van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G
Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and
Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi
Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.
Lynn, D E; Waldren, S
The turlough form of Ranunculus repens is subjected to several months' complete inundation with hard groundwater. Experimental flooding to the level of the soil surface had no effect on turlough or ruderal populations relative to drained controls. Experimental submergence resulted in direct tissue death of the ruderal population but did not affect the turlough population relative to drained controls. There was no detectable difference in the proportion of aerenchyma in drained, flooded and submerged roots of plants from either population. The proportion of aerenchyma increased with root age in the ruderal population. Up to twice the proportion of aerenchyma occurred in the lower third of the root in the turlough population relative to the middle and upper thirds. Submergence in artificially hardened tap water increased the amount of tissue death in the ruderal population, whereas it appeared to enhance the growth of plants from the turlough population relative to that of plants submerged in tap water. Only the ruderal population demonstrated a depth accommodation response in submerged conditions. Root concentrations of ethanol-soluble carbohydrates were up to three times higher in a field- collected turlough population during winter and autumn months than those in a ruderal population. Low levels of ethanol-insoluble carbohydrates were present in the turlough population but were absent from the ruderal population. Starch concentrations fluctuated greatly in the turlough population and were generally higher than those in the ruderal population. These results, together with those from previous investigations, suggest that the turlough population survives prolonged submergence by maintaining low levels of submerged photosynthesis, which may circulate oxygen within the plant tissues, and by utilizing storage carbohydrates for maintenance respiration. Copyright 2003 Annals of Botany Company
In Islamic tradition, the talismanic inscription "Yâ Kebîkeç- O Kabikaj" was believed to protect manuscripts against insects. Also in medicinal manuscripts there are several passages referring to Kabikaj used as a drug. In this study, the use of Kabikaj in medicinal manuscripts is investigated. As a result, Kabikaj is stated to be a species of Ranunculaceae family: Ranunculus asiaticus L.
(teen 'n 8%-insluitingspell) as gedeeltelike vervanger vir volvetsojabone, te evalueer. Die ... lupins, digestibility, N retention, growth, alkaloids, pigs. Introduction. Lupin-seed has been used extensively in pig diets ... meal, but at higher levels both growth rate and feed conversion efficiency were significantly depressed. Feed.
Full Text Available E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug ... Aconitum japonicum, ...Aconitum [TAX:49188] ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum japonicum tuberous root soaked in brine and coat with caustic lime (dried) ...
Roč. 49, č. 6 (2017), s. 20-21 ISSN 0139-7761 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) StrategieAV21/9 Program:StrategieAV Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Buttercup * cultivation * water plants Subject RIV: GC - Agronomy OBOR OECD: Agronomy, plant breeding and plant protection
Monitoring Program, arranged alphabetically by common name within family . Family Common name"b Scientific name’ Ceratophyllaceae Coon’s tail, coontail...pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus L. Potamogetonaceae Variableleaf pondweed Potamogeton gramineus L. 8 Table 2. Continued. Family Common nameab Scientific...name’ Ranunculaceae Longbeak buttercup Ranunculus longirostris Godron. Ranunculaceae White water-crowfoot Ranunculus trichophyllus Chauix
Mary L. Predny; Patricia De Angelis; James L. Chamberlain
Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa, Syn.: Cimicifuga racemosa), a member of the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), is an erect perennial found in rich cove forests of Eastern North America from Georgia to Ontario. Native Americans used black cohosh for a variety of ailments including rheumatism, malaria, sore throats, and complications...
Malík, J.; Tauchen, J.; Landa, Přemysl; Kutil, Zsófia; Maršík, Petr; Kloucek, P.; Havlík, J.; Kokoška, L.
Roč. 109, MAR (2017), s. 128-137 ISSN 0254-6299 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-07193S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Buttercup family * Cyclooxygenase, fatty acids * Lipoxygenase, medicinal plants * Plant extracts Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016
Schnittman, J. D.; Craxton, R. S.
