WorldWideScience

Sample records for bus lanes

  1. PERFORMANCE OF BUS LANES IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Jin KIM

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the performance impacts of reserved bus lanes in Seoul were evaluated and several suggestions for improving the effectiveness of the bus preferential treatment are proposed. The impacts of reserved bus lanes on both bus and auto performance were primarily measured by the relative speed changes of buses and autos and the average circulation rate of bus trips. Empirical results showed that the bus lanes were successful in improving average bus performance compared with other adjacent traffic. It was confirmed that right turning movement of the buses would cause the deterioration of bus speed in the curbside bus lanes. The average circulation rate of daily bus trips during the bus operation periods was somewhat increased by the bus lane introduction. A current warrant for reserved bus lanes in Korea was reviewed, and average bus speed during peak periods was proposed as a new warrant. In order to improve the effectiveness of the reserved bus lane, the type of lane markings in reserved bus lane, enforcement strategies for illegal parking in the bus lane and FIFO service at bus stops are discussed.

  2. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  3. Scheduling Combination Optimization Research for Bus Lane Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazao Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Different scheduling forms can be adopted in bus lane system to meet passengers’ travel demand well and improve operational efficiency. Therefore, this paper researched the optimal headway and bus scheduling combination of a bus lane line. Bus scheduling combination is composed of a sequence of full-length, express bus and short-turn. We established a model to minimize passengers’ waiting cost and vehicles’ operation cost and to optimize headway and bus scheduling combination, under the constraint of the headway restriction for each stop, the minimum number of vehicle trips in one hour and the proportion of short-turn and express bus trips in total trips. The model was solved by improved genetic algorithm, and the optimal solution was obtained by repeating the operation of genetic algorithm L times. The results of numerical example show that the whole cost can be saved by 21.77% at most after optimization, which indicate the model and algorithm we presented are reasonable and practicable.

  4. Traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus in two-lane traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Ryoichi; Nagatani, Takashi; Taniguchi, Naoki

    2005-05-01

    We study the traffic states and jamming transitions induced by a bus (slow car) in a two-lane traffic of cars. We use the dynamic model which is an extended one of the optimal velocity model to take into account the lane changing. The fundamental (flow-density) diagram is presented. The fundamental diagram changes highly by introducing a bus on a two-lane roadway. It is found that there are the six distinct states for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus. The spatio-temporal patterns are presented for the distinct traffic states. The dynamical state of traffic changes with density of cars. It is shown that the dynamical transitions among the distinct traffic states occur at some values of density. The phase diagram (region map) is shown for the two-lane traffic flow including a bus.

  5. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Chen

    Full Text Available The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  6. Study on traffic states and jamming transitions for two-lane highway including a bus by using a model with calibrated optimal velocity function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Yi, Yi

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, traffic states and jamming transitions on two-lane highway including a bus are studied by using a car following model with a calibrated optimal velocity function. We derive a new flow-density diagram with four distinctly separated traffic states, which is different from that of the earlier study obtained by applying the OVM with theoretical optimal velocity function. The spatio-temporal diagrams are presented to illustrate phase characteristics of each traffic state. It is found that the phase characteristic features of two of four states are different from any state of the earlier result, and traffic flow of state 2 and state 3 can reproduce some characteristics observed from empirical investigations such as centralized lane-changing, hanging tail of cluster, and synchronized flow. In addition, we have clarified the lane-changing behaviors and their effects on two-lane traffic flow including a bus. It is shown that the velocity oscillations behind the bus can help the lane-changing in state 2 and the behaviors of lane-changing are the important reason of forming of the synchronized flow in state 3. It is also concluded that lane-changing can only improve the current in the region of middle density.

  7. 基于双层规划的城市公交专用道优化设计%Optimum design of city bus lane based on bi-level programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 龙建成

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the bus service level ,more and more cities have opened the bus lanes . But the bus lanes will aggravate the car right ,thus the relationship between the car and the bus should be balanced scientifically from the perspective of overall system .In order to guarantee the min-imum travel cost of the traveler ,and considering the travel selection behavior of the traveler ,a bi-lev-el programming model for bus lane network optimization is built from the perspective of the whole city traffic network .According to the flow characteristic of the car and the bus on the road with bus lanes , the impedance function based on bus lane network is proposed and the dual-mode traffic assignment model is established .The lower-layer flow assignment and the bi-level programming model are solved by using the Frank-Wolfe algorithm and the genetic algorithm respectively .Finally ,the example anal-ysis with real traffic network is carried out to verify the validity of the proposed model and algorithm .%为了提高公交车的服务水平,很多城市开辟了公交专用道,由于公交专用道的设置会降低小汽车的路权,必须从系统整体的角度来设置公交专用道以科学权衡小汽车与公交车的路权分配。文章从城市交通网络的整体出发,以出行者总体出行成本最小为目标,充分考虑出行者的出行选择行为,提出了城市公交专用道优化设计的双层规划模型;结合设置公交专用道的路段上公交车与小汽车的流量特性,提出了基于公交专用道网络的道路阻抗函数,构造双模式交通分配模型;分别使用Frank-Wolfe算法和遗传算法进行下层流量分配和双层规划模型的求解,并运用交通网络进行实例分析,验证了所提模型和算法的有效性。

  8. 公交车停靠诱发交通瓶颈的元胞自动机模拟%Investigation on traffic bottleneck induce by bus stopping with a two-lane cellular automaton model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆定; 董力耘; 戴世强

    2009-01-01

    利用双车道元胞自动机模型,研究公交车停靠对道路混合交通流的影响.针对港湾式和非港湾式两种不同公交车站设置,在开放边界下模拟了公交车停靠所产生的交通瓶颈问题,给出了车辆入流概率.公交车比例相平面上的相图,区分了自由流相和拥挤相,研究了相图各区中公交车站附近的平均密度和速度分布图,比较了两种公交车站情况下的道路交通流的动力学特征.研究发现,当公交车比例较小时,与非港湾式车站相比,港湾式车站可以显著改善车站处的交通状况.%In this paper, the influence of typical bus stops on traffic flow is investigated with the cellular automaton traffic model. For on-line and off-line bus stops, a two-lane cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the traffic bottleneck induced by bus stopping under the open boundary condition. The phase diagram in the phase plane of injection probability and bus fraction is provided and two phases, i.e., the free flow phase and congested flow phase, are distinguished. The distributions of the mean density and velocity near the bus stop in different traffic phases are given and the comparison of dynamical characteristics of traffic flows is made for different types of bus stops. It is found that using the off-line bus stop can significandy improve the traffic flow in its neighboring region, compared with the on-line bus stop in the case of small fraction of buses.

  9. 信号交叉口公交专用进口道设置条件与效果分析%Setting Condition and Effect Analysis of Bus Lanes at Signalized Intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕斌; 牛惠民

    2011-01-01

    分析了已有公交优先策略评价与仿真方法的局限性,考虑不同的交通需求水平与信号配时参数,将车均延误、人均延误和车辆排队长作为单个信号交叉口运行评价指标,以三相位十字信号交叉口为例,利用Simio仿真分析了公交专用进口道设置前后上述评价指标的变化规律.结果可用于交叉口公交优先信号配时参数的优化.%The limitations of evaluation and simulation methods for the existed bus priority strategy are analyzed. Average vehicle delay, average delay of customers and queue length are taken as evaluation indexes. Considering different traffic demand and signal timing parameters, a simulation example of a three-phase signalized intersection is presented to experiment and analyze the change rule of evaluation index with and without bus lanes, respectively by using the object-oriented simulation software Simio. The study results can be used in optimization signal timing parameters of signalized intersection based on bus priority.

  10. Evaluation on Comprehensive Benefits of Exclusive Bus Lane Settings:Taking Jingtong Express-way as an Example%公交专用车道设置综合效益评估--以京通快速路为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童文聪; 缪芳

    2014-01-01

    Realizing the lack of evaluation standard for setting exclusive bus lanes, this paper analyzes the operation costs before and after setting exclusive bus lanes from the perspectives of individual travel cost and social cost. Focusing on the direct benefits of exclusive bus lanes, the paper discusses the operation costs and benefits through analyzing the change of traffic parameters before and after setting exclusive bus lanes. By evaluating the changes of transport capacity, time cost and energy cost, the paper quantifies these indicators into monetary values. Finally, a case study using Jingtong Expressway as an example is conduct-ed.%为解决当前公交专用车道设置缺乏评估标准的问题,从个人出行成本和社会成本两个角度出发,对公交专用车道设置前后交通运营成本组成进行分析。在此基础上,重点针对公交专用车道运营的直接效益,通过分析公交专用车道设置前后交通运行参数的变化,分别对运营产出和运营成本进行综合分析,评估公交专用车道设置前后的运能总量、时间及能源消耗成本的变化,并将其折算成货币指标,实现评估指标的定量化。最后,以京通快速路为例进行了评估实证分析。

  11. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiaobao; Huan Mei; Gao Ziyou

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the...

  12. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  13. The influence of bus stop on traffic flow with velocity-difference-separation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Pengjun; Wang, Wei; Ge, Hongxia

    2016-06-01

    Based on velocity-difference-separation model, the mixed traffic flow on two-lane road is investigated. For a fixed road length, the influence of bus and bus stops on traffic flow is studied with the increasing traffic density. Compared with the result without bus stops given by Li et al., a new traffic state is found, which is valuable for studying the impacts of public transport on urban traffic flow.

  14. Cherry Lane Movies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Directed: Dayyan EngStarring: Gong Beibei, Wu Chao, Li Yixiang and Zhou KuiProduced: 2001, 11 minutes A woman drives a bus along deserted country roads, and she picks up a young man alongthe way. Although the man tries to talk to the driver, she's not interested. Eventually, two robbersclimb into the bus, steal the passengers' money, and drag the driver behind some bushes,where they rape her. Only one passenger—the young man—tries to protect her. The remaining passengers sit

  15. Research on TDM approach of sharing BRT-lane supported by vehicle-infrastructure integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Hongzhao; Ling Yue; Liu Dongxu; Guo Mingfei

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the availability of the part-time idle bus rapid transit lane (BRT-lane),a time divi-sion multiplexing (TDM) method to share BRT-lane with the vehicles besides BRT buses is proposed based on ve-hicle-road collaboration. The TDM control strategy is established under the circumstance of vehicle-infrastructure integration (VII). The algorithm is given to forecast the segmented BRT travel time. According to the real time traffic information,a comprehensive model is given to estimate the vehicles’lane-changing time from/to the BRT-lane to/from its neighbor lane and determine the timing sequence for vehicles collaboration. Finally,the experi-ment demonstrates that the predicted value of the travel time and lane-changing time is much close to the true val-ue. The control strategy of the vehicles collaboration could promise the non-BRT vehicles to share BRT-lane with-out disturbing BRT’s priority.

  16. Lane changing analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tieqiao Tang; Haijun Huang; S.C.Wong; Rui Jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the two-lane traffic are studiedby using the lane-changing rules in the car-followingmodels.The simulation show that the frequent lanechanging occurs when the lateral distance in car fol-lowing activities is considered and it gives rise to oscil-lating waves.In contrast,if the lateral distance is notconsidered (or considered occasionally),the lane chang-ing appears infrequently and soliton waves occurs.Thisimplies that the stabilization mechanism no longer func-tions when the lane changing is permitted.Since theoscillating and soliton waves correspond to the unsta-ble and metastable flow regimes,respectively,our studyverifies that a phase transition may occur as a result ofthe lane changing.

  17. Lane marking aided vehicle localization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; A localization system that exploits L1-GPS estimates, vehicle data, and features from a video camera as well as lane markings embedded in digital navigation maps is presented. A sensitivity analysis of the detected lane markings is proposed in order to quantify both the lateral and longitudinal errors caused by 2D-world hypothesis violation. From this, a camera observation model for vehicle localization is proposed. The paper presents also a method to build a map of th...

  18. PCI bus demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus is the dominant bus system used to connect the different elements making up today''s high-performance computer systems. Different PCI implementations have also been developed for such applications as telecommunications and embedded computing. If an application calls for high speed, high reliability, flexible configuration, and bus mastering, then PCI is the only logical bus choice. This book is an applications-oriented introduction to the PCI bus, with an emphasis on implementing PCI in a variety of computer architectures. Special attention is given to industrial and mission-critical applications of PCI bus.·Fully describes PCI electrical specifications, mechanical requirements, and signal types·Covers advanced topics through numerous design examples to increase the readers understanding of the subject ·Includes updated coverage of PCI-X 2.0

  19. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  20. TPG bus passes

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association will stop selling TPG bus passes. All active and retired members of the CERN personnel will be able to purchase Unireso bus passes from the CERN Hostel - Building 39 (Meyrin site) from 1st February 2013. For more information: https://cds.cern.ch/journal/CERNBulletin/2013/04/Announcements/1505279?ln=en

  1. BUS BAY PERFORMANCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CAPACITY OF ROAD NETWORK IN DAR ES SALAAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin K. Mushule

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of major problems facing motorists in Dar es Salaam city today is congestion. Bus bays have a significant influence on the capacity of a roadway because they interfere with passing vehicles primarily when buses maneuver to pull into and out of bus bays. Bus bay stops will also interfere with vehicles movement if bus demand exceeds the bus bay capacity resulting in some buses waiting in the travel lane until the buses occupying the bay exit the bay. This paper presents the results of a study which was carried out to evaluate the bus bay performance and its influence on the capacity of the roadway network in the city of Dar es Salaam. The case study area covered 11 bus stops along Morogoro road from Ubungo to Magomeni Mapipa. Capacity of bus bays was studied using procedure outlined in the Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual of 2003. This enabled the researcher to determine parameters such as dwell times and clearance times which are major determinants of bus stop capacity. The results indicate that only 18% of the bus bay stops studied did not have adequate capacity to cater for the available demand. 9% did not have adequate capacity during peak hours but the capacity was adequate during off-peak hours. The remaining 73% of bus bay stops possess adequate capacity all the time. Although most bus bay stops studied possess adequate capacity, severe congestion was observed at these locations. This is due to erratic behavior of bus drivers who do not utilize the provided space for them to drop off and pick up passengers. Clearly, this is an area that requires more strict enforcement in order to ease the congestion problem in the city by operating the existing capacity more efficiently."

  2. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods. PMID:27548176

  3. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Toan Minh; Hong, Hyung Gil; Vokhidov, Husan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-08-18

    With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  4. Road Lane Detection by Discriminating Dashed and Solid Road Lanes Using a Visible Light Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Minh Hoang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing need for road lane detection used in lane departure warning systems and autonomous vehicles, many studies have been conducted to turn road lane detection into a virtual assistant to improve driving safety and reduce car accidents. Most of the previous research approaches detect the central line of a road lane and not the accurate left and right boundaries of the lane. In addition, they do not discriminate between dashed and solid lanes when detecting the road lanes. However, this discrimination is necessary for the safety of autonomous vehicles and the safety of vehicles driven by human drivers. To overcome these problems, we propose a method for road lane detection that distinguishes between dashed and solid lanes. Experimental results with the Caltech open database showed that our method outperforms conventional methods.

  5. Savannah River bus project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, W.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  6. LHC on the bus

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    On 15 December, an airport bus will be transformed in the image of CERN. The bus will be seen by the thousands of travellers arriving in Geneva, informing them of the possibility to visit CERN.   Sketch of the bus. The good relationship between Geneva International Airport and CERN started several years ago. In 2004 the airport put advertising space in the arrivals area at CERN's disposal free of charge. Now, starting on 15 December, a 40-foot long bus will display a giant sticker advertisement depicting CERN as it takes passengers over the airport tarmac to their planes. This is no ordinary sticker, and it was no mean task to attach it to the bus. The task of producing and attaching it was entrusted to Geneva-based specialists Mathys SA. With the ski season opening on 15 December, there will be many travellers arriving at the airport, and the bus will be ready to receive them. When one thinks of CERN, the subjects that naturally come to mind are the LHC, the mysteries of the Universe...

  7. BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      BUS 100 Introduction To Business Entire Course Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-100-introduction-to-business-entire-course/   BUS 100 Assignment 1 Fundamentals of Effective Communication in the Workplace BUS 100 Assignment 2 Ethical and Socially Responsive Business BUS 100 Introduction To Business Week 1-11 Discussions BUS 100 week 1 discussions BUS 100 week 2 Discussions BUS 100 week 3 Discussions BUS 100 week 4 Discussions ...

  8. River Flow Lane Detection and Kalman Filtering-Based B-Spline Lane Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Hann Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel lane detection technique using adaptive line segment and river flow method is proposed in this paper to estimate driving lane edges. A Kalman filtering-based B-spline tracking model is also presented to quickly predict lane boundaries in consecutive frames. Firstly, sky region and road shadows are removed by applying a regional dividing method and road region analysis, respectively. Next, the change of lane orientation is monitored in order to define an adaptive line segment separating the region into near and far fields. In the near field, a 1D Hough transform is used to approximate a pair of lane boundaries. Subsequently, river flow method is applied to obtain lane curvature in the far field. Once the lane boundaries are detected, a B-spline mathematical model is updated using a Kalman filter to continuously track the road edges. Simulation results show that the proposed lane detection and tracking method has good performance with low complexity.

  9. Considerations for choosing HOT lane delineation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlavacek, I.; Vitek, M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Carrizales, J.; Machemehl, R. [Texas Dept. of Transportation, Austin, TX (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Transportation agencies are looking for ways to move more vehicles with fewer tax dollars. One innovative technique is managed lanes. These are special purpose lanes on highways with controlled access to allow manipulation of service parameters. An example of a managed facility, high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes are gaining support as a tool for encouraging higher vehicle occupancy while dealing with many of the shortcomings of high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. Because managed lanes, including HOT lanes, are controlled access facilities and must be separated from general purpose lanes, one of the principle issues is the type of delineation technique that should be used. Though the specifics of delineating a managed lane are numerous, and allow for a wide variety of possibilities, most delineation techniques used can be categorized into three broad types: concrete barriers, buffer separation, and plastic posts. This paper presented the advantages, disadvantages, required and desirable conditions for implementation of each type. The project involved assembling an expert panel to gather collective knowledge of factors and to share experiences and make recommendations regarding delineation device implementation. Panel recommendations and secondary source information were presented as conceptual guidance regarding managed lane delineation measures. Buffer type delineators were found to be least costly in terms of both initial and maintenance costs, and concrete barriers provide the best means of controlling access so they are the best means of guaranteeing toll collection from all users. 11 refs.

  10. Towards a definition of safety for individual drivers lane behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van R.J.

    2012-01-01

    To assess lateral control performance in drivers, lane behaviour indicators such as the mean lane position, standard deviation of lane position and time-to-line-crossing are the most frequently used measures. For lane position, the commonly accepted (qualitative) proposition is that increased lane s

  11. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaqing Wu; Rui Song; Youan Wang; Feng Chen; Shubin Li

    2015-01-01

    The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT) and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the ...

  12. BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    BUS 438 Concepts of Emerging Markets Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/bus-438-concepts-of-emerging-markets/   BUS438 BUS/438  MODULE 3 ASSIGNMENT 3 Concepts of Emerging Markets [ARGOSY

  13. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  14. Empirical Assessment on Factors Affecting Travel Time of Bus Rapid Transit

    OpenAIRE

    Fergyanto E Gunawan

    2015-01-01

    Since the beginning of the century, many cities around the world adopt the bus rapid transit (BRT) system to fulfill their need of mass transportation system. The system features with platform-level boarding, bus lanes in the central verge of the road, off-vehicle fare collection, and physically protected busway. So far, these criteria are considered to be the most important aspects with respect to the BRT performance. In this research, we intend to study to what extent the BRT performance ma...

  15. Learning NServiceBus

    CERN Document Server

    Boike, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical tutorial containing hands-on examples for creating a messaging and SOA based service bus.This book is for .NET developers who are looking for ways to overcome problems related to buggy third party web service integrations, codebases that have grown into a big ball of mud, and batch jobs failure.

  16. Influence of lane change on stability analysis for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liang; Ma Shou-Feng; Zhong Shi-Quan

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with the influence of lane changing behaviours on the stability of two-lane traffic flow under a periodic boundary condition.Following the description of an optimal velocity model for two vehicle groups and the derivation of their stability conditions,the feedback signals,which involve information about vehicles from both lanes acting on the two-lane traffic system,are introduced into the optimal velocity model.The control signals play a role in alleviating the traffic jam only if the traffic state is in congestion,and their role will vanish if the traffic state is in the steady state.The numerical simulations show that lane changing behaviours can break the steady state of two-lane traffic flow and aggravate the traffic disturbance,but the control method would successfully suppress the traffic jam eventually,which implies that the conclusions obtained here have certain theoretical and practical significance.

