WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus stops

  1. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  2. Bus Stop - Environment Connection: Do Characteristics of the Built Environment Correlate with Bus Stop Crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Robin S Liggett; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Can we understand why some bus stops are safe and others are crime-ridden? Can we predict which features of the bus stop environment are likely to encourage or discourage crime? Can we design safer bus stops? These questions are addressed by exploring the relationship between environmental variables and bus stop crime. An earlier study used crime data, along with environmental indicators, for a sample of 60 bus stops in downtown Los Angeles. Crime rates were higher for bus stops near alleys, ...

  3. Incremental bus service design: combining limited-stop and local bus services

    OpenAIRE

    Chiraphadhanakul, Virot; Barnhart, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Long in-vehicle travel times resulting from frequent stops make bus service an unattractive choice for many commuters. Limited-stop bus services however have the advantage of shorter in-vehicle times experienced by passengers. In this work, we seek to modify a given bus service by optimally reassigning some number of bus trips, as opposed to providing additional trips, to operate a limited-stop service. We propose an optimization model to determine a limited-stop service route to be operated ...

  4. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  5. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  6. An appraisal of QR code use to deliver bus arrival time information at bus stops in Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Gammer, Nick

    2011-01-01

    The provision of at-stop bus arrival time information has numerous potential benefits to bus users. With real-time passenger information well established in the UK the challenge is relaying accurate bus arrival times to passengers in a cost effective manner. Display screens are costly to install and maintain, rendering placement at all bus stops economically undesirable. QR codes represent an inexpensive alternative to delivering this information, usually at zero marginal cost to users. Q...

  7. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  8. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  9. Bus Stops, Ctran amd Rtp Bus Stops, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  10. DETERMINATION OF THE DELAY DEPARTURE TIME OF THE BUS FROM STOPPING POINT INTO THE CAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gorbachov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for estimation of the bus departure delax from the bus stopping point after passenger loading is presented. The model allows to take into account the traffic density on a particular road section of the transport network, as well as the bus parameters.

  11. Bus Stops, Bus stops created from hard copy CAT transit maps. Includes information on if there is a shelter present or not., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, City of Bismarck.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as 'Bus stops...

  12. The capacity of two neighbour intersections considering the influence of the bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Gao, Zi-you; Li, Ke-ping

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, we use a two-lane CA model to investigate the effect of a bus stop between two neighbouring intersections on the capacity of the bus. Both the case of a bus stop with a special stopping lane and that of one without are considered. The capacity versus the distance LB( LD) between the stop and the upstream (downstream) intersection is studied, with respect to the entering probability Pe and the traffic light cycle T. It is found that a bus stop near an intersection can act as a bottleneck and cause a drop in the capacity when the LB (or LD) is below a critical point L(or L). However, the situation when the stop is located near the downstream intersection is worse than that of the upstream one. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the negative effect varies with the increase of the cycle time T and the capacity can be maximized by adjusting T. Comparisons between the two cases suggest that the stopping lane can improve the capacity to some extent. These results mean that the capacity can be exploited by changing the position of the bus stop or the cycle time, and adding a stopping lane if necessary. These findings may be useful in offering scientific guidance for the management and design of traffic networks.

  13. Bus Stops, Prince George's County "The Bus" Bus Stop locations., Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  14. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  15. A Semantic Analysis of Sesotho Place Names: Evidence from Bus Stop Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puleng Makholu Letsoela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naming is not just an act of linguistic labeling by which speakers of a language identify the entities they are referring to in the real or imaginary world. A name is not chosen arbitrarily but is chosen based on a combination of socio-cultural factors. This is because language cannot be divorced from culture, for it is through language that speakers reflect their cultural and sociolinguistic etiquette. This study examines the names of bus stops in Lesotho with a view to unveiling the factors that could have motivated the awarding of such names. Findings indicate that the names could be classified into the following categories: descriptive, metaphorical, experiential and mythological. The study concludes that through the names of bus stops, Basotho narrate their experiences, emotions and belief systems, among other things.

  16. The capacity drop caused by the combined effect of the intersection and the bus stop in a CA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-mei; Gao, Zi-you; Jia, Bin

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the combined effect of the signalized intersection and its near-by bus stop, by using a two-lane CA model. Four cases that the stop locates upstream or downstream the intersection, and ones with the special stop lane or not are considered. The effect of the distance LD between the stop and the intersection on the capacity is studied, with respect to the traffic light cycle T and the bus dwell time Ts. It is found that acting as a bottleneck, the bus stop near the intersection causes the drop of the capacity. The negative effect only appears below a critical point LDc, which is related to the T and the Ts in no stop lane cases. The larger T and Ts have the tendency to create the higher loss of the capacity. While for stop lane cases, the critical value LDc changes little. Comparisons among four cases suggest that the special stop lane can effectively enhance the capacity, and the downstream stops perform better than the upstream ones at small LD or small T or large Ts. The results imply that the capacity can be maximized by adjusting both the position of the bus stop and the cycle time, or adding a special stop lane. These findings may be useful to offer scientific guidance for the management and the design of traffic networks.

  17. An engine start/stop strategy for a hybrid city bus

    OpenAIRE

    Rockström, Robin

    2009-01-01

    The heavy vehicle industry is constantly trying to improve fuel economy, reduce emissions and noise. The introduction of hybrid technology offers the possibility to take a big step forward in this area. One feature that the hybridization provides is to automatically turn off the combustion engine when it is not needed. This thesis work was performed at Scania CV AB and the aim was to evaluate if start/stop can be implemented into Scania’s series hybrid powertrain for city buses. The secondary...

  18. Combinatorial Optimization Model of Bus Stop in BRT Station-group%BRT车站组的线路停靠组合优化模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培群; 徐建闽

    2011-01-01

    In order to relieve the problem that queuing for bus stop in the single-lane of bus rapid transit (BRT) station occurs frequently, a combinatorial optimization model of bus stop in BRT station-group was put forward. Firstly, the non-queuing probability model for a single-lane of BRT station was deduced based on queuing theory. Then, a mixed integer programming model of minimizing the queuing probability of bus stop in station-group was proposed. Furthermore, a global-optimal solution algorithm on the basis of distributed parallel-search, and a local-optimal solution algorithm on the basis of greedy strategy were proposed to solve the combinatorial optimization model. Finally, the optimal bus stop program of a typical BRT station-group in Guangzhou was obtained by the proposed method in the example. Using VISSIM software, the optimal program and existing program were simulated. Results show that the proposed method can relieve the queuing situation of bus stop in station effectively.%为了缓解公交车辆进入单车道快速公交(BRT)车站容易出现排队的问题,提出了BRT车站组的线路停靠组合优化模型.首先基于排队论推导出BRT车辆进站不发生排队的概率模型,然后以最小排队概率为目标,提出整个车站组的线路停靠混合整数规划模型,并针对该模型的求解分别给出了一种基于分布式并行搜索的全局最优解算法和一种基于贪心策略的次优解快速算法;最后通过算例计算出广州市某个典型BRT车站组的线路停靠最优方案,利用VISSIM软件对优化方案及现有方案进行了多次仿真.结果表明:所提出的方法能够有效缓解公交车辆的进站排队现象.

  19. BUS 250 Tutorials / bus250dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    TaylorMillers

    2015-01-01

    BUS 250 Entire Course (Ash)   For more course tutorials visit www.bus250.com   BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadership BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 2 Globalization BUS 250 Week 3 Assignment Case Study Government Regulation of To...

  20. Design of E-City Bus Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available E-city bus tracking system will serve as a viable notification system that will effectively assist passengers in making the decision of whether to wait for the bus or not. This system is a standalone system designed to display the real-time location(s of the buses with the use of GSM module technology. The system will consist of an IR transmitter module installed on the buses, receiver boards installed on the bus stops and GSM receiver connected with PC monitoring the whole arrangement. It will also have passenger information system software installed at the bus stops and which will provide user the relevant information regarding all the bus numbers going for his source to destination along with the route details. It will also transmit its bus numbers and route names, with the help of LED transmitter, continuously as soon as the bus comes within the range of the receiver at the bus stop.

  1. BUS 650 UOP Material - bus650dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus650.com BUS 650 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Financial Management in a Firm BUS 650 Week 1 DQ 2 Short Term or Long Term View BUS 650 Week 1 Financial Management Challenges BUS 650 Week 2 DQ 1 Initial Investment BUS 650 Week 2 DQ 2 Managing Earnings BUS 650 Week 2 Return on Investment Education Funding BUS 650 Week 3 DQ 1 GAAP vs. IFRS BUS 650 Week 3 DQ 2 Capital Rationing BUS 650 Week 3 Journal Capital Budgeting BUS 650 Week 3 Management of Working Capital Ca...

  2. BUS 644 Tutorials / bus644dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine384

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus644.com     BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Prod...

  3. BUS 644 Courses / bus644tutordotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus644tutor.com BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Stud  BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Product Design and ...

  4. Analysis on the Influence of Driver Deceleration Behavior During Bus Stop on Fuel Consumption%城市公交司机进站操作特征对油耗影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 陈双喜; 马红杰; 黄登高

    2015-01-01

    The influence of driver behavior on fuel consumption was studied. Based on 100,000 kilometers’ real-time data from a Tianjin bus route,which was collected by a wireless remote monitoring system,a large amount of driver deceleration behavior samples were acquired. The study focuses on the analysis on statistical characteristics of initial velocity and speed range by adopting curve cluster driver features extraction method. Results show that the initial ve-locity accords with normal distribution at the same bus stop,and there exists a narrow deceleration velocity corridor. Statistical analysis on the effect of two drivers’ deceleration operations difference on fuel consumption at the same stop was conducted. Fuel consumption decreased by 12.2% when average engine coast time percentage increased by 46.4%. A GT-SUITE vehicle model was built to verify the relationship between deceleration operations and fuel consumption. By reducing the coast end velocity,fuel economy can be improved.%针对司机驾驶操作差异影响油耗的问题,基于远程监控系统采集的天津市某公交线路超过1×105,km的实车运行数据,提取了大量司机减速行为样本,采用曲线簇截面速度特征量提取的方法,分析了司机进站初始速度和速度运行区间的统计特征;研究了司机在同一站点的进站操作特征差异对油耗的影响,并利用 GT-SUITE 车辆模型,仿真验证了倒拖制动操作对进站油耗的影响.结果表明:同一站点司机进站初始速度符合正态分布,且减速过程存在一个狭窄的速度通道;平均倒拖时间百分比提高46.4%,进站油耗降低12.2%;降低了倒拖结束车速,可以提高进站燃油经济性.

  5. BUS 372 ASH Material - bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky108

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  6. BUS 372 Tutorials / bus372dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine3811

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus372.com       BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 1 The Role of Unionization (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 1 DQ 2 Meeting Member Needs (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 1 Profit Interest and Employee Interest (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 DQ 2 Union Requirements (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Assignment Changing Landscape of Unions (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 2 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 372 Week 3 DQ 1 Strikes (Ash Course) BUS ...

  7. BUS 508 Tutorials / bus508dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    sunshine384

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus508.com       BUS 508 Week 1 Assignment Entrepreneurial Leadership " Five Guys Burgers and Fries: Ingredients for Success BUS 508 Assignment 2:  Competitive Strategies Bus 508 Assignment #3 Forensic Accounting in Practice BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Techolology, marketing, and Security  

  8. BUS 508 STR Material - bus508dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky 101

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus508.com       BUS 508 Week 1 Assignment Entrepreneurial Leadership " Five Guys Burgers and Fries: Ingredients for Success BUS 508 Assignment 2:  Competitive Strategies Bus 508 Assignment #3 Forensic Accounting in Practice BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Techolology, marketing, and Security  

  9. BUS 640 UOP Material - bus640dotcom BUS 644 ASH Material - bus644dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    lucky107

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.bus644.com     BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Prod...

  10. BUS 401 Courses / bus401tutorialdotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus401tutorial.com BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis (Ash Course)  BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments (Ash Co...

  11. BUS 401 COURSES / bus401tutordotcom

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    FOR MORE CLASSES VISIT www.bus401tutor.com   BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis (Ash Course)  BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock (Ash Course) BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments (Ash ...

  12. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  13. The Stop Location Problem with Realistic Traveling Time

    OpenAIRE

    Carrizosa, Emilio; Harbering, Jonas; Schöbel, Anita

    2013-01-01

    International audience In this paper we consider the location of stops along the edges of an already existing public transportation network. This can be the introduction of bus stops along some given bus routes, or of railway stations along the tracks in a railway network. The positive effect of new stops is given by the better access of the customers to the public transport network, while the traveling time increases due to the additional stopping activities of the trains which is a negat...

  14. BUS 660 ASH Course Tutorial / bus660dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 660 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bus660.com   BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1 Leadership Defined BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 2 Education and Experience BUS 66...

  15. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Qiqi Wang; , Wei Zhang; Rendong Yang; Yuanxiu Huang; Lin Zhang; Peishan Ning; Xunjie Cheng; Schwebel, David C; Guoqing Hu; Hongyan Yao

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China. Methods We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city) were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicte...

  16. 公交站名的汉英翻译原则和技巧--以景市公交线路翻译为例%Principles and Techniques Used in Translating Bus -stop Names---A Case Study of Jing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖琳

    2013-01-01

      公交站台名是公示语的一个重要组成部分,主要发挥着指示的交际功能,这类公示语的翻译除必须遵循公示语的一般翻译原则和策略,又具有其自身的翻译特点。从实际翻译经历出发,以景市公交线路英译为例,运用丰富的翻译例证,考查了公交站名的翻译技巧和策略。译者需要综合考查源语的特征和含义,使译文既能符合译入语的表达习惯,又能让读者(听者)易于理解,从而实现这类公示语的交际目的—指示功能。%Bus stop name is an important constituent of public signs ,which plays a role of directing for citizens .On the one hand ,the translation of bus top names into English should follow the general translation principles and techniques ;on the other hand , such kind of translation has its own specific requirements .This paper starts from the writer's own experience in translating the bus stop lines in Jing City , and sets real and rich examples in order to investigate the techniques involved .It is revealed that translators in dealing with such translation work need to take into account the comprehensive meaning and characteristics of bust stop names , and produce reader/listener-friendly target expression for the benefit of receivers'easy understanding so as to achieve the directing function of such public signs .

  17. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  18. BUS 670 ASH Course Tutorial / bus670dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 670 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.bus670.com       BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Liability BUS 670 Week 2 Individual Assignment Negligent Tort BUS ...

  19. BUS 644 ASH Course Tutorial / bus644dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    vasanthi moola

    2015-01-01

    BUS 644 Entire Course (Ash Course) For more course tutorials visit www.bus644.com     BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS...

  20. BUS 250 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SVD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadership BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 2 Globalization BUS 250 Week 3 Assignment Case Study Government Regulation of Tobacco Products BUS 250 Week 3 DQ 2 Economics...

  1. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  2. 浅谈110 kV双电源联络线“远跳”及“母差停信”功能的应用%Application of Remote Tripping and Bus Differential Protection Stops Sending Letters of 1 1 0 kV Double Power Supply Lines of Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 李巧荣

    2014-01-01

    文中以PSL621和 ISA-311G为例阐述了110 kV双电源联络线的“远跳”及“母差停信”原理,并对其功能的应用和实现作了相应的介绍,最后针对110 kV双电源联络线线路死区故障及母线故障时,确保两侧快速可靠切除提出了几点注意事项。%Taking PSL621and ISA-311G as the example,this article elaborated the principle of remote tripping and bus differential protection stops sending letters of 1 1 0 kV double power supply lines of communication,and introduced the function application and the realization.Finally,for 1 1 0 kV double power source lines of communication,when dead area failure and the bus failure,it proposed several matters needing attention to ensure fast and reliable removal on both sides.

  3. BUS 210 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    WVFD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 210 Week 1 DQ1 and DQ2 BUS 210 Week 1 Checkpoint Business Models and Systems (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 1 Knowledge Check BUS 210 Week 2 CheckPoint Business Organization  (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 2 Knowledge Check BUS 210 Week 2 Assignment Evolution of Business Presentation (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 BUS 210 Week 3 CheckPoint Code of Ethics (2 Sets) BUS 210 Week 3 Knowledge Check BUS 2...

  4. BUS 235 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SFVD

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BUS 235 Week 1 DQ 1 Marketing Trends BUS 235 Week 1 DQ 2 Customer Needs and Wants BUS 235 Week 2 DQ 1 Market Research BUS 235 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Loyalty BUS 235 Week 3 DQ 1 Branding Debate BUS 235 Week 3 DQ 2 New Product Development BUS 235 Week 3 Assignment Retail Store (Walmart) BUS 235 Week 4 DQ 1 Price and Ethics BUS 235 Week 4 DQ 2 Service Marketing BUS 235 Week 5 DQ 1 Super Bowl Advertisin...

  5. Stopping Gluinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvanitaki, A.; Dimopoulos, S.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Pierce, A.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, S.; Wacker, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2005-06-29

    Long lived gluinos are the trademark of split susy. They form R-hadrons that, when charged, efficiently lose energy in matter via ionization. Independent of R-spectroscopy and initial hadronization, a fraction of R-hadrons become charged while traversing a detector. This results in a large number of stopped gluinos at present and future detectors. For a 300 GeV gluino, 10{sup 6} will stop each year in LHC detectors, while several hundred stop in detectors during Run II at the Tevatron. The subsequent decays of stopped gluinos produce distinctive depositions of energy in calorimeters with no activity in either the tracker or the muon chamber.

  6. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  7. Common Traffic Violations of Bus Drivers in Urban China: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Wang

    Full Text Available To report common traffic violations in bus drivers and the factors that influence those violations in urban China.We conducted an observational study to record three types of traffic violations among bus drivers in Changsha City, China: illegal stopping at bus stations, violating traffic light signals, and distracted driving. The behaviors of bus drivers on 32 routes (20% of bus routes in the city were observed. A two-level Poisson regression examined factors that predicted bus driver violations.The incidence of illegal stopping at bus stations was 20.2%. Illegal stopping was less frequent on weekends, sunny days, and at stations with cameras, with adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs of 0.81, 0.65 and 0.89, respectively. The incidence of violating traffic light signals was 2.2%, and was lower on cloudy than sunny days (adjusted IRR: 0.60. The incidence of distracted driving was 3.3%. The incidence of distracted driving was less common on cloudy days, rainy or snowy days, and foggy/windy/dusty days compared to sunny days, with adjusted IRRs of 0.54, 0.55 and 0.07, respectively.Traffic violations are common in bus drivers in urban China and they are associated with the date, weather, and presence of traffic cameras at bus station. Further studies are recommended to understand the behavioral mechanisms that may explain bus driver violations and to develop feasible prevention measures.

  8. Parameterizable Wishbone Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Fawzi, Omar; Alagedi, Alfiqar

    2012-01-01

    In the industry of intellectual property products "IP-cores", a communication link is almost always needed. A semiconductor intellectual property IP core is a reusable unit of logic in electronic design. IP cores are used as building blocks for ASIC chip design or FPGA logic designs. A bus creates a communication link between the IP cores in a system. The company AnaCatum Design AB have many projects where a bus is needed. Creating a new bus structure for every project is time consuming. By h...

  9. The erigone bus study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made of some factors determining the performance and cost-effectiveness of microcomputer bus systems implemented in Europa crates. An experimental system has been specified and a number of modules constructed in accordance with the specification, in order to test the validity of some of the ideas proposed. It has been demonstrated that the bus interfacing logic can be simple and inexpensive, while maintaining a high degree of processor independence and also a high degree of transparency in operation. The number of pins required by the bus is minimized by multiplexing address and data. A series termination for the drive of the multiplexed lines permits cross-talk to be reduced to insignificant levels: this technique is recommended for wider application. The experimental bus is proposed as a basis for the construction of simple microcomputer-based instrumentation systems. (orig.)

  10. Bus.py

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  11. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  12. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  13. Optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Jiang; Yulin Chang

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee bus priority with a minimum impact on car traffic at intersections, an optimal control system of the intermittent bus-only approach (IBA) was proposed. The problems of the existing system are first solved through optimization: the judgment time of the IBA system was advanced to allow a bus to jump car queues if the bus was detected to arrive at the intersection, and the instant that the IBA lane became available to cars was controlled dynamically to increase the capacity of the IBA lane. The total car delay in one cycle was then analyzed quantitatively when implementing the optimal control system. The results show that in comparison with the existing system of the IBA, the car delay is greatly reduced and the probability of a car stopping twice is low after optimizing the IBA system.

  14. BUS 660 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

      www.uophelp.com         BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1 Leadership Defined BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 2 Education and Experience BUS 660 Week 2 DQ 1 Lea...

  15. BusTechn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Introduced the characteristics of series communicat io n I 2C bus and basic communication protocol, and introduced the application of the bus I 2C according to the image sensor OV7610.The computer correspondence s tyle can be divided the parallel correspondence and the series correspondence. T he rate of series correspondence is rapid, and the property of real time is exce llent. Because the number of ports which it takes is great, it is not proper to miniaturize. Whereas the rate of series corresponden...

  16. BUS 644 (New) Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com       BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 1 Suppliers BUS 644 Week 3 DQ 2 Forecasting Methods BUS 644 Week 3 Outsourcing BUS 644 Week 4 DQ 1 Process Selection Product Design and Capacity BUS 64...

  17. BUS 370 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

     For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 370 Week 1 DQ 1 TGIF BUS 370 Week 1 DQ 2 Corporate Culture BUS 370 Week 2 DQ 1 Managing Change BUS 370 Week 2 DQ 2 Diagnostic Models BUS 370 Week 3 DQ 1 The Farm Bank BUS 370 Week 3 DQ 2 Communication Processes BUS 370 Week 3 Real World Application of OD Principles BUS 370 Week 4 DQ 1 Goal Setting Model BUS 370 Week 4 DQ 2 Self-Managed Work Teams BUS 370 Week 5 DQ 1 Lafarge BUS...

  18. BUS 600 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 600 Week 1 Assignment Vision Statement BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 1 Importance of Communication BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 2 Ashford Learning Resources BUS 600 Week 2 Assignment Topic Thesis Statement for Research Paper BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 1 Reducing Communication Barriers BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 2 Intercultural Communication Competence BUS 600 Week 3 Assignment Communications Skill Assessment BUS 600 Week 3 DQ 1 Technol...

  19. BUS 600 ASH COURSE TUTORIAL/UOPHELP

    OpenAIRE

    MADHU

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit   www.uophelp.com   BUS 600 Week 1 Assignment Vision Statement BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 1 Importance of Communication BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 2 Ashford Learning Resources BUS 600 Week 2 Assignment Topic Thesis Statement for Research Paper BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 1 Reducing Communication Barriers BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 2 Intercultural Communication Competence BUS 600 Week 3 Assignment Communications Skill Assessment BUS 600 Week 3 D...

  20. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  1. BUS 401 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 1 Corporate Income Tax and Real Interest Rates BUS 401 Week 1 DQ 2 Cash Flow and Ratio Analysis BUS 401 Week 1 Assignment Ratio Analysis BUS 401 Week 1 Quiz BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 1 Annuity and Capital Asset Pricing BUS 401 Week 2 DQ 2 Bonds and Common Stock BUS 401 Week 2 Assignment Alternative Investments BUS 401 Week 2 Quiz BUS 401 Week 3 DQ 1 NPV, PI, and IRR BUS 401 Week 3 ...

  2. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  3. BUS 435(ASH) UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 1 DQ 1 New or Established Venture?   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Opportunity   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 1 Business Research   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 2 DQ 1 Franchising   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 2 DQ 2 Legal Forms   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 2 Business Concept   ASHFORD BUS 435 Week 3 DQ...