Tetrahedral hohlraums have been proposed as a means for achieving the highly uniform implosions needed for ignition with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) [J. D. Schnittman and R. S. Craxton, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3786 (1996)]. Recent experiments on the OMEGA laser system have achieved good drive uniformity consistent with theoretical predictions [J. M. Wallace et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3807 (1999)]. To better understand these experiments and future investigations of high-convergence ICF implosions, the three-dimensional (3-D) view-factor code BUTTERCUP has been expanded to model the time-dependent radiation transport in the hohlraum and the hydrodynamic implosion of the capsule. Additionally, a 3-D postprocessor has been written to simulate x-ray images of the imploded core. Despite BUTTERCUP's relative simplicity, its predictions for radiation drive temperatures, fusion yields, and core deformation show close agreement with experiment. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Adler, L S; Hazzard, R V
Perimeter trap cropping (PTC) is a method of integrated pest management (IPM) in which the main crop is surrounded with a perimeter trap crop that is more attractive to pests. Blue Hubbard (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) is a highly effective trap crop for butternut squash (C. moschata Duch. ex Poir) attacked by striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum Fabricius), but its limited marketability may reduce adoption of PTC by growers. Research comparing border crop varieties is necessary to provide options for growers. Furthermore, pollinators are critical for cucurbit yield, and the effect of PTC on pollination to main crops is unknown. We examined the effect of five border treatments on herbivory, pollination, and yield in butternut squash and manipulated herbivory and pollination to compare their importance for main crop yield. Blue Hubbard, buttercup squash (C. maxima Duch.), and zucchini (C. pepo L.) were equally attractive to cucumber beetles. Border treatments did not affect butternut leaf damage, but butternut flowers had the fewest beetles when surrounded by Blue Hubbard or buttercup squash. Yield was highest in the Blue Hubbard and buttercup treatments, but this effect was not statistically significant. Native bees accounted for 87% of pollinator visits, and pollination did not limit yield. There was no evidence that border crops competed with the main crop for pollinators. Our results suggest that both buttercup squash and zucchini may be viable alternatives to Blue Hubbard as borders for the main crop of butternut squash. Thus, growers may have multiple border options that reduce pesticide use, effectively manage pests, and do not disturb mutualist interactions with pollinators.
Morse, Douglass H
Earlier experiences may play an important role in the choice of hunting sites, but their effects on the foraging repertoire of most animals remain poorly understood. I tested the role of previous flower choices (hunting sites) by penultimate-instar female crab spiders Misumena vatia in making subsequent patch-choice decisions. M. vatia is a sit-and-wait predator, and the two flower species used, ox-eye daisy Chrysanthemum leucanthemum and common buttercup Ranunculus acris, are important hunting sites. Spiders with different immediate experience showed similar short-term (<1 day) giving-up times on the two flower species, independent of their previous substrate. However, four-fifths of the individuals that remained a day or longer tended to leave buttercups sooner than daisies, especially if they had previously occupied daisies. Thus they may directly assess the quality of a potential hunting site, perhaps in response to prey abundance, but previous experience may play a minor role as well. Of spiders that made several consecutive choices of hunting sites, those on daisies often confined these runs to daisies (one of two years); those on buttercups did not exhibit comparable fidelity. Spiders molting into the adult stage almost always subsequently chose the same flower species (either daisy or buttercup) as the one on which they molted. Thus, juvenile experiences may influence adults, the critical stage when virtually all of the spiders' reproductive resources are gathered, even if this resulted from imprinting on their molt sites rather than carrying information over the molt.
compete in the local labor market . Installations may not use the high cost range to compensate for inadequate funding with appropriated funds. Higher...for quarters or living quarters allowance (BAQ/LQA) soldiers or civilians would receive if they lived off post or fair market value for on–post quarters...Kernels), Arrowhead, Avocado (leaves), Azaleas, Betel Nut Palm, Bittersweet, Bleeding Heart, Buckeye, Buttercups, Caladium, Calla Lily, Castor Bean, Cat
Nymphaeceae (water lily family ) Nuphar v~ratum spatterdock tymphaea odorata white water lily F-22 Table 1. (continued) Ranunculaceae (buttercup family ...Organisms were then identified down to family or sub- family , enumerated, and stored in 40% isopropyl alcohol for later use in estimating biomass, after...33. This latter difference is essentially accounted for by several taxa of Insecta (particularly several families of Coleoptera) that occurred in only
on the floor of Feature 49. RANUNCULACEAE (Buttercup Family ) Clematis L. (virgin’s bower) , A small section of clematis stem was found in occupation...assemblage, 4,951 fragments (approximately 2%) were identified to at least the family level. Eighty-eight percent of the Identified elements represented...93 elements, 45-OK-2A -- 28 elements. Snake vertebrae were Identified to family on the basis of size. There are _1 at least four species of snakes
Wei Wang; Li Lin; Xiao-Guo Xiang; Rosa del C. Ortiz; Yang Liu; Kun-Li Xiang; Sheng-Xiang Yu; Yao-Wu Xing; Zhi-Duan Chen
The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We...
E. Herbicides, insecticides , and fertilizers used for agricultural purposes may have detrimental effects on wildlife and plants in the District and...Species in Four Bottomland Forest Sample Plots Percent Cover Species 1 2 3 4 Clearweed ə 10 ə ɝ Wood nettle -- 20 35 25 Buttercup -- ə 15 ɝ...Family) Red Mulberry Morus rubra Urticaceae ( Nettle Family) W’od nettle Laportea canadensis Clearweed Pilea pumila Polygonaceae (Buckwheat family) Dock
Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska
UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).