  17. Analysis of Traffic Capacity on Mountainous Two Lane Highway Adding Climbing Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yunwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the construction of mountainous double lane highway, climbing lane plays a certain role for enhancing the traffic capacity. In order to explore traffic capacity improvement effect for different conditions of climbing lane, 20 representative models are chosen, which contain various combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The changes of traffic capacity, average speed, delays, and saturation in models are obtained before and after the use of a climbing lane by means of numerical simulation. The results show that the use of a climbing lane could improve traffic capacity, average speed, while reducing delays and saturation. The improvement effect is different according to different combinations of alignment and traffic parameters. The research could provide a reference for mountainous climbing lane construction intend.

  18. Modeling the Coordinated Operation between Bus Rapid Transit and Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqing Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coordination between bus rapid transit (BRT and feeder bus service is helpful in improving the operational efficiency and service level of urban public transport system. Therefore, a coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is intended to develop in this paper. The total costs are formulated and optimized by genetic algorithm. Moreover, the skip-stop BRT operation is considered when building the coordinated operation model. A case of the existing bus network in Beijing is studied, the proposed coordinated operation model of BRT and bus is applied, and the optimized headway and costs are obtained. The results show that the coordinated operation model could effectively decrease the total costs of the transit system and the transfer time of passengers. The results also suggest that the coordination between the skip-stop BRT and bus during peak hour is more effective than non-coordination operation.

  19. Evaluation Of Lane Use Management Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The limited funding available for roadway capacity expansion and the growing funding gap, in conjunction with the increasing congestion, creates a critical need for innovative lane use management options. Various cost-effective lane use management strategies have been implemented in the United States and worldwide to address these challenges. However, these strategies have their own costs, operational characteristics, and additional requirements for field deployment. Hence, there is a need fo...

  20. Impacts of Left Lane Truck Restriction on Urban Freeways

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Choon-Heon; Regan, A C

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of truck lane restriction on urban freeways using traffic simulation models. The study includes three main parts: Part (1) provides insights into conditions under which truck lane restrictions would work well; Part (2) identifies the best number of lanes to restrict and shows that this is an important factor in the success of lane restriction; Part (3) investigates potential impacts of truck lane restriction through a case study using a region with some of the ...

  1. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  2. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... authorized by 49 U.S.C. 5309(b), as amended by Section 3011 of the Safe, Affordable, Flexible, Efficient... Livability Initiatives (77 FR 6178). The NOFA explained the requirements and procedures for eligible... facilities, bus-related equipment, and transit asset management systems. The FY 2012 Bus...

  3. Effects of Car Accidents on Three-Lane Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to investigate the effect of car accidents on the traffic flow. The model is an extension of the full velocity difference (FVD model by taking into account the lane changing. The extended lane-changing rules are presented to model the lane-changing behaviour. The cases that the car accidents occupy the exterior or interior lane, the medium lane, and two lanes are studied by numerical simulations. The time-space diagrams and the current diagrams are presented, and the traffic jams are investigated. The results show that the car accident has a different effect on the traffic flow when it occupies different lanes. The car accidents have a more serious effect on the whole road when they occupy two lanes. The larger the density is, the greater the influence on the traffic flow becomes.

  4. Learning NServiceBus Sagas

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Enterprise C# developer who wishes to extend your knowledge of NServiceBus and Enterprise Service Bus in C#, this is the book for you. This book is designed to enhance the education of ESBs and their messaging, whether you are a beginner or a seasoned expert in Enterprise C#, Apex, and Visualforce pages.

  5. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica;

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... of freedom in the parallel AES states. This allows us to construct semi-free-start collisions for full Lane-256 with 2^96 compression function evaluations and 2^88 memory, and for full Lane-512 with 2^224 compression function evaluations and 2^128 memory....

  6. Overtaking Safety Evaluation and Setting of Auxiliary Lane on Two-Lane Highway in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhu Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overtaking experiments on four two-lane highways were conducted. The data of overtaking conflict time (the time difference between the time of driving back to the original lane and the time of meeting with the first opposing vehicle and experimental drivers’ risk feeling were observed. Membership was adopted to denote the experimental drivers’ risk feelings which also denote the severity of traffic conflict. Membership ranges from 0 to 1 and corresponding risk becomes higher; that is, traffic conflict becomes more serious. According to the observed relationship between overtaking conflict time, and drivers’ risk feeling membership, Cauchy distribution function was adopted as membership function. The thresholds of the severity of traffic conflict were determined through Delphi method. The relationship model among traffic volume, overtaking conflict time and design speed was established according to experimental data. Then the idea of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway in China was presented. And the traffic volume values that need setting auxiliary lane corresponding to different design speed and traffic conflict degree were given according to the established model. It is expected to improve the traffic safety level of two-lane highway in China through setting auxiliary lane.

  7. Express Lane Eligibility for Medicaid and CHIP Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — States may rely on eligibility information from "Express Lane" agency programs to streamline and simplify enrollment and renewal in Medicaid and CHIP. Express Lane...

  8. An unusual ophthalmic finding in Lane-Hamilton syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Victor M; Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Lam, Byron L; McKeown, Craig A; Berrocal, Audina M

    2014-12-01

    Lane-Hamilton syndrome is a rare condition that is characterized by idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and celiac disease. We report the case of an 18-month-old girl with Lane-Hamilton syndrome who had unilateral pigmentary retinopathy.

  9. The Myth of the "Ideal Bus"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Does as an ideal bus technology exist? Many companies have and will promote a single technology as the ideal bus that will meet all application needs, but in actuality, each bus technology has its own strengths and weaknesses and thus is appropriate for different applications. History has shown the folly of claiming an ideal bus for every application.

  10. Virtual queuing at airport security lanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de R.; Samoilovich, I.; Rhee, van der B.

    2013-01-01

    Airports continuously seek opportunities to reduce the security costs without negatively affecting passenger satisfaction. In this paper, we investigate the possibilities of implementing virtual queuing at airport security lanes, by offering some passengers a time window during which they can arrive

  11. High-Speed Ring Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  12. Dynamics of lane formation in driven binary complex plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Ivlev, A. V.; Rath, C.; Thomas, H. M.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical onset of lane formation is studied in experiments with binary complex plasmas under microgravity conditions. Small microparticles are driven and penetrate into a cloud of big particles, revealing a strong tendency towards lane formation. The observed time-resolved lane-formation proces

  13. Scaling Laws in Chennai Bus Network

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the structural properties of the complex bus network of Chennai. We formulate this extensive network structure by identifying each bus stop as a node, and a bus which stops at any two adjacent bus stops as an edge connecting the nodes. Rigorous statistical analysis of this data shows that the Chennai bus network displays small-world properties and a scale-free degree distribution with the power-law exponent, $\\gamma > 3$.

  14. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  15. Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-Bao; Ye, Lan-Hang; Pei, Ya-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50478088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2015202266).

  16. Macroscopic modeling for traffic flow on three-lane highways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Fang, Yuan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, a macroscopic traffic flow model for three-lane highways is proposed. The model is an extension of the speed gradient model by taking into account the lane changing. The new source and sink terms of lane change rate are added into the continuity equations and the speed dynamic equations to describe the lane-changing behavior. The result of the steady state analysis shows that our model can describe the lane usage inversion phenomenon. The numerical results demonstrate that the present model effectively reproduces several traffic phenomena observed in real traffic such as shock and rarefaction waves, stop-and-go waves and local clusters.

  17. Agent-based modeling of lane discipline in heterogeneous traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailisan, Damian N.; Lim, May T.

    2016-09-01

    Designating lanes for different vehicle types is ideal road safety-wise. Practical considerations, however, require road sharing. Using a modified Nagel-Schreckenberg cellular automata model for two vehicle types (cars and motorcycles), we analyzed the interplay of lane discipline, lane changing, and vehicle density. In the absence of lane changing, the transition between free flow and congested states occurs at a higher vehicle (road occupation) density when the ratio of cars to motorcycles is increased. When lane changing is allowed, the smaller motorcycles tend to fill in unused spaces, until the point when the wider cars effectively block their way at high vehicle densities. When the condition of lane discipline is not imposed, i.e. staying wholly within lane boundaries is not required, further improvement in throughput becomes possible at the cost of required driver attentiveness.

  18. Wishbone bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Mohandeep; 10.5121/vlsic.2012.3210

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC). This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Micro controller Bus Architecture (AMBA) by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle). Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  19. The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, John

    2013-04-01

    The hydrological role of 'sunken lanes' Sunken lanes are found in many parts of southern England and have also been described in Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Spain and the USA. They are associated with soft rock and long histories of vehicular and animal movements. They form important features of the cultural and physical landscape. Although most are probably Medieval in origin, some maydate back to the Iron Age. Little attention has been paid to their function as conduits for runoff, sediment and pollutants from areas of forestry and agriculture to the watercourses in valley bottoms. In the Midhurst area of West Sussex, southern England, they are important routes for eroded sediments particularly during extreme rainfall events as occurred in the autumns of 2000 and 2006. This led to the flooding of property, disruption of minor roads and the pollution of the Western Rother river, an important fish habitat.

  20. Reducing transit bus emissions: Alternative fuels or traffic operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ahsan; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we simulated the operations and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of transit buses along a busy corridor and quantified the effects of two different fuels (conventional diesel and compressed natural gas) as well as a set of driving conditions on emissions. Results indicate that compressed natural gas (CNG) reduces GHG emissions by 8-12% compared to conventional diesel, this reduction could increase to 16% with high levels of traffic congestion. However, the benefits of switching from conventional diesel to CNG are less apparent when the road network is uncongested. We also investigated the effects of bus operations on emissions by applying several strategies such as transit signal priority (TSP), queue jumper lanes, and relocation of bus stops. Results show that in congested conditions, TSP alone can reduce GHG emissions by 14% and when combined with improved technology; a reduction of 23% is achieved. The reduction benefits are even more apparent when other transit operational improvements are combined with TSP. Finally a sensitivity analysis was performed to investigate the effect of operational improvements on emissions under varying levels of network congestion. We observe that under “extreme congestion”, the benefits of TSP decrease.

  1. Aids to School Bus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  2. School bus and children's traffic safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Shu-ming; Stephen Hargarten; ZHU Shan-kuan

    2007-01-01

    There is no safer way to transport a child than a school bus. Fatal crashes involving occupants are extremely rare events in the US. In recent years, school bus transportation began to develop in China. We want to bring advanced experience on school bus safety in Western countries such as the US to developing countries.Methods: We searched the papers related to school bus safety from Medline, Chinese Scientific Journals Database and the Web of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).Results: There were only 9 papers related to school bus safety, which showed that higher levels of safety standards on school buses, school bus-related transportation and environmental laws and injury prevention were the primary reasons for the desired outcome. Few school bus is related to deaths and injuries in the developed countries.Conclusions: The developing countries should make strict environmental laws and standards on school bus safety to prevent children's injury and death.

  3. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuo; Wang, Junhua; Fu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m) and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m) were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes). These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes. PMID:27754447

  4. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  5. The embeddability of lane detection algorithms on heterogeneous architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Saussard, Romain; Bouzid, Boubker; Vasiliu, Marius; Reynaud, Roger

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Lane detection plays a crucial role for Advanced Driver As-sitance System (ADAS) or autonomous driving applications. Literature shows a lot of lane detection algorithms can work in real time with good results. However, they require much computer processing and cannot be embedded in a vehicle ECU without deep software optimizations. In this paper, we discuss the embeddability of lane detection algorithms by comparing state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of functional pe...

  6. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  7. Study on the Calculation Models of Bus Delay at Bays Using Queueing Theory and Markov Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-wei; Wang, Dian-hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays. PMID:25759720

  8. Study on the calculation models of bus delay at bays using queueing theory and Markov chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Sun, Li; Sun, Shao-Wei; Wang, Dian-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Traffic congestion at bus bays has decreased the service efficiency of public transit seriously in China, so it is crucial to systematically study its theory and methods. However, the existing studies lack theoretical model on computing efficiency. Therefore, the calculation models of bus delay at bays are studied. Firstly, the process that buses are delayed at bays is analyzed, and it was found that the delay can be divided into entering delay and exiting delay. Secondly, the queueing models of bus bays are formed, and the equilibrium distribution functions are proposed by applying the embedded Markov chain to the traditional model of queuing theory in the steady state; then the calculation models of entering delay are derived at bays. Thirdly, the exiting delay is studied by using the queueing theory and the gap acceptance theory. Finally, the proposed models are validated using field-measured data, and then the influencing factors are discussed. With these models the delay is easily assessed knowing the characteristics of the dwell time distribution and traffic volume at the curb lane in different locations and different periods. It can provide basis for the efficiency evaluation of bus bays.

  9. Design and development of multi-lane smart electromechanical actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Annaz, Fawaz Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Design and Development of Multi-Lane Smart Electromechanical Actuators presents the design of electromechanical actuators in two types of architectures, namely, Torque Summed Architecture (TSA) and Velocity Summed Architecture, (VSA). It examines them in: * Hardware redundancy, where the architecture is made up of 3 or 4 lanes. * Digital Math Model redundancy, where a more compact two lanes architectures will be presented. The book starts with the very basic concepts and introduces the design process logically so that an understanding of the smart multi-lane systems that drive an aileron

  10. Low-inductance bus lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernick, A.

    1977-01-01

    Laminated bus strips and bifilar litz cable connectors for high-power rectifiers, thrisistors, and transistors provide low inductance and eliminate electromagnetic interference in high-power circuits. These techniques offer significant cost advantages because of ease of assembly and consistent high quality of product. Effectiveness makes general usage in static power conversion likely.

  11. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  12. LANE MARKING DETECTION IN CLUTTERED ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李青; 郑南宁; 程洪

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the positions of marking in the presence of distracting shadows, highlight, pavement cracks, etc. Methods RGB color space is transformed into I1I2I3 color space and I2 component was used to form a new image with less effect of the clutter. Using an improved edge detection operator, an edge strength map was produced, and binarilized by adaptive thresholds. The binary image was labeled and circularity of all connected components is calculated. The Self-Organizing Mapping is adopted to extract regions which imply potential marking. Finally the position of marking was obtained by curve fitting. Results Color information was utilized fully, all thresholds were set adaptively and lane marking could be detected in challenging images with shadows, highlight or other cars. Conclusion The method based on circularity of connected components shows its outstanding robustness to lane marking detection and has a wide variety of applications in the areas of vehicle autonomous navigation and driver assistance system.

  13. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  14. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian Douglas; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  15. UM-BUS and a Plug and Play Architecture%UM-BUS 总线及接入式体系结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟功; 周继芹; 李杰; 王晶; 丁瑞; 邓哲; 王嘉佳; 杜瑞

    2015-01-01

    本文针对航天航空等领域综合电子系统在小型化、一体化设计及信息综合利用等方面的需求,提出一种可动态重构的高速串行通信总线(UM-BUS),采用 N(≤32)通道并发传输,通信速率可达6.4Gbps,采用总线型拓扑结构,最大通信距离40m,支持最多30个节点直接互连,具有远程存储访问能力,采用命令应答式协议提供 QoS 与实时性保证;通过并发通道相互冗余与动态重构,在允许50%性能降低的情况下,能够对 N/2通道故障动态容错.在UM-BUS 总线基础上,本文提出一种新型的“接入式”体系结构模型,在不改变系统逻辑结构的前提下,能够突破机箱结构限制,将逻辑功能分散嵌入到控制测量对象内部,实现功能模块“接入即用”,使得综合电子系统一体化设计成为可能.%According to the demands of miniaturization,integrated design and comprehensive information utilization for inte-grated electronic system in aviation and aerospace field,this paper presents the UM-BUS.It is a high-speed,dynamic reconfigurable serial bus with N(≤ 32)concurrent lanes of mutual redundant structure available,and the maximum communication rate of 6.4Gbps.UM-BUS is formed by general bus-topology structure where up to 30 nodes can be connected directly to provide the capa-bility of remote memory accessing with maximum communication distance of up to 40m.UM-BUS uses command/response protocol to attain QoS and real-time guarantee.In the case of allowing 50% reduced performance,any fault in N/2 lanes can be tolerant by reconfiguring the mutual redundant concurrent lanes automatically.On the basis of UM-BUS,this paper put forward a new architec-ture of embedded systems.This access type architecture is geared to the needs of embedded system control and measurement appli-cations.It does not change the logic architecture of embedded system,but this access architecture can break

  16. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  17. How a fast lane may replace a congestion toll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    lane is always Pareto improving under Nash equilibrium in arrival times at the bottleneck and inelastic demand. It can replicate the arrival schedule and queueing outcomes of a toll that optimally charges a constant toll during part of the demand peak. Within some bounds, the fast lane scheme is still...

  18. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  19. Research on the Design Method of HOV Lane Based on the Basic Section of Urban Arterial Road in China%我国城市快速路基本路段HOV车道设置方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓社军; 陈峻; 李春燕; 毕昕

    2013-01-01

      为了研究高占有率(HOV)车道在我国城市道路中的设置方案,本文以城市快速路基本路段为研究对象,并选择了南京市的两条典型路段进行道路条件与交通条件的调查与分析。选取路段平均速度、延误时间以及运送能力为指标,分别设计了7种车道数分配方案,并运用 VISSIM 仿真软件进行现状和仿真对比分析,研究设置HOV车道的方法。结果表明,在双向六车道的城市快速路基本路段中单独设置一条3+型HOV专用道或者一条3+型HOV专用道和一条公交专用道的组合时,能够最大化提高整个路段的运营效率;双向八车道条件下,当公交和货车比例都相对较低,而小汽车和中客车所占比例相对较高时,设置HOV车道时的利用率可能相对较低,而建立公交专用道则比较合理。%To find how to design the high occupance vechicle lanes (HOV) in the city of China, the traffic and road conditions of the two typical road basic sections of a urban arterial of Nanjing were surveyed. Seven combinations of different function lanes have been designed based on the indexes of section average velocity, time delay and transport capacity VISSIM software was used to simulate the seven projects. The result proved that it would be more efficiency when one 3+HOV lane or one 3+HOV lane combined with one bus-only lane is designed under the condition of bidirectional six traffic lanes in the basic section of urban arterial road.It would be more efficiency to set the bus-only lane than the HOV lane when the rate of the bus and van is lower compare with the car and carpool.

  20. PinBus Interface Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  1. New TPG bus route 28

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Geneva's Public Transport services (TPG) have recently inaugurated a new bus line 28, connecting the La Tour Hospital in Meyrin to the international organisations in Geneva, via the airport. All signs associated with this route will be yellow in colour. Timetables and route details can be found at http://www.tpg.ch. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  2. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  3. Mapping motorway lanes and real-time lane identification with single-frequency precise point positioning test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, P.F.; Knoop, V.L.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Modern advanced motorway traffic control requires lane-specific observations, and provide vehicles with lane-specific control measures. Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning (SF-PPP) was previously demonstrated to provide sub-meter accurate positions in real-time using a low-cost mass-market re

  4. Phase diagram of a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-03-01

    Using the cellular automata model, we numerically study the traffic dynamic in a single lane roundabout system of four entry/exit points. The boundaries are controlled by the injecting rates α1, α2 and the extracting rate β. Both the system with and without Splitter Islands of width Lsp are considered. The phase diagram in the (α1 , β) space and its variation with the roundabout size, Pagg (i.e. the probability of aggressive entry), and Pexit (i.e. the probability of preferential exit) are constructed. The results show that the phase diagram in both cases consists of three phases: free flow, congested and jammed. However, as Lsp increases the free flow phase enlarges while the congested and jammed ones shrink. On the other hand, the short sized roundabout shows better performance in the free flow phase while the large one is more optimal in the congested phase. The density profiles are also investigated.

  5. Lane-changing behavior and its effect on energy dissipation using full velocity difference model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Ding, Jian-Xun; Shi, Qin; Kühne, Reinhart D.

    2016-07-01

    In real urban traffic, roadways are usually multilane with lane-specific velocity limits. Most previous researches are derived from single-lane car-following theory which in the past years has been extensively investigated and applied. In this paper, we extend the continuous single-lane car-following model (full velocity difference model) to simulate the three-lane-changing behavior on an urban roadway which consists of three lanes. To meet incentive and security requirements, a comprehensive lane-changing rule set is constructed, taking safety distance and velocity difference into consideration and setting lane-specific speed restriction for each lane. We also investigate the effect of lane-changing behavior on distribution of cars, velocity, headway, fundamental diagram of traffic and energy dissipation. Simulation results have demonstrated asymmetric lane-changing “attraction” on changeable lane-specific speed-limited roadway, which leads to dramatically increasing energy dissipation.

  6. Bus Routes, Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database, Published in unknown, City of Roswell, GA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'Marta Bus Routes located in Transportation database'. Data by this publisher are often provided in State...

  7. YUTONG BUS: Grateful To The Financial Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shenyin&Wanguo Securities issued an announcement on Jan 9 rating Yutong Bus(600066)as"buying",on the basis that the bus maker's gross profits went better in the last quarter of 2008 and to be further improved in the first quarter of 2009,with an increased market share. The report drew attention inside the in- dustry when the entire bus segment was suffering a tough time.

