WorldWideScience

Sample records for buses preliminary evaluation

  1. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) Fuel Cell Transit Buses: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2007-03-01

    This report provides an evaluation of three prototype fuel cell-powered transit buses operating at AC Transit in Oakland, California, and six baseline diesel buses similar in design to the fuel cell buses.

  2. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of fast-charge battery electric buses compared to compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. Launched in 2015 in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board, this study aims to improve understanding of the overall use and effectiveness of fast-charge electric buses and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation.

  3. King County Metro Transit Hybrid Articulated Buses: Final Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2006-12-01

    Final technical report compares and evaluates new diesel and diesel hybrid-electric articulated buses operated as part of the King County Metro Transit (KC Metro) fleet in Seattle, Washington. The evaluation lasted 12 months.

  4. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  5. To Evaluate Zero Emission Propulsion and Support Technology for Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Chandler; Leslie Eudy

    2006-11-01

    This report provides evaluation results for prototype fuel cell transit buses operating at Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) in San Jose, California, in partnership with the San Mateo County Transit District in San Carlos, California. VTA has been operating three fuel cell transit buses in extra revenue service since February 28, 2005. This report provides descriptions of the equipment used, early experiences, and evaluation results from the operation of the buses and the supporting hydrogen infrastructure from March 2005 through July 2006.

  6. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  7. Interim Evaluation Results from New Flyer/Allison Hybrid Buses at King County Metro: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eberts, E.; Eudy, L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric articulated transit buses operated by King County Metro.

  8. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  9. In-Use Fleet Evaluation of Fast-Charge Battery Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Eudy; Leslie

    2016-06-27

    With support from the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts real-world performance evaluations of advanced medium- and heavy-duty fleet vehicles. Evaluation results can help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and assist fleet managers in selecting fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their economic and operational goals. In 2015, NREL launched an in-service evaluation of 12 battery electric buses (BEBs) compared to conventional compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. The study aims to improve understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of fast-charge BEBs and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation. To date, NREL researchers have analyzed more than 148,000 km of in-use operational data, including driving and charging events. Foothill Transit purchased the BEBs with grant funding from the Federal Transit Administration's Transit Investments for Greenhouse Gas and Energy Reduction Program.

  10. Preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter; Etude preliminaire d`un reseau de terrain pour le systeme de controle des hautes tensions du calorimetre hadronique d`Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drevet, F.; Chadelas, R.; Montarou, G.

    1996-12-31

    We present here after a preliminary study on field buses for the control system of the high voltage of the photomultipliers of the TILECAL calorimeter. After some generalities, different commercial buses are reviewed (CAN, ARCET, WorldFIP, Profibus and LonWorks). The Profibus and LonWorks solution are more extensively studies as a possible solution for the high voltage system of the TILE hadronic calorimeter. (authors).

  11. Long Beach Transit: Two-Year Evaluation of Gasoline-Electric Hybrid Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M.

    2008-06-01

    This report focuses on a gasoline-electric hybrid transit bus propulsion system. The propulsion system is an alternative to standard diesel buses and allows for reductions in emissions (usually focused on reductions of particulate matter and oxides of nitrogen) and petroleum use. Gasoline propulsion is an alternative to diesel fuel and hybrid propulsion allows for increased fuel economy, which ultimately results in reduced petroleum use.

  12. Evaluation of city buses installed diesel particulate filter systems on fleet test; Diesel particulate filter system wo tosaishita rosen bus no soko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, H. [Japan Automobile Research Institute Inc., Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An environmental air quality of suspended particulate matter is insufficient in the big city area. To reduce the particulate matter, improvement of engine and development of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system are carrying. The purpose of this report is to investigate a possibility of practical use of the city buses installed DPF systems. From March 1995, investigation for practical use of these DPF systems on a route buses was carried in regular service operation of the Tokyo and Yokohama Transportation Bureau. The investigation items are service situation, smoke density and preparation inspection. From the result for 2 years service operation, each DPF systems needed some failure correspondence. but these were not fatal problem on using the DPF system. Then the subject of relative to durability and reliability became clear, and the performance of a low particulate emission DPF system obtained the high value evaluation for users. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Was Busing the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watras, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    On 15 April 2002, the Dayton Board of Education, the Ohio State Department of Education, and the NAACP reached an agreement ending busing for racial balance in the city schools. Participants agreed that the era for litigated desegregation was over because busing had failed to raise academic achievement of African American children and court…

  14. Interior noise profile of buses in Curitiba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannin, Paulo H. T.; Giovanini, Clifton R.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Ferreira, Jose C.

    2002-11-01

    Evaluating the noise levels to which the bus drivers of Curitiba are exposed to during their working days is the main scope of this study. The city is served by an internationally known public transportation system featuring 1902 buses, which attend 1.9 million people per day. Two measurements have been taken inside each one of the 60 buses surveyed, one close to the driver and another one at the back of the bus. The results have showed that the dose levels the drivers are exposed to were below 50% in 92% out of the buses, but the normalized exposure levels were over 65 dB(A) in all cases. This level is considered as the threshold of comfort according to the Brazilian legislation on occupancy health NR-17--Ergonomics. The surveyed buses have been divided into three categories, according to their characteristics: feeder, rapid, and bi-articulated. A total of 20 buses within each category have been surveyed. Among the different categories, it has been found that the feeders have presented the highest noise levels. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  15. Air quality in inter-city buses : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-29

    Various studies have suggested that air quality inside automobiles and school buses may be poorer than ambient or nearby air quality, and that concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants in city buses may be sufficiently elevated to pose concerns for vehicle occupants and operators. This paper presented the results of preliminary investigation of levels of some pollutants in inter-city buses to determine whether a fuller investigation is warranted. Another objective of the investigation was to develop methods for assessing air quality within road vehicles. Students carried monitoring equipment on 28 inter-city trips made by Greyhound Canada buses during July and August 2004. The equipment recorded average levels of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), as well as concentrations of particulate matter. Bus routes were selected that allowed for an average of 10 hours of total sampling time in a day. Data was recorded on pumps, run times and routes taken. Results indicated that levels of CO in the buses were much lower than the national standard of acceptable levels for CO. Levels of NO{sub 2} were on average lower, but 5 of the 19 recorded values exceeded acceptable levels. Average particulate levels recorded in the buses were considered acceptable, although some of the recorded levels were higher than desirable. It was concluded that further work on in-vehicle levels of NO{sub 2} and particulate matter could be warranted. Although several procedural and equipment problems were encountered, the methods used in the investigation appeared to be valid, and were thought to be suitable for further work on in-vehicle concentrations of pollutants. 21 refs.

  16. BAE/Orion Hybrid Electric Buses at New York City Transit: A Generational Comparison (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.

    2008-03-01

    Paper describes the evaluation of hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by New York City Transit (NYCT) in an order group of 200 (Gen II) and compares their performance to those of similar hybrid-electric transit buses purchased by NYCT in an order group of 125 (Gen I).

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of a New Cosmology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Kimberly A.; Martin, Dominique; Hayes, Patrycia; Targett, Tom; Bailey, Janelle M.; Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2015-01-01

    Informed by our research on student understanding of cosmology, The Big Ideas in Cosmology is an immersive set of web-based learning modules that integrates text, figures, and visualizations with short and long interactive tasks and real cosmological data. This enables the transformation of general education astronomy and cosmology classes from primarily lecture and book-based courses to a more engaging format that builds important STEM skills.During the spring 2014 semester, we field-tested a subset of chapters with the general education astronomy and cosmology classes at Sonoma State University in a flipped-classroom format. We administered pre and post content and attitude assessments in the two flipped classes as well as two lecture classes. The majority of cosmology students had taken astronomy before whereas the astronomy students had not.When switching to an active mode of learning (e.g., flipped classroom instead of lecture), many instructors report pushback from students. We saw this effect from students in course evaluations, who reported dissatisfaction with "having to do more work." However, the students in the flipped section in astronomy made greater gains on the multiple choice content assessment than the students in either of the two lecture sections. On the attitude assessment (the CLASS), the cosmology students made a small shift toward more expert-like opinions. Preliminary results from open-ended content surveys indicate that, prior to instruction, students had difficulty answering 'why' or 'how do we know' questions; that post-instruction, students are less likely to respond "I don't know" or to leave an answer blank; and that students using the modules made gains in their content knowledge.Module development was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXl0AC89G, the Illinois Space Grant Consortium, the Fermi E/PO program, Sonoma State University's Space Science Education and Public Outreach Group, and Great River Technology

  18. Evaluation of PROPELLER MR imaging. Preliminary experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Harushi; Aoki, Shigeki; Abe, Osamu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Hospital] [and others

    2002-05-01

    Periodically Rotated Overlapping ParallEL Lines with Enhanced Reconstruction (PROPELLER) MR imaging (MRI) has a unique ability to correct motion artifacts and is expected to be useful in diffusion-weighted MRI. This article describes preliminary experiences with PROPELLER MRI. PROPELLER uses a radial scan variation of the fast spin-echo sequence and it shows much less spatial deterioration than the echo-planar imaging sequence. To determine the optimal parameters of this technique, we calculated the signal intensities of phantoms and brains in various settings. PROPELLER MR examinations were also performed in 66 patients for clinical use. PROPELLER MRI appears to be a promising and useful technique. (author)

  19. In-use fuel economy of hybrid-electric school buses in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, Shauna; Sperry, Bob; Mudgal, Abhisek

    2011-05-01

    Although it is much safer and more fuel-efficient to transport children to school in buses than in private vehicles, school buses in the United States still consume 822 million gal of diesel fuel annually, and school transportation costs can account for a significant portion of resource-constrained school district budgets. Additionally, children in diesel-powered school buses may be exposed to higher levels of particulates and other pollutants than children in cars. One solution to emission and fuel concerns is use of hybrid-electric school buses, which have the potential to reduce emissions and overall lifecycle costs compared with conventional diesel buses. Hybrid-electric technologies are available in the passenger vehicle market as well as the transit bus market and have a track record indicating fuel economy and emissions benefits. This paper summarizes the results of an in-use fuel economy evaluation for two plug-in hybrid school buses deployed in two different school districts in Iowa. Each school district selected a control bus with a route similar to that of the hybrid bus. Odometer readings, fuel consumption, and maintenance needs were recorded for each bus. The buses were deployed in 2008 and data were collected through May 2010. Fuel consumption was calculated for each school district. In Nevada, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.23 mpg for the hybrid and 6.35 mpg for the control bus. In Sigourney, IA, the overall average fuel economy was 8.94 mpg for the hybrid and 6.42 mpg for the control bus. The fuel consumption data were compared for the hybrid and control buses using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results indicate that fuel economy for the Nevada hybrid bus was 29.6% better than for the Nevada control bus, and fuel economy for the Sigourney hybrid bus was 39.2% higher than for the Sigourney control bus. Both differences were statistically significant. PMID:21608490

  20. Preliminary analysis of alternative fuel cycles for proliferation evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steindler, M. J.; Ripfel, H. C.F.; Rainey, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The ERDA Division of Nuclear Research and Applications proposed 67 nuclear fuel cycles for assessment as to their nonproliferation potential. The object of the assessment was to determine which fuel cycles pose inherently low risk for nuclear weapon proliferation while retaining the major benefits of nuclear energy. This report is a preliminary analysis of these fuel cycles to develop the fuel-recycle data that will complement reactor data, environmental data, and political considerations, which must be included in the overall evaluation. This report presents the preliminary evaluations from ANL, HEDL, ORNL, and SRL and is the basis for a continuing in-depth study. (DLC)

  1. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  2. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  3. Outline and Preliminary Evaluation of the Classical Digital Library Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.; Gibson, Ian E.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines the classical digital library model, which is derived from traditional practices of library and information science professionals, as an alternative to the database retrieval model. Reports preliminary results from an evaluation study of library and information professionals and endusers involved with primary care medicine. (AEF)

  4. The New Energy Buses in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of “low carbon” economy, new energy vehicles are increasingly favored by the Chinese government and manufacturers. New energy buses have become an important channel for the promotion of new energy utilizations. Based on the summary of policies, this paper conducts a thorough resea...... price. We draw the conclusions that clear direction and detailed plans will enhance the new energy bus promotion and rising oil prices will promote new energy buses as well....... research on the technology and promotion achievements on new energy buses. We have found that the promotion achievements have difference with plans and gaps exist in different cities. In the paper we discuss the policy efficiency, the correlation between achievements, policies and the influence from oil...

  5. Performance management in the Slovak higher education system: preliminary evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Juraj Nemec

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our paper is a preliminary evaluation of the introduction of performance management and performance financing arrangements in the Slovak higher education system – accreditation and formula based performance financing. This evaluation will be mainly based on the assessment of short-term impacts of the above mentioned instruments and is expected to invite further professional discussion. We feel that the data and brief analysis included are sufficient enough to show that the Slovak s...

  6. Preliminary evaluation of a Neutron Calibration Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Talysson S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Sanches, Matias P.; Mitake, Malvina B.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lpneves@ipen.br, E-mail: aperini@ipen.br, E-mail: msanches@ipen.br, E-mail: mbmitake@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Federico, Claudio A., E-mail: claudiofederico@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespacial

    2013-07-01

    In the past few years, Brazil and several other countries in Latin America have experimented a great demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, mainly due to the increase in oil prospection and extraction. The only laboratory for calibration of neutron detectors in Brazil is localized at the Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, which is part of the IAEA SSDL network. This laboratory is the national standard laboratory in Brazil. With the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for another calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new calibration laboratory for neutron detectors. In this work, the ambient equivalent dose rate (H⁎(10)) was evaluated in several positions inside and around this laboratory, using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5 code), in order to verify the adequateness of the shielding. The obtained results showed that the shielding is effective, and that this is a low-cost methodology to improve the safety of the workers and evaluate the total staff workload. (author)

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Seed Extracts of Cucurbita Maxima Duchense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sharma

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbita maxima Duchense (family:Cucurbitaceae is a trailing annual herb, widely cultivated throughout India and in most warm regions of the world, for used as vegetables as well as medicines. The present study deals with preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of seed extract of Cucurbita maxima. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detailed analysis. Different physicochemical parameters such as ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash value, loss on drying, alcohol soluble and water soluble extractive value, percentage yield of successive solvent extracts and phytochemical evaluation of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima were carried out as per standard recommended physicochemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation on different extracts of seed of Cucurbita maxima reveals the presence of proteins, carbohydrates, flavanoids, saponins and tannins.

  8. Clean School Bus USA: Tomorrow's Buses for Today's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is ensuring that all new buses meet tighter standards developed to reduce diesel emissions and improve safety. Today's new buses are cleaner--60 times cleaner than buses built before 1990--and feature additional emergency exits, improved mirror systems, and pedestrian safety devices. But replacing…

  9. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2011-11-01

    This status report, fifth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), discusses the achievements and challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transit and summarizes the introduction of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. Progress this year includes an increase in the number of fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), from 15 to 25, operating at eight transit agencies, as well as increased diversity of the fuel cell design options for transit buses. The report also provides an analysis of the combined results from fuel cell transit bus demonstrations evaluated by NREL with a focus on the most recent data through July 2011 including fuel cell power system reliability and durability; fuel economy; roadcall; and hydrogen fueling results. These evaluations cover 22 of the 25 FCEBs currently operating.

  10. Unit Monitors Manchester-Format Data Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Jose J.

    1994-01-01

    Circuit card converts data signals into convenient hexadecimal form for troubleshooting. Bus-monitoring unit converts data signals from Manchester II format used on data bus into hexadecimal format. Monitoring circuit causes hexadecimal words to display on video terminal, where test engineer compares them with hexadecimal records for troubleshooting. Circuit monitors one bus or two buses simultaneously.

  11. [Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alquimim, Andréia Farias; Barral, Ana Beatris Cezar Rodrigues; Gomes, Kênnya Caroline; Rezende, Mayra Costa de

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4%) were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%), fat (64.2%), coffee (69.8%), salt (60.4%), coca cola (64.2%) and soft drinks (54.7%). Among reports of chronic diseases, no diabetic (98.1%) or hypertensive (94.3%) drivers were observed. Most of the sample (69.7%) had normal stress levels. With respect to laboratory data, the vast majority of drivers had hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. HDL levels were satisfactory, and the LDL revealed normal and desirable levels in more than half of the sample. The prevalence of cardiovascular disease was low. PMID:22899155

  12. [Evaluation of preliminary grades and credits in nurse training programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmann-Finck, Ingrid; Duveneck, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In the federal state of Bremen preliminary grades were included to the extent of 25 % in written, oral and practical final grades during the time period 2009-2014. The evaluation focuses on the effects of preliminary grades on the scale of final grades and the performance of learners as well as on the assessment of the appropriateness of final grades. A mixed-methods design was employed that consisted of a quasi-experimental study comprising of surveys of students and teachers of comparative and model courses as well as a qualitative study using group discussions. The results confirm that preliminary grades lead to a minimal improvement of the final grades of some exclusively low-achieving students. The assessment of appropriateness hardly changed. From both learners' and teachers' point of view there is still great dissatisfaction concerning the practical final grades. With regard to learning habits an increased willingness to learn new skills on the one hand and a partly increased performance pressure on the other hand were demonstrated. On the basis of these research results, the authors recommend the regular introduction of preliminary marks into the nursing training. PMID:27480188

  13. Bacterial Quality of Drinking Water in Bushehr Intercity Buses in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariush Ranjbar Vakilabadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Road transportation and specifically bus travel accounts for the bulk of travel. Contaminated drinking water consumption is one of the issues that threaten health, and always there is pollution possibility in drinking water in buses. This study evaluated the microbial quality of consumed drinking water in buses and also compared it with available standards. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. By considering similar studies, 95% confidence interval and based on the samples size formula for tradition of proportion, 80 buses from 122 buses that entered Bushehr Passenger Depot from other cities or exited it were randomly selected. Over a three-month period, samples were taken from drinking water in these buses. Temperature, pH, residual chlorine, total coliform (TC, and fecal coliform (E. coli in each sample were measured in accordance with the standard method. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out with SPSS Version 16, and the t-test was performed for statistical difference. Results: The results showed that residual chlorine in 97.5% was zero and pH values of the samples were in the range of 6.8-8.7. TC and E. coli numbers in 12.5% and 8.8% of the samples were higher than those of standards, respectively. Conclusion: Use of ice, washing time of the drinking water tank (daily or weekly, and method of usage and storage of drinking water (with 20-liter tanks had significant effects on the bacterial loads of the drinking water in the tanks (p value <0.05. Some factors such as tank material, driver's education and age, type and model of the bus, filling time of the tank (daily or weekly, the method of filling and emptying the tank (complete clearing out of the tank or otherwise, and distance had no significant effect on the quality of the drinking water in the buses.

  14. Performance management in the Slovak higher education system: preliminary evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Nemec

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is a preliminary evaluation of the introduction of performance management and performance financing arrangements in the Slovak higher education system – accreditation and formula based performance financing. This evaluation will be mainly based on the assessment of short-term impacts of the above mentioned instruments and is expected to invite further professional discussion. We feel that the data and brief analysis included are sufficient enough to show that the Slovak system represents a typical example of the potential of performance management and performance financing being significantly limited, if not destroyed. Not only because of improperly defined indicators, which are too much input and quantity orientated, but very much also due to a lack of resources (the ratio of public expenditures for higher education to the GDP in Slovakia is significantly below EU average, as well as the politicization of the system.

  15. Communication Buses and Protocols for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mason

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews existing digital communication buses which are commonly used in sensor networks, discusses sensor network architectures, and introduces a new sensor bus for low power microsystem applications. The new intra-module multi-element microsystem (IM2 bus is nine-line interface with 8b serial data which implements several advanced features such as power management and plug-n-play while maintaining minimum hardware overhead at the sensor node. Finally, some issues in wireless sensor networking are discussed. The coverage of these issues provides a guideline for choosing the appropriate bus for different sensor network applications.

  16. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab

  17. Preliminary safety evaluation for the plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapley, J.E., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-14

    This Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) describes and analyzes the installation and operation of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The SPS is a combination of components required to expedite the safe and timely storage of Plutonium (Pu) oxide. The SPS program will receive site Pu packages, process the Pu for storage, package the Pu into metallic containers, and safely store the containers in a specially modified storage vault. The location of the SPS will be in the 2736- ZB building and the storage vaults will be in the 2736-Z building of the PFP, as shown in Figure 1-1. The SPS will produce storage canisters that are larger than those currently used for Pu storage at the PFP. Therefore, the existing storage areas within the PFP secure vaults will require modification. Other modifications will be performed on the 2736-ZB building complex to facilitate the installation and operation of the SPS.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; Svalastoga, Eiliv Lars;

    guide surgical treatment. The TTTG measures tibial tuberosity position relative to the axis of the femoral trochlea. A preliminary investigation of TTTG measurement was performed using the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) cadavers as a morphologically similar and homogenous substitute for dog cadavers. CT......Reliable, validated objective criteria for preoperative and postoperative evaluation of medial patellar luxation in the dog are lacking. The tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG) is a sensitive, reliable CT or MRI measurement of distal quadriceps mechanism alignment in humans that can...... the typical TTTG in normal and patellar luxation affected dogs, and identify the optimal position for CT scanning. TTTG measurement, if refined, may prove useful in patient selection for procedures such as distal femoral osteotomy in management of medial patellar luxation in large breed dogs....

  19. Preliminary evaluation of alternate-fueled gas cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary evaluation of various alternative fuel cycles for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) is presented. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous oxide-fueled GCFRs are considered. The scenario considered is the energy center/dispersed reactor concept in which proliferation-resistant denatured reactors are coupled to 233U production reactors operating in secure energy centers. Individual reactor performance characteristics and symbiotic system parameters are summarized for several possible alternative fuel concepts. Comparisons are made between the classical homogeneous GCFR and the advanced heterogeneous concept on the basis of breeding ratio, doubling time, and net fissile gain. In addition, comparisons are made between a three-dimensional reactor model and the R-Z heterogeneous configuration utilized for the depletion and fuel management calculations. Lastly, thirty-year mass balance data are given for the various GCFR fuel cycles studied

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  1. School Buses Answer Calls for Help in Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    Five days after Hurricane Katrina struck New Orleans, a convoy of 142 air-conditioned school buses from the 209,000-student Texas district rumbled to life. Loaded with food and bottled water, staffed by 350 school employees, and accompanied by bus-repair trucks and a phalanx of school police cars, the yellow buses traveled all night to reach the…

  2. COORDINATION OF THE WORK OF BUSES IN CITY ROUTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the work of bus routes passing through a street. Optimality criterion was chosen for the development of appropriate models of effective work of buses on the land. The paper proposes a new model costing time passengers at bus stops. A method of technique was developed to coordinate the buses running on the combined section of route.

  3. 46 CFR 111.30-19 - Buses and wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses and wiring. 111.30-19 Section 111.30-19 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Switchboards § 111.30-19 Buses and wiring. (a) General. Each bus must meet the requirements...

  4. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning. PMID:26717718

  5. [Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction Benefits Analysis for Battery Electric Buses Based on Travel Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-dan; Tian, Liang; Lü, Bin; Yang, Jian-xin

    2015-09-01

    Battery Electric Bus (BEB) has become one of prior options of urban buses for its "zero emission" during the driving stage. However, the environmental performance of electric buses is affected by multi-factors from the point of whole life cycle. In practice, carrying capacity of BEB and power generation structures can both implement evident effects on the energy consumption and pollutants emission of BEB. Therefore, take the above factors into consideration, in this article, Life Cycle Assessment is employed to evaluate the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of BEB. Results indicate that, travel service is more reasonable as the functional unit, rather than mileage, since the carrying capacity of BEB is 15% lower than the diesel buses. Moreover, compared with diesel buses, the energy conservation and emissions reduction benefits of battery electric buses are all different due to different regional power structures. Specifically, the energy benefits are 7. 84%, 11. 91%, 26. 90%, 11. 15%, 19. 55% and 20. 31% respectively in Huabei, Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang power structure. From the point of comprehensive emissions reduction benefits, there is no benefit in Huabei power structure, as it depends heavily on coal. But in other areas, the comprehensive emissions reduction benefits of BEB are separately 3. 46%, 26. 81%, 1. 17%, 13. 74% and 17. 48% in Huadong, Huazhong, Dongbei, Xibei and Nanfang. Therefore, it suggests that, enlargement of carrying capacity should be taken as the most prior technology innovation direction for BEB, and the grids power structure should be taken into consideration when the development of BEB is in planning.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  7. Electric Buses in Urban Transport, The Situation and Development Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jakub Slavlk

    2014-01-01

    A study called "E-mobilita v MHD" (e-mobility in urban mass transit) has been conducted by the author's private consultancy to inform Czech public transport operators about the technologies and operational experience to date and stimulate the e-bus utilization as well as their involvement in e-bus research and development projects. The study covers trolley-buses, diesel hybrids and e-buses including fuel cell buses. These electric urban buses have been compared with combustion engine vehicles represented by diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) buses, in terms of energy consumption and cost, greenhouse gas emissions, noise and life cycle cost. Relations between urban transport e-mobility and the "smart grid" concept have been presented as well. Comprehensive reports prepared on the European Union and the USA levels have been the basis for the study, completed by information from the field research, focused especially on the bus operational reliability and other parameters important for a transport operator and covering, interalia, 12 case studies. The results show electric buses as a promising urban transport mode with massive technology development overcoming their operational limitations. Synergies between electric buses and other urban systems, such as power supply, are notable as well.

  8. Preliminary systems engineering evaluations for the National Ecological Observatory Network.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Kottenstette, Richard Joseph; Crouch, Shannon M.; Brocato, Robert Wesley; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Osborn, Thor D.; Ivey, Mark D.; Gass, Karl Leslie; Heller, Edwin J.; Dishman, James Larry; Schubert, William Kent; Zirzow, Jeffrey A.

    2008-11-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is an ambitious National Science Foundation sponsored project intended to accumulate and disseminate ecologically informative sensor data from sites among 20 distinct biomes found within the United States and Puerto Rico over a period of at least 30 years. These data are expected to provide valuable insights into the ecological impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species in these various biomes, and thereby provide a scientific foundation for the decisions of future national, regional, and local policy makers. NEON's objectives are of substantial national and international importance, yet they must be achieved with limited resources. Sandia National Laboratories was therefore contracted to examine four areas of significant systems engineering concern; specifically, alternatives to commercial electrical utility power for remote operations, approaches to data acquisition and local data handling, protocols for secure long-distance data transmission, and processes and procedures for the introduction of new instruments and continuous improvement of the sensor network. The results of these preliminary systems engineering evaluations are presented, with a series of recommendations intended to optimize the efficiency and probability of long-term success for the NEON enterprise.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Brandt, Stephen B.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary evaluation of a lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) bioenergetics model by applying the model to size-at-age data for lake whitefish from northern Lake Michigan. We then compared estimates of gross growth efficiency (GGE) from our bioenergetis model with previously published estimates of GGE for bloater (C. hoyi) in Lake Michigan and for lake whitefish in Quebec. According to our model, the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.075 to 0.02 as age increased from 2 to 5 years. In contrast, the GGE of lake whitefish in Quebec inland waters decreased from 0.12 to 0.05 for the same ages. When our swimming-speed submodel was replaced with a submodel that had been used for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Michigan and an observed predator energy density for Lake Michigan lake whitefish was employed, our model predicted that the GGE of Lake Michigan lake whitefish decreased from 0.12 to 0.04 as age increased from 2 to 5 years.

  10. Preliminary physicochemical evaluation of Kushta tutia: A Unani Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Tariq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kushta is an important solid dosage form of Unani system of medicine used to treat various ailments. Very small particle size of kushta is responsible for its rapid absorption in body leading to instant therapeutic actions. Kushta tutia (KT is one such renowned formulation used by hakims for successful management of various disorders. However, there is lack of scientific work on KT. Objectives: The present study was performed to evaluate KT physicochemically by testifying it on classical tests along with modern scientific techniques. Materials and Methods: Tutia was first detoxified as per classical literature. It was triturated with water and dried, afterwards subjected to calcination in furnace rather than cow dung cakes due to isolation of material being heated and better temperature control. Finished product was evaluated for physicochemical characteristics including preliminary tests mentioned in classical literature. Results: Floating and finger test were positive. Curd test showed no discoloration after 48 h. These findings indicate correct preparation of KT according to classical literature. Bulk density (0.96 ± 0.00 g/ml; tapped density (1.53 ± 0.00 g/ml; Hausner ratio (0.62 ± 0.00, compressibility index (37.52 ± 0.19%; loss of weight on drying (0.08 ± 0.00%; pH of 1 and 10% (5.20 ± 0.00 and 5.62 ± 0.00, respectively; total ash, acid insoluble ash, and water soluble ash values 95.75 ± 0.09, 6.57 ± 0.02, and 45.02 ± 0.20%, respectively; and extractive values 0.85 ± 0.02% were reported in KT. Conclusion: Since this work has not been reported earlier, the results obtained could be considered as the standard for KT for future studies.

  11. New concept for the ground connection in Scania’s trucks and buses

    OpenAIRE

    LLORENTE, ANDRÉS

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the ground electrical connection in trucks and buses, the requirements of earthing in heavy-duty vehicles were gathered and evaluated. The most important problems in the state-of-the-art grounding devices are corrosion, electrical resistance and uncertainty in the mounting process, altogether with depreciation over time. The goal is to come up with new concepts that can give a more reliable and better ground connection into the frame with faster, easier and safer manufacturing opera...

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  13. Status and Preliminary Evaluation for Chinese Re-Analysis Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin, zhao; chunxiang, shi; tianbao, zhao; dong, si; jingwei, liu

    2016-04-01

    Based on operational T639L60 spectral model, combined with Hybird_GSI assimilation system by using meteorological observations including radiosondes, buoyes, satellites el al., a set of Chinese Re-Analysis (CRA) datasets is developing by Chinese National Meteorological Information Center (NMIC) of Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA). The datasets are run at 30km (0.28°latitude / longitude) resolution which holds higher resolution than most of the existing reanalysis dataset. The reanalysis is done in an effort to enhance the accuracy of historical synoptic analysis and aid to find out detailed investigation of various weather and climate systems. The current status of reanalysis is in a stage of preliminary experimental analysis. One-year forecast data during Jun 2013 and May 2014 has been simulated and used in synoptic and climate evaluation. We first examine the model prediction ability with the new assimilation system, and find out that it represents significant improvement in Northern and Southern hemisphere, due to addition of new satellite data, compared with operational T639L60 model, the effect of upper-level prediction is improved obviously and overall prediction stability is enhanced. In climatological analysis, compared with ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE reanalyses, the results show that surface temperature simulates a bit lower in land and higher over ocean, 850-hPa specific humidity reflects weakened anomaly and the zonal wind value anomaly is focus on equatorial tropics. Meanwhile, the reanalysis dataset shows good ability for various climate index, such as subtropical high index, ESMI (East-Asia subtropical Summer Monsoon Index) et al., especially for the Indian and western North Pacific monsoon index. Latter we will further improve the assimilation system and dynamical simulating performance, and obtain 40-years (1979-2018) reanalysis datasets. It will provide a more comprehensive analysis for synoptic and climate diagnosis.

  14. Design, implementation and preliminary evaluation of a telemedicine system for home haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiadas, Marios; Agroyiannis, Basil; Carson, Ewart; Cramp, Derek; Fourtounas, Costas; Darnige, Ann; Morgan, Alastair; Murley, David; Tsavdaris, Harry; Hassomeris, Costas; Skouras, Costas

    2002-01-01

    A telemedicine system for home haemodialysis was designed using a systems approach and a feedback model to produce the hardware and software specifications. Preliminary clinical trials at four European locations involved 29 patients and 305 sessions of haemodialysis. The evaluation included an evaluability assessment and formative evaluation. Central to the methodology was the detailed specification of a stakeholder/evaluation criterion matrix. Preliminary results indicated that the telemedicine system was capable of satisfying the requirements of formative evaluation as a precursor to evaluating its overall worth. PMID:12097177

  15. Preliminary evaluation of wind energy potential: Cook Inlet area, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes work on a project performed under contract to the Alaska Power Administration (APA). The objective of this research was to make a preliminary assessment of the wind energy potential for interconnection with the Cook Inlet area electric power transmission and distribution systems, to identify the most likely candidate regions (25 to 100 square miles each) for energy potential, and to recommend a monitoring program sufficient to quantify the potential.

  16. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  17. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  18. High Energy Batteries for Hybrid Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Lu

    2010-12-31

    EnerDel batteries have already been employed successfully for electric vehicle (EV) applications. Compared to EV applications, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) bus applications may be less stressful, but are still quite demanding, especially compared to battery applications for consumer products. This program evaluated EnerDel cell and pack system technologies with three different chemistries using real world HEV-Bus drive cycles recorded in three markets covering cold, hot, and mild climates. Cells were designed, developed, and fabricated using each of the following three chemistries: (1) Lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC) - hard carbon (HC); (2) Lithium manganese oxide (LMO) - HC; and (3) LMO - lithium titanium oxide (LTO) cells. For each cell chemistry, battery pack systems integrated with an EnerDel battery management system (BMS) were successfully constructed with the following features: real time current monitoring, cell and pack voltage monitoring, cell and pack temperature monitoring, pack state of charge (SOC) reporting, cell balancing, and over voltage protection. These features are all necessary functions for real-world HEV-Bus applications. Drive cycle test data was collected for each of the three cell chemistries using real world drive profiles under hot, mild, and cold climate conditions representing cities like Houston, Seattle, and Minneapolis, respectively. We successfully tested the battery packs using real-world HEV-Bus drive profiles under these various climate conditions. The NMC-HC and LMO-HC based packs successfully completed the drive cycles, while the LMO-LTO based pack did not finish the preliminary testing for the drive cycles. It was concluded that the LMO-HC chemistry is optimal for the hot or mild climates, while the NMC-HC chemistry is optimal for the cold climate. In summary, the objectives were successfully accomplished at the conclusion of the project. This program provided technical data to DOE and the public for assessing

  19. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix

  20. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, L.J.; Taylor, J.T.

    2000-08-31

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  1. Preliminary Criticality Safety Evaluation for In Situ Grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, Lawrence J; Taylor, Joseph Todd

    2000-08-01

    A preliminary criticality safety evaluation is presented for in situ grouting in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The grouting materials evaluated are cement and paraffin. The evaluation determines physical and administrative controls necessary to preclude criticality and identifies additional information required for a final criticality safety evaluation. The evaluation shows that there are no criticality concerns with cementitious grout but a neutron poison such as boron would be required for the use of the paraffin matrix.

  2. Towards sustainable urban transportation: Test, demonstration and development of fuel cell and hybrid-electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several aspects make today's transport system non-sustainable: - Production, transport and combustion of fossil fuels lead to global and local environmental problems. - Oil dependency in the transport sector may lead to economical and political instability. - Air pollution, noise, congestion and land-use may jeopardise public health and quality of life, especially in urban areas. In a sustainable urban transport system most trips are made with public transport because high convenience and comfort makes travelling with public transport attractive. In terms of emissions, including noise, the vehicles are environmentally sustainable, locally as well as globally. Vehicles are energy-efficient and the primary energy stems from renewable sources. Costs are reasonable for all involved, from passengers, bus operators and transport authorities to vehicle manufacturers. The system is thus commercially viable on its own merits. This thesis presents the results from three projects involving different concept buses, all with different powertrains. The first two projects included technical evaluations, including tests, of two different fuel cell buses. The third project focussed on development of a series hybrid-bus with internal combustion engine intended for production around 2010. The research on the fuel cell buses included evaluations of the energy efficiency improvement potential using energy mapping and vehicle simulations. Attitudes to hydrogen fuel cell buses among passengers, bus drivers and bus operators were investigated. Safety aspects of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel were analysed and the use of hydrogen compared to electrical energy storage were also investigated. One main conclusion is that a city bus should be considered as one energy system, because auxiliaries contribute largely to the energy use. Focussing only on the powertrain is not sufficient. The importance of mitigating losses far down an energy conversion chain is emphasised. The Scania hybrid fuel cell

  3. The economic and environmental feasibility of biogas buses in Liege

    OpenAIRE

    Mostert, Martine; Limbourg, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Everyday, many students at the University of Liège have to drive to the Sart-Tilman village to attend their courses. These journeys are responsible for the emission of harmful particles which have negative impacts on climate and human health. This paper analyzes the economic and environmental feasibility of using biogas buses for public transport in Liège. The idea of implementing biogas buses is based on the proposed recycling of organic waste by the company INTRADEL, which manages and treat...

  4. Lumbar disc ultrasonography for evaluation of chemonucleolysis: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo; Park, Hyung Chun; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Oh, Seong Hoon [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-06-15

    There has been no reported change of ultrasonographic findings of nucleus pulposus in chemonucleolysis. We have found that the particle of herniated nucleus pulposus are highly echogenic and change to low echogenic after chemonucleolysis. On an in vitro experimental study, ultrasonography of the surgical specimen of the herniated nucleus pulposus was highly echogenic. After soaking the chymopapain into the surgical specimen of the herniated nucleus pulposus, the echogenicity was progressively lowered as time passed from 3 minutes to 12 hours. Our preliminary results are divided as two folds; 1. High echogenic shadows of outside of annulus fibrosus on ultrasonography of herniated lumbar disc will be important indicator of selection of patients for good therapeutic results of chemonucleolysis. 2. Progressively lowered echogenicity of high echogenic shadow after chemouncleolysis suggests good reaction of chymopapain with herniated nucleus pulposus.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of two new cable surface innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burlina, Celeste; Georgakis, Christos T.; Larsen, S.V.;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up to a Reyno......In this paper, the aerodynamic performance of two innovative bridge cable surfaces with concave fillets are examined and compared with traditional helical fillets. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the aerodynamic static force coefficients up...... to a Reynolds number of 3.2 x 105. The tests confirmed the results obtained from the preliminary tests performed by Kleissl and Georgakis (2013) on the prototype cable surfaces with the concave fillets. Despite a more than 100% increase of the fillet height compared to a traditional helical fillet profile...

  6. Fabrication and preliminary evaluation of metal matrix microencapsulated fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal matrix microencapsulated (M3) fuel concept for light water reactors (LWRs), consisting of coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix, is introduced. Fabrication of M3 fuels by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing, or extrusion methodologies has been demonstrated over the temperature range 800–1050 °C. Various types of coated fuel particles with outermost layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, ZrC, and TiN have been incorporated into the zirconium metal matrix. Mechanical particle–particle and chemical particle–matrix interactions have been observed during the preliminary characterization of as-fabricated M3 specimens. Irradiation of three M3 rodlets with surrogate coated fuel particles was carried out at mean rod temperature of 400 °C to 4.6 dpa in the zirconium metal matrix. Due to absence of texture in the metal matrix no irradiation growth strain (<0.09%) was detected during the post-irradiation examination.

  7. Overcoming obstacles to the commercialization of natural gas school buses and shuttle buses. Final report, February 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, R.; Blazek, C.

    1993-03-01

    The report provides an overview of the objectives, conclusions and recommendations discussed during the GRI-sponsored workshop. The workshop was unique in that it brought together a number of industry groups - chassis builders, engine manufacturers, end users, and natural gas distribution companies. The workshop focused upon identifying obstacles to the commercialization of natural gas school buses and shuttle buses in the near-term, defined as 1993 to 1996. Additional topics included R and D and technology transfer needs, infrastructure development, and legislative and regulatory impacts. Considerable attention was also devoted to the experience of end users, with regard to methods of facilitating fleet conversion and improving conversion economics.

  8. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  9. Active screening of magnetic field near power stations generator buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study technique for a prototyping system of active screening of power-frequency magnetic field distortions near power station generator buses via controllable magnetic field sources is presented. Results of experimental research on a proto-typing active screening system with different control algorithms are given.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of DOE-NEPA monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this analysis was to perform a preliminary investigation of the problems involved in designing a Department of Energy-National Environmental Policy Act (DOE-NEPA) compliance monitoring system. The requirement for such a system arose from the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ-NEPA regulation effective July 30, 1979. The CEQ regulation uses the term monitoring to denote any method by which the lead agency can assure implementation of Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Record of Decision (ROD) environmental mitigation commitments. Monitoring is required for mitigation measures in important cases and may be carried out at agency discretion for all other cases. No definition of important is given in the regulation. The NEPA intent is that all environmental information and planning be incorporated into the decision process as early as possible. In keeping with this concept, any monitoring or enforcement program for a mitigation measure is expected to be adopted and briefly and concisely described in the ROD. Information is presented in four chapters entitled: federal and state compliance monitoring surveys; EIS information analysis; enforcement mechanisms; and administrative practice

  11. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnaveni

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally used by the tribal of Rajasthan to prevent conception. Roots are used as appetizer, aphrodisiac, brain tonic, cardiotonic and to treat insanity and synovitis. Leaves, seeds preparations are used to treat epilepsy, diarrhea and nootropic. Leaf materials were collected, dried and coarsely powdered and were subjected to physiochemical constants, behavioral characters of the leaf powder with chemical reagents. Pharmacognostical studies include macroscopical, microscopical observations. Physical chemical constants such as ash values, extractive values, loss on drying, foreign organic matter were determined. Ash values include total ash; acid insoluble and water soluble ash were observed. Extractive values of powder with solvents such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl actetae, ethanol and water were determined. Macroscopical characters help in identifying the leaf. Anatomical observations showed the presence of trichomes, upper and lower epidermal cells with rubiaceous stomata. Sclerenchyma fibers and acicular crystal were observed. The percentage of total ash values (4.3, 1.6 and3.94 % yield of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, ethanol and water showed 3.16,6.4,5.8,10.2 and 7.6% respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening reported the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, glycosides and flavanoids.The reported phytoconstitutents of the plant Argyreia nervosa may be responsible for the pharmacological activities. The results obtained add credit to the existing traditional information which will further increase the usage of this plant and provokes towards the investigation of the plant.

  12. Super-Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation volume 2: Preliminary impact and market transformation assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. It is one of the first examples of a large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the preliminary impact and market transformation evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for the U.S. Department of Energy. This study focuses on the preliminary impact evaluation and market transformation assessment, but also presents limited process evaluation information. It is based on interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, interviews with utility participants, industry data, and information from the Program administrators. Results from this study complement those from prior process evaluation also conducted by PNNL. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Preliminary data for the 20 May 1974, simultaneous evaluation of remote sensors experiment. [water pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Batten, C. E.; Bowker, D. E.; Bressette, W. E.; Grew, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Several remote sensors were simultaneously used to collect data over the tidal James River from Hopewell to Norfolk, Virginia. Sensors evaluated included the Multichannel-Ocean Color Sensor, multispectral scanners, and multispectral photography. Ground truth measurements and remotely sensed data are given. Preliminary analysis indicates that suspended sediment and concentrated industrial effluent are observable from all sensors.

  14. Description and Preliminary Training Evaluation of an Arc Welding Simulator. Research Report SRR 73-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Macy L.; And Others

    A prototype arc welding training simulator was designed to provide immediate, discriminative feedback and the capacity for concentrated practice. Two randomly selected groups of welding trainees were compared to evaluate the simulator, one group being trained using the simulator and the other using conventional practice. Preliminary data indicated…

  15. Preliminary Technical and Legal Evaluation of Disposing of Nonhazardous Oil Field Waste into Salt Caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, Robert C.; Caudle, Dan; Elcock, Deborah; Raivel, Mary; Veil, John; and Grunewald, Ben

    1999-01-21

    This report presents an initial evaluation of the suitability, feasibility, and legality of using salt caverns for disposal of nonhazardous oil field wastes. Given the preliminary and general nature of this report, we recognize that some of our findings and conclusions maybe speculative and subject to change upon further research on this topic.

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of a Computer Simulation of Long Cane Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubon, Robert A.; Keith, Ashley D.

    1989-01-01

    Developed and evaluated long cane mobility computer simulation as visual rehabilitation training device and research tool in graduate students assigned to instruction (BI) (N=10) or enhanced instruction (EI) (N=9). Found higher percentage of EI students completed simulation task. Concluded that students registered positive understanding changes,…

  17. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  18. National Evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program: Preliminary Evaluation Plan for Program Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternes, Mark P [ORNL; Schweitzer, Martin [ORNL; Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL; Schmoyer, Richard L [ORNL; Eisenberg, Joel Fred [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    federal, state, and local initiatives. For example, the use of computerized audits has increased, cooling and baseload measures have been added, weatherization approaches tailored to the unique construction characteristics of mobile homes have been developed, the weatherization of large multifamily buildings has expanded and become more sophisticated, the flexibility to improve 'energy-related' health and safety has been provided, and leveraging with utilities, other state programs, and owners of large multifamily buildings has increased considerably. The Department of Energy tasked ORNL with planning the new evaluation in light of its experience in conducting the previous national evaluation and the metaevaluations. This preliminary evaluation plan, developed by ORNL, documents how the new national evaluation will be performed. In the remaining portion of this section, the purpose and fundamental questions the evaluation will address are identified and how these questions were derived is discussed.

  19. In vitro tests to evaluate immunotoxicity: A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Carfi', M; Gennari, A; Malerba, I; Corsini, E; Pallardy, M; Pieters, R; Van Loveren, Henk; Vohr, H W; Hartung, T.; Gribaldo, L.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of new and existing Chemicals (REACH) will increase the number of laboratory animals used, if alternative methods will not be available. In the meantime, REACH promotes the use of in vitro tests and, therefore, a set of appropriated alternative testing methods and assessment strategies are needed. The immune system can be a target for many chemicals including environmental contaminants and drugs with potential adverse effects on...

  20. [Clinical diagnosis and standardized evaluation of borderline personality: preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaine, F; Guelfi, J D; Monier, C; Brun, A; Seunevel, F

    1995-01-01

    A sample of 36 patients considered by French clinicians as suffering from a borderline personality disorder was evaluated using the International Personality Disorder Examination, the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline-Revised, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. First, global descriptive analysis of the sample elicited the socio-demographic and standard clinical characteristics of the borderline individuals. After diagnostic evaluation, the sample appeared to be quite homogeneous with 25 of the 36 patients evaluated (69.5%) being defined as borderline by two of the three diagnostic systems: ICD 10, DSM III-R and Gunderson (15/36 = 41.5% of patients were defined as borderline by all three systems). It is the types of BL personality co-diagnoses which differentiated the BL subjects in the sample from those classically described in the international literature, since the most frequent personalities were the Dependent and Avoiding ones, not the Antisocial, Histrionic, Narcissistic or Schizotypic personalities of the DSM III-R. ICD 10 elicited the same significant prevalence of Anxious and Dependent personalities. Lastly, the patients diagnosed as borderline both by clinicians and by all diagnostic systems (forming the sample "core") were compared with the rest of the sample with regard to socio-demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. A few hypotheses are proposed on the type of variables that may permit to discriminate between these two types of patients.

  1. Preliminary In-Vivo Evaluation of Convex Array Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Høgholm; Gammelmark, Kim; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic transmit aperture (STA) imaging has previously been investigated and compared to traditional imaging techniques in simulations and phantom studies. However, a full in-vivo study evaluating its clinical potential has yet to be conducted. This paper presents a preliminary in-vivo study of...... doctors using randomized blinded presentation. Penetration and image quality were scored and evaluated statistically. Results show that in-vivo imaging using STA imaging is feasible with improved image quality compared to conventional imaging....

  2. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2' x 2' x l' HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to the authors specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. The authors suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted

  3. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2' x 2' x 1' HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted

  4. Preliminary field evaluation of high efficiency steel filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have conducted an evaluation of two high efficiency steel filters in the exhaust of an uranium oxide grit blaster at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge Tennessee. The filters were installed in a specially designed filter housing with a reverse air-pulse cleaning system for automatically cleaning the filters in-place. Previous tests conducted on the same filters and housing at LLNL under controlled conditions using Arizona road dust showed good cleanability with reverse air pulses. Two high efficiency steel filters, containing 64 pleated cartridge elements housed in the standard 2` x 2` x 1` HEPA frame, were evaluated in the filter test housing using a 1,000 cfm slip stream containing a high concentration of depleted uranium oxide dust. One filter had the pleated cartridges manufactured to our specifications by the Pall Corporation and the other by Memtec Corporation. Test results showed both filters had a rapid increase in pressure drop with time, and reverse air pulses could not decrease the pressure drop. We suspected moisture accumulation in the filters was the problem since there were heavy rains during the evaluations, and the pressure drop of the Memtec filter decreased dramatically after passing clean, dry air through the filter and after the filter sat idle for one week. Subsequent laboratory tests on a single filter cartridge confirmed that water accumulation in the filter was responsible for the increase in filter pressure drop and the inability to lower the pressure drop by reverse air pulses. No effort was made to identify the source of the water accumulation and correct the problem because the available funds were exhausted.

  5. "Think the sink:" Preliminary evaluation of a handwashing promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Liang, Ming-Ching; Champlin, Sara

    2013-03-01

    Owing to its utility in guiding the planning and evaluation of health promotion campaigns, the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to implement a 1-month campaign aimed at increasing handwashing among college students. Based on observations of bathroom users' handwashing behavior (n = 1,005) and an online survey (n = 188), overall handwashing did not increase as a result of the campaign; however, more students did use soap (58% vs 70%). Future campaigns designed to increase handwashing behavior in students may be advised to target messages according to gender difference-based responsiveness to handwashing norms. PMID:22990299

  6. World Opinion and the Soviet Satellite: A Preliminary Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-01-01

    Less than two weeks after the launch of Sputnik I, the United States Information Agency conducted an informal analysis of public opinion on this subject. The analysis yielded four clear conclusions: (1) Soviet claims of scientific and technological superiority were widely accepted in the United States; (2) U.S. allies were concerned about a shift in the balance of military power; (3) the overall credibility of Soviet propaganda was greatly strengthened; and (4) American prestige was dealt a severe blow. The report also concluded that the near-hysteria in the United States in turn increased the level of concern in countries friendly to the United States. An evaluation is presented.

  7. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  8. A preliminary study of cryosphere service function and value evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Cun-De; WANG Shi-Jin; QIN Da-He

    2015-01-01

    Cryosphere science research and development (R&D) has been strongly committed to public service, integrating natural sciences with socioeconomic impacts. Owing to the current shift from purely natural cryosphere scientific research to linking cryosphere science with so-cioeconomic and cultural science, cross-disciplinary research in this field is emerging, which advocates future cryosphere science research in this field. Utilizing the cryosphere service function (CSF), this study establishes CSF and its value evaluation system. Cryosphere service valuation can benefit the decisionmakers' and public's awareness of environmental protection. Implementing sustainable CSF utilization strategies and macroeconomic policymaking for global environmental protection will have profound and practical significance as well as avoid environmental degradation while pursuing short-term economic profits and achieving rapid economic development.

  9. Product Meaning, Affective Use Evaluation, and Transfer: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Helfenstein

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this investigation explored the multidimensional nature of product meaning, referring to the variety of connotations and functions a consumer associates with a particular product category. The subsequent experiment examined the moderation effects of product meaning and other attributes of the user on (a the affective evaluation of an obstructed use interaction, and (b the transfer of emotion between devices presented as being either of the same or a different brand. Although the failure experience essentially caused frustration, this reaction varied substantially among consumers depending on product meaning, age, and gender. The results also showed that the emotion dimensions of pleasure, arousal, and dominance were affected in distinct ways, and that, in addition to the consumer variables, transfer was mainly dependent on the brand relation. Nevertheless, user frustration did not cause general brand aversion, indicating that poor designs do not unconditionally threaten the customer relationship.

  10. The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III : Trucks, Buses and Trains

    CERN Document Server

    Orellano, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International conference “The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles III: Trucks, Buses and Trains” held in Potsdam, Germany, September 12-17, 2010 by Engineering Conferences International (ECI). Leading scientists and engineers from industry, universities and research laboratories, including truck and high-speed train manufacturers and operators were brought together to discuss computer simulation and experimental techniques to be applied for the design of more efficient trucks, buses and high-speed trains in the future.   This conference was the third in the series after Monterey-Pacific Groove in 2002 and Lake Tahoe in 2007.  The presentations address different aspects of train aerodynamics (cross wind effects, underbody flow, tunnel aerodynamics and aeroacoustics, experimental techniques), truck aerodynamics (drag reduction, flow control, experimental and computational techniques) as well as computational fluid dynamics and bluff body, wake and jet flows.