Full Text Available Introduction: Ranunculus ficariais L. (Fig buttercup or Lesser Celandine is an herbaceous perennial belongs to Ranunculaceae (buttercup family that behaves as a ground cover. It is a spring ephemeral that grows from a cluster of tuberous roots in late winter or early spring. It has glossy, dark green (sometimes slightly mottled, fleshy leaves on long petioles, and cordate to oblong-cordate in shape. The margins can be entire or wavy (1, 28. Flowers 15-60 mm in diameter, solitary at the end of each stem branch. Flowers have 3 sepals (rarely more, 3 petals, bright, pale to golden yellow, very rarely orange, shining on inside, receptacle concave, with short, pale simple glandular hairs. Achenes either abortive or maturing in a globular cluster, when mature 2•5-5•0 x 1•7-3•5 mm, more or less globular or obovoid, usually with few to numerous very short simple glandular hairs. This invasive weed spreads primarily by vegetative means through abundant tubers and bulblets, each of which can grow into a new plant once separated from the parent plant. The prolific tubers may be unearthed and scattered by the digging activities of some animals, including well-meaning human weed pullers, and spread to new sites during flood events (28. This weed has two subspecies, R. ficaria Subsp. ficaria and R. ficaria Subsp. bulbilifer that the second is probably the only subspecies of mountainous regions in many areas. It is an abundant weed of lawns and gardens, where it spreads rapidly and is very difficult to eradicate. According to our observations probably R. ficaria spread by tubers from mountains to fields that near to mountains in Lorestan province of Iran. The Aim of this study was assessment of this weed to improve its management practices in the wheat fields. Materials and Methods: In order to study the some aspects of biology and morphology of tubers root and seeds of R. ficaria , two experiments were conducted at Laboratory of Gorgan University in
Adler, S A; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Thuen, E
-EDTA, and the indigestible neutral detergent fiber fraction as indigestible markers. The composition of FA was analyzed in feed, omasal digesta, and milk. Compared with ORG-LG, ORG-SG had a higher herbage proportion of red clover (0.36 vs. 0.01) and lower proportions of timothy (0.42 vs. 0.18), smooth meadowgrass (Poa...... pratensis L.), meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.), dandelion (Taraxacum spp.), and creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens L.). The silages were well preserved. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber was higher and the concentration of Kjeldahl-N was lower...... with the grass-based silages, ORG-SG and ORG-LG resulted in higher omasal flows of C18:1 trans FA and higher milk fat proportions of C18:1 trans FA and C18:2 cis-9,trans-11. Apparent recovery of C18:3n-3 in milk was higher for ORG-SG (61 g/kg) than for ORG-LG (33 g/kg), CON-PR (34 g/kg), and CON-TI (38 g...
Khan, Farhat Ali; Zahoor, Muhammad; Khan, Ezzat
Ranunculus muricatus is commonly known as spiny fruit buttercup and is used in the treatment of intermittent fevers, gout and asthma. Qualitative analysis of phytochemicals of Ranunculus muricatus indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. Saponins were present in high amount as compared with other chemicals. Inorganic and heavy metals constituents were determined. Heavy metals estimation in the sample showed that iron was present in high amount followed by zinc even then the concentration of these metals is below acceptable limit. The physical parameters, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were determined. Acetone extract fraction showed optimal antioxidant activity as compared to ethanol and chloroform fractions of the candidate plant. The antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the crude extract and extract fractions were determined by well agar diffusion method. Highest zone of inhibitions were observed for crude extract followed by acetone extract fraction against Micrococcus luteus. Antifungal activities were high for crude extracts against Candida Albican. Findings of this study show that Ranunculus muricatus has a good medicinal impact.
Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa Del C; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan
The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108-90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction.
Hao, Da-Cheng; He, Chun-Nian; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Pei-Gen
The buttercup family, Ranunculaceae, comprising more than 2,200 species in at least 62 genera, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine since the beginning of human civilization. Various medicinal phytometabolites have been found in Ranunculaceae plants, many of which, such as alkaloids, terpenoids, saponins, and polysaccharides, have shown anti-cancer activities in vitro and in vivo. Most concerns have been raised for two epiphany molecules, the monoterpene thymoquinone and the isoquinoline alkaloid berberine. At least 17 genera have been enriched with anti-cancer phytometabolites. Some Ranunculaceae phytometabolites induce the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells or enhance immune activities, while others inhibit the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, or reverse the multi-drug resistance of cancer cells thereby regulating all known hallmarks of cancer. These phytometabolites could exert their anti-cancer activities via multiple signaling pathways. In addition, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion/toxicity properties and structure/activity relationships of some phytometabolites have been revealed assisting in the early drug discovery and development pipelines. However, a comprehensive review of the molecular mechanisms and functions of Ranunculaceae anti-cancer phytometabolites is lacking. Here, we summarize the recent progress of the anti-cancer chemo- and pharmacological diversity of Ranunculaceae medicinal plants, focusing on the emerging molecular machineries and functions of anti-cancer phytometabolites. Gene expression profiling and relevant omics platforms (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites on the phenotypically heterogeneous cancer cells.