  8. Wishbone Bus Architecture - A Survey and Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohandeep Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of an on-chip interconnection architecture used for communication between IP cores depends on the efficiency of its bus architecture. Any bus architecture having advantages of faster bus clock speed, extra data transfer cycle, improved bus width and throughput is highly desirable for a low cost, reduced time-to-market and efficient System-on-Chip (SoC. This paper presents a survey of WISHBONE bus architecture and its comparison with three other on-chip bus architectures viz. Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA by ARM, CoreConnect by IBM and Avalon by Altera. The WISHBONE Bus Architecture by Silicore Corporation appears to be gaining an upper edge over the other three bus architecture types because of its special performance parameters like the use of flexible arbitration scheme and additional data transfer cycle (Read-Modify-Write cycle. Moreover, its IP Cores are available free for use requiring neither any registration nor any agreement or license.

  9. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  10. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  11. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane and His Contributions to Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakey, Richard William F; Mulliken, John B

    2015-07-01

    Surgical subspecialties were just emerging at the turn of the 20th Century, before this time, general surgeons had to adjust their operative skills to address disorders throughout the body. Sir William Arbuthnot Lane was a British surgeon, whose restless mind led him to wander throughout the field of general surgery and beyond. Although controversial, he advanced in the repair of cleft lip and palate, introduced the "no touch" operative technique, internal fixation of fractures, and is credited as the first surgeon to perform open massage of the heart. During The Great War, he established the British Plastic Surgery unit at Sidcup and delegated the care of facial and jaw injuries to young Major Harold Gillies. Lane later founded The New Health Society, an organization that stimulated the natural food movement. Sadly, in his latter years Lane's thinking drifted further away from with the times and his professional credibility waned. Nevertheless, Lane's variegated life is of sufficient interest to deserve reassessment.

  12. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  13. Microscopic modeling of multi-lane highway traffic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hodas, N O

    2003-01-01

    In heavy traffic with congested roadway the maximum traffic flow also depends on length of cars. This is deduced in a simple derivation suited for classroom demonstration as well as homework. The resulting equation demonstrates a new relation to an apparently unrelated area of physics, the maximum ship velocity (hull speed) and explains why traffic is sometimes faster on the slow lane on a congested multi-lane road.

  14. Design of intelligent bus stop based on GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思远

    2013-01-01

    To provide people waiting on the bus stop the information about the number of passengers on the bus traffic and distance between the site and the running bus. Design a set of intelligent bus stop system. This system counts up the number of the people gets on the bus and the people getting out of the bus to add up the people on the bus by infrared sensor and uses the hall sensor to measure the distance of having driven. Then, send data via GPRS. Finally display on the corresponding bus stop.

  15. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  16. Mastering NServiceBus and persistence

    CERN Document Server

    Helton, Rich

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers, designers, and architects alike who wish to build C# NServiceBus enterprise architectures and learn how ESB persists data and messages to help them attain their goals. No prior knowledge of persistence in NServiceBus is required.

  17. From the hybrid bus to the fully electrical bus; Vom Hybridbus zum vollelektrischen Bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffel, Christian [VCDB VerkehrsConsult Dresden-Berlin GmbH, Dresden (Germany). Team Elektromobilitaet

    2013-05-15

    To an increasing extent, hybrid buses have become omnipresent in conurbations as far as public transport is concerned. However, they are only an intermediate stage on the path to the fully electrical bus. The development path has been marked out and depends on the progress made in energy storage technology and automobile industry. From an economic point of view, practicable and adequate funding measures are required for the time being for precisely arranging electromobility in public transport and thus before an audience of millions. (orig.)

  18. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  19. Analysis of the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixing traffic flow in a two-lane system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yong-Sheng; Shi Pei-Ji; Zeng Qiong; Ma Chang-Xi; Lin Fang; Sun Peng; Yin Xiao-Ting

    2009-01-01

    Based on the existing classical cellular automaton model of traffic flow,a cellular automaton traffic model with different-maximum-speed vehicles mixed on a single lane is proposed,in which public transit and harbour-shaped bus stops are taken into consideration. Parameters such as length of cellular automaton,operation speed and random slow mechanism are re-demarcated. A harbour-shaped bus stop is set up and the vehicle changing lane regulation is changed.Through computer simulation,the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on mixed traffic flow and traffic capacity is analysed. The results show that a public transport system can ease urban traffic congestion hut creates new jams at the same time,and that the influence of occupation rate of public transit vehicles on traffic capacity is considerable. To develop urban traffic,attention should be paid to the occupation rate of public transit vehicles and traffic development in a haphazard way should be strictly avoided.

  20. Fundamental diagram in traffic flow of mixed vehicles on multi-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Nagatani, Takashi; Masukura, Shuichi

    2008-09-01

    We study the fundamental diagram for traffic flow of vehicular mixture on a multi-lane highway. We present the car-following model of multi-lane traffic in which slow and fast vehicles flow with changing lanes. We investigate the traffic states of the vehicular mixture under the periodic boundary. Two values of the current appear at a density and two current curves are obtained. Vehicles move with changing lanes in the traffic state of high current, while vehicles move without changing lanes in the traffic state of low current. They depend on the density, the fraction of slow vehicles, and the initial condition. In the high-current curve, the jamming transition between the free flow and the jammed state occurs at a low density. The fundamental diagrams (current-density diagrams) are shown for the single-lane, two-lane, three-lane, and four-lane traffics.

  1. A Two-Lane Cellular Automata Model with Influence of Next-Nearest Neighbor Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new two-lane cellular automata model in which the influence of the next-nearest neighbor vehicle is considered. The attributes of the traffic system composed of fast-lane and slow-lane are investigated by the new traffic model. The simulation results show that the proposed two-lane traffic model can reproduce some traffic phenomena observed in real traffic, and that maximum flux and critical density are close to the field measurements.Moreover, the initial density distribution of the fast-lane and slow-lane has much influence on the traffic flow states.With the ratio between the densities of slow lane and fast lane increasing the lane changing frequency increases, but maximum flux decreases. Finally, the influence of the sensitivity coefficients is discussed.

  2. FAST BUS Test Box (LAIKA) (Engineering Materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The assembly drawing AD 135-518-00-RO, and the drawings referenced thereon, provide the data and specifications for constructing the LAIKA Test Box. Some drawings are not available, although they are listed on the material lists included. The assembly is a manual tester for FAST BUS modules, both masters and slaves. FAST BUS signals are generated by means of switches or push buttons and provide the state of the bus lines by lighting LED's. The box acts as either a master or slave - depending upon the module under test. It also acts as an ATC to test the arbitration logic of a master or ATC device.

  3. Drivetrain system of an ultracapacitor electric bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Zhigu; Zhu Chunbo; Yang Shiyan; Cheng Shukang

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a design of the drivetrain system of an electric bus with ultracapacitor (UC) as the only on-board power source. The system includes three main parts, namely, UC bank, motor and the converter, vehicle management unit (VMU). Analyses results in detail on the functional design and experiments on work bench of each part were also presented, which validated the reliability of the system. Furthermore, driving results in field of the bus verified the feasibility of the design of the drivetrain system. The bus has very good dynamic performances and shows a promising applications prospect in the short and medium route buses system.

  4. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  5. BUS 1000母线保护的应用%Application of BUS 1000 Bus-Bar Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓光; 张贵金; 冷雪玉

    2001-01-01

    发电厂的母线是电厂中的一个重要组成元件,当母线上发生故障时,将使连接在故障母线上的所有元件在修复故障母线期间,或转换到另一组母线上运行以前遭到停电。同时还可能破坏系统稳定,造成严重后果。因此,母线保护装置是正确迅速切除母线故障的重要装置,它的拒动或误动将给电力系统带来严重危害。详细介绍了华能丹东发电厂350 MW发电机组采用的BUS 1000型母线保护的原理,并对其正常运行及区内、外故障、断路器失灵保护、母联断路器过流保护等几个方面作了详细分析。%Bus bar is an important component in e lectric power plant.When bus bar fault occurs,all components connected on the fa ulty bus bar will be in outage until power restores by repairing the faulty bus bar or switching them over to another bus bar.Furthermore,it may cause the destr uction of system stability resulting in serious consequence.Bus bar protection d evice is the very device to quickly remove bus bar faults,and its malfunctioning will bring serious harm to power system. The principle of BUS 1000 bus bar prot ection used for 350 MW unit of dandong power plant is introduced.Its normal oper ation and several aspects,such as in-and out-area faults,out-of-order breake r protection,bus bar breaker over-current protection,are analyzed in detail.

  6. A Study of Lane Detection Algorithm for Personal Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kajiro; Ohkubo, Tomoyuki; Kurihara, Yosuke

    By the word “Personal vehicle”, we mean a simple and lightweight vehicle expected to emerge as personal ground transportation devices. The motorcycle, electric wheelchair, motor-powered bicycle, etc. are examples of the personal vehicle and have been developed as the useful for transportation for a personal use. Recently, a new types of intelligent personal vehicle called the Segway has been developed which is controlled and stabilized by using on-board intelligent multiple sensors. The demand for needs for such personal vehicles are increasing, 1) to enhance human mobility, 2) to support mobility for elderly person, 3) reduction of environmental burdens. Since rapidly growing personal vehicles' market, a number of accidents caused by human error is also increasing. The accidents are caused by it's drive ability. To enhance or support drive ability as well as to prevent accidents, intelligent assistance is necessary. One of most important elemental functions for personal vehicle is robust lane detection. In this paper, we develop a robust lane detection method for personal vehicle at outdoor environments. The proposed lane detection method employing a 360 degree omni directional camera and unique robust image processing algorithm. In order to detect lanes, combination of template matching technique and Hough transform are employed. The validity of proposed lane detection algorithm is confirmed by actual developed vehicle at various type of sunshined outdoor conditions.

  7. Intelligent Lane Reservation System for Highway(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian Dobre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Highways tend to get congested because of the increase in the number of cars travelling on them. There are two solutions to this. The first one, which is also expensive, consists in building new highways to support the traffic. A much cheaper alternative consists in the introduction of advanced intelligent traffic control systems to manage traffic and increase the efficiency of the already existing highways. Intelligent lane reservation system for highways (ILRSH is such a software control system. It is designed to assist and automate the use of a highway lane as a reserved lane. The idea is to allow and support drivers to travel at a speed higher, if in return they are willing to pay a small fee to reserve an empty virtual slot on the reserved lane. This slot is valid for a portion and of the highway and a time window, so each driver pays the fee depending thier its travelling needs. In return, drivers are guaranteed a congestion-free travel on that portion. In this paper, we present the proposed architecture of the ILRSH and its subsystems. The system is based on several proposed algorithms designed to assist the drivers, enter or exit the reserved lane, based on real-world driving observations. We present extensive simulation results showing the feasibility of the proposed approach, that can easily be implemented with little costs on already-existing highways, and the increase in traffic efficiency.

  8. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  9. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  10. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT OF ELECTRIC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Performance and reliability experiments on BJD-6100EV electric buses, jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Beijing Public Transport Company, are introduced. Output power model of battery pack is established and maximum output power is analyzed. A permanent magnetic direct current (PMDC) motor with enhanced windings is developed for the bus. Torque-speed characteristics of the motor are modeled and performance of electric bus is analyzed. Computational method of the range of electric bus is proposed and discussed. Experiments show that electric bus can realize design requirements. Computational methods are verified with the help of field test. It is expected that design and computation method will provide helpful reference to development of electric vehicles.

  11. Non-lane-based full velocity difference car following model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Wang, Dianhai; Tao, Pengfei; Li, Pingfan

    2010-11-01

    In order to describe car following behavior in real world, this paper presents a non-lane-based car following model by incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic. The stability condition of the model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. And numerical simulation is carried out to validate the analytic results. The property of the model is investigated, and it is found that the proposed model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion. The results implied that incorporating the lane width effects in car following model not only stabilize traffic flow and suppress the traffic jam, but also lower critical headway and increase capacity. Thus, the lateral separation effects greatly enhance the realism of car following models.

  12. Achievement of alternative configurations of vehicles on multiple lanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Ryosuke; Miki, Hiroshi; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Heavy traffic congestion occurs daily at merging sections on a highway. For relieving this congestion, possibility of alternative configuration of vehicles on multiple-lane road at a merging area is discussed in this paper. This is the configuration where no vehicles move aside on the other lane. It has merit in making a smooth merging at an intersection or a junction due to the so-called "zipper effect." We show, by developing a cellular automaton model for multiple lanes, that this configuration is achieved by simple local interactions between vehicles neighboring each other. The degree of the alternative configuration in terms of the spatial increase in parallel driving length is studied by using both numerical simulations and mean-field theory. We successfully construct a theoretical method for calculating this degree of the alternative configuration by using cluster approximation. It is shown that the theoretical results coincide with those of the simulations very well.

  13. Lane Tracking with Omnidirectional Cameras: Algorithms and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ShinkoYuanhsien

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With a panoramic view of the scene, a single omnidirectional camera can monitor the 360-degree surround of the vehicle or monitor the interior and exterior of the vehicle at the same time. We investigate problems associated with integrating driver assistance functionalities that have been designed for rectilinear cameras with a single omnidirectional camera instead. Specifically, omnidirectional cameras have been shown effective in determining head gaze orientation from within a vehicle. We examine the issues involved in integrating lane tracking functions using the same omnidirectional camera, which provide a view of both the driver and the road ahead of the vehicle. We present analysis on the impact of the omnidirectional camera's reduced image resolution on lane tracking accuracy, as a consequence of gaining the expansive view. And to do so, we present Omni-VioLET, a modified implementation of the vision-based lane estimation and tracking system (VioLET, and conduct a systematic performance evaluation of both lane-trackers operating on monocular rectilinear images and omnidirectional images. We are able to show a performance comparison of the lane tracking from Omni-VioLET and Recti-VioLET with ground truth using images captured along the same freeway road in a specified course. The results are surprising: with 1/10th the number of pixels representing the same space and about 1/3rd the horizontal image resolution as a rectilinear image of the same road, the omnidirectional camera implementation results in only three times the amount the mean absolute error in tracking the left lane boundary position.

  14. Continuum modeling for two-lane traffic flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijun Huang; Tieqiao Tang; Ziyou Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,we study the continuum modeling of traffic dynamics for two-lane freeways.A new dynamics model is proposed, which contains the speed gradient-based momentum equations derived from a car-following theory suited to two-lane traffic flow.The conditions for securing the linear stability of the new model are presented.Numerical tests are carried out and some nonequilibrium phenomena are observed, such as small disturbance instability,stop-andgo waves,local clusters and phase transition.

  15. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  16. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  17. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  18. Study on the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on traffic stability from an extended two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Zhang, Run; Xu, Shangzhi; Qian, Yeqing

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the effects of driver's lane-changing aggressiveness on the stability of traffic flow of two-lane are studied by using a generalized lattice hydrodynamic model with consideration of lane-changing aggressiveness of each individual. The effect of lane-changing aggressiveness parameter on traffic stability is derived through employing linear stability analysis with finding that the driver's lane-changing aggressiveness has an important impact on the stability of the traffic flow in a two-lane system. To describe the phase transition, the mKdV equation near the critical point is derived by using the reductive perturbation method, with obtaining the dependence of the propagation kink solution for traffic jams on the lane-changing aggressiveness. It can be concluded from the phase diagram of stability criterion that the higher lane-changing aggressiveness leads to a more stable traffic flow. In addition, the stabilizing effect of the optimal current difference weakens gradually with the increasing of the lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient, even vanishes when the value of lane-changing aggressiveness adjusting coefficient is greater than a critical value. Theoretical conclusions are also confirmed by the numerical simulations.

  19. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris(Linnaeus, 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EG Sanches

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%, five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C –min, nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20 on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  20. Sperm cryopreservation of lane snapper Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus, 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, E G; Oliveira, I R; Serralheiro, P C S; Cerqueira, V R

    2015-08-01

    This study aims developing and evaluate a protocol of semen cryopreservation of the lane snapper Lutjanus synagris. Firstly, sperm motility rate, motility time, density and spermatocrit were appraised to characterize the sperm quality of the lane snapper. The effect of three extenders with distinct ionic compositions and pH values combined with seven concentrations of cryoprotector dimethylsulfoxide (0; 2.5; 5.0; 7.5; 10.0; 12.5 e 15.0%), five cooling rates (110, 90, 60, 45 e 30°C -min), nine equilibration time (1; 2,5; 5; 10; 15; 20; 25; 30 e 60 minutes) e five dilutions ratio (1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 1:10 e 1:20) on the sperm motility rate and motility time were analyzed. Fertilization test was accomplished to evaluate the viability of the cryopreserved sperm. The higher sperm motility rate and motility time (P60% validating the present protocol for lane snapper. The cryoconserved sperm of lane snapper is a viable alternative, being possible to maintain appropriate sperm viability.

  1. 8 CFR 287.11 - Pre-enrolled Access Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 287.11 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS... checkpoint. (b) General requirements for Pre-enrolled Access Lane Program. (1) Participation in the Pre... States citizens and members of the classes of aliens which the Commissioner of the Service or...

  2. Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Muatjetjeja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform the group classification of the generalized Lane-Emden system xu′′+nu′+xHv=0,  xv′′+nv′+xgu=0, which occurs in many applications of physical phenomena such as pattern formation, population evolution, and chemical reactions. We obtain four cases depending on the values of n.

  3. Performance of the Priority Control Strategies for Bus Rapid Transit: Comparative Study from Scenario Microsimulation Using VISSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit (BRT has a great potential to improve the service level of transit system and has been implemented in many Chinese cities. However, the priority it can provide to buses has not been explored fully. Therefore, this study mainly investigated two advanced control strategies (signal priority using advanced detection and transit speed control. Signal priority using advanced detection is a strategy which detects one cycle ahead of buses’ arrival in order to adapt a more flexible control algorithm to provide signal priority for buses. Another is transit speed control, which provides priority at intersections for buses by controlling the speed of them and predicting their arrival at certain intersection. These two advanced strategies were modeled and evaluated using simulation software VISSIM and presented better performance than other three scenarios (base case, exclusive bus lane, and conventional transit signal priority. Only the eastbound direction would be researched as its traffic flow and bus volume are much larger than those of the other direction. Data used in this model was collected in Yingtan City. It is also shown that both the operation of BRT and the efficiency of private traffic can be much improved by applying the two strategies proposed above.

  4. Towards 400GBASE 4-lane Solution Using Direct Detection of MultiCAP Signal in 14 GHz Bandwidth per Lane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Tianjian, Zuo; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental demonstration of 102 Gbit/s transmission over a 15km single wavelength and polarization fiber link with 14GHz 3dB bandwidth. Novel multiband CAP signaling allows for a 4-lane 400GBASE long reach solution....

  5. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Through the past decade the field of network science has established itself as a common ground for the cross-fertilization of exciting inter-disciplinary studies which has motivated researchers to model almost every physical system as an interacting network consisting of nodes and links. Although public transport networks such as airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, the status of bus networks still remains in obscurity. In developing countries like India, where bus networks play an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer some of the basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. In this paper, we model the bus networks of major Indian cities as graphs in \\textit{L}-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties using concepts from network science. Our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topology with the common underlying feature of small-world property. We observe tha...

  6. Stress prevention in bus drivers: Evaluation of 13 natural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Aust, B.; Berg, A.M. van den; Siegrist, J.

    2000-01-01

    The research aim was to select, compare, and analyze interventions and preventive actions from international bus companies to decrease bus drivers' occupational stress and sickness absenteeism. Through networking, international surveys, and literature study, 13 "natural experiments" were identified

  7. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  8. Secure Bus-Ticketing System using NFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Lopes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For making the day to day life more convenient for the passengers travelling in bus some technologies can be used like Near Field Communication (NFC, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID. The proposed system is based on ticketing and identification of passengers in public transport. The system suggest a user friendly automated ticketing system which will automatically deduct the passengers fare according to the distance travelled as well as detect the passengers detail information. The system also helps to calculate the total revenue of a single bus in a day. Another important aspect is reusability, which helps use ticket multiple times as it is rechargeable.

  9. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  10. An Efficient Segmental Bus-Invert Coding Method for Instruction Memory Data Bus Switching Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Ji

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a bus coding methodology for the instruction memory data bus switching reduction. Compared to the existing state-of-the-art multiway partial bus-invert (MPBI coding which relies on data bit correlation, our approach is very effective in reducing the switching activity of the instruction data buses, since little bit correlation can be observed in the instruction data. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed encoding can reduce up to 42% of switching activity, with an average of 30% reduction, while MPBI achieves just 17.6% reduction in switching activity.

