climate change. PMID:26445981

  4. Inferring the Provenance of an Alien Species with DNA Barcodes: The Neotropical Butterfly Dryas iulia in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Noah A.; Pradhan, Ashman; Gonzalez, Rebecca M.; Morban, Emely Z.; Zhen, Erica W.; Sakchoowong, Watana; Lohman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The Neotropical butterfly Dryas iulia has been collected from several locations in Thailand and Malaysia since 2007, and has been observed breeding in the wild, using introduced Passiflora foetida as a larval host plant. The butterfly is bred by a butterfly house in Phuket, Thailand, for release at weddings and Buddhist ceremonies, and we hypothesized that this butterfly house was the source of wild, Thai individuals. We compared wing patterns and COI barcodes from two, wild Thai populations with individuals obtained from this butterfly house. All Thai individuals resemble the subspecies D. iulia modesta, and barcodes from wild and captive Thai specimens were identical. This unique, Thai barcode was not found in any of the 30 specimens sampled from the wild in the species' native range, but is most similar to specimens from Costa Rica, where many exporting butterfly farms are located. These data implicate the butterfly house as the source of Thailand's wild D. iulia populations, which are currently so widespread that eradication efforts are unlikely to be successful. PMID:25119899

  5. Diversity pattern of Butterfly Lepidoptera (Papilio demoleus in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAROON

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In ecosystem the butterflies ply dual role as pollinators, silk producers and indicators of environmental quality. The present study was conducted in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri during the period July 2012 to August 2012. The collection of butterflies was done randomly by using the sweep net. A total of 32 specimens of Papilio demoleus were collected from different villages of the said area. The high number of specimen was collected from Aratt Kally (21.88%. The wing span is 9.8±0.40 cm and body length 2.9±0.16 cm. From the present investigation it was concluded that the Papilio demoleus species is common in Union Council Koaz Bahram Dehri. The area has rich fauna of butterflies and recommended further studies.

  6. Predator mimicry, not conspicuousness, explains the efficacy of butterfly eyespots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bona, Sebastiano; Valkonen, Janne K; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Mappes, Johanna

    2015-05-01

    Large conspicuous eyespots on butterfly wings have been shown to deter predators. This has been traditionally explained by mimicry of vertebrate eyes, but recently the classic eye-mimicry hypothesis has been challenged. It is proposed that the conspicuousness of the eyespot, not mimicry, is what causes aversion due to sensory biases, neophobia or sensory overloads. We conducted an experiment to directly test whether the eye-mimicry or the conspicuousness hypothesis better explain eyespot efficacy. We used great tits (Parus major) as model predator, and tested their reaction towards animated images on a computer display. Birds were tested against images of butterflies without eyespots, with natural-looking eyespots, and manipulated spots with the same contrast but reduced resemblance to an eye, as well as images of predators (owls) with and without eyes. We found that mimetic eyespots were as effective as true eyes of owls and more efficient in eliciting an aversive response than modified, less mimetic but equally contrasting eyespots. We conclude that the eye-mimicry hypothesis explains our results better than the conspicuousness hypothesis and is thus likely to be an important mechanism behind the evolution of butterfly eyespots. PMID:25854889

  7. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from March-September 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  8. Morphological structure and optical properties of the wings of Morphidae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SERGE BERTHIER; ERIC CHARRON; JULIE BOULENGUEZ

    2006-01-01

    The morphological structure and optical properties of the wings of 14 species of Morphidae have been investigated. Most of the scales of the iridescent species of Morphidae (Lepidoptera) present a very particular structure. The ground scales, responsible for the major part of the optical properties, are covered by a very regular set of longitudinal ridges. The ridges themselves are constituted by a superposition of lamellae that act locally as a multilayered structure. This very specific morphology leads to both interferences and diffraction effects. The first one is responsible of the brilliant blue coloration of the males, while the second one diffracts this colored light at a very large angle. These two phenomena give to the butterfly a very effective long-range communication system. The morphological characteristics of the scales of the various species are presented in detail. Two types of optical measurement were performed on the iridescent wings of 14 different species of Morphidae: spectroscopic measurements under various incidences and gonioscopic measurements for a given incidence angle and wavelength. The first allows a determination of the index of refraction of the cuticular material. The second leads to the drawing of spatial diffraction maps. It shows that most of the reflected light is diffracted laterally over a very large angle (90°<θ< 120°, according to the different species) and that this repartition depends of the polarization of incident light. As predicted by previous calculations, the dissymmetric structure of the ridge is responsible for the separation of the polarization modes in the various diffraction orders.

  9. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Emily R; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Sorenson, Michael D; Hill, Ryan I; Briscoe, Adriana D; Willmott, Keith R; Mullen, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adelpha and its temperate sister genus Limenitis using genomewide restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Despite a declining fraction of shared markers with increasing evolutionary distance, the RAD-Seq data consistently generated well-supported trees using a variety of phylogenetic methods. These well-resolved phylogenies allow the identification of an ecologically important relationship with a toxic host plant family, as well as the confirmation of widespread, convergent wing pattern mimicry throughout the genus. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary innovations in both larvae and adults have permitted the colonization of novel host plants and fuelled adaptive diversification within this large butterfly radiation. PMID:25809206

  10. Butterfly effect: understanding and mitigating the local consequences of climate change impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Butterfly Effect is the notion that tiny differences in initial conditions are amplified in the evolution of a dynamic system and directly affect the eventual outcome. In 1963 mathematician and meteorologist Edward Lorenz proposed that the flapping of a butterfly's wing would cause a disturbance that becomes exponentially amplified so as to eventually affect large-scale atmospheric motion. This was to illustrate the 'sensitive dependence on initial conditions'; sensitivity also true in affecting the extent of damages experienced as a result of climate change. In a climate change context, The Butterfly Effect suggests the local consequences of climate change impacts will depend on their interaction with the economic, environmental, institutional, technological and demographic attributes unique to a city or region. It is this mix of factors that will determine the extent, both positively and negatively, to which climate change will be experienced locally. For a truly effective climate change response, it is imperative that regional risk assessments and adaptation strategies take into account not only the projected impacts but the full range of flow-on implications of those impacts and their sensitivity factors. Understanding of the sensitivity factors that will amplify or mitigate climate change impacts and implications enables government and business leaders to calculate the likely extent of localised damages if no adaptation is undertaken. This allows industries and communities to evaluate the likely significance of a particular impact and to consider how to adjust or counter the sensitivity factor to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Thus, it also assists in the local prioritisation of issues and responses. Such a strategic response can also mean the required adaptation measures may be less extensive and thereby require less cost and time to implement. This paper discusses the flow-on implications of Australia's projected climate change

  11. Geographic expansion of the cabbage butterfly (Pieris rapae)and the evolution of highly UV-reflecting females

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuya Fukano; Toshiyuki Satoh; Tadao Hirota; Yudai Nishide; Yoshiaki Obara

    2012-01-01

    Reflection ofultraviolet (UV) light by the wings of the female Eurasian cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae,shows a large geographic variation.The wings of the female of the European subspecies,P rapae rapae,reflect little UV light,while butterflies of the Asian subspecies,P.rapae crucivora,may reflect it strongly or at only intermediate levels.The geographic region where P.rapae originated remains to be determined.Moreover,it is not clear if females with wings that reflect little UV light are ancestral to females with wings that reflect UV strongly or vice versa.In the present study,we aimed to determine the geographic origin and ancestral UV pattern of cabbage butterflies through mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis.The results of these investigations suggest that P rapae is of European origin and that it has expanded its distribution eastward to Asia.It follows that the ancestral subspecies is the type with UV-absorbing wings.Lower nucleotide diversities and haplotype network patterns ofmtDNA derived from East Asian populations suggest that population expansion from Europe to East Asia probably occurred fairly recently and at a rapid rate.

  12. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stavenga, Doekele G.; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly eyes consist of three types of ommatidia, which are more or less randomly arranged in a spatially regular lattice. The corneal nipple array and the tapetum, Optical Structures that many but not all butterflies share with moths, Suggest that moths are ancestral to butterflies, in agreement

  13. Genomic architecture of adaptive color pattern divergence and convergence in Heliconius butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Supple, Megan A; Hines, Heather M.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon Kumar; Lewis, James J.; Nielsen, Dahlia; Lavoie, Christine; Ray, David A.; Salazar, Camilo; McMillan, W. Owen; Counterman, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Identifying the genetic changes driving adaptive variation in natural populations is key to understanding the origins of biodiversity. The mosaic of mimetic wing patterns in Heliconius butterflies makes an excellent system for exploring adaptive variation using next-generation sequencing. In this study, we use a combination of techniques to annotate the genomic interval modulating red color pattern variation, identify a narrow region responsible for adaptive divergence and convergence in Heli...

  14. Angel's Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Angel's wings had fallen off. It started slowly,a couple of feathers breaking loose in the wind,floating away in carefree spirals, then in clumps in the shower, matted wet and clogging the drain,until one day he woke in a thick layer of white plumage, quills snagging on the stained sheets.

  15. Mosquito control insecticides: a probabilistic ecological risk assessment on drift exposures of naled, dichlorvos (naled metabolite) and permethrin to adult butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, T C; Rand, G M

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive probabilistic terrestrial ecological risk assessment (ERA) was conducted to characterize the potential risk of mosquito control insecticide (i.e., naled, it's metabolite dichlorvos, and permethrin) usage to adult butterflies in south Florida by comparing the probability distributions of environmental exposure concentrations following actual mosquito control applications at labeled rates from ten field monitoring studies with the probability distributions of butterfly species response (effects) data from our laboratory acute toxicity studies. The overlap of these distributions was used as a measure of risk to butterflies. The long-term viability (survival) of adult butterflies, following topical (thorax/wings) exposures was the environmental value we wanted to protect. Laboratory acute toxicity studies (24-h LD50) included topical exposures (thorax and wings) to five adult butterfly species and preparation of species sensitivity distributions (SSDs). The ERA indicated that the assessment endpoint of protection, of at least 90% of the species, 90% of the time (or the 10th percentile from the acute SSDs) from acute naled and permethrin exposures, is most likely not occurring when considering topical exposures to adults. Although the surface areas for adulticide exposures are greater for the wings, exposures to the thorax provide the highest potential for risk (i.e., SSD 10th percentile is lowest) for adult butterflies. Dichlorvos appeared to present no risk. The results of this ERA can be applied to other areas of the world, where these insecticides are used and where butterflies may be exposed. Since there are other sources (e.g., agriculture) of pesticides in the environment, where butterfly exposures will occur, the ERA may under-estimate the potential risks under real-world conditions. PMID:25261815

  16. A hybrid original approach for prediction of the aerodynamic coefficients of an ATR-42 scaled wing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Ben Mosbah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new approach for the prediction of lift, drag, and moment coefficients is presented. This approach is based on the support vector machines (SVMs methodology and an optimization meta-heuristic algorithm called extended great deluge (EGD. The novelty of this approach is the hybridization between the SVM and the EGD algorithm. The EGD is used to optimize the SVM parameters. The training and validation of this new identification approach is realized using the aerodynamic coefficients of an ATR-42 wing model. The aerodynamic coefficients data are obtained with the XFoil software and experimental tests using the Price–Païdoussis wind tunnel. The predicted results with our approach are compared with those from the XFoil software and experimental results for different flight cases of angles of attack and Mach numbers. The main purpose of this methodology is to rapidly predict aircraft aerodynamic coefficients.

  17. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, J K; Finio, B M; Wood, R J [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Combes, S A, E-mail: rjwood@seas.harvard.ed [Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  18. Artificial insect wings of diverse morphology for flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (MAVs) demands a systematic exploration of the available design space to identify ways in which the unsteady mechanisms governing flapping-wing flight can best be utilized for producing optimal thrust or maneuverability. Mimicking the wing kinematics of biological flight requires examining the potential effects of wing morphology on flight performance, as wings may be specially adapted for flapping flight. For example, insect wings passively deform during flight, leading to instantaneous and potentially unpredictable changes in aerodynamic behavior. Previous studies have postulated various explanations for insect wing complexity, but there lacks a systematic approach for experimentally examining the functional significance of components of wing morphology, and for determining whether or not natural design principles can or should be used for MAVs. In this work, a novel fabrication process to create centimeter-scale wings of great complexity is introduced; via this process, a wing can be fabricated with a large range of desired mechanical and geometric characteristics. We demonstrate the versatility of the process through the creation of planar, insect-like wings with biomimetic venation patterns that approximate the mechanical properties of their natural counterparts under static loads. This process will provide a platform for studies investigating the effects of wing morphology on flight dynamics, which may lead to the design of highly maneuverable and efficient MAVs and insight into the functional morphology of natural wings.

  19. Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin(Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-José Sanzana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Latitudinal gradient effect on the wing geometry of Auca coctei (Guérin (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae. When the environmental conditions change locally, the organisms and populations may also change in response to the selection pressure, so that the development of individuals may become affected in different degrees. There have been only a few studies in which the patterns of wing morphology variation have been looked into along a latitudinal gradient by means of geometric morphometrics. The aim of this work was to assess the morphologic differentiation of wing among butterfly populations of the species Auca coctei. For this purpose, 9 sampling locations were used which are representative of the distribution range of the butterfly and cover a wide latitudinal range in Chile. The wing morphology was studied in a total of 202 specimens of A. coctei (150 males and 52 females, based on digitization of 17 morphologic landmarks. The results show variation of wing shape in both sexes; however, for the centroid size there was significant variation only in females. Females show smaller centroid size at higher latitudes, therefore in this study the Bergmann reverse rule is confirmed for females of A. coctei. Our study extends morphologic projections with latitude, suggesting that wing variation is an environmental response from diverse origins and may influence different characteristics of the life history of a butterfly.

  20. Wing-wake interaction reduces power consumption in insect tandem wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Fritz-Olaf

    Insects are capable of a remarkable diversity of flight techniques. Dragonflies, in particular, are notable for their powerful aerial manoeuvres and endurance during prey catching or territory flights. While most insects such as flies, bees and wasps either reduced their hinds wings or mechanically coupled fore and hind wings, dragonflies have maintained two independent-controlled pairs of wings throughout their evolution. An extraordinary feature of dragonfly wing kinematics is wing phasing, the shift in flapping phase between the fore and hind wing periods. Wing phasing has previously been associated with an increase in thrust production, readiness for manoeuvrability and hunting performance. Recent studies have shown that wing phasing in tandem wings produces a twofold modulation in hind wing lift, but slightly reduces the maximum combined lift of fore and hind wings, compared to two wings flapping in isolation. Despite this disadvantage, however, wing phasing is effective in improving aerodynamic efficiency during flight by the removal of kinetic energy from the wake. Computational analyses demonstrate that this increase in flight efficiency may save up to 22% aerodynamic power expenditure compared to insects flapping only two wings. In terms of engineering, energetic benefits in four-wing flapping are of substantial interest in the field of biomimetic aircraft design, because the performance of man-made air vehicles is often limited by high-power expenditure rather than by lift production. This manuscript provides a summary on power expenditures and aerodynamic efficiency in flapping tandem wings by investigating wing phasing in a dynamically scaled robotic model of a hovering dragonfly.

  1. Dispersal-related life-history trade-offs in a butterfly metapopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; Saastamoinen, Marjo; Ovaskainen, Otso

    2006-01-01

    1. Recent studies on butterflies have documented apparent evolutionary changes in dispersal rate in response to climate change and habitat change. These studies often assume a trade-off between dispersal rate (or flight capacity) and reproduction, which is the rule in wing-dimorphic species but might not occur equally in wing-monomorphic species such as butterflies. 2. To investigate the relationship between dispersal rate and fecundity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia we recorded lifetime individual movements, matings, ovipositions, and maximal life span in a large (32 x 26 m) population cage in the field. Experimental material was obtained from 20 newly established and 20 old local populations within a large metapopulation in the Aland Islands in Finland. 3. Females of the Glanville fritillary from newly established populations are known to be more dispersive in the field, and in the cage they showed significantly greater mobility, mated earlier, and laid more egg clutches than females from old populations. The dispersive females from new populations exhibited no reduced lifetime fecundity in the cage, but they had a shorter maximal life span than old-population females. 4. These results challenge the dispersal-fecundity trade-off for nonmigratory butterflies but instead suggest a physiological trade-off between high metabolic performance and reduced maximal life span. High metabolic performance may explain high rates of dispersal and oviposition in early life. 5. In fragmented landscapes, an ecological trade-off exists between being more dispersive and hence spending more time in the landscape matrix vs. having more time for reproduction in the habitat. We estimate with a dispersal model parameterized for the Glanville fritillary that the lifetime egg production is 4% smaller on average in the more dispersive butterflies in a representative landscape, with much variation depending on landscape structure in the neighbourhood of the natal

  2. Ecology: Butterflies reset the calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Roy, David B.

    2011-05-01

    The timing of seasonal events such as flowering and migration is changing as the climate warms, reshuffling the order in which such events take place each year. Now research sheds light on the causes of changes in the timing of butterfly emergence.

  3. A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Virginie M; Turlure, Camille; Baguette, Michel

    2010-08-01

    Dispersal has recently gained much attention because of its crucial role in the conservation and evolution of species facing major environmental changes such as habitat loss and fragmentation, climate change, and their interactions. Butterflies have long been recognized as ideal model systems for the study of dispersal and a huge amount of data on their ability to disperse has been collected under various conditions. However, no single 'best' method seems to exist leading to the co-occurrence of various approaches to study butterfly mobility, and therefore a high heterogeneity among data on dispersal across this group. Accordingly, we here reviewed the knowledge accumulated on dispersal and mobility in butterflies, to detect general patterns. This meta-analysis specifically addressed two questions. Firstly, do the various methods provide a congruent picture of how dispersal ability is distributed across species? Secondly, is dispersal species-specific? Five sources of data were analysed: multisite mark-recapture experiments, genetic studies, experimental assessments, expert opinions, and transect surveys. We accounted for potential biases due to variation in genetic markers, sample sizes, spatial scales or the level of habitat fragmentation. We showed that the various dispersal estimates generally converged, and that the relative dispersal ability of species could reliably be predicted from their relative vagrancy (records of butterflies outside their normal habitat). Expert opinions gave much less reliable estimates of realized dispersal but instead reflected migration propensity of butterflies. Within-species comparisons showed that genetic estimates were relatively invariable, while other dispersal estimates were highly variable. This latter point questions dispersal as a species-specific, invariant trait. PMID:20055815

  4. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR; ANNISA YULIANA

    2010-01-01

    Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010) Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conduct...

  5. Measuring Straight Line Segments Using HT Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J.; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently...

  6. Monitoring of butterflies within a landscape context

    OpenAIRE

    Jonason, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring of butterflies is most often only directed towards the grassland fauna. Species associated with other vegetation types, as well as the impact of the surrounding landscape, often become neglected. The aim with this study was, in contrast, to perform a novel landscape-based monitoring method for butterflies in diverse vegetation types and more specifically (i) evaluate the impact of environmental variables on butterfly abundance, (ii) compare the distribution...

  7. Mutations in CTNNA1 cause butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and perturbed retinal pigment epithelium integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksens, Nicole T M; Krebs, Mark P; Schoenmaker-Koller, Frederieke E; Hicks, Wanda; Yu, Minzhong; Shi, Lanying; Rowe, Lucy; Collin, Gayle B; Charette, Jeremy R; Letteboer, Stef J; Neveling, Kornelia; van Moorsel, Tamara W; Abu-Ltaif, Sleiman; De Baere, Elfride; Walraedt, Sophie; Banfi, Sandro; Simonelli, Francesca; Cremers, Frans P M; Boon, Camiel J F; Roepman, Ronald; Leroy, Bart P; Peachey, Neal S; Hoyng, Carel B; Nishina, Patsy M; den Hollander, Anneke I

    2016-02-01

    Butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy is an eye disease characterized by lesions in the macula that can resemble the wings of a butterfly. Here we report the identification of heterozygous missense mutations in the CTNNA1 gene (encoding α-catenin 1) in three families with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy. In addition, we identified a Ctnna1 missense mutation in a chemically induced mouse mutant, tvrm5. Parallel clinical phenotypes were observed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of individuals with butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy and in tvrm5 mice, including pigmentary abnormalities, focal thickening and elevated lesions, and decreased light-activated responses. Morphological studies in tvrm5 mice demonstrated increased cell shedding and the presence of large multinucleated RPE cells, suggesting defects in intercellular adhesion and cytokinesis. This study identifies CTNNA1 gene variants as a cause of macular dystrophy, indicates that CTNNA1 is involved in maintaining RPE integrity and suggests that other components that participate in intercellular adhesion may be implicated in macular disease. PMID:26691986

  8. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration. PMID:26473314

  9. Diversity and distribution of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera of district Dir lower, Khyber Pukhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Inayatullah Khan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies are the fine-looking creatures and act as ecological indicators and pollinators. The present study is the first record of Butterfly fauna of Dir lower. Collection was carried out during March - August 2013. The specimens were collected and identified with the help of taxonomic keys and preserved specimens in National Insect Museum Islamabad. The collection of 375 specimens were preserved. Identification revealed 24 species belonging to 20 genera and 7 families. The species are Papilio polyctor Boisduval, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, Junonia almanac Linnaeus, Pararge schakra Kollar, Junonia hierta Fabricius, Junonia orythea Linnaeus, Argyrius hyperbius Linnaeus, Hypolimnus bolina Linnaeus, Vanessa cashmiriensis Kollar, Phalantha phalantha Drury, Melitea didyma Esper, Lycaena phalaeas Linnaeus, Lybithea lipita Moore, Danius chrysippus Linnaeus, Hipparchia parasitas Kollar, Lethe rohria Fabricius, Maniola davendra Moore, Pontia daplidice Linnaeus, Belenois aurota Fabricius, Pieris brassicae Linnaeus, Colias erate Esper, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus, Colias fieldi Linnaeus and Cynthia cardui Linnaeus. The highest population was shown by Pieris brassicae followed by Danius chrysippus and Cynthia cardui. Twelve species belong to family Nymphalidae (50%, which shows the highest abundance rate. Butterfly density was the highest at Timergara. Butterfly fauna was the highest in May followed by August and lowest in March. It is concluded that pollution free environment of Dir Lower is more suitable for the survival of butterfly fauna. Large scale study is required to fully explore the butterfly fauna of the area.

  10. Spatial synchrony of monarch butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, W D

    2006-01-01

    I examined spatial synchrony in Populations of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) during the summer breeding season across North America and while overwintering along the Pacific Coast. Spatial synchrony was observed in all analyses, but was particularly great among eastern summer populations and among overwintering populations on the Pacific Coast. Thus, in a year when relatively large numbers of monarchs were found at a particular breeding or wintering site in these populations, other s...

  11. Kinematic Design and Analysis of a Morphing Wing

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, Matthew D.

    2003-01-01

    In order to optimize the flight characteristics of aircraft, wings must be designed for the specific mission an aircraft will see. An airplane rarely has one specific mission, and therefore is usually designed as a compromise to meet many flight objectives with a single wing surface. Large-scale shape change of a wing would enable a wing design to be optimized for multiple missions. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center are investigat...

  12. Free-spinning-tunnel Investigation of a 1/30 Scale Model of a Twin-jet-swept-wing Fighter Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S., Jr.; Healy, Frederick M.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/30-scale dynamic model of a twin-jet swept-wing fighter airplane. The model results indicate that the optimum erect spin recovery technique determined (simultaneous rudder reversal to full against the spin and aileron deflection to full with the spin) will provide satisfactory recovery from steep-type spins obtained on the airplane. It is considered that the air-plane will not readily enter flat-type spins, also indicated as possible by the model tests, but developed-spin conditions should be avoided in as much as the optimum recovery procedure may not provide satisfactory recovery if the airplane encounters a flat-type developed spin. Satisfactory recovery from inverted spins will be obtained on the airplane by neutralization of all controls. A 30-foot- diameter (laid-out-flat) stable tail parachute having a drag coefficient of 0.67 and a towline length of 27.5 feet will be satisfactory for emergency spin recovery.

  13. The application of life history information to the conservation management of Chrysoritis butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Terblanche

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their intricate life histories and the unique wing patterns and colouring the butterflies of the genus Chrysoritis are of significant conservation and aesthetic value. Thisoverview probes into practical examples of butterfly life history research applicable to environmental management of this relatively well-known invertebrate group in South Africa. Despite the pioneer work on life histories of Chrysoritis in the past, more should be done to understand the life history of the butterflies in the wild, especially their natural host plants and the behaviour of adults and larvae. A system of voucher specimens of host plants should be introduced in South Africa. Although various host plant species in nature are used by the members of Chrysoritis, including the Chrysoritis chrysaor group, the choice of these in nature by each species is significant for conservation management and in the case of Chrysoritis aureus perhaps even as a specific characteristic.A revision of the ant genus Crematogaster will benefit the conservation management of Chrysoritis species since some of these ant species may consist of a number of specieswith much more restricted distributions than previously thought. Rigorous quantified tudies of population dynamics of Chrysoritis butterflies are absent and the introductionof such studies will benefit conservation management of these localised butterflies extensively.

  14. Synthesis of naturally cross-linked polycrystalline ZrO2 hollow nanowires using butterfly as templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes with ∼2.4 μm in length, ∼35 nm in diameter and ∼12 nm in wall thickness was synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. ► The contractions, which are main defects of the former hard-template method based on butterflies, are well controlled with the help of the surface tension effect. ► The achieved hollow ZrO2 nanowires suggest a new optional approach that uses bio-templates in fabricating and designing nano systems. - Abstract: Butterfly wing skeleton is a widely used hard-template in recent years for fabricating photonic crystal structures. However, the smallest construction units for the most species of butterflies are commonly larger than ∼50 nm, which greatly hinders their applications in designing much smaller functional parts down to real “nano scale”. This work indicates, however, that hollow ZrO2 nanowires with ∼2.4 μm in length, ∼35 nm in diameter and ∼12 nm in wall thickness can be synthesized via the selection of suitable butterfly bio-templates followed by heat processing. Especially, the successful fabrication of these naturally cross-linked ZrO2 nanotubes suggests a new optional approach in fabricating assembled nano systems.

