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Sample records for buttercups

  1. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-01-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and

  2. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Lupin seed meal (Lupinus albus cv. Buttercup) as a source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment 2, conducted to evaluate certified L. a/bus cv. Buttercup seed (at an ... Buttercup-saad in die dleet, te ondersoek,. Die resultate behaal het tot die tweede studie gelei, wat uitgevoer is om gesertifiseerde. L. a/bus cv. Buttercupsaad. (teen 'n ... value of Hamburg lupins relative to soya bean meal can be ascribed to ...

  4. Lupin seed meal ( Lupinus albus cv. Buttercup) as a source of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate L. a/bus cv. Buttercup as an alternative to heated full-fat soya bean meal for early weaned piglets. In Experiment 1, the performance of piglets, fed diets with 0%,4%,8% and 12% lupins and formulated to contain equivalent amounts of digestible energy and lysine, was used to ...

  5. Cytotype segregation on regional and microgeographic scales in snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baack, Eric J

    2004-11-01

    Polyploid speciation is an important source of angiosperm diversity. Insights into the origin and establishment of new polyploid species may be gained by studying the distributions of ancestral and derivative cytotypes at multiple spatial scales. Diploid (2n = 16) and tetraploid (2n = 32) snow buttercups (Ranunculus adoneus: Ranunculaceae) occur in the alpine of the central and southern Rocky Mountains. Root-tip squashes and flow cytometry were used to determine the ploidy of 1618 individuals from 35 populations. Samples from 31 of the 35 sites were entirely of one cytotype, either diploid or tetraploid. Diploid and tetraploid snow buttercups have nonoverlapping regional distributions. Where both cytotypes occur on the same site, the two are spatially segregated despite no apparent change in habitat. Triploid snow buttercups were only found at a diploid/tetraploid contact zone, while two hexaploid plants were found in tetraploid populations. Tetraploid establishment once or twice in the history of the species complex could account for the regional distribution of the two cytotypes. Habitat differentiation between cytotypes or reproductive exclusion of minority cytotypes may explain the observed segregation at both microgeographic and regional scales.

  6. Buttercup squash provides a marketable alternative to blue hubbard as a trap crop for control of striped cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Andrew F; Adler, Lynn S; Hazzard, Ruth V

    2010-12-01

    Winter squash is a vital agricultural commodity worldwide. In the Northeastern United States, the primary insect pest is the striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum F. Using a Blue Hubbard squash (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) perimeter trap crop system can reduce insecticide use by >90% in butternut squash (C. moschata Poir), the primary winter squash grown in this region. Despite the savings in insecticide costs, growers may be reluctant to give up field space for a perimeter crop of Blue Hubbard squash, which comprises only 5% of the winter squash market in New England as compared with 19% for buttercup squash. Finding a more marketable trap crop would lower the barrier for adoption of this system. We tested eight varieties of three species of cucurbits for attractiveness to beetles relative to Blue Hubbard and butternut squash, and chose buttercup squash as the most promising replacement. We compared the effect of a buttercup border, Blue Hubbard border, or control (no border) on beetle numbers, herbivory, insecticide use, pollination, and pollen limitation in the main crop. We found that buttercup squash performed equally well as Blue Hubbard as a trap crop, with 97% reduction in total insecticide use compared with control fields. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and squash bees (Peponapis pruinosa Say) were the predominant pollinators, and border treatments did not affect visitation. Hand pollination did not increase reproduction or yield, indicating that natural pollination was sufficient for full yield. This study confirms the effectiveness of perimeter trap crop systems and offers growers a more marketable trap crop for managing cucumber beetle damage. © 2010 Entomological Society of America

  7. Extra petals in the buttercup (Ranunculus repens) provide a quick method to estimate the age of meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John

