WorldWideScience

Sample records for buttercups

  1. Buttercup squash provides a marketable alternative to blue hubbard as a trap crop for control of striped cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Andrew F; Adler, Lynn S; Hazzard, Ruth V

    2010-12-01

    Winter squash is a vital agricultural commodity worldwide. In the Northeastern United States, the primary insect pest is the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F. Using a Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) perimeter trap crop system can reduce insecticide use by >90% in butternut squash (C. moschata Poir), the primary winter squash grown in this region. Despite the savings in insecticide costs, growers may be reluctant to give up field space for a perimeter crop of Blue Hubbard squash, which comprises only 5% of the winter squash market in New England as compared with 19% for buttercup squash. Finding a more marketable trap crop would lower the barrier for adoption of this system. We tested eight varieties of three species of cucurbits for attractiveness to beetles relative to Blue Hubbard and butternut squash, and chose buttercup squash as the most promising replacement. We compared the effect of a buttercup border, Blue Hubbard border, or control (no border) on beetle numbers, herbivory, insecticide use, pollination, and pollen limitation in the main crop. We found that buttercup squash performed equally well as Blue Hubbard as a trap crop, with 97% reduction in total insecticide use compared with control fields. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa Say) were the predominant pollinators, and border treatments did not affect visitation. Hand pollination did not increase reproduction or yield, indicating that natural pollination was sufficient for full yield. This study confirms the effectiveness of perimeter trap crop systems and offers growers a more marketable trap crop for managing cucumber beetle damage.

  2. "Taibai seven medicine" is the buttercup family plant resources research%"太白七药"属毛茛科植物资源调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白吉庆; 王小平; 王西芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To pass to "taibai seven medicine" is the buttercup family plant resources survey for reasonable development and application of the resources, provides the basis. Methods: using GPS satellite tracking elevation position determination field investigation and finishing material. Results: the buttercup family medicinal plants is "too white seven medicine" in one of the largest number of families, about 12. Conclusion: in "taibai seven medicine" resource should pay full attention to the buttercup family medical plant resource protection, and properly conducted wild resources in parenting or artificial cultivation, so as to realize the sustainable utilization of resources.%目的:通过对"太白七药"属毛茛科植物资源调查,为合理开发和应用该科资源提供依据.方法:应用GPS全球卫星定位仪测定海拔方位进行实地调查并整理资料.结果:毛茛科药用植物是"太白七药"中数量最多的科之一,约有12种.结论:在"太白七药"资源中应充分重视毛茛科药用植物资源的保护,并适当开展野生资源抚育或开展人工栽培,以实现资源可持续利用.

  3. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Prairie Potholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Populus deltoides Cottonwood 0 Populus tremuloides Quaking Aspen 0 Potamogeton foliosus Leafy Pondweed 2 Potamogeton gramineus Variable...Alkaligrass 4 Ranunculus cymbalaria Shore Buttercup 3 Ranunculus flabellaris Threadleaf Buttercup 7 Ranunculus gmelinii Small Yellow Buttercup 8... Ranunculus longirostris Ranunculus trichophyllus White Water Crowfoot 7 Ranunculus macounii Macoun’s Buttercup 4 Ranunculus pensylvanicus

  4. Environ: E00576 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00576 Aconitum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum [TAX:49188]... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum kusnesoffii, Aconitum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dico...t plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00576 Aconitum tuberous root ...

  5. Environ: E00577 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00577 Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum triphyllum, Aconitum [...TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot... plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00577 Aconitum triphyllum tuberous root ...

  6. Environ: E00359 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00359 Aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Mesaconi...amine [CPD:C06346], Coryneine chloride Aconitum japonicum, Aconitum [TAX:49188] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum... japonicum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00359 Aconitum tuberous root ...

  7. Environ: E00411 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00411 Semiaquilegia adoxoides root Semiaquilegiae radix Crude drug Semiaquilegia a...doxoides [TAX:349366] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Semiaquilegia adoxoides root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:...br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00411 Semiaquilegia adoxoides root ...

  8. Environ: E00580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum coreanum [TAX:662772] Ra...nunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root ...