  4. BUS 437 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 Assignment Company Description ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 1 Writing the Business Plan ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 2 Using Outside Help to Write the Plan ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Section ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 1 Customer Survey ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 2 Industry Analysis ASHFORD BUS 437 Week 3 Assignment Strategy...

  5. Bus rapid transit

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Lloyd

    2002-01-01

    Effective public transit is central to development. For the vast majority of developing city residents, public transit is the only practical means to access employment, education, and public services, especially when such services are beyond the viable distance of walking or cycling. Unfortunately, the current state of public transit services in developing cities often does little to serve the actual mobility needs of the population. Bus services are too often unreliable, inconvenient and ...

  6. Circuit breaker and bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two close-open operations are required each pulse cycle at approximately 3 MA with the breaker in series with the burn supply, both forming a leg in parallel with the E-coil and the homopolar. To conduct the 3-MA current, approximately 30 breaker units are connected in parallel. Each unit is equipped with a counterpulse capacitor bank, and the bus for the 30 units is provided with a common saturable reactor core made of strip steel wound around the bus. Oil breakers of a special design are chosen because of their high arc resistance facilitating the current transfer to the homopolar machine and for obtaining precision timing in opening and closing of the contacts. The precision timing is achieved by a shock wave method with the oil serving as hydraulic medium. Each of the parallel breaker units possesses two sets of contacts, a stationary and a transient one. A 1-mΩ resistor in series with the transient contacts of each breaker unit is to improve the current sharing. The bus consists of room temperature copper, stranded and transposed to help provide current equalization under transient conditions

  7. BUS 402 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp-

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 1 Environmental Changes BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Vision and Mission BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 1 Components of External Environment  BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 2 Components of Internal Analysis BUS 402 Week 2 Assignment Starbucks S.W.O.T. Analysis BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 1 Market Positioning Strategies BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 2 Vertical Integration BUS 402 Week 4 DQ 1 International Markets BUS 40...

  8. BUS 642 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com     BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 1 Scientific Thinking (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 DQ 2 Making Research Decisions (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 1 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethics in Business Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 DQ 2 Design of Research (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 2 Exercises (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 1 Measurement Scales (Ash Course) BUS 642 Week 3 DQ 2 Clarifying the Research Questions (Ash Course) BUS...

  9. BUS 330 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 1 Role of the Marketing Function BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 2 Products and Services BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 1 Product Life Cycle BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Usage Categories BUS 330 Week 3 DQ 1 Customer Relationship Management BUS 330 Week 3 DQ 2 Demographics and Trends BUS 330 Week 3 Written Assignment (Dramatic Youth Population) BUS 330 Week 4 DQ 1 Functions of Marketing Management BUS 330 ...

  10. BUS 437 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 437 Week 1 Assignment Company Description BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 1 Writing the Business Plan BUS 437 Week 1 DQ 2 Using Outside Help to Write the Plan BUS 437 Week 2 Assignment Marketing Section BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 1 Customer Survey BUS 437 Week 2 DQ 2 Industry Analysis BUS 437 Week 3 Assignment Strategy, Implementation, & Management Sections BUS 437 Week 3 DQ 1 Implementation BUS 437 Week 3 DQ ...

  11. Enhanced bus operations: the Curitiba model and its applicability to China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.G.H. [Newcastle Univ., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Transport Operations

    2001-09-30

    Rail transportation offers a higher carrying capacity in addition to its better quality of service than bus transportation. However, rail transportation is rather inflexible and costly, ensuring that bus transportation will remain a major factor in the developing and developed world. In this paper, the author examined the possibility for the transfer of the advantages of rail transport to bus operations, after careful review of the Curitiba model in Brazil, which operates a tube station system. Some of the characteristics of the Curitiba system are its enclosed stations rather than bus stops, ticket purchase on entering the station, at-grade access to the buses, long buses with multiple doors, and the extensive use of bus lanes. A particular aspect that was looked at was the use of smartcards for payment in a closed fare system, as well as other transport telematics. Its potential applicability to China was examined and assessed, from the perspective of toll road construction. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  12. 75 FR 5847 - Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative and Urban Circulator Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) announced on December 8, 2009, the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant and New Starts funds in support of the Department of Transportation's Livability Initiative (``Livability Bus Program''). The Livability Bus Program is funded using $150 million in unallocated Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program funds,......

  13. 75 FR 23843 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... initiative. The SGR Bus initiative will make funds available to public transit providers to finance capital... transportation, or private non-profit organizations. Projects eligible for funding under the SGR Bus initiative... Initiative Funds: Solicitation of Project Proposals. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration...

  14. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  15. BUS 611 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 611 Week 1 Assignment Article Review (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 2 Assignment Project Risk (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 3 Assignment WBS (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 4 Assignment Integrated Project Management Tools (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 5 Assignment Monthly Status Reports (Ash Course) BUS 611 Week 6 Final Research Paper (Ash Course)  

  16. BUS 508 STR course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 508 Assignment 1 Entrepreneurial Leadership BUS 508 Assignment 2 Diversification Strategies (Wallmart and Kmart) BUS 508 Week 3 Assignment Production and Operations Management Marathon Oil BUS 508 Assignment 3 Using Teams in Production and Operations Management Boeing Co BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Technology, Marketing, and Security (Sony Corp) BUS 508 Assignment 5 Financial Management (Pepsi and Coc...

  17. BUS 330 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                      For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+     ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 1 Role of the Marketing Function ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 1 DQ 2 Products and Services ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 1 Product Life Cycle ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Usage Categories ASHFORD BUS 330 Week 3 DQ 1 Customer Relationship Management ASHFORD BUS...

  18. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  19. BUS 620 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 1 The Future of the New York Times (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 1 Braining Nordstrom (Ash Course) BUS 620 Week 3 DQ 2 Marketing Segmentat...

  20. Natural gas powered bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project carried out by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich to evaluate the performance of a natural-gas-powered bus in comparison with two diesel buses. The report provides details on the vehicles, their routes and the results of interviews made with both passengers and drivers. Details of measurements made on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions are presented in tabular and graphical form, as are those made on noise emissions inside and outside the vehicles. The conclusions of the project are presented including economic aspects of using gas as a motor fuel. Also, the views of passengers, who were more concerned with comfort aspects, and drivers, who were more interested in technical aspects, are quoted

  1. Hybrid fuel cell bus demonstration: advanced technology moves bus forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Manitoba has been actively pursuing hydrogen since 2001 as one part of a portfolio of renewable energy alternatives. Six priority hydrogen actions have been underway covering a variety of opportunities, including two recently completed major transit bus and refueling demonstrations. A brief overview of Manitoba's activities on hydrogen will be provided, emphasizing the lessons learned from recent projects such as the hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration, and in particular implications for the research community. (author)

  2. BUS 508 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 508 Week 1 Assignment Entrepreneurial Leadership " Five Guys Burgers and Fries: Ingredients for Success BUS 508 Assignment 2:  Competitive Strategies Bus 508 Assignment #3 Forensic Accounting in Practice BUS 508 Assignment 4 Internet Techolology, marketing, and Security    

  3. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  4. Characterisation of an urban bus network for environmental purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Michel; Villanova, André

    2004-12-01

    Since pollutant emissions are closely related to the operating conditions of vehicles, their evaluation usually involves studying these operating conditions (through bus instrumentation and monitoring under actual operation), the design of representative driving or engine test cycles and the measurement of pollutant emissions. A preliminary characterisation of the routes on a bus network should make it possible to identify typical routes, the driving conditions and pollutant emissions of which are then studied. Two approaches are envisaged and applied to the Paris area, for which a wealth of information is available, which should be transferable to other bus networks. Both approaches are based on factorial analysis and automatic clustering, to allow optimum description and the identification of a pertinent typology of the bus routes in several classes. The first attempt at characterisation is based on statistics relating to bus operations: route characteristics (length, dedicated bus lanes, number of stops, location of stops: schools, tourist sites, hospitals, railways or underground stations), travel time, commercial speed, annual statistics (number of passengers, number of vehicles per hour, total kilometres), the irregularity of travel (variation of travel times, injuries, congestion.), as well as information on the problems encountered (congestion, distribution of the passenger load, junctions, bends). A second approach is based on the analysis of the "urban context" in which buses are driven. Population, employment, housing, road network, traffic and places that generate or disturb traffic (schools, railway stations, shopping areas, etc.) are calculated for the Ile de France region, by cells of 100 x 100 m, and collected in a geographical information system (GIS). Statistical analyses enable a typology of these urban cells to be established, the main parameters being density, type of housing, road types and traffic levels. The bus routes are then analysed

  5. BUS 402 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    jonh

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 1 Environmental Changes ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 1 DQ 2 Vision and Mission ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 1 Components of External Environment ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 DQ 2 Components of Internal Analysis ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 2 Assignment Starbucks S.W.O.T. Analysis ASHFORD BUS 402 Week 3 DQ 1 Market Positioning Strategies ASHFORD BUS 402 W...

  6. BUS 670 Ash course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    huphelp

    2015-01-01

    www.uophelp.com     BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law  BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law  BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law  BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business  BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Liability  BUS 670 Week 2 Individual Assignment Negligent Tort  BUS 670 Week 3 DQ 1 Regulation and the G...

  7. Platform Screen Doors Enhanced Bus Rapid Transit Intelligent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the last straw to clutch at to solve the urban traffic issue, to develop high-capacity rapid transit and promote transit priority. Characterized by low cost, short construction cycle and flexible development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has been favored by more and more cities in the world. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs system is an important component at BRT stations, and it is original motive to be designed to satisfy the growing demand from BRT application to provide increased safety and comfort in the first. With the continual increased demand for BRT intelligent performance, the PSDs system is applied to get Bus Location Information with accurate position of arrival and departure at stop, to provide Real-Time Information (RTI for BRT passengers using PSDs/GPS compound location technology, to put into practice Bus Fleet Management (BFM. Considering the capability of accurate location, it can be applied to actualize Bus Sign Priority in the future. The authors are luck to take in part the practice of BRT system, especially in the BRT intelligent systems, the papers will introduce upwards application and conceive in detail.

  8. BUS 250 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                     For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 1 Business & Society ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 DQ 2 Business & Accountability ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 1 Case Study A Brawl in Mickey's Backyard 1 ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 2 Assignment Case Study Alcoa's Core Values in Practice ASHFORD BUS 250 Week 2 DQ 1 Ethical Leadersh...

  9. BUS 599 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com   BUS 599 Week 1 Assignment Crafting and Executing Strategy Case JetBlue Airways BUS 599 Assignment #2 Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis # Case Whole Foods Market BUS 599 Week 3 Assignment Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Case Corona Beer BUS 599 Week 4 Assignment HRM Issues Diversification Strategies Case Nucor Corporation BUS 599 Week 5 Assignment Corporate Culture Leadership Actions for Strategy Imp...

  10. BUS 501 Str course tutorial / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophel

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BUS 501 Week 3 Assignment 1 The Independent Government Cost Estimate and the Statement of Work (Str Course) BUS 501 Week 4 Assignment 2 Types of Contracts and Performance-Based Acquisition (Str Course) BUS 501 Week 7 Assignment 3 Small Business Program and Source Selection Plans (Str Course) BUS 501 Assignment 4 Technical and Cost or Price Evaluations and Price Reasonableness (Str Course) BUS 501 Wee...

  11. Hydrogen Bus Technology Validation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Andy; McCaffrey, Zach; Miller, Marshall; Collier, Kirk; Mulligan, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Heavy duty engines are substantial contributors to NOX and PM emissions inventories in urban areas, and stringent emissions standards have been adopted as a consequence. CARB has passed very strict emissions standards for heavy duty engines beginning in 2007. Meeting these standards, especially for NOX emissions, may be difficult for conventional transit bus technologies. The purpose of the Hydrogen Bus Technology Evaluation Program was to develop and evaluate hydrogen enriched natural gas (H...

  12. Impact of a walking school bus program on children's active commuting to school and physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walking School Buses (WSB) are groups of students, led to and from school by adults, in which students are picked up at designated "bus stops". The impact of WSB programs on students' active commuting to school (walking/cycling to school, ACS), and moderate-to vigorous-physical activity (MVPA) has n...

  13. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  14. BUS 210 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

                      For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 6 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 210 Week 1 DQ1 and DQ2 (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 1 Checkpoint Business Models and Systems (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 2 CheckPoint Business Organization (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 2 Assignment Evolution of Business Presentation (UOP Course) BUS 210 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 (UOP Course) BUS 210 W...

  15. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  16. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  17. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  18. Pybus - A Python Software Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user

  19. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  20. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  1. BUS 600 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    ben

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 5 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 600 Week 1 Assignment Vision Statement BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 1 Importance of Communication BUS 600 Week 1 DQ 2 Ashford Learning Resources BUS 600 Week 2 Assignment Topic Thesis Statement for Research Paper BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 1 Reducing Communication Barriers BUS 600 Week 2 DQ 2 Intercultural Communication Competence BUS 600 Week 3 Assignment Communications...

  2. BUS 620 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    atwater

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 1 What is Marketing   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 DQ 2 Marketing Strategies   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 1 Assignment Tesco Case   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 1 Buyer Behavior   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 DQ 2 Customer Needs   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 2 Industry Forecasting   ASHFORD BUS 620 Week 3...

  3. BUS 660 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 660 Week 1 Assignment Developing Leaders at UPS  BUS 660 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Style  BUS 660 Week 3 Assignment Leadership Traits  BUS 660 Week 4 Assignment Leadership Skills  BUS 660 Week 5 Assignment Big Changes for a Small Hospital  BUS 660 Week 6 Assignment Research Paper BUS 660 Week 1 DQ 1Leadership Defined BU...

  4. BUS 644 (New) ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    ashford

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating:  A+     ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethical Issues and Operations (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 1 DQ 2 Business Processes (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 1 Midas Case Study (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 1 Productivity (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Design and Quality (New) ASHFORD BUS 644 Week 2 Memorial Hospital Case Study (New) ASHFORD BUS...

  5. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  6. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  7. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  8. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  9. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  10. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  11. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  12. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  13. Bus transport in Greater Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    . Important elements have been: Division of previously horizontal integrated organisations, corporatisation, privatisation, public-private partnerships, tendering and management by goals and results. The main purpose of the NPM reforms has been to increase the efficiency, effectiveness and accountability of...... first component regards the organisation of public bus transport at the local level. This involves the deregulation and privatisation reforms introduced by the Conservative Government from 1986 onwards, as well as the ‘partnerships’ and other new instruments introduced by the Labour Government in the...

  14. Sneaky light stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Eifert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  15. BUS 670 ASH Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    kuran

    2015-01-01

    ASHFORD BUS 670 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+     ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 ...

  16. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  17. Modeling a bus through a sequence of traffic lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Jorge; Muñoz, Víctor; Rogan, José; Zarama, Roberto; Penagos, Juan Felipe; Toledo, Benjamín; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

    2015-07-01

    We propose a model of a bus traveling through a sequence of traffic lights, which is required to stop between the traffic signals to pick up passengers. A two dimensional model, of velocity and traveled time at each traffic light, is constructed, which shows non-trivial and chaotic behaviors for realistic city traffic parameters. We restrict the parameter values where these non-trivial and chaotic behaviors occur, by following analytically and numerically the fixed points and period 2 orbits. We define conditions where chaos may arise by determining regions in parameter space where the maximum Lyapunov exponent is positive. Chaos seems to occur as long as the ratio of the braking and accelerating capacities are greater than about ˜3.

  18. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  19. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  20. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  1. Should Exam Be Stopped?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢连香

    2006-01-01

    The exam system has come to be the main topic of modern education.As it plays so important a role in the area of education that it is under much discussion as to its use.People who are for it try to develop this system more;those who are against it believe that such a system should be stopped.Should exam be stopped?In my opinion it should be.Firstly,a number of people think that an exam is the only way to test knowledge,but,in fact,that is not true.A few questions given in an exam could in no way cover the ...

  2. The stop on top

    CERN Document Server

    Zakareishvili, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric partners of the top quark have been sought since the top quark has been discovered at the Tevatron. The searches are more easily performed in scenarios where the mass splitting between the top and the stop is large and where differences in kinematics are striking. The region in which top and stop are almost degenerate in mass is more difficult to explore experimentally as the final state kinematics are very similar, apart from angular-related distributions which reflect the spin/parity difference between the two particles. Usually the searches are performed looking for deviations on the measured top-quark pair production cross section with respect to the standard model prediction, or looking to simple variables such as the difference in the azimuthal angle between two leptons produced after top quark decays.

  3. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  4. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  5. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  6. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  7. Determinants of spikes in ultrafine particle concentration whilst commuting by bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shanon; Dirks, Kim N.; Salmond, Jennifer A.; Xie, Shanju

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) based on data collected using high-resolution UFP monitors whilst travelling by bus during rush hour along three different urban routes in Auckland, New Zealand. The factors influencing in-bus UFP concentration were assessed using a combination of spatial, statistical and GIS analysis techniques to determine both spatial and temporal variability. Results from 68 bus trips showed that concentrations varied more within a route than between on a given day, despite differences in urban morphology, land use and traffic densities between routes. A number of trips were characterised by periods of very rapid increases in UFPs (concentration 'spikes'), followed by slow declines. Trips which recorded at least one spike (an increase of greater than 10,000 pt/cm3) resulted in significantly higher mean concentrations. Spikes in UFPs were significantly more likely to occur when travelling at low speeds and when passengers were alighting and boarding at bus stops close to traffic light intersections.

  8. BUS 599 STRAYER Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    alfonos

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+ STRAYER BUS 599 Week 1 Assignment Crafting and Executing Strategy Case JetBlue Airways STRAYER BUS 599 Week 2 Assignment Competitive Forces and SWOT Analysis Case Whole Foods Market STRAYER BUS 599 Week 3 Assignment Foreign Market Entry and Diversification Case Corona Beer STRAYER BUS 599 Week 4 Assignment HRM Issues Diversification Strategies Case Nucor Corporation STRAYER BUS 5...

  9. BUS 670 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    bertoz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+     ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 1 Constitutional and Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 DQ 2 Ethics and Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 1 Individual Assignment Legal Underpinnings of Business Law ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 1 Crimes That Harm Business Versus Crimes Committed by Business ASHFORD BUS 670 Week 2 DQ 2 Product Liability ASHFORD...

  10. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  11. Bus Network Modeling Using Ant Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sepideh Eshragh; Shahriar Afandizadeh Zargari; Ardeshir Faghri; Earl Rusty Lee

    2010-01-01

    Bus transit network modeling is a complex and combinatorial problem. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a contemporary method for designing a bus transit network with the objective of achieving optimum results. The method is called Ant Algorithms, a Meta Heuristic method, which has been applied to optimization problems in transportation with noticeable success. The description of the algorithm, as well as the main methodology and computations, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, ...

  12. Hydrogen hybrid internal combustion engine transit bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Province of Manitoba has been actively pursuing hydrogen since 2001 as one part of a portfolio of renewable energy alternatives. Six priority hydrogen actions have been underway covering a variety of opportunities, including two recently completed major transit bus and refueling demonstrations. A brief overview of Manitoba's activities on hydrogen will be provided, emphasizing the lessons learned from recent projects such as the hydrogen Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus demonstration, and in particular implications for the research community. (author)

  13. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  14. The Brain Never Stops

    OpenAIRE

    Sadaghiani, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Your brain is doing a lot of work when you are engaged in activities such as sports, playing a game, or watching a movie. Your brain is also a master of associating one thought with another and making your mind wander. But what does your brain do when you are not engaged in particular thoughts or actions? Interestingly, similar to the heart that always keeps beating, the brain never stops its activity. For example, your brain is highly active even when you are fast asleep. In fact, brain cell...

  15. Gentlemen, stop your engines!

    OpenAIRE

    Haworth, Guy McCrossan

    2007-01-01

    For fifty years, computer chess has pursued an original goal of Artificial Intelligence, to produce a chess-engine to compete at the highest level. The goal has arguably been achieved, but that success has made it harder to answer questions about the relative playing strengths of man and machine. The proposal here is to approach such questions in a counter-intuitive way, handicapping or stopping-down chess engines so that they play less well. The intrinsic lack of man-machine games may be ...

  16. Connectivity correlations in three topological spaces of urban bus-transport networks in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yong-Zhou; Fu Chun-Hua; Chang Hui; Li Nan; He Da-Ren

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,an empirical investigation is presented,which focuses on unveiling the universality of connectivity correlations in three spaces(the route space,the stop geographical space and bus-transferring space)of urban bus-transport networks(BTNs)in four major cities of China.The underlying features of the connectivity correlations are shown in two statistical ways.One is the correlation between the(weighted)average degree of all the nearest neighbouring vertices with degree k,(Kw nn(k))Knn(k),and k,and the other is the correlations between the aesortativity coefficient r and,respectively,the network size N,the network diameter D,the averaged clustering coefficient C,and the averaged distance .The obtained results show qualitatively the same connectivity correlations of all the considered cities under all the three spaces.

  17. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this. PMID:25597722

  18. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  19. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... fosters sustainability and the development of urban and rural land use. Through Bus Livability Initiative... Programs (State of Good Repair and Bus Livability Initiatives) and Clean Fuels Grant Program, Augmented...), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Funding Availability for FTA State of Good Repair, Livability,...

  20. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  1. Stop the RIKA BANARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshio

    Children who want to study science & technology are decreasing continuously in Japan. This phenomenon is so called “Rika Banare” meaning literally science apart. Then, the number of students aiming at being engineers is decreasing. This will be a threat for Japanese industry. Many science & technology events are being held everywhere in Japan to overcome Rika Banare. However, most of them leave no sustainable influence over the students who reach to high school age. The reason why Rika Banare takes place is discussed. Then, it is insisted that the promotion of the attractive features of engineering career is important as well as improvement of the education system. In this article, eight proposals to stop Rika Banare are presented. Five of them are related to education system and the rest three to the improvement of social status of engineers.

  2. Current stopping power analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modified Bethe-Bloch stopping power theory permits fairly accurate calculation of energy losses over a broad interval of projectile velocity v = νc insofar as several parameters appearing in the revised Bethe-Bloch formula have been corectly evaluated. Since the parameters cannot in general be ascertained by calculation from first principles, fits of theory to measurement remain the best method of evaluation. The parameters alluded to are: the target mean excitation energy; the shell correction scaling parameters; the composite single free parameter of the Barkas (projectile-z3) effect correction formalism, and the strength of the correction term; the high velocity density effect correction parameter; and the low velocity charge state parameter. These parameters are discussed

  3. BUS 630 ASHFORD Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    avery

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+ ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 1 Assignment Case 2B Mendel Paper Company (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 1 DQ 1 Ethics in Cost Control (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 1 DQ 2 Fixed and Variable costs (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 2 DQ 1 Product costs (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 2 DQ 2 Job Order Costing vs. Proess Costing (Old) ASHFORD BUS 630 Week 2 Assignment Case 3A (Auerbach Enterprises) (Old) ...

  4. Binary theory of electronic stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Sigmund, P

    2002-01-01

    Binary stopping theory has been developed to characterize the electronic stopping of swift heavy ions in matter. It is an extension of Bohr's classical theory of 1913 incorporating screening, higher-order-Z sub 1 and shell corrections, high-speed quantum and relativity corrections as well as projectile excitation and ionization. The main numerical input comes from optical properties. The computation of shell corrections involves orbital velocity distributions of target and projectile electrons. Calculated stopping parameters depend on ion charge. Equilibrium stopping forces may be computed by adoption of a suitable model for the equilibrium charge state. This paper summarizes the current status of the theory, in particular the sensitivity of its predictions to pertinent input. Charge-dependent stopping forces have been calculated for selected systems and compared to experimental results. Equilibrium stopping forces calculated for a wide variety of ion-target combinations are compared with experimental data fr...