    2009-09-01

    There is a widely used crude method to estimate the age of hedgerows (Hooper's rule) based on species' richness. The aim of this study was to try and establish a similar field method for estimating the age of grasslands based on the accumulation of macro-somatic mutations. A countrywide survey was carried out by the British public to investigate the relationship between grassland age and the number of Ranunculus repens (creeping buttercup) plants with extra petals. In addition the relationship between grassland age and R. repens pollen viability was also investigated. Each plant with flowers with additional petals in a sample of 100 was found to equate to approx. 7 years. A higher significant correlation was observed between pollen viability and population age; however, this is not amenable to providing field estimates. The age of British grasslands can be easily and reliably estimated in the field by counting the number flowers with additional petals in R. repens in meadows up to 200 years old. An attempt to estimate the heritability of extra petals suggests that the phenotype results from the slow accumulation of somatic mutations in a species that primarily reproduces vegetatively.

  8. Disruption of the petal identity gene APETALA3-3 is highly correlated with loss of petals within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Guo, Chunce; Zhang, Wengen; Wang, Peipei; Li, Lin; Duan, Xiaoshan; Du, Qinggao; Zhao, Liang; Shan, Hongyan; Hodges, Scott A; Kramer, Elena M; Ren, Yi; Kong, Hongzhi

    2013-03-26

    Absence of petals, or being apetalous, is usually one of the most important features that characterizes a group of flowering plants at high taxonomic ranks (i.e., family and above). The apetalous condition, however, appears to be the result of parallel or convergent evolution with unknown genetic causes. Here we show that within the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae), apetalous genera in at least seven different lineages were all derived from petalous ancestors, indicative of parallel petal losses. We also show that independent petal losses within this family were strongly associated with decreased or eliminated expression of a single floral organ identity gene, APETALA3-3 (AP3-3), apparently owing to species-specific molecular lesions. In an apetalous mutant of Nigella, insertion of a transposable element into the second intron has led to silencing of the gene and transformation of petals into sepals. In several naturally occurring apetalous genera, such as Thalictrum, Beesia, and Enemion, the gene has either been lost altogether or disrupted by deletions in coding or regulatory regions. In Clematis, a large genus in which petalous species evolved secondarily from apetalous ones, the gene exhibits hallmarks of a pseudogene. These results suggest that, as a petal identity gene, AP3-3 has been silenced or down-regulated by different mechanisms in different evolutionary lineages. This also suggests that petal identity did not evolve many times independently across the Ranunculaceae but was lost in numerous instances. The genetic mechanisms underlying the independent petal losses, however, may be complex, with disruption of AP3-3 being either cause or effect.

  9. Barney and Buttercup: The Big and Little Silent Hunters of the Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantert, Robert L.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the owls of the Rotating School Zoo which travels to all the schools in Seattle (Washington) for lecture-demonstrations in wildlife conservation. Outlines the behavior and major characteristics of owls. (JR)

  10. Out of the Alps: colonization of Northern Europe by East Alpine populations of the Glacier Buttercup Ranunculus glacialis L. (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönswetter, P; Paun, O; Tribsch, A; Niklfeld, H

    2003-12-01

    Ranunculus glacialis ssp. glacialis is an arctic-alpine plant growing in central and southern European and Scandinavian mountain ranges and the European Arctic. In order to elucidate the taxon's migration history, we applied amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to populations from the Pyrenees, Tatra mountains and Northern Europe and included data from a previous study on Alpine accessions. Populations from the Alps and the Tatra mountains were genetically highly divergent and harboured many private AFLP fragments, indicating old vicariance. Whereas nearly all Alpine populations of R. glacialis were genetically highly variable, the Tatrean population showed only little variation. Our data suggest that the Pyrenees were colonized more recently than the separation of the Tatra from the Alps. Populations in Northern Europe, by contrast, were similar to those of the Eastern Alps but showed only little genetic variation. They harboured no private AFLP fragments and only a subset of East Alpine ones, and they exhibited no phylogeographical structure. It is very likely therefore that R. glacialis colonized Northern Europe in postglacial times from source populations in the Eastern Alps.