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  12. Mortar radiocarbon dating: preliminary accuracy evaluation of a novel methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzaioli, Fabio; Lubritto, Carmine; Nonni, Sara; Passariello, Isabella; Capano, Manuela; Terrasi, Filippo

    2011-03-15

    Mortars represent a class of building and art materials that are widespread at archeological sites from the Neolithic period on. After about 50 years of experimentation, the possibility to evaluate their absolute chronology by means of radiocarbon ((14)C) remains still uncertain. With the use of a simplified mortar production process in the laboratory environment, this study shows the overall feasibility of a novel physical pretreatment for the isolation of the atmospheric (14)CO(2) (i.e., binder) signal absorbed by the mortars during their setting. This methodology is based on the assumption that an ultrasonic attack in liquid phase isolates a suspension of binder carbonates from bulk mortars. Isotopic ((13)C and (14)C), % C, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed to characterize the proposed methodology. The applied protocol allows suppression of the fossil carbon (C) contamination originating from the incomplete burning of the limestone during the quick lime production, providing unbiased dating for "laboratory" mortars produced operating at historically adopted burning temperatures.

  13. Preliminary phytochemicals evaluation of different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemicals are natural bioactive compounds found in plants, such as vegetables, fruits, medicinal plants, flowers, leaves and roots that work with nutrients and fibers to protect against various human diseases. Gynura procumbens or locally known as Sambung Nyawa is a plant species widely planted in many warmer regions. It is a perennial plant of the Asteraceae family, which may grow to 100 cm high with oval-shaped, leaves to 10 cm long and have a rather fleshy feel. Gynura procumbens has been used for the treatment of eruptive fevers, rash and kidney disease. The leaves of this plant continue to be used as folk medicine to control diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidaemia. The aim of this research was to evaluate the presence of phytochemicals constituents in different solvent extracts of Gynura procumbens leaves. Qualitative phytochemicals screening of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were carried out for the detection of terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids, lipids, coumarin, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. The phytochemicals screening showed positive results for terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, lipids, coumarin and anthraquinones in methanol and water extracts of Gynura procumbens. The diversity of phytochemicals present suggests that Gynura procumbens leaves could serve as a source of useful drugs. (author)

  14. A preliminary evaluation of the nonfuel mineral potential of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Additional exploration in Somalia is warranted for a wide variety of metallic and nonmetallic deposits. In Precambrian rocks, deposit types favorable for exploration include: a banded iron formation; platinum-bearing mafic-ultramafic complexes; tin-bearing quartz veins; phosphorite; stratabound base-metal deposits; uranium associated with Precambrian(?) syenite; apatite, molybdenum, and alumina in alkalic rocks; Jurassic and Cretaceous black shales; possible bedded-barite and massive base- and precious-metal sulfide deposits; vein barite in Tertiary rocks in fault zones; sepiolite and bentonite for drilling muds and other industrial uses; celestite; possible Tertiary zeolite; and uranium deposits. Several of these deposit types could be Jointly developed and integrated into domestic industries; for example, phosphate and gypsum, or bentonite for pelletized iron from the banded iron deposits. Other deposits such as barite and sepiolite are of value because of their proximity to major drilling operations in the Arabian Gulf. Still other deposits, such as alumina and banded iron, might be marketable because of proximity to aluminum and iron-refining industries now being constructed in Saudi Arabia. Some deposits, such as celestite, can be developed with little capital investment; others, such as the iron deposits, would require large capital commitments. Exploration and evaluation for many of these deposits can be accomplished by Somali geologists with a few advisors. Most of the deposits require feasibility studies conducted by teams of economic geologists, extractive metallurgists, and economists. Some marginal deposits could be exploited if cooperative development schemes could be negotiated with governments in nearby countries.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and preliminary antibrowning evaluations of norartocarpetin microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Dong, Xue; Yuan, Kun; Lan, Shan; Zhu, Qin; Wang, Mingfu; Chen, Jie

    2015-02-11

    Norartocarpetin is a flavone widely distributed in Moraceae plants with strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity. However, its poor solubility in aqueous systems and in food grade solvents (oils) limits its extensive applications. The aim of this study was to improve the solubility of norartocarpetin by developing an oil-in-water (o/w) microemulsion with food grade components. A microemulsion was developed and characterized, and its chemical and physical stabilities were also evaluated within 8 weeks. Using the construction of pseudoternary phase diagrams, the optimized formulation of 2% w/w of ethyl oleate, 12% w/w of Tween 80, 6% w/w of polyethylene glycol 400, and 80% w/w of water was obtained, with a maximum solubility of norartocarpetin up to 1.73 ± 0.21 mg/mL, at least a 1000-fold increase in solubility. The microemulsion base and norartocarpetin-loaded microemulsion were demonstrated to be stable after accelerated and long-term conditions (8 weeks). The norartocarpetin microemulsion still showed strong tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antibrowning effect on fresh-cut apple slices. These combined results indicated that norartocarpetin microemulsion may be suitable as an antibrowning agent for fresh-cut fruits. PMID:25603116

  16. Preliminary Evaluations of FGOALS-g2 for Decadal Predictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LIU Mimi; YU Yongqiang; LI Lijuan; LIN Pengfei; DONG Li; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    The Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model,Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2) for decadal predictions,is evaluated preliminarily,based on sets of ensemble 10-year hindcasts that it has produced.The results show that the hindcasts were more accurate in decadal variability of SST and surface air temperature (SAT),particularly in that of Ni(n)o3.4 SST and China regional SAT,than the second sample of the historical runs for 20th-century climate (the control) by the same model.Both the control and the hindcasts represented the global warming well using the same external forcings,but the control overestimated the warming.The hindcasts produced the warming closer to the observations.Performance of FGOALS-g2 in hindcasts benefits from more realistic initial conditions provided by the initialization run and a smaller model bias resulting from the use of a dynamic bias correction scheme newly developed in this study.The initialization consists of a 61-year nudging-based assimilation cycle,which follows on the control run on 01 January 1945 with the incorporation of observation data of upper-ocean temperature and salinity at each integration step in the ocean component model,the LASG IAP Climate System Ocean Model,Version 2 (LICOM2).The dynamic bias correction is implemented at each step of LICOM2 during the hindcasts to reduce the systematic biases existing in upper-ocean temperature and salinity by incorporating multi-year monthly mean increments produced in the assimilation cycle.The effectiveness of the assimilation cycle and the role of the correction scheme were assessed prior to the hindcasts.

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gikakis, Christina [Federal Transit Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-12-11

    This report, published annually, summarizes the progress of fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) development in the United States and discusses the achievements and challenges of introducing fuel cell propulsion in transit. Various stakeholders, including FCEB developers, transit agencies, and system integrators, have expressed the value of this annual status report, which provides a summary of results from evaluations performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The annual status report tracks the progress of the FCEB industry toward meeting technical targets, documents the lessons learned, and discusses the path forward for commercial viability of fuel cell technology for transit buses. The 2015 summary results primarily focus on the most recent year for each demonstration, from August 2014 through July 2015. The results for these buses account for more than 1,045,000 miles traveled and 83,000 hours of fuel cell power system operation. The primary results presented in the report are from two demonstrations of fuel-cell-dominant bus designs: the Zero Emission Bay Area Demonstration Group led by Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) in California and the American Fuel Cell Bus Project at SunLine Transit Agency in California.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of mosquito larvicidal efficacy of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Das, D. Goswami & B. Rabha

    2007-06-01

    insect vectors of publichealth importance.Northeastern region of India is considered as a majorbiodiversity hot spot. The eastern Himalayas range,which extends all through the northern border ofAssam, is a rich treasure house of many promisingmedicinal and aromatic plants. In the present communication,an attempt has been made to evaluate themosquito larvicidal efficacy of methanol and ethanolextracts of different parts of five indigenous plantsagainst Ae. albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae and Culexquinquefasciatus larvae in laboratory conditions.Plant materials were collected from the foothill forestsof Sonitpur district, Assam bordering ArunachalPradesh during April and May 2005. They were segregatedas leaf, stem, bark, root and fruit/pericarp andair-dried in a shady place. Dried materials wereground in a table model grinder. The ground plant materialswere dipped in solvents (methanol and ethanolShort Research Communications146 J VECT BORNE DIS 44, JUNE 2007in tightly capped jars separately for 48 h. The solventsalong with extracts were drained out, filtered andsemisolid extracts were obtained in vacuum usingrotary evaporator. The semisolid extracts were lyophilisedto obtain solid extracts. Stock solutions of desiredconcentration were prepared in distilled waterusing 1 ppm teepol as emulsifying agent and subsequentdilutions were made as per requirement. Larvicidalbioassay was carried out as per standard WHOtechniques in 500 ml glass beakers containing 250 mlof water and 25 numbers of late III or early IV instarmosquito larvae for various concentrations. Threedifferent concentrations of each extract were tried outat a time with six replicates. One control was kept witheach set of experiment and mortality was recordedafter 24 h. Five sets of experiments were conductedfor each extract. Tests were carried out under controlledlaboratory conditions (temperature 27 ± 2oCagainst laboratory reared Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae larvae. Values

  19. Analysis for preliminary evaluation of discrete fracture flow and large-scale permeability in sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual models for sedimentary rock settings that could be used in future evaluation and suitability studies are being examined through the DOE Repository Technology Program. One area of concern for the hydrologic aspects of these models is discrete fracture flow analysis as related to the estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume, evaluation of the appropriateness of continuum assumptions and estimation of the large-scale permeabilities of sedimentary rocks. A basis for preliminary analysis of flow in fracture systems of the types that might be expected to occur in low permeability sedimentary rocks is presented. The approach used involves numerical modeling of discrete fracture flow for the configuration of a large-scale hydrologic field test directed at estimation of the size of the representative elementary volume and large-scale permeability. Analysis of fracture data on the basis of this configuration is expected to provide a preliminary indication of the scale at which continuum assumptions can be made

  20. Preliminary study of small scale solar test cells for solar thermal evaluation of building components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, G. [CIEMAT, Renewable Energy Dept., Madrid (Spain)]|[CENIDET, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Jimenez, M.J.; Heras, M.R. [CIEMAT, Renewable Energy Dept., Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study to validate small scale solar test cells for thermal evaluation of building components such as windows and roofs. The description and performance of the scale test cells are described. The validation of the thermal performance was made with the real test cell Passys indirectly by applying the classical averaging method that was initially used for the Passys cells to determine overall heat loss coefficient, UA, and the solar heat gain, gA. The use of this methodology was selected, as a first approach, to evaluate the viability of the study of scale test cells. Our preliminary results indicate that some percentage differences were high for some tests. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the period of time of the measurements of the scale test cells, in order to use dynamic system methods to reduce the percentage differences of UA and gA. (orig.)

  1. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Oberto; P. Gaglioti; G. Oggè; E. Olearo; Pace, C.; T. Trodos; G.L. Panattoni

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD), with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL) that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ag...

  2. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Garg Nitika; Meena Ajay; Nain Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glyco...

  3. Preliminary survey and evaluation of nonaquifer thermal energy storage concepts for seasonal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blahnik, D.E.

    1980-11-01

    Thermal energy storage enables the capture and retention of heat energy (or cold) during one time period for use during another. Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) involves a period of months between the input and recovery of energy. The purpose of this study was to make a preliminary investigation and evaluation of potential nonaquifer STES systems. Current literature was surveyed to determine the state of the art of thermal energy storage (TES) systems such as hot water pond storage, hot rock storage, cool ice storage, and other more sophisticated concepts which might have potential for future STES programs. The main energy sources for TES principally waste heat, and the main uses of the stored thermal energy, i.e., heating, cooling, and steam generation are described. This report reviews the development of sensible, latent, and thermochemical TES technologies, presents a preliminary evaluation of the TES methods most applicable to seasonal storage uses, outlines preliminary conclusions drawn from the review of current TES literature, and recommends further research based on these conclusions. A bibliography of the nonaquifer STES literature review, and examples of 53 different TES concepts drawn from the literature are provided. (LCL)

  4. Properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx cast steel modified with niobium; evaluation methodology and experimental preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental methodology to evaluate the mechanical properties of ABNT 41xx and 86xx steels modified with NB in the as cast and heat treated conditions and the first preliminary results obtained in a laboratory scale, are presented. (Author)

  5. Preliminary evaluation of wheelchair occupant restraint system usage in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roosmalen, Linda; Bertocci, Gina E; Hobson, Douglas A; Karg, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Individuals using wheeled mobility devices (WMDs) often use them as motor vehicle seats during transportation. Wheelchair occupant restraint systems (WORSs), consisting of upper torso and pelvic restraints, are usually mounted to the structure of transit vehicles to secure individuals within their wheelchair seats. This preliminary study attempts to evaluate the use and satisfaction of currently installed vehicle-mounted WORSs for individuals using WMD as seats in motor vehicles. A survey was conducted among 33 adults who use their WMD to travel in motor vehicles. Results from the survey showed that upper torso and pelvic restraints installed in private vehicles are quick, comfortable, and easy to use. However, WORS installed in mass transit and paratransit are often uncomfortable to wear, difficult to reach, and time-consuming to use. This preliminary study documents the growing need for developing alternative WORS that are safe, comfortable, and that allow independent usage for wheelchair occupants while traveling in a motor vehicle.

  6. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF DIPTERACANTHUS PROSTRATUS NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy.P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipteracanthus prostratus is an prostrate perennial herb. It is a small straggling, much branched herb it is purple at the nodes, internodes are long and hairy. It used as anti-cancer, hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and Diuretics. The present study was carried out to preliminary phytochemical evaluation of whole plant of Dipeteracanthus prostratus nees. The study includes preparation of different extracts by successive solvent extraction for detail analysis. Fluorescence analysis of different successive extract and powder were noted under UV light and normal ordinary light, which signifies there characteristics. Preliminary qualitative chemical test for different extract shows the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, fixed oil and fats, phenolic compounds, protein and amino acids, tannins, gum and mucilage, flavonoids and carbohydrates.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of timing training accelerator for the SPRINT rowing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffaldi Emanuele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the selection and preliminary evaluation of rowing gesture timing training on the SPRINT platform. After the analysis of experts’ gestures and a literature review of rowing technique features, the selection of proper feedbacks and the development of the training protocol are investigated. The general problem discussed here is the learning of timing of complex motor pattern under the effect of load. Eight novice adults participated the experiment, half of them receiving vibrotactile feedback (VIB, both receiving knowledge of results (KR after training blocks. Preliminary results show the difficulty people had to accomplish the task and to exploit feedback. There is in fact no evidence of feedback effectiveness when comparing VIB-KR and KR group. Some causes were hypothesized and a side effect of load condition arisen from data. Therefore timing training will be further investigated exploiting information gathered.

  8. Prediction of Conducted Emissions in Satellite Power Buses

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Spadacini; Flavia Grassi; Diego Bellan; Pignari, Sergio A.; Filippo Marliani

    2015-01-01

    This work reports a modeling methodology for the prediction of conducted emissions (CE) in a wide frequency range (up to 100 MHz), which are generated by dc/dc converters and propagate along the power buses of satellites. In particular, the dc/dc converter seen as a source of CE is represented by a behavioral model, whose parameters can be identified by two unit-level experimental procedures performed in controlled test setups. A simplified multiconductor transmission-line (MTL) model is deve...

  9. Preliminary evaluation of sweet spot size in virtual sound reproduction using dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacouture Parodi, Yesenia; Rubak, Per

    2009-01-01

    In a previous study, three crosstalk cancellation techniques were evaluated and compared under different conditions. Least square approximations in frequency and time domain were evaluated along with a method based on minimum-phase approximation and a frequency independent delay. In general...... to the loudspeakers. In this paper we present a follow up evaluation of the performance of the three inversion techniques when these conditions are violated. A setup to measure the sweet spot of different loudspeakers arrangements is described. Preliminary measurement results are presented for loudspeakers placed...... at the horizontal plane and an elevated position, where a typical 60 degrees stereo setup is compared with two closely spaced loudspeaker. Additionally, two- and four-channels arrangements are evaluated....

  10. A case study of real-world tailpipe emissions for school buses using a 20% biodiesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kuhns, Hampden D; Moosmüller, Hans; Witt, Jay; Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Oliver Chang, M-C; Parthasarathy, Gayathri; Nathagoundenpalayam, Suresh Kumar K; Nikolich, George; Watson, John G

    2007-10-15

    Numerous laboratory studies report carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emission reductions with a slight nitrogen oxides emission increase from engines operating with biodiesel and biodiesel blends as compared to using petroleum diesel. We conducted a field study on a fleet of school buses to evaluate the effects of biodiesel use on gaseous and particulate matter fuel-based emission factors under real-world conditions. The field experiment was carried out in two phases during winter 2004. In January (phase I), emissions from approximately 200 school buses operating on petroleum diesel were measured. Immediately after the end of the first phase measurement period, the buses were switched to a 20% biodiesel blend. Emission factors were measured again in March 2004 (phase II) and compared with the January emission factors. To measure gaseous emission factors we used a commercial gaseous remote sensor. Particulate matter emission factors were determined with a combination of the gaseous remote sensor, a Lidar (light detection and ranging), and transmissometer system developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV, U.S.A. Particulate matter emissions from school buses significantly increased (up to a factor of 1.8) after the switch from petroleum diesel to a 20% biodiesel blend. The fuel used during this campaign was provided by a local distributor and was independently analyzed at the end of the on-road experiment. The analysis found high concentrations of free glycerin and reduced flash points in the B 100 parent fuel. Both measures indicate improper separation and processing of the biodiesel product during production. The biodiesel fuels used in the school buses were not in compliance with the U.S.A. ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard that was finalized in December of 2001. The U.S.A. National Biodiesel Board has formed a voluntary National Biodiesel Accreditation Program for producers and marketers of biodiesel to ensure product quality and

  11. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... standards for diesel- fueled hybrid-electric urban bus engines for authorized transit agencies with NO X... clarified the optional standards for hybrid-electric buses that were allowed in the 2004 rulemaking. The... the compliance of 2004 and later model year hybrid electric buses (HEB) with the urban bus...

  12. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... certification procedure for hybrid electric buses. The 2002 rulemaking was formally adopted by CARB on September... added optional exhaust emission standards for diesel-fueled hybrid-electric urban bus engines for....\\7\\ The February 2005 rulemaking clarified the optional standards for hybrid-electric buses that...

  13. Bay Area Transit Agencies Propel Fuel Cell Buses Toward Commercialization (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    This fact sheet describes the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration of the next generation of fuel cells buses. Several transit agencies in the San Francisco Bay Area are participating in demonstrating the largest single fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States.

  14. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  15. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of the ground-water-flow system in the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, John H.; Siegel, Donald I.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary quasi-three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow model of the seven-county Twin Cities Metropolitan area was constructed and used to evaluate parameter sensitivity and adequacy of available data. Fourteen geologic units that underlie the study area were grouped into nine hydr,bgeologic units and were incorporated into a five-layer model. The layers in the simulation model include the Mount SimonHinckley, Ironton-Galesville, Prairie du Chien-Jordan, and St. Peter aquifers, and the drift.

  17. Low-dose fetal CT for evaluation of severe congenital skeletal anomalies: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica; Johnson, Ann M.; Kramer, Sandra; Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Diagnostic Imaging, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bebbington, Michael [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wilson, R.D. [University of Calgary, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Calgary (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Congenital skeletal abnormalities compose a heterogeneous and complex group of conditions that affect bone growth and development and result in various anomalies in shape and size of the skeleton. Prenatal sonographic diagnosis of these anomalies is challenging because of the relative rarity of each skeletal dysplasia, the multitude of differential diagnoses encountered when the bony abnormalities are identified, lack of precise molecular diagnosis and the fact that many of these disorders have overlapping features and marked phenotypic variability. The following review is a preliminary summary of our experience at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) using low-dose fetal CT in the evaluation of severe fetal osseous abnormalities. (orig.)

  18. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE LEAVES OF XIMENIA AMERICANA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantha T R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Present communication deals with the various pharmacognostic evaluation on the leaves of Ximenia americana include morphological, microscopical characters, powder microscopy and physicochemical characters like ash values and loss on drying, TLC studies etc.The preliminary phytochemical screening is also carried out and it is revealed that, the presence of Alkaloids, Sterpoids, Sugars, Saponins,Tannins, and Terpenoides in methanol extract. Steroids in traces and absence of Terpenoides in ethanol and aqueous extract of the leaves of X.americana which may be responsible for its antinociceptive activity.

  19. Technical and systems evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skolnik, E.G.; DiPietro, J.P. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    During FY 1998 Energetics performed a variety of technology-based evaluations for the Hydrogen Program. Three evaluations are summarized below: hydrogen bromine-based electricity storage, carbon-based hydrogen storage, and hydrogen-fueled buses.

  20. Using Task Clarification, Goal Setting, and Feedback to Decrease Table Busing Times in a Franchise Pizza Restaurant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Seth; Smith, Andrew; Ludwig, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of task-clarification, and manager verbal and graphic feedback on employee busing times at a pizza restaurant. Using an ABC design, task-clarification was provided in a memo, which described the process, priority, and goal time of busing. The busing time decreased slightly, from an average of 315 seconds…

  1. Preliminary evaluation of space station transmission line in a ring configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The results of a preliminary evaluation of a space station type transmission line and commercial transmission lines in a ring configuration, are reported. In a ring configuration, each node has two paths for the return current of each wire. The additional path can create an unbalanced condition, where the magnetic fields created by the forward and return currents do not cancel. This evaluation was to quantify the effects of the unbalanced case upon the external fields. The transmission lines evaluated were standard commercial coaxial cables, RG59 and RG213, and a space station designed flat Litz transmission line. Each was evaluated in a balanced and unbalanced mode of operation. Currents and their harmonic content were recorded and compared. As expected, the harmonic content of the different current (I delta) was substantial for the unbalanced case as compared to the balanced case. For the balanced case, very little difference was noted among the various transmission lines evaluated. The evaluation is discussed, and the test circuit, the measurements, and the resulting data are described.

  2. Sonographic evaluation of overall and regional vascularization of fetal brain: a preliminary methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oberto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary study is to develop a methodology to evaluate the vascularization of fetal brain in normal and abnormal canditions by three-dimensional sonography associated to Power Doppler (3DPD, with application of Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis (VOCAL that allows to derive vascularization and flow indexes. In this connction, we propose a new method of standardization of the setting and the acquisition mode, choosing in different fetuses and at different gestational ages the same anatomical volumes, corresponding to five spherical regions of interest. In particular, tu study the overall vascularization of the fetal brain, we use a sphere with a diameter corresponding to the bi-parietal distance. To evaluate the regional vascularization, we identify four sampling spherical sites, two in each hemisphere. This standard technical approach according to correct morphological criteria allows to exclude from the analysis vascular territories external to the brain.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the expected radiation damage of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisoni, M. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)], E-mail: manuela.frisoni@enea.it; Agostini, P. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy); Fasanella, D. [Athena s.a.s, Via del Battiferro 3, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Micciche, G. [ENEA CR Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone 40032, Camugnano (Bolivia, Plurinational State of) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    This paper summarises and discusses the results of a preliminary damage assessment of the non-seizure coating of the bayonet IFMIF back-plate. Neutron-induced kerma factors, dpa and gas production cross sections libraries were produced in a multigroup structure for neutron energies up to 60 MeV, by processing evaluated nuclear data files with NJOY-99.259 system. The material damage evaluations in terms of heat deposition, displacement and gas production rates were calculated using these libraries and compared with the values obtained using the data contained in the pointwise ACE format files of MCNP5 code package. The calculations were performed with MCNP5 code both using the McEnea and the McDelicious neutron source models to reproduce the energy-angle distributions of the neutrons produced in IFMIF d-Li interactions.

  4. Solar array deployment qualification for the LMX of buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy

    2005-07-01

    The solar array deployment system for the LMX line of buses deploys rigid Solar Array Wing Assemblies (SAWAs). Each SAWA has a set of Solar Array Deployment Mechanisms (SADM), which consists of two hinges, a strut, and two Hold Down Release Mechanisms (HDRMs). To qualify the SADM for flight, each mechanism component was qualified individually, then assembled to a qualification SAWA on Special Test Equipment (STE) and deployed in a thermal vacuum chamber at ambient, hot, and cold temperatures. These mechanisms were designed, built, and tested by the Power and Mechanisms part of the Power, Thermal, Structures & Mechanisms Product Center, which develops products for both internal and external customers. This paper will discuss the qualification effort for the LMX Solar Array deployment, including qualification hardware and STE. It will focus on unique challenges presented by each aspect of the qualification, and lessons learned from the hardware integration and the qualification testing.

  5. Resistojet control and power for high frequency ac buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    Resistojets are operational on many geosynchronous communication satellites which all use dc power buses. Multipropellant resistojets were selected for the Initial Operating Capability (IOC) Space Station which will supply 208 V, 20 kHz power. This paper discusses resistojet heater temperature controllers and passive power regulation methods for ac power systems. A simple passive power regulation method suitable for use with regulated sinusoidal or square wave power was designed and tested using the Space Station multipropellant resistojet. The breadboard delivered 20 kHz power to the resistojet heater. Cold start surge current limiting, a power efficiency of 95 percent, and power regulation of better than 2 percent were demonstrated with a two component, 500 W breadboard power controller having a mass of 0.6 kg.

  6. Txatarra: vivienda transitoria con buses de transporte público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Arenas Vargas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente análisis del proyecto Casa Linda parte de una exploración conceptual en torno a un hábitat sostenible, mediante la generación de un tipo de vivienda transitoria que reutiliza buses de transporte público destinados a ser reducidos a chatarra. La necesidad de replantear la labor de configurar espacios con materiales y formas predeterminados llevó a los autores a comprender cómo resultan insuficientes los medios tradicionales de construcción, en los que se acostumbra emplear materias primas en presentaciones estandarizadas y con acabados predefinidos que se adaptan a los requerimientos y necesidades del proyecto. Enfrentar el proyecto a partir del reciclaje de materiales y objetos (chatarra, de diversas dimensiones y en variadas condiciones, generó un proceso cuya característica principal es la imposibilidad de anticipar con exactitud los procesos constructivos y los acabados finales.

  7. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    The Terrestrial Planet Finder - Occulter (TPF-O) mission has two Spacecraft (SC) buses, one for a space telescope and the other for a formation-flying occulter. SC buses typically supply the utilities (support structures, propulsion, attitude control, power, communications, etc) required by the payloads. Unique requirements for the occulter SC bus are to provide the large delta V required for the slewing maneuvers of the occulter, and comunications for formation flying. The TPF-O telescope SC bus shares some key features of the one for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST): both support space telescopes designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths with comparable primary mirror apertures (2.4 m for HST, 2.4 - 4.0 m for TPF-O). However, TPF-O is expected to have a Wide Field Camera (WFC) with a Field of View (FOV) much larger than that of HST. Ths WFC is also expected to provide fine guidance. TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth Lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large science FOV require higher performance communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. The velocity required for reachng SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require both TPF-O elements to have compact, low-mass designs. Finally, it is possible that TPF-O may utilize a modular design derived fiom that of HST to allow servicing in the SEL2 orbit.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of alternative waste form solidification processes. Volume II. Evaluation of the processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Volume II presents engineering feasibility evaluations of the eleven processes for solidification of nuclear high-level liquid wastes (HHLW) described in Volume I of this report. Each evaluation was based in a systematic assessment of the process in respect to six principal evaluation criteria: complexity of process; state of development; safety; process requirements; development work required; and facility requirements. The principal criteria were further subdivided into a total of 22 subcriteria, each of which was assigned a weight. Each process was then assigned a figure of merit, on a scale of 1 to 10, for each of the subcriteria. A total rating was obtained for each process by summing the products of the subcriteria ratings and the subcriteria weights. The evaluations were based on the process descriptions presented in Volume I of this report, supplemented by information obtained from the literature, including publications by the originators of the various processes. Waste form properties were, in general, not evaluated. This document describes the approach which was taken, the developent and application of the rating criteria and subcriteria, and the evaluation results. A series of appendices set forth summary descriptions of the processes and the ratings, together with the complete numerical ratings assigned; two appendices present further technical details on the rating process

  10. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  11. Pilot Implementation and Preliminary Evaluation of START:AV Assessments in Secure Juvenile Correctional Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Sarah L; Sellers, Brian G; Viljoen, Jodi L; Cruise, Keith R; Nicholls, Tonia L; Dvoskin, Joel A

    2012-01-01

    The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability: Adolescent Version (START:AV) is a new structured professional judgment guide for assessing short-term risks in adolescents. The scheme may be distinguished from other youth risk assessment and treatment planning instruments by its inclusion of 23 dynamic factors that are each rated for both vulnerability and strength. In addition, START:AV is also unique in that it focuses on multiple adverse outcomes-namely, violence, self-harm, suicide, unauthorized leave, substance abuse, self-neglect, victimization, and general offending-over the short-term (i.e., weeks to months) rather than long-term (i.e., years). This paper describes a pilot implementation and preliminary evaluation of START:AV in three secure juvenile correctional facilities in the southern United States. Specifically, we examined the descriptive characteristics and psychometric properties of START:AV assessments completed by 21 case managers on 291 adolescent offenders (250 boys and 41 girls) at the time of admission. Results provide preliminary support for the feasibility of completing START:AV assessments as part of routine practice. Findings also highlight differences in the characteristics of START:AV assessments for boys and girls and differential associations between the eight START:AV risk domains. Though results are promising, further research is needed to establish the reliability and validity of START:AV assessments completed in the field. PMID:23316116

  12. Evaluating Preschool Children Knowledge about Healthy Lifestyle: Preliminary Examination of the Healthy Lifestyle Evaluation Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Konstantinidou, Elisavet; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Tsangaridou, Niki; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to evaluate the knowledge of preschool children about healthy lifestyle behavior. The innovation was that the instrument was designed to get direct evidence about healthy lifestyle from children aged 4-6 years old. Usually, children knowledge is estimated indirectly (parents, teachers), but the…

  13. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conner, J.C.

    1994-10-18

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue.

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  15. Preliminary safety evaluation for 241-C-106 waste retrieval, project W-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the Preliminary Safety Evaluation for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval Sluicing System (WRSS). The US DOE has been mandated to develop plans for response to safety issues associated with the waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, and to report the progress of implementing those plans to Congress. The objectives of Project W-230 are to design, fabricate, develop, test, and operate a new retrieval system capable of removing a minimum of about 75% of the high-heat waste contained in C-106. It is anticipated that sluicing operations can remove enough waste to reduce the remaining radiogenic heat load to levels low enough to resolve the high-heat safety issue as well as allow closure of the tank safety issue

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  17. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gikakis, C.

    2009-10-01

    This report documents progress in meeting the technological challenges of fuel cell propulsion for transportation based on current fuel cell transit bus demonstrations and plans for more fuel cell transit buses and hydrogen infrastructure.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  19. A preliminary evaluation work on a 3D ultrasound imaging system for 2D array transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoli; Li, Xu; Yang, Jiali; Li, Chunyu; Song, Junjie; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a preliminary evaluation work on a pre-designed 3-D ultrasound imaging system. The system mainly consists of four parts, a 7.5MHz, 24×24 2-D array transducer, the transmit/receive circuit, power supply, data acquisition and real-time imaging module. The row-column addressing scheme is adopted for the transducer fabrication, which greatly reduces the number of active channels . The element area of the transducer is 4.6mm by 4.6mm. Four kinds of tests were carried out to evaluate the imaging performance, including the penetration depth range, axial and lateral resolution, positioning accuracy and 3-D imaging frame rate. Several strong reflection metal objects , fixed in a water tank, were selected for the purpose of imaging due to a low signal-to-noise ratio of the transducer. The distance between the transducer and the tested objects , the thickness of aluminum, and the seam width of the aluminum sheet were measured by a calibrated micrometer to evaluate the penetration depth, the axial and lateral resolution, respectively. The experiment al results showed that the imaging penetration depth range was from 1.0cm to 6.2cm, the axial and lateral resolution were 0.32mm and 1.37mm respectively, the imaging speed was up to 27 frames per second and the positioning accuracy was 9.2%.

  20. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  1. On-road pollutant emission and fuel consumption characteristics of buses in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aijuan Wang; Yunshan Ge; Jianwei Tan; Mingliang Fu; Asad Naeem Shah; Yan Ding; Hong Zhao; Bin Liang

    2011-01-01

    On-road emission and fuel consumption (FC) levels for Euro Ⅲ and Ⅳ buses fueled on diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG)were compared, and emission and FC characteristics of buses were analyzed based on approximately 28,700 groups of instantaneous data obtained in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). The experimental results revealed that NOx and PM emissions from CNG buses were decreased by 72.0% and 82.3% respectively, compared with Euro Ⅳ diesel buses. Similarly,these emissions were reduced by 75.2% and 96.3% respectively, compared with Euro Ⅲ diesel buses. In addition, CO2, CO, HC,NOx, PM emissions and FC of Euro Ⅳ diesel buses were reduced by 26.4%, 75.2%, 73.6%, 11.4%, 79.1%, and 26.0%, respectively,relative to Euro Ⅲ diesel buses. The CO2, CO, HC, NOx, PM emissions and FC factors all decreased with bus speed increased, while increased as bus acceleration increased. At the same time, the emission/FC rates as well as the emission/FC factors exhibited a strong positive correlation with the vehicle specific power (VSP). They all were the lowest when VSP < 0, and then rapidly increased as VSP increased. Furthermore, both the emission/FC rates and emission/FC factors were the highest at accelerations, higher at cruise speeds,and the lowest at decelerations for non-idling buses. These results can provide a base reference to further estimate bus emission and FC inventories in Beijing.

  2. Cool Science: K-12 Climate Change Art Displayed on Buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. F.; Lustick, D. S.; Lohmeier, J.; Thompson, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Cool science is an art contest where K12 students create placards (7" x 22") to educate the public about climate change. Students are prompted to create their artwork in response to questions such as: What is the evidence for climate change? How does climate change impact your local community? What can you do to reduce the impacts of climate change? In each of three years, 500-600 student entrees have been submitted from more than 12 school districts across Massachusetts. A panel of judges including scientists, artists, rapid transit representatives, and educators chooses elementary, middle, and high school winners. Winners (6), runners-up (6), and honorable mentions (12) and their families and teachers are invited to an annual Cool Science Award Ceremony to be recognized and view winning artwork. All winning artwork is posted on the Cool Science website. The winning artwork (2 per grade band) is converted into placards (11" x 28") and posters (2.5' x 12') that are placed on the inside (placards) and outside (posters) of buses. Posters are displayed for one month. So far, Cool Science was implemented in Lowell, MA where over 5000 public viewers see the posters daily on the sides of Lowell Rapid Transit Authority (LRTA) buses, making approximately 1,000,000 impressions per year. Cool Science acts to increase climate literacy in children as well as the public, and as such promotes intergenerational learning. Using art in conjunction with science learning about climate change appears to be effective at engaging not just traditionally high achieving science students, but also those interested in the creative arts. Hearing winners' stories about how they created their artwork and what this contest meant to them supports the idea that Cool Science attracts a wide diversity of students. Parents discuss climate change with their children. Multiple press releases announcing the winners further promotes the awareness of climate change throughout school districts and their

  3. Preliminary evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity of PMMA-co-EHA bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports a preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of new poly (methyl methacrylate)-co-ethyl hexylacrylate (PMMA-co-EHA) bone cement by evaluating the effect of its leachables on the viability of human osteoblast-like cells (MG63 line) and their progression through the cell cycle. MG63 cells were exposed to 72 h-extract dilutions of PMMA-co-EHA and their viability was tested using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay. Also, putative changes in the progression of cells through the cell cycle were monitored using flow cytometry. For that the relative nuclear DNA content and the ratio of cells at G1:S:G2 stages of the cell cycle were measured after three exposure periods (24, 48 and 72 h). The obtained results revealed a dose-dependent influence of the cement extract in MG63 cell metabolism when compared to cells cultivated in a culture medium only. The MTT assay showed that a moderate number of cells died after exposure to the most concentrated extract. The cell cycle analysis revealed that leachables of PMMA-co-EHA led to significant changes in cellular proliferation, with cells exposed for 48 h to the most concentrated extract being arrested in the S phase of the cell cycle. However, despite the initial period of cytotoxicity, the obtained results suggest that after 72 h of exposure, the surviving cells are able to recover from this arresting condition and continue to proliferate. Therefore, this preliminary study indicates that, at the biological level, PMMA-co-EHA may have potential of being used as a bone cement matrix. However, a more detailed research work is needed to fully understand the factors responsible for the initial cytotoxicity observed.

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF FUEL CELLS TO RECOVER ENERGY FROM ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS - PHASE I. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN, PRELIMINARY COST, AND EVALUATION STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses Phase I (a conceptual design, preliminary cost, and evaluation study) of a program to demonstrate the recovery of energy from waste methane produced by anaerobic digestion of waste water treatment sludge. The fuel cell is being used for this application becau...

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) Packing Materials for Flight Medication Dispenser (FMD) Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, B.; Daniels, V.; Crady, C.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews preliminary results of the program to evaluate Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) packaging materials for pharmaceutical stability. The need for improved packaging is due to possible changes in chemical and/or physical properties of the drugs, which cause reported reduced potency and/or altered bioavailability and decreased efficacy.

  6. Outcome measures to evaluate new technology for tonsillectomy: preliminary experience with Coblation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Udayan K.; Puchalski, Robert; Briggs, Marianne; Chiavacci, Rosetta; Galinkin, Jeffrey

    2001-05-01

    Evaluating the benefits of new surgical technologies does not end with the observation of successful instrument-to- tissue interaction. The impact of new technologies in medicine today is also gauged by improvements in patients' daily activities and performance. We present our outcomes assessment tool for judging the value of applying a novel tonsillectomy technique, plasma- mediated ablation using Coblation technology. Plasma- mediated ablation (PMA) achieves soft tissue resection in the oropharynx by energizing protons to break bonds. Less heat is released, allowing for less thermal injury, and possibly less pain, than with tonsillectomy performed using electrocautery alone. Children undergoing tonsillectomy by PMA, were evaluated using our outcomes-based scale, which asked families to report the degree of interruption of normal activities for the patient and their family during the post-tonsillectomy recovery period. A preliminary review of several outcomes assessments exemplify the benefits and limitations of this tool. The tracking of valuable data is weighed against the limitations of a short time course relative to the duration of disability, and a poor response rate. Future work aims to improve this data collection tool to allow application to other new technologies in otolaryngology.

  7. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, R D; Khonsari, M; Jeffries, J; Maskell, G F; Cook, P G

    2004-12-01

    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Preliminary in vitro evaluation demonstrated that PJ shortened T(2) relaxation time and hence decreased T(2) signal intensity on a standard MRCP sequence to a similar degree to a commercially available negative contrast agent (ferumoxsil). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry assay demonstrated a high manganese concentration in PJ of 2.76 mg dl(-1), which is likely to be responsible for its T(2) imaging properties. MRCP was subsequently performed in 10 healthy volunteers, before and at 15 min and 30 min following ingestion of 400 ml of PJ. Images were assessed blindly by two Consultant Radiologists using a standard grading technique based on contrast effect (degree of suppression of bowel signal), and image effect (diagnostic quality). There were statistically significant improvements in contrast and image effect between pre and post PJ images. There was particularly significant improvement in visualization of the pancreatic duct, but no significant difference between 15 min and 30 min post PJ images. Visualization of the ampulla, common bile duct, common hepatic and central intrahepatic ducts were also significantly improved at 15 min following PJ. Our results demonstrate that PJ, may be used as an alternative to commercially available negative oral contrast agent in MRCP.

  8. Preliminary geothermal evaluation of the Mokapu Peninsula on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    Preliminary geological, geochemical, and geophysical field surveys have been conducted on Mokapu Peninsula on the island of Oahu in an effort to determine whether sufficient indications of geothermal potential exist within or adjacent to the peninsula to justify further, more detailed, exploratory efforts. An evaluation of existing geologic data as well as recently completed mapping on Mokapu indicate that the peninsula is located on the edge of or immediately adjacent to the inferred caldera of Koolau volcano. Geochemical surveys conducted within and around the Mokapu Peninsula included mercury and radon ground gas surveys as well as a limited evaluation of groundwater chemistry. Groundwater sampling on Mokapu Peninsula was severely restricted due to the absence of wells within the study area and thus water chemistry analyses were limited to the Nuupia fish ponds. Schlumberger resistivity soundings were completed in three locations on the peninsula: KVS1, in the northeast quadrant within the Ulupau crater, KVS2 in the northwest quadrant along the main jet runway, and KVS3 in the southeast along Mokapu Road. KVS1 encountered a relatively high resistivity to a depth of approximately 20 meters below sea level which was underlain by a basement resistivity of about 2 to 3 ohm meters. KVS2 and KVS3 detected similar resistivities of 2 to 3 ohm meters at much shallower depths (approximately equivalent to local sea level) below a thin, moderately resistive layer having an impedance ranging from 15 to 118 ohm meters.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the profitability indexes of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    The Laguna Verde nuclear power plant of the Federal Commission of Electricity has an installed capacity of 1,350 MW and unit 1 started commercial operation in 1990 and unit 2 in 1995. This paper is a synthesis of the results of a preliminary evaluation of the expected profitability indexes of the power plant during an economic lifetime of 40 years. The following data was used as input to the evaluation model prescribed by the Finance and Public Credit Secretary for public investment projects. Unit investment cost: 3,500 US D/k W; Fixed operation and maintenance cost: 54.{sup 45} US D/year-k W; Variable operation and maintenance cost: 0.{sup 38} US D/M Wh; Nuclear fuel cycle cost: 10.{sup 28} US D/M Wh; Lifetime capacity factor: 85%; Discount rate: 12.0% per year; Sale price of electricity to the interconnected electric system: 80.{sup 75} US D/M Wh. The output of the evaluation model is the following: Cost of electricity generated: 60.{sup 2}1 US D/M Wh; fixed cost 49.{sup 55} US D/M Wh; variable cost 10.{sup 66} US D/M Wh; Internal rate of return (Irr): 18.0%; Benefit to cost quotient (B/C): 1.341. A very systematic sensitivity analysis was done, that shows that the cost is very sensitive to the capacity factor and to the investment cost, but is very insensitive to the fixed operation and maintenance cost and to the nuclear fuel cost. Finally, a comparison was made to the evaluation of the profitability indexes of a natural gas fired combined cycle power plant. (Author)

  10. Prediction of Conducted Emissions in Satellite Power Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Spadacini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a modeling methodology for the prediction of conducted emissions (CE in a wide frequency range (up to 100 MHz, which are generated by dc/dc converters and propagate along the power buses of satellites. In particular, the dc/dc converter seen as a source of CE is represented by a behavioral model, whose parameters can be identified by two unit-level experimental procedures performed in controlled test setups. A simplified multiconductor transmission-line (MTL model is developed to account for the propagation of CE in shielded bundles of twisted-wire pairs used as power cables. The whole power system is represented by the interconnection of the circuit models of dc/dc converters, cables, and Power Conditioning and Distribution Unit (PCDU. By solving the obtained network, frequency spectra of CE can be predicted. Experimental results are reported to substantiate the accuracy of the proposed unit-level dc/dc converter model and the MTL model of cables. Finally, a system-level test setup composed of three dc/dc converters connected to a PCDU is considered, and predicted CE are compared versus experimental measurements.

  11. Intermediate transport in Southeast Asia. [Carts, cycles, mini-buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, A.K.

    1977-06-01

    Traffic flows through the streets of Southeast Asian countries even though they are used for almost all aspects of human and animal existence. The carts, bicycles, tricycles, and motorcycles, motorized three-wheelers, mini-buses are the so-called intermediate-transport vehicles. It is upon this group of vehicles that a culture--constrained by its own unique economic, environmental, and technological factors--exerts its influence most directly toward the solution of the transport problem. Transportation fills more service roles in Southeast Asian cities than in Western cities. Communication facilities such as telephones and postal services are notoriously unreliable. The personal encounter is all important in social and business interactions in Southeast Asia. Each of the transport modes is examined in view of design and use in a number of specific cultural settings for the countries in Southeast Asia. Present use of intermediate transport in developed countries is discussed briefly, and its further development predicted--pointing out the health and conservation advantages. (MCW)

  12. Preliminary evaluation of a microtransesophageal probe in neonates and young infants undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeja Pavithran

    2014-01-01

    On preliminary evaluation, the microTEE probe provided good quality images in very small infants who were not amenable for transesophageal echocardiographic evaluation so far. The probe could be used safely in small infants without complications. It appears to be a promising imaging modality in the perioperative assessment of young infants undergoing cardiac surgery, in whom intraoperative epicardial echocardiography is currently the only tool.

  13. Development and preliminary evaluation of a rehabilitation consult for survivors of head and neck cancer: an intervention mapping protocol

    OpenAIRE

    McEwen, Sara E; Aileen M. Davis; Jones, Jennifer M; Martino, Rosemary; Poon, Ian; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Ringash, Jolie

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that rehabilitation interventions can improve function and quality of life in survivors of head and neck cancer (HNC), but there is a lack of coordinated, integrated services, and those offered are inconsistent. To address these gaps, we will develop and conduct preliminary evaluation of a rehabilitation consult, built on the theoretical foundations of goal setting and self-management, and composed of a brief functional evaluation, a resource compendium, and colla...

  14. Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise in Finland: A preliminary investigation introducing the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument

    OpenAIRE

    MAX KARUKIVI; OUTI KORTEKANGAS-SAVOLAINEN; ULLA SAXÉN; KIRSI-MARIA HAAPASALO-PESU

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Teaching medical professionalism is increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of medical education. The Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) is an assessment tool for evaluating medical professionalism, but no studies using it as a self-assessment instrument have been reported. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument as an assessment and self-assessment measure. Methods: The sampl...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of aircraft impact on a near term nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The effects of military/civilian airplanes crash in a NPP were evaluated. ► We adequately simulated the global response and safety margin of an SMR reactor. ► The analyses allowed to represent the progressive failure/damaging processes. ► The outer containment seemed to suffer some localized penetration and spalling. ► The results highlighted the plant integrity is ensured despite the impact damages. - Abstract: For the assessment of the safety and durability of a nuclear power plant (NPP), the containment building behaviour shall be evaluated, under various service and extreme conditions, both natural or produced by natural accident or vicious man activities, like September 2001 jet aircraft crashes. The aim of this paper is to preliminary evaluate the effects and consequences of the energy transmitted to the outer containment walls (according to the international safety and design code guidelines, as NRC or IAEA ones) due to a military or civil aircraft impact into a nuclear plant, considered as a ‘beyond design basis’ event. To perform reliable analysis of such a large-scale structure and determine the structural effects of the propagation of this types of impulsive loads (response of containment structure), a realistic but still feasible numerical model with suitable materials characteristics were used by means of which relevant physical phenomena are reflected. Moreover a sensitivity analysis has also been carried out considering the effects of different containment wall thickness and reinforced/prestressed concrete features. The obtained results were analysed to check the NPP containment strength margins.

  16. Grid-connected ICES: preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The HEAL Complex in New Orleans will serve as a Demonstration Community for which the ICES Demonstration System will be designed. The complex is a group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical educational facilities. The five tasks reported on are: preliminary energy analysis; preliminary institutional assessment; conceptual design; firming-up of commitments; and detailed work management plan.

  17. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  18. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  19. Antibacterial evaluation and preliminary phytochemical screening of selected ferns from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bahadori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The main aims of this study have been finding out the antibacterial activity and preliminary phytochemical screening of some fern species. Methods: The antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of Polypodium interjectum Shivas, Polystichum woronowii Fomin, Polystichum aculeatum (L. Roth., Dryopteris affinis (Lowe Fraser-Jenk, Athyrium filix-femina (L. Roth, Asplenium scolopendrium L., Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. and Pteris cretica L., was screened by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values against two Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, using standard assays. Besides, the phytochemical evaluation and measurement of the total flavonoid contents were also performed. Results: The maximum activity was exhibited by the extract of Dryopteris affinis with MIC value of 2 µg/mL. Polystichum aculeatum showed the same antibacterial potential against S. aureus. Some of the extracts had strong antibacterial activity (2-8 µg/mL and others demonstrated moderate activity. Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of some important secondary metabolites in Iranian fern species. Triterpenoids and polyphenols were present in rhizome and aerial part of all plants. Total flavonoid contents range was 1.66 to 44.22 mg of catechin equivalents per gram of dry extract. Conclusion: Findings indicated that Iranian ferns have good antibacterial potential and could be a suitable source for antibiotic drug discovery.

  20. Design and preliminary evaluation of an exoskeleton for upper limb resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzong-Ming; Chen, Dar-Zen

    2012-06-01

    Resistance training is a popular form of exercise recommended by national health organizations, such as the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and the American Heart Association (AHA). This form of training is available for most populations. A compact design of upper limb exoskeleton mechanism for homebased resistance training using a spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton with a three degree-of-freedom shoulder joint and a one degree-of-freedom elbow joint allows a patient or a healthy individual to move the upper limb with multiple joints in different planes. It can continuously increase the resistance by adjusting the spring length to train additional muscle groups and reduce the number of potential injuries to upper limb joints caused by the mass moment of inertia of the training equipment. The aim of this research is to perform a preliminary evaluation of the designed function by adopting an appropriate motion analysis system and experimental design to verify our prototype of the exoskeleton and determine the optimal configuration of the spring-loaded upper limb exoskeleton.

  1. Investigation of human exposure to triclocarban after showering and preliminary evaluation of its biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Inceoglu, Bora; Ahn, Ki Chang; Morisseau, Christophe; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial soap additive triclocarban (TCC) is widely used in personal care products. TCC has a high environmental persistence. We developed and validated a sensitive online solid-phase extraction-LC-MS/MS method to rapidly analyze TCC and its major metabolites in urine and other biological samples to assess human exposure. We measured human urine concentrations 0-72 h after showering with a commercial bar soap containing 0.6% TCC. The major route of renal elimination was excretion as N-glucuronides. The absorption was estimated at 0.6% of the 70±15 mg of TCC in the soap used. The TCC-N-glucuronide urine concentration varied widely among the subjects, and continuous daily use of the soap led to steady state levels of excretion. In order to assess potential biological effects arising from this exposure, we screened TCC for the inhibition of human enzymes in vitro. We demonstrate that TCC is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), whereas TCC's major metabolites lack strong inhibitory activity. Topical administration of TCC at similar levels to rats in a preliminary in vivo study, however, failed to alter plasma biomarkers of sEH activity. Overall the analytical strategy described here revealed that use of TCC soap causes exposure levels that warrant further evaluation. PMID:21381656

  2. Preliminary Evaluation of a Nuclear Scenario Involving Innovative Gas Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to guarantee a sustainable supply of future energy demand without compromising the environment, some actions for a substantial reduction of Co2 emissions are nowadays deeply analysed. One of them is the improvement of the nuclear energy use. In this framework, innovative gas-cooled reactors (both thermal and fast) seem to be very attractive from the electricity production point of view and for the potential industrial use along the high temperature processes (e.g., H2 production by steam reforming or I-S process). This work focuses on a preliminary (and conservative) evaluation of possible advantages that a symbiotic cycle (EPR-PBMR-GCFR) could entail, with special regard to the reduction of the HLW inventory and the optimization of the exploitation of the fuel resources. The comparison between the symbiotic cycle chosen and the reference one (once-through scenario, i.e., EPR-SNF directly disposed) shows a reduction of the time needed to reach a fixed reference level from 170000 years to 1550 years (comparable with typical human times and for this reason more acceptable by the public opinion). In addition, this cycle enables to have a more efficient use of resources involved: the total electric energy produced becomes equal to -630 TWh/year (instead of only -530 TWh/year using only EPR) without consuming additional raw materials.