  5. Stopping powers for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report re-examines the prospects for a general heavy-ion stopping power table in the light of new experimental stopping power measurements. The question of oscillations in the dependence of the stopping powers on both the projectile, Z1, and the material, Z2, is examined. We can find no evidence for higher order corrections such as the Z13-effect. (author)

  6. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Gil; Park, Gang Min; Lee, Myeong Kyun; Yoo, Kwan Woo; Yun, Dong Hwa [Research Institute, PONUTech, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus.

  7. Designing Bus Structure for Digital Controller of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the bus structure design for the digital controller of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is proposed. The most important portion is the bus in the digital controller. A bus is responsible for transmission data among the various Input/Output (I/O) board, Processor board and Communication board. An existing bus is a parallel bus structure such as the VERSA Module Euro (VME) bus and an extended Static Random Access Memory (SRAM) Controller. Central Processing Unit (CPU) processing speed and communication speed is faster than before, but the parallel bus has a speed limit. Because it is the physically lines shared and the weakness about reflected wave. That is, use of the parallel bus has been the cause of the performance degradation of system. To solve the parallel bus problem, the bus has been developed by serial. The configuration of transceiver logic was simplified by not share the bus that all boards and processor boards was connected to the point-to-point. Serial bus was configured using physically Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS). The speed limit of bus was broken by the LVDS what is consisted of a strong against the reflected-wave of signal, noise and etc. Each channel of bus has a different speed mode and is able to set a required transmission way. Different transmission ways of each channel are able to transmit data to match the required response time of system. The LVDS speed has about basically 1Gbps but the bus was composed with less than 50Mbps considering the environmental characteristics of nuclear. It was shown that the configuration of the serial bus was the performance and the reliability more improving than parallel bus

  8. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  9. Notes on the fast bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In any system there will be modules that gather and process data from the experiment's detectors and perhaps from other sources such as the accelerator control system or monitoring system. In order to have a general system these modules must be able to communicate with each other and perhaps with a host computer or a group of controlling computers. A very general communications system is the bus system, used in computers, in which all devices are connected in parallel to a group of lines, typically 50 to 100. By means of a protocol of communication on some of these lines, a device that wants to control the bus makes its wishes known. If the device is the highest priority one currently asking for the bus, it gains bus mastership and then signals another device that it wants to communicate with by means of a set of address lines. This system works very well in a computer that includes a processor, memory, and peripheral devices; its disadvantage is that only one device can be bus master at a time and only one communication can take place at a time. The proposed solution to this problem is to segment the bus so that each segment can operate independently without interfering with another one. This allows a large amount of parallel operation. It is, of course, necessary for one segment to communicate with other ones at some point in the process, and this is achieved by a device called the segment interconnect (SI). Much of the character of the system will be determined by the details of the SI. One possibility is a device that passes information only when the address falls within a band of values (or perhaps several bands); details of its specification are being worked on now

  10. The Bus Stops Here: The Case for Biodiesel in School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that diesel exhaust from most of the nation's school buses may be hazardous to children's health. Documents studies on the nature and potential magnitude of the risk to children and proposes replacing petroleum diesel with biodiesel as the fuel for school buses. Presents the merits and practicality of switching to biodiesel as a healthier…

  11. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  12. Secure Bus-Ticketing System using NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For making the day to day life more convenient for the passengers travelling in bus some technologies can be used like Near Field Communication (NFC, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID. The proposed system is based on ticketing and identification of passengers in public transport. The system suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passengers fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passengers detail information. The system also helps to calculate the total revenue of a single bus in a day. Another important aspect is reusability, which helps use ticket multiple times as it is rechargeable.

  13. NOC AND BUS ARCHITECTURE: A COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJEEV KAMAL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Network-on-chip designs promise to offer considerable advantages over the traditional bus-based architecture. As continuing scaling of Moore’s law enables ever greater transistor densities, design complexity, power limitations and application convergence networks have started to replace busses in much smaller systems and the enhancement of NoC. This paper summarizes the advantages of the NoC and the limitations of traditional bus based architecture. In this paper we discuss a detailed comparison of area, power, scalability andperformance of traditional busses in comparison with NoC.

  14. Bus Network Modeling Using Ant Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Eshragh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bus transit network modeling is a complex and combinatorial problem. The main purpose of this paper is to apply a contemporary method for designing a bus transit network with the objective of achieving optimum results. The method is called Ant Algorithms, a Meta Heuristic method, which has been applied to optimization problems in transportation with noticeable success. The description of the algorithm, as well as the main methodology and computations, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, a case study using Ant Algorithms applied to the city of Ghazvin, one of the most important suburbs of Tehran, Iran, is presented.

  15. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska; Jadwiga Siedlecka; Elżbieta Gadzicka; Agata Szyjkowska; Marta Dania; Piotr Viebig; Marcin Kosobudzki; Alicja Bortkiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years). Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before...

  16. Implementing a Large Data Bus VLIW Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Weng F. Lee; Ali Y.M. Shakaff

    2008-01-01

    Microprocessors have grown tremendously in its computing and data crunching capability since the early days of the invention of a microprocessor. Today, most microprocessors in the market are at 32 bits, while the latest microprocessors from IBM, Intel and AMD are at 64 bits. To further grow the computational capability of a microprocessor, there are two possible paths. One method is to increase the data bus size of the microprocessor to 128/256/512 bits. The larger the data bus size, the mor...

  17. BHLS, Bus, tram: tesi, antitesi, sintesi.

    OpenAIRE

    López Lambas, Maria Eugenia; Valdés Serrano, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Il sistema di trasporto detto Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) è stato lanciato a Curitiba, in Brasile, nel 1974 per offrire un trasporto in bus efficiente ed efficace nella città in rapida espansione. Questa sperienza, insieme a quella di Ottawa (1983) e Quito (1994) ha dimostrato di essere una soluzione molto efficiente per il trasporto di massa. Per tutta l’Europa si sono iniziate a sviluppare esperienze simili, introducendo però un concetto diverso per quanto riguarda la qualità di servizio. In...

  18. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  19. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  20. Second Stop and Sbottom Searches with a Stealth Stop

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Qin, Qin

    2016-01-01

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes $\\tilde{t}_2 \\to \\tilde{t}_1 Z$ and $\\tilde{t}_2 \\to \\tilde{t}_1 h$. However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays $\\tilde{t}_2 \\to \\tilde{b}_1 W$ and $\\tilde{b}_1 \\to \\tilde{t}_1 W$ as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there ar...

  1. High quality joints of copper bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bhattacharyya,

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Efficient joints in copper bus bar conductors can be made very simply by bolting and clamping. This paper proposes the method to maximize the jointing efficiency in order to eliminate hot spots in switchgears by optimizing the effect of spreading resistance and interface resistance.

  2. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  3. Implementing a Large Data Bus VLIW Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng F. Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microprocessors have grown tremendously in its computing and data crunching capability since the early days of the invention of a microprocessor. Today, most microprocessors in the market are at 32 bits, while the latest microprocessors from IBM, Intel and AMD are at 64 bits. To further grow the computational capability of a microprocessor, there are two possible paths. One method is to increase the data bus size of the microprocessor to 128/256/512 bits. The larger the data bus size, the more data can be crunched at any one time. The second method is to implement multiple microprocessor core in a single microprocessor unit. For example, Intel's Pentium 4 Dual Core and AMD's Athlon Dual Core both have two microprocessor core within a single microprocessor unit. Latest from Intel and AMD are quad core microprocessors with four microprocessor core within a single microprocessor unit. Both methods have its advantages and disadvantages. Both methods yields different design issues and have different engineering limitations. This research looks into the possibility of implementing a large data bus size VLIW microprocessor core of 256 bits on the data bus. VLIW is chosen as opposed to CISC and RISC due to its ease of scalability.

  4. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  5. Virginia School Bus Driver Training: Does Training Program Adequacy Affect school Bus Accident Rates?

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, James O

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of data provided by the Virginia Departments of Motor Vehicles, Transportation, and Education all show school buses as having a significantly higher number of accidents per hundred million miles of travel than other forms of transportation. Such statistics are alarming and formal study of school bus accident factors has been limited. The purposes of this study were to (a) establish the adequacy of the school bus driver training programs of Local Education Agencies(LEAs...

  6. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  7. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  8. Combined Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Approach to Bus Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Olszewski, Piotr; Goh, Pong-Chai

    A new method - combined simulated annealing (SA) and genetic algorithm (GA) approach is proposed to solve the problem of bus route design and frequency setting for a given road network with fixed bus stop locations and fixed travel demand. The method involves two steps: a set of candidate routes is generated first and then the best subset of these routes is selected by the combined SA and GA procedure. SA is the main process to search for a better solution to minimize the total system cost, comprising user and operator costs. GA is used as a sub-process to generate new solutions. Bus demand assignment on two alternative paths is performed at the solution evaluation stage. The method was implemented on four theoretical grid networks of different size and a benchmark network. Several GA operators (crossover and mutation) were utilized and tested for their effectiveness. The results show that the proposed method can efficiently converge to the optimal solution on a small network but computation time increases significantly with network size. The method can also be used for other transport operation management problems.

  9. NONLINEAR ION STOPPING IN PLASMA

    OpenAIRE

    Avilov, S.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Peter, Th.

    1988-01-01

    We present an exact nonlinear solution of the one-dimensional Coulomb-Vlasov equations describing the stopping power of ions moving through a plasma. The solution is compared with the results of the corresponding linearized equations which are commonly used. We discuss the genuinely nonlinear regime. Nonlinear effects become important for highly charged ions at relatively low velocity. For heavy ion stopping in plasma they are relevant close to the end of the range. The method and the results...

  10. Ion stopping in heated targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion stopping departs from classical, cold material values as the target material heats to appreciable ionization levels. The authors are investigating this phenomenon experimentally on the Proto I accelerator with a radial, Applied-B field ion diode. When the beam is focused to 0.5 TW/cm3 on thin aluminum foil targets the time-resolved departure from cold stopping is clear. Their observations and early interpretations will be presented. 9 references, 9 figures

  11. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  12. MICROSAT: A New, Small Satellite Bus Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Courtney

    1989-01-01

    The Radio Amateur Satellite Corporation of North America (AMSAT-NA) is pioneering a new, small satellite bus concept known as "Microsat." The product is roughly a nine inch cube, exclusive of antennas, with five sub-assemblies. Four are standard: radio transmitter(s), radio receiver(s), power system, and onboard computer. The fifth module is reserved for payload or special application hardware. Design goals dictate that the cost of the satellites and the cost and complexity of ground terminal...

  13. BUS 475 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    john

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 6 Times, Rating: A+   BUS 475 Capstone Final Examination Part 1   1.    In the managerial function of __________, managers encourage and motivate workers to work toward organizational goals.   2.    eBay.com is a vast auction site that is similar to a competitive market in some ways but differs from it in others. Which of the following describes...

  14. Exposure Assessment of Diesel Bus Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Hofmann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to measure ultrafine particle concentrations with diameters less than 1 μm emitted by diesel buses and to assess resulting human exposure levels. The study was conducted at the Woolloongabba Busway station in Brisbane, Australia in the winter months of 2002 during which temperature inversions frequently occurred. Most buses that utilize the station are fuelled by diesel, the exhaust of which contains a significant quantity of particle matter. Passengers waiting at the station are exposed to these particles emitted from the buses. During the course of this study, passenger census was conducted, based on video surveillance, yielding person-by-person waiting time data. Furthermore, a bus census revealed accurate information about the total number of diesel versus Compressed Natural Gas (CNG powered buses. Background (outside of the bus station and platform measurements of ultrafine particulate number size distributions were made to determine ambient aerosol concentrations. Particle number exposure concentration ranges from 10 and 40 to 60% of bus related exhaust fumes. This changes dramatically when considering the particle mass exposure concentration, where most passengers are exposed to about 50 to 80% of exhaust fumes. The obtained data can be very significant for comparison with similar work of this type because it is shown in previous studies that exhaust emissions causes cancer in laboratory animals. It was assumed that significant differences between platform and background distributions were due to bus emissions which, combined with passenger waiting times, yielded an estimate of passenger exposure to ultrafine particles from diesel buses. From an exposure point of view, the Busway station analyzed resembles a street canyon. Although the detected exhaust particle concentration at the outbound platform is found to be in the picogram range, exposure increases with the time passengers spend on the platform

  15. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  16. Estimation of City Bus Travelers Using GSM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Mukta Ranjan Singha,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone connectivity and its transition record can be used as useful information to estimate traffic users on urban roads. Mandatory use of a mobile phone dedicated to the city bus, can help in finding all other mobile phone users who are moving in the same city bus. Because, all the mobile phones will have same transition records with the mobile phone dedicated to the city bus. With this arrangement, at the background and Mobile Phone Network as a background data collection system, we have developed an algorithm to estimate the number city bus on an urban road and around a road junction at a particular time. The algorithm will also show the number of city bus users on urban road and around an urban road junction at a particular time. This estimate will help the urban traffic managers to optimize the city bus flow to minimize traffic congestion.

  17. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale. PMID:27220506

  18. Study of bus driving parameters on urban route

    OpenAIRE

    Fuad DASHDAMIROV

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with bus traffic time and speed on stage and route in the whole. The factors affecting bus driving parameters are divided into groups. The factors of significant impact are found in each group. The method of consideration of such factors impact on driving parameters in timetable making, is proposed. The extent of impact of selected factors on bus driving time and speed is studied.

  19. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  20. Stopped nucleons in configuration space

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, Andrzej; Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger than 6 or 10 GeV (depending on the details of the model) it appears that the system created is not in thermal and chemical equilibrium, and the net baryon density reached is likely not much higher than that already present in the colliding nuclei.

  1. Efficient multiqubit entanglement via a spin-bus

    CERN Document Server

    Friesen, M; Hu, X; Lidar, D; Biswas, Asoka; Friesen, Mark; Hu, Xuedong; Lidar, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible architecture where controllable long-range couplings between spins are built up from local exchange interactions. The scheme consists of a spin-bus, with strong, always-on interactions, coupled dynamically to external spin qubits. The presence of a spectral gap enables the bus to function as a long-range conduit for spin information. The bus also forms a hub for multiqubit entangling operations. We show how multiqubit gates may be used to efficiently generate $W$-states--an important entanglement resource. In this way, the spin-bus provides an alternate route for scalable solid-state quantum computation, using currently available experimental resources.

  2. Status of the IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized

  3. Examination of an Urban City Bus Operating Conditions and Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Soylu, Seref (Coordinador); Bal, Ayda; Semercioglu, Hulya; Ay, Eyup Fatih

    2010-01-01

    It was observed that real world driving characteristics of the city bus don’t correlate well with that of the ETC, which is the certification cycle for the city bus engines. For this reason it is not realistic to expect emission levels lower than corresponding EURO standards from the city bus during real world driving. City bus NOx emissions in terms of grams per second are increasing with engine load and speed but the total NOx emissions for entire trip are the maximum at the locations whe...

  4. The Software Bus, an Object-Oriented Data Exchange System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Software Bus System, developed for object-oriented task to task communication in a TCP/IP based network. The Software Bus is a set of library functions, developed to be used for the Picasso-3 UIMS, and as a general purpose tool for dynamically interfacing programs at run-time. The Software Bus offers a high level object-oriented data exchange mechanism that relieves the application programmer of the low level TCP/IP-programming and communication protocol handling. The Software Bus is currently available under several UNIX platforms and a version for Windows NT is planned for late 1996. (author)

  5. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and...

  6. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... project includes elements to conserve energy, such as passive solar heating, solar panels, wind turbines... (49 U.S.C. 5339), both authorized by the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient, Transportation Equity... Bus Facilities Program funds, authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b) of the Safe, Accountable,...

  7. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  8. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  9. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  10. Child Violence Can Be Stopped

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Knot

    2000-01-01

    Mehr Khan argues that education, love and support can stop child violence. He argues that the idea that some children are born ‘bad’ and destined to be violent is outdated. Children become violent because of the violence and depravation they experience. Development (2000) 43, 53–54. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110117

  11. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  12. Stop researching transformational leadership! Now!

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Intro__ Researchers all over the world, stop with your research on transformational leadership! Now! This could be the provocative conclusion after reading the recent article of Profs. Daan van Knippenberg and Sim Sitkin in The Academy of Management Annals (2013). These leadership professors write about the problems surrounding transformational leadership.

  13. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  14. Bus bar joints stability and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A

    2009-01-01

    A defective bus connection between two dipole magnets was the primary cause of the incident in sector 34 on September 19th. I will show how this could have happened, i.e. how a highly resistive joint has caused a thermal runaway and burned (or opened) before the QPS threshold was reached. In the second part of the talk I will present the new detection limits for the QPS upgrade of the RB and RQ circuits, required to avoid similar thermal runaways in the future.

  15. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  16. Availability of ARINC 629 Avionic Data Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Gabillon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The three traditional objectives of computer security are confidentiality, integrity and availability. Availability can be defined as the prevention of denial of service. Confidentiality and integrity have been addressed in several theoretical works whereas the concept of availability has not been much investigated by the scientific community. This paper is an attempt to define through a case study the concept of availability. We first define a set of availability constraints that avionic data bus protocols should enforce. Then, we consider the ARINC 629 Basic Protocol (BP and the ARINC Combined Protocol (CP which were implemented on the Boeing 777. We check whether these protocols respect our availability constraints or not.

  17. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  18. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  19. Variance optimal stopping for geometric Levy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Pedersen, Jesper Lund

    2015-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the solution to the optimal stopping problem of maximizing the variance of a geometric Lévy process. We call this problem the variance problem. We show that, for some geometric Lévy processes, we achieve higher variances by allowing randomized stopping. Furthermore......, for some geometric Lévy processes, the problem has a solution only if randomized stopping is allowed. When randomized stopping is allowed, we give a solution to the variance problem. We identify the Lévy processes for which the allowance of randomized stopping times increases the maximum variance....... When it does, we also solve the variance problem without randomized stopping....

  20. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  1. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  2. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  3. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  4. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  5. An Overview of Staged-bus Operation in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hesam Hafezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, demand for passenger travel is higher, due to economic growth. Government policy encourages people to use public transportation instead of their private carsto reduce of traffic congestion and air pollution. In the city areas, bus networks are the major part of the public transportation system because they are easily accessible and cheaper compared to other types of public transportation. In this study revelation of details of bus operation included different agents is studied. Bus operations, during provision of their service, have interaction with three main agents: bus agent, passenger agent and traffic agent. Study of the influence of each agent in bus operation is presented in this study, using the macroscopic way.

  6. Improved design of HIRFL-CSR EVME bus controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EVME bus controller which is a key component of the HIRFL-CSR control system was improved. Besides reconfiguring the embedded Linux, a utility program was developed for data exchange between the controller and the database. The bus controller is based on ARM920T(ARM9) micro processor which is BGA packaged. The bus controller has the universal interface of VGA display, keyboard, and mouse. The backboard interface logic is programmed in an in-system configurable FPGA device. The bus can drive high current up to 64 mA, with the flexibility of the programmable signal definitions. All the improved performance helped the EVME bus controller play a crucial role in HIRFL-CSR control system. (authors)

  7. Optimal Stopping under Nonlinear Expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Touzi, Nizar; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Let $X$ be a bounded c\\`adl\\`ag process with positive jumps defined on the canonical space of continuous paths. We consider the problem of optimal stopping the process $X$ under a nonlinear expectation operator $\\cE$ defined as the supremum of expectations over a weakly compact family of nondominated measures. We introduce the corresponding nonlinear Snell envelope. Our main objective is to extend the Snell envelope characterization to the present context. Namely, we prove that the nonlinear ...

  8. Evaluation of the urban public transportation carried out by bus: an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Policani Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the arise of new forms of transportation, businessmen and governments that operate urban buses have been more and more interested in assessing the quality of transportation according to the users’ satisfaction. Since the users have experienced aspects related to categories that concern the transportation services, such as vehicles, roads/bus stops, service, time and values, they are able to evaluate the quality of transportation according to these categories. In this context, this article purposes a methodological approach for evaluating the public urban transport carried out by bus according to the users’ perception. Supported on seven dimensions of service quality, the resultant model is composed by 33 criteria which were organized into a questionnaire. In spite of the exploratory context of the study, the results showed that the proposed approach and the resultant model constitute a simple and viable tool for the analysis of the problem. We hope this model is able to aid managers in decision making processes.

  9. Development of a PEM Fuel Cell City Bus with a Hierarchical Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siliang Cheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cell system is considered to be an ideal alternative for the internal combustion engine, especially when used on a city bus. Hybrid buses with fuel cell systems and energy storage systems are now undergoing transit service demonstrations worldwide. A hybrid PEM fuel cell city bus with a hierarchical control system is studied in this paper. Firstly, the powertrain and hierarchical control structure is introduced. Secondly, the vehicle control strategy including start-stop strategy, energy management strategy, and fuel cell control strategy, including the hydrogen system and air system control strategies, are described in detail. Finally, the performance of the fuel cell was analyzed based on road test data. Results showed that the different subsystems were well-coordinated. Each component functioned in concert in order to ensure that both safety and speed requirements were satisfied. The output current of the fuel cell system changed slowly and the output voltage was limited to a certain range, thereby enhancing durability of the fuel cell. Furthermore, the economic performance was optimized by avoiding low load conditions.

  10. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each... operation other than starting and stopping the rotor. (Secs. 313(a), 601, 603, 604, Federal Aviation Act...

  11. Production and perception of glottal stops

    OpenAIRE

    Garellek, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates how glottal stops are produced and perceived, and why they occur so frequently before word-initial vowels in languages of the world. Specifically, the goal of the production chapter was to determine whether glottal stops are truly glottal sounds. High-speed imaging of glottal stops uttered by five phonetically-trained English speakers was obtained using trans-oral videoendoscopy. When produced as plosives, glottal stops always had some form of vocal fold incursi...

  12. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  13. Status of the FASTBUS standard data bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FASTBUS is a new laboratory standard data bus intended for use in experimental data acquisition and control. The development of FASTBUS began with a feasibility study in 1976, and is presently at the development prototyping stage. The principal aims of the standard are to provide a factor of ten or more improvement in speed of data transfers over present systems, as well as to provide an architecture for systems containing multiple processors. Developmental prototypes now in progress include crates, backplanes, cooling devices, power supplies, test and diagnostic modules, and user modules. A sizeable software development effort is also underway. Several experiments have made commitments to use FASTBUS. A review of current work and potential applications is given. 10 figures

  14. Project survey for trolley-bus transport; Johdinautoliikenteen hankeselvitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttila, T.; Eklund, P.; Airaksinen, S.; Maettoe, R.; Laehdetie, A.

    2011-04-15

    To investigate the feasibility and rationality of the revival of trolley bus traffic in Helsinki a full size project plan was conducted for a variety of alternatives. This included a survey on the latest developments of the trolley bus technology, three optional plans for route network, a budgetary level design for a fully functional depot in Koskela bus depot, examination of urban landscape structures, a study on organisational options, particular technical specifications applicable on suitable trolley buses and an examination of the impacts on the environment and on the future development of public transport. The basic concept of a trolley bus as a means of electric public transport vehicle has found its form over the years, but all the components of the system undergo at present intensive development. In context of this survey also the option of a fully autonomous electric bus powered by accumulators or fuel cells and the like was investigated. However, such technology is still totally inadequate for a heavy duty bus. There are no economically competitive and effective systems available as yet. The trolley bu is the far most reliable system and gives the best life cycle economy for a foreseeable future. Earliest estimates for alternative electric technologies in regular bus service are viable just after one investment cycle some time beyond 2030. Then it should be possible to run without the support of a comprehensive overhead line. The latest achievements in the development of trolley bus are auxiliary engine and accumulator systems allowing for more autonomous propulsion. Nowadays, trolley buses are equipped with an auxiliary power unit that alleviates the traditional restrictions of the overhead line. The modern trolley bus may run short distances without the trolley lines. Recuperation of the kinetic energy at deceleration (braking) either into the overhead line network or by storing it in the vehicle is one of the characteristics of modern trolley buses

  15. Optimal stopping for predictive maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    de Saporta, Benoîte; Zhang, Huilong; Elegbede, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We present a numerical method to compute the optimal maintenance time for a complex dynamic system. An early intervention may be uselessly costly, but a late one may lead to a partial/complete failure of the system, which has to be avoided. One must therefore find a balance between these two extreme maintenance policies. To achieve this aim, we model the system by a stochastic hybrid process and propose a numerical method to optimize the maintenance time for this kind of processes. Mathematically, this is an optimal stopping problem. We apply our algorithm to the example of maintenance of a metallic structure subject to corrosion.