  11. Environ: E00256 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconi...onitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363] Same as: D07152 Ranunculaceae (bu...ttercup family) Aconitum carmichael mother root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot pl...ants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root ...

  12. Environ: E00575 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363...] Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot ...plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00575 Aconitum carmichael daughter root ...

  13. Environ: E00580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drug Aconitum coreanum [TAX:662772] Ra...nunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum coreanum tuberous root Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00580 Aconitum coreanum tuberous root ...

  14. Fort Devens Feasibility Study for Group 1A Sites. Final Feasibility Study Shepley’s Hill Landfill Operable Unit Data Item A009

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    lapathifolium FACW+ Pickerelweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBL Swamp Buttercup Ranunculus septentrionalis OBL Blackberry Rubus...Polygonum lapathifolium FACW+ Pickereiweed Pontederia cordata OBL Pondweed Potamogeton spp. OBLUCommon Cinquefoil Potentilla simplex FACU- Buttercup... cordata ) were all noted in this community and comprise 80-90% of the plant species present. 2* I. I I NEW ENGLAND ENVIRONMENTAL, INC. I Emergent

  15. Environ: E00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root soaked in bittern or brine (semi-dried) ...

  16. Environ: E00256 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00256 Aconitum carmichaeli mother root Crude drug Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesacon...conitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride Aconitum carmichaeli [TAX:85363] Same as: D07152 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael mother root ...

  17. Environ: E00572 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soaked in bittern (x-section, semi-dried) ...

  18. Environ: E00573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soaked in bittern, semi-dried and sulfurized (x-section) ...

  19. Environ: E00574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00574 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  20. Environ: E00154 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00154 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root soaked in bitte

  1. Environ: E00572 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00572 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  2. Environ: E00573 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00573 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug Aconitum carmichaeli [T...AX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soa

  3. Environ: E00696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00696 Cimicifuga rhizome (China) Crude drug Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga... dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga heracleifolia rhizome ...

  4. Environ: E00579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00579 Processed aconitum japonicum tuberous root Crude drug ... Aconitum japonicum, ...Aconitum [TAX:49188] ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum japonicum tuberous root soaked in brine and coat with caustic lime (dried) ...

  5. Environ: E00696 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00696 Cimicifuga rhizome (China) Crude drug ... Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga... dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga heracleifolia rhizome ...

  6. Environ: E00420 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00420 Anemone raddeana root Anemones raddeanae rhizoma Crude drug Anemone raddeana... [TAX:387928] Urticaceae (nettle family) Anemone raddeana root (dried) Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) E00420 Anemone raddeana root ...

  7. Environ: E00574 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00574 Processed aconitum carmicha daughter root Crude drug ... Aconitum carmichaeli ...[TAX:85363] Same as: D06784 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Aconitum carmichael daughter root with cortex soaked in bittern, semi-dried, sulfurized and fired (x-section) ...

  8. Environ: E00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00116 Cimicifuga rhizome (JP16) Crude drug Visnagin [CPD:C09049], Cimifugin [CPD:C...], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) Cimicifuga simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga rhizome Major component: Cimigenol [CPD:C17538] ...

  9. Seed development in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Populus nigra L., and Ranunculus sceleratus L. with special reference to the microtubular cytoskeleton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XuHan, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, seed development is investigated in celery-leafed buttercup ( Ranunculus sceleratus L.), bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and poplar ( Populus nigra L.). Developing embryos, endosperms and seed coats are

  10. Sweet lupins as a feedstuff for broilers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine the feeding value of sweet white lupins (Lupinus a/bus variety. Buttercup) for broilers up to 8weeks of age. Two isocaloric and isonitrogenous starter (0- 4weeks) and finisher. (4 - 8 weeks) diets were formulated with one containing no lupins and the other 400 g lupins/kg.