  15. The Butterfly Effect for Physics Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, James R.; Valentine, John H.

    2015-01-01

    A low-cost chaos dynamics lab is developed for quantitative demonstration of the butterfly effect using a magnetic pendulum. Chaotic motion is explored by recording magnetic time series. Students analyze the data in Excel® to investigate the butterfly effect as well as the reconstruction of the strange attractor using time delay plots. The lab…

  16. Ecology and evolution of mountain butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Irena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with speciation processes, thermal ecology and habitat use in Holarctic mountain and arctic butterflies. It demonstrates a crucial role of environmental heterogeneity for speciation, survival of butterfly lineages, coexistence of closely related species and, finally, for resource use of sexes with different habitats demands at the level of individual species.

  17. Butterfly valves: greater use in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improvements in butterfly valves, particularly in the areas of automatic control and leak tightness are described. The use of butterfly valves in nuclear power plants is discussed. These uses include service in component cooling, containment cooling, and containment isolation. The outlook for further improvements and greater uses is examined. (U.S.)

  18. The enigmatic fast leaflet rotation in Desmodium motorium: butterfly mimicry for defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2013-06-01

    I propose that the enigmatic leaflet movements in elliptical circles every few minutes of the Indian telegraph (semaphore) plant Desmodium motorium ( = D. gyrans = Hedysarum gyrans = Codariocalyx motorius), which has intrigued scientists for centuries, is a new type of butterfly or general winged arthropod mimicry by this plant. Such leaflet movement may deceive a passing butterfly searching for an un-occupied site suitable to deposit its eggs, that the plant is already occupied. It may also attract insectivorous birds, reptiles or arthropods to the plant because it looks as if it is harboring a potential prey and while they patrol there, they can find insects or other invertebrates that indeed attack the plant. The possibility that diurnal mammalian herbivores may also be deterred by these movements should not be dismissed. PMID:23603964

  19. The significance of moment-of-inertia variation in flight manoeuvres of butterflies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to understand the role that changes in body moment of inertia might play during flight manoeuvres of insects. High-speed, high-resolution videogrammetry is used to quantify the trajectory and body conformation of Painted Lady butterflies during flight manoeuvres; the 3D kinematics of the centre of masses of the various body parts of the insect is determined experimentally. Measurements of the mass properties of the insect are used to parameterize a simple flight dynamics model of the butterfly. Even though the mass of the flapping wings is small compared to the total mass of the insect, these experiments and subsequent analysis indicate that changes in moment of inertia during flight are large enough to influence the manoeuvres of these insects. (communication)

  20. Physiological Perturbation Reveals Modularity of Eyespot Development in the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connahs, Heidi; Rhen, Turk; Simmons, Rebecca B

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly eyespots are complex morphological traits that can vary in size, shape and color composition even on the same wing surface. Homology among eyespots suggests they share a common developmental basis and function as an integrated unit in response to selection. Despite strong evidence of genetic integration, eyespots can also exhibit modularity or plasticity, indicating an underlying flexibility in pattern development. The extent to which particular eyespots or eyespot color elements exhibit modularity or integration is poorly understood, particularly following exposure to novel conditions. We used perturbation experiments to explore phenotypic correlations among different eyespots and their color elements on the ventral hindwing of V. cardui. Specifically, we identified which eyespots and eyespot features are most sensitive to perturbation by heat shock and injection of heparin-a cold shock mimic. For both treatments, the two central eyespots (3 + 4) were most affected by the experimental perturbations, whereas the outer eyespot border was more resistant to modification than the interior color elements. Overall, the individual color elements displayed a similar response to heat shock across all eyespots, but varied in their response to each other. Graphical modeling also revealed that although eyespots differ morphologically, regulation of eyespot size and colored elements appear to be largely integrated across the wing. Patterns of integration, however, were disrupted following heat shock, revealing that the strength of integration varies across the wing and is strongest between the two central eyespots. These findings support previous observations that document coupling between eyespots 3 + 4 in other nymphalid butterflies. PMID:27560365

  1. A large-scale, in vivo transcription factor screen defines bivalent chromatin as a key property of regulatory factors mediating Drosophila wing development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertel, Claus; Albarca, Monica; Rockel-Bauer, Claudia; Kelley, Nicholas W.; Bischof, Johannes; Hens, Korneel

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators of cell fate. The estimated 755 genes that encode DNA binding domain-containing proteins comprise ∼5% of all Drosophila genes. However, the majority has remained uncharacterized so far due to the lack of proper genetic tools. We generated 594 site-directed transgenic Drosophila lines that contain integrations of individual UAS-TF constructs to facilitate spatiotemporally controlled misexpression in vivo. All transgenes were expressed in the developing wing, and two-thirds induced specific phenotypic defects. In vivo knockdown of the same genes yielded a phenotype for 50%, with both methods indicating a great potential for misexpression to characterize novel functions in wing growth, patterning, and development. Thus, our UAS-TF library provides an important addition to the genetic toolbox of Drosophila research, enabling the identification of several novel wing development-related TFs. In parallel, we established the chromatin landscape of wing imaginal discs by ChIP-seq analyses of five chromatin marks and RNA Pol II. Subsequent clustering revealed six distinct chromatin states, with two clusters showing enrichment for both active and repressive marks. TFs that carry such “bivalent” chromatin are highly enriched for causing misexpression phenotypes in the wing, and analysis of existing expression data shows that these TFs tend to be differentially expressed across the wing disc. Thus, bivalently marked chromatin can be used as a marker for spatially regulated TFs that are functionally relevant in a developing tissue. PMID:25568052

  2. [Keratouveitis and lens opacity caused by butterfly hair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domngang Noche, C; Kengmogne, B; Bella, A L

    2012-01-01

    Butterfly hair is known to cause eye injury. In Africa, incriminated butterflies are Hylesia (spp). We report a case of a sub-epithelial keratitis associated with anterior uveitis following a trauma by a butterfly that was complicated by late lens opacity due to butterfly hair. Ocular lesions caused by butterfly hair are rare, but require an urgent management to prevent late and severe complications due to intraocular migration of the hairs. PMID:22978182

  3. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Boppré; Vane-Wright, R.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI) based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countr...

  4. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Alan P

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momentum or charge does not appear explicitly. We comment on issues affecting the extension to higher-dimensional charged black holes.

  5. Butterflies with rotation and charge

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2016-01-01

    We explore the butterfly effect for black holes with rotation or charge. We perturb rotating BTZ and charged black holes in 2+1 dimensions by adding a small perturbation on one asymptotic region, described by a shock wave in the spacetime, and explore the effect of this shock wave on the length of geodesics through the wormhole and hence on correlation functions. We find the effect of the perturbation grows exponentially at a rate controlled by the temperature; dependence on the angular momen...

  6. Butterflies on the Stretched Horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I return to the question of what kind of perturbations on Alice's side of an Einstein-Rosen bridge can send messages to Bob as he enters the horizon at the other end. By definition "easy" operators do not activate messages and "hard" operators do, but there are no clear criteria to identify the difference between easy and hard. In this paper I argue that the difference is related to the time evolution of a certain measure of computational complexity, associated with the stretched horizon of Alice's black hole. The arguments suggest that the AMPSS commutator argument is more connected with butterflies than with firewalls.

  7. Application of new designed butterfly type intermediate valve for nuclear steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To cope with a large capacity nuclear steam turbine, a butterfly type intermediate valve has been developed. Compared to the conventional valve, or globe valve, the butterfly valve has the following design features: a) Higher thermal efficiency due to lower pressure loss, b) Easier maintenance due to simplified construction, and c) Lower station cost due to the smaller size of the valve assembly. An experiment with a scaled-down test valve was carried out using compressed air. Subsequently a full-scale valve was tested using steam under actual steam conditions. As a result, these tests gave us no problems. The first nuclear turbine (1100MW) equipped with a butterfly valve is operating satisfactorily with good performance as expected. (author)

  8. Butterfly proboscis as a biomicrofluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Konstantin; Monaenkova, Daria; Rea, Steven; Yore, Campbell; Klipowics, Caleb; Edmond, Kara; Sa, Vijoya

    2009-11-01

    It looks amazing how butterflies and moths with their thin feeding trunk are being able to sip very thick liquids like nectar or animal extractions. Their sucking ability goes beyond that: one can observe butterflies and moths probing liquids from porous materials like fruit flesh or wet soils. This suggests that the suction pressure produced by these insects is sufficiently high. The estimates based on engineering hydraulic formulas show that the pressure can be greater than one atmosphere, i.e. it can be greater than that any vacuum pump could supply. In this experimental study, the principles of interfacial flows are used to carefully analyze the feeding mechanism of butterflies and moths. We document the feeding rates and proboscis behavior of Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in different situations: when butterfly feeds from droplets, from vials modeling floral cavities, and from porous materials modeling fruits, wet soils, or dung. Using high speed imaging and simple models, we propose a scenario of butterfly feeding which is based on capillary action. According to the proposed mechanism, the trunk of butterflies and moths works like a fountain pen where the air bubbles play a significant role in controlling fluid flow.

  9. Effect of widespread agricultural chemical use on butterfly diversity across Turkish provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, Burak K

    2013-12-01

    Although agricultural intensification is thought to pose a significant threat to species, little is known about its role in driving biodiversity loss at regional scales. I assessed the effects of a major component of agricultural intensification, agricultural chemical use, and land-cover and climatic variables on butterfly diversity across 81 provinces in Turkey, where agriculture is practiced extensively but with varying degrees of intensity. I determined butterfly species presence in each province from data on known butterfly distributions and calculated agricultural chemical use as the proportion of agricultural households that use chemical fertilizers and pesticides. I used constrained correspondence analyses and regression-based multimodel inference to determine the effect of environmental variables on species composition and richness, respectively. The variation in butterfly species composition across the provinces was largely explained (78%) by the combination of agricultural chemical use, particularly pesticides, and climatic and land-cover variables. Although overall butterfly richness was primarily explained by climatic and land-cover variables, such as the area of natural vegetation cover, threatened butterfly richness and the relative number of threatened butterfly species decreased substantially as the proportion of agricultural households using pesticides increased. These findings suggest that widespread use of agricultural chemicals, or other components of agricultural intensification that may be collinear with pesticide use, pose an imminent threat to the biodiversity of Turkey. Accordingly, policies that mitigate agricultural intensification and promote low-input farming practices are crucial for protecting threatened species from extinction in rapidly industrializing nations such as Turkey. Efectos del Uso Extensivo de Agroquímicos sobre la Diversidad de Mariposas en Provincias Turcas. PMID:23869856

  10. Butterfly Tachyons in Vacuum String Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matlock, P

    2003-01-01

    We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in Vacuum String Field Theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation.

  11. Butterfly tachyons in vacuum string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use geometrical conformal field theory methods to investigate tachyon fluctuations about the butterfly projector state in vacuum string field theory. We find that the on-shell condition for the tachyon field is equivalent to the requirement that the quadratic term in the string-field action vanish on shell. This further motivates the interpretation of the butterfly state as a D-brane. We begin a calculation of the tension of the butterfly, and conjecture that this will match the case of the sliver and further strengthen this interpretation

  12. Butterfly Surveys in North Dakota : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of this study was to conduct inventories of butterflies and skippers on a number of prairie and wetland sites in North Dakota and determine the...

  13. On Gallimard's Narcissistic Personality in M. Butterfly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Lanfeng

    2009-01-01

    The anti-orientalism in David Hwang's M. Butterfly has been discussed by many critics, but here it will be analyzed with the help of psychology. From the perspective of psychoanalysis, Gallimard's narcissistic personality is the root of his tragedy.

  14. Butterfly Survey on Pinckney Island NWR (2001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Butterfly (adult Lepidoptera) survey conducted monthly (May-Nov 2001) at nine locations within Pinckney Island NWR. These nine locations include Ibis Pond,...

  15. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  16. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  17. White butterflies as solar photovoltaic concentrators

    OpenAIRE

    Katie Shanks; Senthilarasu, S.; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.; Mallick, Tapas K.

    2015-01-01

    Man’s harvesting of photovoltaic energy requires the deployment of extensive arrays of solar panels. To improve both the gathering of thermal and photovoltaic energy from the sun we have examined the concept of biomimicry in white butterflies of the family Pieridae. We tested the hypothesis that the V-shaped posture of basking white butterflies mimics the V-trough concentrator which is designed to increase solar input to photovoltaic cells. These solar concentrators improve harvesting efficie...

  18. Flapping of Insectile Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangyang; Kanso, Eva

    2015-11-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. Yet the effects of muscle stiffness on the performance of insect wings remain unclear. Here, we construct an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring and submerged in an oscillatory flow. The wing system is free to rotate and flap. We first explore the extent to which the flyer can withstand roll perturbations, then study its flapping behavior and performance as a function of spring stiffness. We find an optimal range of spring stiffness that results in large flapping amplitudes, high force generation and good storage of elastic energy. We conclude by conjecturing that insects may select and adjust the muscle spring stiffness to achieve desired movement. These findings may have significant implications on the design principles of wings in micro air-vehicles.

  19. The costae presenting in high-temperature-induced vestigial wings of Drosophila: implications for anterior wing margin formation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Daxiang Yang

    2007-01-01

    It has long been noted that high temperature produces great variation in wing forms of the vestigial mutant of Drosophila. Most of the wings have defects in the wing blade and partially formed wing margin, which are the result of autonomous cell death in the presumptive wing blade or costal region of the wing disc. The vestigial gene ($vg$) and the interaction of Vg protein with other gene products are well understood. With this biochemical knowledge, reinvestigations of the high-temperature-induced vestigial wings and the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying the large-scale variation of the wing forms may provide insight into further understanding of development of the wing of Drosophila. As a first step of such explorations, I examined high-temperature-induced (29°C) vestigial wings. In the first part of this paper, I provide evidences to show that the proximal and distal costae in these wings exhibit regular and continuous variation, which suggests different developmental processes for the proximal and distal costal sections. Judging by the costae presenting in the anterior wing margin, I propose that the proximal and distal costal sections are independent growth units. The genes that regulate formation of the distal costal section also strongly affect proliferation of cells nearby; however, the same phenomenon has not been found in the proximal costal section. The distal costal section seems to be an extension of the radius vein. vestigial, one of the most intensely researched temperature-sensitive mutations, is a good candidate for the study of marginal vein formation. In the second part of the paper, I regroup the wing forms of these wings, chiefly by comparison of venation among these wings, and try to elucidate the variation of the wing forms according to the results of previous work and the conclusions reached in the first part of this paper, and provide clues for further researches.

  20. Hofstadter's Butterfly in Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We point out that the recent conjectural solution to the spectral problem for the Hamiltonian $H=e^{x}+e^{-x}+e^{p}+e^{-p}$ in terms of the refined topological invariants of a local Calabi-Yau geometry has an intimate relation with two-dimensional non-interacting electrons moving in a periodic potential under a uniform magnetic field. In particular, we find that the quantum A-period, determining the relation between the energy eigenvalue and the Kahler modulus of the Calabi-Yau, can be found explicitly when the quantum parameter $q=e^{i\\hbar}$ is a root of unity, that its branch cuts are given by Hofstadter's butterfly, and that its imaginary part counts the number of states of the Hofstadter Hamiltonian. The modular double operation, exchanging $\\hbar$ and $4\\pi^2/\\hbar$, plays an important role.

  1. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  2. Low-intensity agricultural landscapes in Transylvania support high butterfly diversity: implications for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Loos

    Full Text Available European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation

  3. A Miniature Controllable Flapping Wing Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabagi, Veaceslav Gheorghe

    The agility and miniature size of nature's flapping wing fliers has long baffled researchers, inspiring biological studies, aerodynamic simulations, and attempts to engineer their robotic replicas. Flapping wing flight is characterized by complex reciprocating wing kinematics, transient aerodynamic effects, and very small body lengths. These characteristics render robotic flapping wing aerial vehicles ideal for surveillance and defense applications, search and rescue missions, and environment monitoring, where their ability to hover and high maneuverability is immensely beneficial. One of the many difficulties in creating flapping wing based miniature robotic aerial vehicles lies in generating a proper wing trajectory that would result in sufficient lift forces for hovering and maneuvering. Since design of a flapping wing system is a balance between overall weight and the number of actuated inputs, we take the approach of having minimal controlled inputs, allowing passive behavior wherever possible. Hence, we propose a completely passive wing pitch reversal design that relies on wing inertial dynamics, an elastic energy storage mechanism, and low Reynolds number aerodynamic effects. Theoretical models, compiling previous research on piezoelectric actuators, four-bar transmissions, and aerodynamics effects, are developed and used as basis for a complete numerical simulation. Limitations of the model are discussed in comparison to experimental results obtained from a working prototype of the proposed passive pitch reversal flapping wing mechanism. Given that the mechanism is under-actuated, methods to control lift force generation by actively varying system parameters are proposed, discussed, and tested experimentally. A dual wing aerial platform is developed based on the passive pitch reversal wing concept. Design considerations are presented, favoring controllability and structural rigidity of the final platform. Finite element analysis and experimental

  4. Latitudinal distribution of soft X-ray flares and dispairty in butterfly diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, K. K.; Yellaiah, G.; Hiremath, K. M.

    2015-04-01

    We present statistical analysis of about 63000 soft X-ray flare (class≥C) observed by geostationary operational environmental satellite (GOES) during the period 1976-2008. Class wise occurrence of soft X-ray (SXR) flare is in declining trend since cycle 21. The distribution pattern of cycle 21 shows the transit of hemispheric dominance of flare activity from northern to southern hemisphere and remains there during cycle 22 and 23. During the three cycles, 0-100, 21-300 latitude belts in southern hemisphere (SH) and 31-400 latitude belt in northern hemisphere (NH) are mightier. The 11-200 latitude belt of both hemisphere is mightiest. Correlation coefficient between consecutive latitude appears to be increasing from equator to poleward in northern hemisphere whereas pole to equatorward in southern hemisphere. Slope of the regression line fitted with asymmetry time series of daily flare counts is negative in all three cycles for different classes of flares. The yearly asymmetry curve fitted by a sinusoidal function varies from 5.6 to 11 years period and depends upon the intensity of flare. Variation, of curve fitted with wings of butterfly diagram, from first to second order polynomial suggests that latitudinal migration of flare activity varies from cycle to cycle, northern to southern hemisphere. The variation in slope of the butterfly wing of different flare class indicates the non uniform migration of flare activity.

  5. Morphological clines and weak drift along an urbanization gradient in the butterfly, Pieris rapae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Schoville

    Full Text Available Urban areas are increasing globally, providing opportunities for biodiversity researchers to study the process in which species become established in novel, highly disturbed habitats. This ecological process can be understood through analyses of morphological and genetic variation, which can shed light on patterns of neutral and adaptive evolution. Previous studies have shown that urban populations often diverge genetically from non-urban source populations. This could occur due to neutral genetic drift, but an alternative is that selection could lead to allele frequency changes in urban populations. The development of genome scan methods provides an opportunity to investigate these outcomes from samples of genetic variation taken along an urbanization gradient. Here we examine morphological variation in wing size and diversity at neutral amplified fragment length polymorphisms in the butterfly Pieris rapae L. (Lepidoptera, Pieridae sampled from the center to the periphery of Marseille. We utilize established and novel environmental correlation approaches to scan genetic variation for evidence of selection. We find significant morphological differences in urban populations, as well as weak genetic structure and decreased genetic diversity in urban versus non-urban sites. However, environmental correlation tests provide little support for selection in our dataset. Our comparison of different methods and allele frequency clines suggests that loci identified as significant are false positives. Although there is some indication that selection may be acting on wing size in urban butterflies, genetic analyses suggest P. rapae are undergoing neutral drift.

  6. Do monarch butterflies use polarized skylight for migratory orientation?

    OpenAIRE

    Stalleicken, J; Mukhida, M; Labhart, T.; Wehner, R; Frost, B; Mouritsen, H

    2005-01-01

    To test if migratory monarch butterflies use polarized light patterns as part of their time-compensated sun compass, we recorded their virtual flight paths in a flight simulator while the butterflies were exposed to patches of naturally polarized blue sky, artificial polarizers or a sunny sky. In addition, we tested butterflies with and without the polarized light detectors of their compound eye being occluded. The monarchs' orientation responses suggested that the butterflies did not use the...

  7. Colour vision of the foraging swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Shimada, Naoko; Arikawa, Kentaro; 充代, 木下

    1995-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that foraging summer-form females of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus have colour vision. The butterflies were trained to feed on sucrose solution placed on a disk of a particular colour in a cage set in the laboratory. After a few such training runs, a butterfly was presented with the training colour randomly positioned within an array of disks of other colours, but with no sucrose solution. The results indicate that the butterflies learn rapid...

  8. Importance of body rotation during the flight of a butterfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2016-03-01

    In nature the body motion of a butterfly is clearly observed to involve periodic rotation and varied flight modes. The maneuvers of a butterfly in flight are unique. Based on the flight motion of butterflies (Kallima inachus) recorded in free flight, a numerical model of a butterfly is created to study how its flight relates to body pose; the body motion in a simulation is prescribed and tested with varied initial body angle and rotational amplitude. A butterfly rotates its body to control the direction of the vortex rings generated during flapping flight; the flight modes are found to be closely related to the body motion of a butterfly. When the initial body angle increases, the forward displacement decreases, but the upward displacement increases within a stroke. With increased rotational amplitudes, the jet flows generated by a butterfly eject more downward and further enhance the generation of upward force, according to which a butterfly executes a vertical jump at the end of the downstroke. During this jumping stage, the air relative to the butterfly is moving downward; the butterfly pitches up its body to be parallel to the flow and to decrease the projected area so as to avoid further downward force generated. Our results indicate the importance of the body motion of a butterfly in flight. The inspiration of flight controlled with body motion from the flight of a butterfly might yield an alternative way to control future flight vehicles.

  9. Vortices around Dragonfly Wings

    CERN Document Server

    Kweon, Jihoon

    2009-01-01

    Dragonfly beats its wings independently, resulting in its superior maneuverability. Depending on the magnitude of phase difference between the fore- and hind-wings of dragonfly, the vortical structures and their interaction with wings become significantly changed, and so does the aerodynamic performance. In this study, we consider hovering flights of modelled dragonfly with three different phase differences (phi=-90, 90, 180 degrees). The three-dimensional wing shape is based on that of Aeschna juncea (Norberg, 1972), and the Reynolds number is 1,000 based on the maximum translational velocity and mean chord length. The numerical method is based on an immersed boundary method (Kim et al., 2001). In counter-stroke (phi=180 degree), the wing-tip vortices from both wings are connected in the wake, generating an entangled wing-tip vortex (e-WTV). A strong downward motion induced by this vortex decreases the lift force in the following downstroke (Kweon and Choi, 2008). When the fore-wing leads the hind-wing (phi=...

  10. Female-specific wing degeneration caused by ecdysteroid in the Tussock Moth, Orgyia recens: Hormonal and developmental regulation of sexual dimorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Lobbia

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the tussock moth Orgyia recens have vestigial wings, whereas the males have normal wings. During early pupal development, female wings degenerate drastically compared with those of males. To examine whether ecdysteroid is involved in this sex-specific wing development, we cultured pupal wings just after pupation with ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E. In the presence of 20E, the female wings degenerated to about one-fifth their original size. In contrast, the male wings cultured with 20E showed only peripheral degeneration just outside the bordering lacuna, as in other butterflies and moths. TUNEL analysis showed that apoptotic signals were induced by 20E over the entire region of female wings, but only in the peripheral region of male wings. Semi-thin sections of the wings cultured with ecdysteroid showed that phagocytotic hemocytes were observed abundantly throughout the female wings, but in only peripheral regions of male wings. These observations indicate that both apoptotic events and phagocytotic activation are triggered by ecdysteroid, in sex-specific and region-specific manners.

  11. The aerodynamic and structural study of flapping wing vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Liangchen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports on the aerodynamic and structural study carried out on flapping wings and flapping vehicles. Theoretical and experimental investigation of aerodynamic forces acting on flapping wings in simple harmonic oscillations is undertaken in order to help conduct and optimize the aerodynamic and structural design of flapping wing vehicles. The research is focused on the large scale ornithopter design of similar size and configuration to a hang glider. By means of Theodorsen’s th...

  12. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24–36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. - Highlights: ► We evaluated the effects of three herbicides on the butterfly, Behr's metalmark. ► These herbicides are used to control invasive weeds in butterfly habitat. ► The herbicides reduced adult butterfly emergence. - Herbicides are used to remove invasive weeds from butterfly habitat. Certain herbicides may be having a negative effect on butterflies.

  13. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, M.-H., E-mail: martin.evans@soton.ac.uk [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Walker, J.C.; Ma, C.; Wang, L.; Wood, R.J.K. [National Centre for Advanced Tribology at Southampton (nCATS), University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M{sub 3}C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M{sub 3}C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism.

  14. A FIB/TEM study of butterfly crack formation and white etching area (WEA) microstructural changes under rolling contact fatigue in 100Cr6 bearing steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterflies are microscopic damage features forming at subsurface material imperfections induced during rolling contact fatigue (RCF) in rolling element bearings. Butterflies can lead to degradation of the load bearing capacity of the material by their associated cracks causing premature spalling failures. Recently, butterfly formation has been cited to be related to a premature failure mode in wind turbine gearbox bearings; white structure flaking (WSF). Butterflies consist of cracks with surrounding microstructural change called ‘white etching area’ (WEA) forming wings that revolve around their initiators. The formation mechanisms of butterflies in bearing steels have been studied over the last 50 years, but are still not fully understood. This paper presents a detailed microstructural analysis of a butterfly that has initiated from a void in standard 100Cr6 bearing steel under rolling contact fatigue on a laboratory two-roller test rig under transient operating conditions. Analysis was conducted using focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, 3D reconstruction and transmission electron microscopy (STEM/TEM) methods. FIB tomography revealed an extensive presence of voids/cavities immediately adjacent to the main crack on the non-WEA side and at the crack tip. This provides evidence for a void/cavity coalescence mechanism for the butterfly cracks formation. Spherical M3C carbide deformation and dissolution as part of the microstructural change in WEA were observed in both FIB and STEM/TEM analyses, where TEM analyses also revealed the formation of superfine nano-grains (3–15 nm diameter) intersecting a dissolving spherical M3C carbide. This is evidence of the early formation of nano-grains associated with the WEA formation mechanism

  15. Monarch butterfly spatially discrete advection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz; Sáenz, Roberto; Stein, Julie; Jones, Laura E

    2004-08-01

    We study the population cycles of the Monarch butterfly using one of the simplest systems incorporating both migration and local dynamics. The annual migration of the Monarch involves four generations. Members of Generations 1-3 (occasionally 4) migrate from the over-wintering site in Central Mexico to breeding grounds that extend as far north as the Northern United States and Southern Canada. A portion of the Generation 3 and all members of the Generation 4 butterflies begin their return to the over-wintering grounds in August through October where they enter reproductive diapause for several months. We developed a simple discrete-time island chain model in which different fecundity functions are used to model the reproductive strategies of each generation. The fecundity functions are selected from broad classes of functions that capture the effects of either contest or scramble intraspecific competition in the Monarch population. The objectives of our research are multiple and include the study of the generationally dependent intraspecific competition and its effect on the pool size of migrants as well as the persistence of the overall butterfly populations. The stage structure used in modeling the Monarch butterfly dynamics and their generationally dependent reproductive strategies naturally support fluctuating patterns and multiple attractors. The implications of these fluctuations and attractors on the long-term survival of the Monarch butterfly population are explored. PMID:15234616

  16. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. PMID:23865963

  17. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shengzhi; Tu, Chunling; van Wyk, Barend J; Ochola, Elisha Oketch; Chen, Zengqiang

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT) butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles. PMID:22479442

  18. Measuring straight line segments using HT butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhi Du

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the features of Hough Transform (HT butterflies suitable for image-based segment detection and measurement. The full segment parameters such as the position, slope, width, length, continuity, and uniformity are related to the features of the HT butterflies. Mathematical analysis and experimental data are presented in order to demonstrate and build the relationship between the measurements of segments and the features of HT butterflies. An effective method is subsequently proposed to employ these relationships in order to discover the parameters of segments. Power line inspection is considered as an application of the proposed method. The application demonstrates that the proposed method is effective for power line inspection, especially for corner detection when they cross poles.