  16. Markkinointisuunnitelma : case Fitness Stop Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Tikkanen, Tuomas

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli luoda toimeksiantajayritykselle, Fitness Stop Oy:lle markkinointisuunnitelma. Työ sisältää markkinointisuunnitelman teoreettisen osuuden, jossa käsitellään markkinointisuunnitelman määritelmä osa-alueittain. Määritelmässä kerrotaan markkinointisuunnitelman tarpeellisuudesta yrityksille ja mitä sillä yritetään saavuttaa. Tarkoituksena oli luoda toimiva runko, jonka avulla yritys voi suunnitella ja toteuttaa markkinointiaan tulevaisuudessa. Markkinointi...

  17. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  18. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion. PMID:22321902

  19. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  20. Gauge mediation with light stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) solves the supersymmetric flavor problem although it requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value (125 GeV) of the Higgs mass. A possible way out is to extend the MSSM Higgs sector with triplets which provide extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Triplets with neutral components getting vacuum expectation values (VEV) have the problem of generating a tree-level correction to the \\rho parameter. We introduce supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges Y=(0,\\pm 1), with a tree-level custodial SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the \\rho parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model. The renormalization group running from the messenger to the electroweak scale mildly breaks the custodial symmetry. We will present realistic low-scale scenarios, their main features being a Bino-like neutralino or right-handed stau as the NLSP, light (1 TeV) stops, exotic couplings (H^\\p...

  1. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  2. Constant of heat conduction and stabilization of bus bar conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, G.

    Using the one-dimensional, time-independent conduction state, a constant of heat conduction is given bringing about the known stabilization theorem and a closed expression for the bus bar to be cryogenically stable in superconducting accelerators.

  3. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  4. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  5. Evidence for capacity sharing when stopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D

    2015-09-01

    Research on multitasking indicates that central processing capacity is limited, resulting in a performance decrement when central processes overlap in time. A notable exception seems to be stopping responses. The main theoretical and computational accounts of stop performance assume that going and stopping do not share processing capacity. This independence assumption has been supported by many behavioral studies and by studies modeling the processes underlying going and stopping. However, almost all previous investigations of capacity sharing between stopping and going have manipulated the difficulty of the go task while keeping the stop task simple. In the present study, we held the difficulty of the go task constant and manipulated the difficulty of the stop task. We report the results of four experiments in which subjects performed a selective stop-change task, which required them to stop and change a go response if a valid signal occurred, but to execute the go response if invalid signals occurred. In the consistent-mapping condition, the valid signal stayed the same throughout the whole experiment; in the varied-mapping condition, the valid signal changed regularly, so the demands on the rule-based system remained high. We found strong dependence between stopping and going, especially in the varied-mapping condition. We propose that in selective stop tasks, the decision to stop or not will share processing capacity with the go task. This idea can account for performance differences between groups, subjects, and conditions. We discuss implications for the wider stop-signal and dual-task literature. PMID:26036922

  6. Modelling traffic incidents to support dynamic bus fleets management for sustainable transport

    OpenAIRE

    Polyviou, Polyvios

    2011-01-01

    The continuous implementation of highly technological functions and specifically intelligent transport systems in public transport highlights the need of highly efficient, accurate and reliable bus operations network. Intelligent transport systems can support a variety of functions, including dynamic bus fleet management which has yet to be established in most bus fleets in the UK in a systematic way. In order to support dynamic bus fleet management by detecting the fundamental role of bus an...

  7. Bus designs for time-probabilistic multicore processors

    OpenAIRE

    Jalle Ibarra, Javier; Kosmidis, Leonidas; Abella Ferrer, Jaume; Quiñones Moreno, Eduardo; Cazorla Almeida, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic Timing Analysis (PTA) reduces the amount of information needed to provide tight WCET estimates in real-time systems with respect to classic timing analysis. PTA imposes new requirements on hardware design that have been shown implementable for single-core architectures. However, no support has been proposed for multicores so far. In this paper, we propose several probabilistically-analysable bus designs for multicore processors ranging from 4 cores connected with a single bus, t...

  8. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Pandey; Bharat Choudhary; Kirti Gupta; Ankit Mittal

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL) tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are id...

  9. A FPGA-based serial BUS test system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serial BUS test system was introduced, it can use to analyze the errors of electrical and protocol. The test system is composed of two parts: electronics and software. The electronics include: impedance match electronics, signal conditioning electronics, AD convert electronics, FPGA DAQ electronics and USB interface. The software is divided into following blocks: firmware of FPGA and USB, USB driver, BUS protocol algorithm, operation and display interface. (authors)

  10. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  11. Relativistic corrections to stopping powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic corrections to the nonrelativistic Bethe-Bloch formula for the stopping power of matter for charged particles are traditionally computed by considering close collisions separately from distant collisions. The close collision contribution is further divided into the Mott correction appropriate for very small impact parameters, and the Bloch correction, computed for larger values. This division of the region of close collisions leads to a very cumbersome result if one generalizes the original Bloch procedure to relativistic energies. The authors avoid the resulting poorly specified scattering angle theta/sub o/ that divides the Mott and Bloch correction regimes by using the procedure suggested by Lindhard and applied by Golovchenko, Cox and Goland to determine the Bloch correction for relativistic velocities. 25 references, 2 figures

  12. Shell corrections in stopping powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichsel, H.

    2002-05-01

    One of the theories of the electronic stopping power S for fast light ions was derived by Bethe. The algorithm currently used for the calculation of S includes terms known as the mean excitation energy I, the shell correction, the Barkas correction, and the Bloch correction. These terms are described here. For the calculation of the shell corrections an atomic model is used, which is more realistic than the hydrogenic approximation used so far. A comparison is made with similar calculations in which the local plasma approximation is utilized. Close agreement with the experimental data for protons with energies from 0.3 to 10 MeV traversing Al and Si is found without the need for adjustable parameters for the shell corrections.

  13. Bus Routes, CTran Bus routes, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  14. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  15. ANALISIS SARANA ANGKUTAN UMUM BUS DAMRI DI KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhan Rizal Amin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the availability and use of public transportation by taking a case study of the Damri bus which has Ngaliyan-Pucanggading route. The availability of public transport is not comparable to the demand for public transportation services so that the problems of transportation emerge. Additionally, the use of public transport becomes an important factor to develop the transportation. The study is conducted by surveying the Damri passengers of B.04 lane and logistic regression is used for the analysis. The method of determining the needs of transportation is issued by Departemen Perhubungan. It is used to calculate and determine whether the public transportation should be added or reduced. Then, the factors used as the independent variables in the analysis are the Damri’s safety, effectiveness, efficiency, service and reliability. The results show that Perum Damri does not need to add more Damri bus for B.04 because the results’ calculation is 0.6. and the factors that significantly influence the use Damri bus is the variable of safety, effectiveness and efficiency. However, the variables of service and reliability do not significantly influence the use of B.04 Damri bus.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis ketersediaan dan penggunaan angkutan sarana angkutan umum penumpang dengan mengambil studi kasus pada bus Damri jalur dengan trayek Ngaliyan-Pucanggading. Ketersediaan sarana angkutan umum yang tersedia tidak sebanding dengan besarnya permintaan akan jasa angkutan umum oleh masyarakat umum sehingga muncul permasalahan transportasi. Di samping itu, penggunaan angkutan umum yang beroperasi menjadi faktor penting dalam upaya pengembangan sarana transportasi. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode survey terhadap para penumpang bus Damri jalur B.04 dan dianalisis dengan Regresi Logistik. Metode penentuan kebutuhan armada dikeluarkan oleh Departemen Perhubungan yang digunakan untuk menghitung apakah suatu

  16. Measurement of the Residual Resistivity Ratio of the Bus Bars Copper Stabilizer of the 13 kA Circuits of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Apollonio, A; Solfaroli Camillocci, M; Schmidt, R; Verweij, A; Siemko, A; Claudet, S; Steckert, J; Thiesen, H

    2012-01-01

    After the incident of September 2008, the operational beam energy of the LHC has been set to 3.5 TeV, since not all joints of the superconducting (SC) bus bars between magnets have the required quality for 7 TeV operation. This decision is based on simulations to determine the safe current in the main dipole and quadrupole circuits, reproducing the thermal behaviour of a quenched superconducting joint by taking into account all relevant factors that affect a possible thermal runaway. One important parameter is the Residual Resistivity Ratio (RRR) of the copper stabilizer of the bus bar connecting the superconducting magnets. A dedicated campaign to measure the RRR for the main 13 kA circuits of the LHC in all sectors was performed during the Christmas stop in December 2010 and January 2011. The measurement method as well as the data analysis and results are presented in this paper.

  17. Slow, stopped and stored light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light that can been slowed to walking pace could have applications in telecommunications, optical storage and quantum computing. Whether we use it to estimate how far away a thunderstorm is, or simply take it for granted that we can have a conversation with someone on the other side of the world, we all know that light travels extremely fast. Indeed, special relativity teaches us that nothing in the universe can ever move faster than the speed of light in a vacuum: 299 792 458 ms-1. However, there is no such limitation on how slowly light can travel. For the last few years, researchers have been routinely slowing light to just a few metres per second, and have recently even stopped it dead in its tracks so that it can be stored for future use. Slow-light has considerable popular appeal, deriving perhaps from the importance of the speed of light in relativity and cosmology. If everyday objects such as cars or people can travel faster than 'slow' light, for example, then it might appear that relativistic effects could be observed at very low speeds. Although this is not the case, slow light nonetheless promises to play an important role in optical technology because it allows light to be delayed for any period of time desired. This could lead to all-optical routers that would increase the bandwidth of the Internet, and applications in optical data storage, quantum information and even radar. (U.K.)

  18. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  19. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  20. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2012-01-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called "dancing bunches," persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing.

  1. From quasars to bus stops and numbers – how a time-network is used and organised within accounting practice

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Ann-Christine

    2002-01-01

    This paper starts out with a study of accounting practices in a Public Transport Organisation. A performative perspective has generated some interesting findings and leads on to some points that can be made. I have followed how activities in the organization have been translated and distributed with the help of actors and technologies. I can show that accounting practices are intertwined with the construction of time and place. The construction of time seems to be quite central, more so than ...

  2. High Performance BDR for the PCU of AlphaBus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrier, Laurent; Besdel, Patrick; Daubresse, Thierry; Trehet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Very high-power satellites for Telecom missions require 100V bus. Some Telecom payloads may be used in TDMA mode with a power modulation up to 30% of the Payload power. Full performance of the PCU is required in this case even in eclipse mode. It is clear that this requirement is very demanding especially for the BDR design.100V bus system leads making this requirement more difficult as Bus and Battery short-circuit protections have to operate under a voltage of 100V. This paper describes first the overall BDR design with a special focus on the innovative battery short-circuit protection that is not achieved by a "classical" series SSPC on the battery line.The constraints brought by the TDMA mode are detailed, especially on the input filter of the BDR in presence of large battery inductance. The solution developed to cope with large TDMA current is then presented with the associated TDMA performance.

  3. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  4. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  5. A Light Stop with a Heavy Gluino: Enlarging the Stop Gap

    CERN Document Server

    Cleary, Kevin F

    2015-01-01

    It is widely thought that increasing bounds on the gluino mass, which feeds down to the stop mass through renormalization group running, are making a light stop increasingly unlikely. Here we present a counter-example. We examine the case of the Minimal Composite Supersymmetric Standard Model which has a light composite stop. The large anomalous dimension of the stop from strong dynamics pushes the stop mass toward a quasi-fixed point in the infrared, which is smaller than standard estimates by a factor of a large logarithm. The gluino can be about three times heavier than the stop, which is comparable to hierarchy achieved with supersoft Dirac gluino masses. Thus, in this class of models, a heavy gluino is not necessarily indicative of a heavy stop.

  6. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors

  7. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  8. On-chip bus standards in a broadcast architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Romaguera i Restudis, Josep-Oriol

    2012-01-01

    [ANGLÈS] This final project has been developed in the School of Electrical Engineering (in Aalto University) and its main goal is to value whether AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) is a good option to develop an on-chip broadcast architecture. To carry it out, various alternatives are taken in account: use full AMBA (with all its signals), use CAN (Controller Area Network) bus instead of AMBA, and use modified AMBA (using only the signals that will be used). Once one alternativ...

  9. Fuzzy logic control for active bus suspension system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study an active controller is presented for vibration suppression of a full-bus suspension model that use air spring. Since the air spring on the full-bus model may face different working conditions, auxiliary chambers have been designed. The vibrations, caused by the irregularities of the road surfaces, are tried to be suppressed via a multi input-single output fuzzy logic controller. The effect of changes in the number of auxiliary chambers on the vehicle vibrations is also investigated. The numerical results demonstrate that the presented fuzzy logic controller improves both ride comfort and road holding.

  10. Instrumentation bus systems and communication methods for DNBPS fast controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostics Neutral Beam (DNB) injector requires different type of controllable power supplies, to be operated in predefined sequence; hence demands for a complex control system. Instrumentation and control (I and C) is to be opted considering design feasibility and maintainability over a long life span of experiment. One of the most important standards for I and C is the computer bus, which is needed for the selection of input and output (I/O) devices, CPU boards and other components. This paper summarizes the various I/O bus and communication methods among interconnected sub systems with reference to DNB power supply control system. (author)

  11. Persecution as a Theme in Isaac Bashevis Singer's The Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Minzhi

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Bashevis Singer is very much concerned about the fate of Jewish people,so he often presents Jews'sufferings in his literary works.The Bus,by means of describing the narrator's experiences during a bus tour through Spain,in different dimensions reinforces the destructive impact of persecution that Jews have gone through.Moreover,he implies such persecution is not merely confined between Jews and the Gentile,but also spreads among the whole human beings who hold differet beliefs.

  12. Stopping-power calculations for semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method developed by Brandt and Reinheimer which explicitly includes the effect of the semiconductor gap has been used to calculate the proton and α-particle stopping powers of the valence-electron gas of C (diamond), ZnTe, and U. These values, as well as those existing for Si and Ge, have been combined with the stopping contribution of the electronic core obtained from the statistical atomic model of Bonderup. Stopping powers have also been calculated using the statistical model alone. The calculated curves, which are valid for all incident projectile energies, reproduce the overall features of the semiempirical slowing-down curves, but not always the absolute values

  13. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    OpenAIRE

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-b...

  14. Bus Catcher: A Context Sensitive Prototype System for Public Transportation Users

    OpenAIRE

    Bertolotto, Michela; O'Hare, G.M.P.; Strahan, Robin; Brophy, Ailish; Martin, A.; McLoughlin, Eoin

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe the architectural and functional characteristics of Bus Catcher, a context sensitive prototype system for public transportation users. Bus Catcher assists mobile users in planning their bus rides by providing timely and accurate information about current bus locations and estimated arrival times. A complete report on the implementation together with a preliminary evaluation of the system is provided in this paper.

  15. Scientists Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158128.html Scientists Try to Stop Another Deadly Virus Junin, an Ebola-like disease in Argentina, has ... drug could offer a new weapon against the virus that causes Argentine hemorrhagic fever -- a potentially fatal ...

  16. What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Return to: What Communities Can Do What Services Are Available to Stop Abuse? A variety of ... Prosecution of offenders Assistance with obtaining restitution Support Services When abuse or neglect is related to the ...

  17. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Structure Program SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Program Volunteer Recognition Program AAD and AADA Historian Leadership Institute Programs ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ...

  19. Optimal Stopping for Non-linear Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Erhan Bayraktar; Song Yao

    2009-01-01

    We develop a theory for solving continuous time optimal stopping problems for non-linear expectations. Our motivation is to consider problems in which the stopper uses risk measures to evaluate future rewards.

  20. Stopping power for ions in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During these two decades, the researches of the stopping power for ions in solids have made several progresses in the fields of atomic collisions in solids, radiation physics, nuclear fusion and related regions of ion-solid interactions. In the case of the stopping power for light ions at high energy region, the detailed analyses of the mean ionization energy were performed for many kinds of solids. The experimental analyses of the Z13 and Bloch corrections were also made to measure the higher order contributions quantitatively. The experimental formula and data tables of stopping power for H and He ions covered over the region from low to high energies were derived by use of the parameterization methods. As far as the heavy ions concern, the theoretical analyses of the effective charge for stopping power were performed, and it turned to be able to analyze the experimental data within the resolution of +-10--20%. (author)

  1. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis

    2009-01-01

    pig's position in the bus at the time of detonation. 1 of the pigs was rigged as a suicide bomber while the others were individually placed as passengers and bus driver inside the bus alongside dummies. Measurements of the blast force and fast speed video recordings were made during the detonation...

  2. Bus Operations for Pupil Transportation. "Chrome-Yellow and Red Lights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannels, Morris W.

    This paper is based on a committee report of the last National School Bus Conference on "Minimum Standards for School Buses." Standards for school bus operations are included for (1) administrators, (2) supervisors, (3) school bus drivers, (4) student passengers, and (5) maintenance and service personnel. The report deals also with procedures for…

  3. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  4. Local Times, Optimal Stopping and Semimartingales

    OpenAIRE

    Jacka, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Let $X$ be a semimartingale, and $S$ its Snell envelope. Under the assumption that $X$ and $S$ are continuous semimartingales in $H^1$, this article obtains a new, maximal, characterisation of $S$, and gives an application to the optimal stopping of functions of diffusions. We present a counterexample to the standard assertion that $S$ is just "a martingale on the go-region and $X$ on the stop-region."

  5. "On the Consequences of Sudden Stops"

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo E. Guidotti; Federico Sturzenegger; Agustín Villar

    2004-01-01

    Our analysis shows a number of interesting empirical regularities. First, when we apply a simple definition of sudden stops, we find that they have been a fairly common occurrence at least since the late 1970s. Second, economic performance after a sudden stop can differ dramatically across countries, depending on certain country characteristics. We show that open economies and those that choose a floating exchange rate regime after a crisis recover fairly quickly from the output contraction t...

  6. The TRIUMF stopped π-μ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIUMF stopped π-μ channel (M9) is described and the measured optical parameters are compared with design values. Measured beam characteristics of pions and muons for several different momenta are reported for protons incident on Be and Cu production targets. A beam of cloud muons at the channel momentum, from π decays near the production target, has been obtained having a high stopping density and small spot size. (orig.)

  7. Inner-shell ionization and stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For better understanding of various aspects in stopping phenomena such as Z13-dependence, shell correction, geometrical effect, direction dependence etc., it seems to be helpful to examine theoretically and experimentally the elementary processes which include plasmon excitation, single electron excitation and inner-shell excitation/ionization. In the present, impact-parameter dependent stopping power is discussed in connection with inner-shell ionization

  8. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  9. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    depends on how the bus sector is organised. By organisation we adopt an institutional point of view and consider basic modes of governance. Basic modes of governance include the forms “market”, “hierarchy” and “network” (Powell 1990). So-called New Public Management (NPM) reforms have changed the modes of...

  10. What's Happening on the School Bus Performance Front?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Hanford L.

    The most urgent order of business in the national scene is to complete the development of a series of new performance tests for school bus bodies and chassis to establish a benchmark for safe construction that can be verified by independent testing agencies. Such performance tests should incorporate the new Federal Joint Strength Efficiency…

  11. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...

  12. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  13. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  14. Measurements on and simulations of a biogas-fuelled bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical models for torque/fuel consumption and emissions have been studied for a biogas-fuelled bus used in urban traffic in Linkoeping, Sweden. It is noted that the cycle ECE R-49 is not representative for city buses, but that the Braunschweig cycle gives rather good agreement. 2 refs, 37 figs

  15. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  16. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  17. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  18. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  19. An Example of Suppression of Spurious Stop-Bands of EBG Band-Stop Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Nešić; Branko Kolundžija

    2011-01-01

    Based on the well known theory of infinite periodic structures, analytical theory of EBG (electromagnetic band gap) cells suppressing 6 higher (spurious) stop-bands is developed. Using such cells in a cascade the straight-forward procedure for design of the corresponding EBG band-stop filter is proposed, with possibility to control the width and the depth of the stop-band. The analytical theory is confirmed by the EM simulation of the filter realized in the microstrip technology.

  20. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  1. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. De Bona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper analyzes the structure of the public transportation system of Curitiba through the theory of complex networks in a static approach of network topology and presents a comparative analysis of the results from Curitiba, three cities from China (Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, and three cities from Poland (GOP, Warszawa, and Łódź. The transportation network was modeled as a complex network with exact geographical coordinates of its bus stops. In all bus lines, the method used was the P-Space. The results show that this bus network has characteristics of both small-world and scale-free networks.

  2. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment ...

  3. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  4. Improving student bus-riding behavior through a whole-school intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Robert F; Handler, Marcie W; Ramirez-Platt, Christina M; Luiselli, James K

    2003-01-01

    We describe a multicomponent intervention to improve bus-riding behavior of students attending an urban public school. The intervention was developed with technical assistance consultation that emphasized collaboration among students, school personnel, and bus drivers. The primary intervention procedures were identifying appropriate behaviors during transportation ("bus rules"), training bus drivers to deliver positive reinforcement, and rewarding student performance through a weekly school-based lottery. Disruptive bus behaviors, as measured by discipline referrals and suspensions, decreased with intervention relative to baseline phases in an ABAB reversal design. These positive results were maintained over the long term, with school personnel assuming responsibility for intervention in the absence of ongoing consultation. PMID:14768676

  5. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    OpenAIRE

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde; Miss. Shruti Bhargava; Rishabh Singh Kurmi

    2011-01-01

    The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB) protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus) is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture) family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell f...

  6. Design of a CAN bus interface for photoelectric encoder in the spaceflight camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Wan, Qiu-hua; She, Rong-hong; Zhao, Chang-hai; Jiang, Yong

    2009-05-01

    In order to make photoelectric encoder usable in a spaceflight camera which adopts CAN bus as the communication method, CAN bus interface of the photoelectric encoder is designed in this paper. CAN bus interface hardware circuit of photoelectric encoder consists of CAN bus controller SJA 1000, CAN bus transceiver TJA1050 and singlechip. CAN bus interface controlling software program is completed in C language. A ten-meter shield twisted pair line is used as the transmission medium in the spaceflight camera, and speed rate is 600kbps.The experiments show that: the photoelectric encoder with CAN bus interface which has the advantages of more reliability, real-time, transfer rate and transfer distance overcomes communication line's shortcomings of classical photoelectric encoder system. The system works well in automatic measuring and controlling system.

  7. Light stop decays: implications for LHC searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the flavour-changing neutral current decay of the lightest stop into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino and its four-body decay into the lightest neutralino, a down-type quark and a fermion pair. These are the relevant stop search channels in the low-mass region. The SUSY-QCD corrections to the two-body decay have been calculated for the first time and turn out to be sizeable. In the four-body decay both the contributions from diagrams with flavour-changing neutral current couplings and the mass effects of final state bottom quarks and τ leptons have been taken into account, which are not available in the literature so far. The resulting branching ratios are investigated in detail. We find that in either of the decay channels the branching ratios can deviate significantly from 1 in large parts of the allowed parameter range. Taking this into account, the experimental exclusion limits on the stop, which are based on the assumption of branching ratios equal to 1, are considerably weakened. This should be taken into account in future searches for light stops at the next run of the LHC, where the probed low stop mass region will be extended. (orig.)