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minnaar, J.P.. Vol 17, No 1 (1987) - Articles Lupin seed meal (Lupinus albus cv. Buttercup) as a source of protein for early weaned piglets. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2221-4062. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

  12. Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Juncus effusus), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), purple loose- strife (Lythrum salicaria), Himalayan blackberry (Rubus armeniacus), Japanese...factors. Common wetland shrubs in the Rocky Mountains include diamond- leaf willow (Salix planifolia), Geyer willow (S. geyerana), mountain willow...riparian-wetland species include narrow- leaf cottonwood (Populus angustifolia), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera), Fremont cottonwood (P. fremontii), and

  13. Drug: D07152 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07152 Crude ... Drug Processed aconite root Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconitine [CPD:C08692], Hypaconit...ine [CPD:C08688], Mesaconitine [CPD:C08698], (Higenamine [CPD:C06346] | Pseudoaconiti...:49188] ... Same as: E00256 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Processed aconit

  14. Environ: E00116 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00116 Cimicifuga rhizome (JP17) Crude drug Visnagin [CPD:C09049], Cimifugin [CPD:...70], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) Cimicifuga simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga... foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:64034] Same as: D06745 Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga rhizome Major component: Cimigenol [CPD:C17538] ...

  15. Drug: D06745 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06745 Crude ... Drug Cimicifuga rhizome (JP17); Cimicifugae rhizoma; Cimicifuga r...orvisnagin [CPD:C17843], Isoferulic acid [CPD:C10470], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) ... Cimicifuga ...simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifol...04 ... Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga simplex, Cimicifuga dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga

  16. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range; and... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of 2 animal and 10... status reviews under the Act of 2 animal and 10 plant species: Autumn buttercup (Ranunculus acriformis...

  17. Drug: D06745 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06745 Crude, Drug Cimicifuga rhizome (JP16); Cimicifugae rhizoma; Cimicifuga rhizo...nagin [CPD:C17843], Isoferulic acid [CPD:C10470], (Cimifugenin | Indolinone derivative) Cimicifuga simplex [TAX:64042], Cimicifuga... dahurica [TAX:64029], Cimicifuga foetida [TAX:64032], Cimicifuga heracleifolia [TAX:6...laceae (buttercup family) Cimicifuga simplex, Cimicifuga dahurica, Cimicifuga foetida, Cimicifuga heracleifo...necologicals G02CX04 Cimicifugae rhizoma D06745 Cimicifuga rhizome (JP16) Traditional Chinese Medicine in Ja

  18. Water Resources and Related Land Management, Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    faces increasing pressure for residential development. In addition, farmers are unable to make full and productive use of the fertile soils within the...concentrated in Clarenc". Agri,-iitirrl IDariages - With recurrent flooding, farmers are unable to make full and productive use of fertile soil within Lhe...trefoil, wild onion, curled dock, sorr-1, buttercup, E EIS-38 wood anemone, meadow rue (tall, early), raspberry, common strawberry , bedstraw, stinging

  19. Metropolitan Spokane Region Water Resources Study. Appendix E. Environment and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    are mixed with basalt cap rock which frequently has only a thin overlayer of soil, poor in fertility and moisture. The valley of the Spokane River...Covered Scablands 87 3-tip Sagebrush-Idaho Fescue ( Artemisia tripartita-Festuca idahoensis) Meadow-Steppe Community 105 Idaho Fescue - Common Snowberry...dogwood Cornus stolonifera Rocky Mountain maple Acer glabnum Douglasii Sagebrush Artemisia tridentata Sagebrush buttercup Ranunculus glaberrimus

  20. Drug: D06784 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06784 Crude ... Drug Processed aconite root (JP17); Powdered processed aconite root (JP17); Processed acon...ite root (fibrous root); Powdered processed aconite root (fibrous root) Aconitine [CPD:C06091], Jesaconit...ine [CPD:C08692], Hypaconitine [CPD:C08688], Mesaconitine [CPD:C08698], Ignavine [CPD:...:C17486], (Higenamine [CPD:C06346] | Pseudoaconitine [CPD:C08704]), Coryneine chloride ... Aconitum carmicha...Ranunculaceae (buttercup family) Processed aconite root, fibrous root See [DR:D07152] (root) Major component: Aconitine [CPD:C06091] ... PubChem: 47208435 ...