  3. Three-dimensional treatment planning and conformal radiation therapy: preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary clinical results are presented for 209 patients with cancer who had treatment planned on our three-dimensional radiation treatment planning (3-D RTP) system and were treated with external beam conformal radiation therapy. Average times (min) for CT volumetric simulation were: 74 without or 84 with contrast material; 36 for contouring of tumor/target volume and 44 for normal anatomy; 78 for treatment planning; 53 for plan evaluation/optimization; and 58 for verification simulation. Average time of daily treatment sessions with 3-D conformal therapy or standard techniques was comparable for brain, head and neck, thoracic, and hepatobiliary tumors (11.8-14 min and 11.5-12.1, respectively). For prostate cancer patients treated with 3-D conformal technique and Cerrobend blocks, mean treatment time was 19 min; with multileaf collimation it was 14 min and with bilateral arc rotation, 9.8 min. Acute toxicity was comparable to or lower than with standard techniques. Sophisticated 3-D RTP and conformal irradiation can be performed in a significant number of patients at a reasonable cost. Further efforts, including dose-escalation studies, are necessary to develop more versatile and efficient 3-D RTP systems and to enhance the cost benefit of this technology in treatment of patients with cancer

  4. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of a Web-Oriented Assessment Tool for Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampouchidou, Anastasia; Kazantzaki, Eleni; Karatzanis, Ioannis; Marias, Kostas; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Yang, Fan; Simos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving and identifying emotions on facial expressions is one of the basic abilities that compose emotional intelligence, and is crucial for normal social functions. It is well documented that facial expression conveys information about felt emotion, and that expressive behavior can activate or regulate the emotion required by a given situation. Instruments measuring emotion perception based on facial expression have been found in literature either as stand-alone scales or as part of other tests. The proposed tool expands existing instruments to combine online availability while affording assessment of emotion recognition on a continuum of intensity. It was founded on Ekman's Facial Action Units, with two Virtual Characters (male and female) portraying five basic emotions Anger, Disgust, Fear, Joy, Sadness, plus Neutral expression. The user can navigate on the custom-made pentagon and choose the emotion and intensity level (1-5) through a single click. The preliminary evaluation of the tool on thirty normal subjects provided threshold data that can later be used as benchmarks to assess emotion perception sensitivity in psychiatric disorders such as depression and schizophrenia characterized by emotional dysfunction. PMID:27225560

  6. A Preliminary Evaluation of Using Fill Materials to Stabilize Used Nuclear Fuel During Storage and Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Lahti, Erik A.; Richmond, David J.

    2012-08-01

    This report contains a preliminary evaluation of potential fill materials that could be used to fill void spaces in and around used nuclear fuel contained in dry storage canisters in order to stabilize the geometry and mechanical structure of the used nuclear fuel during extended storage and transportation after extended storage. Previous work is summarized, conceptual descriptions of how canisters might be filled were developed, and requirements for potential fill materials were developed. Elements of the requirements included criticality avoidance, heat transfer or thermodynamic properties, homogeneity and rheological properties, retrievability, material availability and cost, weight and radiation shielding, and operational considerations. Potential fill materials were grouped into 5 categories and their properties, advantages, disadvantages, and requirements for future testing were discussed. The categories were molten materials, which included molten metals and paraffin; particulates and beads; resins; foams; and grout. Based on this analysis, further development of fill materials to stabilize used nuclear fuel during storage and transportation is not recommended unless options such as showing that the fuel remains intact or canning of used nuclear fuel do not prove to be feasible.

  7. Development of transmissometer system for evaluating molecular contamination effects and the preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Nobunari; Katoh, Masahiro; Okano, Nobuaki

    2005-01-01

    The presence of propagated molecular gas is one of the most probable causes of on-orbit degradation. The performance of optical sensors would be affected seriously if the strong absorption bands of the contaminants exist in the region of our interest and phase transition of adsorption gas on optical surfaces would induce not only absorption but also scatter. Although there are amount of trials to predict spectral degradation with model calculations, experimental approaches are also necessary to clarify degradation processes occurred in orbit and to improve the on-board calibration reliability. We built up the measurement system in order to evaluate transmittance degradation with various kinds of gases under different temperature and vacuum conditions. In our system, an optical glass, the site of adsorption, is set inside a cryostat and then a certain amount of molecular gas is injected. The amount of injected gas adsorption onto the optical surface is controlled by adjusting the sample surface temperature. Our systems have the capability to control vacuum within the range from 10-3Pa to 102Pa and temperature from 150K to 423K. As for the measurement of transmittance change, we adopted commercially available spectrophotometer and FTIR. The optical spectrophotometer covers the wavelength range from 300nm to 2.5um and the FTIR covers from 2um to 25um. We would present the details of our system and discuss about measurement accuracy and preliminary results of our measurements.

  8. Ultra-high-speed studies of shock phenomena in a miniaturized system: A preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    A laboratory-scale experimental test system for small-scale of shock phenomena has been assembled. This system uses a variety of miniature test platforms in which shock loading is provided by laser-driven flyer impact. Acceptor materials include thin-film explosives and high-density metal foils. Optical access is provided for high-speed optical diagnostics such as optically recording velocity interferometry and single-pulse Raman spectroscopy. The experimental assembly for Raman studies features a common laser source for both flyer generation and excitation of Raman scattering (to achieve high timing precision) and a detection scheme that uses the coupling fiber for the excitation source to collect with high efficiency backscattered Raman light. Preliminary system evaluation experiments indicate that detailed particle velocity studies of the dynamic material properties of high-density metals under short-pulse, high-strain-rate loading can be performed in a miniaturized test configuration. Single-pulse Raman studies on shock compressed thin film explosives also appear feasible if the thickness and grain structure of these films can be tailored to enhance the Raman scattering signal sufficiently. Possible improvements in the experimental design and a number of likely applications of these techniques are also discussed.

  9. Design, synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of brain targeting L-ascorbic acid prodrugs of ibuprofen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ying Wu; Xiao-Cen Li; Jie Mi; Jing You; Li Hai

    2013-01-01

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA,vitamin C) exhibits a high concentration in the brain.The transportation of AA in brain is mainly mediated by the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and the Na+-dependent vitamin C transporter SVCT2.While L-ascorbic acid C6-O conjugation has been investigated as a tool to enhance brain drug delivery,C5-O conjugation and C5-O & C6-O conjugation as brain targeting tools have not been reported.In this letter,ibuprofen was linked directly to C5-O,C6-O and C5-O & C6-O positions of L-ascorbic acid with eater bonds,providing prodrug 1,2 and 3,respectively,to improve their targeting abilities in the brain.Prodrug 1,2 and 3 were synthesized in facile ways with good yields.And the preliminary evaluation in vivo illustrated that prodrug 2 had a better targeting ability than prodrug 1.Moreover,prodrug 3,whose C5-O & C6-O positions were both modified,had good targeting ability for brain which will provide an important evidence for our further study on C5-O-& C6-O-di-derivatives of L-ascorbic acid.

  10. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-10-19

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a stationary-wireless- power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep was performed over many different battery sizes, charging power levels, and number/location of bus stop charging stations. The net present cost was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under favorable and high unfavorable market penetration assumptions. The analysis identifies fuel saving opportunities with plug-in hybrid electric bus scenarios at cumulative net present costs not too dissimilar from those for conventional buses.

  11. Multi-Parametric Evaluation of Chronic Kidney Disease by MRI: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pottumarthi V Prasad

    Full Text Available The current clinical classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD is not perfect and may be overestimating both the prevalence and the risk for progressive disease. Novel markers are being sought to identify those at risk of progression. This preliminary study evaluates the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging based markers to identify early changes in CKD.Fifty-nine subjects (22 healthy, 7 anemics with no renal disease, 30 subjects with CKD participated. Data using 3D volume imaging, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD and Diffusion MRI was acquired. BOLD MRI acquisition was repeated after 20 mg of iv furosemide.Compared to healthy subjects, those with CKD have lower renal parenchymal volumes (329.6±66.4 vs. 257.1±87.0 ml, p<0.005, higher cortical R2* values (19.7±3.2 vs. 23.2±6.3 s(-1, p = 0.013 (suggesting higher levels of hypoxia and lower response to furosemide on medullary R2* (6.9±3.3 vs. 3.1±7.5 s(-1, p = 0.02. All three parameters showed significant correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. When the groups were matched for age and sex, cortical R2* and kidney volume still showed significant differences between CKD and healthy controls. The most interesting observation is that a small number of subjects (8 of 29 contributed to the increase in mean value observed in CKD. The difference in cortical R2* between these subjects compared to the rest were highly significant and had a large effect size (Cohen's d = 3.5. While highly suggestive, future studies may be necessary to verify if such higher levels of hypoxia are indicative of progressive disease. Diffusion MRI showed no differences between CKD and healthy controls.These data demonstrate that BOLD MRI can be used to identify enhanced hypoxia associated with CKD and the preliminary observations are consistent with the chronic hypoxia model for disease progression in CKD. Longitudinal studies are warranted to further verify these findings and assess

  12. Influence of malfunctions of the maintenance activities on the urban buses fuel consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Crişan; Nicolae, Filip

    2014-06-01

    Optimization of activities with the aim to provide quality service in conditions of high profitability, is one of the main objectives chased by managers in transportation companies. As a consequence, directing the attention towards monitoring of maintenance activities of vehicles fleet, can achieve desired results. Two of the most important issues related to the maintenance activity, is the increase of reliability and reduction of fuel consumption of the vehicles fleet. Aforementioned actions represents a way forward for raising the quality and profitability of services offered. In this paper, the main ways of monitoring the fuel consumption, in order to reduce it and increase the reliability of transportation vehicles fleet, are presented. For the evaluation of the maintenance system and the degree of influence of malfunctions recorded on the fuel consumption, using the Pareto -ABC method, following case study on a fleet of buses for urban public transport has been conducted. Results obtained highlights the deficiencies of the maintenance process carried out and constitutes a solid base for the reorganization of the maintenance activity, involving preventive maintenance activities, in order to contribute decisively to the results targeted by the management of transport companies.

  13. Development and preliminary evaluation of a quality of life measure targeted at dementia caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitten Jaime

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing care for individuals with a progressive, debilitating condition such as dementia can adversely impact the quality of life (QOL of informal caregivers. To date, there is no existing caregiver quality of life measure for dementia caregivers with breadth of coverage or that is applicable to caregivers of diverse ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a caregiver-targeted quality-of-life measure (CGQOL for informal caregivers of persons with dementia that can be used with caregivers from a variety of ethnicities. Methods 91 items were field tested by telephone interviews with 179 English-speaking and 21 monolingual Spanish-speaking caregivers of persons with dementia. Repeat interviews were conducted with 71 caregivers. Administration time, scale score distributions, item-scale correlations, reliability, and associations of scales with patient and caregiver demographic and caregiving characteristics were estimated. Structure of associations among scales was examined using exploratory factor analysis. Results Item analysis yielded 80 items distributed across 10 scales, with median administration time of 17 minutes [IQR 13.5–22 minutes] and minimal missing data. There were few floor or ceiling effects in scale score distributions. Internal consistency reliability was ≥ 0.78 for all scales; test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation estimates exceeded 0.70 for 6 scales. More hours weekly spent in caregiving was uniquely associated with worse quality of life on 8 scales (p's ≤ 0.05. Three higher-order dimensions of caregiving assistance, emotional and social concerns, and spirituality and benefits were identified. Conclusion These preliminary results support subsequent evaluation of test-retest reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness to change of this quality-of-life measure for caregivers from diverse ethnicities.

  14. The implementation and preliminary evaluation of an ART strategy in Mexico: a country example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Heriberto Hermosillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The massive use of preventive measures in Mexico including fluoride toothpaste, a national program of salt fluoridation and education on prevention has resulted in a large decline in dental caries over the past two decades. There does however remain a largely unmet need for restorative treatment. This paper describes the steps leading up to the adoption of a strategy, as part of general health policy, to use Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART within the Mexican public health service as a means to address this. This included the development of training materials, the organization of training courses for existing dentists and the incorporation of ART into the undergraduate curriculum. RESULTS: Six years after the introduction of ART in the year 2000, it was estimated that over 2 million ART procedures had been provided. As part of the planning cycle, an evaluation was undertaken in 2008 to determine amongst Mexican dentists what were the perceived problems when implementing the ART approach. Such research identified that the scarcity of appropriate dental materials and the lack of suitable instruments were the major problems. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of ART restorations and sealants placed as part of this National Oral Health Program was undertaken. The survival outcomes after one year compared favorably with one other study conducted in Mexico but were somewhat lower than the results reported from a number of other countries. CONCLUSION: The ambitious and forward thinking policy for improving the oral health in Mexico is now showing dividends. One example is the ART strategy, which has been successful both in terms of the number of ART procedures provided and generally in terms of clinical outcomes.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception for behavioral effects in feral horses (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, D M

    1999-01-01

    Successful management of captive populations of wild animals requires effective control of reproduction. Contraception is one tool for controlling reproduction of animals in zoos; however, the options available to the animal manager are limited. Contraceptives vary in efficacy, reversibility, and side effects, and thus may not be suitable for widespread use. One consideration when selecting a contraceptive is its potential for side effects on behavior, especially given the fact that reproduction plays such a prominent role in the biology of any species. To date, there have been few evaluations of contraceptives for behavioral effects, and those that have been conducted have focused on hormone-based contraceptives. This study sought to evaluate a novel method of population control, immunocontraception, for behavioral effects in a population of feral horses. Porcine zona pellucida (PZP) immunocontraception prevents fertilization of ova and does not alter normal hormone secretion patterns. It therefore should leave the animal behaviorally intact in terms of reproductive behavior. The study examined the behavior of 43 sexually mature mares on Assateague Island during the 1997 breeding season and, with help from Earthwatch volunteers, collected observations over a 3-month period. The study found no significant differences between treated and untreated mares in general activity budget, aggression given or received, and spatial relationships relative to the stallion. These preliminary findings indicate that PZP contraception seems to have no acute behavioral effects on the behavior of individuals. The study findings also suggest that PZP could be a desirable and effective management tool for captive species in which social behavior plays an integral role in group dynamics. Analyses of group level effects and population level effects are continuing.

  16. Grid-connected ICES preliminary feasibility analysis and evaluation. Final report. Volume I. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    A group of hospitals, clinics, research facilities, and medical education facilities, known as the HEAL Complex, was chosen as the site (in New Orleans) for the demonstration of a Grid-Connected Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). The contract work included a preliminary energy supply/demand assessment of the Demonstration Community, a preliminary feasibility analysis and conceptual design of a candidate Demonstration System, preliminary assessment of institutional factors, preparation of a detailed work management plan for subsequent phases of the demonstration program, firming-up of commitments from participating parties, and reporting thereon. This Phase I study has indicated that a central ICES plant producing steam, chilled water, and by-product electricity to serve the HEAL Complex is technically and economically feasible to the extent that Phase II, Detailed Feasibility and Preliminary Design, should be implemented. (MCW)

  17. Mindfulness online: a preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of a web-based mindfulness course and the impact on stress

    OpenAIRE

    Krusche, Adele; Cyhlarova, Eva; King, Scott; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Stress has been shown to have a number of negative effects on health over time. Mindfulness interventions have been shown to decrease perceived stress but access to interventions is limited. Therefore, the effectiveness of an online mindfulness course for perceived stress was investigated. Design A preliminary evaluation of an online mindfulness course. Participants This sample consisted of 100 self-referrals to the online course. The average age of participants was 48 years and 74...

  18. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Liu; Zhen-Liang Sun; Ai-Rong Jia; Ya-Ping Shi; Rui-Hong Li; Pei-Ming Yang

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP). The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly comp...

  19. Investigation of psychophysical measure for evaluation of similar images for mammographic masses: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated a psychophysical similarity measure for selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms, which may assist radiologists in the distinction between benign and malignant masses. Sixty pairs of masses were selected from 1445 mass images prepared for this study, which were obtained from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography by the University of South Florida. Five radiologists provided subjective similarity ratings for these 60 pairs of masses based on the overall impression for diagnosis. Radiologists' subjective ratings were marked on a continuous rating scale and quantified between 0 and 1, which correspond to pairs not similar at all and pairs almost identical, respectively. By use of the subjective ratings as 'gold standard', similarity measures based on the Euclidean distance between pairs in feature space and the psychophysical measure were determined. For determination of the psychophysical similarity measure, an artificial neural network (ANN) was employed to learn the relationship between radiologists' average subjective similarity ratings and computer-extracted image features. To evaluate the usefulness of the similarity measures, the agreement with the radiologists' subjective similarity ratings was assessed in terms of correlation coefficients between the average subjective ratings and the similarity measures. A commonly used similarity measure based on the Euclidean distance was moderately correlated (r=0.644) with the radiologists' average subjective ratings, whereas the psychophysical measure by use of the ANN was highly correlated (r=0.798). The preliminary result indicates that a psychophysical similarity measure would be useful in the selection of images similar to those of unknown masses on mammograms

  20. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Moringa oleifera on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogah James Ode

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infections is an old practice in traditional African medicine. However, scientific research has shown that bioactive compounds in plants are valuable medically in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. This research work is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on standard microorganisms strains as well as multi-drug resistant strains of medical importance. Acetone, aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extracts of bark, leaves and seeds of Moringa oleifera were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis. The preliminary phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay were carried out using chemicals and agar well diffusion method respectively. The results of phytochemicals analysis revealed differences in the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, saponins and volatile oil in all the extracts. Tannins were present in the extract of leaves while terpenes were present in the extract of bark and leaves. Phlobatannins and flavonoids were absent in all the extracts. The antibacterial assay results showed that M. oleifera extracts exhibited broad spectrum activity against four to six bacteria isolates as indicated by the zone of inhibition ranging from 10 to 36mm with variation in the percentage sensitivity of < 100%, = 100% and >100% depending on the plant part and solvent used. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 100mg/ml to 450mg/ml and 250mg/ml to 500mg/ml respectively against the isolates used. Standard antibiotic disc (Ofloxacin- 5μg inhibited the growth of all the tested bacteria isolates except P. mirabilis. The results of this research work showed that M. oleifera has great potential as antibacterial compounds against Gram

  1. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bas, Ahmet, E-mail: dr.ahmetbas@hotmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Samanci, Cesur, E-mail: cesursamanci@gmail.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Gulsen, Fatih, E-mail: drfgulsen@yahoo.com; Cantasdemir, Murat, E-mail: cantasdemir@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kabasakal, Levent, E-mail: lkabasakal@tsnm.org [Istanbul University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Kantarci, Fatih, E-mail: fatihkan@yahoo.com [Istanbul University, Department of Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey); Numan, Furuzan, E-mail: f.numan@superonline.com [Istanbul University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE.

  2. Evaluation of Liver Stiffness After Radioembolization by Real-Time ShearWave™ Elastography: Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PurposeTo evaluate the effect of ShearWave™ elastography (SWE) for the assessment of liver fibrosis after radioembolization (RE) in patients with liver malignancies.Materials and MethodsWe prospectively examined the effects of SWE before and after RE in 17 adult patients, from June 2012 to September 2013. All patients underwent SWE within 1 month before and 3 months (96.3 ± 22.9 days) after RE. Measurements were taken in segments III, IV, V, and VI (lateral/medial left lobe and anterior/posterior right lobe, respectively). Liver stiffness was studied in the 39 treated segments.ResultsThe mean stiffness of liver tissue according to the pre-RE SWE measurements was not different from the post-RE SWE measurements in the segments that did not undergo RE. Conversely, segments treated with RE were significantly stiffer according to the post-RE SWE measurements (mean SWE 17.4 kPa) than according to the baseline measurements (7.0 kPa) (p < 0.001). Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and preexisting infection with hepatitis B and C viruses had higher pre-embolization stiffness, and the post-embolization stiffness of the treated segments in these patients was higher than that in the remainder of the study population.ConclusionThese data suggest that SWE measurements of liver stiffness increase as early as the third month after RE. SWE could be used as a noninvasive complementary imaging method for preliminary assessment of liver fibrosis before and after RE

  3. Hyperpolarized 3He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for 3He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, 1H MRI and hyperpolarized 3He MRI at 3.0 T. 3He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from 3He static ventilation images and 1H thoracic images and the 3He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant 3He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for 3He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  4. Effectivness Of The Failure Rate On Maintenance Costs Of The City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaciuk Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a failure rate and maintenance cost comparison for two types of city transport buses. The paper presents in detail a case study of well known bus brands used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin. A failure index of all functional and constructional systems of the vehicles and their technical availability with regards to calendar time was determined. The paper also presents analysis of the factors related to maintenance costs of buses, including costs of fluids, repair costs and maintenance service. It has been demonstrated, that both analyzed buses generate similar maintenance costs, while their failures and technical availability differ significantly in operational practice. These differences are particularly evident in relation to the cumulative costs of repairs.

  5. Fuel Cell Buses in U.S. Transit Fleets: Current Status 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.; Gigakis, C.

    2010-11-01

    This status report, fourth in a series of annual status reports from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory, summarizes progress and accomplishments from demonstrations of fuel cell transit buses in the United States. This year's assessment report provides the results from the fifth year of operation of five Van Hool, ISE, and UTC Power fuel cell buses operating at AC Transit, SunLine, and CTTRANSIT. The achievements and challenges of this bus design, implementation, and operating are presented, with a focus on the next steps for implementing larger numbers and new and different designs of fuel cell buses. The major positive result from nearly five years of operation is the dramatic increase in reliability experienced for the fuel cell power system.

  6. Exposures due to emissions from ethanol and diesel fuelled buses in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otson, R. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Westerholm, R. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Fellin, P.; Davis, C. [BOVAR Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-01

    Personal exposure and ambient concentrations of 105 chemical species were determined during September in Stockholm, a northern urban area. This unique study provided personal exposure data equivalent to 8 person-days each on diesel and ethanol buses, and 12 person-days on streets in the urban area. If used judiciously, these data, and the ambient data, are useful for risk assessment, as well as for validation of dispersion models. The concentrations for many species were relatively low, when compared to results from other studies of outdoor concentrations in urban areas. This was probably due to the meteorological conditions during the study which favoured low concentrations. Personal exposures were generally higher than ambient concentrations, probably because of the proximity of subjects to sources of contaminants. As expected, alcohol compounds were found at greater levels in ethanol fueled buses and at bus stops on routes with predominantly ethanol fueled buses. No trends were evident for exposures of VOCs or PAC on diesel and ethanol buses. Exposures to particles at the bus stops were lower than exposures on buses, possibly due to the low traffic volumes at the bus stops, and the proximity of subjects on buses to other traffic. Upon factor analysis of the data, five factors explained the majority of the variance in the results, and showed associations between selected species and a few other parameters. These associations should be useful to design more efficient studies in the future. The chemical element mass balance results with measured profiles yielded uncertain results, but with literature profiles, the diesel and ethanol bus emissions accounted for a small fraction, i.e. < 5%, of the exposures 26 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Optimal Memoryless Encoding for Low Power Off-Chip Data Buses

    CERN Document Server

    Chee, Yeow Meng; Ling, Alan C H

    2007-01-01

    Off-chip buses account for a significant portion of the total system power consumed in embedded systems. Bus encoding schemes have been proposed to minimize power dissipation, but none has been demonstrated to be optimal with respect to any measure. In this paper, we give the first provably optimal and explicit (polynomial-time constructible) families of memoryless codes for minimizing bit transitions in off-chip buses. Our results imply that having access to a clock does not make a memoryless encoding scheme that minimizes bit transitions more powerful.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, C.R.; Knutson, C.F.

    1978-02-15

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced

  10. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action'' to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ''musts'' and ''wants.'' Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

  11. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Ligament: Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Dedicated Multi-Chamber Tension-Torsion Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric P. Laurent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering may constitute a promising alternative to current strategies in ligament repair, providing that suitable scaffolds and culture conditions are proposed. The objective of the present contribution is to present the design and instrumentation of a novel multi-chamber tension-torsion bioreactor dedicated to ligament tissue engineering. A preliminary biological evaluation of a new braided scaffold within this bioreactor under dynamic loading is reported, starting with the development of a dedicated seeding protocol validated from static cultures. The results of these preliminary biological characterizations confirm that the present combination of scaffold, seeding protocol and bioreactor may enable us to head towards a suitable ligament tissue-engineered construct.

  12. Voltage Stability Evaluation Incorporating Wind Power Intermittency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Libao SHI; Yang ZHAO; Yixin NI; Liangzhong YAO; Masoud BAZARGAN

    2013-01-01

    A simulation framework is proposed to evaluate the voltage stability of power systems incorporating wind power intermittency.Firstly,the power output modelings of three types of wind turbines are discussed.Secondly,the Jensen model is employed to simulate the wind farm with the wake effect.The Monte Carlo based technique is used to conduct the voltage stability evaluation incorporating the randomness of the wind speed based on the Weibull probability distribution.Thirdly,the relative sensitivity index (RSI) is calculated to identify weak buses during analysis.Finally,case studies with different simulation scenarios are carried out.Some statistical results involving weakness probability,expected value and variance of RSI as well as preliminary conclusions are drawn based on numerical simulation results.

  13. Satellite Power Systems (SPS): Concept development and evaluation program: Preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of a potential Satellite Power System (SPS) is provided. The assessment includes discussion of technical and economic feasibility; the effects of microwave power transmission beams on biological, ecological, and electromagnetic systems; the impact of SPS construction, deployment, and operations on the biosphere and on society; and the merits of SPS compared to other future energy alternatives.

  14. Clinical and roentgenographic evaluation of hydroxyapatite-coated and uncoated porous total hip arthroplasty: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccotti, M G; Rothman, R H; Veress, S A; Hozack, W J; Moriarty, L; Beight, J

    1991-10-01

    Sixty osteoarthritic patients undergoing primary uncemented total hip arthroplasty were matched for age and weight and randomized into one of four groups with respect to implant coating and postoperative protected weight-bearing status: group 1, hydroxyapatite, 12 weeks; group 2, uncoated, 12 weeks; group 3, hydroxyapatite, 6 weeks; group 4, uncoated, 6 weeks. Tantalum spheres were implanted periprosthetically into the femur at the time of arthroplasty, thus providing constant references for stereoscopic radiographs. Patients were then evaluated over a 1-year period with clinical examination, plain radiography, and roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Clinical evaluation using Charnley scoring showed no significant preoperative or postoperative intergroup differences, whereas visual analog testing noted less thigh pain with hydroxyapatite-coated stems at 12 weeks and 6 months follow-up. Plain radiographic analysis produced no significant differences, with no instability detected and bony ingrowth noted uniformly in all groups. The preliminary stereographic evaluation showed migration in all groups, but there were no significant differences between coated and uncoated stems or 6-week and 12-week partial weightbearing protocols. The Charnley, plain radiographic, and preliminary stereogrammetric evaluations all suggest that migration is unaltered by enhanced surfaces and that early unprotected weightbearing does not jeopardize implant fixation regardless of coating design. The lower incidence of visual analog thigh pain with the hydroxyapatite-coated stems, however, may be a reflection of bony ingrowth and as such add some validity to the theoretical advantages of enhanced surface prostheses. PMID:10149615

  15. Technical and economical analyses of the use of fuel cell for urban buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Lucia Bollini; Souza, Antonio Carlos Caetano de; Silveira, Jose Luz [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: lucia@feg.unesp.br; caetanodesouza@yahoo.com.br; joseluz@feg.unesp.br; Zanzi, Rolando [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology]. E-mail: rolando@ket.kht.se

    2008-07-01

    The global warming is caused mainly by burning of fossil fuels (oil, diesel, gasoline, etc) that emit millions of tons of pollutants. Besides, the certainty that those fossil fuels are non-renewable resources allows more researches in cleaner energy, and particularly for vehicles. In this way, fuel cell (FC) has a special attention because it can be applied in urban transport and improves the actual environmental situation. The FC appears like a promising technology for energy generation. Among several technologies in the present, the PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is the most appropriated for vehicles application, because it combines durability, high power density, high efficiency, good response and it works at relatively low temperatures. Besides that it is easy to turn it on and off and it is able to support present vibration in vehicles. A PEMFC's problem is that it needs noble catalyst, like platinum. Another problem is that CO, needs to be in low concentration, requiring a hydrogen more clean, because the cell deterioration. One part of this paper was developed in Stockholm, where there are some buses within the CUTE (Clean Urban Transport for Europe) project that have been in operation with FC since January 2004. Another part was developed in Guaratingueta, Brazil. Brazil intends to start up a program of FC buses. As conclusion, this paper show the economical analysis comparing buses moved by fuel cells and buses moved by internal combustion engine, as regarding the Brazilian conditions. (author)

  16. Leadership Thrust of Urban School Educators for Meeting the Challenge of Busing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Joseph C.

    Based on a nationwide survey of urban school administrators, personal experiences of the author, and a review of relevant desegregation literature, this paper explores the role of administrators in the achievement of the objectives of busing for school desegregation. Findings cited from the survey include: (1) peak periods of conflict occur in the…

  17. The Effect of Busing Black Ghetto Children into White Suburban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Burleigh B.; And Others

    This study is an attempt to discover what happens to students' attitudes as a result of experience in desegregated schools. In particular, the students studied were involved in a special busing program called Operation Hospitality, which was carried out by the Chicago Catholic School Board. Through this program, black grade school students from…

  18. An introduction on the demonstration performance of fuel cell buses (FCB) in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1990’s, hydrogen has found broad use in the traffic segment. Compared with conventional ones, hydrogen fuelled vehicles, a new generation of clean vehicles, produce no pollutants, with higher energy efficiency. In today’s world where the pollution is tougher, the "Zero Pollution" fuel cell buses display a

  19. 40 CFR 52.263 - Priority treatment for buses and carpools-Los Angeles Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of bus/carpool... agencies to which legal authority has been delegated, shall establish the following system of bus and bus... § 52.263 Priority treatment for buses and carpools—Los Angeles Region. (a) Definitions: (1)...

  20. Predicting self-pollution inside school buses using a CFD and multi-zone coupled model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Lee, Eon S.; Liu, Junjie; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-04-01

    The in-cabin environment of a school bus is important for children's health. The pollutants from a bus's own exhaust contribute to children's overall exposure to air pollutants inside the school bus cabin. In this study, we adapted a coupled model originally developed for indoor environment to determine the relative contribution of the bus own exhaust to the in-cabin pollutant concentrations. The coupled model uses CFD (computational fluent dynamics) model to simulate outside concentration and CONTAM (a multi-zone model) for inside the school bus. The model was validated with experimental data in the literature. Using the validated model, we analyzed the effects of vehicle speed and tailpipe location on self-pollution inside the bus cabin. We confirmed that the pollution released from the tailpipe can penetrate into the bus cabin through gaps in the back emergency door. We found the pollution concentration inside school buses was the highest when buses were driven at a medium speed. In addition, locating the tailpipe on the side, behind the rear axle resulted in less self-pollution since there is less time for the suction effect to take place. The developed theoretical framework can be generalized to study other types of buses. These findings can be used in developing policy recommendations for reducing human exposure to air pollution inside buses.

  1. BIODIESEL AS A SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVE TO PETROLEUM DIESEL IN SCHOOL BUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust is potentially harmful to human health and is a significant air pollutant due to its composition of harmful chemical substances and impact on climate. One of the many current uses of diesel fuel in rural environments is in school buses; however, few studies hav...

  2. Transportation of Wheelchair Seated Students in School Buses: A Review of State Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Britta; Fuhrman, Susan; Karg, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study quantitatively reviews publicly available state policies as they relate to the transportation of wheelchair-seated students in school buses. Inclusion of best practices in specially equipped school bus and driver training policies was assessed. Key points of interest within state policies were identified based on site visits, common…

  3. Smart Procurement of Naturally Generated Energy (SPONGE) for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses

    OpenAIRE

    Naoum-Sawaya, Joe; Crisostomi, Emanuele; Liu, Mingming; Gu, Yingqi; Shorten, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a recently introduced ECO-driving concept known as SPONGE in the context of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Buses (PHEB)'s.Examples are given to illustrate the benefits of this approach to ECO-driving. Finally, distributed algorithms to realise SPONGE are discussed, paying attention to the privacy implications of the underlying optimisation problems.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Concentrations and Temperatures within Tour Buses under Real-Time Traffic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Fu Chiu

    Full Text Available This study monitored the carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations and temperatures of three 43-seat tour buses with high-passenger capacities in a course of a three-day, two-night school excursion. Results showed that both driver zones and passenger zones of the tour buses achieved maximum CO2 concentrations of more than 3000 ppm, and maximum daily average concentrations of 2510.6 and 2646.9 ppm, respectively. The findings confirmed that the CO2 concentrations detected in the tour buses exceeded the indoor air quality standard of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (8 hr-CO2: 1000 ppm and the air quality guideline of Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department (1 hr-CO2: 2500 ppm for Level 1 for buses. Observations also showed that high-capacity tour bus cabins with air conditioning system operating in recirculation mode are severely lacking in air exchange rate, which may negatively impact transportation safety. Moreover, the passenger zones were able to maintain a temperature of between 20 and 25°C during travel, which effectively suppresses the dispersion of volatile organic compounds. Finally, the authors suggest that in the journey, increasing the ventilation frequency of tour bus cabin, which is very beneficial to maintain the travel safety and enhance the quality of travel.

  5. The evaluation of GL impact in Physical sciences using bibliometric indicators : preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1994-01-01

    A bibliometric study of the Italian grey literature in SIGLE database. Preliminary results. Given the increasing importance of Grey Literature (GL) for the information and documentation field, it is essential to apply a bibliometric analysis similar to the one widely used for the conventional literature. Study objectives: 1) impact evalutation of grey literature in physical sciences; and 2) differentiation between scientific and non scientific grey literature documents in the same discipline,...

  6. Expect respect support groups: preliminary evaluation of a dating violence prevention program for at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Barbara; Tharp, Andra Teten; Noonan, Rita K; Valle, Linda Anne; Hamburger, Merle E; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2012-07-01

    Expect Respect support groups, a selective prevention strategy, are designed to prevent and reduce dating violence among at-risk middle and high school students. This preliminary, uncontrolled evaluation examined changes in healthy relationship skills and emotionally and physically abusive behaviors in participants' peer and dating relationships. Self-reports (N = 144) showed significant increases in healthy relationship skills from baseline to program completion, whereas levels of victimization and perpetration remained unchanged. A subgroup of students who reported baseline levels of victimization and perpetration with means at least one standard deviation above the group mean reported significantly less victimization and perpetration at program completion. PMID:22872708

  7. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  8. Comparison of Life Cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions of natural gas, biodiesel and diesel buses of the Madrid transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparative study on the use of three after-treatment technologies: i) EGR + DPF, ii) SCR + Urea and iii) 3-way catalyst when implemented in urban buses, to determinate the energy requirements, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), direct Land Use Change (dLUC), abiotic depletion of fossil energy by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The process of production, conditioning and transporting of the fuels used by the buses (diesel, biodiesel (B100), a blended biodiesel at 20% (B20) and natural gas) were also analyzed (Well-to-Tank analysis) along with the environmental impact due to its combustion in the bus (Tank-to-Wheel analysis). The environmental impact of the manufacturing, maintenance and recycling process of the urban buses and exhaust after-treatment systems has also been evaluated. Main results shows that Life Cycle of SCR + Urea technology reduces environmental impact to a greater extent than its global Life Cycle increases it when gasoil is used resulting in a final balance more efficient than the other options, the same behavior is observed with the use of B20 and B100 but only when 0%dLUC is assumed since if the percentage of dLUC increases the effectiveness of the SCR + Urea technology in the reduction of environmental impact tend to decrease. -- Highlights: ► We examine the environmental impact caused by the Life Cycle of each technology, fossil fuel, biofuel and vehicle. ► Biodiesel environmental impact depends largely on land transformed for grow crops. ► Using SCR + Urea technology and gasoil as a fuel in the bus further reduces the environmental impact.

  9. A preliminary PET evaluation of the new dopamine D2 receptor agonist [11C]MNPA in cynomolgus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the preliminary positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation of a dopamine D2-like receptor agonist (R)-2-11CH3O-N-n-propylnorapomorphine ([11C]MNPA), as a potential new radioligand for in vivo imaging of the high-affinity state of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R). MNPA is a selective D2-like receptor agonist with a high affinity (K i=0.17 nM). [11C]MNPA was successfully synthesized by direct O-methylation of (R)-2-hydroxy-NPA using [11C]methyl iodide and was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys. This study included baseline PET experiments and a pretreatment study using unlabeled raclopride (1 mg/kg). High uptake of radioactivity was seen in regions known to contain high D2R, with a maximum striatum-to-cerebellum ratio of 2.23±0.21 at 78 min and a maximum thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio of 1.37±0.06 at 72 min. The pretreatment study demonstrated high specific binding to D2R by reducing the striatum-to-cerebellum ratio to 1.26 at 78 min. This preliminary study indicates that the dopamine agonist [11C]MNPA has potential as an agonist radioligand for the D2-like receptor and has potential for examination of the high-affinity state of the D2R in human subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders

  10. VNIIEF-ORNL Joint Plutonium Measurements with NMIS and Results of Plutonium Attributes Preliminary Evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the frameworks of TO No.007 between ORNL and VNIIEF on Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) mastering at VNIIEF in July 2000 there had been finalized joint measurements, in which NMIS-technique equipment was used that had been placed at VNIIEF's disposal by ORNL, as well as VNIIEF-produced unclassified samples of fissile materials. In the report there are presented results of experimental data preliminary processing to obtain absolute values of some attributes used in plutonium shells measurements: values of their mass and thickness. Possibility of fissile materials parameters absolute values obtaining from measurement data essentially widens NMIS applicability to the tasks relevant to these materials inspections

  11. UAS Integration into the NAS: iHTL: DAA Display Evaluation Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, Conrad; Shively, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The integrated human-in-the-loop (iHITL) simulation examined the effect of four different Detect-and-Avoid (DAA) display concepts on unmanned aircraft system (UAS) pilots' ability to maintain safe separation. The displays varied in the type and amount of guidance they provided to pilots. The study's background and methodology are discussed, followed by a presentation of the preliminary 'measured response' data (i.e., pilots' end-to-end response time in reacting to traffic alerts on their DAA display). Results indicate that display type had moderate to no affect on pilot measured response times.

  12. Techno-economic evaluation of internal combustion engine based cogeneration system retrofits in Canadian houses – A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Performance of IC engine cogeneration for Canadian housing is evaluated. • Primary energy saving index was used for energetic evaluation. • Greenhouse gas reduction index was used for environmental evaluation. • Tolerable capital cost was used to evaluate economic performance. • Impact of thermal storage capacity on cogeneration system performance was studied. - Abstract: A preliminary techno-economic evaluation of retrofitting reciprocating internal combustion engine based cogeneration into existing Canadian houses for the purpose of achieving or approaching net-zero energy rating is presented. Primary energy and electricity consumption, associated greenhouse gas emissions and tolerable capital cost are used as indicators. A whole building simulation model was used to simulate the performance of a commonly used cogeneration system architecture with thermal storage in “typical” single storey houses located in Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, Edmonton and Vancouver, representing the five major climatic regions of Canada. The system is assumed to sell excess electricity to the grid at the purchase price. A high efficiency auxiliary boiler is included to supply heat when cogeneration unit capacity is not sufficient to meet the heating load. The effect of thermal storage capacity, interest rate and acceptable payback period on the overall performance was evaluated through a sensitivity analysis. The findings suggest that internal combustion engine based cogeneration provides a promising option to achieve net-zero energy rating for Canadian houses, and therefore more detailed studies focusing on the entire Canadian housing stock are needed

  13. Evaluation of the mental health benefits of yoga in a secondary school: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hickey-Schultz, Lynn; Cohen, Deborah; Steiner, Naomi; Cope, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate potential mental health benefits of yoga for adolescents in secondary school. Students were randomly assigned to either regular physical education classes or to 11 weeks of yoga sessions based upon the Yoga Ed program over a single semester. Students completed baseline and end-program self-report measures of mood, anxiety, perceived stress, resilience, and other mental health variables. Independent evaluation of individual outcome measures revealed that yoga participants showed statistically significant differences over time relative to controls on measures of anger control and fatigue/inertia. Most outcome measures exhibited a pattern of worsening in the control group over time, whereas changes in the yoga group over time were either minimal or showed slight improvements. These preliminary results suggest that implementation of yoga is acceptable and feasible in a secondary school setting and has the potential of playing a protective or preventive role in maintaining mental health. PMID:21647811

  14. Evaluation of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in fenestrated stent grafts: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z. [Dept. of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia); Allen, Y.; Fitzsimmons, B.; Hartely, D. [Cook R and D, WA (Australia); Lawrence-Brown, M. [Dept. of Public Health, Curtin Univ. of Tech., Perth, WA (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    We aim in this study to investigate the potential value of CT virtual intravascular endoscopy in patients diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms undergoing fenestrated stent grafts. Both pre-and post-fenestration (within 3 months of implantation) multislice CT data were collected in eight patients and used for generation of virtual endoscopy images in our preliminary study. Variable fenestrations were deployed in 25 aortic branches with scallop fenestration implanted in six aortic ostia, large fenestration in four aortic ostia and small fenestration in 15 renal ostia, respectively. Measurements of the aortic ostia diameters both pre- and post-fenestration were successfully performed with virtual intravascular endoscopy visualization, and endovascular stents as well as their relationship to the aortic ostia were clearly demonstrated. Our results showed that there was no significant change of diameter of the aortic ostia following fenestrated stem grafts. Endovascular stents were clearly visualized on virtual endoscopy images, and no apparent deformity or malrotation was observed in this small group. Our preliminary study provides new insights into anatomic configuration/dimension of aortic ostia and endovascular stents, and virtual intravascular endoscopy could be a valuable technique to follow-up patients treated with fenestrated stent grafts. (orig.)

  15. Seismic Evaluation and Preliminary Design of Regular Setback Masonry Infilled Open Ground Storey RC Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Arshad K.

    2016-06-01

    Current seismic code presents certain stringent factors for defining frame as regular and irregular. Thereby these stringent factors only decide the type of analysis (i.e. equivalent static analysis or dynamic analysis) to be done. On the contrary, development of new simplified methods such as pushover analysis can give lateral load capacity of any structure (e.g. regular or irregular frame etc.) easily. Design by iterative procedure with the help of pushover analysis for serviceability requirement (i.e. inter storey drift limitation) provided by present seismic code, can provide an alternative to present practicing procedure. Present paper deals with regular setback frame in combination with vulnerable layout of masonry infill walls over the frame elevation (i.e. probable case of "Vertical Stiffness Irregularities"). Nonlinear time history analysis and Capacity Spectrum Method have been implemented to investigate the seismic performance of these frames. Finally, recently developed preliminary design procedure satisfying the serviceability criterion of inter storey drift limitation has been employed for the preliminary design of these frames.

  16. Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise in Finland: A preliminary investigation introducing the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    KARUKIVI, MAX; KORTEKANGAS-SAVOLAINEN, OUTI; SAXÉN, ULLA; HAAPASALO-PESU, KIRSI-MARIA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Teaching medical professionalism is increasingly acknowledged as an important aspect of medical education. The Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) is an assessment tool for evaluating medical professionalism, but no studies using it as a self-assessment instrument have been reported. This paper reports on a preliminary investigation of the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument as an assessment and self-assessment measure. Methods The sample in the present cross-sectional study comprised all 23 medical students and recent graduates (15 females and 8 males) participating in a summer school of psychiatry program in 2014. The two-month program combines clinical work with multifaceted teaching and intensive tutoring. At the end of the program, the participants’ medical professionalism was assessed by the tutors and other members of the work community as well as the students themselves using the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument. The P-MEX scores were compared, using the Friedman test. Results The mean values and SD for the P-MEX assessments were as follows: tutor assessment 3.26±0.21, work community assessment 3.32±0.26 and self-assessment 3.01±0.07. No significant gender differences were observed. The tutor and work community assessments were significantly correlated (r=0.573, p=0.040), but the self-assessment scores did not correlate with either of the other assessments. Overall, the students evaluated their skills significantly poorer in comparison to the other assessments. Conclusion Although the small sample size limits the generalization of these preliminary results, the Finnish version of the P-MEX instrument appears to be a feasible measure of medical professionalism. The instrument can also be used as a self-assessment instrument, but subjective evaluations should be complemented with external assessments or feedback in order to take individual and cultural aspects into account. PMID:26457311

  17. Cast Stone Oxidation Front Evaluation: Preliminary Results For Samples Exposed To Moist Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Almond, P. M.

    2013-11-26

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO{sub 4}{sup -} in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate (Cr(VI) was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate, Tc(VII), in Cast Stone samples prepared with 5 M Simulant. Cast Stone spiked with pertechnetate was also prepared and tested. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Cr were cut from Cast Stone exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) outdoor ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Depth discrete subsamples spiked with Tc-99 were cut from Cast Stone exposed to laboratory ambient temperature fluctuations and moist air. Similar conditions are expected to be encountered in the Cast Stone curing container. The leachability of Cr and Tc-99 and the reduction capacities, measured by the Angus-Glasser method, were determined for each subsample as a function of depth from the exposed surface. The results obtained to date were focused on continued method development and are preliminary and apply to the sample composition and curing / exposure conditions described in this report. The

  18. Efficiency improvement of transport service by trolley buses based on the levels of their power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Aulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Use efficiency improvement of trolley buses in passenger traffic based on power levels of electric energy input and terms adjustment of their maintenance. Methodology. In order to achieve this goal conformance of electric energy input by trolleybus to the transported amount of passengers taking into account characteristics of the route is offered to establish. The major indicators of the trolleybus operation are: speed of a race on lines, number of tractive motor firing, voltage and amperage in the network that were taken with accountants from a dashboard. Research results were tabulated and recorded with DVR. Along with the study of power consumption of electric energy input by a trolleybus passenger count was carried out too. Findings. The directly proportional dependence between the level of energy consumption by a trolleybus and the number of passengers for constant performance route was determined. Originality. As the criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the trolleybus operation on the route is proposed to use the ratio between electricity consumption and number of passengers for these characteristics of the route. This is confirmed experimentally. The obtained formulas give the possibility to balance the force work and consequently the volume of energy consumption during the trolleybus movement on the rise and the descent. Practical value. The proposed criterion can be used to adjust the terms of maintenance on the individual program, that means individual maintenance (IM. Type of work performed at the IM should be determined on the basis of diagnostic data of the vehicle (V. The principles of IM were formulated: 1 the primary task is planned and preventative strategy to identify and eliminate troubleshooting and technical actions; 2 operational control of the vehicle (V technical condition on the basis of prediction of its state using the proposed criteria, that takes into account the dependence of power consumption to

  19. Trolley buses in Milan. Zero emission rides through the city; Trolleybusse in Mailand. Voellig emissionsfrei durch die Stadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Martin; Boehm, Martin [Vossloh Kiepe GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Since June 2009, 30 new hybrid trolley buses made by the Van Hool and Vossloh Kiepe consortium have been in service in Milan. Test rides in the Milan city network proved that much energy can be saved by using the energy-storing high-performance supercapacitors. The convincing vehicle concept, featuring a serial arrangement of the driving components, has recently made the city order 15 more trolley buses for Milan and another nine for Parma. (orig.)

  20. The Utility of Pitch Elevation in the Evaluation of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malandraki, Georgia A.; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Gangnon, Ronald; Logemann, Jeri A.; Robbins, JoAnne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the utility of a pitch elevation task in the assessment of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Method: This study was a pilot prospective cohort study including 40 consecutive patients (16 male and 24 female) who were referred by their physician for a swallowing evaluation. Patients were evaluated with a noninstrumental clinical…

  1. Preliminary evaluation of environmental issues on the use of peat as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.; Richardson, S.; Walters, A.; Boesch, L.; Thomson, W.; Irons, J.

    1980-03-14

    A study to characterize the environmental issues, that would arise from an extensive peat utilization program has been initiated. The objectives of this preliminary report are to: identify the environmental issues and potential problems; examine the significance of issues in the geographical regions where peat use could be developed; and establish a methodology by which issues can be resolved or clarified through future coordinated private, state, and federal programs. An overview of peat development including discussions on conversion technologies, extraction and harvesting procedures, and land reclamation is presented. Environmental concerns are in the areas of water resources and quality, air quality, health and safety issues, solid waste management, and land reclamation. The general environmental issues, resource availability, and attitudes associated with potential peat development in ten states, containing an estimated 90 percent of US peat resources were described. The ten states reviewed are Alaska, Minnesota, Michigan, Maine, North and South Carolina, Wisconsin, New York, Florida, and Louisiana. (DMC)

  2. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W.H.; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings. PMID:26949333

  3. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION ON THE PREVALENCE OF TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN PIG REARED AND SALUGHTERED IN UMBRIA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piergili Fioretti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common disease of warm-blooded animals including man that can be trasmitted by meat containing tissue cysts. Recent findings lead to the conclusion that human toxoplasmosis has health sequelae also in the general public, in addition to congenital infections or immunosuppressive conditions. A risk based approach is therefore necessary to reduce the possibility of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in food. Due to the difficulty of revealing the infection in meats at slaughterhouse level, a reduction of the infection in the pre-harvest phase can be recommended. Few data are available on the real prevalence of the infection in Italian pig herds. A preliminary investigation on the seroprevalence in pigs reared and slaughtered in Umbria is reported. Blood samples of 288 animals were collected in three different slughterhouses and were representative of about 17% of the pigs reared in the Umbria Region. A seroprevalence of 14.58% was detected.

  4. Proposal of High-Temperature-Operation Tolerant SOI MOSFET and Preliminary Study on Device Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Omura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a high-temperature-operation (HTOT SOI MOSFET and show preliminary simulation results of its characteristics. It is demonstrated that HTOT SOI MOSFET operates safely at 700 K with no thermal instability because of its expanded effective bandgap. It is shown that its threshold voltage is higher than that of the conventional SOI MOSFET because its local thin Si regions offer an expanded effective band gap. It is shown that HTOT SOI MOSFET with 1-nm-thick local-thin Si regions is almost insensitive to temperature for <700K (427 C. This confirms that HTOT SOI MOSFET is a promising device for future high-temperature applications.

  5. Configuration evaluation and criteria plan. Volume 2: Evaluation critera plan (preliminary). Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E. K.

    1986-01-01

    The unbiased selection of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) configuration requires that the candidate engines be evaluated against a predetermined set of criteria which must be properly weighted to emphasize critical requirements defined prior to the actual evaluation. The evaluation and selection process involves the following functions: (1) determining if a configuration can satisfy basic STME requirements (yes/no); (2) defining the evaluation criteria; (3) selecting the criteria relative importance or weighting; (4) determining the weighting sensitivities; and (5) establishing a baseline for engine evaluation. The criteria weighting and sensitivities are cost related and are based on mission models and vehicle requirements. The evaluation process is used as a coarse screen to determine the candidate engines for the parametric studies and as a fine screen to determine concept(s) for conceptual design. The criteria used for the coarse and fine screen evaluation process is shown. The coarse screen process involves verifying that the candidate engines can meet the yes/no screening requirements and a semi-subjective quantitative evaluation. The fine screen engines have to meet all of the yes/no screening gates and are then subjected to a detailed evaluation or assessment using the quantitative cost evaluation processes. The option exists for re-cycling a concept through the quantitative portion of the screening and allows for some degree of optimization. The basic vehicle is a two stage LOX/HC, LOX/LH2 parallel burn vehicle capable of placing 150,000 lbs in low Earth orbit (LEO).