  11. Two-lane traffic simulations with a blockage induced by an accident car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Lei, L.; Dai, S. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a highway traffic model with a blockage induced by an accident car is proposed, in which both symmetric lane changing rules and asymmetric lane changing rules are adopted. The fundamental diagrams and spatial-temporal profiles are presented after the numerical simulation and the jam transition is studied. It is shown that the accident car not only causes a local jam behind the accident car, but also causes vehicles to cluster in the bypass lane. The asymmetric lane changing rules are more advantageous in reducing the local jam than the symmetric lane changing rules when the accident car is in the right lane, and the symmetric lane changing rules are superior when the accident car is in the left lane. Furthermore the curves of lane-changing frequency against the total density are given. It is found that the vehicles will change lane more frequently when traffic is inhomogeneous with different types of vehicle or with an accident car.

  12. Two-lane traffic rules for cellular automata: A systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechsteleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ; Wolf, D.E. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Hoechstleistungsrechenzentrum HLRZ]|[Gerhard-Mercator-Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Theoretische Physik; Wagner, P. [Univ. zu Koeln (Germany). Zentrum Fuer Paralleles Rechnen]|[Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt, Koeln (Germany); Simon, P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-05

    Microscopic modeling of multi-lane traffic is usually done by applying heuristic lane changing rules, and often with unsatisfying results. Recently, a cellular automation model for two-lane traffic was able to overcome some of these problems and to produce a correct density inversion at densities somewhat below the maximum flow density. In this paper, the authors summarize different approaches to lane changing and their results, and propose a general scheme, according to which realistic lane changing rules can be developed. They test this scheme by applying it to several different lane changing rules, which, in spite of their differences, generate similar and realistic results. The authors thus conclude that, for producing realistic results, the logical structure of the lane changing rules, as proposed here, is at least as important as the microscopic details of the rules.

  13. Microscopic simulation of multi-lane traffic under dynamic tolling and information feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-liang; HUANG Hai-jun; TIAN Li-jun

    2009-01-01

    To investigate drivers' lane-changing behavior under different information feedback strategies, a microscopic traffic simulation based on the cellular automaton model was made on the typical freeway with a regular lane and a high-occupancy one. A new dynamic tolling scheme in terms of the real-time traffic condition on the high-occupancy lane was further designed to enhance the whole freeway's flow throughput. The results show that the mean velocity feedback strategy is generally more efficient than the travel time feedback strategy in correctly guiding drivers' lane choice behavior. Specifically, the toll level, lane-changing rate and freeway's throughput and congestion coefficient induced by the travel time feedback strategy oscillate with larger amplitude and longer period. In addition, the dynamic tolling scheme can make the high-occupancy lane less congested and maximize the freeway's throughput when the regular-lane inflow rate is larger than 0.45.

  14. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-struc-ture element model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Tao; FAN Yang-yu; HUANG Lian-bing

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experi-ments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  15. Framework for Bus Rapid Transit Development and Deployment Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Mark A.; Yin, Yafeng; Balvanyos, Tunde; Ceder, Avishai

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of its investigation into deployment planning for bus rapid transit systems. In this study, we conducted a macro-scale examination of bus rapid transit systems from technical, operational, institutional, and planning perspectives. We then developed the theoretical foundation for a deployment planning framework for bus rapid transit systems that specifically takes into account the unique features of bus rapid transit that differ from other transit alternatives....

  16. Air quality on bus routes in Umea, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, H.; Forsberg, B. [Dept. of Environmental Health and Dept. of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umea University SE, Umea (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Bus traffic in some local streets with up to 650 buses per day has resulted in complaints about air pollution and suggestions from residents that the bus routes should be changed to other streets. We have studied nitrogen dioxide and benzene concentrations at five exposed sites and at two representative control sites without bus traffic, and found no general differences in air quality. However, the site and temperature adjusted concentrations fell significantly during a strike among bus drivers. (authors)

  17. Bus Routes, Bus Routes, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Anne Arundel County, OIT GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2011. It is described as 'Bus...

  18. Bus Stops, This shapefile contains existing bus stops for Charlotte Area Transit System, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains existing bus stops for...

  19. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  20. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a foll...

  1. TWO-WAY ROAD NETWORK DESIGN PROBLEM WITH VARIABLE LANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haozhi ZHANG; Ziyou GAO

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a new form of transportation network design problem.In urban transportation network,unreasonable phenomenon can occur in certain traffic period (e.g.on/off duty period),which demonstrates that the flows of opposite directions on a two-way road are seriously asymmetric; one traffic link of a two-way road congest heavily but the other is hardly used.In order to reduce transportation congestion and make full use of the existing road resources,we propose a lane reallocating approach in peak period,and establish a discrete bi-level programming model for the decision-making.Then,based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique,a heuristic solution algorithm for the bi-level model is designed.Finally,the lane reallocating approach is demonstrated through a simple transportation network.

  2. Blowers in bus systems; Einsatz von Ventilatoren in BUS-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneeweiss, H. [ebm - Werke GmbH und Co., Mulfingen (Germany). R und D

    2000-07-01

    Modern industrial blowers are compact and have good control characteristics. Centralized or decentralized monitoring has become a state-of-the-art technology. Bus systems make it possible to monitor and analyze component status at any time. Electronically commutated external rotor motors with bus interfaces offer a wide spectrum of applications. [German] Beim Einsatz von Ventilatoren und Geblaesen in der Industrie ist es heute Standard, dass die Geraete einen kompakten Aufbau und gute Regel- bzw. Steuereigenschaften aufweisen. Immer mehr setzt sich auch die zentrale und dezentrale Ueberwachung von Geraeten durch. Mit einem BUS-System kann der aktuelle Status jeder Komponente jederzeit abgefragt und der Zustand analysiert werden. Durch spezielle Einsatzbedingungen werden heute elektronisch kommutierte Aussenlaeufermotoren mit BUS-Schnittstellen versehen. Damit steht ein breites Anwendungsspektrum zur Verfuegung. (orig.)

  3. Tightly Coupling GPS with Lane Markings for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Tightly coupling GPS pseudorange and Doppler measurements with other sensors is a way to increase accuracy and integrity of the positioning information particularly when it is computed autonomously. Highly accurate digital maps are also more and more key components for autonomous vehicle navigation and can enhance the localization system. In this paper, a video camera is used to get relative information with respect to lane markings and dead-reckoning sensors are also ...

  4. Mapping and localization using GPS, lane markings and proprioceptive sensors

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Estimating the pose in real-time is a primary function for intelligent vehicle navigation. Whilst different solutions exist, most of them rely on the use of high-end sensors. This paper proposes a solution that exploits an automotive type L1-GPS receiver, features extracted by low-cost perception sensors and vehicle proprioceptive information. A key idea is to use the lane detection function of a video camera to retrieve accurate lateral and orientation information wit...

  5. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  6. Inrush-Current Limiter And Bus Isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, Carlisle R.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic circuit protects electrical power bus and source of power against excessive current demands. Circuit intended for use with power-consuming electronic system drawing pulsed currents and including capacitor bank as low-impedance secondary source from which pulsed currents drawn.

  7. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  8. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  9. STOCHASTIC BUS DISPATCHING MODEL UNTUK OPTIMALISASI JUMLAH BUS TRANSJAKARTA KORIDOR 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of road user causing traffic jam finds out a way, busway. However, in its implementation, the number of fleet available does not enough to take the passengers. It results in the an amassed of passengers at several bus stops. This leads to passenger dissatisfaction satisfaction which eventually causes Transjakarta users to reuse private cars. Definitely this situation may builds up traffic jams. Stochastic Bus Dispatching Model is used to simulate public transportation that operates regularly.

  10. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Conley, T. [GTE Wireless, Nashville, TN (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  11. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Fu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC or Digital Signal Processor (DSP, the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 x 2,389.8 mm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP. The pixel cell size is 18.45 x 21.8 mm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 x 9.6 mm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  12. A modified two-lane traffic model considering drivers' personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H. B.; Zhang, N. X.; Wu, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Based on the two-lane traffic model proposed by Chowdhury et al., a modified traffic model (R-STCA model, for short) is presented, in which the new symmetric lane changing rules are introduced by considering driving behavioral difference and dynamic headway. After the numerical simulation, a broad scattering of simulated points is exhibited in the moderate density region on the flow-density plane. The synchronized flow phase accompanied with the wide moving jam phase is reproduced. The spatial-temporal profiles indicate that the vehicles move according to the R-STCA model can change lane more easily and more realistically. Then vehicles are convenient to get rid of the slow vehicles that turn into plugs ahead, and hence the capacity increases. Furthermore the phenomenon of the high speed car-following is discovered by using the R-STCA model, which has been already observed in the traffic measured data. All these results indicate that the presented model is reasonable and more realistic.

  13. CMOS Image Sensor with a Built-in Lane Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Pei-Yung; Cheng, Hsien-Chein; Huang, Shih-Shinh; Fu, Li-Chen

    2009-01-01

    This work develops a new current-mode mixed signal Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) imager, which can capture images and simultaneously produce vehicle lane maps. The adopted lane detection algorithm, which was modified to be compatible with hardware requirements, can achieve a high recognition rate of up to approximately 96% under various weather conditions. Instead of a Personal Computer (PC) based system or embedded platform system equipped with expensive high performance chip of Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP), the proposed imager, without extra Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) circuits to transform signals, is a compact, lower cost key-component chip. It is also an innovative component device that can be integrated into intelligent automotive lane departure systems. The chip size is 2,191.4 × 2,389.8 μm, and the package uses 40 pin Dual-In-Package (DIP). The pixel cell size is 18.45 × 21.8 μm and the core size of photodiode is 12.45 × 9.6 μm; the resulting fill factor is 29.7%.

  14. Advanced eGovernment Information Service Bus (eGov-Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The eGov-Bus project provides citizens and businesses with improved access to virtual public services, which are based on existing national eGovernment Web services and which support cross-border life events. Requirements and specific rules of these life events are considered, and personalization of user preferences is supported. eGov-Bus is based on adaptable process management technologies, allowing for virtual services which are dynamically combined from existing national eGovernment services. In this way, a comprehensive workflow process is set up, allowing for service-level agreements, an audit trail and explanation of the process to the end user. The eGov-Bus process engine operates on top of a virtual repository, providing a high-level semantic view of information retrieved from heterogeneous information sources, such as eGovernment Web services. Further, eGov-Bus relies on a security framework to ensure all high-level security requirements are met. The eGov-Bus architecture is business oriented, it focuses on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA concepts, asynchronously combining Web services and providing a Service Bus.

  15. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...

  16. Regenerative polymeric bus architecture for board-level optical interconnects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N; Hashim, A; Penty, R V; White, I H

    2012-05-21

    A scalable multi-channel optical regenerative bus architecture based on the use of polymer waveguides is presented for the first time. The architecture offers high-speed interconnection between electrical cards allowing regenerative bus extension with multiple segments and therefore connection of an arbitrary number of cards onto the bus. In a proof-of-principle demonstration, a 4-channel 3-card polymeric bus module is designed and fabricated on standard FR4 substrates. Low insertion losses (≤ -15 dB) and low crosstalk values (bus modules using a prototype 3R regenerator.

  17. Heat Transfer in the LHC Main Superconducting Bus Bars

    CERN Document Server

    Granieri, P P; Richter, D

    2011-01-01

    CERN is performing a systematic analysis of the interconnecting bus bars of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) main magnets. Their thermal, electrical, mechanical and hydraulic performances are addressed. In the frame of these studies, the heat transfer between the main superconducting (SC) bus bars and the surrounding He bath is investigated. It represents a key parameter in the comprehension of the bus bars stability and quench propagation mechanisms, thus crucial for the analysis of the 2008 incident which was triggered by a defective bus bars joint. This paper reports on the experimental tests and relative analysis aiming at describing the thermal behavior of the LHC main bus bars.

  18. A new traffic model with the consideration of coupling effect with two lanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Guang-Han; Sun Di-Hua; He Heng-Pan

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-lane high-order continuum model by embedding the two delay time scales con-tinuum traffic model presented by Xue (2003 Phys. Rev. E 68 066123) into the multi-lane model proposed by Daganzo (1997 Transpn. Res. B 31 83) with the consideration of the coupling effect between the vehicles of two lanes in instan-taneous traffic situation and lane-change effect. In the novel model, the coupling effect of two lanes and phenomena of lane change, which were not discussed in Daganzo's model and Xue's model, are taken into account. Numerical simulation shows that it is in accordance with real traffic flow. This obviously indicates that the new phenomenon and behaviour are analogous results as single lane presented by Xue, and the proposed model is more reasonable on two lanes. Furthermore, the generation rate between two lanes is also investigated. The results show that the formation and diffusion of traffic shock wave can be better simulated on two lanes.

  19. The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for The Evaluation of Lane-Changing Behavior in Urban Traffic Stream with Fuzzy Clustering Method. The trends for drivers Lane-Changing with regard to remarkable effects in traffic are regarded as a major variable in traffic engineering. As a result, various algorithms have presented most models of Lane-Changing developed by means of lane information and the manner of vehicle movement mainly obtained from images process not much attention is given to the characteristics of driver. Lane change divided into two parts the first one are compulsory lane including lane change to turn left or turn right. The second type of change is optional and lane change to improve driving condition. A low speed car is a good example, in this study, through focused group discussion method, drivers information can be obtained so that driver’s personality traits are taken into consideration. Then drivers are divided into four groups by means of Algorithm clusters. The four Algorithms suggest that phase typed cluster is a more suitable method for drivers classification based on Lane-Changing. Through notarization of different type of scenarios of lane change in Iran following results released. The percentage of drivers for each group is 17/5, 35, 20 and 27/ %, respectively.

  20. Energy efficiency of different bus subsystems in Belgrade public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišanović Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in this paper comprised experimental determination of energy efficiency of different bus subsystems (diesel bus, trolleybus and fully electric bus on chosen public transport route in Belgrade. Experimental measuring of energy efficiency of each bus type has been done based on the analysis of parameters of vehicle driving cycles between stops. Results of this analysis were basis for development of theoretical simulation model of energy efficiency. The model was latter compared with the results of simulation done by "Solaris bus & Coach" company for the chosen electric bus route. Based on demonstrated simulation, characteristics of electric bus batteries were defined, the method and dynamic of their recharge was suggested, as well as choice for other aggregates for drive system and technical characteristics for the electric buses were suggested.

  1. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  2. Empirical Assessment on Factors Affecting Travel Time of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergyanto E Gunawan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the century, many cities around the world adopt the bus rapid transit (BRT system to fulfill their need of mass transportation system. The system features with platform-level boarding, bus lanes in the central verge of the road, off-vehicle fare collection, and physically protected busway. So far, these criteria are considered to be the most important aspects with respect to the BRT performance. In this research, we intend to study to what extent the BRT performance may be affected by the interference of the mixed traffic during the BRT operation. We adopt an empirical approach by observing the phenomenon unfolding in the eleven TransJakarta BRT corridors. The TransJakarta BRT operates in the city of Jakarta, the capital of the Republic of Indonesia. We record the travel time data from station to station for the case where the TransJakarta bus can travel smoothly and the case where the traveling bus is interfered with the mixed traffic. For the cases, we evaluate the travel time variation. As the results, we found that the Corridor 1 of TransJakarta BRT has the best performance in term of the travel time variation. For the two directions, the corridor has the mean travel time of 34 min, the standard deviation of 3 min, and the travel time variation of 8%. On this corridor, the mixed-traffic interference is relatively negligible. On the Corridor 7, the two-direction travel times have the mean of 45 min, the standard deviation of 8 min, and the travel time variation of 16%. On the Corridor 9, the twodirection travel times have the mean of 1 hr and 25 min, the standard deviation of 11 min, and the travel time variation of 14%. On the last two corridors, the busways are heavily interfered by the mixed traffic; thus, the end-to-end travel times are significantly uncertain although only very few road segments are interfered. The research leads us to a conclusion that the interference, although only occurs on a road segment, may

  3. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki

    2009-03-01

    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  4. lane-Curvature Method:A New method for Local Obstacle Avoidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Nak Yong; Lee, Sang Kee [Chosun University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    The lane-curvature method (LCM) presented in this paper is anew local obstacle avoidance method for indoor mobile robots. The method combines curvature-velocity method (CVM) with a new directional method called the lane method. The lane method divides the environment into lanes taking the information on obstacles and desired heading of the robot into account; then it chooses the best lane to follow to optimize travel along a desired heading. A local heading is then calculated for entering and following the best lane, and CVM uses this heading to determine the optimal translational and rotational velocities, considering the heading direction, physical limitations, and environmental constraints. By combining both the directional and velocity space methods, LCM yields safe collision-free motion as well as smooth motion taking the dynamics of the robot into account. Experiments using the mobile robot Xavier, show the efficiency of the proposed method. (author). 13 refs., 8 figs.

  5. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-shu Ge

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  6. A Real-Time System for Lane Detection Based on FPGA and DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Li, Shutao; Sun, Bin

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a real-time lane detection system including edge detection and improved Hough Transform based lane detection algorithm and its hardware implementation with field programmable gate array (FPGA) and digital signal processor (DSP). Firstly, gradient amplitude and direction information are combined to extract lane edge information. Then, the information is used to determine the region of interest. Finally, the lanes are extracted by using improved Hough Transform. The image processing module of the system consists of FPGA and DSP. Particularly, the algorithms implemented in FPGA are working in pipeline and processing in parallel so that the system can run in real-time. In addition, DSP realizes lane line extraction and display function with an improved Hough Transform. The experimental results show that the proposed system is able to detect lanes under different road situations efficiently and effectively.

  7. Noether, Partial Noether Operators and First Integrals for the Coupled Lane-Emden System

    OpenAIRE

    Muatjetjeja, Ben; Khalique, Chaudry

    2010-01-01

    Systems of Lane-Emden equations arise in the modelling of several physical phenomena, such as pattern formation, population evolution and chemical reactions. In this paper we construct Noether and partial Noether operators corresponding to a Lagrangian and a partial Lagrangian for a coupled Lane-Emden system. Then the first integrals with respect to Noether and partial Noether operators are obtained for the Lane-Emden system under consideration. We show that the first integrals for both the N...

  8. Safety Effectiveness of Offsetting Opposing Left‐Turn Lanes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Bhaven; Appiah, Justice; Khattak, Aemal J.; Rilett, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the benefits to intersection safety of offsetting left-turn lanes by widening the width of the lane-line marking between the left-turn lanes and their adjacent through lanes. The analysis was performed using an empirical Baye’s procedure in order to account for potential bias due to regression-to-the-mean. Results from the analysis of 12 treated intersection approaches and 36 non-treated approaches in Lincoln, Nebraska, suggest statistically significant improvements in sa...

  9. Development of 8-lane PCI-Express protocol using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Harish

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flosolver Mk 8 is the latest family member of the Flosolver series of parallel computers in CSIR-NAL that is currently being developed, to have a performance of 10 TFLOPS with 1024 processors in it. It is based on distributed memory concept, using quad core xeon processors[11]. Each cluster consists of 8 processors, a FPGA based Floswitch, and 4 PCI cards. The inter Cluster communication is carried out through optical transceivers to provide high speed communication. PCI is used for interface between the server and the FloSwitch. Unlike any other switch, the Floswitch has the capability of performing information processing operation which is a unique feature, along with message passing[12]. To this existing system the project intends to replace the PCI card with 8- lane PCI-Express add-on card. The PCI-Express defines a line rate of 2.5Gbps per lane. The basic goal of this project entitled “Development of PCI Express protocol using VHDL” is to Design and Develop a PCI-Express protocol for a 8x PCI-e card, with an optical transceiver and DPM (Dual Port Memory as an external interfaces. The development includes the generation of 8 x PCI-e cores and interfacing the core for optical transaction and also for the DPM transaction. The PCI-Express add-on card contains a FPGA (Virtex V– XC5VLX110T and the card supports 8X lane. FPGA provides an interface between the PCI-Express signals, the DPM and the optical transceiver module. The protocol has to be developed using VHDL and simulated using model sim 6.1f

  10. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  11. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  12. Bayesian Reasoning Using 3D Relations for Lane Marker Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesman, Bart; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Baseski, Emre;

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a lane marker detection algorithm that integrates 3D attributes as well as 3D relations between local edges and semi-global contours in a Bayesian framework. The algorithm is parameter free and does not make use of any heuristic assumptions. The reasoning is based on the complete...... conditional probabilities of the different cues which are estimated from a training set. The importance of the individual visual cues can be computed using a standard measure and the cues can then be combined in an optimal way. In addition we show that when doing 3D reasoning, the uncertainties connected...

  13. Power-optimal encoding for low-power address bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a novel bus encoding method to reduce the switching activity on address buses and hence reduce power dissipation. Dynamic-sorting encoding (DSE) method reduces the power dissipation of address bus based on the dynamic reordering of the modified offset address bus lines. This method reorders the ten least significant bits of offset address according to the range of offset address, and the optimal sorting pattern is transmitted through the high bits of address bus without the need for redundant bus lines. The experimental results using an instruction set simulator and SPEC2000 benchmarks show that DSE method can reduce signal transitions on the address bus by 88.2%, and the actual overhead of the encoder circuit is estimated after encoder is designed and synthesized in 0.18-μm CMOS technology. The results show that DSE method outperforms the low-power encoding schemes presented in the past.