  1. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  2. The rise of angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras: Insights from Ranunculaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Ortiz, Rosa del C.; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Kun-Li; Yu, Sheng-Xiang; Xing, Yao-Wu; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2016-01-01

    The rise of angiosperms has been regarded as a trigger for the Cretaceous revolution of terrestrial ecosystems. However, the timeframe of the rise angiosperm-dominated herbaceous floras (ADHFs) is lacking. Here, we used the buttercup family (Ranunculaceae) as a proxy to provide insights into the rise of ADHFs. An integration of phylogenetic, molecular dating, ancestral state inferring, and diversification analytical methods was used to infer the early evolutionary history of Ranunculaceae. We found that Ranunculaceae became differentiated in forests between about 108–90 Ma. Diversification rates markedly elevated during the Campanian, mainly resulted from the rapid divergence of the non-forest lineages, but did not change across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Our data for Ranunculaceae indicate that forest-dwelling ADHFs may have appeared almost simultaneously with angiosperm-dominated forests during the mid-Cretaceous, whereas non-forest ADHFs arose later, by the end of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Furthermore, ADHFs were relatively unaffected by the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction. PMID:27251635

  3. Edaphic and Phytochemical Factors as predictors of Equine Grass Sickness Cases in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Edwards

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Equine dysautonomia or equine grass sickness (EGS, as it is more commonly known, is a usually fatal disease of equids of uncertain aetiology, although associated with grazing, that affects the autonomic and enteric nervous system. Lowered gastro-intestinal motility, leading to paralysis of the gut, is one of the main symptoms of EGS. Previous studies have implicated anaerobic bacteria, notably Clostridium botulinum, but what triggers the severe bacterial infestations remains enigmatic. We hypothesized that a detailed comparison of soil mineral and botanical composition of EGS and control sites would yield new insights into the causation of the disease. Results: Between March 2007 and September 2008, soil, plant, and water samples from a total of 23 EGS sites and 11 control sites were studied. Metal and non-metal element levels of the soil and herbage samples were assessed. Significantly, EGS sites had higher levels of soil nitrogen, and significantly higher levels of iron, lead, arsenic and chromium in the herbage. Toxic Ranunculus spp. (buttercups were found in abundance at every EGS site, making ingestion plausible. Conversely, neurotoxin-producing cyanobacteria were not found in any of the water samples analysed. Conclusions: The significantly higher levels of iron and heavy metals found in herbage growing in EGS sites, in addition to toxic Ranunculus species, suggest that previously unknown triggers are involved in a multi-factorial EGS aetiology. Our results also show that cyanobacteria on the other hand, are unlikely to be a factor in EGS. Consequently, the concomitant presence of two (or more factors could be the trigger for an outbreak of EGS and the combination of both seems to be a key predictor.

  4. Major transcriptome reprogramming underlies floral mimicry induced by the rust fungus Puccinia monoica in Boechera stricta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana M Cano