  8. Light stop decays: implications for LHC searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeber, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Muehlleitner, M.M.; Wlotzka, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); Popenda, E. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    We investigate the flavour-changing neutral current decay of the lightest stop into a charm quark and the lightest neutralino and its four-body decay into the lightest neutralino, a down-type quark and a fermion pair. These are the relevant stop search channels in the low-mass region. The SUSY-QCD corrections to the two-body decay have been calculated for the first time and turn out to be sizeable. In the four-body decay both the contributions from diagrams with flavour-changing neutral current couplings and the mass effects of final state bottom quarks and τ leptons have been taken into account, which are not available in the literature so far. The resulting branching ratios are investigated in detail. We find that in either of the decay channels the branching ratios can deviate significantly from 1 in large parts of the allowed parameter range. Taking this into account, the experimental exclusion limits on the stop, which are based on the assumption of branching ratios equal to 1, are considerably weakened. This should be taken into account in future searches for light stops at the next run of the LHC, where the probed low stop mass region will be extended. (orig.)

  9. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  10. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.

  11. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  12. New stopping criteria for segmenting DNA sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in the model selection framework. When this stopping criterion is applied to a left telomere sequence of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the complete genome sequence of bacterium Escherichia coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified (e.g. subtelomeric units, replication origin, and replication terminus), and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  13. StopWatcher: A Mobile Application to Improve Stop Sign Awareness for Driving Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop signs are the primary form of traffic control in the United States. However, they have a tendency to be much less effective than other forms of traffic control like traffic lights. This is due to their smaller size, lack of lighting, and the fact that they may become visually obscured from the road. In this paper, we offer a solution to this problem in the form of a mobile application implemented in the Android platform: StopWatcher. It is designed to alert a driver when they are approaching a stop sign using a voice notification system (VNS. A field test was performed in a snowy environment. The test results demonstrate that the application can detect all of the stop signs correctly, even when some of them were obstructed by the snow, which in turn greatly improves the user awareness of stop signs.

  14. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  15. Determination of Barkas correction and general formula for stopping power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our work was to measure stopping power for alpha particles in different gases and obtaining thc general formula for stopping power. The precise measurement of alpha particle stopping power in gases has been performed with maximal error of 0.7%. The accurate values of stopping power obtained in these measurements enable extraction of Barkas correction term and complete of general stopping power formula. The obtained formula was used for comparison of alpha stopping powers particles in different media. A good agreement we obtained with stopping power measurements in solids (author)

  16. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  17. Implementation of I 2C Master Bus Protocol on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regu Archana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on I 2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol interface between Master Bus protocol and slave. Here we are interfacing between micro-controller and DS1307. I 2C bus protocol sends 8 bit data from micro-controller to DS1307. This module was designed in VHDL and simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.2. I 2C and optimized for area and power. This concept is widely applicable from any high speed device or low speed device to any low speed device or high speed device. This module acts as a slave for the DS1307 at the same time acts like a master for the micro-controller device which can be considered as a slave. . It can be used to interface low speed peripherals like motherboard, embedded system, mobile phones, set top boxes, DVD, PDA’s or other electronic devices.

  18. Design of CAN Bus Application in the Process of Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design of can bus application in the process of papermaking. The design for an intelligent measure and control system based on the technology of CAN bus, is applied to detect and control the concentration of wood-pulp, the temperature of multistage dryer and other parameters in the process of papermaking, in order to meet the control requirements and characters for the study quality and ensure paper even and cohesive under the course of manufacturer. The intelligence of measure and control system has been predominantly researched in the article, including the proposal of intelligent control node and communication model, the design of hardware interface circuit in the intelligent measure and control node and the design of whole system.

  19. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaito, Sabrina; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these arguments by providing three contributions. The first contribution is a novel and lightweight probabilistic routing protocol for BSN which we prove to be highly effective in satisfying the loose QoS required by urban-wide delay-tolerant information services. The second contribution is the proposal of URBeS, an analysis platform that, given a specific city served by public transportation, produces real bus mobility traces and traffic analysis for any given routing protocol. The last contribution is an extensive benchmark a...

  20. Hardware Engines for Bus Encryption: A Survey of Existing Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Elbaz, R; Sassatelli, G; Guillemin, P; Anguille, C; Bardouillet, M; Buatois, C; Rigaud, J B

    2011-01-01

    The widening spectrum of applications and services provided by portable and embedded devices bring a new dimension of concerns in security. Most of those embedded systems (pay-TV, PDAs, mobile phones, etc...) make use of external memory. As a result, the main problem is that data and instructions are constantly exchanged between memory (RAM) and CPU in clear form on the bus. This memory may contain confidential data like commercial software or private contents, which either the end-user or the content provider is willing to protect. The goal of this paper is to clearly describe the problem of processor-memory bus communications in this regard and the existing techniques applied to secure the communication channel through encryption - Performance overheads implied by those solutions will be extensively discussed in this paper.

  1. Heat storage for a bus petrol internal-combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.; Burak, Victor S.; Kulakov, Andry G.; Mishkinis, Donatas A.; Bohan, Pavel V.

    The heat storage (HS) system for pre-heating a bus petrol internal combustion engine to starting was mathematically modelled and experimentally investigated. The development of such devices is an extremely urgent problem especially for regions with a cold climate. We discuss how HS works on the effect of absorption and rejection of heat energy at a solid-liquid phase change of a HS substance. In the first part of the paper a numerical method to calculate the HS mass-dimensional parameters and their characteristics are described. In the experimental part of the paper results are given of experiments on the pre-heating device aiding to start a carburettor engine under operational conditions and analysis of data received. Practical confirmation of the theoretical development of HS devices for a bus engine for starting by pre-heating is given.

  2. StarBus+: Distributed Object Middleware Practice for Internet Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Min Wang; Yu-Feng Wang; Yang-Bin Tang

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, the booming of Internet challenges the middleware in three aspects: quality of service,balance of changes and stabilization, and across-Internet integration. This paper presents our work on distributed object computing middleware technology for these challenges, as well as the research and development on StarBus+, which is a CORBA standard-compliant middleware suite with the features such as object request broker supporting multi-* quality of service, component model, and integration with Web Service. This paper comprehensively presents the design and characteristics of StarBns+, and demonstrates how StarBus+ is enhanced to address the challenges of Internet computing through three case studies: inter-enterprise integration over Internet, application evolution through dynamic reconfiguration,and great massive information system building. The paper also suggests some research directions which are important for Internet computing.

  3. THE DESIGN OF VMEBUS BRIDGE CONTROLLER WITH SHARC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Wu Shunjun; Su Tao

    2005-01-01

    Targeting at the high expense and inflexibility to realize VMEbus bridge controller by professional Integrated Circuit (IC), this paper presents a scheme of adopting CPLD/FPGA (Complicated Programmable Logic Device/Field Programmable Gate Array) to design bridge controller between VMEbus and local bus. SHARC DSP (Digital Signal Processor) bus is an example. It has functions of nearly entire master/slave interface of VMEbus, and can act as DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller and perform block transfer in DMA or master processor initiative way without length limit. External circuit of the design is very simple. In comparison with special ICs, it has high performance to price ratio and can be easily applied to local buses of other processors with quite a little modification.

  4. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  5. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The pres...

  6. Crack detection sensor layout and bus configuration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In crack detection applications large sensor arrays are needed to be able to detect and locate cracks in structures. Emerging graphene-oxide paper sensing skins are a promising technology that will help enable structural sensing skins, but in order to make use of them we must consider how the sensors will be laid out and wired on the skin. This paper analyzes different sensor shapes and layouts to determine the layout which provides the preferred performance. A ‘snaked hexagon’ layout is proposed as the preferred sensor layout when both crack detection and crack location parameters are considered. In previous work we have developed a crack detection circuit which reduces the number of channels of the system by placing several sensors onto a common bus line. This helps reduce data and power consumption requirements but reduces the robustness of the system by creating the possibility of losing sensing in several sensors in the event that a single wire breaks. In this paper, sensor bus configurations are analyzed to increase the robustness of the bused sensor system. Results show that spacing out sensors in the same bus as much as possible increases the robustness of the system and that at least 3 buses are needed to prevent large segments of a structure from losing sensing in the event of a bus failure. This work is a preliminary effort toward enabling a new class of ‘networked materials’ that will be vitally important for next generation structural applications. ‘Networked materials’ have material properties related to information theoretic concepts. An example material property is ‘bandwidth’ per unit of material that might indicate the amount of information the material can provide about its state-of-health. (paper)

  7. System investigation H2 bus fleet (technology, regulations, future development)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In cooperation with Ansaldo Ricerche, ICIL have compiled a technical catalogue, providing the impartial descriptions, both of existing technology and regulations, and the likely future developments of these, as to remedy the first problem faced by a potential hydrogen bus fleet operator viz the absence of an impartial description of the available vehicle and fuels systems together with the absence of a description of regulatory and safety factors which need consideration. (orig.)

  8. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul;

    2000-01-01

    of control. Our goal is to derive a worst case delay by which the system completes execution, such that this delay is as small as possible; to generate a logically and temporally deterministic schedule; and to optimize parameters of the communication protocol such that this delay is guaranteed. We......, generates an efficient bus access scheme as well as the schedule tables for activation of processes and communications....

  9. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Gaito, Sabrina; Maggiorini, Dario; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these ...

  10. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller

  11. Damping torque analysis for DC bus implemented damping control

    OpenAIRE

    W. Du; WANG, HAIFENG; Ju, P.; Dunn, R

    2010-01-01

    Damping torque analysis is a well-developed technique for understanding and studying power system oscillations. This paper presents the applications of damping torque analysis for DC bus implemented damping control in power transmission networks in two examples. The first example is the investigation of damping effect of shunt VSC (Voltage Source Converter) based FACTS voltage control, i.e., STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) voltage control. It is shown in the paper that STATCOM voltag...

  12. New Long-Distance Bus Terminals in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    A. Saxinger; M. Nachtsheim

    2014-01-01

    For many decades long-distance busses were never of great importance in Germany. This part of public transport was almost exclusively provided by railway transportation. Legally, railway transportation was protected from competition. Applications for long-distance bus line concessions had no chance of success.However the amendment of the German Federal Passenger Transportation Act to 1st January 2013 liberalized the German market for long-distance busses significantly. Entrepreneurs still nee...

  13. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    men in the same age group. The incidence of all manifestations of peptic ulcer disease among bus drivers did not differ from the incidence among Danish men. Of occupational and psycho-social factors, wage dissatisfaction and smoking showed statistically significant association with hospital discharge...... with PU in a 6 3/4-year period. Job dissatisfaction, stress symptoms and lack of some social network factors tended to increase the risk of hospital discharge with PU....

  14. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  15. Improving bus travel times with passive traffic signal coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Romeu, Miguel Ángel; Trapote Barreira, César; Roca Riu, Mireia; Robusté Antón, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    A simulation optimization model is outlined: traffic signal offsets in intersections are calculated to minimize the travel time of bus users in an urban network. The model considers a passive signal priority system and restricts the maximal incremental delay caused to car users. The simulation tool is able to trace discrete trajectories of both buses and cars in a network. It also evaluates potential perturbations that may cause time variations for average performance. Moreover, the optimizat...

  16. A simplified model for scheduling services on auxiliary bus lines

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Sancho, Esteve; Montero Mercadé, Lídia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical programming based model is described to assist with the schedule of services for a set of auxiliary bus lines that operate alleviating a disruption of the regular transportation system during a given time period. In contrast to other models, considered static, service schedules are set taking into account demand fluctuations that may happen in that time period. Passenger flows are represented with a multi-commodity structure and disseminate throug...

  17. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  18. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    OpenAIRE

    Laela Chairani; Yulita Veranda Usman; Nur Yulianti Hidayah

    2015-01-01

    Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating sy...

  19. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Santella, R. M.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 617, - (2007), s. 23-32. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * bus drivers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  20. Modelling urban bus transport emissions in Santiago de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Avila, Jordi Mirabent

    2010-01-01

    This study described and focuses on the public transport bus system in Santiago de Cuba. Specifically we explore the fuel consumption of the various diesel buses over a three year period from 2007 to 2009 and with a forecast for the forthcoming years. The study considers the potential for fuel savings through a variety of methods which are each described and then modelled. Pollution is also calculated for a variety of scenarios and some suggestions are made in order to lower the overall...

  1. Market brief : the alternative fuels bus market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2003, alternative fuel bus technologies in India were valued at approximately $1.5 billion. There are an estimated 600,000 buses in India, of which 21 per cent are owned by public transit. Bus production is currently 33,000 per year and increasing at 4 per cent annually. The main alternative fuel bus technologies include fuel cells, compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Since urban centres in India are among the most polluted in the world, demand for these technologies is strong. India is ranked fifth in the world in terms of vehicles converted to natural gas. In 2003, New Delhi switched from diesel to CNG fuel for buses but has faced challenges because there is no well-developed underground distribution system and refilling times are long due to weak pressure at fueling stations. India's new $28 million fuel cell bus development project aims to place 8 fuel cell powered buses with the Delhi Transport Corporation. This market brief describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. It describes the key factors shaping market growth with particular reference to sector reform, and opportunities with actual and planned projects. The competitive environment was also discussed with reference to local capabilities, international competition, Canadian position, and a competitive advantage through Canadian government policies and initiatives. A section of the report on public-sector customers listed the companies that buy alternative fuel buses in India. Considerations for market-entry in India were also outlined

  2. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongyong Kim; Inho Song; Woongchul Choi

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a bat...

  3. Bus Lanes with Intermittent Priority: Screening Formulae and an Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Michael; Daganzo, Carlos F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates strategies for operating buses on signal-controlled arterials using special lanes that are made intermittently available to general traffic. The advantage of special bus lanes, intermittent or dedicated, is that they free buses from traffic interference; the disadvantage is that they disrupt traffic. We find that intermittent lanes, unlike dedicated ones, do not significantly reduce street capacity. Intermittence, however, increases the average traffic density at which th...

  4. Hardware Engines for Bus Encryption: a Survey of Existing Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elbaz, Reouven; Torres, Lionel; Sassatelli, Gilles; GUILLEMIN, Pierre; Anguille, Claude; Bardouillet, Michel; Buatois, Christian; Rigaud, Jean-Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The widening spectrum of applications and services provided by portable and embedded devices bring a new dimension of concerns in security. Most of those embedded systems (pay-TV, PDAs, mobile phones, etc...) make use of external memory. As a result, the main problem is that data and instructions are constantly exchanged between memory (RAM) and CPU in clear form on the bus. This memory may contain confidential data like commercial software or private contents, which either the end-user or th...

  5. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  6. The AI Bus architecture for distributed knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Roger D.; Stobie, Iain

    1991-01-01

    The AI Bus architecture is layered, distributed object oriented framework developed to support the requirements of advanced technology programs for an order of magnitude improvement in software costs. The consequent need for highly autonomous computer systems, adaptable to new technology advances over a long lifespan, led to the design of an open architecture and toolbox for building large scale, robust, production quality systems. The AI Bus accommodates a mix of knowledge based and conventional components, running on heterogeneous, distributed real world and testbed environment. The concepts and design is described of the AI Bus architecture and its current implementation status as a Unix C++ library or reusable objects. Each high level semiautonomous agent process consists of a number of knowledge sources together with interagent communication mechanisms based on shared blackboards and message passing acquaintances. Standard interfaces and protocols are followed for combining and validating subsystems. Dynamic probes or demons provide an event driven means for providing active objects with shared access to resources, and each other, while not violating their security.

  7. The Data Acquisition System Based on PMC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Igarashi, Y; Higuchi, T; Ikeno, M; Inoue, E; Itoh, R; Kodama, H; Murakami, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakao, M; Nakayoshi, K; Saitoh, M; Shimazaki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tanaka, M; Tauchi, K; Varner, G; Yamauchi, M; Yasu, Y; Katayama, T; Watanabe, K; Ishizuka, M; Onozawa, S

    2003-01-01

    High energy physics experiments in KEK/Japan rush into over KHz trigger stage. Thus, we need a successor of the data acquisition(DAQ) system that replaces the CAMAC or FASTBUS systems. To meet these needs, we have developed a DAQ system which includes a crate, base-board modules, daughter cards for front-end A/D or T/D conversion, and back-end communication cards for data transfer and timing control. The size of the crate is for the 9U Euro-cards with the standard VME32 bus and extension connectors for power supply. The base-board comprises of a local bus with the sequencer connected to the front-end daughter cards via event buffering FIFOs, and the standard PMC (PCI mezzanine card) bus to be set a PMC processor unit to reduce data size from the front-end daughter cards. A data transfer module, which is connected to the event building system, and a trigger control unit, which communicates with the central timing controller are installed on the back-end communication card connected to the rear end of the base-...

  8. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  9. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  10. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. PMID:26214001

  11. Development and validation of a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Lisa; Stephen, Lucy; af Wåhlberg, Anders; Gandolfi, Julie

    2010-12-01

    There are likely to be individual differences in bus driver behaviour when adhering to strict schedules under time pressure. A reliable and valid assessment of these individual differences would be useful for bus companies keen to mitigate risk of crash involvement. This paper reports on three studies to develop and validate a self-report measure of bus driver behaviour. For study 1, two principal components analyses of a pilot questionnaire revealed six components describing bus driver behaviour and four bus driver coping components. In study 2, test-retest reliability of the components were tested in a sub-sample and found to be adequate. Further, the 10 components were used to predict bus crash involvement at three levels of culpability with consistently significant associations found for two components. For study 3, avoidance coping was consistently associated with celeration variables in a bus simulator, especially for a time-pressured drive. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The instrument can be used by bus companies for driver stress and fatigue management training to identify at-risk bus driver behaviour. Training to reduce the tendency to engage in avoidance coping strategies, improve evaluative coping strategies and hazard monitoring when under stress may improve bus driver safety. PMID:21108079

  12. Computing Airplane Stopping Distance: Applications of Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylee, J. Louis

    1997-01-01

    Presents two real world applications that use derivatives and are related to computing the distance required to stop an airplane. Examines the curve-fitting techniques used to develop an equation for braking force and develops equations for the deceleration and speed. (DDR)

  13. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, such as your thumb nails, first. When that’s successful, eliminate your pinky nails, pointer nails, or even an entire hand. The goal is to get to the point where you ...

  15. Proton Stopping Power in Warm Dense Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Drew; Chen, Sophia; Atzeni, Stefano; Gauthier, Maxence; Mangia, Feliciana; Marquès, Jean-Raphaël; Riquier, Raphaël; Fuchs, Julien

    2013-10-01

    Warm dense matter (WDM) research is fundamental to many fields of physics including fusion sciences, and astrophysical phenomena. In the WDM regime, particle stopping-power differs significantly from cold matter and ideal plasma due to free electron contributions, plasma correlation effects and electron degeneracy. The creation of WDM with temporal duration consistent with the particles probes is difficult to achieve experimentally. The short-pulse laser platform allows for the production of WDM along with relatively short bunches of protons compatible of such measurements, however, until recently, the intrinsic broadband proton spectrum was not well suited to investigate the stopping power directly. This difficulty has been overcome using a novel magnetic particle selector (ΔE/E = 10%) to select protons (in the range 100-1000 keV) as demonstrated with the ELFIE laser in LULI, France. These protons bunches probe high-density (5 × 1020 cm-3) gases (H, He) heated by a nanosecond laser to reach estimated temperatures above 100 eV. Measurement of the proton energy loss within the heated gas allows the stopping power to be determined quantitatively. The experimental results in cold matter are compared to preexisting models to give credibility to the measurement technique. The results from heated matter show that the stopping power of 450 keV protons is dramatically reduced within heated hydrogen plasma.

  16. Next Stop Adulthood: Tips for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Next Stop Adulthood: Tips For ... seen as a source of ready cash, your child has no incentive to handle money responsibly. Decide on a fair amount, and discuss ...

  17. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  18. From Stopping to Viscosity in Nuclear Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Danielewicz, P.; Barker, B.; Shi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Data on stopping in intermediate-energy central heavy-ion collisions are analyzed following transport theory based on the Boltzmann equation. In consequence, values of nuclear shear viscosity are inferred. The inferred values are significantly larger than obtained for free nucleon dispersion relations and free nucleon-nucleon cross sections.

  19. Seismic stops for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the regulated world of nuclear power, the need to have analytical proof of performance in hypothetical design-basis events such as earth quakes has placed a premium on design configurations that are mathematically tractable and easily analyzed. This is particularly true for the piping design. Depending on how the piping analyses are organized and on how old the plant is, there may be from 200 to 1000 separate piping runs to be designed, analyzed, and qualified. In this situation, the development of snubbers seemed like the answer to a piping engineer's prayer. At any place where seismic support was required but thermal motion had to be accommodated, a snubber could be specified. But, as experience has now shown, the program was solved only on paper. This article presents an alternative to conventional snubbers. These new devices, termed Seismic Stops are designed to replace snubbers directly and look like snubbers on the outside. But their design is based on a completely different principle. The original concept has adapted from early seismic-resistant pipe support designs used on fossil power plants in California. The fundamental idea is to provide a space envelope in which the pipe can expand freely between the hot and cold positions, but cannot move outside the envelope. Seismic Stops are designed to transmit any possible impact load, as would occur in an earthquake, away from the pipe itself to the Seismic Stop. The Seismic Stop pipe support is shown

  20. Proton stopping data from experiment and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbitzer, S.

    2005-10-01

    Proton stopping cross-sections in several solid and gaseous targets have been calculated by applying the Bethe-Bloch formalism to each electron shell. In addition, binary collision kinetics for both proton and electron in motion have been taken into account. The calculations closely match experimental data on C and Si by us and on He and Ne by TRIM.

  1. An Example of Suppression of Spurious Stop-Bands of EBG Band-Stop Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Nešić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the well known theory of infinite periodic structures, analytical theory of EBG (electromagnetic band gap cells suppressing 6 higher (spurious stop-bands is developed. Using such cells in a cascade the straight-forward procedure for design of the corresponding EBG band-stop filter is proposed, with possibility to control the width and the depth of the stop-band. The analytical theory is confirmed by the EM simulation of the filter realized in the microstrip technology.

  2. Life cycle cost analysis of a car, a city bus and an intercity bus powertrain for year 2005 and 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international economy, in the beginning of the 20th century, is characterized by uncertainty about the supply and the price of oil. Together with the fast decrease of electrical propulsion component prices, it becomes more and more cost effective to develop vehicles with alternative powertrains. This paper focuses on two questions: Are alternative powertrains especially cost effective for specific applications?; How does an increased fossil fuel price influences the choose of powertrain? To assess these questions, a computer tool named THEPS, developed in a Ph.D. project, is used. Three applications and three scenarios are analysed. The applications, a car, a city bus and an intercity bus, are vehicles all assumed to operate in Sweden. One scenario represents year 2005, the other two year 2020. The two future scenarios are characterized by different fossil fuel prices. The study, presented in the paper, indicates that alternative powertrains can be competitive from a cost perspective, in some applications, already in year 2005. It is for example cost effective to equip a city bus, running in countries with a high fuel price, with a hybrid powertrain. The study also indicates that pure electric, hybrid and/or fuel cell cars will probably be a more cost effective choice than conventional cars in year 2020. Another indication is that it will not be clear which powertrain concept to choose. The reason is that many cost effective powertrain concepts will be offered. The best choice will depend on the application

  3. Standard Bus System on Accelerator and the Possibility of Its Application in P3TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usually accelerator in the research and applied laboratory already used standard bus system on their control systems. In the beginning several laboratories uses CAMAC system and then gradually use to VME or VXI bus such as at Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) in VA USA, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics (KEK) in Tsukuba Japan, and National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) in Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Upton, NY, USA. On China since pre-requirement it has been decided to use VME bus. EPICS program have been developed in the world for physics experiment, VME bus control system. P3TM needs to study VME bus and its availability on the market, also to make collaboration with EPICS user and try to obtain it if standard bus for control system is to be considered. (author)

  4. Identification of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durlav Hazarika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several online methods were proposed for investigating the voltage stability condition of an interconnected power system using the measurements of voltage and current phasors at a bus. For this purpose, phasor measurement units (PMUs are used. A PMU is a device which measures the electrical waves on an electrical network, using a common time source (reference bus for synchronisation. This study proposes a method for online monitoring of voltage stability condition of a power system using measurements of bus variables namely – (i real power, (ii reactive power and (iii bus voltage magnitude at a bus. The measurements of real power, reactive power and bus voltage magnitude could be extracted/captured from a smart energy meter. The financial involvement for implementation of the proposed method would significantly lower compared with the PMU-based method.