  6. Performance of optimised SCR retrofit buses under urban driving and controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Priestman, Max; Williams, Martin L.; Stewart, Gregor B.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the first comprehensive real-world emissions results from urban buses retrofitted with an optimised low-NO2 selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The SCRT system combines a CRT (Continuously Regenerating Trap) to reduce particle emissions and SCR to reduce NOx emissions. The optimised low-NO2 SCRT was designed to work under urban conditions where the vehicle exhaust gas temperature is often too low for many SCR systems to work efficiently. The system was extensively tested through on-road and test track measurements using a vehicle emission remote sensing instrument capable of measuring both nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Over 700 on-road measurements of the SCRT system were made in London. Compared with identical buses operating under the same conditions fitted with a CRT, NO2 emissions were reduced by 61% and total NOx by 45%. Under test track conditions reductions in NOx of 77% were observed. The test track results do reveal however that compared with an original Euro III bus without a CRT, the SCRT retrofit bus emissions of NO2 are 50% higher. Engine-out and tailpipe measurements of several important engine parameters under test track conditions showed the important effect of SCR inlet temperature on NOx conversion efficiency. Overall, we conclude that retrofitting urban buses to use low-NO2 SCRT systems is an effective method for delivering NOx and NO2 emissions reduction.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality dental simulation system on drilling operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dangxiao; Zhao, Siming; Li, Teng; Zhang, Yuru; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the fidelity of the iDental system and investigate its utility and performance on simulated drilling operations, user studies consisting of objective and subjective evaluations were performed. A voxel-based drilling simulation sub-system in the iDental system was employed for evaluation. Twenty participants were enrolled to take part in the experiments and were divided into two groups: novice and resident. A combined evaluation method including objective and subjective methods was employed. The objective evaluation included two dental drilling tasks: caries removal operation and pulp chamber opening operation. In the subjective method, participants were required to complete a questionnaire to evaluate the fidelity of the system after the operation task. Based on the structured global assessment scales in the questionnaire, the average subjective evaluation scores of the proposed metrics were greater than 4.5, demonstrating that the system operated above medium fidelity. Dentists expressed great interest and positive attitudes toward the potential of the iDental system. The objective evaluation data including time spent and the volume of removed healthy and carious tissue were obtained. Although no significant differences could be found between the two groups, the volume of removed caries and the depth of pulp chamber insertion manifested small standard deviations. Evaluation results illustrated that dentists were willing to use the virtual reality training system. Several future research topics were identified, including increasing the task difficulty, improving the system fidelity and introducing appropriate finger rest points.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a self-report tool for Learned Helplessness and Mastery Orientation in Italian students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Sorrenti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Learned helplessness (LH is defined as a passive behavior characterized by an inability to learn that may affect the academic success of students. Conversely, students who show good motivation skills, optimism and perseverance are more focused on tasks and ‘mastery oriented’ (derived from Mastery Orientation, MO. The purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measurement of LH and MO - the Learned Helplessness Questionnaire (LHQ - for the Italian scholastic context. We translated and adapted a student self-evaluation register, the Student behaviour checklist, and administered the questionnaire to Italian students in order to provide a preliminary factor structure. Exploratory factor analyses conducted support a two-factor model and acceptable internal reliability of the Italian LHQ.The results encourage the conduction of further analysis to assess the psychometric characteristics of the LHQ in depth.

  9. Extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Mentha piperita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Zhen-Liang; Jia, Ai-Rong; Shi, Ya-Ping; Li, Rui-Hong; Yang, Pei-Ming

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP). The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I), and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  10. Design, synthesis and preliminary bio-evaluation of glucose-cholesterol derivatives as ligands for brain targeting liposomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Lei; Wei Fan; Xian Kun Li; Shan Wang; Li Hai; Yong Wu

    2011-01-01

    A series of glucose-cholesterol derivatives 8a-8e as ligands for brain targeting liposomes were synthesized. The preparation of compound 6 involved temporary protection of glucose with chlorotrimethylsilicane and hexamethyldisilazane followed by selectively hydrolyzed. The known cholesteryl tosylate 1 were coupled to ethylene glycols to afford alcohol 2a-2e. Substitution and deprotection of alcohol 2a-2e furnished the acids 4a-4e, which was condensed with compound 6 to get compounds 7a-7e, and then was deprotected in tetrahydrofuran with TEA to obtain the title compounds. As a model drug, tegafur was entrapped by liposomes coupled with 8b, and preliminary in vivo evaluation shown 8b could enhance the ability of liposomes delivering tegafur across the blood brain barrier.

  11. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential established based on dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A large number of oilfield water samples were analyzed in this work. Research on the relationship between the concentrations and distribution of dissolved hydrocarbons sug gested that the contents and composition of dissolved hydrocarbons varied with the hydrocar bon-generating potential of reservoirs. The concentrations of dissolved hydrocarbons were low in dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers, but high in gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, especially in gas reservoirs with condensed oil. Series of carbon-number alkanes were usually absent in oilfield water from dry layers, water layers and gas-water layers but abundant in oil field water from oil-water reservoirs, gas reservoirs and oil reservoirs, whose carbon numbers varied most widely in oil reservoirs and least in gas reservoirs. A preliminary evaluation model for reservoir hydrocarbon-generating potential was established based on the characteristics of dissolved hydrocarbons in oilfield water to assist hydrocarbon exploration.

  12. Preliminary engineering evaluation of heat and digest treatment for in-tank removal of radionuclides from complexed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1995-09-29

    This report uses laboratory data from low temperature-ambient pressure digestion of actual complexed supernatant to evaluate digestion as a pretreatment method for waste in double-shell tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AN-107 and 241-AY-101. Digestion time requirements were developed at 100 degrees celsius to remove organic and meet NRC Class C criterion for TRU elements and NRC Class B criterion for 90Sr. The incidental waste ruling will establish the need for removal of 90Sr. Digestion pretreatment precipitates non radioactive metal ions and produces additional high-level waste solids and canisters of high level glass. This report estimates the amount of additional high-level waste produced and preliminary capital and operating costs for in-tank digestion of waste. An overview of alternative in-tank treatment methods is included

  13. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening And Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity Of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni From Different Geographical Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitasta Mandal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar, is also popular as the “sweet herb of Paraguay”. It is a storehouse of various bioactive constituents mainly, the ent-kaurene diterpene glycosides namely stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C, D and E. The plant is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities like hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities. The present research is based on a preliminary phytochemical screening and comparative evaluation of in vitro antioxidant activity of the dried leaves of five varieties of Stevia rebaudiana procured from five different geographical locations of India viz., Delhi, Surat, Kangra, Bangalore and Indore. Total phenolic and total flavonoid content was also determined using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and aluminum chloride colorimetric. The result showed that the variety from Kangra showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content of 5.87 and 62.22 mg GAE/L respectively.

  14. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  15. Preliminary study of the emergency planning zone evaluation for the nuclear power plant in Taiwan by using MACCS2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to government regulation, the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) must be designated before operation. The related emergency response planning (ERP) in EPZ must be planned to guarantee all necessary resources are available under the postulated accidents of NPP. Thus the pre-planned necessary actions will be helpful to protect population from the damage during the possible accident. The purpose of this preliminary study is to perform the evaluation of EPZ for a NPP by using MACCS2 (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2) code which was developed by SNL for estimating the radiological doses, health effects, and economic consequences that could result from postulated accidental releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere. The specific meteorological data used in this study was collected during July 1997 to June 1998 at the planned site and the population distribution was reinvestigated in April 1999. The source term data including inventory, sensible heat content, timing, duration, the fraction of inventory released with each segment etc. are based on a preliminary design result of the NPP. The effective dose equivalent and thyroid dose together with the related individual risk, social risk for each category of accidents are evaluated by MACCS2 code. An interface program has been developed to summarize the dose and risk results from all the accident categories. By comparing the results of individual risk, societal risk, whole body dose, and thyroid dose vs. distance to the Protection Action Guide and the NUREG-0396 report related criteria, a reasonably conservative EPZ is proposed. (author)

  16. Radiolabelling and preliminary evaluation of 68Ga-tetrapyrrole derivatives as potential tracers for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetrapyrroles are multisided natural products which are of relevance in clinical medicine. Owing to their specific accumulation in tumour tissue, porphyrins, metalloporphyrins and chlorins have been used as in photodynamic therapy and optical imaging. Moreover, their specific uptake into inflammatory atheromatous plaques via LDL endocytosis has been reported. The present study is concerned with the synthesis of 68Ga labelled porphyrin derivatives and an in vitro assessment of the utility of radiotracers in positron emission tomography. A set of five porphyrin derivatives were labelled using 68Ga from a commercially obtained radionuclide generator. Dedicated post-processing of the generator eluate was conducted to allow for labelling in aqueous media and also under anhydrous conditions. Challenge studies and incubation in human serum confirmed the stability of the tracers. Plasma protein binding was investigated in order to confirm the presence of freely diffusible radioligand in plasma. A preliminary microPET study in a tumour-bearing rat resulted in a clear visualisation of the tumour

  17. Biogeographic perspective of speciation among desert tortoises in the genus Gopherus: a preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Taylor; Vaughn, Mercy; Meléndez Torres, Cristina; Karl, Alice E.; Rosen, Philip C.; Berry, Kristin H.; Murph, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The enduring processes of time, climate, and adaptation have sculpted the distribution of organisms we observe in the Sonoran Desert. One such organism is Morafka’s desert tortoise, Gopherus morafkai. We apply a genomic approach to identify the evolutionary processes driving diversity in this species and present preliminary findings and emerging hypotheses. The Sonoran Desert form of the tortoise exhibits a continuum of genetic similarity spanning 850 km of Sonoran desertscrub extending from Empalme, Sonora, to Kingman, Arizona. However, at the ecotone between desertscrub and foothills thornscrub we identify a distinct, Sinaloan lineage and this occurrence suggests a more complex evolutionary history for G. morafkai. By using multiple loci from throughout the tortoise’s genome, we aim to determine if divergence between these lineages occurred in allopatry, and further to investigate for signatures of past or current genetic introgression. This international, collaborative project will assist state and federal agencies in developing management strategies that best preserve the evolutionary potential of Morafka’s desert tortoise. Ultimately, an understanding of the evolutionary history of desert tortoises will not only clarify the forces that have driven the divergence in this group, but also contribute to our knowledge of the biogeographic history of the Southwestern deserts and how diversity is maintained within them.

  18. Large climate-moderating envelopes for enclosed structures: a preliminary evaluation of energy conservation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R.L.; Giles, G.E.; Park, J.E.

    1981-12-01

    An investigation was made of the basic impacts of putting a large secondary enclosure around a number of functions and thereby creating a Large Climate Moderating Envelope (LCME). This study is a preliminary estimate of the energy conservation benefits of an LCME. A hypothetical LMCE design was chosen and a coupled fluid dynamic and energy transport analysis was performed to estimate the energy conservation potential of this design. The heat transfer models included insolation, outside air temperature and wind, thermal radiation exchange with the sky, and between the fabric and ground and thermal storage in the earth mass beneath the LCME. The energy transported within the fluid by the buoyancy driven circulation was modeled as an incompressible fluid utilizing the Boussinesq approximation. The climatic conditions were assumed to vary in smooth repeating daily cycles. The numerical simulation of climatic variation was continued until the results within the LCME achieved a repeating daily cycle. The results for selected seasonally characteristic days were utilized to estimate the annual energy consumption of structures within an LCME relative to similar structures exposed to the exterior environment. The relative annual energy savings for summer-dominated climates was estimated to be approx. 70%. The energy savings for a winter-dominated climate LCME were estimated to be somewhat smaller but the LCME concept could offer significant benefits for agricultural applications for this type of climate.

  19. Biosorption of 241Am by Rhizopus arrihizus: preliminary investigation and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biosorption of 241Am from solution by a fungus--Rhizopus Arrihizus (R. arrihizus), and the effect of experimental conditions on the adsorption were investigated. The preliminary results showed that the biosorption of 241Am by R. arrihizus is very efficient. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am was removed by R. arrihizus of 1.3 g/l (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (44.3-877.2 μg/l) (C0), with adsorption capacities (W) of 4.2-79.4 MBq/g biomass (dry weight) (33.2-627.5 μg/g). The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 h and the optimum pH ranged from 1 to 3. No significant differences in 241Am biosorption were observed at 10-45 deg. C, or in solutions containing Au3+ or Ag+, even 2000 times above 241Am concentration. The relationship between concentrations and adsorption capacities of 241Am indicated that the 241Am biosorption by R. arrihizus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation

  20. Preliminary evaluation of thematic mapper sensor characteristics relative to land cover/land use discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. L.; Irons, J. R.; Markham, B. L.; Nelson, R. F.; Toll, D. L.; Latty, R. S.; Stauffer, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of airborne thematic mapper (TM) data taken to quantify the effect of three major TM sensor parameters, spectral, spatial, and radiometric resolution, six months after launch of Landsat-4 are reported. The flight took place on Nov. 2, 1982 over Washington, D.C., and data gathered were compared with ground reference data from color airborne photography on a 1:40,000 scale. Analyses proceeded by deleting one band from each of four data sets, thus making the data equivalent to MSS data. Attention was directed to land cover/use classes in a quick-look format. A per-pixel maximum likelihood scheme was found to increase the recognition and dicrimination categorization capabilities. Finer spatial resolution, however, impeded classification due to increased within-class variability of the field-center pixels, which also incresed class overlap in the spectral data base. Improved data analyses techniques are therefore needed to exploit the available higher spatial resolution of the TM.

  1. A Preliminary Evaluation of the Physiological Mechanisms of Action for Sleep Restriction Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Vallières

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the physiological mechanisms involved in the sleep restriction treatment of insomnia. A multiple baseline across subjects design was used. Sleep of five participants suffering from insomnia was assessed throughout the experimentation by sleep diaries and actigraphy. Ten nights of polysomnography were conducted over five occasions. The first two-night assessment served to screen for sleep disorders and to establish a baseline for dependent measures. Three assessments were undertaken across the treatment interval, with the fifth and last one coming at follow-up. Daily cortisol assays were obtained. Sleep restriction therapy was applied in-lab for the first two nights of treatment and was subsequently supervised weekly. Interrupted time series analyses were computed on sleep diary data and showed a significantly decreased wake time, increased sleep efficiency, and decreased total sleep time. Sleepiness at night seems positively related to sleep variables, polysomnography data suggest objective changes mainly for stage 2, and power spectral analysis shows a decrease in beta-1 and -2 powers for the second night of treatment. Cortisol levels seem to be lower during treatment. These preliminary results confirm part of the proposed physiological mechanisms and suggest that sleep restriction contributes to a rapid decrease in hyperarousal insomnia.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the tomographic performance of the mediSPECT small animal imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accorsi, Roberto; Curion, Assunta Simona; Frallicciardi, Paola; Lanza, Richard C.; Lauria, Adele; Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    We report on the tests of a prototype (MediSPECT) system developed at University & INFN Napoli, for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) imaging on small animals with a small Field of View (FoV) and high spatial resolution. MediSPECT is a SPECT imaging system based on a 1-mm-thick CdTe pixel detector, bump-bonded to the Medipix2 CMOS readout circuit operating in single-photon counting. The CdTe detector has 256×256 square array of pixels arranged with a 55 μm pitch, for a sensitive area of 14×14 mm 2. In its present version, this system implements a single detector head, mounted on a rotating gantry. For preliminary testing and calibration of the acquisition equipment and image reconstruction algorithms, 90 projections of a γ-ray point source ( 109Cd) through a single pinhole (diameter 0.4 mm; radius of rotation about 2.5 cm; focal length about 4.5 cm) were acquired for 20 min each in a step-and-shoot mode. Capillaries, 800 μm in diameter, were arranged in a Y-shape to form a more complex phantom ( 125I, 1 mm pinhole diameter, 45 projections, each acquired for 25 min). Images were reconstructed with a custom algorithm implementing standard OS-EM with center of rotation correction and spatial resolution of 0.2 mm over a FoV of 2 mm was obtained.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of an experimental clinical chemistry analyzer developed for space medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A H; Gornet, T G; Schenkel, O; Smith-Cronin, L; Graham, G A; Tonnesen, A S; McKinley, B A

    1993-01-01

    An experimental clinical chemistry analyzer system was designed and built to demonstrate the feasibility of clinical chemistry as part of a medical-care system at NASA's planned space station Freedom. We report the performance of the experimental analyzer, called a medical development unit (MDU), for selected analytes in a laboratory setting in preparation for a preliminary clinical trial at patients' bedsides in an intensive-care unit. Within-run CVs ranged from 0.7% for sodium to 7.1% for phosphorus; day-to-day CVs ranged from 1.0% for chloride to 23.4% for calcium. Correlation of patients' blood sample analyses compared well with those by Ektachem E700 and other high-volume central laboratory analyzers (r ranged from 0.933 for creatine kinase MB isoenzyme to 0.997 for potassium), except for hemoglobin (r = 0.901) and calcium (r = 0.823). Although several CVs obtained in this study exceeded theoretical desired precision limits based on biological variations, performance was adequate for clinical laboratory diagnosis. We examined the effect of potentially interfering concentrations of hemoglobin, bilirubin, and lipids: the only effect was negative interference with calcium analyses by high concentrations of bilirubin. We also examined the effects of preanalytical variables and the performance of experimental sample-transfer cups designed to retain sample and reference liquid in microgravity. Continued development of the MDU system is recommended, especially automation of sample processing.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent Training Program to Prevent Gun Play

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Amy; Miltenberger, Raymond; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Brower Breitwieser, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that behavioral skills training with in situ training is an effective strategy to teach children the safety skills needed if they ever encounter an unattended firearm. The current study evaluated the use of parents as trainers to increase the efficiency of training. The success of parent training on their children's safety skills was evaluated in a multiple baseline across participants design. The results showed that the training was effective for 3 of the 4 children.

  5. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L.; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV with the rate of new infections being approximately 4 times higher compared to White women of comparable age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV program as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed. PMID:24697607

  6. Biosorption of Americium-242 by saccharomyces cerevisiae: preliminary evaluation and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an important radioisotope in nuclear industry and other fields, americium-241 is one of the most serious contamination concerns duo to its high radiation toxicity and long half-life. In this experiment, the biosorption of 241Am from solution by a fungus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), and the effects of various experimental conditions on the biosorption and the mechanism were explored. The preliminary results showed that S. cerevisiae is a very efficient biosorbent. An average of more than 99% of the total 241Am could be removed by S. cerevisiae of 2.1g/L (dry weight) from 241Am solutions of 2.22MBq/L -555 MBq/L (Co). The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH ranged 1-3. The culture times of more than 16 hours were suitable and the efficient adsorption of 241Am by the S. cerevisiae could be noted. The biosorption of 241Am by the decomposed cell wall, protoplasm or cell membrane of S. cerevisiae was same efficient as by the intact fungus, but the some components of S. cerevisiae, such as protein and acylation group had obvious effect on adsorption. When the concentrations of coexistent Eu3+, Nd3+ were 100 times more than that of 241Am, the adsorption rates would drop to 65%. However, most of the investigated acidic ions have no significant influence on the 241Am adsorption but minute change of pH value, while the saturated EDTA can strong inhibit the biosorption of 241Am.. (authors)

  7. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. Objectives This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. Materials and Methods After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2; maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity. The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. Results The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation 0.95 reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70. These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1. Conclusions TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W or relative power output (± 0.3 W.kg-1, the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h-1. Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

  8. Preliminary the Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS Norms for Evaluating the Nutrient Status of Apple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS is an important tool for increasing fruit yield and fruit quality. There are still no studies on the use of DRIS for nutritional diagnosis of the apple tree for China conditions. The objectives of this study were to establish norms for apple, to compare mean yield, leaf nutrient contents and variance of nutrient ratios of low- and high-yielding subpopulations. The study covered the apple producing areas of the Wei-bei Loess Plateau in the northwest of China, in 164 orchards selected for their high productivity and employment of excellent management techniques. The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese and zinc were determined in leaf samples. The data were divided into high-yielding (>45 t/ha and low-yielding (<45 t/ha subpopulations and norms were computed using standard DRIS procedures and a preliminary DRIS norms for apple growing in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau are selected. These norms were developed with data from only one region, so data from future surveys and field trials may subsequently be used to enlarge the database allowing the refinement of model parameters. The results elucidate that the DRIS model for apple, developed in this study, is a diagnostic tool that may be used to predict if insufficiencies or imbalances in N, P, K Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Zn supplies are occurring in apple production area in the Wei-bei Loess Plateau, China and indeed elsewhere in the other apple production areas with similar c1imatic and soil conditions.

  9. Sewage sludge drying by energy recovery from OFMSW composting: Preliminary feasibility evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The aim is to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a solar greenhouse. • The system allows the exploitation of heat available from OFMSW aerobic process. • Another aim is to face the problem of OFMSW treatment, in particular food waste. • Energy and mass balances are presented for a case study. - Abstract: In this paper an original energy recovery method from composting is analyzed. The integrated system exploits the heat available from the aerobic biochemical process in order to support the drying of sewage sludge, using a specific solar greenhouse. The aim is to tackle the problem of organic waste treatment, with specific regard to food waste. This is done by optimizing the energy consumption of the aerobic process of composting, using the heat produced to solve a second important waste management problem such as the sewage waste treatment. Energy and mass balances are presented in a preliminary feasibility study. Referring to a composting plant with a capacity of 15,000 t/y of food waste, the estimation of the power from recovered heat for the entire plant resulted about 42 kW. The results demonstrated that the energy recoverable can cover part of the heat necessary for the treatment of sludge generated by the population served by the composting plant (in terms of food waste and green waste collection). The addition of a renewable source such as solar energy could cover the residual energy demand. The approach is presented in detail in order for it to be replicated in other case studies or at full scale applications

  10. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Laxemar subarea. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Laxemar subarea have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB in 2000. These criteria both concern properties of the site judged to be necessary for safety and engineering (requirements) and properties judged to be beneficial (preferences). The findings are then evaluated in order to provide feedback to continued investigations and design work. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The latter is eventually done in coming Safety Assessments. This preliminary safety evaluation shows that, according to existing data, the Laxemar subarea meets all safety requirements. The evaluation also shows that the Laxemar subarea meets most of the safety preferences, but for some aspects of the site description further reduction of the uncertainties would enhance the safety case. Despite the stated concerns, there is no reason, from a safety point of view, not to continue the Site Investigations at the Laxemar subarea. There are uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a proper safety assessment. Only some of the uncertainties noted in the Site Descriptive Model have safety implications and need further resolution for this reason. Furthermore, uncertainties may need resolving for other reasons, such as giving an adequate assurance of site understanding or assisting in optimising design. Notably, there are questions about the

  11. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  12. Preliminary evaluation of selected in situ remediation technologies for Volatile Organic Compound contamination at Arid sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhard, R.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Amonette, J.E.

    1992-10-01

    To support the Volatile Organic Compounds-Arid Site (VOC-Arid) Integrated Demonstration (ID) in its technical, logistical, institutional, and economical testing of emerging environmental management and restoration technologies. Pacific Northwest Laboratory(a) is evaluating several in situ remediation technologies for possible inclusion in the demonstration. The evaluations are made with respect to the initial focus of the VOC-Arid ID: the carbon tetrachloride contamination at the Hanford Site, where it was disposed to the vadose zone along with other volatile and nonvolatile organic wastes. heavy metals, acids. and radionuclides. The purposes of this report are (1) to identify candidate in situ technologies for inclusion in the program, (2) to evaluate the candidate technologies based on their potential applicability to VOC contamination at arid sites and geologic conditions representative of the ID host site (i.e., Hanford Site), and (3) to prioritize those technologies for future US Department of Energy (DOE) support.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of alternative forms for immobilization of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of available information on eleven alternative solid forms for immobilization of SRP high-level waste has been completed. Based on the assessment of both product and process characteristics, four forms were selected for more detailed evaluation: (1) borosilicate glass made in the reference process, (2) a high-silica glass made from a porous glass matrix, (3) crystalline ceramics such as supercalcine or SYNROC, and (4) ceramics coated with an impervious barrier. The assessment includes a discussion of product and process characteristics for each of the eleven forms, a cross comparison of these characteristics for the forms, and the bases for selecting the most promising forms for further study

  14. Hyperacuity test to evaluate vision through dense cataracts: research preliminary to a clinical study in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.; Giraldez, Maria J.; Huang, Doahua; Hirose, Hiroshi; Knowles, Richard A.; Namperumalsamy, P.; LaBree, Lauri; Azen, Stanley P.

    1995-03-01

    Using high luminance point-of-light stimuli, Vernier judgments can be made in the presence of markedly degraded retinal imagery. Without coaching, observers perform center-of-gravity assessments of relative locations of degraded point images. We seek to defined, presurgery, individuals who will derive the most benefit from advanced cataract removal (a form of triage), and to determine which of two cataractous eyes has the better postsurgical visual prognosis. There are incredible and growing backlogs of patients with severe cataracts (and other dense media opacities) in the developing world, and generally, limited resources are available for provision of health care. Postcataract surgical failure rates for good visual function are often high, and only one eye is operated on in over 95% of indigent patients treated. Prior to initiating advanced studies in the developing world, at Berkeley we conducted preliminary research on Vernier acuity test techniques on normal adult subjects. We sought to determine the number of repeat trials necessary; to compare a two-point and a three-point Vernier display; to determine the shape of the measured response function at large gap separations between test points (required when testing advanced cataract patients); to assess the effect(s) of a broad range of uncorrected refractive errors on outcomes; and to consider means to minimize refraction-based errors. From these and prior data and analyses, we defined a protocol for use in the developing world. Using a newly designed and rugged precision instrument, these tests were repeated on an advanced cataract population at Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Although we had much prior experience in India, the initial protocol required major revision on site. Necessary changes in test methods and analytical approaches were made, and next stages in this program were planned. And a new and simple gap `visual acuity' (gap `VA') test was added to the protocol, which greatly facilitated

  15. Postural Stability During Single-Leg Stance: A Preliminary Evaluation of Noncontact Lower Extremity Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Malfait, Bart; Nijs, Stefaan; Peers, Koen H E; Vereecken, Styn; Verschueren, Sabine M P; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip F

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study with a prospective cohort design. Background Postural stability deficits during single-leg stance have been reported in persons with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, ACL reconstruction, and chronic ankle instability. It remains unclear whether impaired postural stability is a consequence or cause of these injuries. Objectives To prospectively investigate whether postural stability deficits during single-leg stance predict noncontact lower extremity injuries. Methods Fifty injury-free female athletes performed a transition task from double-leg stance to single-leg stance with eyes closed. Center-of-pressure displacement, the main outcome variable, was measured during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was reached during single-leg stance. Noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded at a 1-year follow-up. Results Six participants sustained a noncontact ACL injury or ankle sprain. Center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point was significantly increased in the injured (P = .030) and noninjured legs (P = .009) of the injured group compared to the respective matched legs of the noninjured group. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis revealed significant discriminative accuracy between groups for the center-of-pressure displacement during the first 3 seconds after the time to a new stability point of the injured (AUC = 0.814, P = .015) and noninjured legs (AUC = 0.897, P = .004) of the injured group compared to the matched legs of the noninjured group. Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that postural stability measurements during the single-leg stance phase of the double- to single-leg stance transition task may be a useful predictor of increased risk of noncontact lower extremity injury. Further research is indicated. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports PhysTher 2016

  16. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  17. Preliminary Benchmark Evaluation of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2009-05-01

    A benchmark model of the initial fully-loaded start-up core critical of Japan’s High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) was developed to provide data in support of ongoing validation efforts of the Very High Temperature Reactor Program using publicly available resources. The HTTR is a 30 MWt test reactor utilizing graphite moderation, helium coolant, and prismatic TRISO fuel. The benchmark was modeled using MCNP5 with various neutron cross-section libraries. An uncertainty evaluation was performed by perturbing the benchmark model and comparing the resultant eigenvalues. The calculated eigenvalues are approximately 2-3% greater than expected with an uncertainty of ±0.70%. The primary sources of uncertainty are the impurities in the core and reflector graphite. The release of additional HTTR data could effectively reduce the benchmark model uncertainties and bias. Sensitivity of the results to the graphite impurity content might imply that further evaluation of the graphite content could significantly improve calculated results. Proper characterization of graphite for future Next Generation Nuclear Power reactor designs will improve computational modeling capabilities. Current benchmarking activities include evaluation of the annular HTTR cores and assessment of the remaining start-up core physics experiments, including reactivity effects, reactivity coefficient, and reaction-rate distribution measurements. Long term benchmarking goals might include analyses of the hot zero-power critical, rise-to-power tests, and other irradiation, safety, and technical evaluations performed with the HTTR.

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent Training Program to Prevent Gun Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Amy; Miltenberger, Raymond; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that behavioral skills training with in situ training is an effective strategy to teach children the safety skills needed if they ever encounter an unattended firearm. The current study evaluated the use of parents as trainers to increase the efficiency of training. The success of parent training on their children's…

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of an Educational Outcomes Assessment Process for Dental Interpretive Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Richard A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure for testing the ability of dental students to detect presence and depth of dental caries was evaluated. Students (n=40) from four experience groups examined radiographs obtained from a model. Results indicated that this method of assessing student competence in radiographic interpretation is valid. (MSE)

  20. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the interpersonal communication competence scale for aquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Søren Vester; Baker, Felicity A.; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2015-01-01

    Primary objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of two adapted versions of the interpersonal communication competence scale (ICCS) that were applied to people with acquired brain injury (ABI). Construct validity was tested for both new scales and a factor extraction was performed...

  1. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Reference System, RESAR-414

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety evaluation for the Westinghouse Standard Reactor includes information on general reactor characteristics; design criteria for systems and components; reactor coolant system; engineered safety systems; instrumentation and controls; electric power systems; auxiliary systems; steam and power conversion system; radioactive waste management; radiation protection; conduct of operations; accident analyses; and quality assurance

  2. Use of Web 2.0 Social Media Platforms to Promote Community-Engaged Research Dialogs: A Preliminary Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez Soto, Miguel; Bishop, Shawn G; Aase, Lee A; Timimi, Farris K; Montori, Victor M; Patten, Christi A

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-engaged research is defined by the Institute of Medicine as the process of working collaboratively with groups of people affiliated by geographic proximity, special interests, or similar situations with respect to issues affecting their well-being. Traditional face-to-face community-engaged research is limited by geographic location, limited in resources, and/or uses one-way communications. Web 2.0 technologies including social media are novel communication channels for community-engaged research because these tools can reach a broader audience while promoting bidirectional dialogs. Objective This paper reports on a preliminary program evaluation of the use of social media platforms for promoting engagement of researchers and community representatives in dialogs about community-engaged research. Methods For this pilot program evaluation, the Clinical and Translational Science Office for Community Engagement in Research partnered with the Social Media Network at our institution to create a WordPress blog and Twitter account. Both social media platforms were facilitated by a social media manager. We used descriptive analytics for measuring engagement with WordPress and Twitter over an 18-month implementation period during 2014-2016. For the blog, we examined type of user (researcher, community representative, other) and used content analysis to generate the major themes from blog postings. For use of Twitter, we examined selected demographics and impressions among followers. Results There were 76 blog postings observed from researchers (48/76, 64%), community representatives (23/76, 32%) and funders (5/76, 8%). The predominant themes of the blog content were research awareness and dissemination of community-engaged research (35/76, 46%) and best practices (23/76, 30%). For Twitter, we obtained 411 followers at the end of the 18-month evaluation period, with an increase of 42% (from 280 to 411) over the final 6 months. Followers reported varied

  3. A Preliminary Evaluation of Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges, Enhanced with Platelet-Rich Plasma, Hydroxyapatite and Chitin Whiskers for Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Spence

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to perform a number of preliminary in vitro evaluations on an array of modified gelatin gel sponge scaffolds for use in a bone graft application. The gelatin gels were modified through the addition of a number of components which each possess unique properties conducive to the creation and regeneration of bone: a preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF, a bioactive, lyophilized form of platelet-rich plasma, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an emerging practice that has proven effective in a number of clinical applications, including enhancing bone repair through improved deposition of new bony matrix and angiogenesis. As such, the inclusion of PRGF in our gelatin scaffolds was intended to significantly enhance scaffold bioactivity, while the addition of hydroxyapatite and chitin whiskers were anticipated to increase scaffold strength. Additionally, the gelatin sponges, which readily dissolve in aqueous solutions, were subjected to 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linking, either during or post-gelation, to control their rate of degradation. Scaffolds were evaluated in vitro with respect to compressive strength, mass loss/degradation, protein release, and cellular interaction, with results demonstrating the potential of the gelatin gel sponge scaffold for use in the regeneration of bone.

  4. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  5. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  6. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  7. Computer–Based Procedures for Nuclear Power Plant Field Workers: Preliminary Results from Two Evaluation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katya L Le Blanc; Johanna H Oxstrand

    2013-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory and participants from the U.S. nuclear industry are collaborating on a research effort aimed to augment the existing guidance on computer-based procedure (CBP) design with specific guidance on how to design CBP user interfaces such that they support procedure execution in ways that exceed the capabilities of paper-based procedures (PBPs) without introducing new errors. Researchers are employing an iterative process where the human factors issues and interface design principles related to CBP usage are systematically addressed and evaluated in realistic settings. This paper describes the process of developing a CBP prototype and the two studies conducted to evaluate the prototype. The results indicate that CBPs may improve performance by reducing errors, but may increase the time it takes to complete procedural tasks.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of licensing issues associated with U. S. -sited CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Erp, J B

    1977-12-01

    The principal safety-related characteristics of current CANDU-PHW power plants are described, and a distinction between those characteristics which are intrinsic to the CANDU-PHW system and those that are not is presented. An outline is given of the main features of the Canadian safety and licensing approach. Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. Some of the main results of the safety analyses, routinely performed for CANDU-PHW reactors, are presented. U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to its conformance to the U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Cloud Fraction Simulations by GAMIL2 Using COSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li; LI Li-Juan; HUANG Wen-Yu; WANG Yong; WANG Bin

    2012-01-01

    The Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparisons Project (CFMIP) Observation Simulator Package (COSP) is adopted in the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL2) during CFMIP at Phase II to evaluate the model cloud fractions in a consistent way with satellite observations. The cloud simulation results embedded in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) control experiment are presented using three satellite simulators: International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) lidar onboard the Cloud- Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). Overall, GAMIL2 can produce horizontal distributions of the low cloud fraction that are similar to the satellite observations, and its similarities to the observations on different levels are shown in Taylor diagrams. The discrepancies among satellite observations are also shown, which should be considered during evaluation.

  10. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of MEMS-based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters in Extended Temperature Range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, R.; Borregaard, L.M.; Lei, A.;

    2012-01-01

    In this work a batch of MEMS-based vibration energy harvesters consisting of a silicon/PZT thick film ntilever with integrated proof mass is characterized. The purpose of a vibration energy harvester is to convert low grade vibrations to useful electrical power. Optimally, the natural frequency...... of the harvester should match the frequency of he ambient vibration. The first step to achieve this is to evaluate the uniformity of the fabricated harvesters and nderstand the effects of temperature on the harvesters during operation. Therefore, the uniformity of 40 energy harvesters from one wafer has been...... evaluated. Thereafter the performance of the energy harvesters operating at emperatures between -30°C to 100°C was measured....

  11. Preliminary investigation of the use of digital image analysis for raw ham evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nanni Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to find objective parameters for the evaluation of pig thighs to be used for PDO processing, digital images of the external surface of 384 left thighs were acquired, to be used for multivariate image analysis. The following parameters were also measured on the same samples: weight, length, circumference, thickness of fat and thigh, globosity index and colour of skin. Moreover, a subjective evaluation of veining and red skin defects was also made by an expert assessor. Multivariate analysis of the digital images showed a separation of the analysed samples in two clusters, whose differences were then investigated on the basis of the other traits. Various differences between the two clusters where found, mainly for the size-related parameters.

  12. A preliminary neutronic evaluation of high temperature engineering test reactor using the SCALE6 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanure, L. P. A. R.; Sousa, R. V.; Costa, D. F.; Cardoso, F.; Veloso, M. A. F.; Pereira, C.

    2014-02-01

    Neutronic parameters of some fourth generation nuclear reactors have been investigated at the Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/UFMG. Previous studies show the possibility to increase the transmutation capabilities of these fourth generation systems to achieve significant reduction concerning transuranic elements in spent fuel. To validate the studies, a benchmark on core physics analysis, related to initial testing of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor and provided by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was simulated using the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE). The CSAS6/KENO-VI control sequence and the 44-group ENDF/B-V 0 cross-section neutron library were used to evaluate the keff (effective multiplication factor) and the result presents good agreement with experimental value.

  13. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Moringa oleifera on Pathogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ogah James Ode; Osundare Folakemi Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    The use of higher plants and their extracts to treat infections is an old practice in traditional African medicine. However, scientific research has shown that bioactive compounds in plants are valuable medically in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms. This research work is aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Moringa oleifera extracts on standard microorganisms strains as well as multi-drug resistant strains of medical importance. Acetone, aqueous, eth...

  14. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI evaluation of cerebral intraventricular tumors: preliminary results.

    OpenAIRE

    Holveck, A.; Grand, Sylvie; Boini, Stéphane; Kirchin, Miles; Le Bas, Jean-François; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Bracard, Serge; Kremer, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    International audience INTRODUCTION: The aims of the present study were to determine the perfusion characteristics of several types of intraventricular tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in making the differential diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 28 patients with intraventricular tumors (five meningiomas, five papillomas, three ependymomas, four subependymomas, seven central neurocytomas, two subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and two metastases) underwe...

  15. Target Population Involvement in Urban Ciclovias: A Preliminary Evaluation of St. Louis Open Streets

    OpenAIRE

    Hipp, J. Aaron; Eyler, Amy A.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.

    2012-01-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct ...

  16. Development and preliminary evaluation of a quality of life measure targeted at dementia caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Fitten Jaime; Vassar Stefanie D; Maines Michele L; Hays Ron D; Vickrey Barbara G; Strickland Tony

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Providing care for individuals with a progressive, debilitating condition such as dementia can adversely impact the quality of life (QOL) of informal caregivers. To date, there is no existing caregiver quality of life measure for dementia caregivers with breadth of coverage or that is applicable to caregivers of diverse ethnic backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a caregiver-targeted quality-of-life measure (CGQOL) for informal caregivers of p...

  17. ULTRASONOGRAPHY V / S COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF PANCREATITIS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Uma Maheswara Rao; Sree Lalitha; Sai Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combinati on of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests permit an accurate diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in most patients. Chronic pancreatitis, on the other hand, forms a much more difficult entity to eva...

  18. Preliminary evaluation of the ligase chain reaction for specific detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    OpenAIRE

    Birkenmeyer, L; Armstrong, A S

    1992-01-01

    Rapid identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in clinical specimens is essential for effective control. Traditional culture requires a minimum of 24 h, and for some specimens harboring gonococci, the gonococci fail to grow or are misidentified. The recently described ligase chain reaction (LCR) is a highly specific and sensitive DNA amplification technique which was evaluated as an alternative to routine culture. Three LCR probe sets were used. Two of the probe sets were directed against the ...

  19. Preparation and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of c-Gluc-Lys([Fe18F]NOTA)-TOCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Fei-hu; SHI; Cui-yan; WEN; Kai; LIANG; Ji-xin; DU; Jin

    2012-01-01

    <正>Somatostatin analogues can specifically bind with somatostatin receptor (SSTR) which is usually over-expressed on many tumor cells. It may have important significance to use 18F labeled somatostatin analogues as the tumor probes for the diagnosis, the clinical staging and evaluation of therapeutic effect of SSTR positive tumors. In order to explore a novel PET probe for the diagnosis of SSTR positive tumors,

  20. PCDD/Fs, PCB and HCB Emissions from Rural Wood Stoves: A Preliminary Evaluation in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    CARDENAS Beartiz; UMLAUF Gunther; MAIZ Pablo; MARIANI Giulio; SKEJO Helle; BLANKO S.

    2010-01-01

    The Stockholm Convention (SC) on POPs obliges its parties to compile national emission inventories for unintentionally reseased POPs. In order to fill existing gaps what regards emission factors (EFs) for development country (DC) specific processes, an experiment on different kind of woodstoves was executed in a co-operattion berween the secretariate of the SC, UNEP, the National institute for Ecology in Mexico and the JRC. The experiment aimed at evaluating POPs emissions from different ty...

  1. Evaluation of 4 mm implants in mandibular edentulous patients with reduced bone height. Surgical preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    J.L. Calvo-Guirado; M. Mallaun; M. Dard; J.A. López Torres

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this short comunication was to evaluate the clinical use of implants < 10 mm in length and to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Materials and methods: Six women and three men were recruited for the treatment of edentulous mandibles. A total of 6 implants were inserted in each p...

  2. BACTERIAL CELLULOSE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijun Gu; Bohuslav V. Kokta; Katrin Frankenfeld; Kerstin Schlufter

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of polyethylene (PE) composites were evaluated as a function of the addition of bacterial cellulose (BC). It was found that BC could improve the mechanical properties of the composites with or without the combination of traditional wood fiber. The improvements were affected by post-treatment. It was confirmed that BC had a significant influence on impact strength. The pellicle form of BC was able to achieve superior impact strength compared to the fluffy form of BC, but ...

  3. What did audit achieve? Lessons from preliminary evaluation of a year's medical audit.

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, J.; McNicol, M C; Spiby, J; Davies, S. C.; Layton, A J

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the experience of a year's audit of care of medical inpatients. DESIGN--Audit of physicians by monthly review of two randomly selected sets of patients' notes by 12 reviewers using a detailed questionnaire dedicated to standards of medical records and to clinical management. Data were entered into a database and summary statistics presented quarterly at audit meetings. Assessment by improvement in questionnaire scores and by interviewing physicians. SETTING--1 District ...

  4. Preliminary engineering evaluation of remedial action alternatives for the Middlesex Municipal Landfill, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this document are to summarize existing radiological conditions necessitating remedial action at the Middlesex Municipal Landfill (MML) site, and to describe and compare alternative courses of remedial action considered feasible at this time. This document is intended to provide the information needed to support selection of a remedial action to be implemented at the MML site. Four remedial action alternatives for the MML site were identified by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) and approved by DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office for evaluation in this document. They are: Alternative 1 - surveillance and monitoring; Alternative 2 - minimal action; Alternative 3 - in-situ stabilization; and Alternative 4 - decontamination and restoration. Chemical characterization of the landfill is underway to establish the presence, if any, of hazardous substances within the excavation area and to determine the safety requirements for excavation associated with Alternatives 3 and 4. For each of the above alternatives, conceptual engineering was performed, occupational health effects evaluated, and a cost estimate prepared. Costs and advantages and disadvantages of each were compared and evaluated. Table 1-1 summarizes these comparisons. 14 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  5. PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF SPIROTOME® DEVICE FOR LIVER BIOPSY IN GREEN IGUANAS (IGUANA IGUANA): A PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Giordano; Origgi, Francesco C; Leopardi, Stefania; Zaghini, Anna; Saunders, Jimmy H; Vignoli, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a large-core manual biopsy device (Spirotome(®), Medinvents, 3500 Hasselt, Belgium) for liver sampling and histologic diagnosis in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). The study included eight green iguanas, and two ultrasound-guided biopsies were collected for each lizard, for 16 biopsies in total. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia induced by intravenous injection of propofol (10 mg/kg) maintained with a mixture of 2.0% isoflurane and 0.8-1.2 L/min oxygen after tracheal intubation. Fourteen (87.5%) of the 16 biopsies were considered diagnostic. Liver biopsy quality was assessed according to sample size and tissue preservation. In particular, mean length (16.2 ± 4.5 mm), width (2.2 ± 0.5 mm), area (34.8 ± 6.9 mm(2)), and number of portal areas (9.4 ± 3.9) of each biopsy were recorded for all green iguanas. The total available surface of the sections obtained from the biopsies and their grade of preservation enabled a satisfactory evaluation of the parenchymal architecture. One of the green iguanas in the study died the day after the procedure due to severe hemocoeloma. Risk assessment evaluation suggested that small green iguanas may not be suitable for this biopsy procedure. PMID:27468023

  6. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report, prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), presents a summary evaluation of various shelter options for use in the case where the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft2 per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft2 per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The authors find that the FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. The authors also find that, in terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements

  7. Central washout sign in computer-aided evaluation of breast MRI: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Although computer-aided evaluation (CAE) programs were introduced to help differentiate benign tumors from malignant ones, the set of CAE-measured parameters that best predict malignancy have not yet been established. Purpose: To assess the value of the central washout sign on CAE color overlay images of breast MRI. Material and Methods: We evaluated the frequency of the central washout sign using CAE. The central washout sign was determined so that thin, rim-like, persistent kinetics were seen in the periphery of the tumor. Then, sequentially, plateau and washout kinetics appeared. Two additional CAE-delayed kinetic variables were compared with the central washout sign for assessment of diagnostic utility: the predominant enhancement type (washout, plateau, or persistent) and the most suspicious enhancement type (any washout > any plateau > any persistent kinetics). Results: One hundred and forty-nine pathologically proven breast lesions (130 malignant, 19 benign) were evaluated. A central washout sign was associated with 87% of malignant lesions but only 11% of benign lesions. Significant differences were found when delayed-phase kinetics were categorized by the most suspicious enhancement type (P< 0.001) and the presence of the central washout sign (P< 0.001). Under the criteria of the most suspicious kinetics, 68% of benign lesions were assigned as plateau or washout pattern. Conclusion: The central washout sign is a reliable indicator of malignancy on CAE color overlay images of breast MRI

  8. Radiochemical synthesis and preliminary in vivo evaluation of new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurin, MichaL [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 CheLmska Street, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: mmaurin@il.waw.pl; Garnuszek, Piotr [Department of Radiopharmaceuticals, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 CheLmska Street, 00-725 Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    concentration in blood and in liver was observed for the Pt(II)(IT-[{sup 125}I]Carnosine) complex; however, at the same time the lowest concentration in kidneys was noted. Preliminary studies in the rat's tumor model indicated for this complex a favorable tumor to muscle ratio. In the case of Pt(IV)(IT-[*I]Carnosine) apart from ca. 12-times decrease of the liver accumulation, additional 4-times decrease of an accumulation in kidneys was observed in comparison to the Pt(IV)([*I]Hist){sub 2} complex. Our study showed that the short peptides can be efficiently substituted to the platinum core via the reactive sulfhydryl group introduced by SATA or 2-IT. The new radioactive platinum complexes with carnosine possess favorable biodistribution schemes, which make them potential candidates for radio-chemotherapeutical agents.

  9. Analysis of the cost of hydrogen infrastructure for buses in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, S.; Hart, D.; Pearson, P.; Joffe, D.

    The use of hydrogen (H 2) as transport fuel is often said to suffer from the 'chicken and egg' problem: vehicles that depend on H 2 cannot go on the roads due to the lack of an adequate infrastructure, and the almost non-existent fleet of H 2 vehicles on the roads makes it economically unsound to build a H 2 infrastructure. Although both hydrogen vehicles (fuel cell and internal combustion engine) and the related infrastructure have been (and are being) developed and some are commercially available, cost is seen as a major barrier. With today's technologies, H 2 only becomes competitive with petrol and diesel when produced at large quantities, suitable for supplying e.g. thousands of H 2 buses. The question is, how might this point be reached, and are there least cost infrastructural pathways to reach it. This paper tries to address the latter question, using the early development of a H 2 infrastructure for buses in London as a case study. The paper presents some of the analyses and results from a Ph.D. project (in progress) being undertaken at Imperial College London, funded by EPSRC (Grant GR/R50790/01). The results presented here illustrate that cost of hydrogen production and delivery vary mainly with levels of hydrogen demand and delivery distances, as well as other logistic criteria; least cost production-delivery pathways have been identified for various hydrogen demand scenarios and refuelling station set-ups. Another important conclusion is that the pattern of converting a group of refuelling stations to hydrogen (e.g. a group of refuelling stations for buses in London) has a significant effect on the unit cost of hydrogen.

  10. Characteristics of cabin air quality in school buses in Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Donghyun; Siegel, Jeffrey; Spinhirne, Jarett; Webb, Alba; McDonald-Buller, Elena

    This study assessed in-cabin concentrations of diesel-associated air pollutants in six school buses with diesel engines during a typical route in suburban Austin, Texas. Air exchange rates measured by SF 6 decay were 2.60-4.55 h -1. In-cabin concentrations of all pollutants measured exhibited substantial variability across the range of tests even between buses of similar age, mileage, and engine type. In-cabin NO x concentrations ranged from 44.7 to 148 ppb and were 1.3-10 times higher than roadway NO x concentrations. Mean in-cabin PM 2.5 concentrations were 7-20 μg m -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. In-cabin concentrations exhibited higher variability during cruising mode than frequent stops. Mean in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were 6100-32,000 particles cm -3 and were generally lower than roadway levels. Comparison of median concentrations indicated that in-cabin ultrafine PM number concentrations were higher than or approximately the same as the roadway concentrations, which implied that, by excluding the bias caused by local traffic, ultrafine PM levels were higher in the bus cabin than outside of the bus. Cabin pollutant concentrations on three buses were measured prior to and following the phased installation of a Donaldson Spiracle Crankcase Filtration System and a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. Following installation of the Spiracle, the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst provided negligible or small additional reductions of in-cabin pollutant levels. In-cabin concentration decreases with the Spiracle alone ranged from 24 to 37% for NO x and 26 to 62% and 6.6 to 43% for PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM, respectively. Comparison of the ranges of PM 2.5 and ultrafine PM variations between repetitive tests suggested that retrofit installation could not always be conclusively linked to the decrease of pollutant levels in the bus cabin.

  11. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  12. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Bottiglione; Tommaso Contursi; Angelo Gentile; Giacomo Mantriota

    2014-01-01

    In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Sou...

  13. Operational integrity using field buses; Integridade operacional utilizando barramentos de campo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Carlos Henrique [Coester Automacao S.A., Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The device information is collected using standardized Filed Buses with high data transmission capacity, which allows the analysis of his operational status in real time. The quantity of information generated by the devices for the maintenance area is increasing and this data quantity transferred through the field bus should not interfere in the network performance to the point of degrade his control function. In this way, is presented a technique that can be used in different protocols, which allow sending of maintenance data using a small band of the communication channel. Operational integrity can be achieved using predictive maintenance techniques based on the collected data. (author)

  14. BACTERIAL CELLULOSE REINFORCED THERMOPLASTIC COMPOSITES: PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Gu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of polyethylene (PE composites were evaluated as a function of the addition of bacterial cellulose (BC. It was found that BC could improve the mechanical properties of the composites with or without the combination of traditional wood fiber. The improvements were affected by post-treatment. It was confirmed that BC had a significant influence on impact strength. The pellicle form of BC was able to achieve superior impact strength compared to the fluffy form of BC, but had similar effects on the tensile strength in comparison to the composites with fluffy BC.

  15. ULTRASONOGRAPHY V / S COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF PANCREATITIS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Maheswara Rao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combinati on of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests permit an accurate diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in most patients. Chronic pancreatitis, on the other hand, forms a much more difficult entity to evaluate clinically or biochemically. The clinical and biochemical parameters form a key factor in the diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis. Cross - sectional imaging with ultrasound and CT has afforded rapid, accurate and noninvasive evaluation of the pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This study included 50 cases of Acute and chronic pancreatitis of 16 to 67 years age of both male and females who were diagnosed on imaging studies (Ultrasound and/or CT or on a constellation of signs, symptoms and laboratory data indicative of pancreatitis during the period from Au gust 2011 to July 2013. RESULTS: A total of 50 cases were studied of which 40 had acute pancreatitis and 10 had chronic pancreatitis. In the 40 cases with acute pancreatitis, ultrasound alone was done in 16 cases, CT alone in 4 cases and both modalities we re employed in the remaining 20 patients. All the 10 cases with chronic pancreatitis had an ultrasound study but only one required a CT scan. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is an initial screening modality in a suspected case of pancreatitis and MDCT is the i nvestigation of choice for definitive diagnosis and estimation of severity of pancreatitis. The pancreas is a difficult organ to evaluate by both clinical and routine radiological methods. An inflammatory pathology involving the pancreas will form part of the differential diagnosis of other conditions presenting with abdominal pain. The combination of appropriate clinical findings and laboratory tests such as serum

  16. Solar-Powered Compaction Garbage Bins in Public Areas: A Preliminary Economic and Environmental Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Duc Nghiem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An excel-based model was developed to evaluate economic and environmental benefits of the solar-powered compaction garbage bins in public areas in Australia. Input data were collected from Brisbane and Wollongong City councils, and Sydney Olympic Park. The results demonstrate that solar-powered compaction garbage bins would provide environmental benefits in all scenarios. However, results of the economic analysis of the three studied areas varied significantly. The unique situation of Sydney Olympic Park made implementation in that facility particularly appealing. A lower monthly rental cost is needed for the implementation of this novel waste management practice.