  9. Environ: E00407 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00407 Anemone altaica rhizome Rhizoma anemone Crude drug Anemone altaica, Anemone ...[TAX:22868] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Anemone altaica rhizome (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot ...plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00407 Anemone altaica rhizome ...

  10. Environ: E00256 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconi...onitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363] Same as: D07152 Ranunculaceae (bu...ttercup family) Aconitum carmichael mother root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot pl...ants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root ...

  11. Environ: E00575 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363...] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot ...plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root ...

  12. A Summary of Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring at Selected Locations in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System. 1993 Annual Status Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus L. Potamogetonaceae Variableleaf pondweed Potamogeton gramineus L. 8 Table 2. Continued. Family Common nameab Scientific...name’ Ranunculaceae Longbeak buttercup Ranunculus longirostris Godron. Ranunculaceae White water-crowfoot Ranunculus trichophyllus Chauix

  13. Environ: E00579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum japonicum, Ac...t with caustic lime (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root ...

  14. Environ: E00574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00574 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  15. Central Radar System, Over-the-Horizon Backscatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-09

    Toxicodendron radicans FAC+ Pond buttercup Ranunculus subrigidus OBL Pond pine Pinus serotina * Pondweeds Potamogeton spp. OBL Prairie cordgrass...Willows Salix spp. OBL - FACU Wooly sedge Carex lanuginosa OBL Yellow water buttercup Ranunculus flabellaris OBL (1) OBL - Obligate Wetland Plants - occur...Chipping sparrow Spizella passerina E E NS X Clay-colored sparrow Spizella pallida C X S N Vesper sparrow Pooecetes gramineus WCEG W4 E NS S Lark sparrow

  16. Terrestrial Biological Inventory Degognia and Fountain Bluff Levee and Drainage District and Grand Tower Drainage and Levee District, Jackson County, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    orchids. Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 288 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1972. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Bromus to... Paspalum . Southern Illinois Univ. Press, Carbondale, Illinois. 332 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1973. The illustrated flora of Illinois: Grasses : Panicum to...75%. Manna grass (Glyceria striata) and yellow buttercup (Ranunculus septentrionalis) are most frequent, with a frequency of 67%. Next frequent, at 50

  17. Rend Lake, Illinois (Operation and Maintenance).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-01

    Buttercup Ranunculus septentrional is Sweet Clover, White Melil1o tu s alb a Sweet Clover, Yellow Melilotus officinalis Teasel, Wild Di psacus sylvestris Tick...Sparrow Ammodramus savannarum Henslow’s Sparrow Ammodramus henslowii*Vesper Sparrow Pooecetes gramineus *Lark Sparrow Chondestes crammacus **Bachman’s

  18. State of Washington, Aquatic Plant Management Program: Design Memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Ilymvhaea odorata Buttercup Ranunculus sep. L. Wate-cres flripp nasturtiu-auaticum (L.) Schinz & Theli Fringecup Te lima ,&andiflorum (Pursh.) Dougl...Polygonun ariphi.bium Potainogeton berchtoldii Potamogeton grami neus Potamogeton illinoensis Potamogeton natans Potainogeton pecti natus Ranunculus aquatilis...sandwichensis Vesper sparrow Povecetes gramineus Lark sparrow Chondestes grammacus Dark-eyed junco Junco hyemalis White-crowned sparrow Zonotrichia

  19. Environ: E00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...rn or brine (semi-dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root ...

  20. Environ: E00573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...ked in bittern, semi-dried and sulfurized (x-section) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root ...

  1. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07152 Crude, Drug Processed aconite root Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconitine [CPD...Same as: E00256 Therapeutic category: 5100 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Processed... drugs and Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D07152 Processed aconite root PubChem: 51091491 ...

  2. Environ: E00572 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...ked in bittern (x-section, semi-dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root ...

  3. Environ: E00420 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00420 Anemone raddeana root Anemones raddeanae rhizoma Crude drug Anemone raddeana... [TAX:387928] Urticaceae (nettle family) Anemone raddeana root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00420 Anemone raddeana root ...