  5. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  6. Complex motion of a shuttle bus between two terminals with periodic inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus serving repeatedly between two terminals when passengers come periodically at two terminals A and B. The period and phase of the periodic inflow of passengers at terminal A are different from those at terminal B. The dynamic behavior of the bus is highly affected by the difference between two periods and the phase difference. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamics. We present the extended circle map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on the inflow periods, the period difference, the phase difference, and the loading parameter. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions. The quasi-periodic motion changes to a chaotic motion by the difference between two periods.

  7. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  8. The RRR of the Cu components of the LHC main bus bar splices

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Fessia, P; Principe, R; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2010-01-01

    The different LHC main bus bar splice components (bus bar cable, splice U-piece and wedge and bus bar stabilizer) are subjected to different heat treatments (HTs) during bus bar assembly and splice soldering. The influence of soldering HTs on the RRR of the LHC main bus bar cable strands has been determined. The RRR of several splice U-pieces and wedges dismounted from the LHC has been measured. A correlation between the Vickers hardness and the RRR of the high purity Cu profiles has been established. All U-pieces tested that were produced before 2009 have a RRR>200, while the RRR of all wedges and of U-pieces of 2009 production have a much lower RRR. All tests of LHC main bus bar samples performed so far in the laboratory indicate a RRR of approximately 200 or higher.

  9. The light stop quark with small stop-neutralino difference in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Carena, Marcela S.; Freitas, A.; Finch, A.; Sopczak, A.; Kluge, Hannelies

    2005-12-01

    The MSSM can explain electro-weak symmetry breaking if one scalar top quark (stop) is light. In addition, in this framework, the neutralino is a good dark matter candidate and for small stop-neutralino mass differences dm{sub i} = 30 GeV, co-annihilation plays an important role to match the results from WMAP and SDSS for the relic density in the universe. In this scenario, the stops mainly decays into charm and neutralino, making its discovery difficult at hadron colliders due to background and trigger limitations. They present results for the discovery reach of the ILC for a DM candidate as low as 0(5 GeV) based on a realistic experimental simulation. Moreover, the stop parameters could be measured with high precision.

  10. “HEALTH & PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AMONG S.T. BUS DRIVERS IN MAHARASHTRA"

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash Sadashiv Rane

    2016-01-01

    In State transport bus is one of the main mode of public transport in Maharashtra State. S.T. Bus Drivers have common complaints like gastro-intestinal problems, acute headaches, back pain, neck related problem, knee pain, burning sensation and watering in their eyes. Occupational stress is one of the hazard for many bus drivers. For the present study 100 S. T. drivers were selected through purposive and random sample selection technique. Information pertaining to the present research work ha...

  11. Modeling and simulation of thirty bus system with D-STATCOM for power quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkata Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with power quality improvement of thirty bus system using D-STATCOM. The thirty bus system is modeled using the elements of simulink. This model is used for conducting the simulation studies. The simulation results of the thirty bus system with and without D-STATCOM are presented. Power Quality improvement is observed by adding D-STATCOM in the existing network.

  12. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Jerman; Maja Meško

    2016-01-01

    Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from differ...

  13. The Bus Extension Module Design and Verification of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the Bus Extension Module using Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS). A Bus Extension Module use Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), called POSAFE-Q (made by POSCO ICT), for handling many data (I/O) extension rack. A processor module of POSAFE-Q can control I/O Module installed another rack. This paper explains Bus Extension Module and Data transfer technology using LVDS. (author)

  14. Best Operational and Maintenance Practices for City Bus Fleets to Maximize Fuel Economy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In most large cities in developing countries, buses continue to be the public transport option of choice, carrying a large share of urban travelers. However, transit bus companies in these countries are often cash-strapped. In many cases, the operating cost per bus kilometer exceeds revenues and bus fares are often kept low irrespective of the cost of providing service. Many cities are dom...

  15. Field-bus based control-management integrated system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics and types of the field-bus as well as its application in Nuclear Power Plant are discussed in this paper, and a new control-management integrated system for nuclear power plant that is based on field-bus is put forward. Analysis and study is carried out in terms of the hierarchy and architecture, network protocol and field-bus type and data information flow. (authors)

  16. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  17. Reducing carbon emissions by introducing electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes

    OpenAIRE

    Doolan, Ronan; Muntean, Gabriel-Miro

    2014-01-01

    Most cities have special lanes dedicated to buses, however these lanes are rarely used at full capacity. At the same time governments around the world are encouraging people to buy electric vehicles. This paper proposes the creation of electric vehicle enhanced dedicated bus lanes (E-DBL), by allowing electric vehicles access to bus lanes, in order to improve the use of road capacity. By opening bus lanes to electric vehicles, traffic congestion could be eased, the range ...

  18. Stop feeling: inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal Kalanthroff

    2013-01-01

    Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control [longer stop...

  19. Bioclimatic transport stop: Urban equipment kit; Parada bioclimatica de transporte: Kit de equipamiento urbano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria V; Barroso, Helen; Bonvino, Michelangelo; Puerta, Marigabriela [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad del Zulia, Maracaibo (Venezuela)

    2000-07-01

    Related to the analysis of offer of the urban public transportation, quantity and quality variables are identified, finding in the last one, the related to bus stop designing and equipping. This is, which elements a bus stop has to count with for its insertion in the urban public transportation system: information for the user, bench, trash can, et cetera: generally omitting, relevant aspects that must be considerate in its design and insertion: 1) the urban public transport, 2) the climate variables and 3) renewable energy and environmental preservation. For this presentation, thermal evaluations were made, using a thermal analysis software on prototypes of urban public transportation bus stops existent in Maracaibo (1.6 Mhab.)-Venezuela, city characterized for its high sunning, which duration approximately the same between the day period and night period: and for a marine climate of temperature (27.70 Celsius degrees) and high relative humidity (75%), low precipitation (490 mm) and predominant nor-northeast winds. The year average values of solar radiation corresponds to 5,59 kw/m{sup 2} day for the global radiation, 3.53 kw/m{sup 2} day for the direct radiation (63.1%) and 2.06% kw/m{sup 2} day for the diffuse radiation (36.9%). The maximum average value was obtained in the month of March with 6.4 kw/m{sup 2} day and the minimum on October, 4.7 kw/m{sup 2} day. In the other hand calculations about energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions of the conventional bus stop were made. It is proposed a bus stop design conceptualized as the bioclimatic condenser of the urban equipment. Where beside to comply its clearly determined transportation functions, it can conjunct: 1) complementary urban service activities, depending to its categorization in the urban public transportation system of Maracaibo; 2) orientation; 3) regulator of the urban microclima; and 4) area insertion of these. [Spanish] Dentro de lo que corresponde al analisis de la oferta de transporte publico

  20. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-il Hwang; Sung-wook Nam

    2014-01-01

    Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS), which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus), coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introdu...

  1. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  2. Bus Routes, Prince George's County "The Bus" Bus Routes, Published in 2007, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Prince George's County Office of Information Technology and Communications.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  3. Single start multiple stop time digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single start multiple stop time digitizer has been developed which can digitize the time between a start pulse and multiple stop pulses. The system has been designed as a PC add on card. The resolution of the instrument is 10 nSecs and the maximum length of time that it can measure is 1.28 milliseconds. Apart from time digitization, it can also resolve the height of the incoming pulses into 64 levels. After each input pulse the system dead time is less than 300 nSecs. The driver software for this card has been developed on DOS platform. It uses graphical user interface to provide a user friendly environment. The system is intended to be used in time of flight mass spectroscopy experiments. It can also be used for time of flight experiments in nuclear physics. (author). 2 figs

  4. Proton stopping powers in various gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton stopping powers of H2, He, N2, O2, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe were measured for proton energies between 60 and 800 keV with an accuracy of about 2%. The protons were scattered off a thin gold foil mounted in the center of a gas-filled scattering chamber. The energy loss in the gas is given by the shift of the elastic peak measured with and without gas filling. The experimental data were fitted using the semi-empirical five-parameter formula of Andersen and Ziegler. Shell corrections were calculated from the measured stopping powers and compared to the theoretical shell-correction calculations of Bonderup which are based on the Lindhard-Scharff model. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear stopping power at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent p + A → p + X data are analyzed within the context of the multi-chain and additive quark models. We deduce the average energy loss of a baryon as a function of distance traversed in nuclear matter. Consistency of the multi-chain model is checked by comparing the predictions for p + A → π+- + X with data. We discuss the space-time development of baryon stopping and show how longitudinal growth limits the energy deposition per unit length. Predictions are made for the proton spectra to be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and BNL. Finally, we conclude that the stopping domain for central collisions of heavy ions extends up to center of mass kinetic energies KEsub(em) asymptotically equals 3 +- 1 AGev. (author)

  6. Bus Pre-signals Control Technology and Application at Urban Road Intersections%城市道路交叉口公交预信号控制方法及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐笑晓; 保丽霞

    2011-01-01

    Bus pre-signals control is used to enable buses to move ahead of queues on the approach at signalized junctions. Firstly, the bus pre-signals technology at home and abroad was studied in this paper. Then, the pre-signal setting conditions around intersection were presented including vehicle lanes, traffic volume, buses frequency, etc. Bus exclusive waiting district layout was given and a length computing model was adjusted after experiments. Further more, the intersection stop line, lanes distribution as well as layout of bus priority detectors were put forward. Luban-Fuxin intersection was implemented after bus pre-signal conditions investigation. The second stop line was set and the signal timing with coordinated main control was calculated. The evaluation based on PARAMICS shows that the bus waiting time decreases by 28% while social vehicles delay increases by 6%. Thus, the goal of signal priority is achieved.%综述了公交预信号的国内外技术现状,提出城市道路交叉口公交预信号设置条件,给出了公交预置区车道布局方式,通过实验修正了公交专用候驶区长度计算模型,并给出了交叉口区域停车线、车道分布及公交优先检测器的布设.以上海市鲁班路复兴中路路口为应用对象,调查了公交预信号可实施条件,并计算了第二停车线设置位置,计算出车道灯先红先绿信号控制时间,论文基于PA-RAMICS仿真评估表明1 h内该路口公交车等待时间减少了28%,社会车辆平均等待时间增加了6%,达到公交信号优先的目的.

  7. Optimal Stopping of Active Portfolio Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung Jin Choi; Hyeng Keun Koo; Do Young Kwak

    2004-01-01

    We study an investor¡¯s decision to switch from active portfolio management to passive management. This problem is mathematically modelled by a mixture of a consumption-portfolio selection problem and an optimal stopping problem. We assume that the investor has stochastic differential utility with ambiguity aversion and incurs utility loss from active portfolio management that can be avoided by switching to passive management, and show that she manages actively as long as her level of wealth ...

  8. Modelling Stop Intersection Approaches using Gaussian Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Armand, Alexandre; Filliat, David; Ibanez-Guzman, Javier

    2013-01-01

    International audience Each driver reacts differently to the same traffic conditions, however, most Advanced Driving Assistant Systems (ADAS) assume that all drivers are the same. This paper proposes a method to learn and to model the velocity profile that the driver follows as the vehicle decelerates towards a stop intersection. Gaussian Processes (GP), a machine learning method for non-linear regressions are used to model the velocity profiles. It is shown that GP are well adapted for su...

  9. Relativistic theory of stopping for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We calculate the electronic stopping power and the corresponding straggling for ions of arbitrary charge number, penetrating matter at any relativistic energy. The stopping powers are calculated by a simple method. Its starting point is the deviation of the precise theory from first-order quantum perturbation. We show that this deviation can be expressed in terms of the transport cross section, σtr, for scattering of a free electron by the ion. In the nonrelativistic case the deviation is precisely the Bloch correction to Bethe close-quote s formula; we look into the nonrelativistic case in order to clarify both some features of our method and a seeming paradox in Rutherford scattering. The corresponding relativistic correction is obtained from σtr for scattering of a Dirac electron in the ion potential. Here, the major practical advantage of the method shows up; we need not find the scattering distribution, but merely a single quantity, σtr, determined by differences of successive phase shifts. For a point nucleus our results improve and extend those of Ahlen. Our final results, however, are based on atomic nuclei with standard radii. Thereby, the stopping is changed substantially already for moderate values of γ=(1-v2/c2)-1/2. An asymptotic saturation in stopping is obtained. Because of finite nuclear size, recoil corrections remain negligible at all energies. The average square fluctuation in energy loss is calculated as a simple fluctuation cross section for a free electron. The fluctuation in the relativistic case is generally larger than that of the perturbation formula, by a factor of ∼2 endash 3 for heavy ions. But the finite nuclear radius leads to a strong reduction at high energies and the elimination of the factor γ2 belonging to point nuclei. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  10. Stopping of sand sediment transport criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukerchenko, Nikolay; Ivanova, Irina; Chára, Zdeněk; Vlasák, Pavel

    Saratov : Saratovskij gosudarstvennyj techničeskij universitet, 2008, s. 25-29. ISBN 978-5-7433-1983-1. [Mezhdunarodnajanauchnaja konferencija Matematicheskije metody v nauke i technologijach /21./. Saratov (RU), 27.05.2008-30.05.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/06/1487 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : spherical particle saltation * saltation stopping * umerical experiments * 3D numerical model Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  11. The TRIUMF stopped π-μ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIUMF π-μ channel (M9) is described and the measured optical paramters are compared with design values. Measured beam characteristics of pions and muons for several different momenta are reported for protons incident on Be and Cu production targets. A beam of cloud muons at the channel momentum, from π decays near the production target, has been obtained having a high stopping density and small spot size. (auth)

  12. The Stop Smoking Before Surgery Program

    OpenAIRE

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L.; Viney, Nancy; Stolp, Sean; Krueckl, Sandra; Holm, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the impact of a Stop Smoking Before Surgery (SSBS) program in a health authority where responsibility for surgical services is shared by health professionals in regional centers and outlying communities. Methods: A between-subjects, pre-post mixed method program evaluation was conducted. Elective surgery patients at 2 Northern Canadian hospitals were recruited and surveyed at 2 time points: pre-SSBS implementation (n = 150) and 1 year post-SSBS implement...

  13. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droese, C., E-mail: christian.droese1@uni-greifswald.de [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lautenschläger, F. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Minaya Ramirez, E. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Simon, V.V. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Thirolf, P.G. [Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a {sup 219}Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of {sup 219}Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters.

  14. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a 219Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of 219Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters

  15. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  16. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. (2,3), the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  17. Communication in quantum networks of logical bus topology

    CERN Document Server

    Brougham, T; Jex, I

    2009-01-01

    Perfect state transfer (PST) is discussed in the context of passive quantum networks with logical bus topology, where many logical nodes communicate using the same shared media, without any external control. The conditions under which, a number of point-to-point PST links may serve as building blocks for the design of such multi-node networks are investigated. The implications of our results are discussed in the context of various Hamiltonians that act on the entire network, and are capable of providing PST between the logical nodes of a prescribed set in a deterministic manner.

  18. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  19. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  20. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  1. Communication Architecture Synthesis for Multi-bus SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Zitouni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systems on chip (SoC design, the synthesis of communication architecture constitutes the bottleneck which can affect the performances of the system. Various schemes and protocols can be necessary, just as various topologies of interconnection. To reduce the complexity of the communications refinement, we present in this study a model and a synthesis approach for multi-bus communication architecture containing centralized bridge. The automation of the arbiter synthesis step profited from a detailed attention. This stage generates a hierarchical arbiter integrating various priority arbitration modules. The proposed approach was integrated in a toolbox based environment

  2. Disseny òptim de sistemes Bus Rapid Transit (BRT's)

    OpenAIRE

    Segurana Sardà, Ovidi

    2007-01-01

    A la dècada dels setanta va aparèixer a Curitiba un nou tipus de transport urbà, l'anomenat Bus Rapid Transit (BRT). L'idea principal d'aquest nou mode de transport fou aconseguir, amb una inversió moderada, el millor sistema possible de transport públic en superfície. Així doncs, es varen implantar diverses iniciatives innovadores. Avui dia, aquest sistema està implantat amb èxit en diverses ciutats de tots els continents i segueix en expansió. Tot i això, encara existeix en el nostre paí...

  3. Energy model of network-on-chip and a bus

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jurgen

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon- Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both NoC architectures to predict their energy consumption per transported bit. Both architectures are also compared with a traditional bus architecture. The energy model is primarily needed to find a ...

  4. Energy Model of Networks-on-Chip and a Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Wolkotte, Pascal T.; Smit, Gerard J.M.; Kavaldjiev, Nikolay; Becker, Jens E.; Becker, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    A Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient onchip communication architecture for Multi-Processor Systemon-Chip (MPSoC) architectures. In earlier papers we proposed two Network-on-Chip architectures based on packet-switching and circuit-switching. In this paper we derive an energy model for both NoC architectures to predict their energy consumption per transported bit. Both architectures are also compared with a traditional bus architecture. The energy model is primarily needed to find a n...

  5. THE HUNGARIAN ONE STOP GOVERNMENT OFFICES AS GOVERNMENTAL COORDINATION MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Éva

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on one of the innovative policy coordination measure - introduced by the Hungarian government also: the newly established “Government Windows” one-stop-shop initiative. The introduction of one-stop-shops in public administration is a frequent element of recent administrative reforms that operate as a particular form of coordination within public administration In connection with the one-stop shop concept, the paper seeks to elaborate that why one stop shop arrangemen...

  6. Smokers' Beliefs About The Inability to Stop Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We recruited 367 current daily smokers via the Internet and randomized them to rate the causes of an inability to stop smoking, inability to stop problem alcohol use, or inability to lose excess weight in a fictional scenario. Most smokers attributed inability to stop smoking to addiction (88%), habit (88%) and stress (62%). Surprisingly, equal numbers of smokers agreed and disagreed that inability to stop smoking was due to lack of willpower or motivation. Most disagreed that it was due to b...

  7. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  8. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  9. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  10. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT System Impacts to Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shojaei Baghini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the mechanism and performance of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system and its impacts on environment quality. Environment quality is an indicator of regional quality of life, supporting the health and well-being of the public and sustainability of the urban and natural environment. Transit agencies are adopting vehicles with alternative fuels, propulsion systems and pollutant emissions controls. One of the ways to improve the transportation environment is through the reduction of BRT emissions to improve air quality. The primary advantage of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system is that it can be adapted to a multitude of operating environments, with sufficient scalability to deliver increased carrying capacity to meet future ridership growth. Moreover, the system will also likely reduce overall the noise levels by determining suitable noise management systems. The paper finds that a BRT system offers the greatest potential for greenhouse gas reductions primarily because BRT vehicles generally offer lower CO2 emissions per passenger mile than other transportation system.

  11. Efficiency and robustness of different bus network designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, John Zhen Fu; Bin Othman, Nasri; Ng, Keng Meng; Monterola, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We compare the efficiencies and robustness of four transport networks that can be possibly formed as a result of deliberate city planning. The networks are constructed based on their spatial resemblance to the cities of Manhattan (lattice), Sudan (random), Beijing (single-blob) and Greater Cairo (dual-blob). For a given type, a genetic algorithm is employed to obtain an optimized set of the bus routes. We then simulate how commuter travels using Yen's algorithms for k shortest paths on an adjacency matrix. The cost of traveling such as walking between stations is captured by varying the weighted sums of matrices. We also consider the number of transfers a posteriori by looking at the computed shortest paths. With consideration to distances via radius of gyration, redundancies of travel and number of bus transfers, our simulations indicate that random and dual-blob are more efficient than single-blob and lattice networks. Moreover, dual-blob type is least robust when node removals are targeted but is most resilient when node failures are random. The work hopes to guide and provide technical perspectives on how geospatial distribution of a city limits the optimality of transport designs.

  12. Channel access: A software bus for the LAACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The host processor for a code running within a distributed process control system is often predetermined by constraints built into the software architecture of the control system. Input/output (I/O) channels directly connected to the host processors are usually easier to access in software than channels on remote processors. It is often difficult to modernize selective parts of a control system's software while leaving the other parts unchanged. Likewise, software developed at one laboratory is often difficult to integrate into a control system developed at another laboratory. Software that runs in one machine or operating-system architecture is often unable to communicate with control-system software running on a different platform. For the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System (LAACS) we have attempted to address the above difficulties with a software communication facility which we call Channel Access. Channel Access provides a 'software bus' that allows programs to be connected through a network to I/O channels on real-time processors in a manner similar to the way in which hardware modules are integrated within a standardized hardware bus such as CAMAC or VME. We have already placed an operator interface on Channel Access and we are currently designing alarm, archiving and sequencing tools as well. Numerous application-specific programs use Channel Access. This paper describes the unique feature of this approach and its performance as an integral part of the Los Alamos Accelerator Control System. (orig.)

  13. The universal serial bus endoscope: design and initial clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Zendejas, Gregorio; Dobke, Marek K; Guerrerosantos, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Endoscopic forehead lift is a well-established procedure in aesthetic plastic surgery. Many agree that currently available video-endoscopic equipment is bulky, multipieced and sometimes cumbersome in the operating theater. A novel system, the Universal Serial Bus Endoscope (USBE) was designed to simplify and reduce the number of necessary equipment pieces in the endoscopic setup. The USBE is attached by a single cable to a Universal Serial Bus (USB) port of a laptop computer. A built-in miniaturized cold light source provides illumination. A built-in digital camera chip enables procedure recording. The real-time images and movies obtained with USBE are displayed on the computer's screen and recorded on the laptop's hard disk drive. In this study, 25 patients underwent endoscopic browlift using the USBE system to test its clinical usefulness, all with good results and without complications or need for revision. The USBE was found to be reliable and easier to use than current video-endoscope equipment. The operative time needed to complete the procedure by the authors was reduced approximately 50%. The design and main technical characteristics of the USBE are presented. PMID:15383889

  14. Development of an integrated cryogenic bus for spacecraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Davis, Thomas M.; Tomlinson, Joe; Stoyanof, Marko; Crawford, Larry; Glaister, David S.

    1997-01-01

    To improve the efficiency and reduce the overdesign penalties associated with integrating cryogenic systems into spacecraft, the Integrated Cryogenic Bus (ICB) program was initiated in April 1996. The technical objectives of the program were to develop an integrated, lightweight means of thermally linking a cryogenic cooling source to a cooled satellite component, to commonize the interfaces to the cooling source and cooled component, and to commonize the integration of these systems into spacecraft. The technical plan involves several steps beginning with the definition of requirements, the identification and characterization of potential bus components, the development of new concepts and optimization methods, breadboard testing, and prototype development. Six months into the program, over 25 cryocooler, focal plane, and cryogenic hardware organizations have been interviewed or surveyed to identify requirements, numerous components have been identified and characterized, several preliminary concepts have been developed, an optimization plan has been outlined, and critical breadboard tests have begun. This paper summarizes the progress to date during Phase I of this Phillips Laboratory program funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO).