  17. The Evaluation of Game-based E-learning for Medical Education: a Preliminary Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Cheng; Li, Yu-Chuan; Bai, Ya-Mei; Chen, Jen-Yeu; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Wang, Chih-Hung; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2005-01-01

    Game-Based e-learning (GBeL) was a newly designed platform for education of students with higher education, especially for medical students. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the attraction of GBeL, the motivation toward GBeL and the learning effect. We found more than 80% of students thought that GBeL was attractive and more interesting than traditional class. However, the percentage of enhancing interest to learn and learning more complete and deep knowledge were less than 50%. PMID:16779319

  18. Simultaneous PET/MR head–neck cancer imaging: Preliminary clinical experience and multiparametric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, M., E-mail: echoplanare@gmail.com [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Cavaliere, C.; Aiello, M.; Cianelli, M.S. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, M.; Iorio, B. [Department of Otorhinolaryngoiatry, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Rossi, A.; Nicolai, E. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI is a suitable tool for head/neck T-staging. • No significant differences have been found for PET measures get by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. • SUV 2D and 3D measures in HN lesion offer comparable estimations. • Multiparametric evaluation allows a complete characterization of HN lesions. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of simultaneous hybrid PET/MR imaging and to correlate metabolic PET data with morpho-functional parameters derived by MRI in patients with head–neck cancer. Methods: Forty-four patients, with histologically confirmed head and neck malignancy (22 primary tumors and 22 follow-up) were studied. Patients initially received a clinical exam and endoscopy with direct biopsy. Next patients underwent whole body PET/CT followed by PET/MR of the head/neck region. PET and MRI studies were separately evaluated by two blinded groups (both included one radiologist and one nuclear physician) in order to define the presence or absence of lesions/recurrences. Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis was conducted on the primary lesion at the level of maximum size on metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sup trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) parameters. Results: PET/MR examinations were successfully performed on all 44 patients. Agreement between the two blinded groups was found in anatomic allocation of lesions by PET/MR (Primary tumors: Cohen's kappa 0.93; Follow-up: Cohen's kappa 0.89). There was a significant correlation between CT-SUV measures and MR (e.g., CT-SUV VOI vs. MR-SUV VOI: ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001 for the entire sample). There was also significant positive correlations between the ROI area, SUV measures, and the metabolic parameters (SUV and MTV) obtained during both PET/CT and PET/MR. A significant negative correlation was observed between ADC and K{sup trans} values in the primary tumors. In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between MR SUV and ADC in

  19. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC50 values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 μM), C. krusei (34 μM) and C. tropicalis (17 μM). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  20. An affordable proxy of representative national survey on radon concentration in dwellings: Design, organisation and preliminary evaluation of representativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representative national surveys in dwellings are important to unbiasedly evaluate the exposure of the general population to radon. In Italy, a representative national survey was conducted from 1989 to 1996, which involved about 5600 dwellings in 232 towns. Later on, some Regions carried out more detailed surveys, but a new national survey in dwellings is necessary in order to obtain a more thorough estimate of radon concentration distribution over the Italian territory. The need to make this survey in an affordable way led to implement a new approach based on the collaboration between the Istituto Superiore di Sanità and a national company with workplaces and employees' homes throughout the country. The intent is to carry out a proxy of a population representative survey by measuring radon concentration in the homes of a random sample of the company employees. The realisation of this survey was affordable, thanks to the availability of corporate e-mail for each employee, intranet service, and company internal mail service. A dedicated web procedure and e-questionnaires allowed to automatically manage the contact with employees and to collect their data, which were both cost- and time-saving. Using this e-mail contact approach, 53% of contacted employees consented to participate in the survey. Radon concentration passive measuring devices were distributed to about 7000 dwellings, using about 14000 CR-39 detectors (two measured rooms per dwelling). In order to reduce costs, the devices were exposed for 12 months instead of two consecutive 6-month periods (as with the former national survey). A first checking of the actual representativeness of the sample was done by comparing characteristics of dwellings and occupants in the sample with corresponding data from the latest National Census. This was accomplished thanks to the fact that the questions in the survey questionnaire were tailored to the categories adopted for the Census questionnaire. A preliminary

  1. Design, characterisation and preliminary clinical evaluation of a novel mucoadhesive topical formulation containing tetracycline for the treatment of periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D S; Woolfson, A D; Brown, A F; Coulter, W A; McClelland, C; Irwin, C R

    2000-07-01

    This study describes the formulation, characterisation and preliminary clinical evaluation of mucoadhesive, semi-solid formulations containing hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC, 1-5%, w/w), polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP, 2 or 3%, w/w), polycarbophil (PC, 1 or 3%, w/w) and tetracycline (5%, w/w, as the hydrochloride). Each formulation was characterised in terms of drug release, hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness (using a texture analyser in texture profile analysis mode), syringeability (using a texture analyser in compression mode) and adhesion to a mucin disc (measured as a detachment force using the texture analyser in tensile mode). The release exponent for the formulations ranged from 0.78+/-0.02 to 1. 27+/-0.07, indicating that drug release was non-diffusion controlled. Increasing the concentrations of each polymeric component significantly increased the time required for 10 and 30% release of the original mass of tetracycline, due to both increased viscosity and, additionally, the unique swelling properties of the formulations. Increasing concentrations of each polymeric component also increased the hardness, compressibility, adhesiveness, syringeability and mucoadhesion of the formulations. The effects on product hardness, compressibility and syringeability may be due to increased product viscosity and, hence, increased resistance to compression. Similarly, the effects of these polymers on adhesiveness/mucoadhesion highlight their mucoadhesive nature and, importantly, the effects of polymer state (particularly PC) on these properties. Thus, in formulations where the neutralisation of PC was maximally suppressed, adhesiveness and mucoadhesion were also maximal. Interestingly, statistical interactions were primarily observed between the effects of HEC and PC on drug release, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties. These were explained by the effects of HEC on the physical state of PC, namely swollen or unswollen. In the preliminary clinical evaluation, a formulation

  2. U.S. DOE FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Oil Bypass Filter Technology Evaluation Second Quarterly Report January - March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Zirker; James E. Francfort

    2003-05-01

    This report details the ongoing fleet evaluation of an oil bypass filter technology by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Eight full-size, four-cycle diesel-engine buses used to transport INEEL employees on various routes have been equipped with oil bypass filter systems from the PuraDYN Corporation. Because of the reported filtering (down to 0.1 microns) capability of bypass filter systems, the technology is intended to extend oil-drain intervals. To validate the extended usability of the oil, an oil analysis regime is used to monitor the presence of necessary additives in the oil, to detect undesirable contaminants and engine wear metals, and to evaluate the fitness of the oil for continued service. The eight buses have accumulated 101,000 miles to date and some preliminary results are reported. The INEEL light-duty vehicle fleet is also being evaluated to identify candidate vehicles for inclusion in the test fleet.

  3. [Evaluation of coronary blood flow using digital subtraction technique and cine coronary angiography: a preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwatoko, M; Miyagi, Y; Nomura, M; Shiga, Y; Koike, A; Tateishi, R; Mitsuguchi, F; Mano, K; Hishida, H; Mizuno, Y

    1988-06-01

    To evaluate coronary circulation in ischemic heart disease, digital image processing with cine coronary angiography was performed. Using time-density curves obtained from individual pixels, images showing the distribution of contrast density and transit time were obtained. To record angiograms, contrast medium was injected into the coronary artery in a steady manner during right atrial pacing. Frames in the end-diastolic phase immediately before the P wave were selected, and digitized into a 512 x 512 x 8 bit matrix using a system composed of a video camera, an analog-to-digital converter, and a computer. These digitized images were then stored in a disk memory. A mask image was prepared before the injection of contrast medium. Subtraction was performed using the mask image and a series of images following contrast injection. The subtracted images were of sufficient quality to permit clear observation of the individual coronary arterial branches. Time-density curves were then determined from these subtracted images. From these curves, time from the onset of contrast injection to its peak density (Tp), time from the peak density to the half peak density (T 1/2) and the attenuation factor of the curves (tau) were derived. Their distributions were expressed as color images. Examples of a normal control and a case of inferior infarction were demonstrated. Blood flow function images with good spatial resolution were thus obtained. This method is useful for evaluating coronary blood flow. PMID:2977791

  4. Target population involvement in urban ciclovias: a preliminary evaluation of St. Louis open streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kuhlberg, Jill A

    2013-12-01

    Ciclovias are active street events when roads are open to walkers, cyclists, and families and closed to automobiles. Over 70 cities in the USA have implemented ciclovias to promote physical activity. The authors evaluated four events during 2010 to determine what activities participants perform and who is attending. For two ciclovia events in St. Louis, Missouri, observation reports of activities, gender, and age of 1,452 participants were collected, and 82 adults were interviewed via direct approach. The survey covered six domains: physical activity, travel to event, sense of community, marketing, economic impact, and demographics. Each event occurred within the city, along multiple streets. Domains were selected from Ciclovia Recreativa developed by Ciclovia Bogota, Pan American Health Organization, and CDC. Additional questions addressed city-specific goals and matched similar evaluations in other cities. Over 50 % of participants met CDC-defined weekly minute thresholds for physical activity. Participants, primarily (>80 %) middle class, college educated, and white, were not representative of the majority minority city population, which has high rates of poverty, and low percentage of college graduates. Cities must work with residents to increase low-income minority population participation in ciclovia-based physical activity. PMID:22948790

  5. Risk assessments for energy systems and role of preliminary degree-of-hazard evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appropriate approach to risk or hazard assessment can vary considerably, depending on various factors, including the intended application of the results and the time other resources available to conduct the assessment. This paper illustrates three types of interrelated assessments. Although they can be mutually supportive, they have fundamentally different objectives, which require major differences in approach. The example of the overall risk assessment of alternative major energy technologies illustrates the compilation of a wide range of available risk data applicable to these systems. However, major uncertainties exist in the assessments, and public perception of their importance could play an important role in final system evaluations. A more narrowly defined risk assessment, often focusing on an individual component of a larger system, is the most commonly used approach in regulatory applications. The narrow scope allows in-depth analysis of risks and associated uncertainties, but it may also contribute to a loss of perspective on the magnitude of the assessed risk relative to that of the unassessed risks. In some applications, it is useful to conduct semiquantitative degree-of-hazard evaluations as a means of setting priorities for detailed risk assessment. The MAHAS procedure described in this paper provides a means of rapidly ranking relative hazards from various sources using easily accessible data. However, these rankings should not be used as definitive input for selecting technology alternatives or developing regulations. 25 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Evaluation of 4 mm implants in mandibular edentulous patients with reduced bone height. Surgical preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Calvo-Guirado

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this short comunication was to evaluate the clinical use of implants < 10 mm in length and to determine short implant-supported prosthesis success in the atrophic jaw. Materials and methods: Six women and three men were recruited for the treatment of edentulous mandibles. A total of 6 implants were inserted in each patient: two anterior implants of conventional lenght and four posterior 4 mm Titanium Zirconium (TiZr implants. The insertion torque and bone denisty were evaluated. Results: The mean insertion torque for the 4 mm implants was lower than for conventional ones, without any statistical difference. Moreover, most of the patients (88% showed a D2 bone type. Conclusion: The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term.

  7. Spectral CT evaluation of interstitial brachytherapy in pancreatic carcinoma xenografts: preliminary animal experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shudong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China); Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Huang, Wei; Song, Qi; Lin, Xiaozhu; Wang, Zhongmin; Chen, Kemin [Shanghai Jiao tong University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Yerong [Jiangsu University, Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Renmin Hospital, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China)

    2014-09-15

    We sought to evaluate the capability of spectral CT to detect the therapeutic response to {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy in a pancreatic carcinoma xenograft nude mouse model. Twenty mice bearing SWl990 human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts were randomly separated into two groups: experimental (n = 10; 1.0 mCi) and control (n = 10; 0 mCi). After a two-week treatment, spectral CT was performed. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and iodine concentration (IC) in the lesions were measured and normalized to the muscle tissue, and nIC CD31 immunohistochemistry was used to measure microvessel density (MVD). The relationships between the nIC and MVD of the tumours were analysed. The nIC of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group during the multiphase examination. A significant difference in the MVD was observed between the two groups (P <0.001). The nIC values of the three-phase scans have a certain positive correlation with MVD (r = 0.57, p < 0.0001; r = 0.48, p = 0.002; r = 0.63, p = 0.0017 in the 10, 25, and 60 s phase, respectively). Spectral CT can be a useful non-invasive imaging modality in evaluating the therapeutic effect of {sup 125}I interstitial brachytherapy to a pancreatic carcinoma. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary technical and legal evaluation of disposing of nonhazardous oil field waste into salt caverns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.; Elcock, D.; Raivel, M.; Caudle, D.; Ayers, R.C. Jr.; Grunewald, B.

    1996-06-01

    Caverns can be readily formed in salt formations through solution mining. The caverns may be formed incidentally, as a result of salt recovery, or intentionally to create an underground chamber that can be used for storing hydrocarbon products or compressed air or disposing of wastes. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility, suitability, and legality of disposing of nonhazardous oil and gas exploration, development, and production wastes (hereafter referred to as oil field wastes, unless otherwise noted) in salt caverns. Chapter 2 provides background information on: types and locations of US subsurface salt deposits; basic solution mining techniques used to create caverns; and ways in which salt caverns are used. Later chapters provide discussion of: federal and state regulatory requirements concerning disposal of oil field waste, including which wastes are considered eligible for cavern disposal; waste streams that are considered to be oil field waste; and an evaluation of technical issues concerning the suitability of using salt caverns for disposing of oil field waste. Separate chapters present: types of oil field wastes suitable for cavern disposal; cavern design and location; disposal operations; and closure and remediation. This report does not suggest specific numerical limits for such factors or variables as distance to neighboring activities, depths for casings, pressure testing, or size and shape of cavern. The intent is to raise issues and general approaches that will contribute to the growing body of information on this subject.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Inclusion of Oregano Extract on Growth Performance in Fattening Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Alexandra Prieto García

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   Oregano as vegetal extract has been investigated scientifically and has proven to be an effective antibiotic; it does not generate resistant strains as it happens with the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP, and is also considered an alternative to improve productive performance in livestock farms. This is why the aim of study was to evaluate the use of oregano extract on the gain of final weight, conversion and feed efficiency in rabbits, for this purpose an experiment completely randomized with 12 New Zealand rabbits divided into 3 treatment was performed; T1, was determined as control, and the base feed was 100 g of rabbit feed; T2, to 100 g of rabbit feed was added 1 ml of oregano extract and T3, 100 g of rabbit feed plus 3 ml of oregano. The research lasted 60 days, 8 which were dietary adaptation. The obtained data were evaluated by ANOVA and the statistical differences between treatments by TUKEY test, with significance level of 0,05. The results showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 for the variables final weight gain and feed efficiency for T1 relative to T2 and T3; for feed conversion no statistical difference (p>0.05 between treatments. For this experiment it was concluded that the addition of oregano extract showed no improvement in productive parameters of broiler rabbits.

  10. Preliminary Evaluation of a Candidate Multi-Epitope-Vaccine Against the Classical Swine Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YING Jian; DONG Xiaonan; CHEN Yinghua

    2008-01-01

    A multi-epitope-vaccine MEVABC consisting of two linear neutralizing determinants (BC1: aa693-716; A6: aa844-865) located on antigenic unit B/C and unit A of glycoprotein E2 was prepared to evaluate whether a combination strategy is effective in the design of peptide vaccines.After immunization,pig sera collected every one to two weeks were evaluated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.C-strain- induced anti-sera and hyper-immune sera cannot recognize overlapping peptides that cover the E2 N-terminus,while MEVABC is able to elicit high levels of peptide-specific antibody response.When compared with previously studied peptide vaccines PV-BC1 and PV-A6,the same dose of either component in the MEVABC increases the BC1- or A6-specific antibodies (to 1/3-1/2 of the levels of the separate vaccines).However,the synergy between the antibodies may make MEVABC much more potent.Moreover,anti-C-strain immunity pre-existing in pigs does not disturb the sequent MEVABC vaccination.Thus,MEVABC can be ad- ministrated to pigs which already possess anti-classical swine fever virus immunity.MEVABC is a promising candidate marker vaccine.

  11. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smigovec, Igor; Dapic, Tomislav [University Hospital Center Zagreb, Zagreb University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zagreb (Croatia); Trkulja, Vladimir [Zagreb University School of Medicine, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-09-15

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  12. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  13. Ultrasound screening for decentered hips in children with severe cerebral palsy: a preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound (US) is routinely used for hip screening in children with developmental hip disorders, whereas standard hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy is based on repeated X-ray assessments. To evaluate US as a diagnostic tool in screening for decentered hips in children with cerebral palsy. We conducted a prospective, diagnostic single-center assessor-blind study that included consecutive children (age 2-8 years) with cerebral palsy and severe motor disability who underwent US and X-ray hip assessment. US lateral longitudinal scans were used to determine lateral head distance. X-ray assessment was used to determine migration percentage. Diagnostic properties of lateral head distance in detecting hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (which requires preventive treatment) were evaluated overall (n = 100) and for hips assessed at the age 24-60 months (n = 38) or >60 to ≤96 months (n = 62). Fifty hips underwent US assessment by two investigators to evaluate inter-rater reliability and agreement. Prevalence of migration percentage ≥0.33 was 22.0% overall and 26.2% and 19.4% in the younger and older age-based subsets, respectively. Lateral head distance well discriminated hips with a migration percentage ≥0.33 (areas under the receiver operating characteristics [ROC] curves 94%, 99% and 92%, respectively). At the optimum cut-off values of lateral head distance (5.0, 5.0 and 4.8 mm, respectively), sensitivity was 95.5%, 100% and 100% overall and in the two age-based subsets, respectively, whereas specificity was 85.9%, 96.4% and 72.0%, respectively. Consequently, positive predictive value was relatively low, but negative predictive value was 98.5% (95% CI 92.1-100) overall and 100% (97.5% one-sided CI 87.2-100) and 100% (97.5 one-sided CI 90.2-100) in the two age-based subsets, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99) and 95% limits of agreement were reasonably narrow (-1.203 mm to

  14. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Sheikhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of charge-coupled device (CCD) multispectral analysis in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described was originally aimed at providing a new diagnostic technique for the early detection of malignant ocular tumors through their spectral signature. The instrument developed comprises a modified fundus camera, a Charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and a 16 bit microcomputer equipped with floopy disk drives and a 512 x 512 x 8-bit display device. The system allows the recording of digitized fundus or iris reflectance pictures in eight spectral bands between 500 and 1100 nm. After calibration and preprocessing of the data, a multispectral analysis is performed by means of a VAX computer. The image processing methods are described and their ability to characterize pigmented lesions or other ocular anatomical features through their spectral signature is evaluated

  16. Fluorescence endoscopic imaging for evaluation of gastric mucosal blood flow: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquillon, Nicolas; Mordon, Serge R.; Mathieu, D.; Maunoury, Vincent; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Neviere, Remi; Wattel, Francis; Chopin, Claude

    1999-02-01

    Microcirculatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract appear to be a major compound of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome secondary to sepsis or septic shock. A better analysis of mucosal hypoperfusion in critically ill patients with sepsis may be helpful for the comprehension of this high mortality-associated syndrome. Fluorescence endoscopy has been recognized as a non-invasive method for both spatial and temporal evaluation of gastrointestinal mucosal perfusion. We performed this imaging technique during routine gastric endoscopy in patients with sepsis criteria. The study included gastric observation and appearance time of gastric fluorescence after an intravenous 10% sodium - fluorescein bolus. Qualitative analysis of high fluorescence areas was compared with mucosal blood flow measurements by laser - Doppler flowmetry. We concluded that the fluorescence endoscopic imaging in critically ill patients with sepsis may reveal spacial and temporal differences in the mucosal microcirculation distribution.

  17. Evaluation of NORM concentration in water treatment of Pocos de Caldas municipality, MG, Brazil: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NORM is the acronym used to refer to naturally occurring radioactive materials. Besides being objects of study and monitoring such materials can be used as raw material or as by-products or waste of industrial activities. Oil and gas, mining and water treatment are examples of facilities that can handle NORM. In such cases, their concentration at significant levels from the perspective of environmental and occupational radiation protection may occur. This study aims to evaluate the presence of the natural radioactive 238U and 232Th series in the treatment of city water elements Pocos de Caldas - MG (water, materials and waste). The study can serve as an indication of the necessity of a more detailed review in the locally and in the country on this radiological issue. (author)

  18. Materials Characterization of Feraheme/Ferumoxytol and Preliminary Evaluation of Its Potential for Magnetic Fluid Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feraheme, is a recently FDA-cleared superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPION-based MRI contrast agent that is also employed in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Feraheme nanoparticles have a hydrodynamic diameter of 30 nm and consist of iron oxide crystallites complexed with a low molecular weight, semi-synthetic carbohydrate. These features are attractive for other potential biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH, since the carboxylated polymer coating affords functionalization of the particle surface and the size allows for accumulation in highly vascularized tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. This work presents morphological and magnetic characterization of Feraheme by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID magnetometry. Additionally, the results of an initial evaluation of the suitability of Feraheme for MFH applications are described, and the data indicate the particles possess promising properties for this application.

  19. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage

  20. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  1. A preliminary psychometric evaluation of Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music in Dementia Assessment Scales (MiDAS), an observational outcome measure for music therapy with people with moderate to severe dementia, was developed from qualitative data of focus groups and interviews. Expert and peer consultations were conducted at each stage of the scale...... development to maximize its content validity. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of MiDAS. Methods: Care home residents with dementia attended weekly group music therapy for up to ten sessions. Music therapists and care home staff were requested to complete weekly MiDAS ratings....... The Quality of Life Scale (QoL-AD) was completed at three time-points. Results: A total of 629 (staff=306, therapist=323) MiDAS forms were completed. The statistical analysis revealed that MiDAS has high therapist inter-rater reliability, low staff inter-rater reliability, adequate staff test...

  2. Preliminary measurement performance evaluation of a new white light interferometer for cylindrical surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, Armando Jr; Pont, Alex Dal [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Metrology and Automation Laboratory, Cx Postal 5053, CEP 88 040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a new design of a white light interferometer, suitable for measurement of cylindrical or quasi-cylindrical parts. A high precision 45 deg. conical mirror is used to direct collimated light radially, making it possible to measure in true cylindrical coordinates. The image of the measurand, distorted by the conical mirror, is projected in a high resolution digital camera. A mapping algorithm is used to reconstruct the cylindrical geometry from the distorted image. The rest of the interferometer is quite similar to a conventional white light interferometer: A flat reference mirror is scanned through the measurement range while an algorithm is searching for the maximum contrast position of the interference pattern. The performance evaluation of a configuration suitable for measurement of external cylindrical surfaces is also presented in this paper. A master cylinder was used as reference. Uncertainties of about 1.0 {mu}m were found at the present stage of development.

  3. Structural Design and Preliminary Evaluation of a Lightweight, Brazed, Air-Cooled Turbine Rotor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andre J., Jr.; Morgan, William C.

    1958-01-01

    A lightweight turbine rotor assembly was devised, and components were evaluated in a full-scale jet engine. Thin sheet-metal airfoils were brazed to radial fingers that were an integral part of a number of thin disks composing the turbine rotor. Passages were provided between the disks and in the blades for air cooling. The computed weight of the assembly was 50 percent less than that of a similar turbine of normal construction used in a conventional turbojet engine. Two configurations of sheet-metal test blades simulating the manner of attachment were fabricated and tested in a turbojet engine at rated speed and temperature. After 8-1/2 hours of operation pieces broke loose from the tip sections of the better blades. Severe cracking produced by vibration was determined as the cause of failure. Several methods of overcoming the vibration problem are suggested.

  4. Synthesis of Xylitan Derivatives and Preliminary Evaluation of in Vitro Trypanocidal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Elias

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel xylitan derivatives derived from xylitol were synthesized using operationally simple procedures. A xylitan acetonide was the key intermediate used to prepare benzoate, arylsulfonate esters and 1,2,3-triazole derivatives of xylitan. These compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity against trypomastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite in T. cruzi-infected cell lineages. Benznidazole was used as positive control against T. cruzi and cytotoxicity was determined in mammalian L929 cells. The arylsulfonate xylitan derivative bearing a nitro group displayed the best activity of all the compounds tested, and was slightly more potent than the reference drug benznidazole. The importance of the isopropylidene ketal moiety was established and the greater lipophilicity of these compounds suggests enhancement in cell penetration.

  5. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  6. Preliminary evaluation of radiation control coatings for energy conservation in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.W. [Anderson (Robert W.) and Associates, Inc., Boulder City, NV (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Radiation Control Coatings (RCCs) applied to external building surfaces can reflect about 85 percent of the solar heating from the surfaces of buildings. Since in warm climates, solar heating is the primary source of heat gain through walls and roofs, RCC technology represents an alternative or adjunct to conventional thermal control methods (e.g., thermal insulation) for opaque building components. The primary objectives of this project were to: (1) obtain solar and infrared reflectance data for representative RCC products, (2) evaluate test methods for measurement of the radiative properties of RCCs, (3) calculate the changes in heat flow attributed to RCCs in flat roof applications in several geographic locations, and (4) compare field tests and calculated thermal performance of an RCC in a flat roof configuration. Data are presented for the radiative properties of five commercially available RCC products as determined by several test methods. The potential energy benefits of RCCs are presented for flat roofs in both warm and cold climates.

  7. Modular synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of stereochemically diverse 1,3-dioxanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jason C; Sternson, Scott M; Louca, Joseph B; Hong, Roger; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2004-09-01

    Modular synthesis and substrate stereocontrol were combined to furnish 18,000 diverse 1,3-dioxanes whose distribution in chemical space rivals that of a reference set of over 2,000 bioactive small molecules. Library quality was assessed at key synthetic stages, culminating in a detailed postsynthesis analysis of purity, yield, and structural characterizability, and the resynthesis of library subsets that did not meet quality standards. The importance of this analysis-resynthesis process is highlighted by the discovery of new biological probes through organismal and protein binding assays, and by determination of the building block and stereochemical basis for their bioactivity. This evaluation of a portion of the 1,3-dioxane library suggests that many additional probes for chemical genetics will be identified as the entire library becomes biologically annotated. PMID:15380188

  8. Evaluation of an additive efficacy in broiler litter microbial level control in field: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pennacchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate in field the efficacy of an additive (SOP® C POULTRY, as an agent for the control of micro-organisms in broiler litter. The Total aerobic Microbial Count (TMC, Staphylococcus species (spp., Coliforms, and Salmonella spp. in broiler litter samples of both the Houses, 2 (H2 and 3 (H3, were determined, and also at the end of each cycle the mortality rate was recorded. The results showed significant reduction of all the microbial counts: P= 0.0078 (CMT, 0,0021 (Staphylococcus spp. and 0.0541 (Coliforms, and mortality (P= 0.00106 in treated litter samples H2 and the control H3.

  9. Preliminary experience using dynamic MRI at 3.0 tesla for evaluation of soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Micheal; Jee, Won Hee; Jung, Joon Yong [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We aimed to evaluate the use of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) at 3.0 T for differentiating the benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Also we aimed to assess whether the shorter length of DCE-MRI protocols are adequate, and to evaluate the effect of temporal resolution. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, at 3.0 T with a 1 second temporal resolution in 13 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue tumors, was analyzed. Visual assessment of time-signal curves, subtraction images, maximal relative enhancement at the first (maximal peak enhancement [Emax]/1) and second (Emax/2) minutes, Emax, steepest slope calculated by using various time intervals (5, 30, 60 seconds), and the start of dynamic enhancement were analyzed. The 13 tumors were comprised of seven benign and six malignant soft tissue neoplasms. Washout on time-signal curves was seen on three (50%) malignant tumors and one (14%) benign one. The most discriminating DCE-MRI parameter was the steepest slope calculated, by using at 5-second intervals, followed by Emax/1 and Emax/2. All of the steepest slope values occurred within 2 minutes of the dynamic study. Start of dynamic enhancement did not show a significant difference, but no malignant tumor rendered a value greater than 14 seconds. The steepest slope and early relative enhancement have the potential for differentiating benign from malignant soft tissue tumors. Short-length rather than long-length DCE-MRI protocol may be adequate for our purpose. The steepest slope parameters require a short temporal resolution, while maximal peak enhancement parameter may be more optimal for a longer temporal resolution.

  10. Development of Innovative Aerogel Based Plasters: Preliminary Thermal and Acoustic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal and acoustic properties of innovative insulating systems used as building coatings were investigated: Granular silica aerogel was mixed with natural plaster in different percentages. This coating solution is transpiring and insulating, thanks to the use of a natural lime coat and aerogel, a highly porous light material with very low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of the proposed solution was evaluated by means of a Heat Flow meter apparatus (EN ISO 12667, considering different percentages of aerogel. The natural plaster without aerogel has a thermal conductivity of about 0.50 W/m K; considering a percentage of granular aerogel of about 90% in volume, the thermal conductivity of the insulating natural coating falls to 0.050 W/m K. Increasing the percentage of granular aerogel, a value of about 0.018–0.020 W/m K can be reached. The acoustic properties were also evaluated in terms of the acoustic absorption coefficient, measured by means of a Kundt’s Tube (ISO 10534-2. Two samples composed by a plasterboard support, an insulation plaster with aerogel (thicknesses 10 mm and 30 mm respectively and a final coat were assembled. The results showed that the absorption coefficient strongly depends on the final coat, so the aerogel-based plaster layer moderately influences the final value. The application of this innovative solution can be a useful tool for new buildings, but also for the refurbishment of existing ones. This material is in development: until now, the best value of the thermal conductivity obtained from manufacturers is about 0.015 W/m K.

  11. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anazawa Ryoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation (MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue. We examined the quality of Google Translate® (English to Japanese and Korean to Japanese, which is a representative online MT, using a previously verified evaluation method. We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan. They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Online MT had been used by 61% of the respondents and was perceived as not useful enough. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations. Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis.

  12. A Pilot Study of the ELFE Longitudinal Cohort: Feasibility and Preliminary Evaluation of Biological Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleko, Amivi; Betsou, Fotini; Sarter, Hélène; Gerdil, Claire; Desbois, Isabelle; Charles, Marie Aline; Leridon, Henri; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2011-09-01

    Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE) will be a national French cohort of 20,000 children followed from birth to adulthood. Biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the fetal exposition to several substances. A pilot study was carried out in October 2007 to test the preanalytical factors that affected sample quality. A variety of fractions were collected by the midwife after delivery from different blood collection tubes. Options in the collection process were 2 daily transports of samples, centralized and standardized processing methodology, and storage of multiple aliquots in liquid nitrogen or at -80°C. We analyzed preanalytical factors that could have affected coagulation and then soluble CD40 Ligand (sCD40L) as a quality control tool for serum quality. Cord blood and urine were collected from 82% and 84% of women, respectively, who agreed to be followed up in the ELFE project. The use of syringe was the main factor correlated with coagulation (relative risk: 2.79 [1.47; 5.31], P<0.01). Maternity unit status was also associated with coagulation (RR: 1.48 [1.03; 2.13] in a private maternity unit vs. a public maternity) as well as time between collection and centrifugation (RR 1.03 [1; 1.07] when time between collection and centrifugation increases from 1 h). There were no extremely low sCD40L values indicating extreme exposures to room temperatures. This first evaluation study allowed us to stress the importance of carefully recording all potentially critical preanalytical variables that might be used at a large-scale level. PMID:21977239

  13. Preliminary Comparative Evaluation Study on Reference Design of GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeong Il; Hong, Ser Gi (and others)

    2005-11-15

    A fast reactor has a good transmutation capability and it enables breeding of fuel and use of a closed fuel cycle. By these characteristics of a fast reactor, the limited uranium resources of the world can be much more effectively utilized and the nuclear wastes of a high level of radioactivity and toxicity from the current nuclear power reactors of LWRs and HWRs can be drastically reduced in its volume and the management of the wastes can be easily treated. Also electricity can be generated more effectively since a fast reactor has the feature of high operation temperature. These features of a fast reactor makes it inevitable on a long term basis to construct fast reactors in Korea. The domestic fast reactor technology level, however, is at the level of coming out of a beginning stage and needs utilization of international expertise. Recently an international cooperation program called GIF has been formulated and our KALIMER was selected as one of the two reference designs for the international joint R and D works with JSFR of Japan. In the current frame of the GIF program, the two selected reference designs are supposed to be evaluated against each other in future and one design is to be finally selected. To make the international cooperation program directed more useful to our fast reactor technology development, it is required to strengthen the competitiveness of KALIMER so that it can be selected. To meet the necessity, a study was made in this research for pre-evaluation of the GIF reference designs and setting up plans for development of designs and technology that will enhance the competitiveness of KALIMER.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of data mining on non-masslike enhancement of breast lesions on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of the breast imaging reporting and data system-MRI (BI-RADS-MRI)description about non-masslike enhancement by data mining. Methods: Fifty- five patients with non-masslike enhancement lesions showed on breast contrast-enhanced MRI were evaluated using two data mining algorithms (Logistic regression and decision tree) and 10-fold cross-validation methods. Results: There were 28 malignant and 27 benign lesions. The most frequent findings of the malignant lesions were clustered ring enhancement and clumped enhancement [12 and 4 lesions, respectively; 84.2% (16/19) in decision trees, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 2.128 and 1.723, respectively], whereas homogenous, stippled, reticular internal and linear ductal enhancement were the most frequent findings in benign lesions [4,9,1 and 7 lesions, respectively; 72.4% (21/29) in decision tree, partial regression coefficients in Logistic model were 0.357 (homogenous), 1.861 (stippled) and 18.870(reticular), respectively]. 10-fold cross-validation indicated that decision tree (C5.0) achieved an accuracy of 69.3% with a sensitivity of 66.7% and a specificity of 71.7% in comparison to the Logistic regression model with an accuracy of 57.0%, a sensitivity of 43.3% and a specificity of 71.7%. Conclusions: The diagnosis efficacy of non-masslike enhancement interpretation according to BI-RADS-MRI is not high. It is very important to find more potential features of non-masslike enhancement to improve the diagnosis accuracy. (authors)

  15. A Performance Evaluation for IT/IS Implementation in Organisation: Preliminary New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafez Salleh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traditional IT/IS performance measures are based on productivity and process, which mainly focus on method of investment appraisal. There is a need to produce alternative holistic measurement models that enable soft and hard issues to be measured qualitatively. A New IT/IS Capability Evaluation (NICE framework has been designed to measure the capability of organisations to'successfully implement IT systems' and it is applicable across industries.The idea is to provide managers with measurement tools to enable them to identify where improvements are required within their organisations and to indicate their readiness prior to IT investment. The NICE framework investigates four organisational key elements: IT, Environment, Process and People, and is composed of six progressive stages of maturity that a company can achieve its IT/IS capabilities. For each maturity stage, the NICE framework describes a set of critical success factors that must be in place for the company to achieve each stage.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of magnetic resonance fresh blood imaging for diagnosis of Budd-Chiari syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ke; XU Ke; SUN Wen-ge; CHEN Yu-shuai; QI Xi-xun; LI Ran-liang; JIN An-yu

    2007-01-01

    Background Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare disease with portal hypertension caused by the blockage of the hepatic vein and/or the inferior vena cava (IVC). Angiography is the "golden standard" for diagnosis, but it is an invasive examination. To assess the diagnostic value of a fresh blood imaging (FBI) relative to BCS, we used a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with an FBI sequence for a preoperative evaluation of the BCS patients in this study. Methods Fifty patients who were suspected of having BCS after they had been checked by a B-ultrasound were studied. 2D and 3D FBI were performed on a 1.5T superconductive MR scanner. Original images were rebuilt using a maximal intensity projection (MIP) method on the console. Two doctors reviewed all images before they learned of the angiography results. We then compared the diagnoses obtained from the FBI and angiography results to evaluate the diagnostic value of the FBI.Results Forty-one patients were diagnosed as BCS and 9 as non-BCS based on an angiography. The FBI correctly diagnosed 38 patients, incorrectly diagnosed 1 patient, and missed diagnosis in 3 patients. Thus, the diagnostic sensitivity of the FBI is 93% (38/41), the specificity is 89% (8/9) and the accuracy is 92% (46/50). The FBI images of the 13 membranous stenoses of the IVC showed a sudden stenosis of the post-liver segment of the IVC. The Images of the 5 patients with a membranous obstruction of the IVC showed IVC thickening and an absence of blood signals in the post-hepatic segment of the IVC. The images of the 4 patients with the segmental thrombosis of the IVC showed abnormal and intermittent signals in the IVC. The images of the 6 patients with a simple hepatic vein obstruction showed obstructive hepatic veins. The images of the 6 patients with the stenosis of both the IVC and the hepatic veins showed the stenosis of the IVC, the thickening of the hepatic veins and the formation of a compensatory circulation within the liver. Lastly

  17. Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging for noninvasive evaluation of renal parenchyma elasticity: preliminary findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Hang Guo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI to test the elasticity of renal parenchyma by measuring the shear wave velocity (SWV which might be used to detect chronic kidney disease (CKD. METHODS: 327 healthy volunteers and 64 CKD patients were enrolled in the study. The potential influencing factors and measurement reproducibility were evaluated in the healthy volunteers. Correlations between SWV and laboratory tests were analyzed in CKD patients.?Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance of ARFI. RESULTS: The SWV of healthy volunteers correlated significantly to age (r = -0.22, P<0.001, n = 327 and differed significantly between men and women (2.06±0.48 m/s vs. 2.2±0.52 m/s, P = 0.018, n = 327. However, it did not correlate significantly to height, weight, body mass index, waistline, kidney dimension and the depth for SWV measurement (n = 30. Inter- and intraobserver agreement expressed as intraclass coefficient correlation were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.13 to 0.82, P = 0.011 and 0.6 (95% CI: 0.31 to 0.81, P = 0.001 (n = 40. The mean SWV in healthy volunteers was 2.15±0.51 m/s, while was 1.81±0.43 m/s, 1.79±0.29 m/s, 1.81±0.44 m/s, 1.64±0.55 m/s, and 1.36±0.17 m/s for stage 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 in CKD patients respectively. The SWV was significantly higher for healthy volunteers compared with each stage in CKD patients. ARFI could not predict the different stages of CKD except stage 5. In CKD patients, SWV correlated to e-GFR (r = 0.3, P = 0.018, to urea nitrogen (r =  -0.3, P = 0.016, and to creatinine (r =  -0.41, P = 0.001. ROC analyses indicated that the area under the ROC curve was 0.752 (95% CI: 0.704 to 0.797 (P<0.001. The cut-off value for predicting CKD was 1.88 m/s (sensitivity 71.87% and specificity 69.69%. CONCLUSION: ARFI may be a potentially useful tool in detecting CKD.

  18. PSYCHIC A process-based model of phosphorus and sediment transfers within agricultural catchments. Part 2. A preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strömqvist, J.; Collins, A. L.; Davison, P. S.; Lord, E. I.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryThis paper describes the preliminary evaluation of the PSYCHIC catchment scale (Tier 1) model for predicting the mobilisation and delivery of phosphorus (P) and suspended sediment (SS) in the Hampshire Avon (1715 km 2) and Herefordshire Wye (4017 km 2) drainage basins, in the UK, using empirical data. Phosphorus and SS transfers to watercourses in the Wye were predicted to be greater than corresponding delivery in the Avon; SS, 249 vs 33 kg ha -1 yr -1; DP, 2.57 vs 1.26 kg ha -1 yr -1; PP, 2.20 vs 0.56 kg ha -1 yr -1. The spatial pattern of the predicted transfers was relatively uniform across the Wye drainage basin, whilst in the Avon, delivery to watercourses was largely confined to the river corridors and small areas of drained land. Statistical performance in relation to predicted exports of P and SS, using criteria for relative error (RE) and root mean square error (RMSE), reflected the potential shortcomings associated with using longer-term climate data for predicting shorter-term (2002-2004) catchment response and the need to refine calculations of point source contributions and to incorporate additional river basin processes such as channel bank erosion and in-stream geochemical processing. PSYCHIC is therefore best suited to characterising longer-term catchment response.

  19. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Immediate Loaded Dental Implants With Local Application of Melatonin: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gammal, Mona Y; Salem, Ahmed S; Anees, Mohamed M; Tawfik, Mohamed A

    2016-04-01

    Immediate loading of dental implants in situations where low bone density exist, such as the posterior maxillary region, became possible recently after the introduction of biomimetic agents. This 1-year preliminary clinical trial was carried out to clinically and radiographically evaluate immediate-loaded 1-piece implants with local application of melatonin in the osteotomy site as a biomimetic material. 14 patients with missing maxillary premolars were randomized to receive 14 implants of 1-piece type that were subjected to immediate loading after 2 weeks of initial placement. Group I included 7 implants with acid-etched surface while group II included 7 implants with acid-etched surface combined with local application of melatonin gel at the osteotomy site. Patients were recalled for follow up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after loading. All implants were considered successful after 12 months of follow-up. Significant difference (P < 0.05) was found between both groups at 1 month of implant loading when considering the implant stability. At 1 and 3 months there were significant differences in the marginal bone level between the 2 groups. These results suggest that the local application of melatonin at the osteotomy site is associated with good stability and minimal bone resorption. However, more studies for longer follow-up periods are required to confirm the effect of melatonin hormone on osseointegration of dental implants.

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of the Adequacy of Lithium Resources of the World and China for D-T Fusion Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永亮; 倪木一; 蒋洁琼; 吴宜灿; FDS-Team

    2012-01-01

    This paper studied the adequacy of the World and China lithium resources, consid- ering the most promising uses in the future, involving nuclear fusion and electric-vehicles. The lithium recycle model for D-T fusion power plant and electric-vehicles, and the logistic growth prediction model of the primary energy for the World and China were constructed. Based on these models, preliminary evaluation of lithium resources adequacy of the World and China for D-T fusion reactors was presented under certain assumptions. Results show that: a. The world terrestrial reserves of lithium seems too limited to support a significant D-T power program, but the lithium reserves of China are relatively abundant, compared with the world case. b. The lithium resources contained in the oceans can be called the "permanent" energy, c. The change in 6Li enrichment has no obvious effect on the availability period of the lithium resources using FDS- II (Liquid Pb-17Li breeder blanket) type of reactors, but it has a stronger effect when PPCS-B (Solid Li4 SiO4 ceramics breeder blanket) is used.

  1. Extraction, Preliminary Characterization and Evaluation of in Vitro Antitumor and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Mentha piperita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the extraction, preliminary characterization and evaluation of the in vitro antitumor and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Mentha piperita (MPP. The optimal parameters for the extraction of MPP were obtained by Box-Behnken experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM at the ratio of water to raw material of 20, extraction time of 1.5 h and extraction temperature at 80 °C. Chemical composition analysis showed that MPP was mainly composed of glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinose, and the molecular weight of its two major fractions were estimated to be about 2.843 and 1.139 kDa, respectively. In vitro bioactivity experiments showed that MPP not only inhibited the growth of A549 cells but possessed potent inhibitory action against DNA topoisomerase I (topo I, and an appreciative antioxidant action as well. These results indicate that MPP may be useful for developing safe natural health products.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of the airborne imaging spectrometer for vegetation analysis in the Klamath National Forest of northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Avila, F. X.

    1985-01-01

    The experiences and results associated with a project entitled Preliminary Evaluation of the Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Vegetation Analysis is documented. The primary goal of the project was to provide ground truth, manual interpretation, and computer processing of data from an experimental flight of the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIS) to determine the extent to which high spectral resolution remote sensing could differentiate among plant species, and especially species of conifers, for a naturally vegetated test site. Through the course of the research, JPL acquired AIS imagery of the test areas in the Klamath National Forest, northeastern California, on two overflights of both the Dock Well and Grass Lake transects. Over the next year or so, three generations of data was also received: first overflight, second overflight, and reprocessed second overflight. Two field visits were made: one trip immediately following the first overflight to note snow conditions and temporally-related vegetation states at the time of the sensor overpass; and a second trip about six weeks later, following acquisition of prints of the images from the first AIS overpass.

  3. Novel Benzothiazole, Benzimidazole and Benzoxazole Derivatives as Potential Antitumor Agents: Synthesis and Preliminary in Vitro Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  4. Novel benzothiazole, benzimidazole and benzoxazole derivatives as potential antitumor agents: synthesis and preliminary in vitro biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Pu; Zhou, Tian; Wang, Liang; Sun, Chang-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhao, Ying-Lan; Yang, Li

    2012-01-17

    In a previous hit-to-lead research program targeting anticancer agents, two promising lead compounds, 1a and 1b, were found. However, the poor solubility of 1a and 1b made difficult further in vivo studies. To solve this problem, a lead optimization was conducted through introducing N-methyl-piperazine groups at the 2-position and 6-position. To our delight, the optimized analogue 1d showed comparable antiproliferative activity in vitro with better solubility, compared with 1a. Based on this result, the replacement of the benzothiazole scaffold with benzimidazole and benzoxazole moieties afforded 1f and 1g, whose activities were fundamentally retained. In the preliminary in vitro biological evaluation, the immunofluorescence staining of HCT116 cells indicated that 1d, 1f and 1g led to cytosolic vacuolization which was not induced by 1a at low micromolecular concentrations. These results suggest that these optimized compounds might potentially constitute a novel class of anticancer agents, which merit further studies.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the Adequacy of Lithium Resources of the World and China for D-T Fusion Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongliang; Ni, Muyi; Jiang, Jieqiong; Wu, Yican; FDS-Team

    2012-07-01

    This paper studied the adequacy of the World and China lithium resources, considering the most promising uses in the future, involving nuclear fusion and electric-vehicles. The lithium recycle model for D-T fusion power plant and electric-vehicles, and the logistic growth prediction model of the primary energy for the World and China were constructed. Based on these models, preliminary evaluation of lithium resources adequacy of the World and China for D-T fusion reactors was presented under certain assumptions. Results show that: a. The world terrestrial reserves of lithium seems too limited to support a significant D-T power program, but the lithium reserves of China are relatively abundant, compared with the world case. b. The lithium resources contained in the oceans can be called the “permanent" energy. c. The change in 6Li enrichment has no obvious effect on the availability period of the lithium resources using FDS-II (Liquid Pb-17Li breeder blanket) type of reactors, but it has a stronger effect when PPCS-B (Solid Li4 SiO4 ceramics breeder blanket) is used.

  6. Hanford waste vitrification plant hydrogen generation study: Preliminary evaluation of alternatives to formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.B.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.; Kumar, V.

    1996-02-01

    Oxalic, glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids as well as glycine have been evaluated as possible substitutes for formic acid in the preparation of feed for the Hanford waste vitrification plant using a non-radioactive feed stimulant UGA-12M1 containing substantial amounts of aluminum and iron oxides as well as nitrate and nitrite at 90C in the presence of hydrated rhodium trichloride. Unlike formic acid none of these carboxylic acids liberate hydrogen under these conditions and only malonic and citric acids form ammonia. Glyoxylic, glycolic, malonic, pyruvic, lactic, levulinic, and citric acids all appear to have significant reducing properties under the reaction conditions of interest as indicated by the observation of appreciable amounts of N{sub 2}O as a reduction product of,nitrite or, less likely, nitrate at 90C. Glyoxylic, pyruvic, and malonic acids all appear to be unstable towards decarboxylation at 90C in the presence of Al(OH){sub 3}. Among the carboxylic acids investigated in this study the {alpha}-hydroxycarboxylic acids glycolic and lactic acids appear to be the most interesting potential substitutes for formic acid in the feed preparation for the vitrification plant because of their failure to produce hydrogen or ammonia or to undergo decarboxylation under the reaction conditions although they exhibit some reducing properties in feed stimulant experiments.

  7. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary evaluation of a variable compliance joystick for people with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal P. Mahajan, PhD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Upper-limb fatigue is a common problem that may restrict people with multiple sclerosis (MS from using their electric powered wheelchair effectively and for a long period of time. The objective of this research is to evaluate whether participants with MS can drive better with a variable compliance joystick (VCJ and customizable algorithms than with a conventional wheelchair joystick. Eleven participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The groups used the VCJ in either compliant or noncompliant isometric mode and a standard algorithm, personally fitted algorithm, or personally fitted algorithm with fatigue adaptation running in the background in order to complete virtual wheelchair driving tasks. Participants with MS showed better driving performance metrics while using the customized algorithms than while using the standard algorithm with the VCJ. Fatigue adaptation algorithms are especially beneficial in improving overall task performance while using the VCJ in isometric mode. The VCJ, along with the personally fitted algorithms and fatigue adaptation algorithms, has the potential to be an effective input interface for wheelchairs.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  10. An Unexpected Means of Embedding Ethics in Organizations: Preliminary Findings from Values-Based Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Burford

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ethical principles constitute a crucial area of debate and discussion in the global conversation around transitions to sustainability, and of particular relevance to the contribution of businesses and other organizations. Scholars in business ethics have recently identified several challenges in this area, such as problems of measurement, rigor, and meaningfulness to practitioners; corporate social responsibility; and institutionalization of ethics in businesses. In this paper, the impacts of a pragmatic values-based evaluation approach originally developed in another field—education for sustainable development—are shown to strongly contribute to many of these challenges. Impacts found across eight organizations include (i deep values conceptualization; (ii increased esteem (iii building capacity for assessment of values-based achievements; (iv values mainstreaming; and (v effective external values communications. It seems that the in-situ development and use of values-based indicators helped to conceptualize locally shared values that underpin decisions, thus embedding the application of (local ethics. Although this study is exploratory, it is clear that the values-based approach shows promise for meeting key challenges in business ethics and wider sustainability, and for new directions for future cross-disciplinary research.

  11. Synthesis and preliminary antimicrobial evaluation of some new 6-methoxyquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hagrs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new 6-methoxyquinoline-3-carbonitrile derivatives were synthesized using a variety of synthetic routes. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized by IR, 1H NMR, and mass spectral data followed by elemental analysis. All of the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis as examples for Gram-positive bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as examples for Gram-negative bacteria, and Aspergillus fumigatus, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Geotriucum candidum and Candida albicans as representative examples of fungi. The majority of tested compounds showed moderate activities against wide range of selected organisms. Among the tested compounds, the ester derivative 7b and the thioether derivative 9c showed the highest antimicrobial activity against gram-positive strains while the highest activity against gram-negative strains was observed in case of 7b, 7d and 9b while compound 7e found more active than Amphotericin B against three fungal species.

  12. Coincidence FDG-PET in the evaluation of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: preliminary findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A.; Adler, Brent H. [Department of Radiology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States); Olshefski, Randal S. [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Columbus Children' s Hospital, OH (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bone involvement in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is common. Both bone scintigraphy and plain films are used to identify osseous lesions, but lack specificity for disease activity and response to therapy. FDG-PET is a sensitive technique for identifying bone lesions when histiocytes are present. To describe the potential of coincidence FDG-PET (cFDG-PET) for identification of active bone lesions in LCH and to determine whether it can provide more specific information regarding lesional response to therapy than bone scintigraphy or radiography. The clinical data and imaging findings of three patients with osseous lesions of LCH were retrospectively reviewed. cFDG-PET identified all active LCH osseous lesions in these patients, differentiated active from healed lesions, and demonstrated normalization of uptake in a treated lesion earlier than bone scintigraphy and radiography. cFDG-PET appears to have greater specificity than bone scintigraphy and radiography for the identification of active osseous lesions in LCH. It also may predict response to treatment earlier than conventional techniques. Its use in the evaluation of LCH warrants further study. (orig.)