  19. Observation of pendular butterfly Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Niederprüm, Thomas; Eichert, Tanita; Lippe, Carsten; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H; Ott, Herwig

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining full control over the internal and external quantum states of molecules is the central goal of ultracold chemistry and allows for the study of coherent molecular dynamics, collisions and tests of fundamental laws of physics. When the molecules additionally have a permanent electric dipole moment, the study of dipolar quantum gases and spin-systems with long-range interactions as well as applications in quantum information processing are possible. Rydberg molecules constitute a class of exotic molecules, which are bound by the interaction between the Rydberg electron and the ground state atom. They exhibit extreme bond lengths of hundreds of Bohr radii and giant permanent dipole moments in the kilo-Debye range. A special type with exceptional properties are the so-called butterfly molecules, whose electron density resembles the shape of a butterfly. Here, we report on the photoassociation of butterfly Rydberg molecules and their orientation in a weak electric field. Starting from a Bose-Einstein cond...

  20. Butterfly rash with periodontitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvi Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rashes can occur in any part of the body. But rash which appears on face has got both psychological and cosmetic effect on the patient. Rashes on face can sometimes be very challenging to physicians and dermatologists and those associated with oral manifestations pose a challenge to dentists. Butterfly rash is a red flat facial rash involving the malar region bilaterally and the bridge of the nose. The presence of a butterfly rash is generally a sign of lupus erythematosus (LE, but it can also include a plethora of conditions. The case presented here is of a female with butterfly rash along with typical bright red discoloration of gingiva. The clinical, histopathological and biochemical investigations suggested the presence of rosacea.

  1. Wheels and Butterflies: Title, Structure, Cover Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Warwick

    2015-01-01

    The gold-stamped heraldic design of Yeats’s Wheels and Butterflies (London: Macmillan, 1934; Wade 175), together with a colour to approximate to that of the cloth on that book, have been represented on the top board of the present volume. In Wheels and Butterflies that device was also replicated in black on the title-page. It was created by an unknown (and probably in-house) artist commissioned by Macmillan, working from photographs of masks by Hildo Van Krop for Vrouwe Emer’s Groote Strijd, ...

  2. Photonic structures in butterfly Thaumantis diores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; LI Qi; ZHOU Ji; LI Longtu

    2004-01-01

    @@ The beauty created by Nature always inspires people to fabricate artificial structures with certain functions in a bionic way. There has been a great interest in photonic band gap (PBG) materials since the concept was first proposed by Yablonovich[1] and John[2] in 1987. However, Nature had already created these PBG structures in living organisms long since, as was found recently in the Indonesian male Papilio palinurus butterfly[3], sea mouse Aphrodita[4], male Ancyluris meliboeus Fabricius butterflies[5], male peacock Pavo muticus feathers[6], and weevil Pachyrhynchus argus[7].

  3. Advantages of butterfly valves for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfly valves are increasingly used in nuclear power plants. They are used in CANDU reactors for class 2 and 3 service, to provide emergency and tight shutoff valves for all inlets and outlets of heat exchangers and all calandria penetrations. Guidelines for meeting nuclear power plant valve specifications are set out in ASME Section 3, Nuclear Power Plant Components. Some details of materials of construction, type of actuator, etc., for various classes of nuclear service are tabulated in the present article. The 'fishtail' butterfly valve is an improved design with reduced drag, as is illustrated and explained. (N.D.H.)

  4. Effects of Dragonfly Wing Structure on the Dynamic Performances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaihui Ren; Xishu Wang; Xudong Li; Yinglong Chen

    2013-01-01

    The configurations of dragonfly wings,including the corrugations of the chordwise cross-section,the microstructure of the longitudinal veins and membrane,were comprehensively investigated using the Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM).Based on the experimental results reported previously,the multi-scale and multi-dimensional models with different structural features of dragonfly wing were created,and the biological dynamic behaviors of wing models were discussed through the Finite Element Method (FEM).The results demonstrate that the effects of different structural features on dynamic behaviors of dragonfly wing such as natural frequency/modal,bending/torsional deformation,reaction force/torque are very significant.The corrugations of dragonfly wing along the chordwise can observably improve the flapping frequency because of the greater structural stiffness of wings.In updated model,the novel sandwich microstructure of the longitudinal veins remarkably improves the torsional deformation of dragonfly wing while it has a little effect on the flapping frequency and bending deformation.These integrated structural features can adjust the deformation of wing oneself,therefore the flow field around the wings can be controlled adaptively.The fact is that the flights of dragonfly wing with sandwich microstructure of longitudinal veins are more efficient and intelligent.

  5. Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TATI SURYATI SYAMSUDIN SUBAHAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Subahar TSS, Yuliana A (2010 Butterfly diversity as a data base for the development plan of Butterfly Garden at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, West Java. Biodiversitas 11: 24-28. Change of land use and the increasing number of visitors to Bosscha area was one factor for the development plan of butterfly garden in the area. The objectives of this research were to examine butterfly diversity and its potential for development plan of butterfly garden. Butterfly diversity and its richness conducted by standard walk methods. Host plant and larval food plant was recorded during butterfly survey. Public perception on the development plan of butterfly garden was examined by questionnaire. The results showed that 26 species of butterfly was found in Bosscha area and Delias belisama belisama was the most dominant species. Public perceptions consider that the development plan of butterfly garden will give benefit to the community; not only providing new insight (40.41%, additional tourism object (23.97% and will gave aesthetical value (17.12%. Twelve local species should be considered for development plan of butterfly garden: Papilio agamemnon, P. demoleus, P. memnon, P. sarpedon, Delias belisama, Eurema hecabe, Danaus chrysippus, Argynis hiperbius, Cethosia penthesilea, Hypolimnas missipus, Melanitis phedima and Euthalia Adonijah. Host plant: Bougainvillea spectabilis, Citrus aurantium, Lantana camara, Macaranga tanarius and food plants: Citrus aurantium, Cosmos caudatus, Eupatorium inulifolium, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Lantana camara, and Tithonia diversifolia.

  6. Simplified physical models of the flow around flexible insect wings at low Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenberg, Steve; Reis, Johnny; Miller, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Some of the smallest insects fly at Reynolds numbers in the range of 5-100. We built a dynamically scaled physical model of a flexible insect wing and measured the resulting wing deformations and flow fields. The wing models were submerged in diluted corn syrup and rotated about the root of the wing for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1-100. Spatially resolved flow fields were obtained using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Deformations of the wing were tracked using DLTdv software to determine the motion and induced curvature of the wing.

  7. Full-scale study of the cooling system aerodynamics of an operating piston engine installed in a light aircraft wing panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsiglia, V. R.; Katz, J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the drag and of the nacelle internal pressures on a wing and nacelle that housed a horizontally opposed piston engine were made in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at Ames Research Center. These tests are follow-ons to earlier tests made with the same wing and nacelle but in which the engine was replaced with an electric motor and an adjustable orifice plate. In the initial tests the orifice plate was used to control the rate of cooling-air flow through the nacelle and thereby to simulate a range of gasoline engine types. Good agreement was found between the results of those tests and of the test reported here. Also, the upper and lower plenum pressure and cooling-air flow rate were found to be related by conventional equations used to represent the flow through orifices. Tests were run with three cooling air inlet sizes over a free-stream velocity range from 50 to 150 knots, an angle of attack range from 0 deg to 10 deg, and a cowl-flap deflection range from 0 deg to 30 deg. The data were analyzed by computing a flow coefficient similar to that used in the analysis of orifices. It was found that all of the flow coefficient values fell within a band that varied linearly with inlet area. The linear mean line through this band provides an estimate of the relationship between cooling-air flow rate and upper plenum pressure over a wide range of test conditions.

  8. Wing-Wake Interactions between Ipsilateral Wings in Dragonfly Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haibo; Liang, Zongxian

    2009-11-01

    Bilateral and ipsilateral wing-wing interactions can be commonly observed in insect flights. As a representative example of ipsilateral wing-wing interaction, dragonflies in flight have been widely studied. An important fact is that the flow over their hindwings is affected by the presence of the forewings. Wake capture and phase-change play very important role on aerodynamic performance of the hindwings We present a direct numerical simulation of a modeled dragonfly (Aeshna juncea) in slow flight as studied in Azuma et al (JEB 1985). Realistic morphologies of wing, body, and kinematics are used for maximum including wing and body features of a dragonfly. This work aims to study the relations between wake-topology and aerodynamic performance due to wing-wing and wing-wake interactions of dragonfly ipsilateral wings. DNS results are also compared with Local Momentum Theory (Azuma et al).

  9. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Martin, Tara G; Hobson, Keith A; Wunder, Michael B; Norris, D Ryan

    2013-10-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled with geographical and climatic variables resulting in an annual breeding distribution of greater than 12 million km(2) that encompassed 99% occurrence probability. Combining occurrence models with stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origin, we show that butterflies which overwintered in Mexico came from a wide breeding distribution, including southern portions of the range. There was a clear northward progression of monarchs over successive generations from May until August when reproductive butterflies began to change direction and moved south. Fifth-generation individuals breeding in Texas in the late summer/autumn tended to originate from northern breeding areas rather than regions further south. Although the Midwest was the most productive area during the breeding season, monarchs that re-colonized the Midwest were produced largely in Texas, suggesting that conserving breeding habitat in the Midwest alone is insufficient to ensure long-term persistence of the monarch butterfly population in eastern North America. PMID:23926146

  10. Changes in nectar supply: A possible cause of widespread butterfly decline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michiel F.WALLISDEVRIES; Chris A.M.Van SWAAY; Calijn L.PLATE

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have documented declining trends of various groups of flower-visiting insects,even common butterfly species.Causes of these declines are still unclear but the loss of habitat quality across the wider countryside is thought to be a major factor.Nectar supply constitutes one of the main resources determining habitat quality.Yet,data on changes in nectar abundance are lacking.In this study,we provide the first analysis of changes in floral nectar abundance on a national scale and link these data to trends in butterfly species richness and abundance.We used transect data from the Dutch Butterfly Monitoring Scheme to compare two time periods:1994-1995 and 2007-2008.The results show that butterfly decline can indeed be linked to a substantial decline in overall flower abundance and specific nectar plants,such as thistles.The decline is as severe in reported flower generalists as in flower specialists.We suggest that eutrophication is a main cause of the decline of nectar sources.

  11. Effects of Wing Leading-Edge Camber and Tip Modifications on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Convair F-102 Airplane at Transonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelmeyer, Kenneth E.; Osborne, Robert S.

    1954-01-01

    The effects of several wing leading-edge camber and deflected-tip modifications on the force and moment characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Convair F-102 airplane have been determined at Mach numbers from 0.60 t o 1.14 for angles of attack up to 14 deg. in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel. The effects of elevator deflections from 0 deg. to -10 deg. were also obtained for a configuration incorporating favorable leading- edge and tip modifications. Leading-edge modifications which had a small amount of constant-chord camber obtained by vertically adjusting the thickness distribution over the forward (3.9 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord) portion of the wing were ineffective in reducing the drag at lifting conditions at transonic speeds. Leading edges with relatively large cambers designed to support nearly elliptical span load distributions at lift coefficients of 0.15 and 0.22 near a Mach number of 1.0 produced substantial reductions in drag at most lift coefficients.

  12. The effects of corrugation and wing planform on the aerodynamic force production of sweeping model insect wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyu Luo; Mao Sun

    2005-01-01

    The effects of corrugation and wing planform (shape and aspect ratio) on the aerodynamic force production of model insect wings in sweeping (rotating after an initial start) motion at Reynolds number 200 and 3500 at angle of attack 40° are investigated, using the method of computational fluid dynamics. A representative wing corrugation is considered. Wing-shape and aspect ratio (AR) of ten representative insect wings are considered; they are the wings of fruit fly, cranefly, dronefly, hoverfly, ladybird, bumblebee, honeybee, lacewing (forewing), hawkmoth and dragonfly (forewing), respectively (AR of these wings varies greatly,from 2.84 to 5.45). The following facts are shown.(1) The corrugated and flat-plate wings produce approximately the same aerodynamic forces. This is because for a sweeping wing at large angle of attack, the length scale of the corrugation is much smaller than the size of the separated flow region or the size of the leading edge vortex (LEV). (2) The variation in wing shape can have considerable effects on the aerodynamic force; but it has only minor effects on the force coefficients when the velocity at r2 (the radius of the second moment of wing area) is used as the reference velocity; i.e.the force coefficients are almost unaffected by the variation in wing shape. (3) The effects of AR are remarkably small:when AR increases from 2.8 to 5.5, the force coefficients vary only slightly; flowfield results show that when AR is relatively large, the part of the LEV on the outer part of the wings sheds during the sweeping motion. As AR is increased, on one hand,the force coefficients will be increased due to the reduction of 3-dimensional flow effects; on the other hand, they will be decreased due to the shedding of pan of the LEV; these two effects approximately cancel each other, resulting in only minor change of the force coefficients.

  13. Fine structure of the butterfly diagram revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Balázs

    The latitudinal time distribution of sunspots (butterfly diagram) was studied by Becker (1959) and Antalová & Gnevyshev (1985). Our goal is to revisit these studies. In the first case we check whether there is a poleward migration in sunspot activity. In the second case we confirm the results, and make more quantitative statements concerning their significance and the position of the activity peaks.

  14. A clinically isolated syndrome: butterfly glioma mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramshekhar Menon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report explores a unique and treatable "butterfly"- glioma mimic and the neuroimaging characteristics that help to diagnose this entity. A 35-year-old patient presented with subacute-onset, progressive frontal lobe dysfunction followed by features of raised intracranial pressure. Neuroimaging features were consistent with a "butterfly" lesion that favored the possibility of a gliomatosis cerebri with significant edema and marked corpus callosum and fornix thickening. Contrast-enhanced and perfusion images revealed a confluent tumefactive lesion with a characteristic "broken-ring" pattern of enhancement, mass-effect and low perfusion; features favoring an alternative inflammatory pathology. This was peculiar as calloso-forniceal involvement of this nature has not been previously reported in inflammatory demyelinating mass lesions. This was confirmed as a tumefactive demyelination on histopathology. Following treatment, on clinical and imaging follow-up, significant resolution was evident suggesting a monophasic illness. This case highlights the stringent clinico-radiological-pathological approach required in the evaluation and management of butterfly lesions despite the striking imaging appearances. Tumefactive demyelination in this patient represents a clinically isolated syndromic presentation of an inflammatory pathology that can resemble gliomatosis cerebri. These "butterfly"-glioma mimics are scarcely reported in the literature, are eminently treatable with variable prognosis and prone for relapse.

  15. An Opera Opportunity: Butterfly in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jeri

    1992-01-01

    This article describes a program of the Lyric Opera Company of Chicago (Illinois) that brought opera to the classroom of students with deafness in grades three through six. The four-session program explored vocabulary, music, story-telling, and Japanese culture and culminated in a student production of "Madame Butterfly." (JDD)

  16. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  17. Monarch Butterflies: Spirits of Loved Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The study of the beautiful monarch butterfly lends itself to a vast array of subject matter, and offers the opportunity to meet a large and varied number of standards and objectives for many grade levels. Art projects featuring monarchs may include many cross-curricular units such as math (symmetry and number graphing), science (adaptation and…

  18. Tetrapterous butterfly attractors in modified Lorenz systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the Lorenz-type tetrapterous butterfly attractors are firstly reported. With the introduction of multiple segment piecewise linear functions, these interesting and complex attractors are obtained from two different modified Lorenz models. This approach are verified in both simulations and experiments.

  19. Honeybees, Butterflies, and Ladybugs: Partners to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    Honeybees, butterflies, and ladybugs all have fascinating mutually beneficial relationships with plants and play important ecosystem roles. Children also love these creatures. But how do we teach children about these symbiotic interactions and help them appreciate their vital roles in our environment? One must is to give children direct experience…

  20. Experimental Research and Numerical Simulation of Wing Boxes under Pure Bending Load

    OpenAIRE

    Peiyan Wang; Shile Yao; Xinmei Wang; Zhufeng Yue

    2014-01-01

    Two full-scale wing boxes with different types of butt joints were investigated under pure bending load, and numerical methods, including global analysis and detailed analysis, were proposed to determine the reasons for failure of the wing boxes. Wing boxes were tested under bending loads applied by a multichannel force control system. The experimental results showed that the region of the butt joint was the weakest location of the wing boxes, and the damage loads were far less than the desig...

  1. A HSS Matrix-Inspired Butterfly-Based Direct Solver for Analyzing Scattering from Two-dimensional Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Michielssen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A butterfly-based fast direct integral equation solver for analyzing high-frequency scattering from two-dimensional objects is presented. The solver leverages a randomized butterfly scheme to compress blocks corresponding to near- and far-field interactions in the discretized forward and inverse electric field integral operators. The observed memory requirements and computational cost of the proposed solver scale as O(Nlog^2N) and O(N^1.5 logN), respectively. The solver is applied to the analysis of scattering from electrically large objects spanning over ten thousand of wavelengths and modeled in terms of five million unknowns.

  2. On Random Linear Network Coding for Butterfly Network

    OpenAIRE

    Guang, Xuan; Fu, Fang-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Random linear network coding is a feasible encoding tool for network coding, specially for the non-coherent network, and its performance is important in theory and application. In this letter, we study the performance of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network by analyzing the failure probabilities. We determine the failure probabilities of random linear network coding for the well-known butterfly network and the butterfly network with channel failure probability p.

  3. Charge diffusion and the butterfly effect in striped holographic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that the butterfly velocity - a speed at which quantum information propagates - may provide a fundamental bound on diffusion constants in dirty incoherent metals. We analytically compute the charge diffusion constant and the butterfly velocity in charge-neutral holographic matter with long wavelength "hydrodynamic" disorder in a single spatial direction. In this limit, we find that the butterfly velocity does not set a sharp lower bound for the charge diffusion constant.

  4. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seas...

  5. Butterflies of Vidarbha region, Maharashtra State, central India

    OpenAIRE

    A.D. Tiple

    2011-01-01

    Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State, India, is gifted with diverse butterfly habitats. A comprehensive review of various studies on butterflies from this region was carried out. Based on all previous studies, approximately 167 species of butterflies, belonging to 90 genera representing five families were reported. Besides this, seven species reported from the region by previous workers appear to be unusual records for the Vidarbha region. These are treated separately. Out of the 167 species ...

  6. Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Tobin J.; Owen McMillan, W; Noah Fierer

    2014-01-01

    Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar) and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Ill...

  7. Tracking multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds by monarch butterflies in eastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Flockhart, D. T. Tyler; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Martin, Tara G.; Keith A. Hobson; Wunder, Michael B.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Insect migration may involve movements over multiple breeding generations at continental scales, resulting in formidable challenges to their conservation and management. Using distribution models generated from citizen scientist occurrence data and stable-carbon and -hydrogen isotope measurements, we tracked multi-generational colonization of the breeding grounds of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) in eastern North America. We found that monarch breeding occurrence was best modelled wit...

  8. Graphene quantum dot on boron nitride: Dirac cone replica and Hofstadter butterfly

    OpenAIRE

    Chizhova, L. A.; Libisch, F.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene flakes placed on hexagonal boron nitride feature in the presence of a magnetic field a complex electronic structure due to a hexagonal moir\\'e potential resulting from the van der Waals interaction with the substrate. The slight lattice mismatch gives rise to a periodic supercell potential. Zone folding is expected to create replica of the original Dirac cone and Hofstadter butterflies. Our large-scale tight binding simulation reveals an unexpected coexistence of a relativistic and n...

  9. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Hobson, Keith A; Davis, Andrew K; De Roode, Jacobus C; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance migration can lower parasite prevalence if strenuous journeys remove infected animals from wild populations. We examined wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) to investigate the potential costs of the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on migratory success. We collected monarchs from two wintering sites in central Mexico to compare infection status with hydrogen isotope (δ2H) measurements as an indicator of latitude of origin at the start of fall migration. On average, uninfected monarchs had lower δ2H values than parasitized butterflies, indicating that uninfected butterflies originated from more northerly latitudes and travelled farther distances to reach Mexico. Within the infected class, monarchs with higher quantitative spore loads originated from more southerly latitudes, indicating that heavily infected monarchs originating from farther north are less likely to reach Mexico. We ruled out the alternative explanation that lower latitudes give rise to more infected monarchs prior to the onset of migration using citizen science data to examine regional differences in parasite prevalence during the summer breeding season. We also found a positive association between monarch wing area and estimated distance flown. Collectively, these results emphasize that seasonal migrations can help lower infection levels in wild animal populations. Our findings, combined with recent declines in the numbers of migratory monarchs wintering in Mexico and observations of sedentary (winter breeding) monarch populations in the southern U.S., suggest that shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior will likely lead to greater infection prevalence for North American monarchs. PMID:26606389

  10. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Altizer

    Full Text Available Long-distance migration can lower parasite prevalence if strenuous journeys remove infected animals from wild populations. We examined wild monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus to investigate the potential costs of the protozoan Ophryocystis elektroscirrha on migratory success. We collected monarchs from two wintering sites in central Mexico to compare infection status with hydrogen isotope (δ2H measurements as an indicator of latitude of origin at the start of fall migration. On average, uninfected monarchs had lower δ2H values than parasitized butterflies, indicating that uninfected butterflies originated from more northerly latitudes and travelled farther distances to reach Mexico. Within the infected class, monarchs with higher quantitative spore loads originated from more southerly latitudes, indicating that heavily infected monarchs originating from farther north are less likely to reach Mexico. We ruled out the alternative explanation that lower latitudes give rise to more infected monarchs prior to the onset of migration using citizen science data to examine regional differences in parasite prevalence during the summer breeding season. We also found a positive association between monarch wing area and estimated distance flown. Collectively, these results emphasize that seasonal migrations can help lower infection levels in wild animal populations. Our findings, combined with recent declines in the numbers of migratory monarchs wintering in Mexico and observations of sedentary (winter breeding monarch populations in the southern U.S., suggest that shifts from migratory to sedentary behavior will likely lead to greater infection prevalence for North American monarchs.

  11. An Evaluation of Butterfly Gardens for Restoring Habitat for the Monarch Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Danaidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Brian T; Tallamy, Douglas W

    2015-10-01

    The eastern migratory monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.) population in North America hit record low numbers during the 2013-2014 overwintering season, prompting pleas by scientists and conservation groups to plant the butterfly's milkweed host plants (Asclepias spp.) in residential areas. While planting butterfly gardens with host plants seems like an intuitive action, no previous study has directly compared larval survival in gardens and natural areas to demonstrate that gardens are suitable habitats for Lepidoptera. In this study, milkweed was planted in residential gardens and natural areas. In 2009 and 2010, plants were monitored for oviposition by monarch butterflies and survival of monarch eggs and caterpillars. Monarchs oviposited significantly more frequently in gardens than in natural sites, with 2.0 and 6.2 times more eggs per plant per observation in 2009 and 2010, respectively. There were no significant differences in overall subadult survival between gardens and natural areas. Significant differences in survival were measured for egg and larval cohorts when analyzed separately, but these were not consistent between years. These results suggest that planting gardens with suitable larval host plants can be an effective tool for restoring habitat for monarch butterflies. If planted over a large area, garden plantings may be useful as a partial mitigation for dramatic loss of monarch habitat in agricultural settings. PMID:26314013

  12. EST analysis of male accessory glands from Heliconius butterflies with divergent mating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heliconius butterflies possess a remarkable diversity of phenotypes, physiologies, and behaviors that has long distinguished this genus as a focal taxon in ecological and evolutionary research. Recently Heliconius has also emerged as a model system for using genomic methods to investigate the causes and consequences of biological diversity. One notable aspect of Heliconius diversity is a dichotomy in mating systems which provides an unusual opportunity to investigate the relationship between sexual selection and the evolution of reproductive proteins. As a first step in pursuing this research, we report the generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from the male accessory gland of H. erato and H. melpomene, species representative of the two mating systems present in the genus Heliconius. Results We successfully sequenced 933 ESTs clustering into 371 unigenes from H. erato and 1033 ESTs clustering into 340 unigenes from H. melpomene. Results from the two species were very similar. Approximately a third of the unigenes showed no significant BLAST similarity (E-value -5 to sequences in GenBank's non-redundant databases, indicating that a large proportion of novel genes are expressed in Heliconius male accessory glands. In both species only a third of accessory gland unigenes were also found among genes expressed in wing tissue. About 25% of unigenes from both species encoded secreted proteins. This includes three groups of highly abundant unigenes encoding repetitive proteins considered to be candidate seminal fluid proteins; proteins encoded by one of these groups were detected in H. erato spermatophores. Conclusion This collection of ESTs will serve as the foundation for the future identification and evolutionary analysis of male reproductive proteins in Heliconius butterflies. These data also represent a significant advance in the rapidly growing collection of genomic resources available in Heliconius

  13. Effects of Increased Flight on the Energetics and Life History of the Butterfly Speyeria mormonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Niitepõld

    Full Text Available Movement uses resources that may otherwise be allocated to somatic maintenance or reproduction. How does increased energy expenditure affect resource allocation? Using the butterfly Speyeria mormonia, we tested whether experimentally increased flight affects fecundity, lifespan or flight capacity. We measured body mass (storage, resting metabolic rate and lifespan (repair and maintenance, flight metabolic rate (flight capacity, egg number and composition (reproduction, and food intake across the adult lifespan. The flight treatment did not affect body mass or lifespan. Food intake increased sufficiently to offset the increased energy expenditure. Total egg number did not change, but flown females had higher early-life fecundity and higher egg dry mass than control females. Egg dry mass decreased with age in both treatments. Egg protein, triglyceride or glycogen content did not change with flight or age, but some components tracked egg dry mass. Flight elevated resting metabolic rate, indicating increased maintenance costs. Flight metabolism decreased with age, with a steeper slope for flown females. This may reflect accelerated metabolic senescence from detrimental effects of flight. These effects of a drawdown of nutrients via flight contrast with studies restricting adult nutrient input. There, fecundity was reduced, but flight capacity and lifespan were unchanged. The current study showed that when food resources were abundant, wing-monomorphic butterflies living in a continuous meadow landscape resisted flight-induced stress, exhibiting no evidence of a flight-fecundity or flight-longevity trade-off. Instead, flight changed the dynamics of energy use and reproduction as butterflies adopted a faster lifestyle in early life. High investment in early reproduction may have positive fitness effects in the wild, as long as food is available. Our results help to predict the effect of stressful conditions on the life history of insects living in a

  14. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived

  15. Host ant independent oviposition in the parasitic butterfly Maculinea alcon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Matthias A; Nash, David Richard

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host-ant-dependent o......Parasitic Maculinea alcon butterflies can only develop in nests of a subset of available Myrmica ant species, so female butterflies have been hypothesized to preferentially lay eggs on plants close to colonies of the correct host ants. Previous correlational investigations of host...