  15. Bus Routes, This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of the existing bus routes, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of...

  16. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  17. 77 FR 71865 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Transit... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 appropriations for the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized... Accessibility Program makes funds available to private operators of over-the-road buses to help finance...

  18. 76 FR 41323 - Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... 215 (73 FR 47046, Aug.13, 2008). On October 1, 2008, DOL began using a revised special warranty for... Federal Transit Administration Over-the-Road Bus Accessibility Program Grants AGENCY: Federal Transit... Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, authorized by Section 3038 of the Transportation...

  19. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Kang, S.; Bae, D.

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. On the momentum distribution of particles participating in nuclear stopping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Kaur; Suneel Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear stopping is studied as a function of incident energy and charge of the fragment produced in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) of $^{197}_{79}$Au+$^{197}_{79}$Au and $^{58}_{28}$Ni+$^{58}_{28}$Ni using stopping parameter VARXZ. Various momentum constraints were imposed to get better insight into the stopping. The comparison of measured and calculated values of stopping for protons reveals the significance of these constraints. Maximum stopping is obtained for the particles lying in the lowest range of the momentum distribution at all incident energies.

  1. Stopping-power ratios for dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of the absorbed dose at a specified location in a medium irradiated with an electron or photon beam normally consists of two steps: (1) the determination of the mean absorbed dose to a detector by using a calibration factor or performing an absolute measurement, (2) the determination of the absorbed dose to the medium at the point of interest by calculations based on the knowledge of the absorbed dose to the detector and the different stopping and scattering properties of the medium and the detector material. When the influence of the detector is so small that the electron fluence in the medium is not modified, the ratio of the mass collision stopping power of the two materials accounts for the differences in energy deposition, and provides a conversion factor to relate the absorbed dose in both materials. Today, all national and international dosimetry protocols and codes of practice are based on such procedures, and the user easily can carry out these steps using tabulated data to convert a measured quantity to absorbed dose in the irradiated medium at the location of interest. Effects due to the spatial extension of the detector are taken into account using perturbation correction factors. The Monte Carlo method has become the most common and powerful calculational technique for determining the electron fluence (energy spectra) under different irradiation conditions. Cavity theory is then used to calculate stopping-power ratios. In this chapter, the different steps needed to evaluate s-ratios will be considered, emphasizing the different types of cavity-theory integrals and the Monte Carlo techniques used to derive the necessary electron spectra in the range of energies commonly used in radiation dosimetry, i.e., photon and electron beams with energies up to 50 MeV

  2. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  3. Gold fragmentation induced by stopped antiprotons

    OpenAIRE

    Lubinski, P.; Grochulska, A.; von Egidy, T.; Gulda, K.; Hartmann, F. J.; Jastrzebski, J.; Kurcewicz, W.; Pienkowski, L.; Stolarz, A.; Trzcinska, A.

    2002-01-01

    A natural gold target was irradiated with the antiproton beam from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring at CERN. Antiprotons of 200 MeV/c momentum were stopped in a thick target, products of their annihilations on Au nuclei were detected using the off-line gamma-ray spectroscopy method. In total, yields for 114 residual nuclei were determined, providing a data set to deduce the complete mass and charge distribution of all products with A > 20 from a fitting procedure. The contribution of evaporatio...

  4. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  5. The Novel Microwave Stop-Band Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Chernobrovkin, R. E.; Ivanchenko, I. V.; Korolev, A. M.; Popenko, N. A.; K. Yu. Sirenko

    2008-01-01

    The stop-band filter with the new band-rejection element is proposed. The element is a coaxial waveguide with the slot in the centre conductor. In the frame of this research, the numerical and experimental investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are carried out. It is noted that according to the slot parameters the two typical resonances (half-wave and quarter-wave) can be excited. The rejection band of the single element is defined by the width, depth, and die...

  6. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required by...... other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...

  7. End-Stop Exemplar Based Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2003-01-01

    An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring int...... interest points, and (in the training phase) a list of recognition names. Recognition is made by a simple voting procedure. Preliminary experiments indicate that the recognition is robust to noise, small deformations, background clutter and partial occlusion....

  8. Stop IT Project Failures Through Risk Management

    CERN Document Server

    Remenyi, D

    1999-01-01

    This book is about information systems development failures and how to avoid them. .It considers what goes wrong with information systems development projects and what actions may be taken to avoid potential difficulties.The reduction of the impact,or even the elimination of the problems,is discussed in terms of an information systems risk management programme. Stop I.T.Project failure helps to ensure that IS project managers are successful in helping to deliver application systems. However, IS development risk can never be entirely eliminated and consequently the practitioner needs to bear in

  9. Development of a New Hybrid Electric City Bus%一种新型混合动力城市客车的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红涛; 史广奎; 王仁广; 张林涛; 于潮

    2012-01-01

    It introduces a new kind of hybrid power train which can be used in parallel/series HEV city bus to meet the requirements of saving energy and reducing pollution. The power train has low and high speed operation modes. The HEV city bus adopting this new type hybrid power train has four operation modes including pure electric driving, parallel /series driving, generating with bus stop, and charging from grid. The new technology makes the engine, generator and motor work match smoothly to reach the target of reducing pollution and using fuel more efficiently.%针对城市公交客车的实际运行工况需要,开发出一种新型混合动力总成装置,用于混合动力城市公交客车.混合动力总成具有高低速双电机模式,能充分发挥串联式和并联式优点.混合动力客车具有纯电、混联、驻车发电和电网充电4种工作模式,使发动机、发电机、电机等部件更优化地匹配工作,在结构上保证了在复杂的工况下系统工作在最优状态,达到更高的节能和减排目标.

  10. Micro-navigation for urban bus passengers: using the Internet of Things to improve the public transport experience

    OpenAIRE

    Foell, Stefan; Kortuem, Gerd; Rawassizadeh, Reza; Handte, Marcus; Iqbal, Umer; Marron, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Public bus services are widely deployed in cities around the world because they provide cost-effective and economic public transportation. However, from a passenger point of view urban bus systems can be complex and difficult to navigate, especially for disadvantaged users, i.e. tourists, novice users, older people, and people with impaired cognitive or physical abilities. We present Urban Bus Navigator (UBN), a reality-aware urban navigation system for bus passengers with the ability to reco...

  11. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  12. 76 FR 42730 - In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (“USB”) Portable Storage Devices, Including USB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Univeral Serial Bus (``USB'') Portable Storage Devices, Including USB... certain universal serial bus (``USB'') portable storage devices, including USB flash drives and components... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain universal serial bus...

  13. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Lee, Meng-Jung, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Hung, Weilun, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Yu, Ite A., E-mail: yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yong-Fan [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  14. Novel low cost standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus for LEO missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anubhav, T.; Sarwesh, P.; Narayan, V.; Varma, P. A.; Prasad, R. A.; Loganathan, M.; Rao, D. N.; Sriram, S.; Venkatesh, M.

    This paper focuses on SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS which is a standardized Nano-Satellite structure bus. It provides a standard platform for a wide variety of missions in LEO and can be realized in a very short developmental period. The bus was designed and developed for SRMSAT, the SRM University (Sri Ramaswamy Memorial University) student Nano-Satellite, by the undergraduate students and faculty of SRM University in collaboration with Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The bus can support payloads up to a mass of 20kg. SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS has a mass of around 6 kg and dimensions 280mm × 280mm × 280mm with an available volume of 11000 cc. Vibration Testing of the bus has been performed upto 6.7 gRMS. This makes the satellite capable of being launched by any launch vehicle in the world. An innovative PCB mounting design has been introduced in this structure bus which facilitates mounting of a maximum 7 PCB trays independently, each tray capable of holding a 250 mm2 PCB. Structural analysis of SRMSAT STRUCTURE BUS was done using NX Nastran. The boundary conditions for each analysis were defined based on the loading conditions as specified by the launcher, PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle). Optimization of each individual component was performed by maintaining a minimum threshold between the local frequencies of the component and global frequencies of the entire satellite. Static, Modal, Harmonic and Random Vibration analysis of the structure bus was performed. This paper also describes the methodology followed in the static and dynamic analysis of the structure bus to finalize the design. The results have been tested and validated at ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore with around 90% accuracy and the structure has been certified as a standard structure bus for Nano-satellite missions. In terms of expandability, this structure bus is capable of accommodating deployable solar panels. Also, the payload mounting is not only restricted to th- bottom deck but can

  15. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  16. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  17. The Bus Extension Module of POSAFE-Q Using LVDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Safety-Related PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) develops new technology to handle many data promptly. The simple method to handle effective many data reduces operating voltage on 3.3V or under 3.3V, so that is possible to handle data high speed data. This method to reduce operating voltage is effective handling high speed data, but ultimately it has electromagnetic problem.(EMI/EMC) The paper attributes to high-speed data processing, and electromagnetic waves in order to meet the manner of handling the existing data signal Transistor- Transistor Logic (TTL) in the data processing capacity and good electromagnetic characteristics Low Voltage Differential Signal (LVDS) method using the SUN 1,2 is applied to Safe-related PLC (POSFE-Q) on the implementation of the bus expansion module is described

  18. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  19. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  20. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  1. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  2. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  3. Stop and regulating valves for radiochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers on developing stop and regulating valves and selecting material for these valves are reviewed. The main technical requirements of the radiochemical production to the valves are: the fluid stream velocity of 0.2-10000 l/s, remote exchange, one year lifetime or 15O00 cycles, the pressure and temperature of the fluid up to 0.6 MPa and up to 120 deg C. It is presupposed to use 03Cr18Ni12 and 03Cr18Ni12MO2-3 type steels for these valves. The CrWCO type lining materials for the working medium of nitrogen acid are acknowledged unfit. Significantly better anticorrosion properties are found for the electrodes with the 1Cr18Ni Mo2-5 Mn2-4 type lining. The bellow valve design meets the suggested technical requirements most fully. Two perspective projects of the valve of this type are presented

  4. The Novel Microwave Stop-Band Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Chernobrovkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stop-band filter with the new band-rejection element is proposed. The element is a coaxial waveguide with the slot in the centre conductor. In the frame of this research, the numerical and experimental investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are carried out. It is noted that according to the slot parameters the two typical resonances (half-wave and quarter-wave can be excited. The rejection band of the single element is defined by the width, depth, and dielectric filling of the slot. Fifth-order Chebyshev filter utilizing the aforementioned element is also synthesized, manufactured, and tested. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement. The experimental filter prototype exhibits the rejection band 0.86 GHz at the level −40 dB.

  5. Scan Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Inertia Stops Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel interpretation of the quantum mechanical superposition is put forward. Quantum systems scan all possible available states and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. The longer they remain in a given state, the larger the probability of the system to be found in that state during a measurement. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia $I_q$ reaches a critical value $I_{cr}$ for an observable, the switching among the different eigenvalues of that observable stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational force, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. The process could be reversible decreasing the size, temperature, gravitational force, etc. leading to...

  6. The phase effect of electronic stopping power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhong-Quan; ZhengYu-Feng

    1998-01-01

    A corrective factor(φ(E,ρ)≤1) dependent on ion energy and mass density of material for energy loss has been introduced into Bethe-Bloch formula,so that the energy deposition process of fast ion penetrating through the allotropic solid films are well discussed with the two-component assumption.An analysis expression of electronic stopping power for different phase structures has been derived from the contribution of "valence ”and “Core” electrons.The two thirds of inelastic scattering arisen from valence electron was revealed by comparing the theoretical calculation and experimental results on both random and oriented lattice site.THe corrective factor representative to the role of inner electrons increases with the projectile energy but decreases with mass density of solids.

  7. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Schwientek, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Tripp, H. James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rinke, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Huntemann, Marcel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Visel, Axel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Woyke, Tanja [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rubin, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  8. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider, a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up-stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo-design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon stop prototype

  9. Heisenberg Spin Bus as a Robust Transmission Line for Perfect State Transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Sangchul; Shim, Yun-Pil; Friesen, Mark; Hu, Xuedong

    2011-01-01

    We study the protocol known as quantum state transfer for a strongly coupled antiferromagnetic spin chain or ring (acting as a spin bus), with weakly coupled external qubits. By treating the weak coupling as a perturbation, we find that perfect state transfer (PST) is possible when second order terms are included in the expansion. We also show that PST is robust against variations in the couplings along the spin bus and between the bus and the qubits. As evidence of the quantum interference which mediates PST, we show that the optimal time for PST can be smaller with larger qubit separations, for an even-size chain or ring.

  10. Geometric-Process-Based Battery Management Optimizing Policy for the Electric Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Jin-kuan Wang; Peng Han; Ying-hua Han

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry and promotive policies worldwide, the electric bus (E-bus) has been adopted in many major cities around the world. One of the most important factors that restrain the widespread application of the E-bus is the high operating cost due to the deficient battery management. This paper proposes a geometric-process-based (GP-based) battery management optimizing policy which aims to minimize the average cost of the operation on the premise ...

  11. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Third Evaluation Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes operations at Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) in Hartford for one prototype fuel cell bus and three new diesel buses operating from the same location. The prototype fuel cell bus was manufactured by Van Hool and ISE Corp. and features an electric hybrid drive system with a UTC Power PureMotion 120 Fuel Cell Power System and ZEBRA batteries for energy storage. The fuel cell bus started operation in April 2007, and evaluation results through October 2009 are provided in this report.

  12. Power Talk: How to Modulate Data over a DC Micro Grid Bus using Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Liu, Hongpeng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    , while it is received by processing the bus measurements that units perform. This implies that the communication does not require a dedicated modem, but instead it is piggybacked on top of the power electronics. The communication is challenged by the random fluctuations of the voltage level due to the......We introduce a novel communication strategy for DC Micro Grids (MGs), termed power talk, in which the devices communicate by modulating the power levels in the DC bus. The information is transmitted by varying the parameters that the MG units use to control the level of the common bus voltage...

  13. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  14. Spring and stop assembly for nuclear fuel bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A removable spring and stop assembly is described for use with a nuclear fuel bundle in a nuclear reactor core. The assembly includes a bolt threaded through a top section of a stop member by which the assembly (and a flow channel) is secured to the fuel bundle, the adjacent end threads of the bolt. The stop member is upset or deformed by which the bolt is captured in the assembly. (U.S.)

  15. Role of Premature Stop Codons in Bacterial Evolution▿

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Tit-Yee; Fernandes, Sanjit; Sankhon, Naby; Leong, Patrick P.; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2008-01-01

    When the stop codons TGA, TAA, and TAG are found in the second and third reading frames of a protein-encoding gene, they are considered premature stop codons (PSC). Deinococcus radiodurans disproportionately favored TGA more than the other two triplets as a PSC. The TGA triplet was also found more often in noncoding regions and as a stop codon, though the bias was less pronounced. We investigated this phenomenon in 72 bacterial species with widely differing chromosomal GC contents. Although T...

  16. Stop Release in Polish English — Implications for Prosodic Constituency

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Geoffrey; Balas, Anna; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Although there is little consensus on the relevance of non-contrastive allophonic processes in L2 speech acquisition, EFL pronunciation textbooks cover the suppression of stop release in coda position. The tendency for held stops in English is in stark opposition to a number of other languages, including Polish, in which plosive release is obligatory. This paper presents phonetic data on the acquisition of English unreleased stops by Polish learners. Results show that in addition to showing a...

  17. Stopping power, its meaning, and its general characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This essay presents remarks on the meaning of stopping, power and of its magnitude. More precisely, the first set of remarks concerns the connection of stopping power with elements of particle-transport theory, which describes particle transport and its consequences in full detail, including its stochastic aspects. The second set of remarks concerns the magnitude of the stopping power of a material and its relation with the material's electronic structure and other properties

  18. Compilation, measurements and tabulation of heavy ion stopping data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New stopping power measurements have been carried out with heavy ions in the last 15 years, and they resulted in new stopping power tabulations. A synthesis of these studies is presented and a chronological presentation has been adopted. Low energy (3-6 MeV/u) and intermediate energy (20-100 MeV/u) stopping power measurements are both investigated. (K.A.) 35 refs., 15 figs

  19. Sensitivity of nuclear stopping towards density dependent symmetry energy

    OpenAIRE

    Vinayak, Karan Singh; Kumar, Suneel

    2011-01-01

    The effect of density dependent symmetry energy on nuclear-stopping is studied using isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model(IQMD). We have used the reduced isospin-dependent cross-section with soft(S) equation of state for the systems having different isostopic content, to explore the various aspects of nuclear stopping. The aim is to pin down the nature of the nuclear stopping with density dependent symmetry energy. Nuclear stopping is found to be sensitive towards the various fo...

  20. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-05-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large toverline{t} background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line {m}_{tilde{t}}-{m}_{tilde{χ}}≈ {m}_t . With 300 fb-1, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  1. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  3. Analysis of Journey to Work Travel Behavior by Car and Bus in the Sydney Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthanaya P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Car dependence is a fundamental problem in the sustainability of cities with low-density suburban sprawl. Increasing the use of public transport is one of the policy objectives commonly adopted to overcome this problem. It is essential to study journey to work travel behavior by car and bus. This paper applied preference function to analyze travel behavior and Moran’s I spatial statistic to evaluate the spatial association. The results indicated that the commuting preferences of residents have moved towards distance maximization. In general, bus was preferred for shorter distance trips whilst car was preferred for longer distance trips. Unlike car, by increasing distances from the Central Business District, residents tended to use bus for shorter distance trip. A significant positive spatial association was identified for both the slope preferences by car and bus where zones with a preference towards longer or shorter trips tended to travel to zones with similar preferences.

  4. Microprocessor based dual bus structured data acquisition and processing system : DAPS-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microprocessor based dual bus structured data acquisition and processing system has been designed around Intel 8080 microprocessor. The system is described and operational results are given. (M.G.B.)

  5. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  6. Toward Real-time Multi-criteria Decision Making for Bus Service Reliability Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    -objective evolutionary algorithm using a dynamic Bayesian network, applies preventive strategies to forestall bus unreliability and, where unreliability is evident, restore reliability using corrective strategies. 'Holding', 'expressing', 'short-turning' and 'deadheading' are the corrective strategies considered...

  7. Bus Routes, Published in 2006, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. Data by this publisher are often...

  8. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  9. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  10. Driving While Non-White: Exploring Traffic Stops and Post-Stop Activities in North Carolina, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D. Lippard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has established that Blacks face disproportionate amounts of traffic stops, searches, and arrests by police compared to Whites. However, few studies have ventured past the Black-White dichotomy and considered how Hispanics or other minorities may face the same disparities, especially in places where the Hispanic population has dramatically increased in recent years. Using traffic stop and post-stop data compiled by the North Carolina Department of Justice from 2005 to 2009, this study explored whether Hispanics, Blacks, as well as other racial minorities experienced a higher likelihood of traffic stops, citations, searches, and arrests compared to Whites within sample of city, county, and state law enforcement agencies. We found that generally all racial and ethnic minority groups face higher rates of traffic stops than Whites by almost every law enforcement agency sampled. We also found that rates of post-stop activities including searches, citations, and arrests are higher for all racial and ethnic minority groups examined compared to Whites, especially for Hispanics. Hispanic and non-White disparities in traffic stops also cannot be explained away when controlling for population size, type of law enforcement agency, or the reason stated for the traffic stop (e.g., DWI, speeding, or investigation. More important, however, is that the rate of searches for racial and ethnic minorities did not necessarily match the rates of citations and arrests minorities receive, suggesting that some stops could be racially or ethnically motivated.

  11. Using FTT-CAN to the Flexible Control of Bus Redundancy and Bandwidth Usage

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Valter; Fonseca, José; Ferreira, Joaquim

    2006-01-01

    Controller Area Network (CAN) is a popular and very well-known bus system, both in academia and in industry, initially targeted to automotive applications as a single digital bus to replace the wiring that were growing complexity, weight and cost with the advent of new automotive appliances. However, requirements have evolved and CAN’s dependability and bandwidth limitations led to the emergence of alternative networks such as FlexRay and TTP/C. Nevertheless, we believe that it...

  12. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  13. Loss of power of a 220 VAC safety bus bar at Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embalse nuclear power plant is located at the Cordoba Province, 5 kilometres Southern the town of Embalse. It is equipped with one 600 MWe CANDU reactor. At the time of the event, which occurred on 11 October 2004, the plant was operating normally at full power. The Embalse nuclear power plant electrical power system buses are classified, in reliability decreasing order, into the following four different levels: 1) Class I: uninterrupted direct current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 2) Class II: uninterrupted alternating current supplies for safety related and other essential loads; 3) Class III: alternating current supplies to essential auxiliaries which can tolerate the short interruption required until to start up and load the on-site standby generators and 4) Class IV: normal alternating current supplies to auxiliaries which can tolerate long duration interruptions without affecting personnel or equipment safety (Class IV is the normal source of power to Class III system). In particular, the Class II 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bars are composed by three 220 VAC subsystems powered by the following two sources of power: Class I uninterrupted safety bus bars (5551 BUA, BUB and BUC bars) and Class III secondary distribution 5433-MCC5 and MCC6. The Class II 220 VAC bus bars are normally powered from Class I bus bars through static monophasic inverters. Beside, in a static monophasic out of service case, Class II bus bar affected could be powered from Class III bus bars via a transformer stabilizer. Class II bus bars supplies power to both control computers and the AC instrumentation and control devices. When 220 VAC (Class II) 5542-BUC-monophasic-inverter failure was coincident with a subsequent independent failure to transfer to the Class III through static commuter 5542-SVR-C, a loss of the 220 VAC uninterrupted monophasic safety bus bar (Class II) event was caused. (author)

  14. Calculation of Flexible Bus-Bars Electrodynamic Stability with Application of Implicit Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Y. G. Panamarenka

    2008-01-01

    A numerical method for calculation of open-air substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been improved on equations of a flexible elastic string with application of an implicit scheme. On the basis of the numerical method a computer program FLEBUS for calculation of substations’ flexible bus-bars dynamic at short-circuit has been developed. An approbation and an estimation of calculation result reliability have been carried out in accordance with the program while using expe...

  15. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN A BUS COMPANY: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Ribeiro de Araújo; Fernanda Cristina Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine the application of a method for assessing the performance of the product development process (PDP) through the assessment of managerial skills in a bus body industry. A case study was carried out and a PDP method was applied through a questionnaire addressing the PDP management skills according to Dechamps and Nayak (1997) model and validated by Silva (2001) in a bus body company which showed all the features available in the literature on industria...

  16. Dynamic bus lanes in Sweden – a pre-study : PROVDYK – Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Olstam, Johan; Häll, Carl-Henrik; Smith, Göran; Habibovic, Azra; Anund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Dedicated bus lanes and bus streets have, in recent years, become common measures for prioritisation of public transport. By ensuring free path along routes, they increase average speed and travel time reliability of buses. However, a major drawback is that the total traffic capacities of the roads decrease. Hence, these measures are only suitable when the total traffic flow is low enough to allow for a reduction of lanes; if it is possible to reroute adjacent traffic; or if it is possible to...

  17. A perception system for accurate automatic control of an articulated bus

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas, Carlota; Montes, Héctor; Armada, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the perception system for an automatic articulated bus where an accurate tracking trajectory is desired. Among the most promising transport infrastructures of the autonomous or semi-autonomous transportation systems, the articulated bus is an interesting low cost and friendly option. This platform involves a mobile vehicle and a private circuit inside CSIC premises. The perception system, presented in this work, based on 2D laser scanner as a prime sensor generates local ...