Gorina, Svetlana S; Toporkova, Yana Y; Mukhtarova, Lucia S; Chechetkin, Ivan R; Khairutdinov, Bulat I; Gogolev, Yuri V; Grechkin, Alexander N
Enzymes of the CYP74 family, including the divinyl ether synthase (DES), play important roles in plant cell signalling and defence. The potent DES activities have been detected before in the leaves of the meadow buttercup (Ranunculus acris L.) and few other Ranunculaceae species. The nature of these DESs and their genes remained unrevealed. The PCR with degenerate primers enabled to detect the transcript of unknown P450 gene assigned as CYP74Q1. Besides, two more CYP74Q1 isoforms with minimal sequence variations have been found. The full length recombinant CYP74Q1 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The preferred substrates of this enzyme are the 13-hydroperoxides of α-linolenic and linoleic acids, which are converted to the divinyl ether oxylipins (ω5Z)-etherolenic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z,3'Z)-hexadienyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, and (ω5Z)-etheroleic acid, (9Z,11E)-12-[(1'Z)-hexenyloxy]-9,11-dodecadienoic acid, respectively, as revealed by the data of mass spectrometry, NMR and UV spectroscopy. Thus, CYP74Q1 protein was identified as the R. acris DES (RaDES), a novel DES type and the opening member of new CYP74Q subfamily. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pigg, Kathleen B; Devore, Melanie L
Paleoactea nagelii Pigg & DeVore gen. et sp. nov. is described for a small, ovoid ranunculaceous fossil fruit from the Late Paleocene Almont and Beicegel Creek floras of North Dakota, USA. Fruits are 5-7 mm wide, 4.5-6 mm high, 10-13 mm long, and bilaterally symmetrical, containing 10-17 seeds attached on the upper margin in 2-3 rows. A distinctive honeycomb pattern is formed where adjacent seeds with prominent palisade outer cell layers abut. Seeds are flattened, ovoid, and triangular. To the inside of the palisade cells, the seed coat has a region of isodiametric cells that become more tangentially elongate toward the center. The embryo cavity is replaced by an opaline cast. This fruit bears a striking resemblance to extant Actaea, the baneberry (Ranunculaceae), an herbaceous spring wildflower of North Temperate regions. A second species, Paleoactaea bowerbanki (Reid & Chandler) Pigg & DeVore nov. comb., is recognized from the Early Eocene London Clay flora, based on a single fruit. This fruit shares most of the organization and structure of P. nagelii but is larger and has a thicker pericarp. This study documents a rare Paleocene occurrence of a member of the buttercup family, a family that is today primarily herbaceous, and demonstrates a North Atlantic connection for an Actaea-like genus in the Paleogene.
Allan C. Ashworth
Full Text Available Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct A. balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with A. balli included Nothofagus (southern beech, Ranunculus (buttercup, moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that A. balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including A. balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. A. balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For A. balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma and southern South America (31 Ma.
Liliana M Cano
Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.
Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut
Every year, oil spills around the world contaminate the environment and cost billions of dollars to clean up. Phytoremediation is a current technology for recovering environments contaminated by harmful substances, such as oil, that utilizes plants' capabilities to concentrate and metabolize the contaminants. Ranunculus, or the buttercup, has raised interest in the field of phytoremediation, being reported to grow in waste environments including municipal waste disposals. My project confirmed Ranunculus to be a suitable plant for phytoremediation. However, the Ranunculus plants throughout experiments showed a limited tolerance for oil concentration, causing the plant to wilt, thus ending the phytoremediation process. To overcome this problem, my project explored the combination of organic oil absorbents and phytoremediation. Oil absorbents can quickly fix the spilled oil in place and prevent it from further migration. In addition, and most importantly, the initial free oil concentration in contact with the roots is thus effectively decreased, which is essential for the plants to survive. Typha(cattail) inflorescence, saw dust, cotton and a commercial polymer were tested for oil absorption and Typha was deemed superior, being highly oil absorbent, inexpensive, organic and hydrophobic. Further experiments were undertaken in a small outdoor space and in the UBC Horticulture greenhouse during the winter season over the course of one year. The experiments were set up to both determine the most suitable plant for phytoremediation and test the impact of using Typha inflorescence as an absorbent. For each plant, there were three pots with Typha inflorescence and oil, with oil but no Typha inflorescence and without either. In order to measure the benefit quantitatively, naturally occurring electrical currents of the metabolic process common in phytoremediation was used as an indicator for phytoremediative activity. The main findings of the experiments were: 1. Adding Typha
Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.
The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an
Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas
(basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.