  16. Ecological genetics and evolution of the Large Blue butterfly – consequences of an extraordinary lifecycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line Vej

    Maculinea species have also been unclear. Many subspecies have been described, due to variation in the wing pattern of imagos, but also due to differences in larval food-plant or host-ant. In particular, three species (M. teleius, M. nausithous and M. arion) harbour high genetic variation, suggesting the......The large blue butterflies (genus Maculinea) have received much attention from both scientists and the general public. The reason for this is their highly specialized life cycle that depends on the dual presence of a species specific larval food-plant and host-ant. The genus consists of at least...... molecular and morphological datasets. By including additional taxa and genetic markers to the existing molecular dataset, I improved the molecular phylogeny of the Glaucopsyche section where the two genera are placed, and find high support for Maculinea being a monophyletic clade. The relationships within...

  17. Flapping, wobbling, and zig-zagging: Tomographic PIV measurements of Antarctic sea butterfly ``flying'' underwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, D.; Webster, D. R.; Yen, J.

    2015-11-01

    A portable tomographic PIV technique was used to study the fluid dynamics and kinematics of sea butterflies in Antarctica. Antarctic pteropods (or sea butterflies), which are currently threatened by ocean acidification, swim in seawater with a pair of gelatinous parapodia (or ``wings'') via a unique propulsion mechanism. Both power and recovery strokes propel the organism (1.5 - 5 mm in size) upward in a sawtooth-like trajectory with average speed of 14 - 30 mm/s and pitch the shell forwards-and-backwards at 1.9 - 3 Hz. The pitching motion effectively positions the parapodia such that they stroke downward during both the power and recovery strokes. Reynolds numbers defined for flapping, translating, and pitching (i.e. Ref, ReU, and ReΩ) characterize the motion of the pteropod. For Ref <50, the shell does not pitch and the pteropod swims abnormally. We present a detailed comparison of the volumetric fluid velocity fields induced by pteropods swimming upwards with Ref = 80 and 180. The pteropod at the lower Ref creates an attached shear flow along the parapodia and pushes fluid in a method analogous to a paddle. In contrast, at higher Ref, the flow along the parapodia separates and generates complex vortex structures.

  18. Navigational mechanisms of migrating monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppert, Steven M; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind their southward navigation while using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and are probably integrated in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs might also use a magnetic compass because they possess two cryptochromes that have the molecular capability for light-dependent magnetoreception. Multiple genomic approaches are now being used with the aim of identifying navigation genes. Monarch butterflies are thus emerging as an excellent model organism in which to study the molecular and neural basis of long-distance migration. PMID:20627420

  19. Fractional Statistics and the Butterfly Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we point out a connection between quantum chaos, known as the "butterfly effect", in (1+1)-dimensional rational conformal field theories and fractional statistics in (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states. This connection comes from the characteristics of the butterfly effect by the out-of-time-order-correlator proposed recently. We show that the late-time behavior of such correlators is determined by universal properties of the rational conformal field theory such as the modular S-matrix. Using the bulk-boundary correspondence between rational conformal field theories and (2+1)-dimensional topologically ordered states, we show that the late time behavior of out-of-time-order-correlators is intrinsically connected with fractional statistics in the topological order. We also propose a quantitative measure of chaos in a rational conformal field theory, which turns out to be determined by the topological entanglement entropy of the corresponding topological order.

  20. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the signifi...

  1. Navigational Mechanisms of Migrating Monarch Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Reppert, Steven M.; Gegear, Robert J; Merlin, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the iconic fall migration of monarch butterflies have illuminated the mechanisms behind the navigation south, using a time-compensated sun compass. Skylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and likely integrated in the brain’s central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Time compensation is provided by circadian clocks that have a distinctive molecular mechanism and that reside in the antennae. Monarchs may also use...

  2. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    OpenAIRE

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly...

  3. A forest butterfly in sahara desert oases: isolation does not matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Husemann, Martin; Schmitt, Thomas; Dapporto, Leonardo; Rödder, Dennis; Vandewoestijne, Sofie

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies addressing the impact of habitat fragmentation on genetic diversity have been performed. In this study, we analyze the effects of a seemingly nonpermeable matrix on the population structure of the forest-dwelling butterfly Pararge aegeria in geographically isolated oases at the northern margin of the Sahara desert using microsatellites, morphological characters, and species distribution modeling. Results from all analyses are mostly congruent and reveal 1) a split between European and North African populations, 2) rather low divergence between populations from the eastern and western part of North Africa (Morocco vs. Tunisia), 3) a lack of differentiation between the oasis and Atlas Mountain populations, 4) as well as among the oasis populations, and 5) no reduction of genetic variability in oasis populations. However, one exception to this general trend resulted from the analyses of wing shape; wings of butterflies from oases are more elongated compared with those from the other habitats. This pattern of phenotypic divergence may suggest a recent colonization of the oasis habitats by individuals, which might be accompanied by a rather dispersive behavior. Species distribution modeling suggests a fairly recent reexpansion of the species' climatic niche starting in the Holocene at about 6000 before present. The combined results indicate a rather recent colonization of the oases by highly mobile individuals from genetically diverse founder populations. The colonization was likely followed by the expansion and persistence of these founder populations under relatively stable environmental conditions. This, together with low rates of gene flow, likely prevented differentiation of populations via drift and led to the maintenance of high genetic diversity. PMID:23132908

  4. Phenotypic plasticity in the range-margin population of the lycaenid butterfly Zizeeria maha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaki Joji M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many butterfly species have been experiencing the northward range expansion and physiological adaptation, probably due to climate warming. Here, we document an extraordinary field case of a species of lycaenid butterfly, Zizeeria maha, for which plastic phenotypes of wing color-patterns were revealed at the population level in the course of range expansion. Furthermore, we examined whether this outbreak of phenotypic changes was able to be reproduced in a laboratory. Results In the recently expanded northern range margins of this species, more than 10% of the Z. maha population exhibited characteristic color-pattern modifications on the ventral wings for three years. We physiologically reproduced similar phenotypes by an artificial cold-shock treatment of a normal southern population, and furthermore, we genetically reproduced a similar phenotype after selective breeding of a normal population for ten generations, demonstrating that the cold-shock-induced phenotype was heritable and partially assimilated genetically in the breeding line. Similar genetic process might have occurred in the previous and recent range-margin populations as well. Relatively minor modifications expressed in the tenth generation of the breeding line together with other data suggest a role of founder effect in this field case. Conclusions Our results support the notion that the outbreak of the modified phenotypes in the recent range-margin population was primed by the revelation of plastic phenotypes in response to temperature stress and by the subsequent genetic process in the previous range-margin population, followed by migration and temporal establishment of genetically unstable founders in the recent range margins. This case presents not only an evolutionary role of phenotypic plasticity in the field but also a novel evolutionary aspect of range expansion at the species level.

  5. The characterization of tandem and corrugated wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yongsheng; Broering, Timothy; Hord, Kyle; Prater, Russell

    2014-02-01

    Dragonfly wings have two distinct features: a tandem configuration and wing corrugation. Both features have been extensively studied with the aim to understand the superior flight performance of dragonflies. In this paper we review recent development of tandem and corrugated wing aerodynamics. With regards to the tandem configuration, this review will focus on wing/wing and wing/vortex interactions at different flapping modes and wing spacing. In addition, the aerodynamics of tandem wings under gusty conditions will be reviewed and compared with isolated wings to demonstrate the gust resistance characteristics of flapping wings. Regarding corrugated wings, we review their structural and aerodynamic characteristics.

  6. Butterfly valve of all rubber lining type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The valves used for the circulating water pipes for condensers in nuclear and thermal power stations have become large with the increase of power output, and their specifications have become strict. The materials for the valves change from cast iron to steel plate construction. To cope with sea water corrosion, rubber lining has been applied to the internal surfaces of valve boxes, and the build-up welding of stainless steel has been made on the edges of valves. However, recently it is desired to develop butterfly valves, of which the whole valve disks are lined with hard rubber. For the purpose of confirming the performance of large bore valves, a 2600 mm bore butterfly valve of all rubber lining type was used, and the opening and closing test of 1100 times was carried out by applying thermal cycle and pressure difference and using artifical sea water. Also the bending test of hard rubber lining was performed with test pieces. Thus, it was confirmed that the butterfly valves of all rubber lining type have the performance exceeding that of the valves with build-up welding. The course of development of the valves of all rubber lining type, the construction and the items of confirmation by tests of these valves, and the tests of the valve and the hard rubber lining described above are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Design and Construction of Passively Articulated Ornithopter Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastro, Alexander Timothy

    Birds, bats, and insects are able to fly efficiently and execute impressive in-flight, landing, and takeoff maneuvers with apparent ease through actuation of their highly articulated wings. This contrasts the approach used to enable the flight of comparatively simple man-made rotary and fixed wing aircraft. The complex aerodynamics underlying flapping-based flight pose an everpresent challenge to scientists hoping to reveal the secrets of animal flight. Despite this, interest in engineering aircraft on the bird and insect scale is higher than ever. Herein, I present my attempt to design and construct bioinspired passively articulated ornithopter wings. Two different hinge-based joint design concepts are investigated across several design iterations. The advantages and disadvantages of each implementation are discussed. Finally, the necessary instrumentation to analyze the performance of the wings is designed and fabricated, followed by testing of the wings.

  8. WINGS Data Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moretti, A.; Poggianti, B. M.; Fasano, G.;

    2014-01-01

    Context. To effectively investigate galaxy formation and evolution, it is of paramount importance to exploit homogeneous data for large samples of galaxies in different environments. Aims. The WIde-field Nearby Galaxy-cluster Survey (WINGS) project aim is to evaluate physical properties of galaxies...... in a complete sample of low redshift clusters to be used as reference sample for evolutionary studies. The WINGS survey is still ongoing and the original dataset will be enlarged with new observations. This paper presents the entire collection of WINGS measurements obtained so far. Methods. We......, and on the cluster redshift, reaching on average 90% at V ≲ 21.7. Near-infrared photometric catalogs for 26 (in K) and 19 (in J) clusters are part of the database and the number of sources is 962 344 in K and 628 813 in J. Here again the completeness depends on the data quality, but it is on average...

  9. Intra- and inter-individual variation in flight direction in a migratory butterfly co-vary with individual mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larranaga, Nicolas; Baguette, Michel; Calvez, Olivier; Trochet, Audrey; Ducatez, Simon; Legrand, Delphine

    2013-08-15

    Flight direction is a major component of an animal's migratory success. However, few studies have focused on variation in flight direction both between and within individuals, which is likely to be correlated with other traits implied in migration processes. We report patterns of intra- and inter-individual variation in flight direction in the large white butterfly Pieris brassicae. The presence of inter-individual variation in flight direction for individuals tested in the same conditions suggests that this trait is inherited in P. brassicae and we propose that a rapid loss of migratory skills may exist in the absence of selection for migration. The magnitude of intra-individual variation was negatively correlated to two surrogates of the potential for migration: mobility and wing length. Highly mobile and longed-winged individuals within the same family were found to fly in similar directions, whereas less mobile and short-winged individuals displayed divergent flight direction compared with the average direction of their kin. There was also a negative correlation between the variance to the mean flight direction of a family and its average mobility, but no correlation with wing length. We discuss these issues in terms of the evolution of traits potentially implied in both migration and dispersal in P. brassicae. PMID:23661774

  10. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    OpenAIRE

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-01-01

    Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails) decreased the induced drag fact...

  11. Climatic Risk Atlas of European Butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Settele

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The overarching aim of the atlas is to communicate the potential risks of climatic change to the future of European butterflies. The main objectives are to: (1 provide a visual aid to discussions on climate change risks and impacts on biodiversity and thus contribute to risk communication as a core element of risk assessment; (2 present crucial data on a large group of species which could help to prioritise conservation efforts in the face of climatic change; (3 reach a broader audience through the combination of new scientific results with photographs of all treated species and some straight forward information about the species and their ecology. The results of this atlas show that climate change is likely to have a profound effect on European butterflies. Ways to mitigate some of the negative impacts are to (1 maintain large populations in diverse habitats; (2 encourage mobility across the landscape; (3 reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses; (4 allow maximum time for species adaptation; (4 conduct further research on climate change and its impacts on biodiversity. The book is a result of long-term research of a large international team of scientists, working at research institutes and non-governmental organizations, many within the framework of projects funded by the European Commission. Each chapter may be browsed/downloaded from the links below: 0. COVER, TITLE PAGE, CONTENTS [PDF, 608 KB] A. CLIMATE CHANGE, BIODIVERSITY, BUTTERFLIES, AND RISK ASSESSMENT [PDF, 208 KB] B. METHODOLOGY [PDF, 516 KB] C. CLIMATE RISKS OF EUROPEAN BUTTERFLY SPECIES. Introduction and Hesperidae [PDF, 5.6 MB]; Papilionidae [PDF, 1.61 MB]; Pieridae [PDF, 5.0 MB]; Lycaenidae, Riodinidae, Libytheidae [PDF, 12 MB]; Nymphalidae, Danaidae [PDF, 21.2 MB]; Non-modelled species and summary [PDF, 328 KB] D. DISCUSSION OF METHODOLOGICAL LIMITATIONS [PDF, 572 KB] E. OUTLOOK: CLIMATE CHANGE AND BUTTERFLY CONSERVATION [PDF, 228 KB] F. APPENDICES, REFERENCES AND INDEX [PDF, 424

  12. Experimental confirmation of a new reversed butterfly-shaped attractor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ling; Su Yan-Chen; Liu Chong-Xin

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a new reverse butterfly-shaped chaotic attractor and its experimental confirmation. Some basic dynamical properties, and chaotic behaviours of this new reverse butterfly attractor are studied. Simulation results support brief theoretical derivations. Furthermore, the system is experimentally confirmed by a simple electronic circuit.

  13. Metamorphosis of a butterfly-associated bacterial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobin J Hammer

    Full Text Available Butterflies are charismatic insects that have long been a focus of biological research. They are also habitats for microorganisms, yet these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution. In particular, the diversity and composition of the microbial communities inhabiting adult butterflies remain uncharacterized, and it is unknown how the larval (caterpillar and adult microbiota compare. To address these knowledge gaps, we used Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from internal bacterial communities associated with multiple life stages of the neotropical butterfly Heliconius erato. We found that the leaf-chewing larvae and nectar- and pollen-feeding adults of H. erato contain markedly distinct bacterial communities, a pattern presumably rooted in their distinct diets. Larvae and adult butterflies host relatively small and similar numbers of bacterial phylotypes, but few are common to both stages. The larval microbiota clearly simplifies and reorganizes during metamorphosis; thus, structural changes in a butterfly's bacterial community parallel those in its own morphology. We furthermore identify specific bacterial taxa that may mediate larval and adult feeding biology in Heliconius and other butterflies. Although male and female Heliconius adults differ in reproductive physiology and degree of pollen feeding, bacterial communities associated with H. erato are not sexually dimorphic. Lastly, we show that captive and wild individuals host different microbiota, a finding that may have important implications for the relevance of experimental studies using captive butterflies.

  14. A European perspective on butterfly habitats and their conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konvička, Martin

    Wageningen : De Vlinderstichting, 2008. s. 76-76. ISBN N. [International Symposium Future of Butterflies in Europe II. 17.04.2008-19.04.2008, Wageningen] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Developing "Butterfly Warriors": A Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen…

  16. Wind-Tunnel Tests of the 1/25-Scale Powered Model of the Martin JRM-1 Airplane. IV - Tests with Ground Board and with Modified Wing and Hull - TED No. NACA 232. Part 4; Tests with Ground Board and with Modified Wing and Hull, TED No. NACA 232

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Vernard E.; Smith, Bernard J.

    1947-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were made of a 1/25 scale model of the Martin JRM-1 airplane to determine: (1) The longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the JRM-1 model near the water and lateral and directional stability characteristics with power while moving on the surface of the water, the latter being useful for the design of tip floats; (2) The stability and stalling characteristics of the wing with a modified airfoil contour; (3) Stability characteristics of a hull of larger design gross weight; The test results indicated that the elevator was powerful enough to trim the original model in a landing configuration at any lift coefficient within the specified range of centers of gravity. The ground-board tests for evaluating the aerodynamic forces and moments on an airplane in a simulated cross wind indicate a high dihedral effect in the presence of the ground board and, consequently, during low-speed taxying and take-off, large overturning moments would result which would have to be overcome by the tip floats.

  17. Twin Flavor Chicken Wings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ingredients:1000g chicken wings,about,100g Shredded rape-seedleaves,100g black sesame seeds,7g salt,5g sugar,3gMSG,10g cooking wine,5g cassia bark,1000g cookingoil(actual consumption only 100 grams),one egg,anoptional amount of scallion,ginger root,starch and

  18. Fabrication of corrugated artificial insect wings using laser micromachined molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the fabrication of an artificial insect wing with a rich set of topological features by micromolding a thermosetting resin. An example 12 mm long hoverfly-like wing is fabricated with 50–125 µm vein heights and 100 µm corrugation heights. The solid veins and membrane were simultaneously formed and integrated by a single molding process. Employing a layered laser ablation technique, three-dimensional molds were created with 5 µm resolution in height. Safe demolding of the wing was achieved with a water-soluble sacrificial layer on the mold. Measured surface profiles of the wing matched those of the molds, demonstrating the high replication accuracy of this molding process. Using this process, the morphological features of insect wings can be replicated at-scale with high precision, enabling parametric experiments of the functional morphology of insect wings. This fabrication capability also makes it possible to create a variety of wing types for micro air vehicles on scales similar to insects.

  19. Ithomiini butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hymphalidae) of Antioquia, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, C E; Willmott, K R; Vila, R; Uribe, S I

    2013-04-01

    Colombia is one of the most biodiverse countries on the planet. However, economic and scientific investment in completing inventories of its biodiversity has been relatively poor in comparison with other Neotropical countries. Butterflies are the best studied group of invertebrates, with the highest proportion of known to expected species. More than 3,200 species of butterflies have been recorded in Colombia, although the study of the still many unexplored areas will presumably increase this number. This work provides a list of Ithomiini butterflies collected in the department of Antioquia and estimates the total number of species present, based on revision of entomological collections, records in the literature and field work performed between 2003 and 2011. The list includes 99 species and 32 genera, representing 27% of all Ithomiini species. We report 50 species of Ithomiini not formerly listed from Antioquia, and found the highest diversity of ithomiine species to be at middle elevations (900-1,800 m). The mean value of the Chao2 estimator for number of species in Antioquia is 115 species, which is close to a predicted total of 109 based on known distributions of other Ithomiini not yet recorded from the department. Nine species are potentially of particular conservation importance because of their restricted distributions, and we present range maps for each species. We also highlight areas in Antioquia with a lack of biodiversity knowledge to be targeted in future studies. This paper contributes to mapping the distribution of the Lepidoptera of Antioquia department in particular and of Colombia in general. PMID:23949748

  20. Unveiling spatial correlations in biophotonic architecture of transparent insect wings

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pramod; Shamoon, Danish; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Mandal, Sudip; Singh, Kamal P.

    2014-01-01

    We probe the natural complex structures in the transparent insect wings by a simple, non-invasive, real time optical technique using both monochromatic and broadband femtosecond lasers. A stable, reproducible and novel diffraction pattern is observed unveiling long range spatial correlations and structural-symmetry at various length scales for a large variety of wings. While matching the sensitivity of SEM for such microstructures, it is highly efficient for extracting long range structural o...

  1. Unveiling spatial correlations in biophotonic architecture of transparent insect wings

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod; Singh, Dhirendra P; Mandal, Sudip; Singh, Kamal P

    2014-01-01

    We probe the natural complex structures in the transparent insect wings by a simple, non-invasive, real time optical technique using both monochromatic and broadband femtosecond lasers. A stable, reproducible and novel diffraction pattern is observed unveiling long range spatial correlations and structural-symmetry at various length scales for a large variety of wings. While matching the sensitivity of SEM for such microstructures, it is highly efficient for extracting long range structural organization with potentially broad applicability.

  2. Application of source-receptor models to determine source areas of biological components (pollen and butterflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alarcón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The source-receptor models allow the establishment of relationships between a receptor point (sampling point and the probable source areas (regions of emission through the association of concentration values at the receptor point with the corresponding atmospheric back-trajectories, and, together with other techniques, to interpret transport phenomena on a synoptic scale. These models are generally used in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds measured at a sampling point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutants. However, until now, few studies have applied these types of models to describe the source areas of biological organisms. In Catalonia there are very complete records of pollen (data from the Xarxa Aerobiològica de Catalunya, Aerobiology Network of Catalonia and butterflies (data from the Catalan Butterfly Monitoring Scheme, a biological material that is also liable to be transported long distances and whose areas of origin could be interesting to know. This work presents the results of the use of the Seibert et al. model applied to the study of the source regions of: (1 certain pollen of an allergic nature, observed in Catalonia and the Canary Islands, and (2 the migratory butterfly Vanessa cardui, observed in Catalonia. Based on the results obtained we can corroborate the suitability of these models to determine the area of origin of several species, both chemical and biological, therefore expanding the possibilities of applying the original model to the wider field of Aerobiology.

  3. A magnetic compass aids monarch butterfly migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patrick A; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence that migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a magnetic compass to aid their fall migration has been lacking from the spectacular navigational capabilities of this species. Here we use flight simulator studies to show that migrants indeed possess an inclination magnetic compass to help direct their flight equatorward in the fall. The use of this inclination compass is light-dependent utilizing ultraviolet-A/blue light between 380 and 420 nm. Notably, the significance of light migration. PMID:24960099

  4. The Crest Wing Wave Energy Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of a continuation of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC), in the following referred to as ‘Phase 2'. The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave to...... generate power. Model tests have been performed using scale models (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept. of...... Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate mechanical power available to the power take off....

  5. Fiber-optically sensorized composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Oblea, Levy; Patel, Rona; Sotoudeh, Vahid; Abouzeida, Essam; Quinones, Vladimir; Gowayed, Yasser; Soobramaney, Paul; Flowers, George

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune and light-weight, fiber-optic sensor based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) will find increasing application in aerospace structures ranging from aircraft wings to jet engine vanes. Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) has been developing multi-functional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor systems including parallel processing FBG interrogators combined with advanced signal processing for SHM, structural state sensing and load monitoring applications. This paper reports work with Auburn University on embedding and testing FBG sensor arrays in a quarter scale model of a T38 composite wing. The wing was designed and manufactured using fabric reinforced polymer matrix composites. FBG sensors were embedded under the top layer of the composite. Their positions were chosen based on strain maps determined by finite element analysis. Static and dynamic testing confirmed expected response from the FBGs. The demonstrated technology has the potential to be further developed into an autonomous onboard system to perform load monitoring, SHM and Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of composite aerospace structures (wings and rotorcraft blades). This platform technology could also be applied to flight testing of morphing and aero-elastic control surfaces.

  6. Aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhdestvensky, K.V.; Ryzhov, V.A. [Saint-Petersburg State Marine Technical University (Russian Federation). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Mathematical Modeling

    2003-11-01

    It is the objective of this survey to review research and development results of flapping-wing propulsors and of vehicles equipped with them. Given the complex and multi-disciplinary character of the problem, a wide range of questions is considered in order to provide a general idea of the state-of-the-art. The main attention is directed at the aerohydrodynamics of flapping-wing propulsors. The major relevant mathematical models and the corresponding numerical results are presented together with the experimental data obtained up to the present time. Also, the physical and the design factors are discussed, which affect the aerohydrodynamic characteristics of flapping wings and that therefore have to be accounted for in the modem mathematical models. Experimental data and numerical modeling results are compared to determine domains of validity of the latter for the aerohydrodynamic design of full-scale air and marine vehicles. Also, existing engineering solutions for vehicles with flapping-wing propulsors are presented and prospective directions for future investigations are outlined. (author)

  7. STUDY THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL AND VERY SMALL SPAN WINGS, USED ON SHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beazit ALI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This scientific work presents the way in which the small, and very small span wings can be obtainedstarting from the great span wings and using the two scales of the similarity theory. Basing on two scales modelit can transcribe from model at nature the coefficients x c , y c and lengthening λ of Gottingen - 612 profile.