  13. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of self-made nanobubble in contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunfang; Wu, Kaizhi; Li, Jing; Liu, Haijuan; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2014-03-01

    Nanoscale bubbles (nanobubbles) have been reported to improve contrast in tumor-targeted ultrasound imaging due to the enhanced permeation and retention effects at tumor vascular leaks. In this work, a self-made nanobubble ultrasound contrast agent was preliminarily characterized and evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Fundamental properties such as morphology appearance, size distribution, zeta potential, bubble concentration (bubble numbers per milliliter contrast agent suspension) and the stability of nanobubbles were assessed by light microscope and particle sizing analysis. Then the concentration intensity curve and time intensity curves (TICs) were acquired by ultrasound imaging experiment in-vitro. Finally, the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed on rat to investigate the procedure of liver perfusion. The results showed that the nanobubbles had good shape and uniform distribution with the average diameter of 507.9 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.527, and zeta potential of -19.17 mV. Significant contrast enhancement was observed in in-vitro ultrasound imaging, demonstrating that the self-made nanobubbles can enhance the contrast effect of ultrasound imaging efficiently in-vitro. Slightly contrast enhancement was observed in in-vivo ultrasound imaging, indicating that the nanobubbles are not stable enough in-vivo. Future work will be focused on improving the ultrasonic imaging performance, stability, and antibody binding of the nanoscale ultrasound contrast agent.

  15. Coincidence FDG-PET in the evaluation of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis: preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone involvement in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) is common. Both bone scintigraphy and plain films are used to identify osseous lesions, but lack specificity for disease activity and response to therapy. FDG-PET is a sensitive technique for identifying bone lesions when histiocytes are present. To describe the potential of coincidence FDG-PET (cFDG-PET) for identification of active bone lesions in LCH and to determine whether it can provide more specific information regarding lesional response to therapy than bone scintigraphy or radiography. The clinical data and imaging findings of three patients with osseous lesions of LCH were retrospectively reviewed. cFDG-PET identified all active LCH osseous lesions in these patients, differentiated active from healed lesions, and demonstrated normalization of uptake in a treated lesion earlier than bone scintigraphy and radiography. cFDG-PET appears to have greater specificity than bone scintigraphy and radiography for the identification of active osseous lesions in LCH. It also may predict response to treatment earlier than conventional techniques. Its use in the evaluation of LCH warrants further study. (orig.)

  16. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. A Preliminary Evaluation of Season-ahead Flood Prediction Conditioned on Large-scale Climate Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Donghoon; Ward, Philip; Block, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Globally, flood disasters lead all natural hazards in terms of impacts on society, causing billions of dollars of damages each year. Typically, short-term forecasts emphasize immediate emergency actions, longer-range forecasts, on the order of months to seasons, however, can compliment short-term forecasts by focusing on disaster preparedness. In this study, the inter-annual variability of large-scale climate drivers (e.g. ENSO) is investigated to understand the prospects for skillful season-ahead flood prediction globally using PCR-GLOBWB modeled simulations. For example, global gridded correlations between discharge and Nino 3.4 are calculated, with notably strong correlations in the northwestern (-0.4~-0.6) and the southeastern (0.4~0.6) United States, and the Amazon river basin (-0.6~-0.8). Coupled interactions from multiple, simultaneous climate drivers are also evaluated. Skillful prediction has the potential to estimate season-ahead flood probabilities, flood extent, damages, and eventually integrate into early warning systems. This global approach is especially attractive for areas with limited observations and/or little capacity to develop early warning flood systems.

  18. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Londy, F. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chrisp, C.E. [Unit of Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doi, K. [Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 15 refs.

  19. Evaluation of Muscle Performance in Patients with Vitamin D De ciency: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tuna Öztürk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Vitamin D de ciency is very common in general population and has potentially harmful effect on musculoskeletal system. We aimed to show the effect of vitamin D de ciency on the muscle performance by using isokinetic test. Meterial and Methods: This study includes 12 women with vitamin D de ciency for patient group and 12 healthy women for control group. We compared knee muscles performance of these two groups by using isokinetic test. Results: The mean age was 40.71 (26-57 years in patients and 41.43 (28-58 years in healthy group. There was no statistical difference between two groups at knee  exion and extension pick-torque values in 60°/s velocity and fatigue index in 180°/s velocity (respectively, p1=0.86, p2=0.12, p3=0.42. Conclusion: Vitamin D de ciency has no effect on muscle performance. Further invastigations that evaluating larger populations are needed. (Turkish Journal of Osteoporosis 2013;19: 17-9

  20. Reducing auditory hypersensitivities in autistic spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings evaluating the Listening Project Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen W Porges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hypersensitivities are a common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. In the present study the effectiveness of a novel intervention, the Listening Project Protocol (LPP was evaluated in two trials conducted with children diagnosed with ASD. LPP was developed to reduce auditory hypersensitivities. LPP is based on a theoretical neural exercise model that uses computer altered acoustic stimulation to recruit the neural regulation of middle ear muscles. Features of the intervention stimuli were informed by basic research in speech and hearing sciences that has identified the specific acoustic frequencies necessary to understand speech, which must pass through middle ear structures before being processed by other components of the auditory system. LPP was hypothesized to reduce auditory hypersensitivities by increasing the neural tone to the middle ear muscles to functionally dampen competing sounds in frequencies lower than human speech. The trials demonstrated that LPP, when contrasted to control conditions, selectively reduced auditory hypersensitivities. These findings are consistent with the Polyvagal Theory, which emphasizes the role of the middle ear muscles in social communication.

  1. A preliminary evaluation of comparative effectiveness of riluzole in therapeutic regimen for irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Surya Prakash Mishra; Sunit Kumar Shukla; Bajrang Lal Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop agents that are specifically effective in controlling the key disturbance of visceral hyperalgesia besides abating of associated multiple symptoms, and evaluate comparative effectiveness for IBS symptom relief for standard regimen (antispasmodic and probiotic) and add-on amitriptyine or riluzole regimens following two weeks administration.Methods:groups were studied. First group received standard treatment (mebeverine 200 mg twice daily and probiotic 200 mg twice daily). Second group received add-on amitriptyline 25 mg before bedtime, while the third group got add-on riluzole 50 mg twice daily. Overall gastrointestinal symptom rating scale improving symptoms and hospital anxiety depression scale improving associated psychological morbidity were employed as measures at induction and at two-week follow-up period. Individual symptom scores were also examined to define the outcome profiles.Results:108 patients with visceral hypersensitivity accompanying IBS, divided into three rating scale score, not the other two regimens. Pain relief was seen with both riluzole and amitriptyline regimens significantly superior to standard treatment regimen, but riluzole effect appeared specific and independent anxiolytic effect. Amitriptyline caused relief in diarrhea and did not benefit in constipation point to non-specific remedial role in IBS. Riluzole regimen resulted in significant reduction of overall gastrointestinal symptom Conclusions: Riluzole specifically relieves visceral hypersensitivity and is proved to be superior to current treatments in IBS patients. It appears a lead remedy based on glutamate transporter mechanisms in visceral hypersensititvity.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western US, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. During this quarter pure concentrates of resinite from Herrin No. 6 Seam were produced by the density gradient centrifugation technique. This material is also now being characterized by petrographic and chemical methods. Another accomplishment this quarter was the completion of a series of microbubble column flotation tests under eight different conditions. The tests were successful in producing concentrates that are now being evaluated. The significance of the work done during this quarter is the confirmation that the resinite in an Illinois coal can be successfully separated in quantities useful for testing and analysis.

  3. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of Intelligent Intention Estimation Algorithms for an Actuated Lower-Limb Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervin Chandrapal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the experimental testing of an actuated lower-limb exoskeleton. The exoskeleton is designed to alleviate the loading at the knee joint by supplying assistive torque. It is hypothesized that the support provided will reduce the muscular effort required to perform activities of daily living and thus facilitate the execution of these movements by those who previously had limited mobility. The exoskeleton is actuated by four pneumatic artificial muscles, each providing 150N of pulling force to assist in the flexion and extension of the knee joint. The exoskeleton system estimates the user’s intended motion using muscle activity information recorded from five thigh muscles, together with the knee angle. To experimentally evaluate the performance of the device, the exoskeleton was worn by an able-bodied user, whilst performing the sit-to-stand-to-sit movement. In addition, the three intention estimation algorithms were also tested to determine the influence of the various algorithms on the support provided. The results show a significant reduction in the user’s muscle activity (≈ 20% when assisted by the exoskeleton in a predictable manner.

  5. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1996-12-31

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGE spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 55% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4221-8 - Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... used on intercity, local, and school buses. 48.4221-8 Section 48.4221-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Exemptions, Registration, Etc. § 48.4221-8 Tax-free sales of tires, tubes, and tread rubber used on intercity, local, and school buses. (a) In general. Under section 4221(e)(5), the...

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  8. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major

  9. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Laxemar subarea - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 for Laxemar subarea which represents the third evaluation of the available Simpevarp area groundwater analytical data collected up to November, 2004. Model version 1.2 focusses on improving the methodology and tools used for evaluating the hydrochemistry combined with a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the available data. The major goal has been to consolidate groundwater geochemical understanding and the models used at the site. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Simpevarp are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1,000 m depending on local topography. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is small, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked. In contrast, the Laxemar subarea is characterised by higher topography resulting in a much more dynamic groundwater circulation which appears to extend to 1,000 m depth in the vicinity of borehole KLX02. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between the Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical

  10. Preliminary evaluation of the lifecycle costs and market barriers of reflective pavements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, M.; Koomey, J.G.; Pomerantz, M.

    2001-11-21

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the life cycle costs and market barriers associated with using reflective paving materials in streets and parking lots as a way to reduce the urban heat island effect. We calculated and compared the life cycle costs of conventional asphalt concrete (AC) pavements to those of other existing pavement technologies with higher reflectivity-portland cement concrete (PCC), porous pavements, resin pavements, AC pavements using light-colored chip seals, and AC pavements using light-colored asphalt emulsion additives. We found that for streets and parking lots, PCC can provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional AC when severely damaged pavements must be completely reconstructed. We also found that rehabilitating damaged AC streets and intersections with thin overlays of PCC (ultra-thin white topping) can often provide a cost-effective alternative to standard rehabilitation techniques using conventional AC. Chip sealing is a common maintenance treatment for low-volume streets which, when applied using light-colored chips, could provide a reflective pavement surface. If the incremental cost of using light-colored chips is low, this chip sealing method could also be cost-effective, but the incremental costs of light-colored chips are as of yet uncertain and expected to vary. Porous pavements were found to have higher life cycle costs than conventional AC in parking lots, but several cost-saving features of porous pavements fell outside the boundaries of this study. Resin pavements were found to be only slightly more expensive than conventional AC, but the uncertainties in the cost and performance data were large. The use of light-colored additives in asphalt emulsion seal coats for parking lot pavements was found to be significantly more expensive than conventional AC, reflecting its current niche market of decorative applications. We also proposed two additional approaches to increasing the reflectivity of conventional AC

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David G [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David Howard [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant K [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer R [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the complex aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The present

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Alternate Designs for HFIR Low-Enriched Uranium Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfro, David [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Cook, David [ORNL; Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Jain, Prashant [ORNL; Valentine, Jennifer [ORNL

    2014-10-30

    Engineering design studies of the feasibility of conversion of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel are ongoing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as part of an effort sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI)/Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program. The fuel type selected by the program for the conversion of the five high-power research reactors in the U.S. that still use HEU fuel is a new U-Mo monolithic fuel. Studies by ORNL have previously indicated that HFIR can be successfully converted using the new fuel provided (1) the reactor power can be increased from 85 MW to 100 MW and (2) the fuel can be fabricated to a specific reference design. Fabrication techniques for the new fuel are under development by the program but are still immature, especially for the “complex” aspects of the HFIR fuel design. In FY 2012, the program underwent a major shift in focus to emphasize developing and qualifying processes for the fabrication of reliable and affordable LEU fuel. In support of this new focus and in an effort to ensure that the HFIR fuel design is as suitable for reliable fabrication as possible, ORNL undertook the present study to propose and evaluate several alternative design features. These features include (1) eliminating the fuel zone axial contouring in the previous reference design by substituting a permanent neutron absorber in the lower unfueled region of all of the fuel plates, (2) relocating the burnable neutron absorber from the fuel plates of the inner fuel element to the side plates of the inner fuel element (the fuel plates of the outer fuel element do not contain a burnable absorber), (3) relocating the fuel zone inside the fuel plate to be centered on the centerline of the depth of the plate, and (4) reshaping the radial contour of the relocated fuel zone to be symmetric about this centerline. The

  13. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters (3 type present at shallow (300 m) levels at Simpevarp, and at even greater depths (approx. 1200 m) at Laxemar. At Simpevarp the groundwaters are mainly Na-Ca-Cl with increasingly enhanced Br and SO4 with depth. At Laxemar they are mainly Ca-Na-Cl also with increasing enhancements of Br and SO4 with depth. Main reactions involve ion exchange (Ca). At both sites a glacial component and a deep saline component are present. At Simpevarp the saline component may be potentially non marine and/or non-marine/old Littorina marine in origin; at Laxemar it is more likely to be non-marine in origin. TYPE D: This type comprises reducing highly saline groundwaters (> 20 000 mg/L Cl; to a maximum of ∼70 g/L TDS) and only has been identified at Laxemar at depths exceeding 1200 m. It is mainly Ca-Na-Cl with higher Br but lower SO4 compared to

  14. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m3 of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K2O, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and P2O5. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture

  15. Ambulatory measurement of knee motion and physical activity: preliminary evaluation of a smart activity monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malchau Henrik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a paucity of devices available for continuous, long-term monitoring of human joint motion. Non-invasive, inexpensive devices capable of recording human activity and joint motion have many applications for medical research. Such a device could be used to quantify range of motion outside the gait laboratory. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the modified Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA in measuring knee flexion angles, to detect different physical activities, and to quantify how often healthy subjects use deep knee flexion in the ambulatory setting. Methods We compared Biomotion Laboratory (BML "gold standard" data to simultaneous IDEEA measures of knee motion and gait, step up/down, and stair descent in 5 healthy subjects. In addition, we used a series of choreographed physical activities outside the BML to confirm the IDEEA's ability to accurately measure 7 commonly-performed physical activities. Subjects then continued data collection during ordinary activities outside the gait laboratory. Results Pooled correlations between the BML and IDEEA knee flexion angles were .97 +/- .03 for step up/down, .98 +/- .02 for stair descent, and .98 +/- .01 for gait. In the BML protocol, the IDEEA accurately identified gait, but was less accurate in identifying step up/down and stair descent. During sampling outside the BML, the IDEEA accurately detected walking, running, stair ascent, stair descent, standing, lying, and sitting. On average, subjects flexed their knees >120° for 0.17% of their data collection periods outside the BML. Conclusion The modified IDEEA system is a useful clinical tool for evaluating knee motion and multiple physical activities in the ambulatory setting. These five healthy subjects rarely flexed their knees >120°.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of volcanic rock powder for application in agriculture as soil a remineralizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Claudete G., E-mail: claudeterms@brturbo.com.br [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDÆA-CSIC), C/Luis Solé y Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Oliveira, Marcos L.S. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Pires, Karen [Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral (DNPM), Washington Luiz, 815, Centro, 90010-460 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kautzmann, Rubens M. [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Luis F.S., E-mail: felipeqma@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais, Victor Barreto, 2288 Centro, 92010-000 Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of volcanic rock residue, from a crushing plant in the Nova Prata Mining District, State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Brazil, in this work named rock powder, were investigated in view of its potential application as soil ammendment in agriculture. Abaut 52,400 m{sup 3} of mining waste is generated annually in the city of Nova Prata without a proper disposal. The nutrients potentially available to plants were evaluated through leaching laboratory tests. Nutrient leaching tests were performed in Milli-Q water; citric acid solution 1% and 2% (AC); and oxalic acid solution 1% and 5% (AO). The bulk and leachable contents of 57 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Mining waste were made up by CaO, K{sub 2}O, SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and P{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the major occurence of quartz, anorthite, cristobalite, sanidine, and augite. The water leachable concentrations of all elements studied were lower than 1.0 mg/kg, indicating their low solubility. Leaching tests in acidic media yield larger leachable fractions for all elements being studied are in the leachate of the AO 1%. These date usefulness of volcanic rock powder as potential natural fertilizer in agriculture in the mining district in Nova Prata, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers. - Highlights: • Volcanic rock powder as fertilizer in agriculture • Volcanic rock powder as a source of nutrients to plants • This technology may favor the use of volcanic rock in agriculture.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a virtual reality-based simulator for learning spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-12-27

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a simulation-based program on the initial performance of dural puncture by medical interns, and to refine the design of simulator-based teaching and competence assessment. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: 27 medical interns inexperienced in the technique of spinal anesthesia or dural puncture and within 12 months of graduating from medical school, were randomly assigned to a conventional or a simulator-based teaching course of spinal anesthesia: 13 were recruited to the Conventional Group (CG) and 14 to the Simulator Group (SG). MEASUREMENTS: A SenseGraphic Immersive workbench and a modified Phantom desktop with shutter glasses were used to create a teaching environment. Outcomes of teaching were assessed in two phases within three weeks of the teaching course: Phase I consisted of a written examination followed by assessment on the simulator. A global rating scale and a task-specific checklist were used. Phase II (for those participants for whom a suitable opportunity arose to perform spinal anesthesia under supervision within three wks of the teaching course) consisted of structured observation of clinical performance of the procedure in the operating room. Participants were assessed by independent, study-blinded experts. Student\\'s two-tailed impaired t-tests were used to compare the parametric outcomes (P < 0.05 was considered significant). MAIN RESULTS: All participants completed the written test successfully with no difference between groups. Ten participants from CG and 13 from SG completed the simulator-based testing performing similarly in terms of the global rating scale. Five participants in CG and 6 in SG proceeded to clinical testing. On the global rating scale, interns in SG scored higher than those in CG. They performed similarly according to the task-specific checklist. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, no difference was measured between those taught with

  18. Preliminary evaluation of intraoperative gamma probe detection of the sentinel node

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The resurgence of the lymphoscintigraphy with the sentinel node concept and the availability of the intraoperative gamma probe have been proposed to avoid the morbidity of an unnecessary regional node dissection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the intraoperative gamma probe use after lymphoscintigraphy for the localization of the sentinel node. Material and methods: Twenty-nine patients were studied, 18 females (62%), mean age 60 ± 19 y.o. (range 24-86 y.o.) at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. The reference diagnoses were 66% malignant melanoma, 21 % breast cancer, 10 % head and neck cancer and 3% vulvae cancer. Lymphoscintigraphs were performed with Tc99m-Dextran injected intradermally in four points around the primary lesion or around the biopsy site (for melanoma 500 microCi each one; for breast and head and neck 200 microCi each one). Afterwards, dynamic images were taken, followed by intraoperative gamma probe investigations in order to localize and remove the sentinel node. Additionally, isosulfan blue was injected before the surgery was made. Results: Lymphoscintigraphy was positive to detect sentinel node(s) in 20 patients (69%). During the surgery, 40 sentinel nodes were detected. In 33 cases, the intraoperative gamma probe was performed, of which 88 % were radioactives. In 35 nodes, the isosulfan blue was injected, of which 80 % were dyed. The correlation between both techniques was 75 %. The histology study of 37 samples demonstrated that 86% (n=32) were truly ganglionar nodes. Conclusion: The intraoperative gamma probe after lymphoscintigraphy is a useful technique for the localization of the sentinel node

  19. Evaluation of salivary sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in oral cancer: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, noninvasive methods like analysis of saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Thus, this study aimed to estimate salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar in the oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis and prognosis of oral cancer. Study Design: Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy controls (Group I and 30 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II. Estimations of salivary levels of sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar were performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical Analysis and Results: The Student′s ′ t ′ test and multivariate regression analysis were performed. The results showed that salivary levels of total protein, total sugar, protein-bound sialic acid, and free sialic acid were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to those of normal healthy controls ( P values in all the results were less than 0.001. The salivary free sialic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma than in moderately differentiated carcinoma ( P < 0.001. However, protein-bound sialic acid, total proteins, and total sugars did not show any statistical significance between well and moderately differentiated carcinomas. Conclusion: Biochemical analysis of saliva can be used in early detection of cancer and is best correlated with histopathological degree of squamous cell carcinoma.

  20. Glutamine-Loaded Liposomes: Preliminary Investigation, Characterization, and Evaluation of Neutrophil Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Larissa Chaves; Souza, Bárbara Nayane Rosário Fernandes; Almeida, Fábio Fidélis; Lagranha, Cláudia Jacques; Cadena, Pabyton Gonçalves; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide Stela; Lira-Nogueira, Mariane Cajubá de Britto

    2016-04-01

    Glutamine has received attention due to its ability to ameliorate the immune system response. Once conventional liposomes are readily recognized and captured by immune system cells, the encapsulation of glutamine into those nanosystems could be an alternative to reduce glutamine dosage and target then to neutrophils. Our goals were to nanoencapsulate glutamine into conventional liposomes (Gln-L), develop an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for its quantification, and evaluate the viability of neutrophils treated with Gln-L. Liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration technique followed by sonication and characterized according to pH, mean size, zeta potential, and drug encapsulation efficiency (EE%). We also aimed to study the effect of liposomal constituent concentrations on liposomal characteristics. The viability of neutrophils was assessed using flow cytometry after intraperitoneal administration of free glutamine (Gln), Gln-L, unloaded-liposome (UL), and saline solution as control (C) in healthy Wistar rats. The selected liposomal formulation had a mean vesicle size of 114.65 ± 1.82 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.30 ± 0.00, a positive surface charge of 36.30 ± 1.38 mV, and an EE% of 39.49 ± 0.74%. The developed chromatographic method was efficient for the quantification of encapsulated glutamine, with a retention time at 3.8 min. A greater viability was observed in the group treated with glutamine encapsulated compared to the control group (17%), although neutrophils remain viable in all groups. Thus, glutamine encapsulated into liposomes was able to increase the number of viable neutrophils at low doses, thereby representing a promising strategy for the treatment of immunodeficiency conditions. PMID:26228746

  1. Brain spect in the pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Buchpiguel

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-surgical evaluation of epileptic patients consists of neurological examination, intensive electroencephalographic (EEG monitoring and anatomical studies (CT and MRI. Functional methods such as PET and SPECT imaging are now used more frequently. We have studied pre-operatively 15 adult epileptic patients (8 female, 7 male using a rotational scintillation camera interfaced to a dedicated computer. The tomographic images were obtained 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 99mTc_HMPAO. All had MRI scanning and intensive EEG monitoring which generally included seizure recording. Five patients had progressive lesions (3 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas. In 10 patients, neuroradiological studies did not show the presence of progressive lesions (2 normal scans and 8 cases with inactive lesions. Two patients with meningioma showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site while the third patient had a marked hyperperfusion which might correlate with the clinical diagnosis of epilepsia partialis continua. In the astrocytoma patients SPECT scans showed hypoperfusion at the lesion site. Data obtained from the 10 patients without progressive CNS lesions showed: (a in 4, SPECT findings correlated well with the anatomical findings; (b in 5 instances, SPECT was able to disclose additional functional deficits; (c in one case, there was no SPECT correlate of a discrete anatomical lesion. In 5 of these cases with no progressive lesions (n=10 SPECT findings were useful as a complementary tool in determining the clinical or surgical management of these patients. Despite the small number and hete-rogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be an useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of synthetic cannabinoid use among adolescent cannabis users: Characteristics and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Claire E; Banes, Kelsey E; Stephens, Robert S; Walker, Denise D; Roffman, Roger A

    2016-12-01

    Little is known regarding the use of synthetic cannabinoids (SC), particularly use among adolescent substance users who may be at higher risk. The present exploratory study seeks to describe SC use and subjective effects among cannabis-using adolescents as well as compare the characteristics of cannabis users who do and do not use SC. Exploratory analyses evaluated cannabis treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Participants enrolled in a randomized, controlled intervention for cannabis-using high school students aged 14-19 (N=252) completed questionnaires regarding their use of SC and other substances. Those who used SC in the past 60days reported subjective effects of SC, consequences, and SC use disorder symptoms. Baseline characteristics, alcohol and other drug use, and treatment outcomes of SC users were compared to participants who never tried SC. Within this sample 29% had tried SC, and 6% used SC recently. Although most reported use at a relatively low rate, 43% of recent SC users reported SC use-disorder symptoms. Positive and negative subjective effects of SC were endorsed, with positive subjective effects reported more often. SC use was associated with more cannabis use, but not more alcohol or other (non-SC and non-cannabis) drug use. SC users did not differ from non-users on cannabis treatment outcomes. This exploratory study described SC use, and compared characteristics and treatment outcomes among SC users and non-users. Negative subjective effects of SC were reported as occurring less often, but SC use was associated with use disorder psychopathology. SC use was associated with more problematic cannabis use at baseline, but was not associated with use of other substances or differences in treatment outcome. PMID:27454353

  3. A preliminary evaluation of surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between variations in surface latent heat flux (SLHF and marine earthquakes has been a popular subject of recent seismological studies. So far, there are two key problems: how to identify the abnormal SLHF variations from complicated background signals, and how to ensure that the anomaly results from an earthquake. In this paper, we proposed four adjustable parameters for identification, classified the relationship and analyzed SLHF changes several months before six marine earthquakes by employing daily SLHF data. Additionally, we also quantitatively evaluate the long-term relationship between earthquakes and SLHF anomalies for the six study areas over a 20 yr period preceding each earthquake. The results suggest the following: (1 before the South Sandwich Islands, Papua, Samoa and Haiti earthquakes, the SLHF variations above their individual background levels have relatively low amplitudes and are difficult to be considered as precursory anomalies; (2 after removing the clustering effect, most of the anomalies prior to these six earthquakes are not temporally related to any earthquake in each study area in time sequence; (3 for each case, apart from Haiti, more than half of the studied earthquakes, which were moderate and even devastating earthquakes (larger than Mw = 5.3, had no precursory variations in SLHF; and (4 the correlation between SLHF and seismic activity depends largely on data accuracy and parameter settings. Before any application of SLHF data on earthquake prediction, we suggest that anomaly-identifying standards should be established based on long-term regional analysis to eliminate subjectivity. Furthermore, other factors that may result in SLHF variations should also be carefully considered.

  4. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. Technical report, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. This project is relevant to priority 1.4A identified in ICCI/RFP93-1. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and IBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of resinite recovery from Illinois coal. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crelling, J.C. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Geology

    1994-12-31

    Resinite is a naturally occurring substance found in coal and derived from original plant resins. It is ubiquitous in North American coals. It makes up one to four percent by volume of most Illinois coals. It has been commercially exploited in the western USA for use in adhesives, varnishes and thermal setting inks. The overall objective of this project is to compare the properties of the resinite contained in Illinois Basin coals to resinite being commercially exploited in the western United States, and to recover the resinite from Illinois coals by microbubble column floatation techniques. The significance of this study is that it has the potential to show the way to recover a valuable chemical, resinite, from coal using only physical processing techniques. The value of the resinite at $1.00/kg or $0.50/lb makes it about fifty times more valuable than steam coal. The removal of resinite from coal does not decrease the value of the remaining coal in any way. The unique aspects are that: (1) it is the first examination of the resinite recovery potential of Illinois coal, (2) it integrates the latest characterization techniques such as density Gradient centrifugation, microspectrofluorometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, and (3) it uses microbubble column flotation to determine the resinite recovery potential. During this quarter samples were obtained, information from both the databases of both the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) and the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) was obtained and evaluated, and EBCSP samples from the Herrin No. 6, the Springfield No. 5 and the Colchester No. 2 seams were analyzed petrographically and the resinites in these samples were characterized by fluorescence spectral analysis.

  6. An Eddy-Permitting Oceanic General Circulation Model and Its Preliminary Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海龙; 张学洪; 李薇; 俞永强; 宇如聪

    2004-01-01

    An eddy-permitting, quasi-global oceanic general circulation model, LICOM (LASG/IAP (State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics) Climate System Ocean Model), with a uniform grid of 0.5°× 0.5° is established.Forced by wind stresses from Hellerman and Rosenstain (1983), a 40-yr integration is conducted with sea surface temperature and salinity being restored to the Levitus 94 datasets. The evaluation of the annual mean climatology of the LICOM control run shows that the large-scale circulation can be well reproduced. A comparison between the LICOM control run and a parallel integration of L30T63, which has the same framework but a coarse resolution, is also made to confirm the impact of resolution on the model performance. On account of the reduction of horizontal viscosity with the enhancement of the horizontal resolution, LICOM improves the simulation with respect to not only the intensity of the large scale circulations, but also the magnitude and structureof the Equatorial Undercurrent and South Equatorial Current. Taking advantage of the fine grid size, the pathway of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is better represented in LICOM than in L30T63. The transport of ITF in LICOM is more convergent in the upper layer. As a consequence, the Indian Ocean tends to get warmer in LICOM. The poleward heat transports for both the global and individual basins are also significantly improved in LICOM. A decomposed analysis indicates that the transport due to the barotropic gyre, which primarily stands for the barotropic effect of the western boundary currents, plays a crucial role in making the difference.

  7. Evaluation of chemotherapy response in ovarian cancer treatment using quantitative CT image biomarkers: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Tan, Maxine; McMeekin, Scott; Thai, Theresa; Moore, Kathleen; Ding, Kai; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and apply quantitative image biomarkers for early prediction of the tumor response to the chemotherapy among the ovarian cancer patients participated in the clinical trials of testing new drugs. In the experiment, we retrospectively selected 30 cases from the patients who participated in Phase I clinical trials of new drug or drug agents for ovarian cancer treatment. Each case is composed of two sets of CT images acquired pre- and post-treatment (4-6 weeks after starting treatment). A computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme was developed to extract and analyze the quantitative image features of the metastatic tumors previously tracked by the radiologists using the standard Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guideline. The CAD scheme first segmented 3-D tumor volumes from the background using a hybrid tumor segmentation scheme. Then, for each segmented tumor, CAD computed three quantitative image features including the change of tumor volume, tumor CT number (density) and density variance. The feature changes were calculated between the matched tumors tracked on the CT images acquired pre- and post-treatments. Finally, CAD predicted patient's 6-month progression-free survival (PFS) using a decision-tree based classifier. The performance of the CAD scheme was compared with the RECIST category. The result shows that the CAD scheme achieved a prediction accuracy of 76.7% (23/30 cases) with a Kappa coefficient of 0.493, which is significantly higher than the performance of RECIST prediction with a prediction accuracy and Kappa coefficient of 60% (17/30) and 0.062, respectively. This study demonstrated the feasibility of analyzing quantitative image features to improve the early predicting accuracy of the tumor response to the new testing drugs or therapeutic methods for the ovarian cancer patients.

  8. Preliminary analysis of doses to evaluate the image quality in radiographic examinations in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as objective to promote the analysis of the radiological doses and quality of the image of the technical letter used for the accomplishment of thorax and coxal radiographic examination of animals of canine and feline species. The study was accomplished in the service of Diagnosis for Image in Veterinarian Hospital of Veterinary Medicine and Zootecnia College of University of Sao Paulo, in two conventional equipment. Initially, physical features of the animals and the technique used were collected for each one of the 188 radiographic examinations of thorax and 52 examinations of coxal. The animals were placed in different groups, according to their body weight. For each group, the averages for each feature were calculated: thickness of the radiographed region, tension, electric current, time of exhibition, current product electric-time, size of the used film, presence or absence of bucky and feature of focus (narrow or thick). On the basis of the averages of group M (of lesser weights that 5kg for cats and between 10,1kg and 20kg for dogs), was executed a physical analysis of the current technical letter, using the equipment: ionization chamber (to determinate the value of kerma in air), simulator objects (representative of the thickness of the animal) and three dispositive standards of test that evaluate space resolution, resolution in low contrast and contrast-detail. The obtained images were analyzed and compared for a physicist and a radiologist medical veterinary. The results had shown that the examinations supply dose considered high for techniques used mainly for coxal. The equipment A, although to supply higher doses, presents the better images for the majority of the projections. However, the study indicates that there are not exactly reference levels, but these examinations must pass for improvement of quality of image (author)

  9. Application of Computed Tomography Virtual Noncontrast Spectral Imaging in Evaluation of Hepatic Metastases: A Preliminary Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Feng Tian; Ai-Lian Liu; Jing-Hong Liu; Mei-Yu Sun; He-Qing Wang; Yi-Jun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate hepatic metastases using computed tomography (CT) virtual noncontrast (VNC) spectral imaging in a retrospective analysis.Methods:Forty hepatic metastases patients underwent CT scans including the conventional true noncontrast (TNC) and the tri-phasic contrast-enhanced dual energy spectral scans in the hepatic arterial,portal venous,and equilibrium phases.The tri-phasic spectral CT images were used to obtain three groups of VNC images including in the arterial (VNCa),venous (VNCv),and equilibrium (VNCe) phase by the material decomposition process using water and iodine as a base material pair.The image quality and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of metastasis of the four groups were compared with ANOVA analysis.The metastasis detection rates with the four nonenhanced image groups were calculated and compared using the Chi-square test.Results:There were no significant differences in image quality among TNC,VNCa and VNCv images (P > 0.05).The quality of VNCe images was significantly worse than that of other three groups (P < 0.05).The mean CNR of metastasis in the TNC and VNCs images was 1.86,2.42,1.92,and 1.94,respectively; the mean CNR of metastasis in VNCa images was significantly higher than that in other three groups (P < 0.05),while no statistically significant difference was observed among VNCv,VNCe and TNC images (P > 0.05).The metastasis detection rate of the four nonenhanced groups with no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusions:The quality of VNCa and VNCv images is identical to that of TNC images,and the metastasis detection rate in VNC images is similar to that in TNC images.VNC images obtained from arterial phase show metastases more clearly.Thus,VNCa imaging may be a surrogate to TNC imaging in hepatic metastasis diagnosis.

  10. Preliminary evaluation of steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident in lead cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some contributions are provided to the development of a European Lead-cooled System, known as the ELSY project (within EU-6 Framework Project); that will constitute a possible reference system for a large lead-cooled reactor of GEN IV. Steam generator (SG) tubing of this system type might be subject to a variety of degradation processes, such as cracking, wall thinning and potential leakage or rupture, eventually leading to the failure of one or more SG tubes that constitute a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) accident with possible consequences for the safety of the primary systems. It is therefore of interest for the designer to know how the SG itself, as well as the vessel and internals structures, behave under impulsive loading conditions (in form of a rapid and strong increase of pressure) that can arise as consequences of the interaction between the primary and secondary coolants (lead-water interaction). The analysed initiator event, as already mentioned, is a large break (up to a double ended guillotine break) of one (or more) SG cooling tubes that may become severe enough to determine dangerous effects on the interested structures. In order to better simulate and perform the mentioned postulated SGTR accident sequence analyses, an appropriate numerical model with the available computing resources (FEM codes) was set up at the DIMNP of Pisa University. That model was used to evaluate the effects of the propagation of the blast pressure waves inside the SG structures, taking into account also the sloshing phenomenon that could be induced by the lead primary coolant motions. Therefore the SGTR effects study may be considered as a transient and non linear problem the solution of which provides the 'time histories' of hydrodynamic pressures and stresses on the reactor pressure vessel and internals walls. (author)

  11. Preliminary safety evaluation for the Forsmark area. Based on data and site descriptions after the initial site investigation stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    The main objectives of this Preliminary Safety Evaluation (PSE) of the Forsmark area have been to determine, with limited efforts, whether the feasibility study's judgement of the suitability of the candidate area with respect to long-term safety holds up in the light of the actual site investigation data; to provide feedback to continued site investigations and site-specific repository design and to identify site-specific scenarios and geoscientific issues for further analyses. The PSE focuses on comparing the attained knowledge of the sites with the suitability criteria as set out by SKB. The PSE does not aim at comparing sites and does not assess compliance with safety and radiation protection criteria. The evaluation shows that, even considering remaining uncertainties, the Forsmark area meets all stated safety requirements and preferences. Consequently, from a safety point of view, there is no reason not to continue the Site Investigations of the Forsmark area. There are still uncertainties to resolve and the safety would eventually need to be verified through a full safety assessment. Nevertheless, this Preliminary Safety Evaluation demonstrates that it is likely that a safe repository for spent nuclear fuel of the KBS-3 type could be constructed at the site. The following feedback is provided to the site investigations and the associated site modelling: Reducing the uncertainty on the deformation zone geometry inside the target area would be needed to more firmly define locations of the suitable deposition volumes. There is substantial uncertainty in the Discrete Fracture Network model. Further reduction of the uncertainties, if needed, would probably only be possible from the underground, detailed investigation phase. Efforts need also be spent on improving the DFN-modelling. There are assumptions made in current models that could be challenged and there seems to be room for better use of the borehole information. It is particularly important to

  12. Design, Development and Preliminary Student Evaluation of Virtual Field Guides as aids to teaching and learning in the Earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, Tim

    2010-05-01

    In Universities the benefits of teaching and learning through fieldwork has been brought under closer examination in recent years (e.g. Andrews et al., 2003) and the notion of supporting fieldwork in the Geography, Earth and Environmental Science (GEES) disciplines has been gathering momentum over the past decade as evidenced by conferences on ‘Supporting fieldwork using information technology' (Maskall et al., 2007) and a Higher Education Academy GEES Virtual Fieldwork Conference at University of Worcester (May 2007). Virtual environments and e-learning resources have been shown to help students become active rather than passive learners by appealing to their multi-sensory learning ability with interactive media (Fletcher et al., 2002; 2007). Research on glacial and fluvial processes has been conducted since 2003 by Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) staff, sometimes in collaboration with other Universities, at field sites in the French Alps, Swiss Alps and Cariboo Mountains in British Columbia. A virtual field guide (VFG) (www.virtualalps.co.uk) has been developed which uses maps, site photos, panorama movies, video clips, a google earth tour, student exercises using hydrological and glacial datasets collected in the field and revision exercises. A preliminary evaluation of this learning resource has been carried out with two groups of LJMU students and an article written (Stott et al. 2009a). The Ingleton Waterfalls VFG (http://www.ljmu.ac.uk/BIE/ingleton/) was developed by LJMU staff to meet the needs of Foundation degree and undergraduate students. A workshop was presented at the Earth Science Teachers Association 2008 Annual Conference at LJMU, and a subsequent article written (Stott et al. 2009b). The final section of this presentation will summarise some staff perspectives and raises some questions and issues concerned with development and accessibility of VFGs in the light of new developments of a ‘semantic web' at LJMU (Carmichael, 2009). Andrews

  13. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-03-15

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by

  14. Hydrogeochemical evaluation. Preliminary site description Forsmark area - version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, on the eastern coast of Sweden to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Forsmark groundwater analytical data collected up to June, 2004. The Hydrochemical Analytical Group (HAG) had access to data where a total of 1,131 water samples had been collected from the surface and sub-surface environment; 252 samples were collected from drilled boreholes. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1 km. Most of the waters sampled (66%) lacked crucial analytical information that restricted the evaluation. Model version 1.2 focuses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1,000 m depth. The complex groundwater evolution and patterns at Forsmark are a result of many factors such as: a) the present-day topography and proximity to the Baltic Sea, b) past changes in hydrogeology related to glaciation/deglaciation, land uplift and repeated marine/lake water regressions/ transgressions, and c) organic or inorganic alteration of the groundwater composition caused by microbial processes or water/rock interactions. The sampled groundwaters reflect to various degrees processes relating to modern or ancient water/rock interactions and mixing. The groundwater flow regimes at Forsmark are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600 m depending on hydraulic conditions. Close to the Baltic Sea coastline where topographical variation is even less, groundwater flow penetration to depth will subsequently be less marked and such areas will tend to be characterised by groundwater

  15. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters (< 1000 mg/L Cl; 0.5-2.0 g/L TDS) of Na-HCO{sub 3} type present at shallow (<200 m) depths at Simpevarp, but at greater depths (0-900 m) at Laxemar. At both localities the groundwaters are marginally oxidising close to the surface, but otherwise reducing. Main reactions involve weathering, ion exchange (Ca, Mg), surface complexation, and dissolution of calcite. Redox reactions include precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxides and some microbially mediated reactions (SRB). Meteoric recharge water is mainly present at Laxemar whilst at Simpevarp potential mixing of recharge meteoric water and a modern sea component is observed. Localised mixing of meteoric water with deeper saline groundwaters is indicated at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. TYPE B: This type comprises brackish groundwaters (1000-6000 mg/L Cl; 5-10 g/L TDS) present at

  16. Hydrogeochemical evaluation for Simpevarp model version 1.2. Preliminary site description of the Simpevarp area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (ed.) [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Siting studies for SKB's programme of deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste currently involves the investigation of two locations, Simpevarp and Forsmark, to determine their geological, hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological characteristics. Present work completed has resulted in Model version 1.2 which represents the second evaluation of the available Simpevarp groundwater analytical data collected up to April, 2004. The deepest fracture groundwater samples with sufficient analytical data reflected depths down to 1.7 km. Model version 1.2 focusses on geochemical and mixing processes affecting the groundwater composition in the uppermost part of the bedrock, down to repository levels, and eventually extending to 1000 m depth. The groundwater flow regimes at Laxemar/Simpevarp are considered local and extend down to depths of around 600-1000 m depending on local topography. The marked differences in the groundwater flow regimes between Laxemar and Simpevarp are reflected in the groundwater chemistry where four major hydrochemical groups of groundwaters (types A-D) have been identified: TYPE A: This type comprises dilute groundwaters (< 1000 mg/L Cl; 0.5-2.0 g/L TDS) of Na-HCO{sub 3} type present at shallow (<200 m) depths at Simpevarp, but at greater depths (0-900 m) at Laxemar. At both localities the groundwaters are marginally oxidising close to the surface, but otherwise reducing. Main reactions involve weathering, ion exchange (Ca, Mg), surface complexation, and dissolution of calcite. Redox reactions include precipitation of Fe-oxyhydroxides and some microbially mediated reactions (SRB). Meteoric recharge water is mainly present at Laxemar whilst at Simpevarp potential mixing of recharge meteoric water and a modern sea component is observed. Localised mixing of meteoric water with deeper saline groundwaters is indicated at both Laxemar and Simpevarp. TYPE B: This type comprises brackish groundwaters (1000-6000 mg/L Cl; 5-10 g/L TDS) present at

  17. A preliminary evaluation of optometric management and referral protocols for pa-tients with diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mehta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate  the  assessment,  management  and referral practices of South African optometrists in  the  care  of  patients  with  diabetic  retinop-athy  (DR  and  to  recommend  strategies  to improve  and  standardize  patient  management as required.  Methods:  The  study  design  incorporated quantitative,  qualitative  and  clinical  measures that were administered to fourteen experienced optometrists from the Durban area. The quan-titative measure, the questionnaire in appendix I, evaluated the optometrists’ management pro-tocols of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM.  These  included  the  optometrists’  referral  and co-management practices, their awareness and usage  of  appropriate  guidelines  in  the  man-agement  and  referral  of  these  patients,  their perceived levels of competence and confidence in their education, levels of service offered to the patients and finally the role of Continuous Professional  Development  (CPD.  This  self-report information was supplemented by a set of clinical measures where the study sample grad-ed levels of DR, chose appropriate management options  and  indicated  prognosis  for  disease progression based on a set of slides presented to  them.  Finally  the  fourteen  optometrists,  as well as two ophthalmologists, were interviewed using tailored, semi-structured interview sched-ules. These interviews were used to elaborate and corroborate information obtained from the other two research approaches.  Results:  Descriptive  analysis  was  used  to analyse  the  data  from  the  quantitative  and clinical  measures,  whilst  the  interviews  were analysed  thematically.  Although  86%  of  the sample routinely screened for ocular manifesta-tions of DM, there was no standardization in the criteria used by the fourteen optometrists

  18. Preliminary design, construction and evaluation of robot of tomato seed planting for the trays of greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghezavati

    2015-09-01

    design and construction included: cost, ease of performance, portability, use of local equipment, the planter’s capacity as well as the style of picking single seeds (In Fig.1, the original scheme of the device is presented. The planter consists of several parts operating harmoniously to yield the desired results. These parts include a chassis and conveyor belt mechanism, primary and secondary fertilizer tanks, squashing unit, seed metering device and vibrating reservoir of the seed (The main text of modeling the device with SolidWorks software is shown in Fig.2. This device is designed in such a way that the position of the nozzle, the suction pressure, the height of removing seeds and the vibration frequency of the seeding tray are adjustable. Evaluation of the device was carried out by single seeding of tomato seeds in trays with 105 cells (7 × 15. Suction pressure and nozzle size were calculated for tomato seeds. Scaling distances were considered equal, based on the 30.5-mm intervals of the cells. Single seed picking efficiency of seeds was calculated by the system, as the single percentage of seeding and the total percentage of seeded cells. Seed consumption efficiency is the ratio of the total seeded cells to the total number of existing seeds in the cells. Seeding efficiency also refers to single, dual, and multiple harvested seeds. Furthermore, the device capacity is defined as the number of seeded tray cells per hour. In order to design and build a precise robot planter, an experiment including the designed planter and planting speed of workers in 10 repetitions was designed and implemented to estimate the seeding time and compare with automated and manual planting methods. Seedling trays with four replications were cultivated by the designed robot and the number of cultivated seeds per tray at each stage were correctly counted. After that, the spent planting time by a worker was determined with four replications. Results and Discussion: The planting rate of

  19. National Fuel Cell Bus Program: Accelerated Testing Evaluation Report and Appendices, Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This is an evaluation of hydrogen fuel cell transit buses operating at AC Transit in revenue service since March 20, 2006 compared to similar diesel buses operating from the same depot. This evaluation report includes results from November 2007 through October 2008. Evaluation results include implementation experience, fueling station operation, fuel cell bus operations at Golden Gate Transit, and evaluation results at AC Transit (bus usage, availability, fuel economy, maintenance costs, and roadcalls).

  20. Development and preliminary evaluation of the VPS ReplaySuite: a virtual double-headed microscope for pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervan Peter A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in computing and telecommunications have resulted in the availability of a range of online tools for use in pathology training and quality assurance. The majority focus on either enabling pathologists to examine and diagnose cases, or providing image archives that serve as reference material. Limited emphasis has been placed on analysing the diagnostic process used by pathologists to reach a diagnosis and using this as a resource for improving diagnostic performance. Methods The ReplaySuite is an online pathology software tool that presents archived virtual slide examinations to pathologists in an accessible video-like format, similar to observing examinations with a double-headed microscope. Delivered through a customised web browser, it utilises PHP (Hypertext PreProcessor to interact with a remote database and retrieve data describing virtual slide examinations, performed using the Virtual Pathology Slide (VPS. To demonstrate the technology and conduct a preliminary evaluation of pathologists opinions on its potential application in pathology training and quality assurance, 70 pathologists were invited to use the application to review their own and other pathologists examinations of 10 needle-core breast biopsies and complete an electronic survey. 9 pathologists participated, and all subsequently completed an exit survey. Results Of those who replayed an examination by another pathologist, 83.3% (5/6 agreed that replays provided an insight into the examining pathologists diagnosis and 33.3% (2/6 reconsidered their own diagnosis for at least one case. Of those who reconsidered their original diagnosis, all re-classified either concordant with group consensus or original glass slide diagnosis. 77.7% (7/9 of all participants, and all 3 participants who replayed more than 10 examinations stated the ReplaySuite to be of some or great benefit in pathology training and quality assurance. Conclusion Participants conclude

  1. Preliminary biological evaluation of acridinic compounds for a targeted combined chemo and internal radionuclide therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and a lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form induces the development of selective tissue-targeted therapies. The aim of the present work was a targeting approach combining a bimodality therapy with the same compound exhibiting both chemo and internal radionuclide therapeutic properties. Benzamides are known to present a specific affinity for melanoma tissue. Former studies have shown that with aromatic and hetero-aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)- 4-iodo benzamide (B.Z.A.), the affinity for melanoma was maintained. In this context, new compounds have been designed and synthesized conjugating a cytotoxic hetero-aromatic moiety, an amino-alkyl amidic side chain for melanoma targeting and a radioiodine for internal radionuclide therapy. Acridinic derivatives known as cytotoxic DNA-intercalating agents have been chosen for this study. The cytotoxic activity of fifteen new compounds has been tested in vitro on a panel of cell lines and the I.C.50 values were determined. The three first selected compounds have been further evaluated: in vivo, on B 16 F0 melanoma bearing C 57 B.L.6 mice to determine the pharmacological kinetic and namely the tumoral affinity. Two compounds exhibited a high, specific and long lasting concentration in melanoma tumor giving them a kinetic profile favourable for an application to radionuclide therapy; in vitro, using the 'colony forming' test on melanoma cells, for a first approach of association of chemo toxicity and radiotoxicity. Assessed on the ability of cells to form colonies, the inhibition observed with the association for a same molecule of chemo toxic and radio toxic doses was quite exactly the sum of the two separate effects, a result providing a first validation of the radio chemotherapy concept; in vitro, by a preliminary determination of molecular mechanisms. Compared to parent compounds, results confirmed a maintain of DNA-intercalating properties. These first results

  2. An evaluation of coral lophelia pertusa mucus as an analytical matrix for environmental monitoring: A preliminary proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provan, Fiona; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Larssen, Eivind; Uleberg, Kai-Erik; Sydnes, Magne O; Lyng, Emily; Øysæd, Kjell Birger; Baussant, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    For the environmental monitoring of coral, mucus appears to be an appropriate biological matrix due to its array of functions in coral biology and the non-intrusive manner in which it can be collected. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using mucus of the stony coral Lophelia pertusa (L. pertusa) as an analytical matrix for discovery of biomarkers used for environmental monitoring. More specifically, to assess whether a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approach can be applied to characterize the protein composition of coral mucus and changes related to petroleum discharges at the seafloor. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) screening analyses of orange and white L. pertusa showed that the mucosal protein composition varies significantly with color phenotype, a pattern not reported prior to this study. Hence, to reduce variability from phenotype difference, L. pertusa white individuals only were selected to characterize in more detail the basal protein composition in mucus using liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In total, 297 proteins were identified in L. pertusa mucus of unexposed coral individuals. Individuals exposed to drill cuttings in the range 2 to 12 mg/L showed modifications in coral mucus protein composition compared to unexposed corals. Although the results were somewhat inconsistent between individuals and require further validation in both the lab and the field, this study demonstrated preliminary encouraging results for discovery of protein markers in coral mucus that might provide more comprehensive insight into potential consequences attributed to anthropogenic stressors and may be used in future monitoring of coral health. PMID:27484144

  3. Hyperpolarized {sup 3}He magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary evaluation of phenotyping potential in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Lindsay, E-mail: lmathew@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Kirby, Miranda, E-mail: mkirby@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Etemad-Rezai, Roya, E-mail: Roya.EtemadRezai@lhsc.on.ca [Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Wheatley, Andrew, E-mail: awheat@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); McCormack, David G., E-mail: David.McCormack@lhsc.on.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gep@imaging.robarts.ca [Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Rationale and objectives: Emphysema and small airway obstruction are the pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this pilot study in a small group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients was to quantify hyperpolarized helium-3 ({sup 3}He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) functional and structural measurements and to explore the potential role for {sup 3}He MRI in detecting the lung structural and functional COPD phenotypes. Materials and methods: We evaluated 20 ex-smokers with stage I (n = 1), stage II (n = 9) and stage III COPD (n = 10). All subjects underwent same-day plethysmography, spirometry, {sup 1}H MRI and hyperpolarized {sup 3}He MRI at 3.0 T. {sup 3}He ventilation defect percent (VDP) was generated from {sup 3}He static ventilation images and {sup 1}H thoracic images and the {sup 3}He apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was derived from diffusion-weighted MRI. Results: Based on the relative contribution of normalized ADC and VDP, there was evidence of a predominant {sup 3}He MRI measurement in seven patients (n = 3 mainly ventilation defects or VDP dominant (VD), n = 4 mainly increased ADC or ADC dominant (AD)). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significantly lower ADC for subjects with predominantly elevated VDP (p = 0.02 compared to subjects with predominantly elevated ADC; p = 0.008 compared to mixed group) and significantly decreased VDP for subjects with predominantly elevated ADC (p = 0.003, compared to mixed group). Conclusion: In this small pilot study, a preliminary analysis shows the potential for {sup 3}He MRI to categorize or phenotype COPD ex-smokers, providing good evidence of feasibility for larger prospective studies.