  4. Environ: E00001 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00001 Coptis rhizome (JP16) Crude drug Berberine [CPD:C00757], Palmatine [CPD:C053... deltoidea [TAX:261449], Coptis teeta [TAX:261448] Same as: D00092 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Coptis rhizome Major component: Berberine [CPD:C00757] ...

  5. Environmental Assessment Addressing the Privatization of Military Family Housing at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    grasses and invasive species (e.g., annual kochia [Kochia scoparia], Russian thistle [Salsola kali], bur buttercup [Ranunculus testiculatus], tumble ...for a full size washer and dryer (electric and natural gas connections) Interior (conditioned) floor space and connections for a full-size freezer

  6. Environmental Assessment: Employment of the 2.75-Inch Rocket at Saylor Creek Air Force Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    78 Dishwasher 75 Vacuum Cleaner 70 Hair Dryer 70 Intrusive; interferes with telephone conversation Normal Conversation 50-65 Quiet Office 50...Ranunculus glaberrimus X Yes Hornseed buttercup Ranunculus testiculatus X Yes Russian thistle Salsola kali X Yes Tumble mustard Sisymbrium

  7. Proposed 9th Infantry Division Force Conversion; Maneuver Damage, Erosion and Natural Resources Assessment Fort Lewis, Washington. Volume 1: Main Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    Sialia mexicana forests and open areas Oregon vesper sparrow, Under consideration Grasslands Pooecetes gramineus for State listing affinis Pacific...bance that increases edge. The nest box program on Fort Lewis is also beneficial. 161. Oregon vesper sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus affinis). This bird...Stinging nettle, creeping buttercup ( Ranunculus reens), and orchard grass are also present. This association is common on river terraces where the

  8. Environmental Assessment for Phase 8 of Military Family Housing, Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    vegetated with exotic and invasive species such as Russian thistle (Salsola kali), annual kochia (Kochia scoparia), and bur buttercup ( Ranunculus ...sage (Amphispiza belli), and Vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus ). Waterfowl have only been documented using the storage lagoons, which are not...Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus ) 3 Emberizidae G5 S4 Protected White-crowned Sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys ) 26 Emberizidae G5 S5 Protected

  9. Drug: D06784 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06784 Crude, Drug Processed aconite root (JP16); Powdered processed aconite root (JP16); Processed...nd Chinese medicine formulations 51 Crude drugs 510 Crude drugs 5100 Crude drugs D06784 Processed aconite ro...hinese medicine formulations D06784 Processed aconite root (JP16); Powdered processed aconite root (JP16) Tr...cessed aconite root; Processed aconite root (fibrous roo... Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) D06784 Processed aconite root PubChem: 47208435 ...

  10. Comparison of perimeter trap crop varieties: effects on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V

    2009-02-01

    Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators.

  11. TripNet: A Method for Constructing Phylogenetic Networks from Triplets

    CERN Document Server

    Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Poormohammadi, Hadi; Azadi, Azin

    2011-01-01

    We present TripNet, a method for constructing phylogenetic networks from triplets. We will present the motivations behind our approach and its theoretical and empirical justification. To demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of TripNet, we performed two simulations and also applied the method to five published data sets: Kreitman's data, a set of triplets from real yeast data obtained from the Fungal Biodiversity Center in Utrecht, a collection of 110 highly recombinant Salmonella multi-locus sequence typing sequences, and nrDNA ITS and cpDNA JSA sequence data of New Zealand alpine buttercups of Ranunculus sect. Pseudadonis. Finally, we compare our results with those already obtained by other authors using alternative methods. TripNet, data sets, and supplementary files are freely available for download at (www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/softwares/tripnet).