  8. Low Aspect-Ratio Wings for Wing-Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippone, Antonino; Selig, M.

    1998-01-01

    Flying on ground poses technical and aerodynamical challenges. The requirements for compactness, efficiency, manouverability, off-design operation,open new areas of investigations in the fieldof aerodynamic analysis and design. A review ofthe characteristics of low-aspect ratio wings, in- and out...... of ground, is presented. It is shownthat the performance of such wings is generally inferior to that of slender wings, although in ground placement can yield substantial improvements in the aerodynamic efficiency....

  9. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  10. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  11. Measured and predicted structural behavior of the HiMAT tailored composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    A series of load tests was conducted on the HiMAT tailored composite wing. Coupon tests were also run on a series of unbalanced laminates, including the ply configuration of the wing, the purpose of which was to compare the measured and predicted behavior of unbalanced laminates, including - in the case of the wing - a comparison between the behavior of the full scale structure and coupon tests. Both linear and nonlinear finite element (NASTRAN) analyses were carried out on the wing. Both linear and nonlinear point-stress analyses were performed on the coupons. All test articles were instrumented with strain gages, and wing deflections measured. The leading and trailing edges were found to have no effect on the response of the wing to applied loads. A decrease in the stiffness of the wing box was evident over the 27-test program. The measured load-strain behavior of the wing was found to be linear, in contrast to coupon tests of the same laminate, which were nonlinear. A linear NASTRAN analysis of the wing generally correlated more favorably with measurements than did a nonlinear analysis. An examination of the predicted deflections in the wing root region revealed an anomalous behavior of the structural model that cannot be explained. Both hysteresis and creep appear to be less significant in the wing tests than in the corresponding laminate coupon tests.

  12. Signatures of selection in loci governing major colour patterns in Heliconius butterflies and related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joron Mathieu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-coding change is one possible genetic mechanism underlying the evolution of adaptive wing colour pattern variation in Heliconius butterflies. Here we determine whether 38 putative genes within two major Heliconius patterning loci, HmYb and HmB, show evidence of positive selection. Ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (ω were used to test for selection, as a means of identifying candidate genes within each locus that control wing pattern. Results Preliminary analyses using 454 transcriptome and Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC sequences from three Heliconius species highlighted a cluster of genes within each region showing relatively higher rates of sequence evolution. Other genes within the region appear to be highly constrained, and no ω estimates exceeded one. Three genes from each locus with the highest average pairwise ω values were amplified from additional Heliconius species and races. Two selected genes, fizzy-like (HmYb and DALR (HmB, were too divergent for amplification across species and were excluded from further analysis. Amongst the remaining genes, HM00021 and Kinesin possessed the highest background ω values within the HmYb and HmB loci, respectively. After accounting for recombination, these two genes both showed evidence of having codons with a signature of selection, although statistical support for this signal was not strong in any case. Conclusions Tests of selection reveal a cluster of candidate genes in each locus, suggesting that weak directional selection may be occurring within a small region of each locus, but coding changes alone are unlikely to explain the full range of wing pattern diversity. These analyses pinpoint many of the same genes believed to be involved in the control of colour patterning in Heliconius that have been identified through other studies implementing different research methods.

  13. Wing flapping with minimum energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    A technique employed by Prandtl and Munk is adapted for the case of a wing in flapping motion to determine its lift distribution. The problem may be reduced to one of minimizing induced drag for a specified and periodically varying bending moment at the wing root. It is concluded that two wings in close tandem arrangement, moving in opposite phase, would eliminate the induced aerodynamic losses calculated

  14. Effects of herbicides on Behr's metalmark butterfly, a surrogate species for the endangered butterfly, Lange's metalmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, John D; Chen, Xue Dong; Johnson, Catherine S

    2012-05-01

    Lange's metalmark butterfly, Apodemia mormo langei Comstock, is in danger of extinction due to loss of habitat caused by invasive exotic plants which are eliminating its food, naked stem buckwheat. Herbicides are being used to remove invasive weeds from the dunes; however, little is known about the potential effects of herbicides on butterflies. To address this concern we evaluated potential toxic effects of three herbicides on Behr's metalmark, a close relative of Lange's metalmark. First instars were exposed to recommended field rates of triclopyr, sethoxydim, and imazapyr. Life history parameters were recorded after exposure. These herbicides reduced the number of adults that emerged from pupation (24-36%). Each herbicide has a different mode of action. Therefore, we speculate that effects are due to inert ingredients or indirect effects on food plant quality. If these herbicides act the same in A. mormo langei, they may contribute to the decline of this species. PMID:22310058

  15. LTSTAR- SUPERSONIC WING NON-LINEAR AERODYNAMICS PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Supersonic Wing Nonlinear Aerodynamics computer program, LTSTAR, was developed to provide for the estimation of the nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics of a wing at supersonic speeds. This corrected linearized-theory method accounts for nonlinearities in the variation of basic pressure loadings with local surface slopes, predicts the degree of attainment of theoretical leading-edge thrust forces, and provides an estimate of detached leading-edge vortex loadings that result when the theoretical thrust forces are not fully realized. Comparisons of LTSTAR computations with experimental results show significant improvements in detailed wing pressure distributions, particularly for large angles of attack and for regions of the wing where the flow is highly three-dimensional. The program provides generally improved predictions of the wing overall force and moment coefficients. LTSTAR could be useful in design studies aimed at aerodynamic performance optimization and for providing more realistic trade-off information for selection of wing planform geometry and airfoil section parameters. Input to the LTSTAR program includes wing planform data, freestream conditions, wing camber, wing thickness, scaling options, and output options. Output includes pressure coefficients along each chord, section normal and axial force coefficients, and the spanwise distribution of section force coefficients. With the chordwise distributions and section coefficients at each angle of attack, three sets of polars are output. The first set is for linearized theory with and without full leading-edge thrust, the second set includes nonlinear corrections, and the third includes estimates of attainable leading-edge thrust and vortex increments along with the nonlinear corrections. The LTSTAR program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 150K (octal) of 60 bit words. The LTSTAR

  16. Consequences for selected high-elevation butterflies and moths from the spread of Pinus mugo into the alpine zone in the High Sudetes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šipoš, Jan; Kindlmann, Pavel; Kuras, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Due to changes in the global climate, isolated alpine sites have become one of the most vulnerable habitats worldwide. The indigenous fauna in these habitats is threatened by an invasive species, dwarf pine (Pinus mugo), which is highly competitive and could be important in determining the composition of the invertebrate community. In this study, the association of species richness and abundance of butterflies with the extent of Pinus mugo cover at individual alpine sites was determined. Butterflies at alpine sites in the High Sudetes Mountains (Mts.) were sampled using Moericke yellow water traps. The results of a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that at a local scale the area of alpine habitats is the main limiting factor for native species of alpine butterflies. Butterfly assemblages are associated with distance to the tree-line with the optimum situated in the lower forest zone. In addition the CCA revealed that biotic factors (i.e. Pinus mugo and alpine tundra vegetation) accounted for a significant amount of the variability in species data. Regionally, the CCA identified that the species composition of butterflies and moths is associated with presence and origin of Pinus mugo. Our study provides evidence that the structure of the Lepidopteran fauna that formed during the postglacial period and also the present composition of species assemblages is associated with the presence of Pinus mugo. With global warming, Pinus mugo has the potential to spread further into alpine areas and negatively affect the local species communities. PMID:27330857

  17. Gradual and contingent evolutionary emergence of leaf mimicry in butterfly wing patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Takao K; Tomita, Shuichiro; Sezutsu, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background Special resemblance of animals to natural objects such as leaves provides a representative example of evolutionary adaptation. The existence of such sophisticated features challenges our understanding of how complex adaptive phenotypes evolved. Leaf mimicry typically consists of several pattern elements, the spatial arrangement of which generates the leaf venation-like appearance. However, the process by which leaf patterns evolved remains unclear. Results In this study we show the...

  18. "All Flying Insects with Big, Beautiful Wings are Butterflies!" A Study in Challenging This Misconception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kwok-Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the level of understanding among student teachers in differentiating lepidopterans. It adopted a constructive approach to promoting conceptual change in students on the issue of animal classification by generating cognitive conflict. Most of the students used inaccurate morphological traits for identification, such as wing…

  19. How a butterfly's wing can bring down Goliath chaos theories calculate the vulnerability of megasystems

    CERN Multimedia

    Davidson, K

    2003-01-01

    "The massive power failure on the East Coast illustrates the risk of building ever-larger power networks to transmit electricity, experts said Thursday. When a system becomes extremely complex, a normally survivable event ... can trigger what scientists call a devastating domino effect" (1 page).

  20. Fine Patterns on Butterfly Wings-On the Art of Details In Nabokov’s Lolita

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思然

    2013-01-01

      Nabokov regards details as very crucial in both his novels and literary critic works. This essay concludes Nabokov’s view of detail and applies it in analyzing his masterpiece Lolita. Using the method of reading the text closely, we will find two im⁃portant details which appear repeatedly in Lolita:the colors and the dogs. Through expatiating about them can we find out the great impact they exert on the content and the style of the novel.

  1. Design and demonstration of a biomimetic wing section using lightweight piezoceramic composite actuator (LIPCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sahng M.; Lee, Sangki; Park, Hoon C.; Yoon, Kwang J.; Goo, Nam Seo

    2003-08-01

    Biomimetic wing sections actuated by piezoceramics actuator LIPCA have been designed and their actuation displacements estimated by using the thermal analogy and MSC/NASTRAN based on the linear elasticity. The wing sections are fabricated as the design and tested for evaluation. Measured actuation displacements were larger than the estimated values mainly due to the material non-linearity of the PZT wafer. The biomimetic wing sections can be used for control surfaces of small scale UAVs.

  2. Effect of chevrons on the slat noise of straight and swept wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. V.; Zaytsev, M. Yu.; Kopiev, V. F.

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study of the airframe noise for small-scale wing models with high-lift devices (slat and flap) is performed. It is shown that installation of chevrons on the lower edge of a slat leads to noise reduction on both straight and swept wings. Simultaneous acoustic and aerodynamic measurements show that chevrons lead to suppression of the slat tonal noise components without significantly affecting the wing aerodynamics.

  3. Evaluation of Chemical Preparation on Insect Wing Shape for Geometric Morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, Camila; Suesdek, Lincoln

    2013-01-01

    Geometric morphometrics is an approach that has been increasingly applied in studies with insects. A limiting factor of this technique is that some mosquitoes have wings with dark spots or many scales, which jeopardizes the visualization of landmarks for morphometric analysis. Recently, in some studies, chemically treatment (staining) of the wings was used to improve the viewing of landmarks. In this study, we evaluated whether this method causes deformation of the wing veins and tested wheth...

  4. Karner blue butterfly: Annual summary for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses research being conducted on the Karner blue butterfly and historic landscape changes in Necedah National Wildlife Refuge.

  5. Butterfly Count 2001 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2001. There were 20 people involved in this one-day survey.

  6. Butterfly Count 2002 Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These are the data sheets from the annual butterfly count at Wallkill River National Wildlife Refuge for 2002. There were 20 people involved in this one-day survey.

  7. Butterflies of North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuges and

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contains an inventory of collected and potential butterflies found on or near Dahomey and Tallahatchie NWRs. Report does not give specific locations of collected...

  8. Swept-Wing Ice Accretion Characterization and Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeren, Andy P.; Potapczuk, Mark G.; Riley, James T.; Villedieu, Philippe; Moens, Frederic; Bragg, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA, FAA, ONERA, the University of Illinois and Boeing have embarked on a significant, collaborative research effort to address the technical challenges associated with icing on large-scale, three-dimensional swept wings. The overall goal is to improve the fidelity of experimental and computational simulation methods for swept-wing ice accretion formation and resulting aerodynamic effect. A seven-phase research effort has been designed that incorporates ice-accretion and aerodynamic experiments and computational simulations. As the baseline, full-scale, swept-wing-reference geometry, this research will utilize the 65 percent scale Common Research Model configuration. Ice-accretion testing will be conducted in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for three hybrid swept-wing models representing the 20, 64 and 83 percent semispan stations of the baseline-reference wing. Threedimensional measurement techniques are being developed and validated to document the experimental ice-accretion geometries. Artificial ice shapes of varying geometric fidelity will be developed for aerodynamic testing over a large Reynolds number range in the ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel and in a smaller-scale atmospheric wind tunnel. Concurrent research will be conducted to explore and further develop the use of computational simulation tools for ice accretion and aerodynamics on swept wings. The combined results of this research effort will result in an improved understanding of the ice formation and aerodynamic effects on swept wings. The purpose of this paper is to describe this research effort in more detail and report on the current results and status to date.

  9. Diversification of clearwing butterflies with the rise of the Andes

    OpenAIRE

    De-Silva, D. L.; Ellias, M.; Wilmott, K.; Mallet, J; Day, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Despite the greatest butterfly diversity on Earth occurring in the Neotrop- ical Andes and Amazonia, there is still keen debate about the origins of this exceptional biota. A densely sampled calibrated phylogeny for a widespread butterfly subtribe, Oleriina (Nymphalidae: Ithomiini) was used to estimate the origin, colonization history and diversification of this species-rich group. Location Neotropics. Methods Ancestral elevation and biogeographical ranges were reconstructed using data ge...

  10. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-01-01

    Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP) is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp.), Pieridae (17 spp), Lycaenidae (47 spp.), Nymphalidae (40 spp.) and Hesperiidae (28 spp.). The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  11. Checklist of butterfly fauna of Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies play dual role, firstly as the pollinator, carries pollen from one flower to another and secondly their larvae act as the pest, injurious to various crops. Their 21 species were identified belonging to 3 different families from Kohat, Pakistan during September-December 2008. The reported families Namphalidae covered 33%, Papilionidae 10%, and Pieridae 57% biodiversity of butterflies of Kohat. In Namphalidae included: species belonging to subfamily Nymphalinae, Indian fritillary, Argynnis hyperbius Linnaeus; common castor, Ariadne merione (Cramer; painted lady, Cynthia cardui (Linnaeus; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; blue pansy, J. orithya Linnaeus; common leopard, Phalantha phalantha (Drury; species belonging to subfamily Satyrinae, white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis (Kollar. In Papilionidae included: subfamily Papilioninae, lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and common mormon, Pa. polytes Linnaeus. In Pieridae included: subfamily Coliaclinae, dark clouded yellow, Colias croceus (Geoffroy; subfamily Coliadinae, lemon emigrant, Catopsilia pomona Fabricius; little orange tip, C. etrida Boisduval; blue spot arab,Colotis protractus Butler; common grass yellow, Eumera hecab (Linnaeus; common brimstone, Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus; yellow orange tip, Ixias pyrene Linnaeus; subfamily Pierinae, pioneer white butterfly, Belenoi aurota Bingham; Murree green-veined white, Pieris ajaka Moore; large cabbage white, P. brassicae Linnaeus; green-veined white, P. napi (Linnaeus; small cabbage white, P. rapae Linnaeus. The wingspan of collected butterflies, minimum was 25 mm of C. etrida which was the smallest butterfly, however, maximum was 100 mm of P. demoleus and P. polytes which were the largest butterflies. A detail study is required for further exploration of butterflies' fauna of Kohat.

  12. Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?

    OpenAIRE

    Schuessler, M.; Schmitt, D

    2004-01-01

    We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnet...

  13. Evidence for positive density-dependent emigration in butterfly metapopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicki, Piotr; Vrabec, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    A positive effect of (meta)population density on emigration has been predicted by many theoretical models and confirmed empirically in various organisms. However, in butterflies, the most popular species for dispersal studies, the evidence for its existence has so far been equivocal, with negative relationships between density and emigration being reported more frequently. We analysed dispersal in sympatric metapopulations of two Maculinea butterflies, intensively surveyed with mark–release–r...

  14. BUTTERFLIES OF THE VLASINA REGION IN SOUTHEAST SERBIA (LEPIDOPTERA: PAPILIONOIDEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Tot, Ivan Stevica; Slacki, Anja; Đurić, Milan; Popović, Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Although the Vlasina plateau has proved to be an interesting area hosting diverse and unique flora and fauna, its butterflies have not been thoroughly studied. Consolidating several known records and our field observations, a total of 101 butterfly species were listed for this region. The area hosts a number of important species to be conserved under Natura 2000 and Emerald networks and a significant number of nationally important species. The most interesting record is Colias caucasica, a bu...

  15. Colour constancy of the swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus

    OpenAIRE

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Arikawa, Kentaro; 充代, 木下

    2000-01-01

    We have recently shown that the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly Papilio xuthus uses colour vision when searching for food. In the field, these butterflies feed on nectar provided by flowers of various colours not only in direct sunlight but also in shaded places and on cloudy days, suggesting that they have colour constancy. Here, we tested this hypothesis. We trained newly emerged Papilio xuthus to feed on sucrose solution on a paper patch of a certain colour under white illumination. ...

  16. Butterflies of Sanjay Gandhi National Park, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol P Patwardhan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sanjay Gandhi National Park (SGNP is spread over 103 sq km in Mumbai and Thane districts of Maharashtra, India. During the study I have sighted 142 species of butterflies with another 7 unconfirmed sightings. The butterflies recorded belong to Papilionidae (10 spp., Pieridae (17 spp, Lycaenidae (47 spp., Nymphalidae (40 spp. and Hesperiidae (28 spp.. The study emphasizes the importance of this park as a hotspot which is surrounded by 17 million people.

  17. Automated measurement of Drosophila wings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezey Jason

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies in evolutionary biology and genetics are limited by the rate at which phenotypic information can be acquired. The wings of Drosophila species are a favorable target for automated analysis because of the many interesting questions in evolution and development that can be addressed with them, and because of their simple structure. Results We have developed an automated image analysis system (WINGMACHINE that measures the positions of all the veins and the edges of the wing blade of Drosophilid flies. A video image is obtained with the aid of a simple suction device that immobilizes the wing of a live fly. Low-level processing is used to find the major intersections of the veins. High-level processing then optimizes the fit of an a priori B-spline model of wing shape. WINGMACHINE allows the measurement of 1 wing per minute, including handling, imaging, analysis, and data editing. The repeatabilities of 12 vein intersections averaged 86% in a sample of flies of the same species and sex. Comparison of 2400 wings of 25 Drosophilid species shows that wing shape is quite conservative within the group, but that almost all taxa are diagnosably different from one another. Wing shape retains some phylogenetic structure, although some species have shapes very different from closely related species. The WINGMACHINE system facilitates artificial selection experiments on complex aspects of wing shape. We selected on an index which is a function of 14 separate measurements of each wing. After 14 generations, we achieved a 15 S.D. difference between up and down-selected treatments. Conclusion WINGMACHINE enables rapid, highly repeatable measurements of wings in the family Drosophilidae. Our approach to image analysis may be applicable to a variety of biological objects that can be represented as a framework of connected lines.

  18. Deformation and concentration fluctuations under stretching in a polymer network with free chains. The ''butterfly'' effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small Angle Neutron Scattering gives access to concentration fluctuations of mobile labeled polymer chains embedded in a polymer network. At rest they appear progressively larger than for random mixing, with increasing ratio. Under uniaxial stretching, they decrease towards ideal mixing along the direction perpendicular to stretching, and can grow strongly along the parallel one, including the zero scattering vector q limit. This gives rise to intensity contours with double-winged patterns, in the shape of the figure '8', or of 'butterfly'. Random crosslinking and end-linking of monodisperse chains have both been studied. The strength of the 'butterfly' effect increases with the molecular weight of the free chains, the crosslinking ratio, the network heterogeneity, and the elongation ratio. Eventually, the signal collapses on an 'asymptotic' function I(q), of increasing correlation length with the elongation ratio. Deformation appears heterogeneous, maximal for soft areas, where the mobile chains localize preferentially. This could be due to spontaneous fluctuations, or linked to frozen fluctuations of the crosslink density. However, disagreement with the corresponding theoretical expressions makes it necessary to account for the spatial correlations of crosslink density, and their progressive unscreening as displayed by the asymptotic behavior. Networks containing pending labeled chains and free labeled stars lead to more precise understanding of the diffusion of free species and the heterogeneity of the deformation. It seems that the latter occurs even without diffusion for heterogeneous enough networks. In extreme cases (of the crosslinking parameters), the spatial correlations display on apparent fractal behavior, of dimensions 2 to 2.5, which is discussed here in terms of random clusters. 200 refs., 95 figs., 21 tabs., 10 appends

  19. A conserved supergene locus controls colour pattern diversity in Heliconius butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Joron

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples of Müllerian mimicry. We used a genetic linkage map to show that a locus, Yb, which controls the presence of a yellow band in geographic races of Heliconius melpomene, maps precisely to the same location as the locus Cr, which has very similar phenotypic effects in its co-mimic H. erato. Furthermore, the same genomic location acts as a "supergene", determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. numata is a species with a very different phenotypic appearance, whose many forms mimic different unrelated ithomiine butterflies in the genus Melinaea. Other unlinked colour pattern loci map to a homologous linkage group in the co-mimics H. melpomene and H. erato, but they are not involved in mimetic polymorphism in H. numata. Hence, a single region from the multilocus colour pattern architecture of H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata, presumably as a result of selection for mimetic "supergene" polymorphism without intermediates. Although we cannot at this stage confirm the homology of the loci segregating in the three species, our results imply that a conserved yet relatively unconstrained mechanism underlying pattern switching can affect mimicry in radically different ways. We also show that adaptive evolution, both convergent and diversifying, can occur by the repeated involvement of the same genomic regions.

  20. Steel-fabricated butterfly valves for condenser circulating water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steel-fabricated butterfly valves, which are large in general, and gave rubber linings inside to prevent the corrosion due to sea Water, are utilized for the condenser circulating water systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. Cast iron butterfly valves, having been used hitherto, have some technical irrationalities, such as corrosion prevention, the techniques for manufacturing large castings, severe thermal transient operation. On the contrary, the steel plate-fabricated butterfly valves have the following advantages; much superior characteristics in strength, rigidity and shock resistance, the streamline shape of valve plates, the narrow width between two flanges, superior execution of works for rubber lining, the perfect sealed structure, safety to vibration, light weight and easy maintenance. The structural design and the main specifications for the steel plate butterfly valves with the nominal bore from 1350 mm to 3500 mm are presented. Concerning the design criteria, the torque of operating butterfly valves and the strength of valve bodies, valve plates and valve stems are explained. The performance tests utilizing the mock-up valve were carried out for the measurements of stress distribution, the deformation of valve body, the endurance and the operating torque. In the welding standards for steel plate butterfly valves, three kinds of welded parts are classified, and the inspection method for each part is stipulated. The vibration of the valves induced by flow vortexes and cavitation is explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  1. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of butterflies and moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Akito Y; Breinholt, Jesse W

    2014-08-01

    Butterflies and moths constitute some of the most popular and charismatic insects. Lepidoptera include approximately 160 000 described species, many of which are important model organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of Lepidoptera did not confidently place butterflies, and many relationships among superfamilies in the megadiverse clade Ditrysia remain largely uncertain. We generated a molecular dataset with 46 taxa, combining 33 new transcriptomes with 13 available genomes, transcriptomes and expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Using HaMStR with a Lepidoptera-specific core-orthologue set of single copy loci, we identified 2696 genes for inclusion into the phylogenomic analysis. Nucleotides and amino acids of the all-gene, all-taxon dataset yielded nearly identical, well-supported trees. Monophyly of butterflies (Papilionoidea) was strongly supported, and the group included skippers (Hesperiidae) and the enigmatic butterfly-moths (Hedylidae). Butterflies were placed sister to the remaining obtectomeran Lepidoptera, and the latter was grouped with greater than or equal to 87% bootstrap support. Establishing confident relationships among the four most diverse macroheteroceran superfamilies was previously challenging, but we recovered 100% bootstrap support for the following relationships: ((Geometroidea, Noctuoidea), (Bombycoidea, Lasiocampoidea)). We present the first robust, transcriptome-based tree of Lepidoptera that strongly contradicts historical placement of butterflies, and provide an evolutionary framework for genomic, developmental and ecological studies on this diverse insect order. PMID:24966318

  2. Developing `Butterfly Warriors': a Case Study of Science for Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junjun; Cowie, Bronwen

    2013-12-01

    Given worldwide concern about a decline in student engagement in school science and an increasing call for science for citizenship in New Zealand Curriculum, this study focused on a butterfly unit that investigated how students in a year-4 primary classroom learnt about New Zealand butterflies through thinking, talking, and acting as citizen scientists. The butterfly unit included five lessons. The researchers observed the lessons and interviewed students and the classroom teacher. The students completed a unit evaluation survey after the unit. Findings indicate that the students enjoyed and were interested in activities such as reading about butterflies, learning and using new vocabulary, drawing butterfly life cycles, as well as hunting, tagging and releasing butterflies and publishing the data they had collected on a dedicated website. Through their participation in the unit, students had opportunities to act locally and globally, and to `see themselves' in science through `being there' experience. Units like this have the potential to develop students' interest for longer-term engagement in science, even those students who may never envision themselves as professional scientists.

  3. Control of a swept wing tailless aircraft through wing morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiler, Richard W.