  4. Development and preliminary evaluation of an ultrasonic motor actuated needle guide for 3T MRI-guided transperineal prostate interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Eun; Tokuda, Junichi; Tuncali, Kemal; Tempany, Clare; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2012-02-01

    Image guided prostate interventions have been accelerated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and robotic technologies in the past few years. However, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided procedure still remains as vast majority in clinical practice due to engineering and clinical complexity of the MRI-guided robotic interventions. Subsequently, great advantages and increasing availability of MRI have not been utilized at its maximum capacity in clinic. To benefit patients from the advantages of MRI, we developed an MRI-compatible motorized needle guide device "Smart Template" that resembles a conventional prostate template to perform MRI-guided prostate interventions with minimal changes in the clinical procedure. The requirements and specifications of the Smart Template were identified from our latest MRI-guided intervention system that has been clinically used in manual mode for prostate biopsy. Smart Template consists of vertical and horizontal crossbars that are driven by two ultrasonic motors via timing-belt and mitergear transmissions. Navigation software that controls the crossbar position to provide needle insertion positions was also developed. The software can be operated independently or interactively with an open-source navigation software, 3D Slicer, that has been developed for prostate intervention. As preliminary evaluation, MRI distortion and SNR test were conducted. Significant MRI distortion was found close to the threaded brass alloy components of the template. However, the affected volume was limited outside the clinical region of interest. SNR values over routine MRI scan sequences for prostate biopsy indicated insignificant image degradation during the presence of the robotic system and actuation of the ultrasonic motors.

  5. Avaliação dos fatores de risco laborais e físicos para doenças cardiovasculares em motoristas de transporte urbano de ônibus em Montes Claros (MG Evaluation of labor-related and physical risk factors for cardiovascular disease in drivers of urban transport buses in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Farias Alquimim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou avaliar os fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares em motoristas de ônibus em Montes Claros (MG. Foi empregado um questionário semiestruturado abordando dados pessoais, antropométricos, profissionais e laborais; e outro referente ao grau de estresse. Foram pesquisados 53 motoristas de ônibus e a média de idade foi de 30 a 39 anos, e dessa população, 81,1% diziam não ser fumantes, 58% não consumiam bebida alcoólica e 50% praticavam algum tipo de exercício. Na avaliação do IMC 40 motoristas (75,4% estavam com excesso de peso. A prevalência dos hábitos alimentares foi de excesso consumo de açúcar (66,0%, de gordura (64,2%, de café (69,8%, de sal (60,4%, de Coca Cola (64,2% e de refrigerante (54,7%. Dentre os relatos de doenças crônicas não foram observados motoristas diabéticos (98,1% e nem hipertensos (94,3%. A maioria da amostragem, 69,7% teve nível de estresse normal. Em relação aos dados laboratoriais, a grande maioria dos motoristas apresentou hipertrigliceridemia e hipercolesterolemia. Os níveis de HDL estavam satisfatórios, e o de LDL apresentou nível normal e desejável em mais da metade da amostra. A prevalência para doença cardiovascular mostrou-se baixa.The scope of this study was to evaluate risk factors for cardiovascular disease among bus drivers in Montes Claros in the state of Minas Gerais. A semi-structured questionnaire covering personal, anthropometric, professional and labor-related data was used, in addition to a questionnaire on the level of stress. 53 bus drivers were surveyed and the average age was 30 to 39 years of age. 81.1% were non-smokers; 58% of the sample were teetotalers; and 50% took regular exercise. In the assessment of BMI, 40 drivers (75.4% were overweight. The prevalence in eating habits revealed excess consumption of sugar (66.0%, fat (64.2%, coffee (69.8%, salt (60.4%, coca cola (64.2% and soft drinks (54.7%. Among reports of chronic diseases, no

  6. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Garra, Tanya [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tanya.ogarra@imperial.ac.uk; Mourato, Susana [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Garrity, Lisa [Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, WA (Australia); Schmidt, Patrick [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 15, D 85521 Ottobrunn (Germany); Beerenwinkel, Anne [University of Wuppertal, Fachbereich G-Bildungswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Lehr-, Lern- und Unterrichtsforschung, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 15, D 85521 Ottobrunn (Germany); Hart, David [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Graesel, Cornelia [University of Wuppertal, Fachbereich G-Bildungswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Lehr-, Lern- und Unterrichtsforschung, Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Whitehouse, Simon [Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, WA (Australia)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H{sub 2} buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra Euro 0.29 to Euro 0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H{sub 2}-buses.

  7. Is the public willing to pay for hydrogen buses? A comparative study of preferences in four cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Garra, Tanya; Mourato, Susana; Hart, David [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Garrity, Lisa; Whitehouse, Simon [Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University, Murdoch 6150, WA (Australia); Schmidt, Patrick; Altmann, Matthias [Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik GmbH, Daimlerstrasse 15, D 85521 Ottobrunn (Germany); Beerenwinkel, Anne; Graesel, Cornelia [University of Wuppertal, Fachbereich G - Bildungswissenschaften, Lehrstuhl fuer Lehr-, Lern- und Unterrichtsforschung,Gaussstr. 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    This paper presents results from the international AcceptH2 study (http://www.accepth2.com) of acceptability and preferences for hydrogen fuel cell (FC) buses. Using the contingent valuation method, this paper compares public willingness to pay (WTP) for the air pollution reductions associated with a scenario of large-scale introduction of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) FC buses in four cities: Berlin, London, Luxembourg and Perth. Results indicate that bus users in all cities have a positive WTP for H{sub 2} buses, and that values (adjusted to the cost of living in each city) are very similar across geographical locations (ranging from WTP an extra EUR0.29 to EUR0.35 per single bus fare). Non-bus users were also interviewed in London and Perth, in order to capture values for the whole populations in these cities. Combined results for bus users and non-bus users confirm that overall residents in these cities are willing to pay extra (in taxes) to support the large-scale introduction of H{sub 2}-buses. (author)

  8. 油气预探区带评价优选方法及其应用%Play evaluation methods and their application in preliminary exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超英; 闫相宾; 高山林; 闵斌

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing of exploration maturity ,the focus of exploration target evaluation has gradually shifted from basins to plays and traps .As the major targets to hydrocarbon discovery ,preliminary exploratory plays are the main targets to achieve exploration benefit .However ,evaluation of preliminary exploration target is very challenging due to the low ex-ploration maturity and multiple evaluation parameters which are difficult to quantify .Based on the principles of explora-tion risk analysis ,this paper established the model of probability of hydrocarbon discovery-strategic value of resources for evaluation of preliminary exploratory plays , and provided relevant assessment parameters , assignment criteria , computa-tional formula and results classification methods ,making it possible to evaluate preliminary exploration target on an uni-fied platform.Five preliminary exploration plays in the Sichuan Basin ,such as Tongnanba,Exi-Yudong,Nanjiang,lower combination of southeast Sichuan and Zhixinchang-Longbaoliang ,are selected and evaluated with this model .%随着勘探的不断深入,勘探目标评价已由盆地评价逐渐转移到以区带和圈闭为主的目标评价上。作为油气发现的主要勘探目标,预探区带是实现效益勘探的重点目标。油气预探区带评价存在勘探程度低、评价参数多并难以量化等问题。基于勘探风险分析技术建立了“油气发现概率-资源战略价值”的预探区带评价模板,提出了对应的评价参数、赋值标准、计算公式及结果分类标准,实现了统一平台下的预探区带评价优选。利用该方法对四川盆地通南巴、鄂西-渝东、南江和川东南下组合及知新场-龙宝梁陆相等油气预探区带进行了评价优选,指出了重点勘探方向。

  9. Simulations of the Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid Transit Buses over Planned Local Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Franzese, Oscar [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    We present simulated fuel economy and emissions city transit buses powered by conventional diesel engines and diesel-hybrid electric powertrains of varying size. Six representative city drive cycles were included in the study. In addition, we included previously published aftertreatment device models for control of CO, HC, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Our results reveal that bus hybridization can significantly enhance fuel economy by reducing engine idling time, reducing demands for accessory loads, exploiting regenerative braking, and shifting engine operation to speeds and loads with higher fuel efficiency. Increased hybridization also tends to monotonically reduce engine-out emissions, but trends in the tailpipe (post-aftertreatment) emissions involve more complex interactions that significantly depend on motor size and drive cycle details.

  10. Performance study about biodiesel impact on buses engines using dynamometer tests and fleet consumption data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Driving cycle affects the fuel impacts on engine emissions and performance. ► Incorporation of biodiesel can improve efficiency for some engine regimes. ► Biodiesel oxygen content probably increases combustion efficiency in engine. ► The consumption of the fleet agrees with the dynamometer results. ► NOx emissions are very sensitive to engine operating conditions. - Abstract: The problem of reducing harmful emissions, mainly particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOxs) originated in compression ignition combustion engines, and also the mandatory intention of lowering the CO2 impacts of road transportation define the need to improve our knowledge on biodiesel use in engines. A 6 in line cylinders Volvo engine was submitted to a 100 min cycle with 27 stabilized steps for seven different fuel blends from pure fossil diesel (B0) to pure biodiesel (B100), considering also B10, B15, B20, B30, B50 fuel blends. The cycle imposed tries to simulate a normal use of a bus in an urban and extra-urban circuit, considering different engine rotation and loads applied. An analysis on consumption data obtained of a fleet was made. The fleet had near 200 buses, used different fuel blends, and operated in the north of Portugal. Results reveal that the cycle imposed reflects very well the tendency of consumption, allowing to confirm the methodology and also to check influences on consumption, mainly associated with possibilities to decrease CO2 emissions by using some biodiesel blends on buses. This allows increasing the quality of data in vehicle real use and tightening the uncertainties on the actual effects of using biodiesel.

  11. St. Louis Metro Biodiesel (B20) Transit Bus Evaluation: 12-Month Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnitt, R.; McCormick, R. L.; Lammert, M.

    2008-07-01

    The St. Louis Metro Bodiesel Transit Bus Evaluation project is being conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between NREL and the National Biodiesel Board to evaluate the extended in-use performance of buses operating on B20 fuel. The objective of this research project is to compare B20 and ultra-low sulfur diesel buses in terms of fuel economy, veicles maintenance, engine performance, component wear, and lube oil performance.

  12. Preliminary biological evaluation of acridinic compounds for a targeted combined chemo and internal radionuclide therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardette, M.; Papon, J.; Desbois, N.; Labarre, P.; Maisonial, A.; Maublant, J.; Madelmont, J.C.; Moins, N.; Chezal, J.M. [Centre Jean Perrin, Inserm-Universite d' Auvergne, 63 - Clermont Ferrand (France)

    2008-02-15

    The increasing incidence of melanoma and a lack of effective therapy on the disseminated form induces the development of selective tissue-targeted therapies. The aim of the present work was a targeting approach combining a bimodality therapy with the same compound exhibiting both chemo and internal radionuclide therapeutic properties. Benzamides are known to present a specific affinity for melanoma tissue. Former studies have shown that with aromatic and hetero-aromatic analogues of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)- 4-iodo benzamide (B.Z.A.), the affinity for melanoma was maintained. In this context, new compounds have been designed and synthesized conjugating a cytotoxic hetero-aromatic moiety, an amino-alkyl amidic side chain for melanoma targeting and a radioiodine for internal radionuclide therapy. Acridinic derivatives known as cytotoxic DNA-intercalating agents have been chosen for this study. The cytotoxic activity of fifteen new compounds has been tested in vitro on a panel of cell lines and the I.C.50 values were determined. The three first selected compounds have been further evaluated: in vivo, on B 16 F0 melanoma bearing C 57 B.L.6 mice to determine the pharmacological kinetic and namely the tumoral affinity. Two compounds exhibited a high, specific and long lasting concentration in melanoma tumor giving them a kinetic profile favourable for an application to radionuclide therapy; in vitro, using the 'colony forming' test on melanoma cells, for a first approach of association of chemo toxicity and radiotoxicity. Assessed on the ability of cells to form colonies, the inhibition observed with the association for a same molecule of chemo toxic and radio toxic doses was quite exactly the sum of the two separate effects, a result providing a first validation of the radio chemotherapy concept; in vitro, by a preliminary determination of molecular mechanisms. Compared to parent compounds, results confirmed a maintain of DNA-intercalating properties. These

  13. A preliminary evaluation of the psychometric profiles in Chinese men with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guo-xi; BAI Wen-jun; XU Tao; WANG Xiao-feng

    2011-01-01

    Background As one of the most commonly diagnosed diseases, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is characterized by a variety of complex symptoms. Anxiety and depression are two of the most prevalent clinical manifestations of patients with CP/CPPS, and have adverse effects on the health of the subjects and prognosis of comorbidities. Such psychological disorders, however, have not been deeply and thoroughly studied in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of psychological disorders in Chinese adults with CP/CPPS.Methods From April 2008 to June 2009, 80 patients and 40 age-matched healthy men participating in a voluntary health examination were recruited. The majority of the subjects completed the questionnaires on the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) as well as the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS).Results Of all the participants, 77 (96.3%) patients and 37 (92.5%) healthy controls completed the questionnaires. The average NIH-CPSI total score was 21.0±9.5 for the patients and 2.2±1.5 for the controls (P=0.03). Of the 77 patients with CP/CPPS, 48 (62.3%), 5 (6.5%), and 1 (1.2%) had anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, or both anxiety and depression symptoms, respectively. For the controls, the average HADS anxiety and depression scores in patients were 14.5±6.8 and 5.2±4.5, which were both significantly higher than in controls. Moreover, the prevalence and the symptom scores of both the HADS anxiety and depression were higher for the younger age group (<35 years) than for the older age group (<35 years).Conclusions This preliminary study revealed that male patients with CP/CPPS had a higher prevalence of psychological disorders than in the control subjects. Moreover, the differences of the prevalence and severity of the psychological symptoms between the two different age groups may imply that psychological disorders related to CP/CPPS may be

  14. Preliminary Results of the Third Test Series of Nonmetal Material Flammability Evaluation In SKOROST Apparatus on the Space Station Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. V.; Alymov, V. F.; Smirnov, A. B.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ye.Belov, D.; Balashov, Ye.V.; Andreeva, T. V.; Semenov, A. V.; Melikhov, A. S.; Bolodyan, I. A.; Potyakin, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    now only those materials that maintain their integrity during combustion were investigated. The materials that disintegrate when burning present more danger for fire safety because the flame can spread farther with the parts of the structure, ejected melt drops, et cetera. Materials such as polyethylene are of great interest since they form a lengthy melt zone during the combustion in normal gravity. This melt zone generates drops of liquids that promote faster flame spread compared to usual combustion. The preliminary results of polyethylene insulation flammability evaluation in microgravity are shown in the NASA Wire Insulation Flammability (WIF) experiment during Space Shuttle flight STS-50. A lot of interesting data was collected during the WIF test program. However, one of the most important results was that, in microgravity, the extinction of the polyethylene occurred almost immediately when the flow of relatively low oxygen concentration (C(sub OX)=21%) was stopped. The purpose of the work reported here is to expand the existing data base on material flammability in microgravity and to conduct the third series of the space experiment using Skorost apparatus on Orbiatl Station Mir with melting polymers, which might increase the probability of fire and its propagation in ventilated microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft.

  15. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  16. A preliminary evaluation of an O2/CO2 based eddy covariance theory at Missouri AmeriFlux site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.; Gu, L.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) technique has been widely used at flux sites on every continent, across most ecosystem types and climates to monitor exchanges of momentum, mass and energy between land surface and atmosphere. In an attempt to develop a self-consistent theory for the EC technique, Gu et al. (2012) reformulated the fundamental equations for EC by introducing the concept of constraining gas that has no net ecosystem sink/source. Gu (2013) expanded the theory of Gu et al. (2012) to include paired gases whose ecosystem exchange ratios are stable over an averaging period (e.g. 30 min) and therefore can be used to constrain EC flux measurements of any gases. He proposed that O2 and CO2 are an ideal pair of gases as their biological processes are coupled and their ecosystem exchange ratio (also known as oxidative ratio) is close to 1. Advantages of this new O2/CO2 based EC theory include: 1) avoidance of covariance loss in calculating dry air density induced by spatial separation of measuring instruments and use of multiple indirectly derived variables, 2) the minimum number of assumptions adopted for the derivation of the equation, and 3) avoidance of errors related to linearization of ideal gas law. In this study, we conducted a preliminary evaluation for the basic principle of Gu (2013) EC theory. We crosschecked net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimations from different, independent methods by using CO2 and H2O as paired constraining gases. Using CO2 and H2O instead of CO2 and O2 as paired constraining gases is not ideal in the framework of Gu (2013); however, no fast response O2 analyzer is currently available. CO2 and H2O are both transported between the inside of plants and canopy air through stomata on leaves in the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration which are known to be closely coupled. However, this close coupling is contaminated by other ecosystem sinks/sources, e.g. respiration of plants and soil for CO2 and evaporation of intercepted and soil

  17. Indigenous surgical gamma probe: Performance evaluation in the detection of sentinel node in breast cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node detection with peritumoral injection of 99mTc nanocolloid (Nanocoll, Amersham). This was followed by excision of the sentinel node with the help of the gamma probe. Routine axillary dissection was performed thereafter. The probe was evaluated on the basis of its spatial resolution and its accuracy of locating the node on the skin surface, sensitivity to localize the radioactive node in the axillary cavity per-operatively and identification in-vitro i.e. after dissection. Sentinel lymph node was visualized in 6 patients by lymphoscintigraphy. Locating the sentinel node preoperatively on the skin surface was possible in 4 of these patients. Scatter from the tumour injection site did not permit sentinel node localization in one patient. The counts per second (cps) detected by the probe in the node were in the range of 150-200k against a room background of 10-20k. The detected count density was expectedly maximum in vitro. The count measurements were not affected by transmission through shielding from the injection sites. Probe was able to localise 5 of the 6 nodes seen on lymphoscintigraphy in-vivo and all 6 in in-vitro. All the sentinel lymph nodes identified were negative on frozen section evaluation and final histopathology. Routine axillary dissection did not show axillary nodal involvement in any of the patients. This suggested correct identification of the sentinel node. Preliminary performance evaluation suggests that this simple indigenous gamma probe with basic features is useful in the sentinel node detection and is able to produce clinically relevant data with good sensitivity in the above clinical setting. The instrument has been modified and incorporated with a Cs(I) Tl detector, a tungsten collimator in kinked shape and built in facilities for data storage. This is awaiting performance evaluation. This important indigenous instrument can be used in a large scale in India and other developing countries. (author)

  18. Fast Charging Battery Buses for the Electrification of Urban Public Transport : A Feasibility Study Focusing on Charging Infrastructure and Energy Storage Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Matthias Rogge; Sebastian Wollny; Dirk Uwe Sauer

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of public transport bus networks can be carried out utilizing different technological solutions, like trolley, battery or fuel cell buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how and to what extent existing bus networks can be electrified with fast charging battery buses. The so called opportunity chargers use mainly the regular dwell time at the stops to charge their batteries. This results in a strong linkage between the vehicle scheduling and the infrastructure plan...

  19. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening And Evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity Of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni From Different Geographical Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Bitasta Mandal; Swati Madan

    2013-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a natural non-caloric substitute to conventional sugar, is also popular as the “sweet herb of Paraguay”. It is a storehouse of various bioactive constituents mainly, the ent-kaurene diterpene glycosides namely stevioside, rebaudioside A, B, C, D and E. The plant is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities like hypoglycemic, anti-oxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities. The present research is based on a preliminary phytochemical screening and com...

  20. Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluation of 1,3,5-Triazine Amino Acid Derivatives to Study Their MAO Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine N. Khattab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three series of 4,6-dimethoxy-, 4,6-dipiperidino- and 4,6-dimorpholino-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl amino acid derivatives were synthesized and characterized. A preliminary study for their monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity showed that compounds 7, 18, and 25 had MAO-A inhibition activity comparable to that of the standard clorgyline, with apparently more selective inhibitory activity toward MAO-A than MAO-B and no significant acute toxicity.

  1. Evaluation of the relationships between characteristics of the vertebral column of different cetaceans and their ecology: A preliminary study.

    OpenAIRE

    Gillet, Amandine; Ninane, Catherine; Remy, François; Zaeytydt, Esther; Laurent, Gilles; Parmentier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Ecomorphology is the study of the relationships between functional design and the environment. One of its aims is to understand how the environmental factors can constraint the performance of an organism or act on its phenotype. Different studies have already showed in different cetaceans that the number and shape of vertebrae can reflect the stiffness of the body and consequently can impact their swimming mode. The aim of this preliminary study is to establish relationships between character...

  2. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wires by flexible thread levels.Diagrams are constructed with the purpose to find ymax and criteria of electro-dynamic resistance of flexible buses (permissible impulse of electro-dynamic forces and current of electro-dynamic resistance is determined.

  3. Synthesis, Spectral Analysis and Preliminary in Vitro Evaluation of Some Tetrapyrrolic Complexes with 3d Metal Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Socoteanu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two tetrapyrrolic complexes, Zn(II-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin and Cu(II-5-(3-hydroxyphenyl-10,15,20-tris-(4-acetoxy-3-methoxyphenylporphyrin were synthesized, and characterized from a spectral and biological point of view. The study provided data concerning the behavior of identical external substituents vs. two different core insertions. Some of the properties of the proposed tetrapyrrolic structures were highlighted, having photodynamic therapy of cancer as a targeted biomedical application. Elemental analysis, NMR, FTIR and UV-Vis data in various solvents were provided. A preliminary in vitro study on normal and cancer cultured cells was carried out for biocompatibility assessment in dark conditions. The preliminary in vitro study performed on human peripheral mononuclear cells exposed to tetrapyrrolic compounds (2 µM showed that the proposed compounds had a convenient cytotoxic profile on human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells under dark conditions. Meanwhile, the investigated compounds reduced the number of metabolically active breast tumor MCF-7 cells, with the exception of Zn(II complex-containing a symmetrical ligand. Accordingly, preliminary in vitro data suggest that the proposed tetrapyrrolic compounds are good candidates for PDT, as they limit tumor expansion even under dark conditions, whilst sparing normal cells.

  4. Preliminary TRIGA fuel burn-up evaluation by means of Monte Carlo code and computation based on total energy released during reactor operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of this work was to perform a rough preliminary evaluation of the burn-up of the fuel of TRIGA Mark II research reactor of the Applied Nuclear Energy Laboratory (LENA) of the Univ. of Pavia. In order to achieve this goal a computation of the neutron flux density in each fuel element was performed by means of Monte Carlo code MCNP (Version 4C). The results of the simulations were used to calculate the effective cross sections (fission and capture) inside fuel and, at the end, to evaluate the burn-up and the uranium consumption in each fuel element. The evaluation, showed a fair agreement with the computation for fuel burn-up based on the total energy released during reactor operation. (authors)

  5. Urban transportation system optimum: The effect of accounting for the interaction of buses and cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Angelo Guevara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se usa un método iterativo para calcular tarifas Pigouvianascuando las vías son compartidas por autos y buses. Se comparan escenarios en los cuales: 1 la tarifa es calculada considerando sólo la externalidad sobre otros vehículos; 2 la tarifa considera además la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos; 3 no se aplican tarifas; y 4 no se aplican tarifas, pero algunas pistas son reservadas para el uso exclusivo de buses. El método es aplicado primero a un modelo idealizado que considera homogenidad de la demanda y cierto grado de heterogenidad en la oferta. Luego el método es aplicado en un experimento con datos reales basado en un modelo simultáneo de cuatro etapas calibrado para la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. Todos los experimentos muestran que cuando se considera la externalidad sobre los pasajeros de los vehículos, las tarifas Pigouvianas crecen sustancialmente en las vías de uso mixto, lo cual se traduce en un menor flujo de automóviles en dichas vías. Por otro lado, las simulaciones con el modelo idealizado muestran que el efecto de la reservación de pistas depende fuertemente del diseño considerado. Respecto de la tarificación Pigouviana, el experimento con datos reales muestra, sorprendentemente, que dicha política resultaría ser inferior a un escenario en el cual no se aplican tarifas. Este resultado podría atribuirse a: 1 que el modelo con datos reales representa una situación de equilibrio general y en cambio las tarifas Pigouvianas se calculan usando un enfoque de equilibrio parcial; 2 limitaciones de modelación en el experimento con datos reales; o 3 una manifestación del contraejemplo de Coase para los impuestos Pigouvianos. El artículo termina discutiendo el impacto de estos resultados en el análisis de políticas de transporte urbano.

  6. Itinerant vending of medicines inside buses in Nigeria: vending strategies, dominant themes and medicine-related information provided

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuff KB; Wassi Sanni A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine vending strategies and marketing themes employed by itinerant bus vendors, and assess the accuracy and completeness of information provided on medicines being sold in an urban setting in Nigeria. Methods Cross-sectional study and content analysis of itinerant vending of medicines inside buses recorded with a mobile telephone on purposively selected routes in a mega city with an estimated 18 million residents in southwestern Nigeria over a 2-month period. Two coders inde...

  7. SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING CLOSING IN OF SWITCH-GEAR FLEXIBLE BUSES AT SHORT CIRCUIT BY IMPULSE OF ELECTRODYNAMIC FORCES

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; E. G. Ponomarenko; W. M. Sammur; P. I. Klimkovich

    2005-01-01

    The paper contains description of a simplified method for calculating closing-in of switch-gear flexible buses at short circuit. The developed method is based on integral and energy principles of  mechanics. In order to increase accuracy of the calculation corrections factors are introduced in an explicit formula for calculation of maximum horizontal deviations. These factors have been obtained with the help of a computer program that realized numerical method for calculating closing-in of wi...

  8. Variability of particle number emissions from diesel and hybrid diesel-electric buses in real driving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Gao, H Oliver; Holmén, Britt A

    2008-08-01

    A linear mixed model was developed to quantify the variability of particle number emissions from transit buses tested in real-world driving conditions. Two conventional diesel buses and two hybrid diesel-electric buses were tested throughout 2004 under different aftertreatments, fuels, drivers, and bus routes. The mixed model controlled the confounding influence of factors inherent to on-board testing. Statistical tests showed that particle number emissions varied significantly according to the after treatment, bus route, driver, bus type, and daily temperature, with only minor variability attributable to differences between fuel types. The daily setup and operation of the sampling equipment (electrical low pressure impactor) and mini-dilution system contributed to 30-84% of the total random variability of particle measurements among tests with diesel oxidation catalysts. By controlling for the sampling day variability, the model better defined the differences in particle emissions among bus routes. In contrast, the low particle number emissions measured with diesel particle filters (decreased by over 99%) did not vary according to operating conditions or bus type but did vary substantially with ambient temperature.

  9. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  10. The life cycle assessment of alternative fuel chains for urban buses and trolleybuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliucininkas, L; Matulevicius, J; Martuzevicius, D

    2012-05-30

    This paper describes a comparative analysis of public transport alternatives in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. An LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) inventory analysis of fuel chains was undertaken using the midi urban bus and a similar type of trolleybus. The inventory analysis of fuel chains followed the guidelines provided by the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. The ReCiPe Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methodology was used to quantify weighted damage originating from five alternative fuel chains. The compressed biogas fuel chain had the lowest weighted damage value, namely 45.7 mPt/km, whereas weighted damage values of the fuel chains based on electricity generation for trolleybuses were 60.6 mPt/km (for natural gas) and 78.9 mPt/km (for heavy fuel oil). The diesel and compressed natural gas fuel chains exhibited considerably higher damage values of 114.2 mPt/km and 132.6 mPt/km, respectively. The comparative life cycle assessment of fuel chains suggested that biogas-powered buses and electric trolleybuses can be considered as the best alternatives to use when modernizing the public transport fleet in Kaunas.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the MANIPAL-FLEX Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of the MANIPAL-FLEX study was to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES implantation, in de novo coronary artery disease, using clinical and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA follow-ups. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 189 patients with de novo coronary artery disease who were treated with the Supraflex SES. Of 189 patients enrolled, the first 61 consecutive patients who consented to a 9-month follow-up evaluation by QCA, irrespective of presence of symptoms, were to be followed up with angiography at 9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was target lesion failure (TLF, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization during 12-month follow-up after the index procedure. Results. The mean age of the study population was 58±11 years, with 51.3% (97/189 of hypertensive patients. Total of 66 lesions, analyzed by offline QCA, showed good scaffolding of the target vessel with in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months of 0.18±0.23 mm. The observed TLF at 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up were 2 (1.1%, 6 (3.2%, and 10 (5.3%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent.

  12. Risk-based fault tree analysis method for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accidental release sequences in nuclear fuel cycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accident sequences leading to uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Included is a procedure for estimating the risk sum of all identified sequences. In addition, portions of the procedures have been developed for detailed analysis of the dominant (highest risk) sequences so screened. This method was developed for the ERDA-sponsored risk analysis of systems for managing high-level waste, part of the Waste Fixation Program (WFP). The method begins with certain preliminary analyses. The facility and operation are described and analysis bounds are established. A type of fault tree construction, the ''to/through'' approach, was chosen for the WFP waste management system. The to/through fault tree approach offers advantages over others in several respects. The analysis is considered more complete because the system is treated as a whole. The screening process was successfully demonstrated on a conceptual waste management system for the Waste Fixation Program. Fault trees were constructed and evaluated for processing, handling, transporting, and storing high-level waste. Trees of up to 14,000,000 release sequences (BICS-Boolean-indicated cut sets) were screened and the top few hundred or thousand sequences preliminarily ranked. An estimate of the total risk represented in the fault tree was also obtained

  13. Risk-based fault tree analysis method for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accidental release sequences in nuclear fuel cycle operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Pelto, P.J.; Stevens, D.L.; Seybold, G.D.; Purcell, W.L.; Kimmel, L.V.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for identification, preliminary evaluation, and screening of potential accident sequences leading to uncontrolled release of radioactive materials. Included is a procedure for estimating the risk sum of all identified sequences. In addition, portions of the procedures have been developed for detailed analysis of the dominant (highest risk) sequences so screened. This method was developed for the ERDA-sponsored risk analysis of systems for managing high-level waste, part of the Waste Fixation Program (WFP). The method begins with certain preliminary analyses. The facility and operation are described and analysis bounds are established. A type of fault tree construction, the ''to/through'' approach, was chosen for the WFP waste management system. The to/through fault tree approach offers advantages over others in several respects. The analysis is considered more complete because the system is treated as a whole. The screening process was successfully demonstrated on a conceptual waste management system for the Waste Fixation Program. Fault trees were constructed and evaluated for processing, handling, transporting, and storing high-level waste. Trees of up to 14,000,000 release sequences (BICS-Boolean-indicated cut sets) were screened and the top few hundred or thousand sequences preliminarily ranked. An estimate of the total risk represented in the fault tree was also obtained. (auth)

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with Biodegradable Polymer Coated Sirolimus-Eluting Stent in De Novo Coronary Artery Disease: Results of the MANIPAL-FLEX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ranjan; Prajapati, Jayesh; Pai, Umesh; Shetty, Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The objective of the MANIPAL-FLEX study was to evaluate the feasibility, preliminary safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation, in de novo coronary artery disease, using clinical and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) follow-ups. Methods. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter, single-arm study that enrolled 189 patients with de novo coronary artery disease who were treated with the Supraflex SES. Of 189 patients enrolled, the first 61 consecutive patients who consented to a 9-month follow-up evaluation by QCA, irrespective of presence of symptoms, were to be followed up with angiography at 9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was target lesion failure (TLF), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion revascularization during 12-month follow-up after the index procedure. Results. The mean age of the study population was 58 ± 11 years, with 51.3% (97/189) of hypertensive patients. Total of 66 lesions, analyzed by offline QCA, showed good scaffolding of the target vessel with in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months of 0.18 ± 0.23 mm. The observed TLF at 30-day, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up were 2 (1.1%), 6 (3.2%), and 10 (5.3%), respectively. Conclusion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent. PMID:27597929

  15. A preliminary evaluation of Trinity river sediment and nutrient loads into Galveston Bay, Texas, during two periods of high flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Suspend-sediment and water-quality data were measured during two periods o high flow, one during April 20-23, 2009 and a second during September 22-November 3, 2009. On the basis of streamflow and continuous and discrete water-quality measurements, the two periods of high flow had different flood and nutrient loading characteristics. Some differences in the nature of these two periods of high flow were evident. Preliminary results indicate that it might be possible to better understand the extent of sediment and nutrient loading in Galveston Bay using selected measurements of discrete and continuous water-quality data. An apparent correlation was observed between the concentrations of selected nutrients and suspended sediment, and an apparent correlation was observed between suspended sediment and total nutrient concentration measured with in-situ turbidity measurements during periods of high flow in Trinity River at the Wallisville, Texas gage, about 3.5 miles upstream from where the Trinity River enters Galveston Bay. Additional data are needed to confirm these preliminary results.  

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a monolithic detector module for integrated PET/MRI scanner with high spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal of Mindview European Project concerns with the development of a very high resolution and high efficiency brain dedicated PET scanner simultaneously working with a Magnetic Resonance scanner, that expects to visualize neurotransmitter pathways and their disruptions in the quest to better diagnose schizophrenia. On behalf of this project, we propose a low cost PET module for the first prototype, based on monolithic crystals, suitable to be integrated with a head Radio Frequency (RF) coil. The aim of the suggested module is to achieve high performances in terms of efficiency, planar spatial resolution (expected about 1 mm) and discrimination of gamma Depth Of Interaction (DOI) in order to reduce the parallax error. Our preliminary results are very promising: a DOI resolution of about 3 mm, a spatial resolution ranging from about 1 to 1.5 mm and a good position linearity

  17. Optimism Evaluation: Preliminary Analysis of the Life Orientation Test Revised Version (Lot-R in Chilean Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Córdova-Rubio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The dispositional optimism has been researched widely in different cultures, proving its utility as a related variable and as a predictor of important psychological variables and states of health. The following study reports the preliminary psychometric properties of the Life Orientation Test (LOT- R, in a sample of 309 young university students with ages between 18 and 25 years, from Santiago of Chile. The estimation of the internal consistency was of 0,65. From the exploratory factorial analysis a two factors structure emerges, of optimism and pessimism, which explain a 55.55% of the variance. There are not significant sex differences between men and women. In general terms, evidence support the adequacy of the test for its use in Chile.

  18. A Sensitivity Study for an Evaluation of Input Parameters Effect on a Preliminary Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Hyun-Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sheen, Dong-Hoon [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The tsunami hazard analysis has been based on the seismic hazard analysis. The seismic hazard analysis has been performed by using the deterministic method and the probabilistic method. To consider the uncertainties in hazard analysis, the probabilistic method has been regarded as attractive approach. The various parameters and their weight are considered by using the logic tree approach in the probabilistic method. The uncertainties of parameters should be suggested by analyzing the sensitivity because the various parameters are used in the hazard analysis. To apply the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis, the preliminary study for the Ulchin NPP site had been performed. The information on the fault sources which was published by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) had been used in the preliminary study. The tsunami propagation was simulated by using the TSUNAMI{sub 1}.0 which was developed by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES). The wave parameters have been estimated from the result of tsunami simulation. In this study, the sensitivity analysis for the fault sources which were selected in the previous studies has been performed. To analyze the effect of the parameters, the sensitivity analysis for the E3 fault source which was published by AESJ was performed. The effect of the recurrence interval, the potential maximum magnitude, and the beta were suggested by the sensitivity analysis results. Level of annual exceedance probability has been affected by the recurrence interval.. Wave heights have been influenced by the potential maximum magnitude and the beta. In the future, the sensitivity analysis for the all fault sources in the western part of Japan which were published AESJ would be performed.

  19. Prediction of Emissions from Biodiesel Fueled Transit Buses Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhisek Mudgal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of freight transportation and passenger cars has led to air pollution, green house gas emissions (especially CO2 and fuel supply concerns. Research has been carried out on biodiesel which is shown to generate lower emissions. However, the amount of emissions generated is not well understood which entails more vigorous data collection and development of emissions models. A comprehensive data collection plan was developed and emissions (NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM10 from biodiesel fueled transit buses were collected using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS. Linear models were developed and tested for each emission. However, the models could not capture the emissions spikes well resulting in very low R2 values. Artificial neural networks (ANNs based models were then employed on this data because of their ability to handle nonlinearity and not requiring assumptions on the input data as needed by statistical models. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the input parameters, number of hidden layers, learning rate and learning algorithm to arrive at an optimum ANN architecture. The optimal architecture for this study was found to be two hidden layers with 50 hidden nodes for each of NOx, HC, CO, and PM and one hidden layer for CO2. The emissions were predicted using best-performance ANN models for each emission. Scatter-plots of observed versus predicted values showed R2 of 0.96, 0.94, 0.82, 0.98 and 0.78 for NOx, HC, CO, CO2 and PM emissions, respectively. Histogram on prediction error showed low frequency for large errors.

  20. An analysis of accident data for franchised public buses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W A; Courtney, A J

    1985-10-01

    This paper analyses data on accidents involving franchised public buses operating in Hong Kong. The data were obtained from the Royal Hong Kong Police, the Hong Kong Government Transport Department, the two major franchised bus operators and international sources. The analysis includes an international comparison of accidents with emphasis on the situation in Hong Kong compared to urban areas in the United Kingdom. An attempt has been made to identify the characteristics of bus accidents; accident incidence has been related to time of day, day of the week, time of year, weather conditions, driver's age and experience, hours on duty and policy-reported cause. The results indicate that Hong Kong has a high accident rate compared to Japan, the U.K. and the U.S.A., with particularly high pedestrian involvement rates. Bus accidents peak at around 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM but the accident rate is high throughout the day. Monday and Saturday appear to have a higher than average accident rate. The variability of accident rate throughout the year does not seem to be significant and the accident rate does not appear to be influenced by weather conditions. Older, more experienced drivers generally have a safer driving record than their younger, less experienced colleagues. Accident occurrence is related to the time the driver has been on duty. The paper questions the reliability of police-reported accident causation data and suggests improvements in the design of the accident report form and in the training of police investigators. The relevance of the Hong Kong study for accident research in general is also discussed. PMID:4096796

  1. Preliminary Content Evaluation of the North Anna High Burn-Up Sister Fuel Rod Segments for Transportation in the 10-160B and NAC-LWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-08-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) Program has transported high-burnup nuclear sister fuel rods from a commercial nuclear power plant for purposes of evaluation and testing. The evaluation and testing of high-burnup used nuclear fuel is integral to DOE initiatives to collect information useful in determining the integrity of fuel cladding for future safe transportation of the fuel, and for determining the effects of aging, on the integrity of UNF subjected to extended storage and subsequent transportation. The UFDC Program, in collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the commercial nuclear industry, has obtained individual used nuclear fuel rods for testing. The rods have been received at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for both separate effects testing (SET) and small-scale testing (SST). To meet the research objectives, testing on multiple 6 inch fuel rod pins cut from the rods at ORNL will be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Up to 10 rod equivalents will be shipped. Options were evaluated for multiple shipments using the 10-160B (based on 4.5 rod equivalents) and a single shipment using the NAC-LWT. Based on the original INL/Virginia Power transfer agreement, the rods are assumed to 152 inches in length with a 0.374-inch diameter. This report provides a preliminary content evaluation for use of the 10-160B and NAC-LWT for transporting those fuel rod pins from ORNL to PNNL. This report documents the acceptability of using these packagings to transport the fuel segments from ORNL to PNNL based on the following evaluations: enrichment, A2 evaluation, Pu-239 FGE evaluation, heat load, shielding (both gamma and neutron), and content weight/structural evaluation.

  2. Review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar; Myndigheternas granskning av SKB:s preliminaera saekerhetsbedoemningar foer Forsmark och Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norden, Maria; Wallberg, Petra; Wiebert, Anders; Dverstorp, Bjoern; Shulan Xu (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Toverud, Oeivind; Stroemberg, Bo; Kautsky, Fritz; Simic, Eva (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-01-15

    This report presents SKI's and SSI's review of SKB's preliminary safety evaluations for Forsmark and Laxemar. The purpose of the review is to assess if the extent of SKB's initial site investigations are sufficient and if they are performed with adequate quality and also if they comprise the data that is needed for future safety analysis. To meet the request from the municipalities where site investigations are performed the authorities have also attempted to elucidate if a site has such obvious weakness that it probably will not comply with authority regulations. The target groups for the review are the municipalities in Oskarshamn and Oesthammar, and SKB

  3. A preliminary evaluation of the Well-Being Picture Scale-Children's Version (WPS-CV) in a sample of fourth and fifth graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Susan H; Gueldner, Sarah H; Bronstein, Laura

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the authors report the development and preliminary evaluation of the Rogerian-based Well-Being Picture Scale-Children's Version in a sample of 19 fourth and fifth grade students. Data was collected in conjunction with a larger study that examined childhood overweight and depression, and other measurements in the data set included the Child Depression Inventory. Scores on the Child Depression Inventory indicated that 20% of the children in the study were at risk for depression. A significant statistical inverse correlation (p < .05) was found between the post-test scores on the Well-Being Picture Scale-Children's Version and the Child Depression Inventory indicating that as depression scores increase well-being scores decrease.

  4. Liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) ionization source for elemental mass spectrometry: preliminary parametric evaluation and figures of merit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, C Derrick; Carado, Anthony J; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A new, low-power ionization source for the elemental analysis of aqueous solutions has recently been described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) source operates at relatively low currents (LS-APGD has been interfaced to what is otherwise an organic, LC-MS mass analyzer, the Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap without any modifications, other than removing the electrospray ionization source supplied with that instrument. A glow discharge is initiated between the surface of the test solution exiting a glass capillary and a metallic counter electrode mounted at a 90° angle and separated by a distance of ~5 mm. As with any plasma-based ionization source, there are key discharge operation and ion sampling parameters that affect the intensity and composition of the derived mass spectra, including signal-to-background ratios. We describe here a preliminary parametric evaluation of the roles of discharge current, solution flow rate, argon sheath gas flow rate, and ion sampling distance as they apply on this mass analyzer system. A cursive evaluation of potential matrix effects due to the presence of easily ionized elements indicate that sodium concentrations of up to 50 μg mL(-1) generally cause suppressions of less than 50%, dependant upon the analyte species. Based on the results of this series of studies, preliminary limits of detection (LOD) have been established through the generation of calibration functions. While solution-based concentration LOD levels of 0.02-2 μg mL(-1) are not impressive on the surface, the fact that they are determined via discrete 5 μL injections leads to mass-based detection limits at picogram to single-nanogram levels. The overhead costs associated with source operation (10 W d.c. power, solution flow rates of LS-APGD ion source may present a practical alternative to inductively coupled plasma sources typically employed in elemental mass spectrometry.

  5. Preliminary specification of X-ray CT for lung cancer screening (LSCT) and its evaluation on risk-cost-effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan mass screening for lung cancer is widely performed by chest X-ray film of 10 x 10 cm, with sputum cytology for high-risk groups. However, the effectiveness of the present mass screening program for lung cancer has been less than expected, although some data have shown improvement of the survival rate as a result of mass screening. We propose a new X-ray CT method of screening for lung cancer called Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT). The preliminary specifications for LSCT are as follows: scan speed is within 10 sec for a 40 cm length with a 1 cm slice thickness, and the absorption dose for lung is less than 1 cGy. A computer-assisted diagnostic system is necessary for image reading. The risk-benefit analysis of LSCT indicates that Japanese men and women over 45 years old can be screened in 1992 and thereafter. The cost per person·year of LSCT screening is estimated to be 1.4 x 106 yen for a population incidence rate of 50 x 10-5 person/year and average life expectancy of 30 years. In 1992 the above condition will be satisfied by men aged 55 years old and above, but not by women of any age. We believe that LSCT should be developed further and tested in the high-risk group of men with an incidence rate of 100 x 10-5 person/year or more. (author)

  6. Preliminary selection and evaluation of the binding of aptamers against a Hantavirus antigen using fluorescence spectroscopy and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missailidis, Sotiris; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia Martins; Guterres, Alexandro; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; de Godoy, Daniela Tupy; Lemos, Elba

    2015-12-01

    In this study we have aimed to develop novel aptamers against the Hantavirus nucleoprotein N, a valid antigen already used in the Hantavirus reference laboratory of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Such aptamers, if they are found to bind with high affinity and specificity for the selected hantavirus antigen, they could be translated into novel diagnostic assays with the ability to provide early detection for hantaviroses and their related disease syndromes. In a preliminary screening, we have managed to identify three aptamer species. We have analyzed a short and a long version of these aptamer using fluorescence spectroscopy and modelled their binding. We have identified Stern-Volmer constants for the selected aptamers, which have shown affinity for their target, with a different binding between the short and the long versions of them. Short aptamers have shown to have a higher Stern-Volmer constant and the ability to potentially bind to more than one binding site on the antigen. The information provided by the spectroscopic screening has been invaluable in allowing us to define candidates for further development into diagnostic assays.

  7. “Getting Ready for School:” A Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent-Focused School-Readiness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly G. Noble

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children from disadvantaged backgrounds tend to start school with fewer school readiness skills than their more advantaged peers. Emergent literacy and math skills play an important role in this gap. The family is essential in helping children build these skills, and the active involvement of families is crucial to the success of any intervention for young children. The Getting Ready for School (GRS program is a parent-focused curriculum designed to help parents equip their children with the skills and enthusiasm necessary for learning when they start school. Parents meet in weekly workshops led by a trained facilitator and implement the curriculum at home with their children. The objective of this pilot study was to assess the promise of the GRS intervention in children participating in an urban Head Start program and to explore parents' responses to the intervention. We hypothesized that participation in GRS would improve school readiness in literacy and math skills, relative to participation in business-as-usual Head Start. Four Head Start classrooms (two randomly selected “intervention” and two “comparison” classrooms participated in this study. Preliminary analyses suggest that GRS improves school readiness over and above a Head Start-as-usual experience. Implications for early childhood programs and policies are discussed.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of pollen quality, fertility relations and fruit set of selected sour cherry cultivars in polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Szpadzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary experiments were carried out in spring 2006. The percentage of fruit set of 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral', 'Debreceni Bötermö', 'újfefértói Fürtos' and 'Karneol' was higher after open pollination compared with self-pollination. The cultivar Vowi had an inconsiderably higher percentage of fruit set after self-pollination compared with open pollination. The percentage of fruit set in 'Debreceni Bötermö' and 'újfehértói Fürtos' was about 25 % higher after pollination by 'Schattenmorelle IR-2' and 'Koral' compared with the percentage of fruit set after cross - pollination of both cultivars with each other. In general, they did not appear to be good pollinators with each other. The highest quality of pollen was observed for the following cultivars: 'Schattenmorelle IR-2', 'Koral' and Vowi and the lowest result was obtained in 'újfehértói Fürtos'. The highest yield was given by the following cultivars: Vowi, Schattenmorelle IR-2 and Koral.

  9. Preliminary hydrogeologic evaluation of the Cincinnati Arch region for underground high-level radioactive waste disposal, Indiana, Kentucky , and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, O.B.; Davis, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary interpretation of available hydrogeologic data suggests that some areas underlying eastern Indiana, north-central Kentucky, and western Ohio might be worthy of further study regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Precambrian crystalline rocks buried beneath Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the area. The data indicate that (1) largest areas of deepest potential burial and thickest sedimentary rock cover occur in eastern Indiana; (2) highest concentrations of dissolved solids in the basal sandstone aquifer, suggesting the most restricted circulation, are found in the southern part of the area near the Kentucky-Ohio State line and in southeastern Indiana; (3) largest areas of lowest porosity in the basal sandstone aquifer, low porosity taken as an indicator of the lowest groundwater flow velocity and contaminant migration, are found in northeastern Indiana and northwestern Ohio, central and southeastern Indiana, and central Kentucky; (4) the thickest confining units that directly overlie the basal sandstone aquifer are found in central Kentucky and eastern Indiana where their thickness exceeds 500 ft; (5) steeply dipping faults that form potential hydraulic connections between crystalline rock, the basal sandstone aquifer, and the freshwater circulation system occur on the boundaries of the study area mainly in central Kentucky and central Indiana. Collectively, these data indicate that the hydrogeology of the sedimentary rocks in the western part of the study area is more favorably suited than that in the remainder of the area for the application of the buried crystalline-rock concept. (USGS)

  10. Study to perform preliminary experiments to evaluate particle generation and characterization techniques for zero-gravity cloud physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, U.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of particle generation and characterization with regard to their applicability for experiments requiring cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) of specified properties were investigated. Since aerosol characterization is a prerequisite to assessing performance of particle generation equipment, techniques for characterizing aerosol were evaluated. Aerosol generation is discussed, and atomizer and photolytic generators including preparation of hydrosols (used with atomizers) and the evaluation of a flight version of an atomizer are studied.

  11. 作物控效肥效果初步评价%Preliminary Evaluation on Effect of Crops Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任仕伟; 罗微

    2012-01-01

    采用水浸泡法对5种包膜控效肥(不包括对照)试样的养分溶出率进行了比较测定,测得各种肥料的初期溶出率、微分溶出率分别为,自行研制控效CAF1:1.14、1.78;CAF4:1.59、1.84;CAF5:1.37、1.76;国外肥料FB:1.01、1.24;FZ:1.24、1.27,自行研制的肥料的初期溶出率平均值为1.37,微分溶出率为1.79;国外肥料为1.13、1.25,自行研制的肥料的初期溶出率与微分溶出率分别高于国外肥料,但都达到了国际标准(初期溶出率小于15%、微分溶出率在0.25%~2.5%之间)。同时用土壤淋溶法对自制的2种控效肥和1种进口肥进行了N溶出量的测定,结果表明:控效肥土壤淋溶出量与对照比较为显著,6d内CAF1、CAF5溶出N总量分别为对照的33.3%、36.1%,同时将两种方法所得出的结果进行了综合分析,对控效效果作出初步评价,为作物合理施肥提供参考。%Five kinds of controlled-release fertilizers (except for the CK),coated by organic polymer,were used in this study.The soluble properties of fertilizers were tested and compared in water.The preliminary solubility and differential solubility,are respectively:CAF1:1.14,1.78; CAF4:1.59,1.84; CAF5:1.37,1.76; FB:1.01,1.24; FZ:1.24,1.27.Among the five kinds of controlled-release fertilizers,CAF1,CAF4 and CAF5 were prepared by ourselves,while FB and FZ were imported fertilizers.The average of preliminary solubility of CAF1,CAF4 and CAF5 is 1.37,differential solubility is 1.79.However,the average of preliminary solubility is 1.25.Compared with the latter,the preliminary solubility of the former exceeds 0.26,and the differential solubility exceeds 0.54,but they all reach the international standards——-the preliminary solubility less than 15%,differential solubility is 0.25% to 2.5%.Meanwhile,we determinated the quantity of N release of CAF1,CAF5 and FB by soil dissolution rate method.The total quantity of N release in six days of CAF1 was

  12. In-situ alteration of minerals by acidic ground water resulting from mining activities: Preliminary evaluation of method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Carol J.; Creasey, C.L.; Angeroth, C.