  18. The impact of bus drivers ’ lifestyle on the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Jerman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Do bus drivers’ lifestyles affect the occurrence of health problems and absenteeism? Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the lifestyle of professional bus drivers affects the occurrence of health problems and the phenomenon of absenteeism. Method: A quantitative research method was used in the research. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 230 professional bus drivers from different bus transport companies in Slovenia. Selected data were analyzed with chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Results: We determined that there is a relationship between the state of health of professional bus drivers and participation in sport activity and that there is a statistically significant impact of lifestyle on the absenteeism of professional bus drivers. Organization: The study points to the necessity of management’s awareness to improve the conditions for the health status of employees and, consequently, absenteeism. Managers need to be more vigilant in ensuring conditions and social security that will allow employees a higher quality lifestyle. Society: The poor quality lifestyle of professional bus drivers, which includes different addictions, inadequate physical activity, and poor working conditions, is a significant factor causing absenteeism. All these factors influence the onset of negative consequences, such as the direct cost of compensation payments, costs of replacing the absent person, a reduction in productivity, which in turn affect economic growth and the high cost of health care. Originality: This is the first focus group study of professional bus drivers that targets lifestyle and its connection to absenteeism. Limitations/Future Research: The main limitation of the study is the number of respondents. The reason for this is that professional drivers are less responsive in the survey and that the study was conducted only in Slovenia, country of two

  19. Central Thermal Bus for Micro and Small Satellites: Scalability and Adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Wooldridge, John; Wrenn, Kim; Wolf, Dave; Bugby, Dave; Krein, Steve; Mark, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Swales Aerospace is engaged in the development of a Centralized Thermal Bus (CTB), which stands to significantly increase the capability, flexibility, and scalability of a small or micro-sat bus. The CTB is a multievaporator hybrid loop heat pipe (MEHLHP). It combines the best qualities of both capillary pumped loops and loop heat pipes while improving operational robustness, simplifying mission modes and system deployment/startup. Key benefits of the CTB are: multiple load heat transport, he...

  20. The Metabolic Syndrome and its Association with Over Time Driving in Iranian Professional Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Blouri; Ali Saba; Amin Shirazi; Farnaz Nabizadeh; Maghsoud Matinkhah; Iraj Mohebbi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MeS) in professional bus drivers, and its association with overtime working hours among those drivers in Urmia, Iran. In this cross sectional study the studies population was 626 professional bus drivers, aged 20-69 yr. The MeS (according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III), Waist circumference, Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Fasting plasma glucose, Triglyceride...

  1. Scaling and correlations in three bus-transport networks of China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xinping; Hu, Junhui; Liu, Feng; Liu, Lianshou

    2007-01-01

    We report the statistical properties of three bus-transport networks (BTN) in three different cities of China. These networks are composed of a set of bus lines and stations serviced by these. Network properties, including the degree distribution, clustering and average path length are studied in different definitions of network topology. We explore scaling laws and correlations that may govern intrinsic features of such networks. Besides, we create a weighted network representation for BTN w...

  2. External validation of psychological job demands in a bus driver sample

    OpenAIRE

    Gimeno, D; Benavides, F G; Mira, M.; Martinez, J. M.; Benach, J

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial risk factors have been considered as characteristics of the work environment rather than an individual issue, but their presence in the workplace is usually measured by self-reported questionnaires, based on worker attitudes. The objective of the study was to compare a self-reported measure of psychological job demands in a bus driver sample with selected indicators of bus company activity, as external 'objective' indicators, in order to assess its external validity. The final sa...

  3. Correlation between Driver Subjective Fatigue and Bus Lateral Position in a Driving Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    GHARAGOZLOU, Faramarz; Mazloumi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Nahvi, Ali; Ashouri, Mohammadreza; Mozaffari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Driver fatigue as a leading cause of death in the transportation industry can impair the driving performance in long-distance driving task. Studies on the links of driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position are still an exploratory issue that requires further investigation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position in a driving simulator. Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted o...

  4. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  5. Congestion Management by TCPST In IEEE 9 Bus System Using Matlab Simulink.

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Sharma; Ram Avtar Jaswal

    2013-01-01

    Increased electric power consumption causes transmission lines to be driven close to or even beyond their transfer capacities resulting in overloaded lines and congestions. Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) provide an opportunity to resolve congestions by controlling power flows and voltages. Main focus in this paper lies on the Thyristor Controlled Phase Shift Transformer (TCPST). IEEE 9 bus system is considered for congestion management. Parameters for bus system are predefined by IE...

  6. Multi Resolution AHB Bus Tracer with Real Time Compression for SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jagadish Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller based Bus Architecture consists of AHB, APB, ASB and AXI. In this project we are Tracing AHB (Advanced High performance Bus signals with Real time Compression and Multi-resolution Techniques. A simple transaction on the AHB consists of an address phase and a subsequent data phase. Access to the target device is controlled through a MUX , thereby admitting bus-access to one bus-master at a time. In AHB Tracer we have to Trace Address signals, Data signals and Control signals, we have to compress them depending on AHB protocols. A multi-resolution AHB on-chip bus tracer is named as SYS_HMRBT (AHB Multi-resolution Bus Tracer and is used for monitoring. The goal is to provide better compression quality and multiple resolution traces to meet the complex SoC debugging needs. Compressing all signals at cycle-accurate-level does not always meet the debugging needs. As SOCs become more complex, the transaction level debugging becomes increasingly important, since it helps designers focus on the functional behaviors, instead of interpreting complex signals. By using this SYS_HMRBT, we can achieve 79%-96% of compression depending on selected resolution mode. Tools Used for this Project are Modelsim for Simulation, and Xilinx ISE II for Synthesis

  7. Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anund, Anna; Ihlström, Jonas; Fors, Carina; Kecklund, Göran; Filtness, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality. The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes. PMID:27098307

  8. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26176764

  9. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  10. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  11. 13.8-kV (ground) fault-bus-relaying study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was made at the request of the committee appointed to investigate a power outage which occurred on May 5, 1980, at the ORGDP in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. A portion of this outage was due to a false ground on the 13.8-kV fault-bus-relaying system. This report covers the following five areas: (1) fundamentals of fault-bus relaying and application at ORGDP; (2) description of the false ground on the 13.8-kV fault-bus-relaying system and corrective actions taken at that time; (3) causes of the false 13.8-kV fault-bus-relay trip; (4) further possible corrective actions to reduce the possibility of another false 13.8-kV fault-bus-relay trip; and (5) effects of reducing ground-fault current magnitude and its effects on ground/relay coordination. Recommendations are presented concerning the reduction of the possibility of another false 13.8-kV fault-bus-relay trip and the reduction of the magnitude of ground-fault current

  12. ETHERBONE - a network layer for the wishbone SoC bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was developed in the scope of the White-Rabbit Timing Project (WR) at CERN and GSI/FAIR, which employs GigaBit Ethernet technology to communicate with memory mapped slave devices. WR will make use of EB as means to issue commands to its timing nodes and control connected accelerator hardware. (authors)

  13. Building stop for Kernkraftwerk Brokdorf extended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Higher Administrative Court at Lueneburg has confirmed in its decision of Oct. 17th, 1977 - VII OVG B 22, 42/77 - the building stop for the Kernkraftwerk Brokdorf with the time limit 'until an application, ready for examination, concerning an intermediate storage site for depositing spent fuel elements has been filed, and geological investigations for proving the suitability of a certain site for the final storage of radioactive wastes have been initiated. Thus, the court heads for a kind of a compromise, the justification and the legal grounds of which one can have different views on: On the one hand, the nuclear hazard potential, which only takes effect at a much later stage, has here already been anticipated in the interest of future safety in a preliminary legal protection procedure concerning a 1st partial erection licence, thus, without need, intensifying the supply crisis to be expected in meeting the energy demand during the next decade, as well as causing the future operator heavy financial losses. On the other hand, the project as such is not dismissed, but its execution is probably only delayed. (orig.)

  14. Towards the end of the technical stop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After several weeks of hard work, the short technical stop of the LHC accelerator is coming to an end. Following a very intense campaign to repair and retest many thousand high voltage connectors, the upgraded magnet protection system is being commissioned. During this period, the current in the main dipole and quadrupole magnets is carefully increased up to 6kA, required to collide protons at 7TeV centre-of-mass energy. This has been achieved for most of the sectors.   The parameters of the upgraded magnet protection system are accurately calibrated. This operation is needed in order for the magnet protection system to be triggered only when a real problem occurs. The system is now able to detect a transition from superconducting to normal conducting state of the superconducting cable joints between magnets, a necessary condition to operate the magnet system above 2kA. Highly accurate measurements of the joint resistances have been performed by stepping up the current to 5kA. The magnets and the...

  15. Ion Stopping Powers and Ranges Whenever You Need Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Christensen, Casper; Tørresø, Jesper Rosholm

    is needed for a given ion range in a given material. The app is available on Google Play for free, and does only require SD-card storage access for saving the stopping power tables. No network connection is needed, making the app usable even when in WiFi free zones. The app is based on the stopping power...

  16. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  17. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  18. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sytema, A.; van den Berg, J. E.; Böll, O.; Chernowitz, D.; Dijck, E. A.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Hoekstra, S.; Jungmann, K.; Mathavan, S. C.; Meinema, C.; Mohanty, A.; Müller, S. E.; Nuñez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pijpker, C.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2016-06-01

    A radioactive beam of 20Na is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenological model.

  19. 77 FR 25788 - Request for Information Regarding Stop Loss Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... Loss Insurance AGENCIES: Internal Revenue Service, Department of the Treasury; Employee Benefits... information regarding the use of stop loss insurance by group health plans and their plan sponsors, with a focus on the prevalence and consequences of stop loss insurance at low attachment points. Given...

  20. Stop Search in the Compressed Region via Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolas A

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large $t\\bar{t}$ background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the $W$ decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and ma...

  1. System Interconnect Bus (SIB) compatible multi crate CAMAC Controller (CC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes design of SIB compatible crate controller with PC interface. SIB is a general-purpose parallel 1/O interface bus used for connecting multi crate system with single PC-interface. The crate controller comprises of a dedicated PC-AT add-on SIB interface card and two width CAMAC module designed to work at station 24 and station 25 of CAMAC crate. PC Interface card (SIBINT) is used for communication between PC/AT host computer and CAMAC Crates. The controller module incorporates a set of registers, logic to generate CAMAC data way timing. Transmission protocol used is RS485 standard. This controller is used for multiple CAMAC crates system, interfaced to PC, using a 60 core twisted pair flat ribbon cable. The crate controller is developed for use in process control, general-purpose data acquisition and control system and laboratory automation. Sustained data transfer rate achieved by controller is 115 Kword/sec each word being 32 bits in length. (author)

  2. Evolution of weighted complex bus transit networks with flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ailing; Xiong, Jie; Shen, Jinsheng; Guan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Study on the intrinsic properties and evolutional mechanism of urban public transit networks (PTNs) has great significance for transit planning and control, particularly considering passengers’ dynamic behaviors. This paper presents an empirical analysis for exploring the complex properties of Beijing’s weighted bus transit network (BTN) based on passenger flow in L-space, and proposes a bi-level evolution model to simulate the development of transit routes from the view of complex network. The model is an iterative process that is driven by passengers’ travel demands and dual-controlled interest mechanism, which is composed of passengers’ spatio-temporal requirements and cost constraint of transit agencies. Also, the flow’s dynamic behaviors, including the evolutions of travel demand, sectional flow attracted by a new link and flow perturbation triggered in nearby routes, are taken into consideration in the evolutional process. We present the numerical experiment to validate the model, where the main parameters are estimated by using distribution functions that are deduced from real-world data. The results obtained have proven that our model can generate a BTN with complex properties, such as the scale-free behavior or small-world phenomenon, which shows an agreement with our empirical results. Our study’s results can be exploited to optimize the real BTN’s structure and improve the network’s robustness.

  3. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  4. Bus Travel Willingness under the Condition of Bus Information%公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左毅刚; 李文权; 陈茜; 李洁; 郭士永

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of influencing mechanism of bus information on the residents travel mode choice is the theoretical basis of rational planning of urban bus travel information environment ,which has important significance for ur-ban traffic management and congestion mitigation .Based on the theory of planned behavior ,at the basis of three basic variables of behavior attitude ,subjective norm ,perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior ,variables of transit information ,personal attributes and travel experience are added to improve the theory of planned behavior .An improved theory of planned behavior is used to build a bus travel willingness model under the condition of bus Informa-tion .With the Nanjing residents as research object ,a structural equation model is used to verify the survey data in order to determine the interaction between various factors and their impact on the willingness of bus travel .The results show that the bus information has significant and positive impact on bus travel variables of attitude ,subjective norm and per-ceived behavioral control with the influencing coefficients of 0 .533 ,0 .451 and 0 .576 respectively ,and that the bus infor-mation has indirect influence on bus travel willingness and the total effect is 0 .92 ,which shows that high quality of the in-formation can improve the appeal of bus and enhance bus travel willingness of residents .%深入解析公交信息对居民公交出行意愿的影响机理,是合理规划城市公交出行信息环境的理论基础,对于城市交通管理以及交通拥堵的缓解有着重要的意义。基于计划行为理论在行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制3个基本变量的基础上加入公交信息、出行经验、个人属性等变量,对计划行为理论加以改进,利用改进的计划行为理论建立公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿模型。以南京市居民为调查研究对象,运用结构方程模型对调查数

  5. Inertial-confinement-fusion applications of ion-stopping theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.; Lee, Y.T.; Bailey, D.S.

    1982-01-22

    Methods were developed to calculate: (1) the stopping power of a hot plasma target, (2) the charge-state of a fast ion projectile, and (3) the final disposition of the deposited energy. The first issue refers to the stopping power for protons. The proton stopping power is altered in high-density or high-temperature targets, especially at velocities below the stopping peak. The second issue concerns the application of a proton stopping curve to the arbitrary projectile. The third topic is more specialized to inertial fusion and concerns the partition of deposited energy between ion (nuclear motion) degrees of freedom and those corresponding to bound and free electrons. The question here is whether a thermal equilibrium plasma is produced.

  6. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  7. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ya [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: weijiang@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Centre for mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yi, Lin [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  8. SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus: Proton irradiation test results and spaceflight SEU data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) was launched in July of 1992 as part of the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) mission. The SEDS utilizes NASA's first MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Multiplexed Data Bus (or 1773 bus) to communicate with other spacecraft subsystems in the space environment. The 1773 bus is the fiber optic version of the MIL-STD-1553 Data Bus, a electronic wire bus used in many avionics applications. The authors present proton test and space flight single event effect data for NASA's first fiber optic data bus. Bit error rate predictions based on a new proton direct ionization model agree well with flight data for proton belt and solar flare effects

  9. Occupational Noise Exposure Evaluation in Drivers of Bus Transportation of Tehran City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ebrahimi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Noise in large cities is considered by the World Health Organization to be the third most hazardous type of pollution. Buses are an interesting object of study in the theme of noise pollution. They are at the same time a source of urban environmental (traffic noise and occupational noise exposure source for drivers. The object of this study is Occupational noise exposure evaluation in drivers of bus transportation of Tehran city."nMaterials and Methods: Noise levels in 90 buses were sampled in three separate sub-sample including (130 Ikaroos buses (230 Man buses (330 Shahab buses, which were selected by simple random sampling. Noise exposure level was normalized to a nominal 8-h working day (LEX, 8h. Simultaneous Octave Frequency Analysis were measured and sound intensity level (SIL for bus drivers were calculated. Results, which are obtained from separate buses were compared together and too with standard levels."nResults: the normalized noise exposure levels (LEX, 8h in Ikaroos bus drivers(82dB A were higher than that of in in Man bus drivers (77/6dB A and this Values were higher than that of in Shahab bus drivers(75dB A.SIL values for Ikaroos bus drivers were higher than other that of other bus drivers. Results obtained of Frequency Analysis showed that age of buses in mid frequencies ws a meaningful on noise increase."nConclusion: Results showed that type and age of buses were effective factors in drivers. noise exposure levels (LEX, 8h, which was consistent with previous studies in this field.

  10. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  11. Effect of Educational Program to Decrease Substance Abuse among Suburban Bus Drivers Based on Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Moeini, B.; S. Bashirian; A. Moghimbeigi; V. Kafami; A.A. Mousali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Driving under the influence of drugs is considered a social pathology that has adverse effects on a society. This study aimed to investigate the effect of substance abuse educational program among the bus drivers on the basis of the theory of planned be-havior. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 80 suburban bus drivers working at Hamadan transportation terminal. The bus drivers were randomly divided in two equal groups (intervention a...

  12. Bus Automata For Intelligent Robots And Computer Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Jerome

    1988-02-01

    Bus automata (BA's) are arrays of automata, each controlling a module of a global interconnection network, an automaton and its module constituting a cell. Connecting modules permits cells to become effectively nearest neighbors even when widely separated. This facilitates parallelism in computation far in excess of that allowed by the "bucket-brigade" communication bottleneck of traditional cellular automata (CA's). Distributed information storage via local automaton states permits complex parallel data processing for rapid pattern recognition, language parsing and other distributed computation at systolic array rates. Global BA architecture can be entirely changed in the time to make one cell state transition. The BA is thus a neural model (cells correspond to neurons) with network plasticity attractive for brain models. Planar (chip) BA's admitting optical input (phototransistors) become powerful retinal models. The distributed input pattern is optically fed directly to distributed local memory, ready for distributed processing, both "retinally" and cooperatively with other BA chips ("brain"). This composite BA can compute control signals for output organs, and sensory inputs other than visual can be utilized similarly. In the BA retina is essentially brain, as in mammals (retina and brain are embryologically the same). The BA can also model opto-motor response (frogs, insects) or sonar response (dolphins, bats), and is proposed as the model of choice for the brains of future intelligent robots and for computer eyes with local parallel image processing capability. Multidimensional formal languages are introduced, corresponding to BA's and patterns the way generative grammars correspond to sequential machines, and applied to fractals and their recognition by BA's.

  13. Conceptual Design of the TPF-O SC Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2007-01-01

    One option under current study for the Terrestrial Planet Finder-Occulter (TPF-O) observatory shares some key features of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Both are space telescopes with a primary mirror aperture of around 2.4 meters and designed to observe in the visible to near infrared range of wavelengths, with the major difference in science capability being that TPF-O has an areal FOV on the order of 100 times larger than that of HST. This larger FOV, whose science camera is also expected to provide fine guidance, and other mission differences, mean that most TPF-O SC bus subsystems will have very different requirements than those of HST. Unlike HST in LEO, TPF-O is designed to operate in an orbit around the Sun-Earth lagrange 2 (SEL2) point. The longer communications range to SEL2 and the large FOV require much higher performance data processing and communications than HST. Maintaining a SEL2 orbit requires TPF-O, unlike HST, to have a propulsion system. TPF-O will have a specialized tracking system that allows the formation flying occulter to maintain its required position. However, despite these additional features, the velocity required for reaching SEL2 and the limited capabilities of affordable launch vehicles require TPF-O to have a compact and low-mass design relative to HST. Finally, TPF-O may utilize a modular design to reduce development cost and, if it required, allow servicing using approaches different from those of HST.

  14. Loss of STOP protein impairs peripheral olfactory neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karelle Benardais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: STOP (Stable Tubulin-Only Polypeptide null mice show behavioral deficits, impaired synaptic plasticity, decrease in synaptic vesicular pools and disturbances in dopaminergic transmission, and are considered a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Olfactory neurons highly express STOP protein and are continually generated throughout life. Experimentally-induced loss of olfactory neurons leads to epithelial regeneration within two months, providing a useful model to evaluate the role played by STOP protein in adult olfactory neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunocytochemistry and electron microscopy were used to study the structure of the glomerulus in the main olfactory bulb and neurogenesis in the neurosensorial epithelia. In STOP null mice, olfactory neurons showed presynaptic swellings with tubulovesicular profiles and autophagic-like structures. In olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia, there was an increase in neurons turnover, as shown by the increase in number of proliferating, apoptotic and immature cells with no changes in the number of mature neurons. Similar alterations in peripheral olfactory neurogenesis have been previously described in schizophrenia patients. In STOP null mice, regeneration of the olfactory epithelium did not modify these anomalies; moreover, regeneration resulted in abnormal organisation of olfactory terminals within the olfactory glomeruli in STOP null mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, STOP protein seems to be involved in the establishment of synapses in the olfactory glomerulus. Our results indicate that the olfactory system of STOP null mice is a well-suited experimental model (1 for the study of the mechanism of action of STOP protein in synaptic function/plasticity and (2 for pathophysiological studies of the mechanisms of altered neuronal connections in schizophrenia.

  15. ELectron stopping of heavy ions in a matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of heavy ion stopping by electrons in solids is analyzed with an aim to establish which physical mechanisms are of importance at different ion velocity values v. The theory is presented for deep inelastic collisions taking the main part in stopping at v > Zsub(1)sup(1/3) v0 (z1 is the atomic number of the ion, v0 is the Bohr velocity). Elastic scattering (relative to the incident ion) are investigated. It is shown that the contribution from these processes to the stopping cross-section is predominant at Zsub(1)sup(1/3) v0 > v > Zsub(1)sup(2/3) v0

  16. Development of fast beam-stop system using RF chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid heat damage and radioactivation by beam loss of the J-PARC accelerator, Machine Protection System (MPS) has been developed. Actually, high responsibility and high reliability have been achieved in J-PARC. Beam-stop method in addition to a way of RFQ OFF has been requested in order to avoid damage to the RFQ. Therefore, we have been developing a fast beam-stop system by using a RF chopper. The fast beam-stop system, including beam test, is described in this paper. (author)

  17. A Phonemic and Acoustic Analysis of Hindko Oral Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ur RASHID

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hindko is an Indo-Aryan language that is mainly spoken in Khyber Pukhtoonkhaw province of Pakistan. This work aims to identify the oral stops of Hindko and determine the intrinsic acoustic cues for them. The phonemic analysis is done with the help of minimal pairs and phoneme distribution in contrastive environments which reveals that Hindko has twelve oral stops with three way series. The acoustic analysis of these segments shows that intrinsically voice onset time (VOT, closure duration and burst are reliable and distinguishing cues of stops in Hindko.

  18. Solid-vapor differences of electronic stopping powers for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying the recently-developed wave packet theory and the Lindhard-Winther (LW) theory to estimation of the stopping powers of bound electrons and conduction electrons, respectively, the solid-vapor differences in the electronic stopping of target materials for protons are estimated quantitatively over the energy range from 1 keV/amu to 10 MeV/amu. Here, comparison was made of current theoretical predictions with each other. The wave packet theory shows that the solid-vapor difference of stopping cross sections are enhanced for low-energy protons because of the binding effect. (author)

  19. Effect of isospin dependent cross-section on nuclear stopping

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Anupriya; Kumar, Suneel

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear stopping in heavy ion collisions (HIC) has been studied by means of rapidity distribution and asymmetry of nucleon momentum distribution. It is an important quantity in determining the outcome of a reaction. Fen Fu {\\it et al.,} \\cite{2} calculate both the radial flow and the degree of nuclear stopping in Pb + Pb and Ni + Ni at 0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 GeV/neucleon. They found that the expansion velocity as well as the degree of nuclear stopping are higher in the heavier system at all energies.

  20. A capped optimal stopping problem for the maximum process

    CERN Document Server

    Kyprianou, Andreas E

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns an optimal stopping problem driven by the running maximum of a spectrally negative Levy process X. More precisely, we are interested in capped versions of the American lookback optimal stopping problem, which has its origins in mathematical finance, and provide semi-explicit solutions in terms of scale functions. The optimal stopping boundary is characterised by an ordinary first-order differential equation involving scale functions and, in particular, changes according to the path variation of X. Furthermore, we will link these capped problems to Peskir's maximality principle.