    Inspired by flight in nature, work done by Lippisch, the Hortens, and Northrop offered insight to achieving the efficiency of bird flight with swept-wing tailless aircraft. Tailless designs must incorporate aerodynamic compromises for control, which have inhibited potential advantages. A morphing mechanism, capable of changing the twist of wing and that can also provide pitch, roll and yaw control for a tailless swept wing aircraft is the first step to a series of morphing techniques, which will lead to more fluid, bird-like flight. This research focuses on investigating the design of a morphing wing to improve the flight characteristics of swept wing Horten type tailless aircraft. Free flight demonstrators, wind tunnel flow visualization, wind-tunnel force and moment data along with CFD studies have been used to evaluate the stability, control and efficiency of a morphing swept wing tailless aircraft. A wing morphing mechanism for the control of a swept wing tailless aircraft has been developed. This new control technique was experimentally and numerically compared to an existing elevon equipped tailless aircraft and has shown the potential for significant improvement in efficiency. The feasibility of this mechanism was also validated through flight testing of a flight weight version. In the process of comparing the Horten type elevon equipped aircraft and the morphing model, formal wind tunnel verification of wingtip induced thrust, found in Horten (Bell Shaped Lift distribution) type swept wing tailless aircraft was documented. A more complete physical understanding of the highly complex flow generated in the control region of the morphing tailless aircraft has been developed. CFD models indicate the possibility of the presence of a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV) on the control section morphing wing when the tip is twisted between +3.5 degrees and +7 degrees. The presence of this LEV causes a reduction of drag while lift is increased. Similar LEVs have been

  4. Land-use changes, farm management and the decline of butterflies associated with semi-natural grasslands in southern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven G. Nilsson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we are experiencing biodiversity loss on different spatial scales. One of the best studied taxonomic groups in decline is the butterflies. Here, we review evidence for such declines using five systematic studies from southern Sweden that compare old butterfly surveys with the current situation. Additionally, we provide data on butterfly and burnet moth extinctions in the region’s counties. In some local areas, half of the butterfly fauna has been lost during the last 60-100 years. In terms of extinctions, counties have lost 2-10 butterfly and burnet moth species. Land use has changed markedly with key butterfly habitats such as hay meadows disappearing at alarming rates. Grazed, mixed open woodlands have been transformed into dense coniferous forests and clear-cuts and domestic grazers have been relocated from woodlands to arable fields and semi-natural grasslands. Ley has increased rapidly and is used for bale silage repeatedly during the season. Overall, the changed and intensified land use has markedly reduced the availability of nectar resources in the landscape. Species that decline in Sweden are strongly decreasing or already extinct in other parts of Europe. Many typical grassland species that were numerous in former times have declined severely; among those Hesperia comma, Lycaena virgaureae, Lycaena hippothoe, Argynnis adippe, and Polyommatus semiargus. Also, species associated with open woodlands and wetlands such as, Colias palaeno, Boloria euphrosyne and the glade-inhabiting Leptidea sinapis have all decreased markedly. Current management practise and EU Common Agricultural Policy rules favour intensive grazing on the remaining semi-natural grasslands, with strong negative effects on butterfly diversity. Abandoned grasslands are very common in less productive areas of southern Sweden and these habitats may soon become forests. There is an urgent need for immediate action to preserve unfertilized, mown and lightly grazed

  5. Butterfly cartilage graft versus fat graft myringoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Kanotra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the graft take up rates of two minimally invasive techniques of butterfly cartilage graft (BCG and fat graft myringoplasty (FGM. Materials and Methods: Two groups of 30 patients each with small dry central perforations of the tympanic membrane (T.M. were randomly subjected to either of the two techniques of myringoplasty. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were compared using the Chi-square test. A value of <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The graft take up rate was 93.3% with BCG and 83.3% with fat graft. Conclusions: The BCG scores over FGM in small perforations of the T.M.

  6. Wing and body motion and aerodynamic and leg forces during take-off in droneflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Wei; Zhang, Yan Lai; Sun, Mao

    2013-12-01

    Here, we present a detailed analysis of the take-off mechanics in droneflies performing voluntary take-offs. Wing and body kinematics of the insects during take-off were measured using high-speed video techniques. Based on the measured data, the inertia force acting on the insect was computed and the aerodynamic force of the wings was calculated by the method of computational fluid dynamics. Subtracting the aerodynamic force and the weight from the inertia force gave the leg force. In take-off, a dronefly increases its stroke amplitude gradually in the first 10-14 wingbeats and becomes airborne at about the 12th wingbeat. The aerodynamic force increases monotonously from zero to a value a little larger than its weight, and the leg force decreases monotonously from a value equal to its weight to zero, showing that the droneflies do not jump and only use aerodynamic force of flapping wings to lift themselves into the air. Compared with take-offs in insects in previous studies, in which a very large force (5-10 times of the weight) generated either by jumping legs (locusts, milkweed bugs and fruit flies) or by the 'fling' mechanism of the wing pair (butterflies) is used in a short time, the take-off in the droneflies is relatively slow but smoother. PMID:24132205

  7. Butterfly community shifts over two centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan Christian; Segerer, Andreas; Ulrich, Werner; Torchyk, Olena; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schmitt, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Environmental changes strongly impact the distribution of species and subsequently the composition of species assemblages. Although most community ecology studies represent temporal snap shots, long-term observations are rather rare. However, only such time series allow the identification of species composition shifts over several decades or even centuries. We analyzed changes in the species composition of a southeastern German butterfly and burnet moth community over nearly 2 centuries (1840-2013). We classified all species observed over this period according to their ecological tolerance, thereby assessing their degree of habitat specialisation. This classification was based on traits of the butterfly and burnet moth species and on their larval host plants. We collected data on temperature and precipitation for our study area over the same period. The number of species declined substantially from 1840 (117 species) to 2013 (71 species). The proportion of habitat specialists decreased, and most of these are currently endangered. In contrast, the proportion of habitat generalists increased. Species with restricted dispersal behavior and species in need of areas poor in soil nutrients had severe losses. Furthermore, our data indicated a decrease in species composition similarity between different decades over time. These data on species composition changes and the general trends of modifications may reflect effects from climate change and atmospheric nitrogen loads, as indicated by the ecological characteristics of host plant species and local changes in habitat configuration with increasing fragmentation. Our observation of major declines over time of currently threatened and protected species shows the importance of efficient conservation strategies. PMID:26743786

  8. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  9. AERODYNAMICS OF WING TIP SAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSHTAK AL-ATABI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Observers have always been fascinated by soaring birds. An interesting feature of these birds is the existence of few feathers extending from the tip of the wing. In this paper, small lifting surfaces were fitted to the tip of a NACA0012 wing in a fashion similar to that of wing tip feathers. Experimental measurements of induced drag, longitudinal static stability and trailing vortex structure were obtained.The tests showed that adding wing tip surfaces (sails decreased the induced drag factor and increased the longitudinal static stability. Results identified two discrete appositely rotated tip vortices and showed the ability of wing tip surfaces to break them down and to diffuse them.

  10. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies - A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  11. Citizen Science and the Urban Ecology of Birds and Butterflies — A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang Wei, James; Lee, Benjamin P. Y-H.; Bing Wen, Low

    2016-01-01

    Citizen science has gained widespread currency as a tool for ecological research over the past decade. However, in the discipline of urban ecology, the existing contributions and future potential of citizen science engagement, specifically in terms of knowledge gain, have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here, we present a systematic review of published work on the urban ecology of birds and butterflies in relation to their use of citizen science data between 2005 and 2014. We compared the number of studies that used citizen science data to the number of studies that could potentially have employed data derived from citizen science. The take-up rates of citizen science data were 21% and 26% for birds and butterflies respectively. Most studies that employed citizen science used volunteer-derived data as primary data, and adopted Collegial, Collaborative and Contributional engagement modes to the exclusion of Contractual and Co-created arrangements. There was no evidence that citizen science studies investigated a different organismal scale (community vs. species) compared to the urban ecology literature. For both taxa, citizen science contributions were lower than expected compared to their representation in the urban ecology literature for studies on species-environment relationships at landscape and micro-environment scales, as well as behavioural ecology in general. Other research topics that could benefit from further citizen science involvement include breeding studies and guild analyses for birds, and multi-taxa studies for butterflies. Promising models of citizen science engagement for urban ecology are highlighted in relation to their thematic foci and methodological detail, and a number of research questions that could be productively addressed using citizen science are identified. The dynamics of contemporary engagement between citizen science and urban ecology described by this review could inform the design and refinement of urban ecology

  12. Conceptual design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional micro air vehicles (MAVs) are miniature versions of full-scale aircraft from which their design principles closely follow. The first step in aircraft design is the development of a conceptual design, where basic specifications and vehicle size are established. Conceptual design methods do not rely on specific knowledge of the propulsion system, vehicle layout and subsystems; these details are addressed later in the design process. Non-traditional MAV designs based on birds or insects are less common and without well-established conceptual design methods. This paper presents a conceptual design process for hovering flapping-wing vehicles. An energy-based accounting of propulsion and aerodynamics is combined with a one degree-of-freedom dynamic flapping model. Important results include simple analytical expressions for flight endurance and range, predictions for maximum feasible wing size and body mass, and critical design space restrictions resulting from finite wing inertia. A new figure-of-merit for wing structural-inertial efficiency is proposed and used to quantify the performance of real and artificial insect wings. The impact of these results on future flapping-wing MAV designs is discussed in detail. (paper)

  13. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water w...

  14. Butterflies Diversity in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    Ayu Raisa Khairun Nisa'; Minahanggari Mukti; Muhammad Fathoni Hamzah; Arif Mustakim; Zainal Abidin

    2013-01-01

    Butterflies have some roles in environmental as pollinator and bioindicator. Habitat is one of important factor to support butterflies growth. The aim of this research was to describe butterflies diversity in some green open spaces in Malang. Direct observations of butterflies diversity, vegetation structures and abiotic factors in Brawijaya University, Veteran, Jakarta and Velodrom Green Open Space were conducted on June 2012. Sampling was took place in each sites using cruising method in th...

  15. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, M; Bisch-Knaden, S.; Schäpers, A.; Mozuraitis, R.; Hansson, B; Janz, N.

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, w...

  16. Structural Analysis of a Dragonfly Wing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, S.R.; Lentink, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dragonfly wings are highly corrugated, which increases the stiffness and strength of the wing significantly, and results in a lightweight structure with good aerodynamic performance. How insect wings carry aerodynamic and inertial loads, and how the resonant frequency of the flapping wings is tuned

  17. Flow structures around a flapping wing considering ground effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Min Jun; Park, Hoon Cheol; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Byun, Doyoung

    2013-07-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been great interest in understanding the aerodynamics of flapping flight, namely the two flight modes of hovering and forward flight. However, there has been little focus on the aerodynamic characteristics during takeoff of insects. In a previous study we found that the Rhinoceros Beetle ( Trypoxylusdichotomus) takes off without jumping, which is uncommon for other insects. In this study we built a scaled-up electromechanical model of a flapping wing and investigated fluid flow around the beetle's wing model. In particular, the present dynamically scaled mechanical model has the wing kinematics pattern achieved from the real beetle's wing kinematics during takeoff. In addition, we could systematically change the three-dimensional inclined motion of the flapping model through each stroke. We used digital particle image velocimetry with high spatial resolution, and were able to qualitatively and quantitatively study the flow field around the wing at a Reynolds number of approximately 10,000. The present results provide insight into the aerodynamics and the evolution of vortical structures, as well as the ground effect experienced by a beetle's wing during takeoff. The main unsteady mechanisms of beetles have been identified and intensively analyzed as the stability of the leading edge vortex (LEV) during strokes, the delayed stall during upstroke, the rotational circulation in pronation periods, and wake capture in supination periods. Due to the ground effect, the LEV was enhanced during half downstroke, and the lift force could thus be increased to lift the beetle during takeoff. This is useful for researchers in developing a micro air vehicle that has a beetle-like flapping wing motion.

  18. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahardika, Nanang; Viet, Nguyen Quoc; Park, Hoon Cheol, E-mail: hcpark@konkuk.ac.kr [Biomimetic and Intelligent Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang-dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  19. Effect of outer wing separation on lift and thrust generation in a flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the implementation of wing feather separation and lead-lagging motion to a flapping wing. A biomimetic flapping wing system with separated outer wings is designed and demonstrated. The artificial wing feather separation is implemented in the biomimetic wing by dividing the wing into inner and outer wings. The features of flapping, lead-lagging, and outer wing separation of the flapping wing system are captured by a high-speed camera for evaluation. The performance of the flapping wing system with separated outer wings is compared to that of a flapping wing system with closed outer wings in terms of forward force and downward force production. For a low flapping frequency ranging from 2.47 to 3.90 Hz, the proposed biomimetic flapping wing system shows a higher thrust and lift generation capability as demonstrated by a series of experiments. For 1.6 V application (lower frequency operation), the flapping wing system with separated wings could generate about 56% higher forward force and about 61% less downward force compared to that with closed wings, which is enough to demonstrate larger thrust and lift production capability of the separated outer wings. The experiments show that the outer parts of the separated wings are able to deform, resulting in a smaller amount of drag production during the upstroke, while still producing relatively greater lift and thrust during the downstroke.

  20. The Butterfly House Industry: Conservation Risks and Education Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boppré

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the mass supply and use of butterflies for live exhibits, discusses the risks to biodiversity which this creates, and the educational opportunities it presents. Over the past 30 years a new type of insect zoo has become popular worldwide: the butterfly house. This has given rise to the global Butterfly House Industry (BHI based on the mass production of butterfly pupae as a cash crop. Production is largely carried out by privately-owned butterfly farms in tropical countries, notably Central America and Southeast Asia. Most pupae are exported to North America and Europe, although the number of butterfly houses in tropical countries is growing. The BHI is described with respect to its stakeholders, their diverse interests, and its extent. It is estimated that the global turnover of the BHI is in the order of USD 100 million. From a conservation perspective, there is a tension between risks and benefits. The risks to biodiversity are primarily unsustainable production, potential bastardisation of local faunas and floras, and genetic mixing within and even between butterfly species. This paper discusses general ways of managing these risks. Ethical concerns range from fair trade issues to animal husbandry and the use of wildlife for entertainment. For the risks to biodiversity and unresolved ethical issues to be tolerable, the BHI needs to make a significant contribution to conservation, primarily through effective education about butterfly biology as a means to raise public awareness of basic ecological processes, and conservation and environmental issues. It should also engage with local conservation initiatives. Currently the BHI′s great potential for public good in these respects is rarely realised. The paper concludes by looking at the special nature of the BHI, and its need for effective self-regulation if it is to continue to escape from public scrutiny and the introduction of restrictive regulations. The BHI needs to

  1. Butterfly fauna in Mount Gariwang-san, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Min Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, Korea. A field survey was conducted from 2010 to 2015 using the line transect method. A literature survey was also conducted. A total of 2,037 butterflies belonging to 105 species were recorded. In the estimation of species richness of butterfly, 116 species were estimated to live in Mt. Gariwang-san. In butterfly fauna in Mt. Gariwang-san, the percentage of northern species was very high and the percentage of grassland species was relatively higher than that of forest edge species and forest interior species. Sixteen red list species were found. In particular, Mimathyma nycteis was only recorded in Mt. Gariwang-san. When comparing the percentage of northern species and southern species including those recorded in previous studies, the percentage of northern species was found to have decreased significantly whereas that of southern species increased. We suggest that the butterfly community, which is distributed at relatively high altitudes on Mt. Gariwang-san, will gradually change in response to climate change.

  2. Direct excitation of butterfly states in Rydberg molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippe, Carsten; Niederpruem, Thomas; Thomas, Oliver; Eichert, Tanita; Ott, Herwig

    2016-05-01

    Since their first theoretical prediction Rydberg molecules have become an increasing field of research. These exotic states originate from the binding of a ground state atom in the electronic wave function of a highly-excited Rydberg atom mediated by a Fermi contact type interaction. A special class of long-range molecular states, the butterfly states, were first proposed by Greene et al.. These states arise from a shape resonance in the p-wave scattering channel of a ground state atom and a Rydberg electron and are characterized by an electron wavefunction whose density distribution resembles the shape of a butterfly. We report on the direct observation of deeply bound butterfly states of Rydberg molecules of 87 Rb. The butterfly states are studied by high resolution spectroscopy of UV-excited Rydberg molecules. We find states bound up to - 50 GHz from the 25 P1/2 , F = 1 state, corresponding to binding lengths of 50a0 to 500a0 and with permanent electric dipole moments of up to 500 Debye. This distinguishes the observed butterfly states from the previously observed long range Rydberg molecules in rubidium.

  3. Wing rotation and lift in SUEX flapping wing mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research presents detailed modeling and experimental testing of wing rotation and lift in the LionFly, a low cost and mass producible flapping wing mechanism fabricated monolithically from SUEX dry film and powered by piezoelectric bimorph actuators. A flexure hinge along the span of the wing allows the wing to rotate in addition to flapping. A dynamic model including aerodynamics is developed and validated using experimental testing with a laser vibrometer in air and vacuum, stroboscopic photography and high definition image processing, and lift measurement. The 112 mg LionFly produces 46° flap and 44° rotation peak to peak with 12° phase lag, which generates a maximum average lift of 71 μN in response to an applied sinusoidal voltage of 75 V AC and 75 V DC at 37 Hz. Simulated wing trajectories accurately predict measured wing trajectories at small voltage amplitudes, but slightly underpredict amplitude and lift at high voltage amplitudes. By reducing the length of the actuator, reducing the mechanism amplification and tuning the rotational hinge stiffness, a redesigned device is simulated to produce a lift to weight ratio of 1.5. (paper)

  4. Female behaviour drives expression and evolution of gustatory receptors in butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana D Briscoe

    Full Text Available Secondary plant compounds are strong deterrents of insect oviposition and feeding, but may also be attractants for specialist herbivores. These insect-plant interactions are mediated by insect gustatory receptors (Grs and olfactory receptors (Ors. An analysis of the reference genome of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene, which feeds on passion-flower vines (Passiflora spp., together with whole-genome sequencing within the species and across the Heliconius phylogeny has permitted an unprecedented opportunity to study the patterns of gene duplication and copy-number variation (CNV among these key sensory genes. We report in silico gene predictions of 73 Gr genes in the H. melpomene reference genome, including putative CO2, sugar, sugar alcohol, fructose, and bitter receptors. The majority of these Grs are the result of gene duplications since Heliconius shared a common ancestor with the monarch butterfly or the silkmoth. Among Grs but not Ors, CNVs are more common within species in those gene lineages that have also duplicated over this evolutionary time-scale, suggesting ongoing rapid gene family evolution. Deep sequencing (∼1 billion reads of transcriptomes from proboscis and labial palps, antennae, and legs of adult H. melpomene males and females indicates that 67 of the predicted 73 Gr genes and 67 of the 70 predicted Or genes are expressed in these three tissues. Intriguingly, we find that one-third of all Grs show female-biased gene expression (n = 26 and nearly all of these (n = 21 are Heliconius-specific Grs. In fact, a significant excess of Grs that are expressed in female legs but not male legs are the result of recent gene duplication. This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene, suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly

  5. The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedder Lindsey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability for serially homologous structures to acquire a separate identity has been primarily investigated for structures dependent on Hox gene input but is still incompletely understood in other systems. The fore and hindwings of butterflies are serially homologous structures as are the serially homologous eyespots that can decorate each of these wings. Eyespots can vary in number between fore and hindwings of the same individual and mutations of large effect can control the total number of eyespots that each of the wings displays. Here we investigate the genetics of a new spontaneous color pattern mutation, Missing, that alters eyespot number in the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. We further test the interaction of Missing with a previously described mutation, Spotty, describe the developmental stage affected by Missing, and test whether Missing is a mutant variant of the gene Distal-less via a linkage association study. Results Missing removes or greatly reduces the size of two of the hindwing eyespots from the row of seven eyespots, with no detectable effect on the rest of the wing pattern. Offspring carrying a single Missing allele display intermediate sized eyespots at these positions. Spotty has the opposite effect of Missing, i.e., it introduces two extra eyespots in homologous wing positions to those affected by Missing, but on the forewing. When Missing is combined with Spotty the size of the two forewing eyespots decreases but the size of the hindwing spots stays the same, suggesting that these two mutations have a combined effect on the forewing such that Missing reduces eyespot size when in the presence of a Spotty mutant allele, but that Spotty has no effect on the hindwing. Missing prevents the complete differentiation of two of the eyespot foci on the hindwing. We found no evidence for any linkage between the Distal-less and Missing genes. Conclusion The spontaneous mutation Missing controls the

  6. Quantum computation over the butterfly network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate distributed quantum computation under restricted network resources, we introduce a quantum computation task over the butterfly network where both quantum and classical communications are limited. We consider deterministically performing a two-qubit global unitary operation on two unknown inputs given at different nodes, with outputs at two distinct nodes. By using a particular resource setting introduced by M. Hayashi [Phys. Rev. A 76, 040301(R) (2007)], which is capable of performing a swap operation by adding two maximally entangled qubits (ebits) between the two input nodes, we show that unitary operations can be performed without adding any entanglement resource, if and only if the unitary operations are locally unitary equivalent to controlled unitary operations. Our protocol is optimal in the sense that the unitary operations cannot be implemented if we relax the specifications of any of the channels. We also construct protocols for performing controlled traceless unitary operations with a 1-ebit resource and for performing global Clifford operations with a 2-ebit resource.

  7. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    R. K. Sony; P. R. Arun

    2015-01-01

     Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 speci...

  8. Mimicry in Heliconius and Ithomiini butterflies: The profound consequences of an adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prey populations have evolved multiple strategies to escape predation. Camouflage is a strategy resting on avoiding detection by potential predators, whereas aposematism relies on advertising chemical defences with conspicuous warning signals. While camouflaged phenotypes are subject to negative frequency-dependent selection, aposematic preys are under positive frequency-dependence, where the efficiency of a signal increases with its own local abundance. Because of his “strength-in-number” effect, multiple chemically-defended species exposed to the same suite of predators gain a selective advantage from converging on the same warning signals. Convergence in warning signals is called Müllerian mimicry. Here, we review the results of recent genetic and ecological research on two well-studied groups of neotropical Müllerian mimetic butterflies, the genus Heliconius and the tribe Ithomiini, which advertise their unpalatability through conspicuous wing colour patterns. Mimicry represents a major adaptation in these groups, where the effects of selection extend well beyond mere phenotypic resemblance. Selection acts on other traits used as mating cues, on the genetic architecture of colour pattern and even on the ecological niche of species. The origin of mimicry itself and the coexistence of multiple mimicry patterns are well understood, but the ultimate drivers of mimicry diversity remain unclear.

  9. Mutualistic interactions drive ecological niche convergence in a diverse butterfly community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Elias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological communities are structured in part by evolutionary interactions among their members. A number of recent studies incorporating phylogenetics into community ecology have upheld the paradigm that competition drives ecological divergence among species of the same guild. However, the role of other interspecific interactions, in particular positive interactions such as mutualism, remains poorly explored. We characterized the ecological niche and inferred phylogenetic relationships among members of a diverse community of neotropical Müllerian mimetic butterflies. Müllerian mimicry is one of the best studied examples of mutualism, in which unpalatable species converge in wing pattern locally to advertize their toxicity to predators. We provide evidence that mutualistic interactions can drive convergence along multiple ecological axes, outweighing both phylogeny and competition in shaping community structure. Our findings imply that ecological communities are adaptively assembled to a much greater degree than commonly suspected. In addition, our results show that phenotype and ecology are strongly linked and support the idea that mimicry can cause ecological speciation through multiple cascading effects on species' biology.

  10. Changing biodiversity scenario in the Himalayan ecosystem: Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, India, as revealed by the study of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae)

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Sidhu

    2011-01-01

    Any change in the population of butterflies is an early warning of pollution or other kinds of habitat degradation. An area rich in butterfly diversity has its own significance in the ecosystem. The current status of butterflies in Mussoorie (Uttarakhand) is reviewed. The degradation of the butterfly-rich spots of Mussoorie is discussed. A comparative chart of 66 species of Lycaenid butterflies compares species collected by earlier authors from Mussoorie with current observations. Some of the...

  11. A case study of butterfly road kills from Anaikatty Hills, Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Sony

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available  Anaikatty Hills of the Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu witness the annual spectacle of mass movement of lakhs of butterflies.  The present paper examines the impact of vehicular traffic on this ‘butterfly migration’ through a survey of butterfly mortality along a road stretch in Anaikatty Hills.  A high rate of mortality due to road traffic was observed during the mass movement of butterflies.  One-hundred-and-thirty-five butterfly road kills belonging to three families, nine genera and 12 species were recorded during the study.  The proportion of nymphalid butterflies among the road kills (70% was very high compared to their respective share in the background population (39%, indicating a higher road mortality risk for nymphalids.  The conservation significance of the road traffic impact on butterfly assemblage and management options are discussed. 

  12. Both Palatable and Unpalatable Butterflies Use Bright Colors to Signal Difficulty of Capture to Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L; Campos, V C; DeVries, P J; Penz, C M

    2016-04-01

    Birds are able to recognize and learn to avoid attacking unpalatable, chemically defended butterflies after unpleasant experiences with them. It has also been suggested that birds learn to avoid prey that are efficient at escaping. This, however, remains poorly documented. Here, we argue that butterflies may utilize a variety of escape tactics against insectivorous birds and review evidence that birds avoid attacking butterflies that are hard to catch. We suggest that signaling difficulty of capture to predators is a widespread phenomenon in butterflies, and this ability may not be limited to palatable butterflies. The possibility that both palatable and unpalatable species signal difficulty of capture has not been fully explored, but helps explain the existence of aposematic coloration and escape mimicry in butterflies lacking defensive chemicals. This possibility may also change the role that putative Müllerian and Batesian mimics play in a variety of classical mimicry rings, thus opening new perspectives in the evolution of mimicry in butterflies. PMID:26911159

  13. Does the butterfly diagram indicate asolar flux-transport dynamo?

    CERN Document Server

    Schüssler, M

    2004-01-01

    We address the question whether the properties of the observed latitude-time diagram of sunspot occurence (the butterfly diagram) provide evidence for the operation of a flux-transport dynamo, which explains the migration of the sunspot zones and the period of the solar cycle in terms of a deep equatorward meridional flow. We show that the properties of the butterfly diagram are equally well reproduced by a conventional dynamo model with migrating dynamo waves, but without transport of magnetic flux by a flow. These properties seem to be generic for an oscillatory and migratory field of dipole parity and thus do not permit an observational distinction between different dynamo approaches.