    Full Text Available Pucciniamonoica is a spectacular plant parasitic rust fungus that triggers the formation of flower-like structures (pseudoflowers in its Brassicaceae host plant Boecherastricta. Pseudoflowers mimic in shape, color, nectar and scent co-occurring and unrelated flowers such as buttercups. They act to attract insects thereby aiding spore dispersal and sexual reproduction of the rust fungus. Although much ecological research has been performed on P. monoica-induced pseudoflowers, this system has yet to be investigated at the molecular or genomic level. To date, the molecular alterations underlying the development of pseudoflowers and the genes involved have not been described. To address this, we performed gene expression profiling to reveal 256 plant biological processes that are significantly altered in pseudoflowers. Among these biological processes, plant genes involved in cell fate specification, regulation of transcription, reproduction, floral organ development, anthocyanin (major floral pigments and terpenoid biosynthesis (major floral volatile compounds were down-regulated in pseudoflowers. In contrast, plant genes involved in shoot, cotyledon and leaf development, carbohydrate transport, wax biosynthesis, cutin transport and L-phenylalanine metabolism (pathway that results in phenylethanol and phenylacetaldehyde volatile production were up-regulated. These findings point to an extensive reprogramming of host genes by the rust pathogen to induce floral mimicry. We also highlight 31 differentially regulated plant genes that are enriched in the biological processes mentioned above, and are potentially involved in the formation of pseudoflowers. This work illustrates the complex perturbations induced by rust pathogens in their host plants, and provides a starting point for understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogen-induced floral mimicry.

  5. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini: the first ground beetle from Antarctica

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    Allan C. Ashworth

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct A. balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with A. balli included Nothofagus (southern beech, Ranunculus (buttercup, moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that A. balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14–20 Ma. The tundra biome, including A. balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10–13 Ma. A. balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For A. balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma and southern South America (31 Ma.

  6. Antarctotrechus balli sp. n. (Carabidae, Trechini): the first ground beetle from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Allan C; Erwin, Terry L

    2016-01-01

    Fossil elytra of a small trechine carabid are reported from the Oliver Bluffs on the Beardmore Glacier at lat. 85°S. They were compared with counterparts from the extant genera Trechisibus, Tasmanorites, Oxytrechus and Pseudocnides. The fossils share some characters but are sufficiently different to be described as a new genus and species. We named the new species Antarctotrechus balli in honour of George E. Ball who made major contributions to the study of carabids through his own research and the training of students while at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The closest extant relatives to the extinct Antarctotrechus balli are species of Trechisibus, which inhabit South America, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and Tasmanorites, which inhabit Tasmania, Australia. Plant fossils associated with Antarctotrechus balli included Nothofagus (southern beech), Ranunculus (buttercup), moss mats and cushion plants that were part of a tundra biome. Collectively, the stratigraphic relationships and the growth characteristics of the fossil plants indicate that Antarctotrechus balli inhabited the sparsely-vegetated banks of a stream that was part of an outwash plain at the head of a fjord in the Transantarctic Mountains. Other insects represented by fossils in the tundra biome include a listroderine weevil and a cyclorrhaphan fly. The age of the fossils, based on comparison of associated pollen with 40Ar/39Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, is probably Early to Mid-Miocene in the range 14-20 Ma. The tundra biome, including Antarctotrechus balli, became extinct in the interior of Antarctica about 14 Ma and on the margins of the continent by 10-13 Ma. Antarctotrechus balli confirms that trechines were once widely distributed in Gondwana. For Antarctotrechus balli and other elements of the tundra biome it appears they continued to inhabit a warmer Antarctica for many millions of years after rifting of Tasmania (45 Ma) and

  7. First Record of the European Rusted Flea Beetle, Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763, in North America (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini

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    Laurent LeSage

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European rusted flea beetle Neocrepidodera ferruginea (Scopoli, 1763 is reported for the first time from Québec and Ontario, Canada. It was likely introduced into southern Ontario at an international port on the Great Lakes in early 1970s, or possibly earlier in the 1960s. However, the exact location and date of introduction could not be precisely determined. The flea beetle has since dispersed northeastwards and reached Aylmer, north of Ottawa River, in Québec, by 2003. This is about 375 km from Niagara Falls, where the oldest known specimens were collected in 1977. In 2009, various wild habitats and cultivated areas of Aylmer were surveyed. The host plants of the larvae could not be determined, but adults were swept from many plant species including various weeds and cultivated grasses: Alopecurus pratense (meadow foxtail, Dactylis glomerata (orchard-grass, Festuca rubra (red fescue-grass, and Poa pratensis (Kentucky blue-grass. Adults were also collected from flowers of several weeds: Aster sp. (undetermined species, Aster novae-angliae (New England aster, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (small ragweed, Echium vulgare (viper’s bugloss, Nasturtium officinale (water cress, Melilotus alba (white sweet-clover, Hypericum perforatum (common St. John’s-wort, Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, Ranunculus acris (buttercup, and Solidago spp. (goldenrods. Since larvae are known to develop inside the roots and central stems of cereals, this new alien species represents a threat to Canadian agriculture, particularly if it reaches the Prairies in western Canada, where cereals represent a considerable part of their economy. European rusted flea beetle and Altise ferrugineuse européenne are suggested for the English and French common names of this flea beetle, respectively.

  8. A Survey on Chemical Constituents and Indications of Aromatic Waters Soft Drinks (Hydrosols) Used in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Neurological Disorders and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Pasdaran, Ardalan; Zebarjad, Zahra; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    In Persian nutrition culture, drinking aromatic waters (hydrosols, distillate) has a long history as functional beverages or therapeutic remedies. The co-distilled water with essential oils, which contains partial amounts of more water-soluble volatile compounds are diluted and used as beverages. Since the solubility of volatile components is different in water, the overall composition, and thus the biological activities of aromatic waters seem to be different from the essential oils they were co-distilled with. Despite the essential oils, chemical constituents of many aromatic waters have not been evaluated scientifically. This research investigated hydrosols used for mental and neurological health maintenance in Persian nutrition culture and their chemical constituents. Constitutions of these hydrosols were extracted by liquid/liquid extraction method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Furthermore, cluster analysis was used to evaluate the relevance of these hydrosols chemical constituents. About 93 compounds were identified from 20 aromatic waters. the major or second major constituents were thymol (azarol howthorn, frankincense, lemon balm, valerian, shadab), phenethyl alcohol (damask rose, dog-rose, starflower), carvacrol (basil, creeping buttercup, lemon balm); eugenol (shadab, dog-rose, starflower, basil), camphor (yarrow and wormwood), carvone (oriental plane), caryophyllene (cuminum), cinnamaldehyde (Chinese cinnamon), p-cymen-7-ol (musk willow), limonene (lemon verbena), linalool and α-terpineol (bitter orange), menthol (date palm) and methyl 5-vinylnicotinate (olive). Although, these hydrosols prepared from plants belong to different genus and families, but cluster analysis showed obvious similarities between their chemical constituents. Results of this investigation showed in many cases that the constituents of aromatic waters are different from the pure essential oil.

  9. Population Structure of Sclerotinia subarctica and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in England, Scotland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, John P; Warmington, Rachel J; Walley, Peter G; Denton-Giles, Matthew; Barbetti, Martin J; Brodal, Guro; Nordskog, Berit

    2017-01-01

    Sclerotinia species are important fungal pathogens of a wide range of crops and wild host plants. While the biology and population structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been well-studied, little information is available for the related species S. subarctica. In this study, Sclerotinia isolates were collected from different crop plants and the wild host Ranuculus ficaria (meadow buttercup) in England, Scotland, and Norway to determine the incidence of Sclerotinia subarctica and examine the population structure of this pathogen for the first time. Incidence was very low in England, comprising only 4.3% of isolates while moderate and high incidence of S. subarctica was identified in Scotland and Norway, comprising 18.3 and 48.0% of isolates respectively. Characterization with eight microsatellite markers identified 75 haplotypes within a total of 157 isolates over the three countries with a few haplotypes in Scotland and Norway sampled at a higher frequency than the rest across multiple locations and host plants. In total, eight microsatellite haplotypes were shared between Scotland and Norway while none were shared with England. Bayesian and principal component analyses revealed common ancestry and clustering of Scottish and Norwegian S. subarctica isolates while English isolates were assigned to a separate population cluster and exhibited low diversity indicative of isolation. Population structure was also examined for S. sclerotiorum isolates from England, Scotland, Norway, and Australia using microsatellite data, including some from a previous study in England. In total, 484 haplotypes were identified within 800 S. sclerotiorum isolates with just 15 shared between England and Scotland and none shared between any other countries. Bayesian and principal component analyses revealed a common ancestry and clustering of the English and Scottish isolates while Norwegian and Australian isolates were assigned to separate clusters. Furthermore, sequencing part of the