  14. Osmotic regulation of transcription in Lactococcus lactis: ionic strength-dependent binding of the BusR repressor to the busA promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Yves; Bouvier, Jean; Gutierrez, Claude

    2007-07-24

    The busA locus of Lactococcus lactis encodes a glycine betaine uptake system. At low osmolarity, the transcription of busA is repressed by the BusR protein, which is responsible for the osmotic inducibility of the busA promoter (busAp). In this work, we investigated the mechanism of the osmo-dependent repression by BusR. We found that BusR binding to the busA promoter is dependent on the ionic strength in vitro. Using a BusR derivative carrying a phosphorylation site and the Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme, we showed that these proteins are able to form a stable ternary complex by both binding to the same busAp fragment. The association/dissociation of BusR to the RNA polymerase-busAp complex is strictly correlated to the surrounding ionic strength. Together, these results suggest that during growth at low osmolarity BusR represses transcription from busAp at a step further the recruitment of the RNA polymerase. At high osmolarity, an elevated cytoplasmic ionic strength would dissociate BusR from busAp, resulting in the osmotic induction of the busA operon.

  15. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  16. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  17. A 3D bus interconnect for network line cards

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, J; Kocak, T

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a 3D bus architecture as a processor-memory interconnection system to increase the throughput of the memory system currently used on line cards. The 3D bus architecture allows multiple processing elements on a line card to access a shared memory. The main advantage of the proposed architecture is to increase the network processor off-chip memory bandwidth while diminishing the latency otherwise caused by the single bus competition.

  18. PNEUMATIC - LOGIC SYNTHESIS OF BUS DOOR FROM ASPECT OF AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Stefanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a logic synthesis procedure pneumatic control of the door of the bus for suburban traffic. Minimization of pneumatic control is determined graphically by Weitz – Carnot method. It also shows all pneumatic components belonging to installations used for opening and closing the door of the bus. Finally it is shown the basic maintenance of pneumatic system of the bus door.

  19. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking.

  20. Bus coordination holding control for transit hubs under APTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TENG Jing; ZHAO Ming

    2009-01-01

    To increase the passenger transferring efficiency, the bus coordination holding control for transit hubs,hich is as an important dynamic dispatching method for improving the service level of transit hubs, was studied in the framework of bus coordination dispatching mode. Firstly, the bus coordination holding control flow was studied based on Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS) environment. Then a control model was presented to optimize the bus vehicle holding time, and a genetic algorithm was designed as the solving method. In the end, an example was given to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategy and the algorithm.

  1. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  2. Reference Model of Desired Yaw Angle for Automated Lane Changing Behavior of Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianbo Ren; Guanzhe Zhang; Hangzhe Wu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it studies the problem of trajectory planning and tracking for lane changing behavior of vehicle in automatic highway systems. Based on the model of yaw angle acceleration with positive and negative trapezoid constraint, by analyzing the variation laws of yaw motion of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, the reference model of desired yaw angle and yaw rate for lane changing is generated. According to the yaw angle model, the vertical and horizontal coordinates of trajectory for vehicle lane change are calculated. Assuming that the road curvature is a constant, the difference and associations between two scenarios are analyzed, the lane changing maneuvers occurred on curve road and straight road, respectively. On this basis, it deduces the calculation method of desired yaw angle for lane changing on circular road. Simulation result shows that, it is different from traditional lateral acceleration planning method with the trapezoid constraint, by applying the trapezoidal yaw acceleration reference model proposed in this paper, the resulting expected yaw angular acceleration is continuous, and the step tracking for steering angle is not needed to implement. Due to the desired yaw model is direct designed based on the variation laws of raw movement of vehicle during a lane changing maneuver, rather than indirectly calculated from the trajectory model for lane changing, the calculation steps are simplified.

  3. Lost and Found: The Incredible Life and Times of (Miss) Layle Lane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Jack

    2001-01-01

    Presents the story of Layle Lane, the granddaughter of free blacks, who was a high school teacher, civil rights pioneer, teacher unionist, socialist activist, political candidate, lifelong pacifist, adventurer, and humanitarian. Lane was also a fierce believer that education was the first step toward political, social, and economic power and…

  4. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Goldfeder

    Full Text Available The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  5. A bioinformatics approach for determining sample identity from different lanes of high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfeder, Rachel L; Parker, Stephen C J; Ajay, Subramanian S; Ozel Abaan, Hatice; Margulies, Elliott H

    2011-01-01

    The ability to generate whole genome data is rapidly becoming commoditized. For example, a mammalian sized genome (∼3Gb) can now be sequenced using approximately ten lanes on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Since lanes from different runs are often combined, verifying that each lane in a genome's build is from the same sample is an important quality control. We sought to address this issue in a post hoc bioinformatic manner, instead of using upstream sample or "barcode" modifications. We rely on the inherent small differences between any two individuals to show that genotype concordance rates can be effectively used to test if any two lanes of HiSeq 2000 data are from the same sample. As proof of principle, we use recent data from three different human samples generated on this platform. We show that the distributions of concordance rates are non-overlapping when comparing lanes from the same sample versus lanes from different samples. Our method proves to be robust even when different numbers of reads are analyzed. Finally, we provide a straightforward method for determining the gender of any given sample. Our results suggest that examining the concordance of detected genotypes from lanes purported to be from the same sample is a relatively simple approach for confirming that combined lanes of data are of the same identity and quality.

  6. Assisted overtaking: an assessment of overtaking on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    At the start of the 21st century overtaking on two-lane rural roads is a major traffic safety problem. However, this dissertation research demonstrates that most drivers are perfectly able to safely perform these manoeuvres. Their time spent in the left lane is about eight seconds. Preparing subtask

  7. Extracting potential bus lines of Customized City Bus Service based on public transport big data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yibin; Chen, Ge; Han, Yong; Zheng, Huangcheng

    2016-11-01

    Customized City Bus Service (CCBS) can reduce the traffic congestion and environmental pollution that caused by the increasing in private cars, effectively. This study aims to extract the potential bus lines and each line's passenger density of CCBS by mining the public transport big data. The datasets used in this study are mainly Smart Card Data (SCD) and bus GPS data of Qingdao, China, from October 11th and November 7th 2015. Firstly, we compute the temporal-origin-destination (TOD) of passengers by mining SCD and bus GPS data. Compared with the traditional OD, TOD not only has the spatial location, but also contains the trip's boarding time. Secondly, based on the traditional DBSCAN algorithm, we put forwards an algorithm, named TOD-DBSCAN, combined with the spatial-temporal features of TOD.TOD-DBSCAN is used to cluster the TOD trajectories in peak hours of all working days. Then, we define two variables P and N to describe the possibility and passenger destiny of a potential CCBS line. P is the probability of the CCBS line. And N represents the potential passenger destiny of the line. Lastly, we visualize the potential CCBS lines extracted by our procedure on the map and analyse relationship between potential CCBS lines and the urban spatial structure.

  8. Lane Formation Dynamics of Oppositely Self-Driven Binary Particles: Effects of Density and Finite System Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kosuke; Kim, Kang

    2017-04-01

    We examined the lane formation dynamics of oppositely self-driven binary particles by molecular dynamics simulations of a two-dimensional system. Our study comprehensively revealed the effects of the density and system size on the lane formation. The phase diagram distinguishing the no-lane and lane states was systematically determined for various combinations of the anisotropic friction coefficient and the desired velocity. A peculiar clustered structure was observed when the lane was destroyed by considerably increasing the desired velocity. A strong system size effect was demonstrated by the relationship between the temporal and spatial scales of the lane structure. This system size effect can be attributed to an analogy with the driven lattice gas. The transport efficiency was characterized from the scaling relation in terms of the degree of lane formation and the interface thickness between different lanes.

  9. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  10. Simulation Model of Bus Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Fergyanto E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is modern solution for mass transportation system. The system, in comparison to the rail-based transportation system, is significantly cheaper and requires shorter development time, but lower performance. The BRT system performance strongly depends on variables related to station design and infrastructure. A numerical model offers an effective and efficient means to evaluate the system performance. This article offers a detailed numerical model on the basis of the discrete-event approach and demonstrates its application.

  11. Oracle Service Bus 11g Development Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Schmutz, Guido; van Zoggel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This cookbook is full of immediately useable recipes showing you how to develop service and message-oriented (integration) applications on the Oracle Service Bus. In addition to its cookbook style, which ensures the solutions are presented in a clear step-by-step manner, the explanations go into great detail, which makes it good learning material for everyone who has experience in OSB and wants to improve. Most of the recipes are designed in such a way that each recipe is presented as a separate, standalone entity and reading of prior recipes is not required. The finished solution of each reci

  12. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  13. It's Time to Move for School Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 1st China School Buses Development Seminar &.International School Buses Expo will be held from February 15 to 18, 2012 in the National Convention Center in Beijing, according to the National Office of Education on the Traffic Safety of Primary and Secondary School Students.It aims to publicize the Chinese standards for school bus safety, improve the development, production and operation of school buses in China and the rest of the world, promote the application new technologies on school buses, and call on people to care about and support the development of school buses.

  14. Using the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft onboard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Chris; Bordes, Yves

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus as the principal onboard data handling bus for future spacecraft applications. The paper takes a pragmatic approach by: Identifying the characteristics of the onboard bus traffic and its characteristics; Looking at future trends in onboard bus traffic; Describing the characteristics of the Mil. Std 1553B data bus; Proposing techniques that can be used on the Mil. Std 1553B data bus in future spacecraft application.

  15. A Study of Lane Differentiation Using An Array of Detectors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKigney E. A. (Edward A.); Gholkar, R. V. (Rohun V.); Vega, D. A. (Daniel A.)

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss a method for locating a radioactive source in the context of determining which lane a source is in on a roadway. This method is appropriate for use over a large range of source velocities, and could provide an advance alarm prior to a vehicle passing a portal monitor. This is a novel method which uses data from the entire array simultaneously to locate the source, rather than relying on only one or two sensors. A description of the underlying method will be given, along with results from five and six detector arrays. The five detector array was used mainly for static tests. The six detector array was used for dynamic tests, including slow movement of a source in a vehicle.

  16. Lane of parallel through carry in ternary optical adder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi; HE Huacan; AI Lirong

    2005-01-01

    At the present 50 to 100 microseconds are necessary for a liquid crystal to change its state from opacity to clarity; 1.14× 10-5 microseconds are however proved to be enough for light to pass through a clarity liquid crystal device. Rooted from this great difference in time, an optical adder was constructed with parallel through carry lanes (PTCL) composed of liquid crystals. Because all carries in PTCL process in parallel, the carry delay in the ternary optical computer's adder is avoided. Eliminating the carry delay in adder of ternary optical computer by physical means, the PTCL is also applicable for other types of optical adders. Moreover a light diagram of the adder and one PTCL structure are provided.

  17. Review of bus drivers' occupational stress and stress prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompier, M.A.J.; Di Martino, V.

    1995-01-01

    Although heterogeneous in methodology and content, 32 studies from 13 countries on bus drivers' work and health are similar in their conclusions. Bus-driving–characterized by high demands, low control and low support – can be regarded as a classic example of high-strain occupation, with high risks o

  18. Network Analysis of Urban Traffic with Big Bus Data

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Urban traffic analysis is crucial for traffic forecasting systems, urban planning and, more recently, various mobile and network applications. In this paper, we analyse urban traffic with network and statistical methods. Our analysis is based on one big bus dataset containing 45 million bus arrival samples in Helsinki. We mainly address following questions: 1. How can we identify the areas that cause most of the traffic in the city? 2. Why there is a urban traffic? Is bus traffic a key cause of the urban traffic? 3. How can we improve the urban traffic systems? To answer these questions, first, the betweenness is used to identify the most import areas that cause most traffics. Second, we find that bus traffic is not an important cause of urban traffic using statistical methods. We differentiate the urban traffic and the bus traffic in a city. We use bus delay as an identification of the urban traffic, and the number of bus as an identification of the bus traffic. Third, we give our solutions on how to improve...

  19. 32 CFR 935.138 - Motor bus operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor bus operation. 935.138 Section 935.138 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE TERRITORIAL AND INSULAR REGULATIONS WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.138 Motor bus operation. Each person operating a...

  20. Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David

    2003-01-01

    An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender

  1. A High Efficiency DC Bus Regulator / RPC for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-02-01

    DC bus voltage regulation may be required in future high powered spacecraft due to the length of the busses or because they are not generated at precise voltage levels. In these cases the regulation range is often only a few percent increase or decrease, but conventional DC voltage regulators switch all the power passing through them, and this level of power switched determines the size and losses in the regulator. A recently developed concept uses a low power DC-DC converter in series with the bus to raise or lower the bus voltage over a small range. This partial power processing technique combines the small size and power losses of the low power converter with the ability to regulate, (over a small range) a high power bus. The Series Connected Buck Boost Regulator (SCBBR) described herein provides bus regulation with an efficiency of 98%. The circuit also provides bus switching and overcurrent limiting functions of a Remote Power Controller (RPC). This paper describes the circuit design and performance of a breadboard SCBBR configured as a bus voltage regulator providing +/- 40% voltage regulation range, bus switching, and overload limiting.

  2. A decentralized software bus based on IP multicas ting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd

    1995-01-01

    We describe decentralized reconfigurable implementation of a conference management system based on the low-level Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting protocol. IP multicasting allows low-cost, world-wide, two-way transmission of data between large numbers of conferencing participants through the Multicasting Backbone (MBone). Each conference is structured as a software bus -- a messaging system that provides a run-time interconnection model that acts as a separate agent (i.e., the bus) for routing, queuing, and delivering messages between distributed programs. Unlike the client-server interconnection model, the software bus model provides a level of indirection that enhances the flexibility and reconfigurability of a distributed system. Current software bus implementations like POLYLITH, however, rely on a centralized bus process and point-to-point protocols (i.e., TCP/IP) to route, queue, and deliver messages. We implement a software bus called the MULTIBUS that relies on a separate process only for routing and uses a reliable IP multicasting protocol for delivery of messages. The use of multicasting means that interconnections are independent of IP machine addresses. This approach allows reconfiguration of bus participants during system execution without notifying other participants of new IP addresses. The use of IP multicasting also permits an economy of scale in the number of participants. We describe the MULITIBUS protocol elements and show how our implementation performs better than centralized bus implementations.

  3. Djungle power. A more remote AC bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, Heinz W. [Technosol, Jork (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The Dzanga-Sangha Reserve in the Central African Republic is probably one of the world's most remote protected rainforest areas, much to the benefit of the rare species of lowland gorilla, forest elephant and local pygmy population Ba'Aka. The park is co-managed by the ''WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature'' with sponsoring from the German Regenwald-Stiftung. In 2008 wwf decided to switch from the old, failing generator supply to a solar hybrid mini-grid, along with stringent measures of energy conservation and management. After a careful energy audit Technosol designed an AC-bus system with a 22 kWp PV generator which should overcome the dependency on the old generators and their fuel demands. For 15 buildings, an entirely new distribution network was installed, state of the art energy saving devices introduced and an energy metering system deviced. The installation is operating since August 2009. In such remote locations, the reliability of the AC-bus over other generator-based solutions will be demonstrated and with the support of international organisations like the wwf the practical application of solar hybrid supply becomes a landmark of sustainable energy concepts. (orig.)

  4. Mercer County off-peak fare-free bus demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dommasch, I.N.; Hollinger, R.L.

    1979-07-01

    A system-wide, off-peak fare-free bus demonstration project is being conducted in Mercer County, New Jersey to study effects of fare-free bus operation. Data collected for 2 1/2 months of operation are presented. Since implementation of the fare-free service, Mercer Metro off-peak ridership has increased approximately 45 to 50%. This equates to an overall system-wide ridership increase of about 10 to 15%. One effect of the fare-free operation has been to increase bus run times, caused in part by accompanying increases in the occurrence and length of bus delays in the downtown area. The percentage of filled bus seats has changed from about 10% before the demonstration, to over 50% after the off-peak fares were eliminated.

  5. An Overview of Staged-bus Operation in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hesam Hafezi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, demand for passenger travel is higher, due to economic growth. Government policy encourages people to use public transportation instead of their private carsto reduce of traffic congestion and air pollution. In the city areas, bus networks are the major part of the public transportation system because they are easily accessible and cheaper compared to other types of public transportation. In this study revelation of details of bus operation included different agents is studied. Bus operations, during provision of their service, have interaction with three main agents: bus agent, passenger agent and traffic agent. Study of the influence of each agent in bus operation is presented in this study, using the macroscopic way.

  6. Research on the Coordinated Design of Bus and Taxi Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rises in the number of transit buses, bus routes, and overall traffic volume in China’s cities, coupled with interference from other transport modes, such as taxis loading and unloading passengers nearby, have led to increasing traffic delays at bus stops, which is considered one of the factors degrading service levels and traffic operations on urban roadways. This paper studies traffic characteristics at bus stops, investigates variations in delay from different types or designs of bus stops, and analyzes the impact of it on traffic capacity, the purpose of which is to propose a solution to predicting the feasibility of an integrated design of bus stops and taxi stands with the help of mathematical models and based on the objectives of optimal traffic operations and passenger transfer.

  7. Method and systems for a radiation tolerant bus interface circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinstler, Gary A. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A bus management tool that allows communication to be maintained between a group of nodes operatively connected on two busses in the presence of radiation by transmitting periodically a first message from one to another of the nodes on one of the busses, determining whether the first message was received by the other of the nodes on the first bus, and when it is determined that the first message was not received by the other of the nodes, transmitting a recovery command to the other of the nodes on a second of the of busses. Methods, systems, and articles of manufacture consistent with the present invention also provide for a bus recovery tool on the other node that re-initializes a bus interface circuit operatively connecting the other node to the first bus in response to the recovery command.

  8. MATHEMATIC MODEL FOR SITY BUS SCHEDULING IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahid Sahid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Various methods can be used to construct a mathematical model of the transportation problems. One model that can be used is a linear model. Several studies have used a linear model to get the schedule and the optimal route of bus trips. This research will build a mathematical model of a city bus transportation problems in DIY using linear models. Linear model is built to get the condition density city bus passengers on shifts respectively that morning, noon, and evening. After finding a suitable model, applied to the bus passengers data in Yogyakarta. From these results it can be seen the optimum conditions in terms of density, because the condition of the city bus at this time that quiet enthusiasts. Besides, the optimum density at each shift in the morning is 11 passengers, 10 passengers during the day, and evening 9 passengers.   Keywords: transportation problems, the linear model, the optimal route, density

  9. Structured trajectory planning of collision-free lane change using the vehicle-driver integration data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JiangFeng; ZHANG Qian; ZHANG ZhiQ; YAN XueDong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,the structured trajectory planning of lane change in collision-free road environment is studied and validated using the vehicle-driver integration data,and a new trajectory planning model for lane change is proposed based on linear offset and sine function to balance driver comfort and vehicle dynamics.The trajectory curvature of the proposed model is continuous without mutation,and the zero-based curvature at the starting and end points during lane change assures the motion direction of end points in parallel with the lane line.The field experiment are designed to collect the vehicle-driver integration data,such as steering angle,brake pedal angel and accelerator pedal angel.The correction Correlation analysis of lane-changing maneuver and influencing variables is conducted to obtain the significant variables that can be used to calibrate and test the proposed model.The results demonstrate that vehicle velocity and Y-axis acceleration have significant effects on the lane-changing maneuver,so that the model recalibrated by the samples of different velocity ranges and Y-axis accelerations has better fitted performance compared with the model calibrated by the sample trajectory.In addition,the proposed model presents a decreasing tendency of the lane change trajectory fitted MAE with the increase of time span of calibrating samples at the starting stage.

  10. Comprehensive and Practical Vision System for Self-Driving Vehicle Lane-Level Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinxin; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-05-01

    Vehicle lane-level localization is a fundamental technology in autonomous driving. To achieve accurate and consistent performance, a common approach is to use the LIDAR technology. However, it is expensive and computational demanding, and thus not a practical solution in many situations. This paper proposes a stereovision system, which is of low cost, yet also able to achieve high accuracy and consistency. It integrates a new lane line detection algorithm with other lane marking detectors to effectively identify the correct lane line markings. It also fits multiple road models to improve accuracy. An effective stereo 3D reconstruction method is proposed to estimate vehicle localization. The estimation consistency is further guaranteed by a new particle filter framework, which takes vehicle dynamics into account. Experiment results based on image sequences taken under different visual conditions showed that the proposed system can identify the lane line markings with 98.6% accuracy. The maximum estimation error of the vehicle distance to lane lines is 16 cm in daytime and 26 cm at night, and the maximum estimation error of its moving direction with respect to the road tangent is 0.06 rad in daytime and 0.12 rad at night. Due to its high accuracy and consistency, the proposed system can be implemented in autonomous driving vehicles as a practical solution to vehicle lane-level localization.