  14. Fueling the fall migration of the monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Lincoln P; Fink, Linda S; Walford, Peter

    2006-12-01

    Monarch butterflies in eastern North America accumulate lipids during their fall migration to central Mexico, and use them as their energy source during a 5 month overwintering period. When and where along their migratory journey the butterflies accumulate these lipids has implications for the importance of fall nectar sources in North America. We analyzed the lipid content of 765 summer breeding and fall migrant monarch butterflies collected at 1 nectaring site in central Virginia over 4 years (1998-2001), and compared them with 16 additional published and unpublished datasets from other sites, dating back to 1941. Virginia migrants store significantly more lipid than summer butterflies, and show significant intraseason and between-year variation. None of the Virginia samples, and none of the historical samples, with one exception, had lipid levels comparable with those found in migrants that had reached Texas and northern Mexico. This evidence suggests that upon reaching Texas, the butterflies undergo a behavioral shift and spend more time nectaring. The one exceptional sample led us to the discovery that monarchs that form roosts along their migratory routes have higher lipid contents than monarchs collected while nectaring at flowers. We propose that for much of their journey monarchs are opportunistic migrants, and the variation within and between samples reflects butterflies' individual experiences. The stored lipids appear to be of less importance as fuel for the butterflies' migration than for their survival during their overwintering period, in part because soaring on favorable winds reduces the energetic cost of flying. The conservation of nectar plants in Texas and northern Mexico is crucial to sustaining the monarch's migratory spectacle, and nectar abundance throughout eastern North America is also important. As generalists in their selection of nectar sources and nectaring habitats, monarchs are unlikely to be affected by small changes in plant

  15. Anomalous reparametrizations and butterfly states in string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reparametrization symmetries of Witten's vertex in ordinary or vacuum string field theories can be used to extract useful information about classical solutions of the equations of motion corresponding to D-branes. It follows, that the vacuum string field theory in general has to be regularized. For the regularization recently considered by Gaiotto et al., we show that the identities we derive, are so constraining, that among all surface states they uniquely select the simplest butterfly projector discovered numerically by these authors. The reparametrization symmetries are also used to give a simple proof that the butterfly states and their generalizations are indeed projectors

  16. A mosaic of chemical coevolution in a large blue butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, David R; Als, Thomas Damm; Maile, Roland; Jones, Graeme R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of recognition are essential to the evolution of mutualistic and parasitic interactions between species. One such example is the larval mimicry that Maculinea butterfly caterpillars use to parasitize Myrmica ant colonies. We found that the greater the match between the surface chemistry...... of Maculinea alcon and two of its host Myrmica species, the more easily ant colonies were exploited. The geographic patterns of surface chemistry indicate an ongoing coevolutionary arms race between the butterflies and Myrmica rubra, which has significant genetic differentiation between populations...

  17. Wind tunnel tests of four flexible wing ultralight gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics of four full scale, flexible wing, ultralight gliders were measured in the settling chamber of a low speed wind tunnel. The gliders were tested over a wide range of angle of attack and at two different velocities. Particular attention was devoted to the lift and pitching moment behavior at low and negative angles of attack because of the potential loss of longitudinal stability of flexible wing gliders in this regime. The test results were used to estimate the performance and longitudinal control characteristics of the gliders.

  18. Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka A

    2011-08-30

    Demographic population dynamics, gene flow, and local adaptation may influence each other and lead to coupling of ecological and evolutionary dynamics, especially in species inhabiting fragmented heterogeneous environments. Here, I review long-term research on eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in the Glanville fritillary butterfly inhabiting a large network of approximately 4,000 meadows in Finland. The metapopulation persists in a balance between frequent local extinctions and recolonizations. The genetic spatial structure as defined by neutral markers is much more coarse-grained than the demographic spatial structure determined by the fragmented habitat, yet small-scale spatial structure has important consequences for the dynamics. I discuss three examples of eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics. (i) Extinction-colonization metapopulation dynamics influence allele frequency changes in the phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) gene, which leads to strong associations between genetic variation in Pgi and dispersal, recolonization, and local population dynamics. (ii) Inbreeding in local populations increases their risk for extinction, whereas reciprocal effects between inbreeding, population size, and emigration represent likely eco-evolutionary feedbacks. (iii) Genetically determined female oviposition preference for two host plant species exhibits a cline paralleling a gradient in host plant relative abundances, and host plant preference of dispersing females in relation to the host plant composition of habitat patches influences immigration (gene flow) and recolonization (founder events). Eco-evolutionary spatial dynamics in heterogeneous environments may not lead to directional evolutionary changes unless the environment itself changes, but eco-evolutionary dynamics may contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation attributable to fluctuating selection in space and time. PMID:21788506

  19. Effects of ambient and preceding temperatures and metabolic genes on flight metabolism in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Swee Chong; Oksanen, Alma; Mattila, Anniina L K; Lehtonen, Rainer; Niitepõld, Kristjan; Hanski, Ilkka

    2016-02-01

    Flight is essential for foraging, mate searching and dispersal in many insects, but flight metabolism in ectotherms is strongly constrained by temperature. Thermal conditions vary greatly in natural populations and may hence restrict fitness-related activities. Working on the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), we studied the effects of temperature experienced during the first 2 days of adult life on flight metabolism, genetic associations between flight metabolic rate and variation in candidate metabolic genes, and genotype-temperature interactions. The maximal flight performance was reduced by 17% by 2 days of low ambient temperature (15 °C) prior to the flight trial, mimicking conditions that butterflies commonly encounter in nature. A SNP in phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi) had a significant association on flight metabolic rate in males and a SNP in triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi) was significantly associated with flight metabolic rate in females. In the Pgi SNP, AC heterozygotes had higher flight metabolic rate than AA homozygotes following low preceding temperature, but the trend was reversed following high preceding temperature, consistent with previous results on genotype-temperature interaction for this SNP. We suggest that these results on 2-day old butterflies reflect thermal effect on the maturation of flight muscles. These results highlight the consequences of variation in thermal conditions on the time scale of days, and they contribute to a better understanding of the complex dynamics of flight metabolism and flight-related activities under conditions that are relevant for natural populations living under variable thermal conditions. PMID:26658138

  20. Fluid-structure interaction of reticulated porous wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Elizabeth; Jawed, Mohammad; Reis, Pedro

    Insects of the orders Neuroptera and Hymenoptera locomote via flapping flight with reticulated wings that have porous structures that confers them with remarkable lightweight characteristics. Yet these porous wings still perform as contiguous plates to provide the necessary aerodynamic lift and drag required for flight. Even though the fluid flow past the bulk of these insects may be in high Reynolds conditions, viscosity can dominate over inertia in the flow through the porous sub-features. Further considering the flexibility of these reticulated wings yields a highly nonlinear fluid-structure interaction problem. We perform a series of dynamically-scaled precision model experiments to gain physical insight into this system. Our experiments are complemented with computer simulations that combine the Discrete Elastic Rods method and a model for the fluid loading that takes into account the `leakiness' through the porous structure. Our results are anticipated to find applications in micro-air vehicle aerodynamics.

  1. Microscopic modulation of mechanical properties in transparent insect wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the measurement of local friction and adhesion of transparent insect wings using an atomic force microscope cantilever down to nanometre length scales. We observe that the wing-surface is decorated with 10 μm long and 2 μm wide islands that have higher topographic height. The friction on the islands is two orders of magnitude higher than the back-ground while the adhesion on the islands is smaller. Furthermore, the high islands are decorated with ordered nano-wire-like structures while the background is full of randomly distributed granular nano-particles. Coherent optical diffraction through the wings produce a stable diffraction pattern revealing a quasi-periodic organization of the high islands over the entire wing. This suggests a long-range order in the modulation of friction and adhesion which is directly correlated with the topography. The measurements unravel novel functional design of complex wing surface and could find application in miniature biomimetic devices

  2. Investigation into the Role of Dragonfly Wing Flexibility During Passive Wing Pitch Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Yousaf; Williams, Ventress; Ren, Yan; Dong, Haibo; Flow Simulation Research Group Team

    2013-11-01

    Wing deformation is a characteristic part of flapping wing flight. In dragonflies, a torsion wave can be observed propagating from the tip to the root during stroke reversal. In this paper, we utilize high-speed photogrammetry and 3d surface reconstruction techniques to quantify wing deformation and kinematics of a dragonfly. We then use finite elements in the absolute nodal coordinate formulation to estimate strain energy in the wing during wing pitch reversal. We use this data to analyze the role of wing structure in facilitating wing rotation and bringing about the characteristic torsion wave. The influence of the elastic force in facilitating wing rotation is then compared with inertial and aerodynamic forces as well. A quantitative look into the variation of strain energy within the insect wing during wing rotation could lead to more efficient design of dynamic wing pitching mechanisms. Supported by NSF CBET-1343154.

  3. Effect of periodic aerodynamic pulsation on flow over a confined butterfly valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caille, V.; Laumonier, J. [Poitiers Univ., 86 (France). Centre d`Etudes Aerodynamiques et Thermiques

    1998-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the flowfield characteristics of a butterfly valve under periodic flow has been made. The results concern a valve at large angles corresponding to high area contraction ratios (K>0.3). In steady flow, the results show that the flowfield within the valve is conditioned by the internal jet formed in the trailing edge fluid area. For very high area contraction ratios (K>0.65), the equivalent diameter of that fluid area is the preponderant length scale of the flow. In periodic flow, an increase in the length scale of flow instabilities is observed. The reorganization length of the flow is, thus, shorter, producing a marked reduction in valve head-loss. This phenomen is maximum when the excitation frequency is close to the nominal instabilities frequency (found in steady flow). (orig.) With 10 figs., 19 refs.

  4. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN POLLEN: PHENOLOGY AND MOVEMENT CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bt corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the potential risk to monarc...

  5. MONARCH BUTTERFLIES AND BT CORN: REPLACING HOOPLA WITH SCIENCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proven methods of risk assessment were used by a consortium of scientists to investigate the potential impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn pollen on the monarch butterfly. Toxicity of Bt corn pollen and larval exposure to harmful levels of pollen were investigated. Research indicates that the...

  6. Subcutaneous infusion: non-metal cannulae vs metal butterfly needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Maria Carrion

    2002-07-01

    This review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of non-metal cannulae compared to metal butterfly needles in maintaining subcutaneous infusion sites in patients receiving palliative care. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Pre-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Amed and Cancerlit were searched for relevant studies. Controlled trials comparing non-metal cannulae with metal butterfly needles for giving subcutaneous infusion to palliative care patients were included. The outcome considered was site duration in terms of hours of patency or until change was required. Four trials met the inclusion criteria although overall quality was poor due to low follow-up. Studies examined either Teflon or Vialon-coated catheters. All studies showed non-metal cannulae to be superior to metal. In individual studies estimates in mean increase in duration of the site range from 21 to 159 hours. It seems that non-metal cannulae are more effective in maintaining the duration of subcutaneous infusion sites than butterfly needles. Both types of non-metal catheter showed clear benefits. This review has not examined other outcomes but in general adverse effects lead to the removal of the catheter and so would be reflected in the outcome of considered. Although historically non-metal cannulae have been considerably more expensive there is now little difference between metal and Teflon-coated catheters. This review recommends the use of non-metal cannulae in preference to butterfly needles. PMID:12131852

  7. Hitch-hiking parasitic wasp learns to exploit butterfly antiaphrodisiac

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huigens, M.E.; Pashalidou, F.G.; Qian, M.H.; Bukovinszky, T.; Smid, H.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2009-01-01

    Many insects possess a sexual communication system that is vulnerable to chemical espionage by parasitic wasps. We recently discovered that a hitch-hiking (H) egg parasitoid exploits the antiaphrodisiac pheromone benzyl cyanide (BC) of the Large Cabbage White butterfly Pieris brassicae. This pheromo

  8. Palaearctic butterfly ecology model for Oriental species conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fric, Zdeněk; Pech, Pavel

    Hong Kong: Kadoorie Farm & Botainc Garden Corporation, 2007 - (Kendrick, R.), s. 63-69 ISBN 978-962-8869-49-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034; GA AV ČR KJB600070601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : palaearctic butterfly Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Juvenile hormone regulation of longevity in the migratory monarch butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, W S; Tatar, M

    2001-12-22

    Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) of eastern North America are well known for their long-range migration to overwintering roosts in south-central Mexico. An essential feature of this migration involves the exceptional longevity of the migrant adults; individuals persist from August/September to March while their summer counterparts are likely to live less than two months as adults. Migrant adults persist during a state of reproductive diapause in which both male and female reproductive development is arrested as a consequence of suppressed synthesis of juvenile hormone. Here, we describe survival in monarch butterflies as a function of the migrant syndrome. We show that migrant adults are longer lived than summer adults when each are maintained under standard laboratory conditions, that the longevity of migrant adults is curtailed by treatment with juvenile hormone and that the longevity of summer adults is increased by 100% when juvenile hormone synthesis is prevented by surgical removal of its source, the corpora allatum. Thus, monarch butterfly persistence through a long winter season is ensured in part by reduced ageing that is under endocrine regulation, as well as by the unique environmental properties of their winter roost sites. Phenotypic plasticity for ageing is an integral component of the monarch butterflies' migration-diapause syndrome. PMID:11749703

  10. Contrasting supercooling ability in lowland and mountain European Colias butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, P.; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Konvička, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2014), s. 63-69. ISSN 0749-8004 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; GA JU(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : butterfly ecology * diapause * frost survival Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.512, year: 2014

  11. Airspeed adjustment and lipid reserves in migratory Neotropical butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerodynamic theory predicts that migrant fliers should reduce their speed of flight as endogenous energy reserves are gradually consumed. This prediction was tested for butterfly species that engage in annual rainy season migrations through central Panama. Direct airspeed measurements together wit...

  12. Reverse altitudinal cline in cold hardiness among Erebia butterflies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrba, Pavel; Konvička, Martin; Nedvěd, Oldřich

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2012), s. 251-258. ISSN 0143-2044 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GAP505/10/1630; University of South Bohemia(CZ) 144/2010/100 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Alpine habitats * butterfly ecology * climate change Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2012

  13. Controlling the cavitation phenomenon of evolution on a butterfly valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the phenomenon of cavitation in cavitation behavior requires knowledge of both plant and equipment working in the facility. This paper presents a diagram of cavitational behavior for a butterfly valve with a diameter of 100 mm at various openings, which was experimentally built. We proposed seven stages of evolution of the phenomenon of cavitation in the case of a butterfly valve. All these phases are characterized by pressure drop, noise and vibration at various flow rates and flow sections through the valve. The level of noise and vibration for the seven stages of development of the phenomenon of cavitation were measured simultaneously. The experimental measurements were comprised in a knowledge database used in training of a neural network of a neural flow controller that maintains flow rate constantly in the facility by changing the opening butterfly valve. A fuzzy position controller is used to access the valve open. This is the method proposed to provide operational supervision outside the cavitation for a butterfly valve.

  14. Becoming Butterflies: Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca M.; Baggett, Paige V.; Shaw, Edward L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process…

  15. Butterfly Floquet Spectrum in Driven SU(2) Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Floquet spectrum of a class of driven SU(2) systems is shown to display a butterfly pattern with multifractal properties. The level crossing between Floquet states of the same parity or different parities is studied. The results are relevant to studies of fractal statistics, quantum chaos, coherent destruction of tunneling, and the validity of mean-field descriptions of Bose-Einstein condensates.

  16. Contribution to the knowledge of the butterfly fauna of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Šašić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albanian insect fauna is one of the least studied in Europe. In 2012 and 2013 surveys were undertaken with the aim of improving the knowledge of the distribution of butterflies, particularly in the southern part of the country. This research has resulted in the publication of three new species records for Albania. Here we add two new species to the list of native butterflies of Albania, Melitaea ornata Christoph, 1893 and Cupido alcetas (Hoffmannsegg, 1804. We recorded a total of 143 species including several confirmations of historical published records. The total number of species has consequently increased to 198, which is comparable with butterfly diversity in neighbouring countries. Unlike its neighbours, Albania has preserved many of its traditional agricultural practices and consequently its rich fauna has been well protected during the last decades. However, with the opening up of the country to outside influences this will undoubtedly change as the process of intensification has already started in more populated coastal areas. It is therefore imperative to identify important butterfly areas in need of conservation and to take decisive measures to preserve traditional agricultural practices.

  17. Design and construction of a remote piloted flying wing. B.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alfred J.; Koopman, Fritz; Soboleski, Craig; Trieu, Thai-Ba; Duquette, Jaime; Krause, Scott; Susko, David; Trieu, Thuyba

    1994-01-01

    Currently, there is a need for a high-speed, high-lift civilian transport. Although unconventional, a flying wing could fly at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and still retain the capacity of a 747. The design of the flying wing is inherently unstable since it lacks a fuselage and a horizontal tail. The project goal was to design, construct, fly, and test a remote-piloted scale model flying wing. The project was completed as part of the NASA/USRA Advanced Aeronautics Design Program. These unique restrictions required us to implement several fundamental design changes from last year's Elang configuration including wing sweepback and wingtip endplates. Unique features such as a single ducted fan engine, composite structural materials, and an electrostatic stability system were incorporated. The result is the Banshee '94. Our efforts will aid future projects in design and construction techniques so that a viable flying wing can become an integral part of the aviation industry.

  18. Wing walls for enhancing the seismic performance of reinforced concrete frame structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weisong; Guo, Xun; Xu, Weixiao; Yuan, Xin

    2016-06-01

    A building retrofitted with wing walls in the bottom story, which was damaged during the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in China, is introduced and a corresponding 1/4 scale wing wall-frame model was subjected to shake table motions to study the seismic behavior of this retrofitted structural system. The results show that wing walls can effectively protect columns from damage by moving areas that bear reciprocating tension and compression to the sections of the wing walls, thus achieving an extra measure of seismic fortification. A `strong column-weak beam' mechanism was realized, the flexural rigidity of the vertical member was strengthened, and a more uniform distribution of deformation among all the stories was measured. In addition, the joint between the wing walls and the beams suffered severe damage during the tests, due to an area of local stress concentration. A longer area of intensive stirrup is suggested in the end of the beams.

  19. Lowland forest butterflies of the Sankosh River catchment, Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on butterflies of the lowland forests of Bhutan for the first time. As a part of the biodiversity impact assessment for the proposed Sankosh hydroelectric power project, a survey was carried out along the Sankosh River catchment to study the butterfly diversity. The aim of the study was to identify species of conservation priority, their seasonality and to know the butterfly diversity potential of the area. Surveys were carried out during five different seasons (winter, spring, pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon lasting 18 days from January 2009 to March 2010. Pollard walk method was used to assess the diversity on four-line transects within 10-12 km radius of the proposed dam site. Two hundred and thirteen species, including 22 papilionids, were thus sampled. Eleven species amongst these are listed in Schedules I and II of the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act, 1972, of which 10 taxa (Pareronia avatar avatar, Nacaduba pactolus continentalis, Porostas aluta coelestis, Elymnias vasudeva vasudeva, Mycalesis mestra retus, Melanitis zitenius zitenius, Charaxes marmax, Athyma ranga ranga, Neptis manasa manasa and Neptis soma soma are of conservation priority as they are ‘rare’ in occurrence across their distribution range in the region. The maximum number of species (128 were recorded during the spring season (March and lowest (66 during July (monsoon. The seasonal pattern of variation in diversity was very typical of the pattern found in other areas of the lower foothills and adjoining plains of the Himalaya. Relative abundances of butterflies during spring varied significantly (p<0.05 as compared to winter, pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. However, species composition changed with every season as Sorensen’s similarity index varied between 0.3076 to 0.5656. All these findings suggest that the lowland forests of Bhutan hold a rich and unique diversity of butterflies during every season of the year thus having

  20. Rotational accelerations stabilize leading edge vortices on revolving fly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentink, David; Dickinson, Michael H

    2009-08-01

    The aerodynamic performance of hovering insects is largely explained by the presence of a stably attached leading edge vortex (LEV) on top of their wings. Although LEVs have been visualized on real, physically modeled, and simulated insects, the physical mechanisms responsible for their stability are poorly understood. To gain fundamental insight into LEV stability on flapping fly wings we expressed the Navier-Stokes equations in a rotating frame of reference attached to the wing's surface. Using these equations we show that LEV dynamics on flapping wings are governed by three terms: angular, centripetal and Coriolis acceleration. Our analysis for hovering conditions shows that angular acceleration is proportional to the inverse of dimensionless stroke amplitude, whereas Coriolis and centripetal acceleration are proportional to the inverse of the Rossby number. Using a dynamically scaled robot model of a flapping fruit fly wing to systematically vary these dimensionless numbers, we determined which of the three accelerations mediate LEV stability. Our force measurements and flow visualizations indicate that the LEV is stabilized by the ;quasi-steady' centripetal and Coriolis accelerations that are present at low Rossby number and result from the propeller-like sweep of the wing. In contrast, the unsteady angular acceleration that results from the back and forth motion of a flapping wing does not appear to play a role in the stable attachment of the LEV. Angular acceleration is, however, critical for LEV integrity as we found it can mediate LEV spiral bursting, a high Reynolds number effect. Our analysis and experiments further suggest that the mechanism responsible for LEV stability is not dependent on Reynolds number, at least over the range most relevant for insect flight (100wind turbines at much higher Reynolds numbers suggest that even large flying animals could potentially exploit LEV-based force augmentation during slow hovering flight, take-offs or landing

  1. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. PMID:22278732

  2. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  3. Aircraft wing structure detail design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Garrett L.; Roberts, Ron; Mallon, Bob; Alameri, Mohamed; Steinbach, Bill

    1993-01-01

    The provisions of this project call for the design of the structure of the wing and carry-through structure for the Viper primary trainer, which is to be certified as a utility category trainer under FAR part 23. The specific items to be designed in this statement of work were Front Spar, Rear Spar, Aileron Structure, Wing Skin, and Fuselage Carry-through Structure. In the design of these parts, provisions for the fuel system, electrical system, and control routing were required. Also, the total weight of the entire wing planform could not exceed 216 lbs. Since this aircraft is to be used as a primary trainer, and the SOW requires a useful life of 107 cycles, it was decided that all of the principle stresses in the structural members would be kept below 10 ksi. The only drawback to this approach is a weight penalty.

  4. Mapping and recombination analysis of two moth colour mutations, Black moth and Wild wing spot, in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K; Katsuma, S; Kuwazaki, S; Jouraku, A; Fujimoto, T; Sahara, K; Yasukochi, Y; Yamamoto, K; Tabunoki, H; Yokoyama, T; Kadono-Okuda, K; Shimada, T

    2016-01-01

    Many lepidopteran insects exhibit body colour variations, where the high phenotypic diversity observed in the wings and bodies of adults provides opportunities for studying adaptive morphological evolution. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, two genes responsible for moth colour mutation, Bm and Ws, have been mapped to 0.0 and 14.7 cM of the B. mori genetic linkage group 17; however, these genes have not been identified at the molecular level. We performed positional cloning of both genes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that underlie the moth wing- and body-colour patterns in B. mori. We successfully narrowed down Bm and Ws to ~2-Mb-long and 100-kb-long regions on the same scaffold Bm_scaf33. Gene prediction analysis of this region identified 77 candidate genes in the Bm region, whereas there were no candidate genes in the Ws region. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation analysis in Bm mutant detected chromosome inversion, which explains why there are no recombination in the corresponding region. The comparative genomic analysis demonstrated that the candidate regions of both genes shared synteny with a region associated with wing- and body-colour variations in other lepidopteran species including Biston betularia and Heliconius butterflies. These results suggest that the genes responsible for wing and body colour in B. mori may be associated with similar genes in other Lepidoptera. PMID:26219230

  5. Aerodynamic control with passively pitching wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wood, Robert

    Flapping wings may pitch passively under aerodynamic and inertial loads. Such passive pitching is observed in flapping wing insect and robot flight. The effect of passive wing pitch on the control dynamics of flapping wing flight are unexplored. Here we demonstrate in simulation and experiment the critical role wing pitching plays in yaw control of a flapping wing robot. We study yaw torque generation by a flapping wing allowed to passively rotate in the pitch axis through a rotational spring. Yaw torque is generated through alternating fast and slow upstroke and and downstroke. Yaw torque sensitively depends on both the rotational spring force law and spring stiffness, and at a critical spring stiffness a bifurcation in the yaw torque control relationship occurs. Simulation and experiment reveal the dynamics of this bifurcation and demonstrate that anomalous yaw torque from passively pitching wings is the result of aerodynamic and inertial coupling between the pitching and stroke-plane dynamics.

  6. Axial flow effects on robustness of vortical structures about actively deflected wings in flapping flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Albert; Kweon, Jihoon; Choi, Haecheon; Eldredge, Jeff D.

    2012-11-01

    Flapping wing flight has garnered much attention in the past decade driven by our desire to understand capabilities observed in nature and to develop agile small-scale aerial vehicles. Nature has demonstrated the breadth of maneuverability achievable by flapping wing flight. However, despite recent advances the role of wing flexibility remains poorly understood. In an effort to develop a deeper understanding of wing deflection effects and to explore novel approaches to increasing leading-edge vortex robustness, this three-dimensional computational study explores the aerodynamics of low aspect ratio plates, in hovering kinematics, with isolated flexion lines undergoing prescribed deflection. Major flexion lines, recognized as the primary avenue for deflection in biological fliers, are isolated here in two distinct configurations, resulting in deflection about the wing root and the wing tip, respectively. Of interest is the interaction between axial flow along the span and the vortical structures about the wing. It is proposed that the modes of deflection explored may provide a means of axial flow control for favorably promoting LEV robustness over a broad range of flapping conditions, and provide insight into the nature of flexibility in flapping wing flight. National Science Foundation, National Research Foundation of Korea.