  12. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  13. Detection and molecular cloning of CYP74Q1 gene: identification of Ranunculus acris leaf divinyl ether synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorina, Svetlana S; Toporkova, Yana Y; Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Chechetkin, Ivan R; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Gogolev, Yuri V; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2014-09-01

    Enzymes of the CYP74 family, including the divinyl ether synthase (DES), play important roles in plant cell signalling and defence. The potent DES activities have been detected before in the leaves of the meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.) and few other Ranunculaceae species. The nature of these DESs and their genes remained unrevealed. The PCR with degenerate primers enabled to detect the transcript of unknown P450 gene assigned as CYP74Q1. Besides, two more CYP74Q1 isoforms with minimal sequence variations have been found. The full length recombinant CYP74Q1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The preferred substrates of this enzyme are the 13-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids, which are converted to the divinyl ether oxylipins (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z,3'Z)-hexadienyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, and (ω5Z)-etheroleic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z)-hexenyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, respectively, as revealed by the data of mass spectrometry, NMR and UV spectroscopy. Thus, CYP74Q1 protein was identified as the R. acris DES (RaDES), a novel DES type and the opening member of new CYP74Q subfamily.

  14. Functional characteristics, nutritional value and industrial applications of Madhuca longifolia seeds: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Mohdaly, Adel Abdelrazek Abdelazim; Assiri, Adel M A; Tadros, Monier; Niemeyer, Bernd

    2016-05-01

    New sustainable edible oil sources are desired to achieve supply chain flexibility and cost saving opportunities. Non-traditional fruit seeds are being considered because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may augment the supply of nutritional and functional products. Madhuca longifolia Syn. M. indica (Sapotaceae) is an important economic tree growing throughout the subtropical region of the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Information concerning the exact composition of mahua butter (known also as mowrah butter) from fruit-seeds of buttercup or Madhuca tree is scare. Few studies investigated mahua butter for its composition, nutritional value, biological activities and antioxidative properties. In consideration of potential utilization, detailed knowledge on the chemical composition, nutritional value and industrial applications of mahua butter is of major importance. The diversity of applications to which mahua butter can be put gives this substance great industrial importance. This review summarizes recent knowledge on bioactive compounds, functional properties as well as food and non-food industrial applications of mahua butter. Graphical abstractᅟ.

  15. Major Transcriptome Reprogramming Underlies Floral Mimicry Induced by the Rust Fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Riston H.; Saunders, Diane G. O.; Leonelli, Lauriebeth; MacLean, Dan; Hogenhout, Saskia A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2013-01-01

    Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers) in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments) and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds) were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production) were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry. PMID:24069397

  16. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini: the first ground beetle from Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan C. Ashworth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct A. balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with A. balli included Nothofagus (southern beech, Ranunculus (buttercup, moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that A. balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including A. balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. A. balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For A. balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma and southern South America (31 Ma.

  17. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M Cano

    Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  18. Edaphic and Phytochemical Factors as predictors of Equine Grass Sickness Cases in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Edwards

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Equine dysautonomia or equine grass sickness (EGS, as it is more commonly known, is a usually fatal disease of equids of uncertain aetiology, although associated with grazing, that affects the autonomic and enteric nervous system. Lowered gastro-intestinal motility, leading to paralysis of the gut, is one of the main symptoms of EGS. Previous studies have implicated anaerobic bacteria, notably Clostridium botulinum, but what triggers the severe bacterial infestations remains enigmatic. We hypothesized that a detailed comparison of soil mineral and botanical composition of EGS and control sites would yield new insights into the causation of the disease. Results: Between March 2007 and September 2008, soil, plant, and water samples from a total of 23 EGS sites and 11 control sites were studied. Metal and non-metal element levels of the soil and herbage samples were assessed. Significantly, EGS sites had higher levels of soil nitrogen, and significantly higher levels of iron, lead, arsenic and chromium in the herbage. Toxic Ranunculus spp. (buttercups were found in abundance at every EGS site, making ingestion plausible. Conversely, neurotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were not found in any of the water samples analysed. Conclusions: The significantly higher levels of iron and heavy metals found in herbage growing in EGS sites, in addition to toxic Ranunculus species, suggest that previously unknown triggers are involved in a multi-factorial EGS aetiology. Our results also show that cyanobacteria on the other hand, are unlikely to be a factor in EGS. Consequently, the concomitant presence of two (or more factors could be the trigger for an outbreak of EGS and the combination of both seems to be a key predictor.

  19. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  20. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.

  1. Miocene Antarctic Terrestrial Realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an