  11. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  12. The effect of interruption probability in lattice model of two-lane traffic flow with passing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guanghan

    2016-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking into account the interruption probability with passing for two-lane freeway. The effect of interruption probability with passing is investigated about the linear stability condition and the mKdV equation through linear stability analysis and nonlinear analysis, respectively. Furthermore, numerical simulation is carried out to study traffic phenomena resulted from the interruption probability with passing in two-lane system. The results show that the interruption probability with passing can improve the stability of traffic flow for low reaction coefficient while the interruption probability with passing can destroy the stability of traffic flow for high reaction coefficient on two-lane highway.

  13. The wheels on the bus go "buy buy buy": school bus advertising laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-09-01

    School buses, a practical necessity for millions of children, are at the center of new efforts to raise revenue. School bus advertising laws bring public health and commercialization concerns to the school setting. In doing so, they potentially expose school districts to First Amendment lawsuits. I examined various school bus advertising bills and laws. I reviewed First Amendment "forum analysis" as applied in the transit and school settings to clarify how this legal test may affect school districts subject to such laws. I have made recommendations for school districts to enact appropriate policies to ensure that such advertising does not undermine public health and to enable the districts to maintain control over their property.

  14. Strategic nonviolent conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonviolent action emerges under the conditions of recognized an unacceptable political oppression and injustice. The people, who find the situation unacceptable, develop three ways of behavior. First, they exit the situation. Second, they engage in everyday forms of resistance. Third, they participate in political action which has two aspects: institutional and non-institutional. Institutional political action comprises of the regular political activities such as voting, taking part in legislative process, and joining political parties. Non-institutional political action, on the contrary, arises as either violent action or nonviolent action. This paper examines the emergence, progress, and spread of the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of the leading examples of the nonviolent struggles in the last century.

  15. Strategic nonviolent conflict: The Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdaverdi Balcı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nonviolent action emerges under the conditions of recognized an unacceptable political oppression and injustice. The people, who find the situation unacceptable, develop three ways of behavior. First, they exit the situation. Second, they engage in everyday forms of resistance. Third, they participate in political action which has two aspects: institutional and non-institutional. Institutional political action comprises of the regular political activities such as voting, taking part in legislative process, and joining political parties. Non-institutional political action, on the contrary, arises as either violent action or nonviolent action. This paper examines the emergence, progress, and spread of the Montgomery Bus Boycott as one of the leading examples of the nonviolent struggles in the last century

  16. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  17. Task Analysis Assessment on Intrastate Bus Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen Bin, Teo; Azlis-Sani, Jalil; Nur Annuar Mohd Yunos, Muhammad; Ismail, S. M. Sabri S. M.; Tajedi, Noor Aqilah Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Public transportation acts as social mobility and caters the daily needs of the society for passengers to travel from one place to another. This is true for a country like Malaysia where international trade has been growing significantly over the past few decades. Task analysis assessment was conducted with the consideration of cognitive ergonomic view towards problem related to human factors. Conducting research regarding the task analysis on bus traffic controllers had allowed a better understanding regarding the nature of work and the overall monitoring activities of the bus services. This paper served to study the task analysis assessment on intrastate bus traffic controllers and the objectives of this study include to conduct task analysis assessment on the bus traffic controllers. Task analysis assessment for the bus traffic controllers was developed via Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA). There are a total of five subsidiary tasks on level one and only two were able to be further broken down in level two. Development of HTA allowed a better understanding regarding the work and this could further ease the evaluation of the tasks conducted by the bus traffic controllers. Thus, human error could be reduced for the safety of all passengers and increase the overall efficiency of the system. Besides, it could assist in improving the operation of the bus traffic controllers by modelling or synthesizing the existing tasks if necessary.

  18. Integrated optics bus access module for intramachine communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karioja, Pentti; Tammela, Simo K. T.; Hannula, Tapio

    1991-12-01

    The feasibility of a passive bidirectional fiber optic bus and the packaging considerations of a bus access module have been studied. The bus uses 110/125 micrometers HCS fiber and passive integrated optic couplers for bus access. The access couplers are asymmetric and were fabricated using a Ag-Na ion exchange process. The asymmetry of the coupler was 5 dB, the launch loss to the bus was 6 dB and the tap-off loss to the node was 11 dB. With the integrated optics coupler it is possible to connect 6 nodes to the bidirectional bus. It is also possible to realize a simple, easy-to-use, and reliable bus access module for intramachine communication. The integrated optics coupler, a LED chip, and a PIN-diode chip and transceiver electronics are packaged in an electrical connector with a two-fiber optical cable pigtail. Active and passive components are butt coupled to the coupler. The 0.5 dB alignment tolerances for the fiber pigtails, the LED, and the PIN-diode chips are +/- 5 micrometers .

  19. Evaluating the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane and assessing risk to bicyclists in Charlotte, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Thakur, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this manuscript are (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of on-street bicycle lane in reducing crashes involving bicyclists on urban roads, (2) to quantify and compare risk to bicyclists on road segments with and without on-street bicycle lane, (3) to evaluate the effect of on-street bicycle lane on other road network users (all crashes), and, (4) to assess the role of on-network characteristics (speed limit, the number of lanes, the width of on-street bicycle lane, the width of the right-most travel lane, and, the numbers of driveways, unsignalized approaches and signalized intersections per unit distance) on risk to bicyclists. Data for thirty-six segments with on-street bicycle lane and twenty-six segments without on-street bicycle lane in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina were extracted to compute and compare measures such as the number of bicycle crashes per center-lane mile, the number of bicycle crashes per annual million vehicle miles traveled (MVMT), the number of all crashes per center-lane mile, and the number of all crashes per MVMT. The results obtained from analysis indicate that bicyclists are three to four times at higher risk (based on traffic conditions) on segments without on-street bicycle lane than when compared to segments with on-street bicycle lane. An analysis conducted considering all crashes showed that on-street bicycle lanes do not have a statistically significant negative effect on overall safety. An increase in annual MVMT (exposure) and the number of signalized intersections per mile increases the number of bicycle crashes, while an increase in on-street bicycle lane width or right-most travel lane width (if on-street bicycle lane cannot be provided) decreases the number of bicycle crashes. Installing wider on-street bicycle lanes, limiting driveways to less than 50 per mile and unsignalized approaches to less than 10 per mile, increasing spacing between signalized intersections, and, facilitating wider right

  20. Using microcomputers for lighting appliance control using a DALI bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sysala Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article concerns the DALI bus theoretical and practical aspects. The DALI bus is a modern technology developed especially for illumination systems control. Authors are outlining communication basic principles related to the physical layer and going up to more complex data transactions among particular devices. The article main topic is aimed at two device models development based on microcontroller and exploiting that technology. The first of those two devices is a DALI slave unit enabling the light source or multi switch with light indication components control via DALI bus. The second device measures the ambient illumination intensity and it also detects errors in the load.

  1. Swisstrolley 3 - An articulated trolley bus; SWISSTROLLEY 3. Gelenktrolleybus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, H.-J.

    2006-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the Swisstrolley 3 low-floor, articulated trolley bus developed in Switzerland by the Hess AG company. Various features of the variants of the trolley bus, including single vehicle, single and double-articulated buses and bus trailers, are discussed. The reductions achieved in energy consumption, weight and noise are discussed. Typical values for power consumption are presented in graphical form. Economic viability and passenger-friendliness are examined, as are possibilities for further improvement.

  2. Rethinking passive transport: bus fare exemptions and young people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen; Goodman, Anna; Green, Judith

    2012-05-01

    Much recent public health research has emphasised the health impacts for young people of 'active travel' modes, typically defined as walking and cycling. Less research has focused on public transport modes. Drawing on qualitative data, we examine the links between bus travel and wellbeing in London, where young people currently have free bus travel. Our findings indicate that bus travel can be both a physically and socially active experience for young people. We suggest a more nuanced understanding of 'active travel' is now needed, alongside greater attention to urban public transport networks as key sites that impact on important determinants of wellbeing such as independent mobility and social inclusion.

  3. Development in Conducting Bus of RE-Al Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德富; 胡捷; 章萍芝; 石瑛; 李彦利

    2001-01-01

    Four kinds of deformed aluminum alloys were tested. One kind of RE-A1-Mg-Si alloy, which possessed high conductivity and strength, was the first priority by contrast test, The large specification bus of conducting aluminum all oys was made by thermomechanical process during the industrial experiment. The properties of the bus are as follows:the tensile strength σb is 238 MPa, the conductivity (v.s. IACS) is 54.3%, and the current-carrying capacity is beyond 3.1kA during working process. This kind of RE-Al alloy bus has been applied to several electrical transmitting and transforming work.

  4. Designing and modelling Havana’s future bus rapid transit

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Ortegon-Sanchez, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    A single bus route in Havana’s bus system is modelled from the current position to a modernised bus rapid transit (BRT). The system is based on an expert-led visioning process and Cuba’s official planning documents, which define the high-level design criteria and their objectives. Building on the experiences of BRT systems that operate in other Latin American cities, a conceptual design for Havana’s BRT system is defined in terms of the key institutional, technical and financial frameworks, a...

  5. Statistical Analysis for the Driving Cycle of Beijing's Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震坡; 孙逢春; 王军; 孙立清

    2004-01-01

    According to the test data of the driving model for Beijing's bus routes, 9 parameters and the actual values of Beijing bus are confirmed to evaluate the driving cycle, 2 ways of establishing driving cycle model are analyzed, the formula of calculating driving cycle is acquired, and the calculating driving cycle model and the statistical driving cycle model for the buses in Beijing urban areas are set up. This study provides scientific basis for selecting the bus type and confirming the design parameters and the running method in Beijing.

  6. A new MV bus transfer scheme for nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Choong-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast bus transfer method is the most popular and residual voltage transfer method that is used as a backup in medium voltage buses in general. The use of the advanced technology like open circuit voltage prediction and digital signal processing algorithms can improve the reliability of fast transfer scheme. However, according to the survey results of the recent operation records in nuclear power plants, there were many instances where the fast transfer scheme has failed. To assure bus transfer in any conditions and circumstances, uninterruptible bus transfer scheme utilizing the state of the art medium voltage UPS is discussed and elaborated.

  7. Lane Changing Trajectory Planning and Tracking Controller Design for Intelligent Vehicle Running on Curved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lie Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the active safety and realize the autonomy of intelligent vehicle on highway curved road, a lane changing trajectory is planned and tracked for lane changing maneuver on curved road. The kinematics model of the intelligent vehicle with nonholonomic constraint feature and the tracking error model are established firstly. The longitudinal and lateral coupling and the difference of curvature radius between the outside and inside lane are taken into account, which is helpful to enhance the authenticity of desired lane changing trajectory on curved road. Then the trajectory tracking controller of closed-loop control structure is derived using integral backstepping method to construct a new virtual variable. The Lyapunov theory is applied to analyze the stability of the proposed tracking controller. Simulation results demonstrate that this controller can guarantee the convergences of both the relative position tracking errors and the position tracking synchronization.

  8. Shipping Fairways, Lanes, and Zones for US waters as of June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various shipping zones delineate activities and regulations for marine vessel traffic. Traffic lanes define specific traffic flow, while traffic separation zones...

  9. Effects of turning and through lane sharing on traffic performance at intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2016-02-01

    Turning vehicles strongly influence traffic flows at intersections. Effective regulation of turning vehicles is important to achieve better traffic performance. This paper studies the impact of lane sharing and turning signals on traffic performance at intersections by using cellular automata. Both right-turn and left-turn lane sharing are studied. Interactions between vehicles and pedestrians are considered. The transportation efficiency, road safety and energy economy are the traffic performance metrics. Extensive simulations are carried out to study the traffic performance indices. It is observed that shared turning lanes and permissive left-turn signal improve the transportation efficiency and reduce the fuel consumption in most cases, but the safety is usually sacrificed. It is not always beneficial for the through vehicles when they are allowed to be in the turning lanes.

  10. Bus drivers' mental conditions and their relation to bus passengers' accidents with a focus on the psychological stress concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Sugiura, Miyuki; Tanaka, Sumio; Mizuno, Yuki; Yanagiya, Toshio; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the psychological factors of bus drivers' instability that were related to bus passengers' accidents according to the hypothesis model based on the stress concept of Lazarus and Folkman (1984). This research was carried out in 2006. Participants of the study were 39 Japanese male bus drivers. Their average age was 40.2 (SD: 11.1). The average duration of employment was 4.5 (SD:6.1) years. A questionnaire was used that was composed of items concerning the frequency of bus passengers' accidents, performance of safe driving, job stressors, stress reaction and recognition from others. Based on the results, a model assuming that stress reaction caused by job stressors disturbed the bus driver's safe driving and was associated with passengers' accidents in the bus was verified to some degree. Especially, melancholy and tired feeling toward passengers showed a strong relation to the passengers' accidents in the bus. This suggested much room for intervention. Moreover, the recognition from others of their job was confirmed to act as a control factor of the stress reaction.

  11. Comparison of color image segmentations for lane following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Frederic; Aubert, Didier

    1993-05-01

    For ten years, unstructured road following has been the subject of many studies. Road following must support the automatic navigation, at reasonable speed, of mobile robots on irregular paths and roads, with unhomogeneous surfaces and under variable lighting conditions. Civil and military applications of this technology include transportation, logistics, security and engineering. The definition of our lane following system requires an evaluation of the existing technologies. Although the various operational systems converge on a color perception and a region segmentation optimizing discrimination and stability respectively, the treatments and performances vary. In this paper, the robustness of four operational systems and two connected techniques are compared according to common evaluation criteria. We identify typical situations which constitute a basis for the realization of an image database. We describe the process of experimentation conceived for the comparative analysis of performances. The analytical results are useful in order to infer a few optimal combinations of techniques driven by the situations, and to define the present limits of the color perception's validity.

  12. Improving the Lane Reference Detection for Autonomous Road Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous road vehicles are increasingly becoming more important and there are several techniques and sensors that are being applied for vehicle control. This paper presents an alternative system for maintaining the position of autonomous vehicles without adding additional elements to the standard sensor architecture, by using a 3D laser scanner for continuously detecting a reference element in situations in which the GNSS receiver fails or provides accuracy below the required level. Considering that the guidance variables are more accurately estimated when dealing with reference points in front of and behind the vehicle, an algorithm based on vehicle dynamics mathematical model is proposed to extend the detected points in cases where the sensor is placed at the front of the vehicle. The algorithm has been tested when driving along a lane delimited by New Jersey barriers at both sides and the results show a correct behaviour. The system is capable of estimating the reference element behind the vehicle with sufficient accuracy when the laser scanner is placed at the front of it, so the robustness of the control input variables (lateral and angular errors estimation is improved making it unnecessary to place the sensor on the vehicle roof or to introduce additional sensors.

  13. Acquisition of the field measurement data relating to lane change actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Kukida, Shinji; Ikegaya, Naoki; Hagishima, Aya

    2015-11-01

    As a data set for validation of microscopic simulation models, we obtained the fundamental diagram (flux versus density relation), and the relations of velocity versus density, lane usage ratio versus density and lane-changing frequency versus density derived from a single field measurement campaign held at a Japanese urban expressway. The results were drawn from image analysis of video camera data obtained at the site.

  14. Controlling traffic jams on a two-lane road using delayed-feedback signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHENG; Shi-quan ZHONG; Shou-feng MA

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the stability analysis of two-lane traffic flow with lateral friction,which may be caused by irregular driving behavior or poorly visible road markings,and also attempts to reveal the formation mechanism of traffic jams.Firstly,a two-lane optimal velocity (OV) model without control signals is proposed and its stability condition is obtained from the viewpoint of control theory.Then delayed-feedback control signals composed of distance headway information from both lanes are added to each vehicle and a vehicular control system is designed to suppress the traffic jams.Lane change behaviors are also incorporated into the two-lane OV model and the corresponding information about distance headway and feedback signals is revised.Finally,the results of numerical experiments are shown to verify that when the stability condition is not met,the position disturbances and resulting lane change behaviors do indeed deteriorate traffic performance and cause serious traffic jams.However,once the proper delayed-feedback control signals are implemented,the traffic jams can be suppressed efficiently.

  15. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuri...

  16. Intelligent Energy Management in a Two Power-Bus Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Dirty Bus Branch 28V Battery Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator Load Clean Bus Branch 28V Battery Bus Bus 19 DISTRIBUTION...Motor Field Controlled DC generator DC Power Supply Electronic Load DC Power Supply (125V, 3A) Permanent Magnetic DC Motor Field Controlled DC generator...Battery Lithium Battery Load Electronic Load Clean Bus Branch Original System Demo System Hydraulic System Permanent DC Motor Alternator Field

  17. Optimization Model for Headway of a Suburban Bus Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to relatively low passenger demand, headways of suburban bus route are usually longer than those of urban bus route. Actually it is also difficult to balance the benefits between passengers and operators, subject to the service standards from the government. Hence the headway of a suburban bus route is usually determined on the empirical experience of transport planners. To cope with this problem, this paper proposes an optimization model for designing the headways of suburban bus routes by minimizing the operating and user costs. The user costs take into account both the waiting time cost and the crowding cost. The feasibility and validity of the proposed model are shown by applying it to the Route 206 in Jiangning district, Nanjing city of China. Weightages of passengers’ cost and operating cost are further discussed, considering different passenger flows. It is found that the headway and objective function are affected by the weightages largely.

  18. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  19. Study on the Bus Real-time Dispatching Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YingZou; JianguoLi; JianhuaHuang; ZhenminTang

    2004-01-01

    The real-time dispatching model on bus system is studied in this article. Realtime dispatching can resume the planned schedule quickly, and then to ensure the reliability of the public transport service and to well raise the service quality.

  20. Multi-Gigabit Rate Radiation Hard Bus Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High speed robust very low power radiation hardened bus interconnects are required to accelerate on-board computations, further improve reconfigurability and upgrade...

  1. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  2. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  3. Examining the Optimal Fuel Type for Urban Bus Operations

    OpenAIRE

    CAULFIELD, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Washington D.C. Public service fleets offer an attractive option for introducing renewable fuels and alternative technologies on a large scale, which allow for the reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust air pollutants. This paper ex amines the use of biomethane (bio-CNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) for part of the bus fleet in Dublin. Dublin is typical of many international urban centres with a large bus fleet; therefore the results...

  4. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  5. Bus Routes, CTran Bus routes, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  6. Trifoliata hybrids rootstocks for 'Lane Late' navel orange in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carrizo citrange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and Cleopatra mandarin (C. reshni Hort. ex Tan. are the most important rootstocks used in Spain, but they are problematic and it is necessary to search for new rootstocks with better all-round performance. The performance of 'Lane Late' navel orange [Citrus sinensis (L. Osb] on ten rootstocks was determined in the South of the province of Alicante (Spain. They are Carrizo citrange, Cleopatra mandarin and eight new hybrids obtained at the Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias in Valencia (Spain: 020324 [Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata × Cleopatra mandarin], Forner-Alcaide 418 (F&A 418 [Troyer citrange × common mandarin (C. deliciosa Ten.], Forner-Alcaide 13 (F&A 13, 030118, 030127 and 030131 (Cleopatra mandarin × P. trifoliata and 030212 and 030230 (Cleopatra mandarin × Troyer citrange. Soil is clay loam, with pH 8.5 and electric conductivity in the saturation extract at 25ºC of 5.79 mS cm-1. Yield was weighed during the first nine harvests, fruit quality was determined in the last three. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was controlled for the 4th until 9th harvests. The trees of 'Lane Late' navel budded on Cleopatra mandarin were the tallest (2.5 m and F&A 418 (1.6 m the shortest of all rootstocks tested. Trees on 030131 hybrid and Carrizo citrange rootstocks had the highest mean yield (81.2 and 80.3 kg per tree per year respectively, while trees on F&A 418 produced the lowest mean yield (22.3 kg per tree per year. Trees on 030131, 020324 and 030212 had the highest yield efficiency as total cumulative yield per cubic meter of canopy volume (62.1, 58.7 and 55.9 kg m-3 respectively whereas trees on 030127, F&A 418 and Cleopatra mandarin had lower yield efficiencies (45.0, 44.4 and 38.6 kg m-3, respectively. Pre-harvest fruit-drop was lower in trees grafted on Cleopatra mandarin (24.62 % and on 030212 (26.61 %, and was also low on F&A 418 (27

  7. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  8. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  9. Real-time lane departure warning system based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution and risk evaluation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟伟; 宋晓琳; 张桂香

    2014-01-01

    A technology for unintended lane departure warning was proposed. As crucial information, lane boundaries were detected based on principal component analysis of grayscale distribution in search bars of given number and then each search bar was tracked using Kalman filter between frames. The lane detection performance was evaluated and demonstrated in ways of receiver operating characteristic, dice similarity coefficient and real-time performance. For lane departure detection, a lane departure risk evaluation model based on lasting time and frequency was effectively executed on the ARM-based platform. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm generates satisfactory lane detection results under different traffic and lighting conditions, and the proposed warning mechanism sends effective warning signals, avoiding most false warning.