  7. A comparative study of the hovering efficiency of flapping and revolving wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct numerical simulations are used to explore the hovering performance and efficiency for hawkmoth-inspired flapping and revolving wings at Reynolds (Re) numbers varying from 50 to 4800. This range covers the gamut from small (fruit fly size) to large (hawkmoth size) flying insects and is also relevant to the design of micro- and nano-aerial vehicles. The flapping wing configuration chosen here corresponds to a hovering hawkmoth and the model is derived from high-speed videogrammetry of this insect. The revolving wing configuration also employs the wings of the hawkmoth but these are arranged in a dual-blade configuration typical of helicopters. Flow for both of these configurations is simulated over the range of Reynolds numbers of interest and the aerodynamic performance of the two compared. The comparison of these two seemingly different configurations raises issues regarding the appropriateness of various performance metrics and even characteristic scales; these are also addressed in the current study. Finally, the difference in the performance between the two is correlated with the flow physics of the two configurations. The study indicates that viscous forces dominate the aerodynamic power expenditure of the revolving wing to a degree not observed for the flapping wing. Consequently, the lift-to-power metric of the revolving wing declines rapidly with decreasing Reynolds numbers resulting in a hovering performance that is at least a factor of 2 lower than the flapping wing at Reynolds numbers less than about 100. (paper)

  8. A comparative study of the hovering efficiency of flapping and revolving wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L; Hedrick, T; Mittal, R

    2013-09-01

    Direct numerical simulations are used to explore the hovering performance and efficiency for hawkmoth-inspired flapping and revolving wings at Reynolds (Re) numbers varying from 50 to 4800. This range covers the gamut from small (fruit fly size) to large (hawkmoth size) flying insects and is also relevant to the design of micro- and nano-aerial vehicles. The flapping wing configuration chosen here corresponds to a hovering hawkmoth and the model is derived from high-speed videogrammetry of this insect. The revolving wing configuration also employs the wings of the hawkmoth but these are arranged in a dual-blade configuration typical of helicopters. Flow for both of these configurations is simulated over the range of Reynolds numbers of interest and the aerodynamic performance of the two compared. The comparison of these two seemingly different configurations raises issues regarding the appropriateness of various performance metrics and even characteristic scales; these are also addressed in the current study. Finally, the difference in the performance between the two is correlated with the flow physics of the two configurations. The study indicates that viscous forces dominate the aerodynamic power expenditure of the revolving wing to a degree not observed for the flapping wing. Consequently, the lift-to-power metric of the revolving wing declines rapidly with decreasing Reynolds numbers resulting in a hovering performance that is at least a factor of 2 lower than the flapping wing at Reynolds numbers less than about 100. PMID:23680659

  9. Cicada Wing Surface Topography: An Investigation into the Bactericidal Properties of Nanostructural Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, S M; Habimana, O; Lawler, J; O' Reilly, B; Daniels, S; Casey, E; Cowley, A

    2016-06-22

    Recently, the surface of the wings of the Psaltoda claripennis cicada species has been shown to possess bactericidal properties and it has been suggested that the nanostructure present on the wings was responsible for the bacterial death. We have studied the surface-based nanostructure and bactericidal activity of the wings of three different cicadas (Megapomponia intermedia, Ayuthia spectabile and Cryptotympana aguila) in order to correlate the relationship between the observed surface topographical features and their bactericidal properties. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy performed in this study revealed that the tested wing species contained a highly uniform, nanopillar structure on the surface. The bactericidal properties of the cicada wings were investigated by assessing the viability of autofluorescent Pseudomonas fluorescens cells following static adhesion assays and targeted dead/live fluorescence staining through direct microscopic counting methods. These experiments revealed a 20-25% bacterial surface coverage on all tested wing species; however, significant bactericidal properties were observed in the M. intermedia and C. aguila species as revealed by the high dead:live cell ratio on their surfaces. The combined results suggest a strong correlation between the bactericidal properties of the wings and the scale of the nanotopography present on the different wing surfaces. PMID:26551558

  10. Introduction to the Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robert M.; Woodson, Shawn H.

    2003-01-01

    The Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program has addressed the problem of uncommanded, transonic lateral motions, such as wing drop, with experimental, computational, and simulation tools. Background to the establishment of the AWS program is given as well as program objectives. In order to understand the fundamental flow mechanisms that caused the undesirable motions for a pre-production version of the F/A-18E, steady and unsteady flow field details were gathered from dedicated transonic wind-tunnel testing and computational studies. The AWS program has also adapted a free-to- roll (FTR) wind-tunnel testing technique traditionally used for low-speed studies of lateral dynamic stability to the transonic flow regime. This FTR capability was demonstrated first in a proof-of-concept study and then applied to an assessment of four different aircraft configurations. Figures of merit for static testing and for FTR testing have been evaluated for two configurations that demonstrated wing drop susceptibility during full-scale flight conditions (the pre-production F/A-l8E and the AV-8B at the extremes of its flight envelope) and two configurations that do not exhibit wing drop (the F/A-l8C and the F-l6C). Design insights have been obtained from aerodynamic computational studies of the four aircraft configurations and from computations quantifying the impact of the various geometric wing differences between the F/A-18C and the F/A-l8E wings. Finally, the AWS program provides guidance for assessing, in the simulator, the impact of experimentally determined lateral activity on flight characteristics before going to flight.

  11. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J

    2002-07-23

    A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly approximately southwest, those 6-h time-advanced fly southeast, and 6-h time-delayed butterflies fly in northwesterly directions. Moreover, butterflies flown in the same apparatus under simulated overcast in natural magnetic fields were randomly oriented and did not change direction when magnetic fields were rotated. Therefore, these experiments do not provide any evidence that monarch butterflies use a magnetic compass during migration. PMID:12107283

  12. [Winged scapula in lyme borreliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, V; Königshausen, M; Gessmann, J; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D

    2016-06-01

    Here we present the case of a young patient with one-sided winged scapula and lyme borreliosis. This disease can be very delimitating in daily life. If non-operative treatment fails, dynamic or static stabilization of the scapula can be a therapeutic option. PMID:26849378

  13. The composition of cuticular compounds indicates body parts, sex and age in the model butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StéphanieHeuskin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication in insects’ sexual interactions is well-known to involve olfaction of volatile compounds called sex pheromones. In theory, sexual chemical communication may also involve chemicals with low or no volatility exchanged during precopulatory gustatory contacts. Yet, knowledge on this latter type of chemicals is so far mostly restricted to the Drosophila fly model. Here we provide the most comprehensive characterization to date of the cuticular chemical profile, including both volatile and non-volatile compounds, of a model butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. First, we characterized the body distribution of 103 cuticular lipids, mostly alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes, by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Second, we developed a multivariate statistical approach to cope with such complex chemical profiles and showed that variation in the presence or abundance of a subset of the cuticular lipids indicated body parts, and traits involved in B. anynana mate choice, namely sex and age. Third, we identified the chemical structure of the 20 most indicative compounds, which were on average more abundant (1346.4 ± 1994.6 ng; mean ± SD than other, likely less indicative, compounds (225.9 ± 507.2 ng; mean ± SD. Fourth, we showed that wings and legs displayed most of the chemical information found on the entire body of the butterflies. Fifth, we showed that non-random gustatory contacts occurred between specific male and female body parts during courtship. The body parts mostly touched by the conspecific displayed the largest between-sex differentiation in cuticular composition. Altogether, the large diversity of cuticular lipids in B. anynana, which exceeds the one of Drosophila flies, and its non-random distribution and evaluation across individuals, together suggest that gustatory information is likely exchanged during sexual interactions in Lepidoptera.

  14. A preliminary checklist of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhophalocera) of Mendrelgang, Tsirang District, Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    I.J. Singh; M. Chib

    2014-01-01

    The survey was conducted to prepare a preliminary checklist of butterflies of Mendrelgang, Bhutan. Butterflies were sampled from February 2012 to February 2013 to assess the species richness in a degraded forest patch of a sub-tropical broadleaf forest. This short-term study recorded 125 species of butterflies in 78 genera from five families. Of these, Sordid Emperor Apatura sordida Moore, Black-veined Sergeant Athyma ranga ranga Moore, Sullied Sailor Neptis soma soma Linnaeus, Blue Duke Euth...

  15. Resources Organization and Searching Specification: The “Butterflies of Taiwan” Project

    OpenAIRE

    Szu-Chia Lo; Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1999-01-01

    Butterflies of Taiwan” is a sub-project under Taiwan Digital Museum Project (TDMP), sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan. ”Butterflies of Taiwan”, a cooperative project, was proposed by National Chi-Nan University and National Museum of Natural Science; its metadata was developed by Resources Organization Searching Specification (ROSS, also a sub-project under TDMP) Research Team. In order to design the appropriate elements and create the butterfly metadata, ROSS started to ga...

  16. Virtual migration in tethered flying monarch butterflies reveals their orientation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Mouritsen, Henrik; Frost, Barrie J.

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed flight simulator allows monarch butterflies to fly actively for up to several hours in any horizontal direction while their fall migratory flight direction can be continuously recorded. From these data, long segments of virtual flight paths of tethered, flying, migratory monarch butterflies were reconstructed, and by advancing or retarding the butterflies' circadian clocks, we have shown that they possess a time-compensated sun compass. Control monarchs on local time fly app...

  17. A study on modelling of a butterfly-type control valve by a pneumatic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies on the modelling of a butterfly-type control valve actuating by an on-off pneumatic solenoid valve. The mathematical model is composed of nonlinear differential equations three parts: (i) a solenoid valve, (ii) a pneumatic cylinder, (iii) a rotary-type butterfly valve. The flow characteristics of the butterfly control valve is analysed by a computer simulator, then its simple transfer function is identified from the step responses.

  18. An assessment of riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S. Mark; Andersen, Douglas C.

    1994-01-01

    The butterfly community at a revegetated riparian site on the lower Colorado River near Parker, Arizona, was compared to that found in a reference riparian site. Data indicated that the herbaceous plant community, which was lacking at the revegetated site, was important to several butterfly taxa. An index using butterfly sensitivity to habitat change (species classified into risk groups) and number of taxa was developed to monitor revegetation projects and to determine restoration effectiveness.

  19. CANINE BUTTERFLY GLIOBLASTOMAS: A NEURORADIOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Henry Rossmeisl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a ‘butterfly’ glioma (BG. While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI characteristics of BG in three dogs, and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented with generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3 or symmetrical (1/3, bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes and associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and FLAIR signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3, and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma (GBM including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation, as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  20. Canine Butterfly Glioblastomas: A Neuroradiological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmeisl, John H.; Clapp, Kemba; Pancotto, Theresa E.; Emch, Samantha; Robertson, John L.; Debinski, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    In humans, high-grade gliomas may infiltrate across the corpus callosum resulting in bihemispheric lesions that may have symmetrical, winged-like appearances. This particular tumor manifestation has been coined a “butterfly” glioma (BG). While canine and human gliomas share many neuroradiological and pathological features, the BG morphology has not been previously reported in dogs. Here, we describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of BG in three dogs and review the potential differential diagnoses based on neuroimaging findings. All dogs presented for generalized seizures and interictal neurological deficits referable to multifocal or diffuse forebrain disease. MRI examinations revealed asymmetrical (2/3) or symmetrical (1/3), bihemispheric intra-axial mass lesions that predominantly affected the frontoparietal lobes that were associated with extensive perilesional edema, and involvement of the corpus callosum. The masses displayed heterogeneous T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery signal intensities, variable contrast enhancement (2/3), and mass effect. All tumors demonstrated classical histopathological features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), including glial cell pseudopalisading, serpentine necrosis, microvascular proliferation as well as invasion of the corpus callosum by neoplastic astrocytes. Although rare, GBM should be considered a differential diagnosis in dogs with an MRI evidence of asymmetric or symmetric bilateral, intra-axial cerebral mass lesions with signal characteristics compatible with glioma.

  1. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  2. Aerodynamic forces and flow structures of the leading edge vortex on a flapping wing considering ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Truong, Tien; Byun, Doyoung; Kim, Min Jun; Yoon, Kwang Joon; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an insight into the aerodynamic performance of the beetle during takeoff, which has been estimated in previous investigations. We employed a scaled-up electromechanical model flapping wing to measure the aerodynamic forces and the three-dimensional flow structures on the flapping wing. The ground effect on the unsteady forces and flow structures were also characterized. The dynamically scaled wing model could replicate the general stroke pattern of the beetle's hind wing kinematics during takeoff flight. Two wing kinematic models have been studied to examine the influences of wing kinematics on unsteady aerodynamic forces. In the first model, the angle of attack is asymmetric and varies during the translational motion, which is the flapping motion of the beetle's hind wing. In the second model, the angle of attack is constant during the translational motion. The instantaneous aerodynamic forces were measured for four strokes during the beetle's takeoff by the force sensor attached at the wing base. Flow visualization provided a general picture of the evolution of the three-dimensional leading edge vortex (LEV) on the beetle hind wing model. The LEV is stable during each stroke, and increases radically from the root to the tip, forming a leading-edge spiral vortex. The force measurement results show that the vertical force generated by the hind wing is large enough to lift the beetle. For the beetle hind wing kinematics, the total vertical force production increases 18.4% and 8.6% for the first and second strokes, respectively, due to the ground effect. However, for the model with a constant angle of attack during translation, the vertical force is reduced during the first stroke. During the third and fourth strokes, the ground effect is negligible for both wing kinematic patterns. This finding suggests that the beetle's flapping mechanism induces a ground effect that can efficiently lift its body from the ground during takeoff

  3. A study on the utilization of advanced composites in commercial aircraft wing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to define the technology and data needed to support the introduction of advanced composite materials in the wing structure of future production aircraft. The study accomplished the following: (1) definition of acceptance factors, (2) identification of technology issues, (3) evaluation of six candidate wing structures, (4) evaluation of five program options, (5) definition of a composite wing technology development plan, (6) identification of full-scale tests, (7) estimation of program costs for the total development plan, (8) forecast of future utilization of composites in commercial transport aircraft and (9) identification of critical technologies for timely program planning.

  4. Hofstadter butterflies and magnetically induced band-gap quenching in graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2013-01-01

    We study graphene antidot lattices (GALs) in magnetic fields. Using a tight-binding model and a recursive Green's function technique that we extend to deal with periodic structures, we calculate Hofstadter butterflies of GALs. We compare the results to those obtained in a simpler gapped graphene...... model. A crucial difference emerges in the behavior of the lowest Landau level, which in a gapped graphene model is independent of magnetic field. In stark contrast to this picture, we find that in GALs the band gap can be completely closed by applying a magnetic field. While our numerical simulations...... can only be performed on structures much smaller than can be experimentally realized, we find that the critical magnetic field for which the gap closes can be directly related to the ratio between the cyclotron radius and the neck width of the GAL. In this way, we obtain a simple scaling law for...

  5. Enhanced sensitivity in a butterfly gyroscope with a hexagonal oblique beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Dingbang; Cao, Shijie; Hou, Zhanqiang, E-mail: houzhanqiang@nudt.edu.cn; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xinghua; Wu, Xuezhong [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2015-04-15

    A new approach to improve the performance of a butterfly gyroscope is developed. The methodology provides a simple way to improve the gyroscope’s sensitivity and stability, by reducing the resonant frequency mismatch between the drive and sense modes. This method was verified by simulations and theoretical analysis. The size of the hexagonal section oblique beam is the major factor that influences the resonant frequency mismatch. A prototype, which has the appropriately sized oblique beam, was fabricated using precise, time-controlled multilayer pre-buried masks. The performance of this prototype was compared with a non-tuned gyroscope. The scale factor of the prototype reaches 30.13 mV/ °/s, which is 15 times larger than that obtained from the non-tuned gyroscope. The bias stability of the prototype is 0.8 °/h, which is better than the 5.2 °/h of the non-tuned devices.

  6. Enhanced sensitivity in a butterfly gyroscope with a hexagonal oblique beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to improve the performance of a butterfly gyroscope is developed. The methodology provides a simple way to improve the gyroscope’s sensitivity and stability, by reducing the resonant frequency mismatch between the drive and sense modes. This method was verified by simulations and theoretical analysis. The size of the hexagonal section oblique beam is the major factor that influences the resonant frequency mismatch. A prototype, which has the appropriately sized oblique beam, was fabricated using precise, time-controlled multilayer pre-buried masks. The performance of this prototype was compared with a non-tuned gyroscope. The scale factor of the prototype reaches 30.13 mV/ °/s, which is 15 times larger than that obtained from the non-tuned gyroscope. The bias stability of the prototype is 0.8 °/h, which is better than the 5.2 °/h of the non-tuned devices

  7. Japanese Papilio butterflies puddle using Na+ detected by contact chemosensilla in the proboscis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takashi A.; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Tetsuo; Niihara, Kinuko; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    Many butterflies acquire nutrients from non-nectar sources such as puddles. To better understand how male Papilio butterflies identify suitable sites for puddling, we used behavioral and electrophysiological methods to examine the responses of Japanese Papilio butterflies to Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Based on behavioral analyses, these butterflies preferred a 10-mM Na+ solution to K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ solutions of the same concentration and among a tested range of 1 mM to 1 M NaCl. We also measu...

  8. Using Butterflies to Measure Biodiversity Health in Wazo Hill Restored Quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ngongolo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study butterflies were used in assessing re-vegetation as a way of biodiversity restoration at Wazo hill quarry. The Butterflies were used as indicator species because of their high sensitivity in ecosystems alteration. The study was done in two different areas each 4.8 acre, namely the re-vegetated and un-quarried areas. Butterfly sweep nets and Butterfly traps baited were used for Butterflies capturing. Thirty six (36 species of Butterflies were identified and voucher specimens were preserved in Kingupira Museum. Variation in species diversity was evaluated using diversity indices and tested using special t-test. Variation in Butterfly abundance in two study sites and in different habitats was determined using Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistic and Mann-Whitney U test statistic. The diversity of Butterflies was significant higher in re-vegetated site than in un-quarried site while the abundance difference in the two sites were insignificance The two sites varied in plants species diversity and level of succession, a condition attributed to variation in Butterfly diversity. The re-vegetated sites were recommended for aesthetic, education purposes and further studies on organisms.

  9. [History and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe and related development strategies for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Li-Jun; Xu, Hai-Gen; Guan, Jian-Ling

    2013-09-01

    Butterfly is an important bio-indicator for biodiversity monitoring and ecological environment assessment. In Europe, the species composition, population dynamics, and distribution pattern of butterfly have been monitored for decades, and many long-term monitoring schemes with international effects have been implemented. These schemes are aimed to assess the regional and national variation trends of butterfly species abundance, and to analyze the relationships of this species abundance with habitat, climate change, and other environmental factors, providing basic data for researching, protecting, and utilizing butterfly resources and predicting environmental changes, and playing important roles in the division of butterfly' s threatened level, the formulation of related protection measures, and the protection and management of ecological environment. This paper reviewed the history and present status of butterfly monitoring in Europe, with the focus on the well-known long-term monitoring programs, e. g. , the UK Butterfly Monitoring Scheme and the Germany and European Union Butterfly Monitoring Scheme. Some specific proposals for conducting butterflies monitoring in China were suggested. PMID:24417131

  10. Lantana Camara and Butterfly Abundance in an Urban Landscape: Benefits for Conservation or Species Invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Swarnali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes host a range of diverse plants that, in turn, facilitate maintenance of different species of pollinators, including butterflies. In this context, the importance of Lantana camara, an invasive plant species, was assessed highlighting its role in maintenance of butterfly diversity, using Kolkata, India as a study area. Initial study revealed consistent presence of L. camara in both urban and rural sites with at least 25 different butterfly species association. The proportional relative load and the preferences of butterfly species for the each plant species were inclined towards L. camara. Irrespective of the sites, the diurnal and seasonal variations in the butterfly species abundance varied with the flowering pattern of L. camara. A positive correlation of different butterfly species with the flowering time and number of L. camara was for all the sites. The segregation of the L. camara associated butterfly species was made following discriminant function analysis using the extent of flower density of L. camara as explanatory variable. Despite being an invasive species, it is apparent that L. camara can be a prospective host plant that facilitates sustenance of butterflies in both urban and rural sites. Thus, existence of L. camara in urban gardens and forests may prove beneficial in sustenance of the butterflies.

  11. Prediction of a required dynamic torque for motor-operated butterfly valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the methodology for predicting a required dynamic torque in motor-operated butterfly valves. The results of this methodology have been compared with test data for motor-operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plant. With the close review of test data and torque prediction, it is concluded that the prediction methodology is conservative to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves. In addition, the information of correct differential pressure is vital to predict a required dynamic torque of motor-operated butterfly valves

  12. Periodic and Chaotic Flapping of Insectile Wings

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yangyang

    2015-01-01

    Insects use flight muscles attached at the base of the wings to produce impressive wing flapping frequencies. The maximum power output of these flight muscles is insufficient to maintain such wing oscillations unless there is good elastic storage of energy in the insect flight system. Here, we explore the intrinsic self-oscillatory behavior of an insectile wing model, consisting of two rigid wings connected at their base by an elastic torsional spring. We study the wings behavior as a function of the total energy and spring stiffness. Three types of behavior are identified: end-over-end rotation, chaotic motion, and periodic flapping. Interestingly, the region of periodic flapping decreases as energy increases but is favored as stiffness increases. These findings are consistent with the fact that insect wings and flight muscles are stiff. They further imply that, by adjusting their muscle stiffness to the desired energy level, insects can maintain periodic flapping mechanically for a range of operating condit...

  13. Locomotion by Tandem and Parallel Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanida, Yoshimichi

    A two-dimensional analysis was carried out on the locomotion by tandem and parallel wings in relation to the free flight of dragonflies and beetles, remarking the mutual interference between fore and hind wings. The results obtained are summarized as follows: In the case of tandem wings, (1)High thrust and propulsive efficiency can be achieved when the forewing oscillates with a definite phase lag behind the hindwing, as in the case of real dragonflies, (2)Somewhat smaller amplitude of hindwing leads to optimum condition for work sharing of two wings, (3)The hard forewing does not serve for the thrust and propulsive efficiency, whereas the hard hindwing does for the augmentation of them; In the case of parallel wings, (4)The hard wing placed near the soft wing acts nearly as an infinite plate, as for the ground effect, increasing both thrust and propulsive efficiency.

  14. Optical functionality of natural photonic structures on the transparent insect wings for bio-mimetic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Shamoon, Danish; Singh, Kamal P.

    2014-03-01

    We experimentally and numerically probe the natural quasi-ordered complex structures in the transparent insect wings by a simple, non-invasive, real time optical diffraction technique using monochromatic cw lasers and broadband femtosecond laser pulses. A complex diffraction pattern in transmission unveils the signature of long range spatial correlation in structural arrangement (symmetry) at various length scales on the whole wing surface for a variety of insect wings. A quantitative analysis analysis of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) angular spectrum reveals a direct link between the structural organization and optical transmitted diffraction patterns. Our findings directly demonstrate how the diffraction pattern through the transparent insect wings is spatially and functionally correlated with its structural origination at various length scales. The methodology of the studies developed in this paper is applicable to a wide class of disordered photonic structures.

  15. Scaling of avian primary feather length

    OpenAIRE

    Nudds, Robert L.; Kaiser, Gary V.; Dyke, Gareth J.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of the avian wing has long fascinated biologists, yet almost no work includes the length of primary feathers in consideration of overall wing length variation. Here we show that the length of the longest primary feather ( ) contributing to overall wing length scales with negative allometry against total arm (ta = humerus+ulna+manus). The scaling exponent varied slightly, although not significantly so, depending on whether a species level analysis was used or phylogeny was contro...

  16. Local elasticity and adhesion of nanostructures on Drosophila melanogaster wing membrane studied using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Ryan, E-mail: rbwagner@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Pittendrigh, Barry R. [Department of Entomology, University of Illinois, Champaign (United States); Raman, Arvind, E-mail: raman@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States); Brick Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied the wing membrane of Drosophila melanogaster with atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the structure, elasticity, and adhesion on the wing membrane in air and nitrogen environments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results provide insight into the nature of the wing membrane enabling the development of biomimetic surface and micro air vehicles. - Abstract: Insect wings have a naturally occurring, complex, functional, hierarchical microstructure and nanostructure, which enable a remarkably water-resistant and self-cleaning surface. Insect wings are used as a basis for engineering biomimetic materials; however, the material properties of these nanostructures such as local elastic modulus and adhesion are poorly understood. We studied the wings of the Canton-S strain of Drosophila melanogaster (hereafter referred to as Drosophila) with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to quantify the local material properties of Drosophila wing surface nanostructures. The wings are found to have a hierarchical structure of 10-20 {mu}m long, 0.5-1 {mu}m diameter hair, and at a much smaller scale, 100 nm diameter and 30-60 nm high bumps. The local properties of these nanoscale bumps were studied under ambient and dry conditions with force-volume AFM. The wing membrane was found to have a elastic modulus on the order of 1000 MPa and the work of adhesion between the probe and wing membrane surface was found to be on the order of 100 mJ/m{sup 2}, these properties are the same order of magnitude as common thermoplastic polymers such as polyethylene. The difference in work of adhesion between the nanoscale bump and membrane does not change significantly between ambient (relative humidity of 30%) or dry conditions. This suggests that the nanoscale bumps and the surrounding membrane are chemically similar and only work to increase hydrophobicity though surface roughening or the geometric lotus effect.

  17. Sun compass integration of skylight cues in migratory monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Stanley; Reppert, Steven M

    2011-01-27

    Migrating monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to navigate from eastern North America to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. Here we describe the neuronal layout of those aspects of the butterfly's central complex likely to establish part of the internal sun compass and find them highly homologous to those of the desert locust. Intracellular recordings from neurons in the monarch sun compass network reveal responses tuned to specific E-vector angles of polarized light, as well as azimuth-dependent responses to unpolarized light, independent of spectral composition. The neural responses to these two stimuli in individual neurons are mediated through different regions of the compound eye. Moreover, these dual responses are integrated to create a consistent representation of skylight cues in the sun compass throughout the day. The results advance our understanding of how ambiguous sensory signals are processed by the brain to elicit a robust behavioral response. PMID:21262471

  18. A fast butterfly algorithm for generalized Radon transforms

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Jingwei

    2013-06-21

    Generalized Radon transforms, such as the hyperbolic Radon transform, cannot be implemented as efficiently in the frequency domain as convolutions, thus limiting their use in seismic data processing. We have devised a fast butterfly algorithm for the hyperbolic Radon transform. The basic idea is to reformulate the transform as an oscillatory integral operator and to construct a blockwise lowrank approximation of the kernel function. The overall structure follows the Fourier integral operator butterfly algorithm. For 2D data, the algorithm runs in complexity O(N2 log N), where N depends on the maximum frequency and offset in the data set and the range of parameters (intercept time and slowness) in the model space. From a series of studies, we found that this algorithm can be significantly more efficient than the conventional time-domain integration. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  19. Annotated checklist of Albanian butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Verovnik

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Albania has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. However, due to its political isolation, it has never been studied in great depth, and consequently, the existing list of butterfly species is outdated and in need of radical amendment. In addition to our personal data, we have studied the available literature, and can report a total of 196 butterfly species recorded from the country. For some of the species in the list we have given explanations for their inclusion and made other annotations. Doubtful records have been removed from the list, and changes in taxonomy have been updated and discussed separately. The purpose of our paper is to remove confusion and conflict regarding published records. However, the revised checklist should not be considered complete: it represents a starting point for further research.

  20. Coloration using higher order optical interference in the wing pattern of the Madagascan sunset moth

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, S; Nakano, T; Nozue, Y.; Kinoshita, S.

    2007-01-01

    Colour patterns of animals' bodies are usually produced by the spatial distribution of pigments with different colours. However, some animals use the spatial variation of colour-producing microstructures. We have studied one distinctive example of such structurally produced colour patterns, the wing of the Madagascan sunset moth, to clarify the physical rules that underlie the colour variation. It is known that the iridescent wing scale of the sunset moth has the alternate air–cuticle multila...