    1999-01-01

    The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH ~ 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are planned using alluvial sediments placed in the ground-water flow path to measure changes in mineral and chemical composition and changes in dissolution rates of subsurface alluvial sediments. The test results should help refine developed models of predicted chemical changes in ground-water composition and models of streamflow. For the preliminary test, sediment from the depth of the well screen of a newly drilled well was installed in three wells, the source well (pH 4.96) and two up-gradient wells (pHs 4.27 and 4.00). The sediment was placed in woven macrofilters, fastened in series to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes, and hung at the screened level of each well. After interacting with the slowly moving ground water for 48 days, the test sediments were removed for analysis. There was no evidence that any of the materials used were biologically or chemically degraded or that the porosity of the filters was diminished by ferric hydroxide precipitation. These materials included 21-??m-pore (21PEMF) and 67-??m-pore polyester and the 174-??m-pore fluorocarbon Spectra/mesh macrofilters containing the in-situ sediment, the polypropylene (PP) macrofilter support structures, and the Nylon (NY) monofilament line used to attach the samples to the PVC pipe. Based on chemical and mineral composition and on particle-size distribution of the sediment before and after ground-water exposure, the 21PEMF macrofilter was chosen as the most suitable macrofilter for the long-term in-situ experiment. Tests also showed that the PP support structures and the NY monofilament line were sufficiently durable for this experiment.The chemical composition of the Cu-mining-related acidic ground water (pH approx. 3.5 to near neutral) in Pinal Creek Basin, Arizona has been monitored since 1980. In-situ experiments are

  13. A preliminary evaluation of some soil and plant parameters that influence root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, cooper, and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattemer-Frey, H.A.; Krieger, G.R.; Lau, V. [Dames & Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In the absence of site-specific data, the concentration of metals in plants is typically estimated by multiplying the total concentration of metal in soil by a metal-specific soil-to-root bioconcentration factor (BCF). However, this approach does not account for various soil properties, such as pH, organic matter content, and cation exchange capacity, that are known to influence root uptake of some metals. For risk assessment purposes, a simple, predictive method for estimating root uptake of metals that is based on site-specific soil and crop data is needed so that the importance of the produce ingestion pathway and subsequent influence on human exposure can be quantitatively assessed. An easy-to-use method is necessary since collecting site-specific data on the concentration of metals in home-grown produce is often time-consuming and costly. Ideally, it should be possible to develop a statistically-reliable relationship between plant and soil metals levels that includes appropriate weighing factors for various soil properties. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to develop simple, predictive models for estimating the concentration of metals in plants via root uptake using site-specific soil data. This paper presents preliminary predictive equations for estimating root uptake of arsenic, cadmium, copper, and zinc in fruiting, root, and all vegetables combined (i.e., fruiting and root crop data were combined). Results show that by using data on additional soil parameters (other than relying solely on the concentration of metals in soil), the concentration of metals in fruiting and root vegetables can be more confidently predicted.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of exposures of computerized tomography patients in Latin America: IAEA project RLA/9/67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to obtain preliminary values of reference levels in CT . Were sent to each country forms with information of radiological protection and routine CT protocols. The CT dose index and absorbed dose to organs was estimated from the technical data for each equipment . The results showed that the total number of examinations performed 92 % are adult patients and 8 % are children. The most frequent examination of the skull was adult (40 % ) and abdomen for children (42 % ) . About the service , 67 % of the equipment are multicut and 76 % have specific protocols for pediatric patients. The CTDIvol values for head exams of adults vary between 2 and 352 mGy for pediatric patients under 1 year 1-191 mGy under 7 years old 5-335 mGy. For chest values ranged from 3 to 26 mGy for adults, between 1 and 89 mGy for children under 1 year and between 3-114 mGy for children between 1 and 7 years. Exams of the abdomen/pelvis of adults the range was 3-47 mGy , between 4-90 mGy for children under 1 year and between 2-31 mGy for children between 1 and 7 years. This study showed that although there are pediatric protocols, there is a wide variation in values of CTDlvol indicating a high potential for dose reduction. This result requires immediate action for optimization and implementation of diagnostic reference values in Latin America

  15. Evaluating the potential of multi-purpose nature based solutions in peri-urban landscapes - a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geris, Josie; Wilkinson, Mark; Stutter, Marc; Guenther, Daniel; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Many communities across the world face the increasing challenge of balancing water quantity and quality protection and improvement with accommodating new growth and urban development. Urbanisation is typically associated with detrimental changes in water quality, sediment delivery, and effects on water storage and flow pathways (e.g. increases in flooding). Current mitigation solutions are typically based on isolated design strategies used at specific small scale sites and for storm water only. More holistic catchment scale approaches are urgently required to effectively manage the amount of water flows and protect the raw water quality in peri-urban landscapes. This project aims to provide a better understanding of the connectivity between natural and managed flow pathways, storage, and biogeochemical processes in the peri-urban landscape to eventually aid a more integrated water quantity and quality control design. For an actively urbanising catchment in NE Scotland we seek to understand the spatio-temporal character of the natural flow pathways and associated water quality, and how these may be used to support the design of nature based solutions during urbanisation. We present preliminary findings from a dense and multiscale monitoring network that includes hydrometric, tracer (stable water isotopes) and water quality (turbidity (sediment), nitrate, phosphate) data during a range of contrasting hydroclimatological conditions and at different stages of the development of urban infrastructure. These demonstrate a highly variable nature, both temporally and spatially, with water quality dynamics out of sync with storm responses and depending on management practices. This highlights potential difficulties for managing water quantity and quality simultaneously at the catchment scale, and suggests that a treatment train approach may be required. Well-designed nature based solutions that tackle both water quantity and quality issues will require adaptability and a

  16. New energy-saving and environmentally friendly technologies for buses and trucks; Nieuwe energiezuinige en milieuvriendelijke technologien voor bussen en vracthtwagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, R.; De Keukeleere, D.; Lenaers, G.

    1998-09-01

    The point of departure was the statement that people find public transport buses highly polluting. A lot of attention went to the advantages and the disadvantages of buses and trucks on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas. These fuels don`t cause any particle emissions from the combustion process. To quantify the other environmental advantages of gas technology, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO) carried out measurements of different bus technologies. Fuel consumption, emission of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons of 8 buses were measured in the Brussels traffic. 3 technologies of the early nineties were taken as a reference: the Euro-1 diesel, the current Brussels public transport company natural gas bus and a LPG bus. Comparisons were made with the modern diesel bus (Euro-2) and the newest buses on natural gas and LPG. To achieve minimal emissions, the best available technology for buses on natural gas or LPG is multipoint injection, the constructors of engines for heavy-duty traffic are changing from carburetor to fuel injection. The best available gas technologies has emissions that can be 50 to 95 per cent lower than the most modern diesel bus. Users mentioned problems at the introduction of vehicles on gas, such as lower reliability and availability. The cost price continues to be a disadvantage of buses and trucks on gas. The extra consumption of fuel doesn`t necessarily imply higher costs. Often fuel suppliers and distributors offer a favourable unit price, which includes the cost for the infrastructure. The purchase price of the vehicle remains higher and the workplaces must be adjusted for maintenance and repairs of vehicles on gas. The bus or truck on diesel is very reliable and cheaper to use than a similar vehicle on gas. The environmental perspectives are much less marked. Heavy-duty traffic emits nitrogen oxides and particles. With respect to these harmful substances in particular, constructors must

  17. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  18. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  19. Load demand profile for a large charging station of a fleet of all-electric plug-in buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Rios

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a general procedure to compute the load demand profile from a parking lot where a fleet of buses with electric propulsion mechanisms are charged. Such procedure is divided in three different stages, the first one models the daily energy utilisation of the batteries based on Monte Carlo simulations and route characteristics. The second one models the process in the charging station based on discrete event simulation of queues of buses served by a lot of available chargers. The third step computes the final demand profile in the parking lot because of the charging process based on the power consumption of batteries’ chargers and the utilisation of the available charges. The proposed procedure allows the computation of the number of required batteries’ chargers to be installed in a charging station placed at a parking lot in order to satisfy and ensure the operation of the fleet, the computation of the power demand profile and the peak load and the computation of the general characteristics of electrical infrastructure to supply the power to the station.

  20. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung cancer and small lung metastasis: evaluation of an immobilization system for suppression of respiratory tumor movement and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors, reducing tumor movement is necessary. In this study, we evaluated changes in tumor movement and percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels, and preliminary clinical results of SBRT using the BodyFIX immobilization system. Between 2004 and 2006, 53 consecutive patients were treated for 55 lesions; 42 were stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 10 were metastatic lung cancers, and 3 were local recurrences of NSCLC. Tumor movement was measured with fluoroscopy under breath holding, free breathing on a couch, and free breathing in the BodyFIX system. SpO2 levels were measured with a finger pulseoximeter under each condition. The delivered dose was 44, 48 or 52 Gy, depending on tumor diameter, in 4 fractions over 10 or 11 days. By using the BodyFIX system, respiratory tumor movements were significantly reduced compared with the free-breathing condition in both craniocaudal and lateral directions, although the amplitude of reduction in the craniocaudal direction was 3 mm or more in only 27% of the patients. The average SpO2 did not decrease by using the system. At 3 years, the local control rate was 80% for all lesions. Overall survival was 76%, cause-specific survival was 92%, and local progression-free survival was 76% at 3 years in primary NSCLC patients. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis developed in 7 patients. Respiratory tumor movement was modestly suppressed by the BodyFIX system, while the SpO2 level did not decrease. It was considered a simple and effective method for SBRT of lung tumors. Preliminary results were encouraging

  1. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for stage I lung cancer and small lung metastasis: evaluation of an immobilization system for suppression of respiratory tumor movement and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayakawa Shiho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT for lung tumors, reducing tumor movement is necessary. In this study, we evaluated changes in tumor movement and percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2 levels, and preliminary clinical results of SBRT using the BodyFIX immobilization system. Methods Between 2004 and 2006, 53 consecutive patients were treated for 55 lesions; 42 were stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, 10 were metastatic lung cancers, and 3 were local recurrences of NSCLC. Tumor movement was measured with fluoroscopy under breath holding, free breathing on a couch, and free breathing in the BodyFIX system. SpO2 levels were measured with a finger pulseoximeter under each condition. The delivered dose was 44, 48 or 52 Gy, depending on tumor diameter, in 4 fractions over 10 or 11 days. Results By using the BodyFIX system, respiratory tumor movements were significantly reduced compared with the free-breathing condition in both craniocaudal and lateral directions, although the amplitude of reduction in the craniocaudal direction was 3 mm or more in only 27% of the patients. The average SpO2 did not decrease by using the system. At 3 years, the local control rate was 80% for all lesions. Overall survival was 76%, cause-specific survival was 92%, and local progression-free survival was 76% at 3 years in primary NSCLC patients. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis developed in 7 patients. Conclusion Respiratory tumor movement was modestly suppressed by the BodyFIX system, while the SpO2 level did not decrease. It was considered a simple and effective method for SBRT of lung tumors. Preliminary results were encouraging.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  3. Evaluation of atmospheric density models and preliminary functional specifications for the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.; Boland, D. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This document presents the results of an extensive survey and comparative evaluation of current atmosphere and wind models for inclusion in the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS). It includes recommended models for use in LAIRS, estimated accuracies for the recommended models, and functional specifications for the development of LAIRS.

  4. Radium-223-Dichloride in Castration Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer—Preliminary Results of the Response Evaluation Using F-18-Fluoride PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome after Radium-223-dichloride (223RaCl2 treatment of patients with skeletal metastases of castration resistant prostate cancer using whole-body 18F-Fluoride PET/CT. Sodium 18F-fluoride [18F]-NaF PET/CT was performed prior the treatment of 223RaCl2, after the first cycle and after the sixth cycle. The skeletal metastases were analyzed quantitatively using modified PET response evaluation PERCIST criteria. The patients were also analyzed for S-PSA. All ten patients responded in [18F]-NaF scans after 6 cycles, but interim analysis after the 1st cycle did not give additional information about the outcome. The S-PSA decrease correlated with [18F]-NaF response, only 1 patient demonstrated progressive disease, i.e., >25% increase in S-PSA values during 223RaCl2. Our results (although preliminary suggest that 18F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in the follow-up of castration resistant prostate cancer with skeletal metastases.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of licensing issues associated with U.S.-sited CANDU-PHW nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal safety-related characteristics of current CANDU-PHW power plants are described, and a distinction between those characteristics which are intrinsic to the CANDU-PHW system and those that are not is presented. An outline is given of the main features of the Canadian safety and licensing approach. Differences between the U.S. and Canadian approach to safety and licensing are discussed. Some of the main results of the safety analyses, routinely performed for CANDU-PHW reactors, are presented. U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria are evaluated as regards their applicability to CANDU-PHW reactors; vice-versa the CANDU-PHW reactor is evaluated with respect to its conformance to the U.S.-NRC General Design Criteria. A number of design modifications are proposed to be incorporated into the CANDU-PHW reactor in order to facilitate its introduction into the U.S

  6. Preliminary open-label clinical evaluation of the soothing and reepithelialization properties of a novel topical formulation for rosacea

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna A; Tenconi B; De Ponti I

    2014-01-01

    Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti Derming Srl, Monza, Italy Background: Rosacea is a common, incurable skin barrier disorder characterized by relapses and remissions. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of Farmaka Rosacea Cream (FRC), a novel topical formulation for rosacea. Methods: This single-center, open-label pilot study comprised a single-dose substudy in 20 healthy subjects and a long-term, repeat-dose substudy in 22 subjects with rosacea. The 2-hour, controlled, singl...

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of Slaughter Value and Carcass Composition of Indigenous Sheep and Goats from Traditional Production System in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Shija, Dismas S.; Mtenga, Louis A.; Kimambo, Abiliza E.; Laswai, Germana H.; Mushi, Daniel E.; Mgheni, Dynes M.; Mwilawa, Angello J.; Shirima, Eligy J. M.; Safari, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the pilot study was to evaluate slaughter characteristics and carcass composition of indigenous long fat tailed sheep and Small East African goats purchased from the auction markets slaughtered at 1.5 to 2 yrs of age and 20 kg to 25 kg live weight. The animals were slaughtered according to halal standard procedures. The left half carcasses were jointed into eight wholesale joints, and dissected into muscles, fat and bone, which were weighed separately. Sheep had greater (p

  8. Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Assess Vegetative Cover and Identify Biotic Resources in Sagebrush Steppe Ecosystems: Preliminary Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert P. Breckenridge

    2006-04-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in conjunction with the University of Idaho, is evaluating novel approaches for using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a quicker and safer method for monitoring biotic resources. Evaluating vegetative cover is an important factor in understanding the sustainability of many ecosystems. In assessing vegetative cover, methods that improve accuracy and cost efficiency could revolutionize how biotic resources are monitored on western federal lands. Sagebrush steppe ecosystems provide important habitat for a variety of species, some of which are important indicator species (e.g., sage grouse). Improved methods are needed to support monitoring these habitats because there are not enough resource specialists or funds available for comprehensive ground evaluation of these ecosystems. In this project, two types of UAV platforms (fixed wing and helicopter) were used to collect still-frame imagery to assess cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. This paper discusses the process for collecting and analyzing imagery from the UAVs to (1) estimate total percent cover, (2) estimate percent cover for six different types of vegetation, and (3) locate sage grouse based on representative decoys. The field plots were located on the INL site west of Idaho Falls, Idaho, in areas with varying amounts and types of vegetative cover. A software program called SamplePoint developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service was used to evaluate the imagery for percent cover for the six vegetation types (bare ground, litter, shrubs, dead shrubs, grasses, and forbs). Results were compared against standard field measurements to assess accuracy.

  9. Synthesis and preliminary in vitro kinase inhibition evaluation of new diversely substituted pyrido[3,4-g]quinazoline derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinyeh, Wael; Esvan, Yannick J; Nauton, Lionel; Loaëc, Nadège; Meijer, Laurent; Théry, Vincent; Anizon, Fabrice; Giraud, Francis; Moreau, Pascale

    2016-09-01

    The synthesis of new diversely substituted pyrido[3,4-g]quinazolines is described. The inhibitory potencies of prepared compounds toward a panel of five CMGC protein kinases (CDK5, CLK1, DYRK1A, CK1, GSK3), that are known to play a potential role in Alzheimer's disease, were evaluated. The best overall kinase inhibition profile was found for nitro compound 4 bearing an ethyl group at the 5-position. PMID:27469128

  10. The Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Bryars, Tracy; Sirisinahal, Swetha; Salim, Nimrah; Arastoo, Sara; Emmerson, Natasha; Kang, Daniel; Shim, Lois; Wong, Doug; Kang, Chang Jin

    2013-01-01

    There is growing consensus that exercise improves cognitive functioning, but research is needed to identify exercise interventions that optimize effects on cognition. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate Taekwondo implemented in public middle school physical education (PE). Two classes were randomly assigned to either: five sessions per week of PE or three sessions of PE and two sessions of Taekwondo. In PE sessions, evidence-based curriculum to address the Presidential Core Fitn...

  11. The burden of spousal caregiving: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of the German version of the Zarit Burden Interview

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, M.; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer; Martin, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite a rapid increase in studies dealing with dementia caregivers in Europe, a valid German version of the most widely used measurement of caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview) has not yet been published. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the German Zarit Burden Interview (G-ZBI). Method: Twenty-eight community-dwelling older couples with the husband suffering from dementia and the wife being the primary caregiver participated in th...

  12. Comparison of conventional MRI and MR arthrography in the evaluation of wrist ligament tears: A preliminary experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and direct magnetic resonance (MR arthrography in the evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC and intrinsic wrist ligament tears. Materials and Methods: T1-weighted, fat suppressed (FS proton density plus T2-weighted (FS PD/T2, 3D multiple-echo data image combination (MEDIC sequences and direct MR arthrography were performed in 53 patients with wrist pain. Images were evaluated for the presence and location of TFCC, scapholunate ligament (SLL and lunatotriquetral ligament (LTL tears, and imaging findings were compared with operative findings in 16 patients who underwent arthroscopy or open surgery (gold standard. Results: Sixteen patients underwent arthroscopy/open surgery: 12 TFCC tears were detected arthroscopically out of which 9 were detected on FS PD/T2 sequence, 10 on MEDIC sequence, and all 12 were detected on MR arthrography. The sensitivities of FS PD/T2, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in the detection of TFCC tears were 75%, 83.3%, and 100%, respectively. Out of the eight arthroscopically confirmed SLL tears, three tears were detected on FS PD/T2 sequence, five on MEDIC sequence, and all eight were visualized on MR arthrography. The sensitivities of FS PD/T2, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in detecting SLL tears were 37.5%, 62.5%, and 100%, respectively. One arthroscopically confirmed LTL tear was diagnosed on FS PD/T2 sequence, three on MEDIC sequence, and all five arthroscopically confirmed LTL tears were detected with MR arthrography. The sensitivities of PD, MEDIC sequences, and MR arthrography in detecting LTL tears were 20%, 40%, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: MR arthrography is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for the evaluation of wrist ligament tears.

  13. Preliminary structural integrity evaluations for the elevated temperature piping of the SFR IHTS against typical level a service events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SFR is adapting the IHTS(Intermediate Heat Transport System) to prevent the interaction of radioactive primary sodium and SG(Steam Generator) water. The IHTS hot leg piping connecting the IHX(Intermediate Heat eXchanger) to the SG of a 1200MWe pool-type SFR is an object component in this study. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code Subsection NB provides rules for the design and analysis of the class 1 components. At an elevated temperature service, the ASME Subsection NH provides rules for the design and analysis of the Class 1 components but unfortunately, special rules for piping components are not provided until now. Therefore, the design and analysis of the IHTS hot leg piping shall comply with the design by analysis requirements of Subsection NH. The piping layout is proposed by considering the reactor component layout and reactor building space and the structural integrity is evaluated by considering two typical types of operating events in this study. Cycle type 1(CT-1) shows the refueling cycle event having a temperature history from a refueling temperature to a normal operating temperature via a hot standby temperature. Cycle type 2(CT-2) is a daily load follow operation. The structural integrity is evaluated by considering the enveloped CT-1 and CT-2 operating events per the ASME Subsection NH procedures. The SIE ASME-NH computer program, which has been developed to implement the ASME subsection NH rules, is used for the structural integrity evaluation by utilizing the finite element analysis results. (author)

  14. Intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Er-jiao [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Zheng, Rong-qin, E-mail: zhengrq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China); Su, Zhong-zhen; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Guo, Huan-yi [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, No. 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Objectives: The aimed of this study was to investigate the value of intra-biliary contrast-enhanced ultrasound (IB-CEUS) for evaluating biliary obstruction during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Materials and methods: 80 patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent IB-CEUS during PTBD were enrolled. The diluted ultrasound contrast agent was injected via the drainage catheter to perform IB-CEUS. Both conventional ultrasound and IB-CEUS were used to detect the tips of the drainage catheters and to compare the detection rates of the tips. The obstructive level and degree of biliary tract were evaluated by IB-CEUS. Fluoroscopic cholangiography (FC) and computer tomography cholangiography (CTC) were taken as standard reference for comparison. Results: Conventional ultrasound displayed only 43 tips (43/80, 53.8%) of the drainage catheters within the bile ducts while IB-CEUS identified all 80 tips (80/80, 100%) of the drainage catheters including 4 of them out of the bile duct (P < 0.001). IB-CEUS made correct diagnosis in 44 patients with intrahepatic and 36 patients with extrahepatic biliary obstructions. IB-CEUS accurately demonstrated complete obstruction in 56 patients and incomplete obstruction in 21 patients. There were 3 patients with incomplete obstruction misdiagnosed to be complete obstruction by IB-CEUS. The diagnostic accuracy of biliary obstruction degree was 96.3% (77/80). Conclusion: IB-CEUS could improve the visualization of the drainage catheters and evaluate the biliary obstructive level and degree during PTBD. IB-CEUS may be the potential substitute to FC in the PTBD procedure.

  15. A new evaluation of the upper esophageal sphincter using the functional lumen imaging probe: a preliminary report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, J

    2012-03-06

    Objective and reliable evaluation of upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening during swallowing based on videofluoroscopy and pharyngeal manometry challenges dysphagia clinicians. The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a portable tool based on impedance planimetry originally designed to measure esophogastric junction compliance. It is hypothesized that FLIP can evaluate UES distensibility, and can provide UES diameter and pressure measurements at rest, during swallowing, and during voluntary maneuvers. Eleven healthy adult subjects consented to FLIP evaluation. The probe was inserted transorally, and the balloon was positioned across the UES. Two 20-mL ramp distensions were completed. Changes in UES diameter and intraballoon pressure were measured during dry and 5-mL liquid swallows, and during voluntary swallow postures and maneuvers employed in clinical practice. The protocol was completed by 10 of 11 healthy subjects. Mean intraballoon pressure increased throughout 5-mL (5.8 mmHg; -4.5-18.6 mmHg), 10-mL (8.7 mmHg; 2.3-28.5 mmHg), 15-mL (17.3 mmHg; 9.5-34.8 mmHg), and 20-mL (31.2 mmHg; 16-46.3 mmHg) balloon volumes. Mean resting UES diameter (4.9 mm) increased during dry swallows (9.2 mm) and 5-mL liquid swallows (7.7 mm). Mean UES diameter increased during 5-mL liquid swallows with head turn to right (8.1 mm) and left (8.3 mm), chin tuck (8.4 mm), effortful swallow (8.5 mm), Mendelsohn maneuver (8.1 mm), and supraglottic swallow (7.8 mm). FLIP was safely inserted and distended in the UES, and provided useful quantitative data regarding UES distensibility and UES diameter changes during swallowing maneuvers. Further research is being conducted to explore the role of FLIP in UES evaluation.

  16. (11)C-labeling and preliminary evaluation of pimavanserin as a 5-HT2A receptor PET-radioligand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Valdemar L; Hansen, Hanne D; Herth, Matthias M;

    2015-01-01

    Pimavanserin is a selective serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) inverse agonist that has shown promise for treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. Here, we detail the (11)C-labeling and subsequently evaluate pimavanserin as a PET-radioligand in pigs. [(11)C]Pimavanserin....... However, this binding could not be blocked by either ketanserin or pimavanserin itself, indicating high nonspecific binding. The lack of displacement by the 5-HT2R antagonist and binding in the thalamus suggests that [(11)C]pimavanserin is not selective for the 5-HT2AR in pigs....

  17. Liquid Sampling-Atmospheric Pressure Glow Discharge (LS-APGD) Ionization Source for Elemental Mass Spectrometry: Preliminary Parametric Evaluation and Figures of Merit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quarles, C. Derrick; Carado, Anthony J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Koppenaal, David W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A new, low power ionization source for the elemental analysis of aqueous solutions has recently been described. The liquid sampling-atmospheric pressure glow discharge (LS-APGD) source operates at relatively low currents (<20 mA) and solution flow rates (<50 μL min-1), yielding a relatively simple alternative for atomic mass spectrometry applications. The LS-APGD has been interfaced to what is otherwise an organic, LC-MS mass analyzer, the Thermo Scientific Exactive Orbitrap without any modifications; other than removing the electrospray ionization (ESI) source supplied with that instrument. A glow discharge is initiated between the surface of the test solution exiting a glass capillary and a metallic counter electrode mounted at a 90° angle and separated by a distance of ~5 mm. As with any plasma-based ionization source, there are key discharge operation and ion sampling parameters that affect the intensity and composition of the derived mass spectra; including signal-to-background ratios. We describe here a preliminary parametric evaluation of the roles of discharge current, solution flow rate, argon sheath gas flow rate, and ion sampling distance as they apply on this mass analyzer system. A cursive evaluation of potential matrix effects due to the presence of easily ionized elements (EIEs) indicate that sodium concentrations of up to 500 μg mL-1 generally cause suppressions of less than 50%, dependant upon the analyte species. Based on the results of this series of studies, preliminary limits of detection (LOD) have been established through the generation of calibration functions. Whilst solution-based concentrations LOD levels of 0.02 – 2 μg mL-1 3 are not impressive on the surface, the fact that they are determined via discrete 5 μL injections leads to mass-based detection limits at picogram to singlenanogram levels. The overhead costs associated with source operation (10 W d.c. power, solution flow rates of <50 μL min-1, and gas flow rates <10 mL min

  18. Proposal and Evaluation of a Telerehabilitation Platform Designed for Patients With Partial Rotator Cuff Tears: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objective To propose and evaluate the effectiveness of a telerehabilitation platform designed for patients with rotator cuff (RC) tears. Methods During the first study phase, a virtual service platform that included information on RC tear pathology, joint care, and a series of instructions regarding therapeutic exercise was designed and created. Subsequently, in the clinical phase, a quasi-experimental study was performed. The platform was tested on patients and evaluated at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months with respect to their pain levels and functionality on the Constant-Murley (CM) scale. Results Eleven patients were included, 5 women and 6 men, with a median age of 55 years (range, 42–68 years). Pain diminished from a baseline value of 64 mm (range, 40–80 mm) to 16 mm (range, 0–30 mm) at 6 months (p<0.001). Points on the CM scale rose from a baseline value of 54 points (range, 51–66 points) to 85 points (range, 70–100 points) at 6 months (p=0.001). Functionality in daily living and work activities, movement, and strength exhibited significant changes at 6 months (p<0.05). Conclusion Significant changes were observed in pain and functionality in this group of participants who used a telerehabilitation platform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that included a specific program for RC tears. PMID:27606278

  19. Preliminary evaluation of polymer-based drug composite microparticle production by coacervate desolvation with supercritical carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuji, Takehiko; Haslam, John; Kajiyama, Atsushi; McIntosh, Michelle P; Rajewski, Roger A

    2006-03-01

    Drug/polymer particles incorporating phenytoin in polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared by desolvation of coacervates sprayed through an ultrasonic converging-diverging nozzle into supercritical (SC) carbon dioxide. The mean diameter of the particles produced and the crystallinity of phenytoin in the drug/polymer particles were evaluated with an Aerosizer DSP Particle Size Analyzer and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. The drug release properties from the composite particles were evaluated using the USP 24 Method 2 rotational paddle method with UV detection. Spraying PVP in ethanol solution into SC carbon dioxide did not produce particles. However, a PVP coacervate in a mixture of ethanol and hexanes had lower viscosity than the solution, and spraying the coacervate into SC carbon dioxide through an ultrasonic converging-diverging nozzle produced micron sized particles. The use of a coacervate containing phenytoin and PVP likely led to increased interaction between drug and polymer and the composite particles contained amorphous phenytoin. The drug content in the composite particles approached theoretical values. The drug release rates from the composite particles produced from the coacervate were faster than those from particles produced by conventional SC methods and complete release was observed.

  20. Evaluation of coblation lingual tonsil removal technique for obstructive sleep apnea in Asians: preliminary results of surgical morbidity and prognosticators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jee Hye; Tan, Kenglu; Lee, Woo-Hyun; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-09-01

    Retroglossal obstruction is one of the etiologies causing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and can be addressed by removing some tissues of the tongue base. However, because of its deep-seated location, its surgical removal is still challenging. Although coblation technique has been introduced, its efficacy and morbidity need further evaluation, particularly in Asians. This study aimed to assess its safety and effectiveness and to identify outcome prognosticators. Forty-seven OSA patients who underwent coblation lingual tonsil removal were included. Retroglossal obstruction was confirmed by drug-induced sleep videofluoroscopy. Attended full-night polysomnography was performed twice; before and 6 months after surgery in 27 patients. The tongue base was fully exposed with three deep-seated traction sutures, visualized with a 30° or 70° endoscope, and ablated using a coblator. Surgical success was defined with postoperative apnea hypopnea index (AHI) 50 %. Postoperative morbidities were evaluated. Demographic and polysomnographic parameters between success and failure groups were compared. None of the patients had immediate postoperative hemorrhage. Postoperatively, one patient had delayed hemorrhage and one patient severe respiratory difficulty. Taste loss, tongue dysmotility, dental injury or severe oropharyngeal stricture were absent. A mean AHI decreased from 37.7 ± 18.6 to 18.7 ± 14.8/h (P Coblation lingual tonsil removal technique showed minimal morbidity and favorable outcome in Koreans. The surgical outcome might be associated with the severity of single respiratory events.

  1. The Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D; Bryars, Tracy; Sirisinahal, Swetha; Salim, Nimrah; Arastoo, Sara; Emmerson, Natasha; Kang, Daniel; Shim, Lois; Wong, Doug; Kang, Chang Jin

    2013-10-01

    There is growing consensus that exercise improves cognitive functioning, but research is needed to identify exercise interventions that optimize effects on cognition. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate Taekwondo implemented in public middle school physical education (PE). Two classes were randomly assigned to either: five sessions per week of PE or three sessions of PE and two sessions of Taekwondo. In PE sessions, evidence-based curriculum to address the Presidential Core Fitness Guidelines and California Physical Fitness Tests was implemented. Taekwondo sessions included traditional techniques and forms taught in an environment emphasizing respect and self-control. Sixty students were evaluated at baseline and during the last week of the intervention (nine months later). Differences in mean residualized change scores for parent-rated inhibitory behavioral control yielded a significant, large effect size (d =.95, p =.00), reflecting greater improvement among Taekwondo students. Results from an executive function computer-administered task revealed greater accuracy on the congruent trial (d = 2.00, p = .02) for Taekwondo students. Differences in mean residualized change scores for BMI z scores yielded a moderate, non-significant effect size (d = - .51, p = .16). The majority of Taekwondo students reported positive perceptions of Taekwondo and perceived self-improvement in self-control and physical fitness. Results suggest that Taekwondo is an exercise program that improves cognitive functioning and is both feasible and acceptable to implement in a public school setting.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth L; Deutsch, Reena; Samara, Emil; Marcotte, Thomas D; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le, Danny

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial utilizing vaporized cannabis containing placebo and 6.7% and 2.9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was performed in 42 subjects with central neuropathic pain related to spinal cord injury and disease. Subjects received two administrations of the study medication in a 4-hour interval. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation were collected, and pain assessment tests were performed immediately after the second administration and 3 hours later. Pharmacokinetic data, although limited, were consistent with literature reports, namely dose-dependent increase in systemic exposure followed by rapid disappearance of THC. Dose-dependent improvement in pain score was evident across all pain scale elements. Using mixed model regression, an evaluation of the relationship between plasma concentrations of selected cannabinoids and percent change in items from the Neuropathic Pain Scale was conducted. Changes in the concentration of THC and its nonpsychotropic metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, were related to percent change from baseline of several descriptors (eg, itching, burning, and deep pain). However, given the large number of multiple comparisons, false-discovery-rate-adjusted P-values were not significant. Plans for future work are outlined to explore the relationship of plasma concentrations with the analgesic response to different cannabinoids. Such an appraisal of descriptors might contribute to the identification of distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms and, ultimately, the development of mechanism-based treatment approaches for neuropathic pain, a condition that remains difficult to treat.

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of a Personal Healthcare System Prototype for Cognitive eRehabilitation in a Living Assistance Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Pastorino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of rehabilitation systems in an ambient assisted living environment can provide a powerful and versatile tool for long-term stroke rehabilitation goals. This paper introduces a novel concept of a personalized cognitive rehabilitation system in a naturalistic setting. The proposed platform was developed within the CogWatch project, with the intent of fostering independence in activities of daily living in patients with apraxia and action disorganization syndrome. Technical usability was evaluated in a series of pilot experiments, which illustrate how this approach may help to retrain patients in activities of daily living. The first system prototype has been tested with 36 participants divided into three groups, providing an exploratory evaluation of the usability of this solution and its acceptability. The technical solutions used within the CogWatch project are targeted to meet both the end users’ needs from the interaction and usability point of views and the clinical requirements associated with the use of such systems. The challenges behind the development of ambient assisted living systems for cognitive rehabilitation are discussed.

  4. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a 2-Oxoquinoline Carboxylic Acid Derivative for PET Imaging the Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Mu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2 has been shown to be up-regulated in activated microglia and therefore plays an important role in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. The CB2 receptor is therefore considered as a very promising target for therapeutic approaches as well as for imaging. A promising 2-oxoquinoline derivative designated KP23 was synthesized and radiolabeled and its potential as a ligand for PET imaging the CB2 receptor was evaluated. [11C]KP23 was obtained in 10%–25% radiochemical yield (decay corrected and 99% radiochemical purity. It showed high stability in phosphate buffer, rat and mouse plasma. In vitro autoradiography of rat and mouse spleen slices, as spleen expresses a high physiological expression of CB2 receptors, demonstrated that [11C]KP23 exhibits specific binding towards CB2. High spleen uptake of [11C]KP23 was observed in dynamic in vivo PET studies with Wistar rats. In conclusion, [11C]KP23 showed promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Further evaluation with diseased animal model which has higher CB2 expression levels in the brain is warranted.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the Thermally Affected Metallurgical Condition of Extruded and Drawn CuFe2P Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazopoulos, George; Toulfatzis, Anagnostis; Zormalia, Sylvia; Vazdirvanidis, Athanasios; Skarmoutsos, Dionysios

    2012-10-01

    The influence of heat treatment conditions on the mechanical behavior and microstructure of CuFe2P (ASTM C19400) in comparison to deoxidized-high-phosphorus (DHP-Cu/ASTM C12200) tubes was investigated. The aim of this study was the enhancement of understanding of microstructure/thermal treatment/strength relationships which could be further utilized for the manufacturing of components exhibiting superior performance and reliability for refrigeration and heat exchanger applications. Microstructural examination employing optical metallography and scanning electron microscopy is used for the evaluation of the recrystallization progress and grain growth processes. In addition, tensile testing was conducted to CuFe2P and DHP tubes following the application of heat treatment cycles, in accordance to the EN 10002-1 specifications. Mechanical properties and microstructure evaluation showed that CuFe2P material is fully recrystallized at 740 °C and DHP at 400 °C for 20 min. Recrystallization initiation varies within the range of 640-660 °C for CuFe2P and below 400 °C for DHP tubes. The tensile strength of the CuFe2P tube decreased from 513 to 367 MPa, the hardness was reduced from 144 to 126 HV, while tensile elongation was significantly improved from 3 to 17%. At 640 °C, only isolated recrystallized areas were evident mainly at the Fe-based intermetallic particle/copper matrix interface areas.

  6. A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth L; Deutsch, Reena; Samara, Emil; Marcotte, Thomas D; Barnes, Allan J; Huestis, Marilyn A; Le, Danny

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial utilizing vaporized cannabis containing placebo and 6.7% and 2.9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was performed in 42 subjects with central neuropathic pain related to spinal cord injury and disease. Subjects received two administrations of the study medication in a 4-hour interval. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation were collected, and pain assessment tests were performed immediately after the second administration and 3 hours later. Pharmacokinetic data, although limited, were consistent with literature reports, namely dose-dependent increase in systemic exposure followed by rapid disappearance of THC. Dose-dependent improvement in pain score was evident across all pain scale elements. Using mixed model regression, an evaluation of the relationship between plasma concentrations of selected cannabinoids and percent change in items from the Neuropathic Pain Scale was conducted. Changes in the concentration of THC and its nonpsychotropic metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, were related to percent change from baseline of several descriptors (eg, itching, burning, and deep pain). However, given the large number of multiple comparisons, false-discovery-rate-adjusted P-values were not significant. Plans for future work are outlined to explore the relationship of plasma concentrations with the analgesic response to different cannabinoids. Such an appraisal of descriptors might contribute to the identification of distinct pathophysiologic mechanisms and, ultimately, the development of mechanism-based treatment approaches for neuropathic pain, a condition that remains difficult to treat. PMID:27621666

  7. Preliminary evaluation of the Section 1603 treasury grant program for renewable power projects in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article evaluates the first year of the Section 1603 Treasury cash grant program, which enables renewable power projects in the US to elect cash grants in lieu of the federal tax credits that are otherwise available. To date, the program has been heavily subscribed, particularly by wind power projects, which had received 86% of the nearly $2.6 billion in grants that had been disbursed as of March 1, 2010. As of that date, 6.2 GW of the 10 GW of new wind capacity installed in the US in 2009 had applied for grants in lieu of production tax credits. Roughly 2.4 GW of this wind capacity may not have otherwise been built in 2009 in the absence of the grant program; this 2.4 GW may have supported approximately 51,600 short-term full-time-equivalent (FTE) gross job-years in the US during the construction phase of these wind projects, and 3860 long-term FTE gross jobs during the operational phase. The program's popularity stems from the significant economic value that it provides to renewable power projects, relative to the otherwise available tax credits. Although grants reward investment rather than efficient performance, this evaluation finds no evidence at this time of either widespread 'gold-plating' or performance problems. (author)

  8. Preliminary evaluation of the dosimetric accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography for cases with respiratory motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Wook; Bae, Sunhyun; Chung, Weon Kuu; Lee, Yoonhee

    2014-04-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are currently used for patient positioning and adaptive dose calculation; however, the degree of CBCT uncertainty in cases of respiratory motion remains an interesting issue. This study evaluated the uncertainty of CBCT-based dose calculations for a moving target. Using a phantom, we estimated differences in the geometries and the Hounsfield units (HU) between CT and CBCT. The calculated dose distributions based on CT and CBCT images were also compared using a radiation treatment planning system, and the comparison included cases with respiratory motion. The geometrical uncertainties of the CT and the CBCT images were less than 0.15 cm. The HU differences between CT and CBCT images for standard-dose-head, high-quality-head, normal-pelvis, and low-dose-thorax modes were 31, 36, 23, and 33 HU, respectively. The gamma (3%, 0.3 cm)-dose distribution between CT and CBCT was greater than 1 in 99% of the area. The gamma-dose distribution between CT and CBCT during respiratory motion was also greater than 1 in 99% of the area. The uncertainty of the CBCT-based dose calculation was evaluated for cases with respiratory motion. In conclusion, image distortion due to motion did not significantly influence dosimetric parameters.

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program for Renewable Power Projects in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naim

    2010-05-05

    This article evaluates the first year of the Section 1603 Treasury cash grant program, which enables renewable power projects in the U.S. to elect cash grants in lieu of the federal tax credits that are otherwise available. To date, the program has been heavily subscribed, particularly by wind power projects, which had received 86% of the nearly $2.6 billion in grants that had been disbursed as of March 1, 2010. As of that date, 6.2 GW of the 10 GW of new wind capacity installed in the U.S. in 2009 had applied for grants in lieu of production tax credits. Roughly 2.4 GW of this wind capacity may not have otherwise been built in 2009 absent the grant program; this 2.4 GW may have supported approximately 51,600 short-term full-time-equivalent (FTE) gross job-years in the U.S. during the construction phase of these wind projects, and 3,860 longterm FTE gross jobs during the operational phase. The program’s popularity stems from the significant economic value that it provides to renewable power projects, relative to the otherwise available tax credits. Although grants reward investment rather than efficient performance, this evaluation finds no evidence at this time of either widespread “gold-plating” or performance problems.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  11. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of novel 99mTc-labeled folate derivative via click reaction for SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The folate receptor is over expressed in a wide variety of human tumors. In this study, a novel 99mTc-labeled folate derivative (99mTc-HYNIC-T-FA) was synthesized as a potential FR-targeting imaging probe and its efficiency was evaluated. This 99mTc-complex could be obtained through practical manner and showed improved in vivo characteristics compared with other radiofolates. Thus, this novel 99mTc-HYNIC-T-FA compound could serve as a potential imaging agent for folate receptor positive tumors. - Highlights: • An efficient synthetic strategy (click chemistry) was used to improve the overall efficiency. • 99mTc-HYNIC-T-FA showed a high tumor uptake but low no-target tissues uptakes. • Excellent tumor-to-kidney ratio was achieved by injecting PMX. • A kit formulation was developed to obtain the desired product without any purification

  12. Bis-phosphonate sequestering agents. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation for in vitro and in vivo uranium(VI) chelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, M.; Lecercle, D.; Taran, F. [CEA Saclay, IBiTecS, Serv Chim Bioorgan et Marquage, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Grillon, G.; Le Gall, B.; Serandour, A.L.; Poncy, J.L. [CEA, DSV, DRR, Lab Radiotoxicol, F-91680 Bruyeres Le Chatel (France); Bailly, T.; Burgada, R.; Lecouvey, M.; Challeix, V. [CNRS, Lab Chim Struct Biomol, UMR 7033, F-93017 Bobigny (France); Leydier, A.; Pellet-Rostaing, S. [Univ Lyon 1, ICBMS, UMR 5246, Lab Catalyse et Synth Organ, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA, DEN, DRCP, CETAMA, VRH Marcoule, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    A library of bis-phosphonate-based ligands was prepared using solution-phase parallel synthesis and tested for its uranium-binding properties. With the help of a screening method, based on a chromo-phoric complex displacement procedure, 23 dipodal and tripodal chelates bearing bis-phosphonate chelating functions were found to display very high affinity for the uranyl ion and were selected for evaluation of their in vivo uranyl-removal efficacy. Among them, 11 ligands induced a huge modification of the uranyl biodistribution by deviating the metal from kidney and bones to liver. Among the other ligands, the most potent was the dipodal bis-phosphonate 3C which reduced the retention of uranyl and increased its excretion by around 10% of the injected metal. (authors)

  13. Development and preliminary validation of an integrated efficacy-tolerability composite measure for the evaluation of analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Nathaniel P; Mou, Joy; Trudeau, Jeremiah; Xiang, Jim; Vorsanger, Gary; Orman, Camille; Kim, Myoung

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this analysis was to develop and evaluate integrated measures of benefit and tolerability of analgesic drugs in clinical trials. We evaluated an efficacy-tolerability composite (ETC) measure combining different cutoff values for daily pain reduction (≥20%, ≥30%, or ≥50% pain reduction) and adverse events (AEs) (no AE, no or mild AEs, no or mild drug-related AEs). Nine ETC cutoff values (3 × 3) were tested using data from a randomized double-blind trial comparing tapentadol extended release (ER) (n = 310), oxycodone controlled release (CR) (n = 322), and placebo (n = 314) in subjects with chronic low back pain. Efficacy-tolerability composite scores were calculated as the mean number of days a subject met the ETC criterion divided by the number of days the subject was expected to be in study; ETC scores were then averaged in each treatment group. For all 9 ETC measures, validity was demonstrated by significant correlation of ETC scores with patients' Global Impression of change and with change from baseline in pain scores. Tapentadol ER ETC scores were statistically significantly higher than oxycodone CR ETC scores for 4 of the ETC measures. "No/mild drug-related AE and ≥20% pain reduction" demonstrated the best overall validity (correlation with patients' global impression of change) and responsiveness (discrimination between treatment groups), yielding a higher standardized effect size for tapentadol ER compared with placebo (0.19 [95% confidence interval: 0.031-0.346]) and with oxycodone CR (0.23 [95% confidence interval: 0.070-0.383]) than other cutoff values. Thus, we have identified herein a composite measure that seems to be a valid and responsive measure of the overall efficacy and tolerability of analgesics in clinical trials. PMID:25867124

  14. Production, quality control, biodistribution assessment and preliminary dose evaluation of 166Ho-alendronate as a bone marrow ablative agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, production, quality control and biodistribution studies of 166Ho-alendronate have been presented and followed by dosimetric evaluation for human based on biodistribution data in wild-type rats. 166Ho chloride was obtained by thermal neutron irradiation of natural 165Ho(NO3)3 samples. 166Ho-alendronate complex was prepared by adding the desired amount of alkaline alendronate solution (0.2 mL, 150 mg/mL) to 3-5 mCi of the 166HoCl3 solution. Radiochemical purity of the complex was monitored by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC). 166Ho-alendronate complex was prepared in high radiochemical purity (> 99%, ITLC) and specific activity of 4.4 GBq/mmol. Stability studies of the complex in the final preparation and in the presence of human serum were performed up to 48 h. The major accumulation of the radio-complex was in the bone tissues followed by absorbed dose evaluation of each human organ by RADAR software used for modelling the radiation dose delivered. The final preparation was administered to wild-type rats and biodistribution of the complex was performed 2-48 h post injection showing major accumulation of the complex in the bone tissue. The highest absorbed dose for 166Ho-alendronate is observed in bone surface and red marrow with 2.670 and 1.880 mSv/MBq; respectively. These findings suggest that 166Ho-alendronate has considerable characteristics compared to 166Ho-DOTMP and can be a possible candidate for bone marrow ablation in patients with multiple myeloma.

  15. Preliminary evaluation of Community-Led Total Sanitation for the control of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Katete District of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulaya, Carol; Mwape, Kabemba E; Michelo, Charles; Sikasunge, Chummy S; Makungu, Chitwambi; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Phiri, Isaac K

    2015-01-30

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. It is associated with poor sanitary practices, free-range pig husbandry and lack of disease awareness in endemic communities. A comparative research was conducted with pre and post-intervention assessments in nine villages to evaluate Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) as an intervention measure for the control of porcine cysticercosis in Katete District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. Blood samples were collected from pigs for circulating antigen detection and a questionnaire focused on the household was administered to a total of 153 respondents whose pigs were examined (64 pre-intervention, 89 post-intervention), in order to obtain information on general demographic characteristics, pig husbandry practices, sanitation practices and associated knowledge and awareness of T. solium infections. The first sampling was conducted prior to the implementation of the CLTS and second sampling eight months after triggering of CLTS in the selected villages. A total of 379 pig serum samples were examined using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA to detect T. solium cysticercosis, 104 pre-intervention and 275 post-intervention, of which 14 (13.5%) and 45 (16.4%) were positive, respectively. Wald test p-values were computed to assess significant differences in the variables of interest mentioned above for the pre and post CLTS. The research revealed that CLTS as a control measure did not significantly improve T. solium infections in pigs. The research also revealed that the sanitation practices and awareness of cysticercosis did not change. It is recommended that a longer term evaluation be undertaken when the villages have been declared open defaecation free. In addition, the research recommends that health education, mass drug treatment and pig vaccination be incorporated, as an essential component of prevention and control programmes for T. solium infections.

  16. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  17. A preliminary evaluation of the relationship of cannabinoid blood concentrations with the analgesic response to vaporized cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsey BL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Barth L Wilsey,1,2 Reena Deutsch,3 Emil Samara,4 Thomas D Marcotte,3 Allan J Barnes,5 Marilyn A Huestis,5,6 Danny Le1,2 1VA Northern California Health Care System, Mather, CA, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of California, Sacramento, CA, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 4PharmaPolaris International, Davis, CA, 5Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD, 6University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial utilizing vaporized cannabis containing placebo and 6.7% and 2.9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC was performed in 42 subjects with central neuropathic pain related to spinal cord injury and disease. Subjects received two administrations of the study medication in a 4-hour interval. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation were collected, and pain assessment tests were performed immediately after the second administration and 3 hours later. Pharmacokinetic data, although limited, were consistent with literature reports, namely dose-dependent increase in systemic exposure followed by rapid disappearance of THC. Dose-dependent improvement in pain score was evident across all pain scale elements. Using mixed model regression, an evaluation of the relationship between plasma concentrations of selected cannabinoids and percent change in items from the Neuropathic Pain Scale was conducted. Changes in the concentration of THC and its nonpsychotropic metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, were related to percent change from baseline of several descriptors (eg, itching, burning, and deep pain. However, given the large number of multiple comparisons, false-discovery-rate-adjusted P-values were not significant. Plans for future work are outlined to explore the relationship of plasma concentrations with the analgesic response to different cannabinoids. Such an

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a fully automated quantitative framework for characterizing general breast tissue histology via color histogram and color texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Gastounioti, Aimilia; Batiste, Rebecca C.; Kontos, Despina; Feldman, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Visual characterization of histologic specimens is known to suffer from intra- and inter-observer variability. To help address this, we developed an automated framework for characterizing digitized histology specimens based on a novel application of color histogram and color texture analysis. We perform a preliminary evaluation of this framework using a set of 73 trichrome-stained, digitized slides of normal breast tissue which were visually assessed by an expert pathologist in terms of the percentage of collagenous stroma, stromal collagen density, duct-lobular unit density and the presence of elastosis. For each slide, our algorithm automatically segments the tissue region based on the lightness channel in CIELAB colorspace. Within each tissue region, a color histogram feature vector is extracted using a common color palette for trichrome images generated with a previously described method. Then, using a whole-slide, lattice-based methodology, color texture maps are generated using a set of color co-occurrence matrix statistics: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. The extracted features sets are compared to the visually assessed tissue characteristics. Overall, the extracted texture features have high correlations to both the percentage of collagenous stroma (r=0.95, phistological processes in digitized histology specimens.

  19. Effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Preliminary Objective and Subjective Outcome Evaluation Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two tiers of programs in the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. In the Tier 1 Program, teaching units based on different positive youth development constructs are covered. Pre- and post-test data utilizing the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS and post-test subjective outcome evaluation data were collected from 546 students who participated in the 20h Tier 1 Program of the P.A.T.H.S. Project. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, with 85.3% of the respondents regarding the program as helpful to them. Positive changes in the program participants in many measures of positive youth development were also observed. Although there were some increases in problem behavior in some areas, adolescent problem behavior was generally stable. The present study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  20. Safety evaluation report related to the preliminary design of the Standard Nuclear Steam Supply Reference System, RESAR SP/90 (Docket No. STN 50-601)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On October 24, 1983, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation tendered its application for a preliminary design approval of the advanced pressurized-water reactor design for the SP/90 reactor. The Westinghouse Reference Safety Analysis Report (RESAR SP/90, Docket No. STN 50-601), describing the design of the facility, was submitted from October 24, 1983 through March 9, 1987. Staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, has prepared this safety evaluation report of the RESAR SP/90 on the basis of its review. Because of the stage of the design, there are open issues that have not been resolved. These issues are discussed in detail throughout this report, and a summary is provided in Section 1.6 of this report. The applicant will be required to address these and any additional such concerns that may be raised during the course of the staff's review of advanced light-water reactors in support of a final design approval application. This report shall not constitute a commitment to issue a permit or license or in any way affect the authority of the Commission, its adjudicatory boards, and other presiding officers in any proceeding under Subpart G of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 2