  10. An empirical study of phase transitions from synchronized flow to jams on a single-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng-Jie; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Rui; Wang, Hao

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study empirical data for traffic flow at low velocities in single-lane traffic and compare them with those for multi-lane traffic. It is found that the traffic dynamics are quite different. When the velocities are low in multi-lane traffic, the traffic flow always becomes unstable and develops into jams. In single-lane traffic, some drivers drive in a more relaxed way and stay further back from the preceding car, as they know they cannot overtake the slow vehicle in front of them or at the front of the line. It may also be because they prefer not to follow the preceding vehicle too closely in single-lane traffic, to avoid the incessant deceleration and acceleration. This strategy is feasible because even if the space in front is large, no vehicle could ‘cut in’ in the single lane traffic. This phenomenon is called the ‘moderating effect’, and it harmonizes the traffic flow at low velocities. It is shown that the data points of synchronized flow in single-lane traffic are usually to the left and below those for multi-lane traffic in the flow-density plane. Thus, it is more difficult for the phase transition from synchronized flow to jams to occur in single-lane traffic, as pointed out in Kerner's three-phase traffic theory.

  11. Application of CAN Bus Technology on Zhongtong Bus%CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2012-01-01

    The application status of CAN bus technology on Zhongtong bus is introduced, the methods of bus data collection and analysis on Zhongtong traditional and new energy bus are discussed and the development direction of CAN bus technology is prospected.%介绍CAN总线技术在中通客车上的应用状况,探讨中通传统客车及新能源客车的总线数据采集和分析方法。

  12. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  13. Lane marking detection by extracting white regions with predefined width from bird's-eye road images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sadayuki; Shoji, Kenji; Toyama, Fubito; Miyamichi, Juichi

    2011-01-01

    Detecting lane markings on roads from in-vehicle camera images is very important because it is one of the fundamental tasks for autonomous running technology and safety driving support system. There are several lane markings detection methods using the width information, but most of these are considered to be insufficient for oblique markings. So, the primary intent of this paper is to propose a detecting lane markings method robust to orientation of markings. In this work, we focus on the width of lane markings standardized by road act in Japan, and propose a method for detecting white lane markings by extracting white regions with constant predefined width from bird's-eye road images after segmentation such as categorical color area one. The proposed method is based on the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The proposed method has a merit that can be measure an exact width for oblique markings on the bird's-eye images because it can be obtained perpendicular width for edge. The effectiveness of the proposed method was shown by experimental results for 187 actual road images taken from an in-vehicle camera.

  14. Chaotic time series prediction for surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lanes in soft rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xi-bing; WANG Qi-sheng; YAO Jin-rui; ZHAO Guo-yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the measured displacements, the change laws of the effect of distance in phase space on the deformation of mine lane were analyzed and the chaotic time series model to predict the surrounding rocks deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock by nonlinear theory and methods was established. The chaotic attractor dimension(D) and the largest Lyapunov index(Emax) were put forward to determine whether the deformation process of mine lane is chaotic and the degree of chaos. The analysis of examples indicates that when D>2 and Emax>0, the surrounding rock's deformation of deep mine lane in soft rock is the chaotic process and the laws of the deformation can still be well demonstrated by the method of the reconstructive state space. Comparing with the prediction of linear time series and grey prediction, the chaotic time series prediction has higher accuracy and the prediction results can provide theoretical basis for reasonable support of mine lane in soft rock. The time of the second support in Maluping Mine of Guizhou, China, is determined to arrange at about 40 d after the initial support according to the prediction results.

  15. Effect of Driver Scope Awareness in the Lane Changing Maneuvers Using Cellular Automaton Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of drivers’ visibility and their perception (e.g., to estimate the speed and arrival time of another vehicle on the lane changing maneuver. The term of scope awareness was used to describe the visibility required by the driver to make a perception about road condition and the speed of vehicle that exist in that road. A computer simulation model was conducted to show this driver awareness behavior. This studying attempt to precisely catching the lane changing behavior and illustrate the scope awareness parameter that reflects driver behavior. This paper proposes a simple cellular automata model for studying driver visibility effects of lane changing maneuver and driver perception of estimated speed. Different values of scope awareness were examined to capture its effect on the traffic flow. Simulation results show the ability of this model to capture the important features of lane changing maneuver and revealed the appearance of the short-thin solid line jam and the wide solid line jam in the traffic flow as the consequences of lane changing maneuver.

  16. Bus transport network of Shenyang considering competitive and cooperative relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoyu; Feng, Shumin; Nie, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Competition and cooperation is a universal phenomenon in bus transport networks (BTNs) because of the shared stations between bus routes. A measuring method is proposed for competitive and cooperative relationship between bus routes. Based on this measurement, we develop a new representation model for BTNs, namely competitive-cooperative space R. This model is applied to investigate empirically bus transport network of Shenyang (BTN-S) from China. We present the histograms of competitive-cooperative coefficients, competitive coefficients and cooperative coefficients to illustrate that competitive and cooperative relationship plays an important role in transporting passengers. The competitive-cooperative situation shows that cooperative relationship holds an absolutely dominant position in BTN-S. To explore the networked characteristics, we present some empirical distributions, for the number of bus stations on a route, the number of shared stations between two routes, degree and weighted degree, competitive strength, and cooperative strength. We also examine the correlations between degree and competitive strength, and between degree and cooperative strength. Besides, we investigate the diversities of competitive strength and cooperative strength in BTN-S. This study can help us to understand the BTN from a deeper level.

  17. Capacity Region of a New Bus Communication Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuojun Zhuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new bus communication model, where two transmitters wish to send their corresponding private messages and a common message to a destination, while they also wish to send the common message to another receiver connected to the same wire. From an information-theoretical point of view, we first study a general case of this new model (with discrete memoryless channels. The capacity region composed of all achievable (R0,R1,R2 triples is determined for this general model, where R1 and R2 are the transmission rates of the private messages and R0 is the transmission rate of the common message. Then, the result is further explained via the Gaussian example. Finally, we give the capacity region for the new bus communication model with additive Gaussian noises and attenuation factors. This new bus communication model captures various communication scenarios, such as the bus systems in vehicles, and the bus type of communication channel in power line communication (PLC networks.

  18. Traffic of single-headed motor proteins KIF1A: effects of lane changing

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2007-01-01

    Kinesins are biomolecular motors which move on cylindrical nano-tubes called microtubules. A normal microtubule consists of more than one protofilament on which the equispaced motor binding sites form a periodic array. The collective movement of the kinesins on a microtubule is, therefore, analogous to vehicular traffic on multi-lane highways where each protofilament is the analogue of a single lane. We extend a recent model of the traffic of single-headed kinesin KIF1A [{\\it Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 75}, 041905 (2007)}] by incorporating processes which correspond to shifting of the motor proteins from one protofilament to another. On the basis of analytical treatment of our model, we predict the effects of lane changing on the flux of the KIF1A motors. Our quantitative predictions can be tested, in principle, by carrying out {\\it in-vitro} experiments with fluorescently labelled KIF1A molecules.

  19. A model for the evolution of traffic jams in multi-lane

    CERN Document Server

    Berthelin, Florent

    2011-01-01

    In [7], Berthelin, Degond, Delitala and Rascle introduced a traffic flow model describing the formation and the dynamics of traffic jams. This model consists of a Pressureless Gas Dynamics system under a maximal constraint on the density and is derived through a singular limit of the Aw-Rascle model. In the present paper we propose an improvement of this model by allowing the road to be multi-lane piecewise. The idea is to use the maximal constraint to modelize the number of lanes. We also add in the model a parameter {\\alpha} which modelize the various speed limitations according to the number of lanes. We present the dynamical behaviour of clusters (traffic jams) and by approximation with such solutions, we obtain an existence result of weak solutions for any initial data.

  20. Evacuation Network Optimization Model with Lane-Based Reversal and Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sometimes, the evacuation measure may seem to be the best choice as an emergency response. To enable an efficiency evacuation, a network optimization model which integrates lane-based reversal design and routing with intersection crossing conflict elimination for evacuation is constructed. The proposed bilevel model minimizes the total evacuation time to leave the evacuation zone. A tabu search algorithm is applied to find an optimal lane reversal plan in the upper-level. The lower-level utilizes a simulated annealing algorithm to get two types of “a single arc for an intersection approach” and “multiple arcs for an intersection approach” lane-based route plans with intersection crossing conflict elimination. An experiment of a nine-intersection evacuation zone illustrates the validity of the model and the algorithm. A field case with network topology of Jianye District around the Nanjing Olympics Sports Center is studied to show the applicability of this algorithm.

  1. Stability classification model of mine-lane surrounding rock based on distance discriminant analysis method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; LI Xi-bing; GONG Feng-qiang

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of Mahalanobis distance discriminant analysis (DDA) theory, a stability classification model for mine-lane surrounding rock was established, including six indexes of discriminant factors that reflect the engineering quality of surrounding rock: lane depth below surface, span of lane, ratio of directly top layer thickness to coal thickness, uniaxial comprehensive strength of surrounding rock, development degree coefficient of surrounding rock joint and range of broken surrounding rock zone. A DDA model was obtained through training 15 practical measuring samples. The re-substitution method was introduced to verify the stability of DDA model and the ratio of mis-discrimination is zero. The DDA model was used to discriminate3 new samples and the results are identical with actual rock kind. Compared with the artificial neural network method and support vector mechanic method, the results show that this model has high prediction accuracy and can be used in practical engineering.

  2. Cellular Automaton Models of Highway Traffic Flow Considering Lane-Control and Speed-Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱勇生; 李文俊; 曾俊伟; 王敏; 杜加伟; 广晓平

    2011-01-01

    As two kinds of management modes of highway tramc control, lane-control, and speed-control produce different effect under different conditions. In this paper, traffic flow cellular automaton models for four-lane highway system with two opposing directions under the above two modes are established considering car and truck mixed running. Through computer numerical simulating, the fundamental diagrams with different parameters are obtained, and after the analysis of density-flux diagrams, the variation discipline of flux with traffic density under different control models is gained. The results indicate that, compared with lane-control, utilization ratio of road can be further improved with speed-control when the truck number increases. The research result is of great significance for reasonable providing theoretical guidance for highway traffic control.

  3. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Hess

    Full Text Available Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  4. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" Signage Communicates U.S. Roadway Rules and Increases Perception of Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, George; Peterson, M Nils

    2015-01-01

    Many global challenges, including obesity, health care costs, and climate change, could be addressed in part by increasing the use of bicycles for transportation. Concern about the safety of bicycling on roadways is frequently cited as a deterrent to increasing bicycle use in the USA. The use of effective signage along roadways might help alleviate these concerns by increasing knowledge about the rights and duties of bicyclists and motorists, ideally reducing crashes. We administered a web-based survey, using Twitter for recruitment, to examine how well three US traffic control devices communicated the message that bicyclists are permitted in the center of the travel lane and do not have to "get out of the way" to allow motorists to pass without changing lanes: "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" and "Share the Road" signage, and Shared Lane Markings on the pavement. Each was compared to an unsigned roadway. We also asked respondents whether it was safe for a bicyclist to occupy the center of the travel lane. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage was the most consistently comprehended device for communicating the message that bicyclists may occupy the travel lane and also increased perceptions of safety. "Share the Road" signage did not increase comprehension or perceptions of safety. Shared Lane Markings fell somewhere between. "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage showed notable increases in comprehension among novice bicyclists and private motor vehicle commuters, critical target audiences for efforts to promote bicycling in the USA. Although limited in scope, our survey results are indicative and suggest that Departments of Transportation consider replacing "Share the Road" with "Bicycles May Use Full Lane" signage, possibly combined with Shared Lane Markings, if the intent is to increase awareness of roadway rights and responsibilities. Further evaluation through virtual reality simulations and on-road experiments is merited.

  5. Contagion processes on urban bus networks in Indian cities

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Jagannathan, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Bus transportation is considered as one of the most convenient and cheapest modes of public transportation in Indian cities. Due to their cost-effectiveness and wide reachability, they help a significant portion of the human population in cities to reach their destinations every day. Although from a transportation point of view they have numerous advantages over other modes of public transportation, they also pose a serious threat of contagious diseases spreading throughout the city. The presence of numerous local spatial constraints makes the process and extent of epidemic spreading extremely difficult to predict. Also, majority of the studies have focused on the contagion processes on scale-free network topologies whereas, spatially-constrained real-world networks such as, bus networks exhibit a wide-spectrum of network topology. Therefore, we aim in this study to understand this complex dynamical process of epidemic outbreak and information diffusion on the bus networks for six different Indian cities usin...

  6. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  7. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  8. Spontaneous-braking and lane-changing effect on traffic congestion using cellular automata model applied to the two-lane traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real traffic situations, vehicle would make a braking as the response to avoid collision with another vehicle or avoid some obstacle like potholes, snow, or pedestrian that crosses the road unexpectedly. However, in some cases the spontaneous-braking may occur even though there are no obstacles in front of the vehicle. In some country, the reckless driving behaviors such as sudden-stop by public-buses, motorcycle which changing lane too quickly, or tailgating make the probability of braking getting increase. The new aspect of this paper is the simulation of braking behavior of the driver and presents the new Cellular Automata model for describing this characteristic. Moreover, this paper also examines the impact of lane-changing maneuvers to reduce the number of traffic congestion that caused by spontaneous-braking behavior of the vehicles.

  9. Analytic, piecewise solution to the Lane-Emden equation for stars with complex density profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeff; Bogdanovic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    The polytropic models of stars are used for a variety of applications in computational astrophysics. These are typically obtained by numerically solving the Lane-Emden equation for a star in hydrostatic equilibrium under assumption that the pressure and density within the star obey the polytropic equation of state. We present an efficient analytic, piecewise differentiable solution to the Lane-Emden equation which allows “stitching” of different polytropes to represent complex pressure and density profiles. This approach can be used to model stars with distinct properties in their cores and envelopes, such as the evolved red giant and horizontal branch stars.

  10. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io;

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  11. Low back trouble among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1989-01-01

    a questionnaire in 1978 regarding psychosocial factors and health. The prevalence of frequent low back pain was 57%. In a control group of 195 motormen the prevalence was 40%. Standardized Morbidity Ratio for bus drivers discharged from hospital during the period 1978-1984 with the diagnosis lumbar disc...... herniation was 137 compared to all Danish men. These differences were statistically significant. Of psychosocial factors only "the feeling of being mentally unbalanced" was found to be statistically significantly related to subsequent hospital discharge with a LBT-diagnosis. Long seniority as bus driver...

  12. Persecution as a Theme in Isaac Bashevis Singer's The Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Minzhi

    2008-01-01

    Isaac Bashevis Singer is very much concerned about the fate of Jewish people,so he often presents Jews'sufferings in his literary works.The Bus,by means of describing the narrator's experiences during a bus tour through Spain,in different dimensions reinforces the destructive impact of persecution that Jews have gone through.Moreover,he implies such persecution is not merely confined between Jews and the Gentile,but also spreads among the whole human beings who hold differet beliefs.

  13. Development of fiber optic data bus for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komouchi, Yutaka; Sueoka, Akira

    1988-02-01

    An account is given of the design, construction, and both ground and flight testing of a star-coupled fiber-optic data bus consisting of an optic coupler, fibers, a connector, and a transmitter/receiver. This system precludes spark/fire hazards and crosstalk problems, while offering very small size and weight for a given capability. The communication protocol for the data bus is of 1 Mbit/sec command response type, and its design attempted to minimize the effect on electronic interfaces as a result of conversion from electrical to fiber-optic buses.

  14. Overview of Multi-DC-Bus Solutions for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricchiuto, D.; Mastromauro, R.A.; Liserre, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    DC Microgrids have recently received a lot of attention in the last years due to high penetration of renewable energy sources as well as distributed energy storage systems. In the future DC microgrids could be preferable respect to AC microgrids in terms of redundancy since multi-DC-Bus solutions...... could provide a continuative power supply to the loads. An overview of Multi-DC-Bus solutions is presented in this paper. The performances are compared on the basis of possible DC microgrid configurations, redundancy, different DC voltage levels....

  15. Sustainable transport and the organisation of bus services in Manchester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    “Sustainable transport” has become a headline for transport planning and policy making around the world. While there are many different definitions of what Sustainable Transport means, it commonly includes efforts to improve the environmental performance of transport systems, and to promote...... alternative modes of transport to private cars, such as public transport. In this paper we focus only on the potential of bus transport services in cities for attracting travellers from cars. It is a basic assumption behind this paper that the ability of public bus transport to attract travellers from cars...

  16. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  17. Studies of vehicle lane-changing dynamics and its effect on traffic efficiency, safety and environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2017-02-01

    Drivers often change lanes on the road to maintain desired speed and to avoid slow vehicles, pedestrians, obstacles and lane closure. Understanding the effect of lane-changing on the traffic is an important topic in designing optimal traffic control systems. This paper presents a comprehensive study of this topic. We review the theory of microscopic dynamic car-following models and the lane-changing models, propose additional lane-changing rules to deal with moving bottleneck and lane reduction, and investigate the effects of lane-changing on the traffic efficiency, traffic safety and fuel consumption as a function of different variables including the distance of the emergency sign ahead of the lane closure, speed limit, traffic density, etc. Extensive simulations of the traffic system have been carried out in different scenarios. A number of important findings of the effect of various factors on the traffic are reported. These findings provide guidance on the traffic management and are important to the designers and engineers of modern highway or inner city roads to achieve high traffic efficiency and safety with minimum environmental impact.

  18. A viscous continuum traffic flow model with consideration of the coupling effect for two-lane freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Di-Hua; Peng Guang-Han

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the viscous continuum traffic flow model for a single lane is extended to the traffic flow for two-lane freeways. The proposed model is a higher-order continuum model considering the coupling and lane changing effects of the vehicles on two adjacent lanes. It results from integrating the Taylor series expansion of the viscous continuum traffic flow model proposed by Ge (2006 Physics A 371 667) into the multi-lane model presented by Daganzo (1997Transpn. Res. B 31 83). Our proposed model may be used to describe non-anisotropic behaviour because of lane changing in multi-lane traffic. A linear stability analysis is given and the neutral stability condition is obtained. Also,issues related to lane changing,shock waves and rarefaction waves,local clustering and phase transition are investigated through a simulation experiment. The simulation results show that the proposed model is capable of explaining some particular traffic phenomena commonly observable in real world traffic flow.

  19. Performance evaluation of UHF RFID technologies for real-time bus recognition in the Taipei Bus Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-06-18

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses.

  20. 46 CFR 112.05-3 - Main-emergency bus-tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Main-emergency bus-tie. 112.05-3 Section 112.05-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS General § 112.05-3 Main-emergency bus-tie. Each bus-tie between a main...

  1. 双车道公路设置附加车道交通量条件研究%Traffic Volume Conditions of Setting Auxiliary Lane on Two-lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程国柱; 翟露露; 秦丽辉; 王玉霞

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce traffic accidents and improve operating efficiency on two-lane highway, the concept of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway is proposed, and the traffic volume conditions of setting up auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are studied. Data is obtained through vehicle experiment on two-lane highway, and the relational model among the traffic conflict time, the traffic volume and the design speed on two-lane highway is established. Based on the established model, the different conditions of traffic volume of setting auxiliary lane on two-lane highway are obtained. It shows that auxiliary lane should be set when traffic volume is more than 495 veh/h/ln and 454 veh/h/ln respectively on two-lane highway with the design speed of 80 km/h and 60km/h. It isn't recommend to set auxiliary lane on two-lane highway with the design speed of 40 km/h because the benefit is not obvious.%为了减少双车道公路交通事故数量、提高运行效率,提出了双车道公路设置附加车道的理念,基于试验数据开展了双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件研究.通过双车道公路实车实验获得的基础数据,建立了双车道公路交通冲突时间与交通量、设计速度的关系模型.依据构建的模型,给出了对应不同设计速度的双车道公路设置附加车道的交通量条件.基于样本数据的研究结果表明:设计速度为80 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于495 veh/h/ln时,应设置附加车道;设计速度为60 km/h的双车道公路,单向交通量大于454 veh/h/ln,应设置附加车道;设计速度为40 km/h及以下的双车道公路,设置附加车道效益不明显,不建议设置.

  2. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...

  3. When do drivers abort an overtaking maneuver 5 on two-lane rural roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, H.