  10. Use of 1-methylcyclopropene for the control of Botrytis cinerea on cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Seglie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cut flowers are marketed for their ornamental characteristics making post-harvest flower life an important determinant of crop value. Botrytis cinerea is one of the most significant post-harvest fungal pathogens causing losses in ornamental plants. Disease caused by this fungus seems to be enhanced by the presence of a ethylene hormone, that both the plant and the fungus are known to synthesize. The aim of the experiment was to determine if 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, an ethylene antagonist, could be used to reduce B. cinerea damage to cut flowers. Six cultivars of four ornamental species: Dianthus caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’, Rosa × hybrida ‘White Dew’ and ‘Ritz’, Ranunculus asiaticus ‘Saigon’ and ‘Green’, and Cyclamen persicum line ‘Halios Bianco Puro Compatto’ were given three concentrations of 1-MCP (0.38 μl L-1, 1.14 μL L-1, and 3.62 μL L-1 for 24 hours. Subsequently, 10 petals per cultivar were treated with a B. cinerea conidial suspension (5×103 conidia cm-2 and stored in air-tight vases. To evaluate B. cinerea development an arbitrary damage scale (1–7 was used. A high concentration of 1-MCP significantly reduced B. cinerea damage on D. caryophyllus ‘Idra di Muraglia’ and C. persicum ‘Halios White Pure Compact’ petals. In carnation, 1-MCP treatment slowed B. cinerea infection; its threshold level was reached three days after that of the control. In cyclamen, treated petals and control petals remained aesthetically good until day 53 and day 28 respectively. At low concentrations, 1-MCP slowed grey mould on R. × hybrida ‘Ritz’ for up to three days beyond the control. On the two buttercup cultivars ‘Green’ and ‘Saigon’, 1-MCP treatments were not effective. In conclusion, 1-MCP limited pathogen development; its effect depended on the species and the 1-MCP concentration. Further investigations will be performed to improve methods to reduce B. cinerea development on the petals of cut

  11. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    (basswood, mallow family), Myricaceae (bayberry), Oleaceae (olive family), Onagraceae (evening primrose family), Plumbaginaceae (sea-lavender), Polygonaceae (docks, knotweed), Ranunculaceae (buttercup family), Rosaceae (rose family), Salicaceae (willow), Sapindaceae (maple), Sapotaceae, and Ulmaceae (elm, Zelkova). The objectives of this investigation were (1) to evaluate whether the three palynological sections were deposited at the same time, and (2) to show regional vegetation differences within a single sedimentary basin. We found three general pollen zones corresponding to different sedimentary settings and palaeoenvironments. The first pollen zone was linked to lignite formation (swamp forest, fern spores, Alnus, Decodon). The second pollen zone reflects lacustrine conditions (Typhaceae) and surrounding hinterland vegetation dominated by Fagaceae. The third pollen zone is dominated by herbaceous taxa, whereas woody taxa are less diverse and less abundant. In general, the three palynological sections are congruent in reflecting distinct pollen zones. However main vegetation types may be represented by different dominating taxa (e. g. Alnus dominace in Eskihisar and Tı naz localities while absent in Salihpaşalar) and rare taxa may differ between localities. Our results demonstrate that in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of environmental and vegetation conditions in a sedimentary basin, a single palynological section (locality) may not capture the entirety of environmental conditions and changes.