    2016-01-01

    Overtaking on two-lane roads is a complex driving maneuver. Drivers who desire to overtake a lead vehicle need to evaluate the available gaps in the opposite direction and accept a sufficient gap to successfully complete the overtaking maneuver. However, often drivers realize that the gap they acce

  4. Approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane Emden equation in a spherical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Moustafa Aly; Al-Zeghayer, Yousef

    2015-10-01

    This paper obtains an approximate analytical solution for the isothermal Lane-Emden equation that models a self-gravitating isothermal sphere. The approximate solution is obtained by perturbation methods in terms of small and large distance parameters. The approximate solution is compared with the numerical solution. The approximate solution obtained is valid for all values of the distance parameter.

  5. Shape-dependence of the barrier for skyrmions on a two-lane racetrack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Single magnetic skyrmions are localized whirls in the magnetization with an integer winding number. They have been observed on nano-meter scales up to room temperature in multilayer structures. Due to their small size, topological winding number, and their ability to be manipulated by extremely tiny forces, they are often called interesting candidates for future memory devices. The two-lane racetrack has to exhibit two lanes that are separated by an energy barrier. The information is then encoded in the position of a skyrmion which is located in one of these close-by lanes. The artificial barrier between the lanes can be created by an additional nanostrip on top of the track. Here we study the dependence of the potential barrier on the shape of the additional nanostrip, calculating the potentials for a rectangular, triangular, and parabolic cross section, as well as interpolations between the first two. We find that a narrow barrier is always repulsive and that the height of the potential strongly depends on the shape of the nanostrip, whereas the shape of the potential is more universal. We finally show that the shape-dependence is redundant for possible applications.

  6. A parallel code for multiprecision computations of the Lane-Emden differential equation

    CERN Document Server

    Geroyannis, Vassilis S

    2016-01-01

    We compute multiprecision solutions of the Lane-Emden equation. This differential equation arises when introducing the well-known polytropic model into the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for a nondistorted star. Since such multiprecision computations are time-consuming, we apply to this problem parallel programming techniques and thus the execution time of the computations is drastically reduced.

  7. "Go West, Young Man!" - Praktikum an der Lane Medical Library der Universität Stanford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dollfuß, Helmut

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an account of a five weeks internship at Lane Medical Library which is part of Stanford University, California. The story depicts personal impressions and reports on the university, on the library's history, organisation and its future development.

  8. Lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lukun; Zhao, Xiaoying; Su, Hao; Tang, Gongyou

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores lane changing trajectory planning and tracking control for intelligent vehicle on curved road. A novel arcs trajectory is planned for the desired lane changing trajectory. A kinematic controller and a dynamics controller are designed to implement the trajectory tracking control. Firstly, the kinematic model and dynamics model of intelligent vehicle with non-holonomic constraint are established. Secondly, two constraints of lane changing on curved road in practice (LCCP) are proposed. Thirdly, two arcs with same curvature are constructed for the desired lane changing trajectory. According to the geometrical characteristics of arcs trajectory, equations of desired state can be calculated. Finally, the backstepping method is employed to design a kinematic trajectory tracking controller. Then the sliding-mode dynamics controller is designed to ensure that the motion of the intelligent vehicle can follow the desired velocity generated by kinematic controller. The stability of control system is proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulation demonstrates that the desired arcs trajectory and state curves with B-spline optimization can meet the requirements of LCCP constraints and the proposed control schemes can make tracking errors to converge uniformly.

  9. Approximate Analytic and Numerical Solutions to Lane-Emden Equation via Fuzzy Modeling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Gang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm, called variable weight fuzzy marginal linearization (VWFML method, is proposed. This method can supply approximate analytic and numerical solutions to Lane-Emden equations. And it is easy to be implemented and extended for solving other nonlinear differential equations. Numerical examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the developed technique.

  10. Empirical analysis of the lane formation process in bidirectional pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciani, Claudio; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on pedestrian bidirectional streams and the mechanisms leading to spontaneous lane formation by examining the flow formed by two groups of people walking toward each other in a mock corridor. Flow ratio is changed by changing each group size while maintaining comparable total flow and density. By tracking the trajectories of each pedestrian and analyzing the data obtained, five different phases were recognized as contributing to the transition from unidirectional to bidirectional flow including the spontaneous creation and dissolution of lanes. It has been shown that a statistical treatment is required to understand the fundamental characteristics of pedestrian dynamics and some two-dimensional quantities such as order parameter and rotation range were introduced to allow a more complete analysis. All the quantities observed showed a clear relationship with flow ratio and helped distinguishing between the different characteristic phases of the experiment. Results show that balanced bidirectional flow becomes the most stable configuration after lanes are formed, but the lane creation process requires pedestrians to laterally move to a largest extent compared to low flow-ratio configurations. This finding allows us to understand the reasons why balanced bidirectional flow is efficient at low densities, but quickly leads to deadlock formation at high densities.

  11. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada pursuant to section 202... application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Canada as a...

  12. 112-Gbit/s × 4-lane duobinary-4-PAM for 400GBase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Mao, B.;

    2014-01-01

    Novel duobinary-4-PAM signaling is experimentally demonstrated to support a 4-lane low-latency 400GbE client side solution. Direct detection of 112 Gbps transmission over a 5 km single wavelength and polarization fiber link is achieved....

  13. Evaluation of Single Vehicle Data in Dependence of the Vehicle-Type, Lane, and Site

    OpenAIRE

    Tilch, Benno; Helbing, Dirk

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we study dependencies of fundamental diagrams, time gap distributions, and velocity-distance relations on vehicle types, lanes and/or measurement sites. We also propose measurement and aggregation methods that have more favourable statistical properties than conventional methods.

  14. Simulation study of traffic accidents on a three-lane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jau-Yang; Lai, Wun-Cing

    2015-07-01

    Unsuitable driving behaviors often lead to the occurrence of traffic accidents. To reduce accidents and to prolong human life, simulated investigations are highly desirable to evaluate the effect of traffic safety in terms of number of traffic accidents. In this paper, a three-lane traffic flow model is proposed to analyze the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents on highway. We define appropriate driving rules for the forward moving and lane changing of the vehicles. Three types of vehicle accidents are designed to investigate the relationships between different driving behaviors and traffic accidents. We simulate four road driving strategies, and compute the traffic flow, velocity, lane-changing frequency and the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents for different road driving strategies. According to the simulation and analysis, it is shown that the probability of the occurrence of traffic accidents can be reduced by using the specified road driving strategies. Additionally, we found that the occurrence of traffic accidents can be avoided when the slow vehicles are suitably constrained to move on a three-lane highway.

  15. CityMobil : Human factor issues regarding highly automated vehicles on eLane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffetti, A.; Wilschut, E.S.; Martens, M.H.; Schieben, A.; Rambaldini, A.; Merat, N.; Flemisch, F.

    2009-01-01

    There are several human factor concerns with highly autonomous or semiautonomous driving, such as transition of control, loss of skill, and dealing with automated system errors. Four CityMobil experiments studied the eLane concept for dual-mode cars, and the results of one are described. The open eL

  16. How to Cut Costs by Saving School Bus Fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiff, Hank

    A program started in Washington County, Maryland in 1980 has been successful in saving school bus fuel and bringing down transportation costs incurred by its fleet of 200 buses. Driver training and motivation, as well as a partial transfer to diesel buses, are at the heart of the program. The drivers are taught five fuel saving techniques: cut…

  17. Platform Screen Doors Enhanced Bus Rapid Transit Intelligent Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghua Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is the last straw to clutch at to solve the urban traffic issue, to develop high-capacity rapid transit and promote transit priority. Characterized by low cost, short construction cycle and flexible development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has been favored by more and more cities in the world. The Platform Screen Doors (PSDs system is an important component at BRT stations, and it is original motive to be designed to satisfy the growing demand from BRT application to provide increased safety and comfort in the first. With the continual increased demand for BRT intelligent performance, the PSDs system is applied to get Bus Location Information with accurate position of arrival and departure at stop, to provide Real-Time Information (RTI for BRT passengers using PSDs/GPS compound location technology, to put into practice Bus Fleet Management (BFM. Considering the capability of accurate location, it can be applied to actualize Bus Sign Priority in the future. The authors are luck to take in part the practice of BRT system, especially in the BRT intelligent systems, the papers will introduce upwards application and conceive in detail.

  18. Interface For MIL-STD-1553B Data Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Bryan L.; Osborn, Stephen H.; Sullender, Craig C.

    1993-01-01

    Electronic control-logic subsystem acts as interface between microcontroller and MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Subsystem made of relatively small number of integrated circuits. Advantages include low power, few integrated-circuit chips, and little need for control signals.

  19. Bussikontsern Go Bus ihaldab Harjumaa turgu / Signe Kalberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalberg, Signe, 1959-

    2005-01-01

    AS-i Tarbus ja kaheksa bussiettevõtte ühinemisel moodustati AS Go Bus, ettevõte plaanib veel mitme bussifirma liitmist. Atko Grupi juhatuse esimehe Margo Tomingase, AS Sebe nõukogu esimehe Hugo Osula arvamus. Lisa: Konkurentsiamet hoiab silma peal

  20. Are Good Deeds Compulsory for Young Bus Riders?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A recent popular post on the Internet concerns friction on a bus in Hangzhou, east China’s Zhejiang Province. A young female passenger surnamed Wu refused to give herseat to a 77-year-old woman when she wasasked to do so by an elderly man surnamed

  1. Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskauskas, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of bullying on the school bus. Videotapes were used to identify occurrences of bullying on buses of elementary school students. Incidents were reviewed for forms of bullying, fullness, presence of friends, and severity of acts. Results indicated that approximately two incidents occurred per bus…

  2. Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hlotova, Y.; Cats, O.; Meijer, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The

  3. A Novel Time Synchronization Method for Dynamic Reconfigurable Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weigong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available UM-BUS is a novel dynamically reconfigurable high-speed serial bus for embedded systems. It can achieve fault tolerance by detecting the channel status in real time and reconfigure dynamically at run-time. The bus supports direct interconnections between up to eight master nodes and multiple slave nodes. In order to solve the time synchronization problem among master nodes, this paper proposes a novel time synchronization method, which can meet the requirement of time precision in UM-BUS. In this proposed method, time is firstly broadcasted through time broadcast packets. Then, the transmission delay and time deviations via three handshakes during link self-checking and channel detection can be worked out referring to the IEEE 1588 protocol. Thereby, each node calibrates its own time according to the broadcasted time. The proposed method has been proved to meet the requirement of real-time time synchronization. The experimental results show that the synchronous precision can achieve a bias less than 20 ns.

  4. High-Tech School Bus Teaches Students on the Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katims, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Last year, kindergarten through high school students in the rural Hector, Arkansas, School District barely had the technology resources that keep kids interested in math and science. This year, they potentially have the most advanced resources in the country--before they even step into the classroom. One school bus in Arkansas' Pope County has…

  5. Tram of Bus: Does the Tram Bonus Exist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunschoten, T.; Molin, E.J.E.; Van Nes, R.

    2013-01-01

    The tram bonus is a much discussed topic as there is severe uncertainty about its definition and its existence. In this paper the tram bonus is considered to be the extra value it generates for travellers, which causes a new tram service to gain more passengers when compared to an equivalent bus ser

  6. Real life testing of a Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkesson, Anders; Andersson, Christian; Alvfors, Per; Alaküla, Mats; Overgaard, Lars

    Fuel cells produce low quantities of local emissions, if any, and are therefore one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engines as the main power source in future vehicles. It is likely that urban buses will be among the first commercial applications for fuel cells in vehicles. This is due to the fact that urban buses are highly visible for the public, they contribute significantly to air pollution in urban areas, they have small limitations in weight and volume and fuelling is handled via a centralised infrastructure. Results and experiences from real life measurements of energy flows in a Scania Hybrid PEM Fuel Cell Concept Bus are presented in this paper. The tests consist of measurements during several standard duty cycles. The efficiency of the fuel cell system and of the complete vehicle are presented and discussed. The net efficiency of the fuel cell system was approximately 40% and the fuel consumption of the concept bus is between 42 and 48% lower compared to a standard Scania bus. Energy recovery by regenerative braking saves up 28% energy. Bus subsystems such as the pneumatic system for door opening, suspension and brakes, the hydraulic power steering, the 24 V grid, the water pump and the cooling fans consume approximately 7% of the energy in the fuel input or 17% of the net power output from the fuel cell system. The bus was built by a number of companies in a project partly financed by the European Commission's Joule programme. The comprehensive testing is partly financed by the Swedish programme "Den Gröna Bilen" (The Green Car). A 50 kW el fuel cell system is the power source and a high voltage battery pack works as an energy buffer and power booster. The fuel, compressed hydrogen, is stored in two high-pressure stainless steel vessels mounted on the roof of the bus. The bus has a series hybrid electric driveline with wheel hub motors with a maximum power of 100 kW. Hybrid Fuel Cell Buses have a big potential, but there are

  7. Energy Performance Optimization of a Bus for Urban Public Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many people use public transports in urban centres. Consequently, every day a lot of buses move within cities, trying to ensure the best service to citizens. During the year buses becomecrowded places and using an air conditioning system in constant operation, it tries to ensure a certain condition of comfort for the passengers on board. The aim of this study is to analyse and optimize the energy performance of a bus shell, identifying practical solutions that have not yet been adopted in order to reduce the impact of air conditioning on bus consumption and, therefore, on air pollution. For this reason it was decided to conduct a thermal analysis of a bus for public transport, in order to understandthe behaviour of the bus shell and to deduce possible optimization measures that have not yet been made until now. The analysis was carried out considering the hottest day of July and the coldest day ofJanuary, considering the conditions of operation based on the most common graphics TGM able to define the concentration of traffic city during the 24 hours per day. The study was done using the dynamicsimulation software TRNSYS. With this software it was possible to recreate faithfully the structure of the bus and the external environmental conditions, assessing the impact of different technical solutions for an improvement of internal conditions and a reduction of the cooling capacity required. Because the presence of passengers in public transport is considered like a “benefit” during the winter, the analysis started with the identification of a summer solution and the subsequent evaluation of this solution for the wintertime. The aim of this study was to optimize the bus shell and select the most appropriate solutions. Regarding the transparent surfaces it has been given importance to factors such as the thermal transmittance and the solar gain factor (g-value. Aware of the influence given by the solar radiation on the energy loads, we

  8. GeoBus: sharing science research with schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Kathryn; Robinson, Ruth; Moorhouse, Ben

    2016-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is currently sponsored by industry, NERC, The Crown Estate, and the Scottish Government. The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have little or no experience in teaching this subject. This is, in part, done through the sharing of new science research outcomes and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, over 40,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities in 190 different schools (over 400 separate visits) across the length and breadth of Scotland: many of these schools are in remote and disadvantaged regions. A new GeoBus project is under development within the Department of Earth Sciences at UCL in London. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate new research into our workshops with the main challenge being the development of appropriate resources that incorporate the key learning aims and requirements of the science and geography curricula. GeoBus works closely with researchers, teachers and educational practitioners to tailor the research outcomes to the curricula as much as possible. Over the past four years, GeoBus has developed 17 workshops, 5 challenge events and extensive field trips and each of these activities are trialled and evaluated within the university, and adjustments are made before the activities are delivered in schools. Activities are continually reviewed and further developments are made in response to both teacher and pupil feedback. This critical reflection of the project's success and impact is important to insure a positive and significant contribution to the science learning in

  9. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  10. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: First Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This report provides the early data results and implementation experience of the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service.

  12. Bus Stops Location and Bus Route Planning Using Mean Shift Clustering and Ant Colony in West Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supangat, Kenny; Eko Soelistio, Yustinus

    2017-03-01

    Traffic Jam has been a daily problem for people in Jakarta which is one of the busiest city in Indonesia up until now. Even though the official government has tried to reduce the impact of traffic issues by developing a new public transportation which takes up a lot of resources and time, it failed to diminish the problem. The actual concern to this problem actually lies in how people move between places in Jakarta where they always using their own vehicle like cars, and motorcycles that fill most of the street in Jakarta. Among much other public transportations that roams the street of Jakarta, Buses is believed to be an efficient transportation that can move many people at once. However, the location of the bus stop is now have moved to the middle of the main road, and its too far for the nearby residence to access to it. This paper proposes an optimal location of optimal bus stops in West Jakarta that is experimentally proven to have a maximal distance of 350 m. The optimal location is estimated by means of mean shift clustering method while the optimal routes are calculated using Ant Colony algorithm. The bus stops locations rate of error is 0.07% with overall route area of 32 km. Based on our experiments, we believe our proposed bus stop plan can be an interesting alternative to reduce traffic congestion in West Jakarta.

  13. Modeling mechanical restriction differences between car and heavy truck in two-lane cellular automata traffic flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Xingang; Xiao, Yao; Jia, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Real traffic is heterogeneous with car and truck. Due to mechanical restrictions, the car and the truck have different limited deceleration capabilities, which are important factors in safety driving. This paper extends the single lane safety driving (SD) model with limited deceleration capability to two-lane SD model, in which car-truck heterogeneous traffic is considered. A car has a larger limited deceleration capability while a heavy truck has a smaller limited deceleration capability as a result of loaded goods. Then the safety driving conditions are different as the types of the following and the leading vehicles vary. In order to eliminate the well-known plug in heterogeneous two-lane traffic, it is assumed that heavy truck has active deceleration behavior when the heavy truck perceives the forming plug. The lane-changing decisions are also determined by the safety driving conditions. The fundamental diagram, spatiotemporal diagram, and lane-changing frequency were investigated to show the effect of mechanical restriction on heterogeneous traffic flow. It was shown that there would be still three traffic phases in heterogeneous traffic condition; the active deceleration of the heavy truck could well eliminate the plug; the lane-changing frequency was low in synchronized flow; the flow and velocity would decrease as the proportion of heavy truck grows or the limited deceleration capability of heavy truck drops; and the flow could be improved with lane control measures.

  14. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetto, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road. The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle. The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out. We are interested in the relaxation time τ, i.e., which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane. Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model, we have found two states, namely, the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane, and the trapped state in which τ diverges. We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability. In the second situation, we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task. Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase, two different states can be distinguished. One is the critical state, in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out. The other is the safe state, in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out. In order to be in the safe state, we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane. Furthermore, this critical distance depends on the density of cars, and it follows an exponential law.

  15. StarBus+: Distributed Object Middleware Practice for Internet Computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huai-Min Wang; Yu-Feng Wang; Yang-Bin Tang

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, the booming of Internet challenges the middleware in three aspects: quality of service,balance of changes and stabilization, and across-Internet integration. This paper presents our work on distributed object computing middleware technology for these challenges, as well as the research and development on StarBus+, which is a CORBA standard-compliant middleware suite with the features such as object request broker supporting multi-* quality of service, component model, and integration with Web Service. This paper comprehensively presents the design and characteristics of StarBns+, and demonstrates how StarBus+ is enhanced to address the challenges of Internet computing through three case studies: inter-enterprise integration over Internet, application evolution through dynamic reconfiguration,and great massive information system building. The paper also suggests some research directions which are important for Internet computing.

  16. Implementation of I 2C Master Bus Protocol on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regu Archana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on I 2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit protocol interface between Master Bus protocol and slave. Here we are interfacing between micro-controller and DS1307. I 2C bus protocol sends 8 bit data from micro-controller to DS1307. This module was designed in VHDL and simulated and synthesized using Xilinx ISE Design Suite 14.2. I 2C and optimized for area and power. This concept is widely applicable from any high speed device or low speed device to any low speed device or high speed device. This module acts as a slave for the DS1307 at the same time acts like a master for the micro-controller device which can be considered as a slave. . It can be used to interface low speed peripherals like motherboard, embedded system, mobile phones, set top boxes, DVD, PDA’s or other electronic devices.

  17. Distributed cooperative synchronization strategy for multi-bus microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yao; Zhong, Chaolu; Hou, Xiaochao

    2017-01-01

    communication breaks down, the primary droop control can still operate robustly. Small signal model of entire system is developed to adjust the parameters of distributed active synchronization controller. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method....... synchronization methods based on centralized communication are very costly and not suitable for multi-bus microgrids that have a large number of distributed generators (DGs). To address this concern, this study presents an active synchronization control strategy based on distributed cooperation technology...... for multi-bus microgrids. The proposed method can reconnect the microgrid in island to UG seamlessly with sparse communication channels. Synchronization correction signals are generated by a voltage controller, which are only transmitted to the leader DGs. Meanwhile, each DG exchanges information with its...

  18. THE DESIGN OF VMEBUS BRIDGE CONTROLLER WITH SHARC BUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Wu Shunjun; Su Tao

    2005-01-01

    Targeting at the high expense and inflexibility to realize VMEbus bridge controller by professional Integrated Circuit (IC), this paper presents a scheme of adopting CPLD/FPGA (Complicated Programmable Logic Device/Field Programmable Gate Array) to design bridge controller between VMEbus and local bus. SHARC DSP (Digital Signal Processor) bus is an example. It has functions of nearly entire master/slave interface of VMEbus, and can act as DMA (Direct Memory Access) controller and perform block transfer in DMA or master processor initiative way without length limit. External circuit of the design is very simple. In comparison with special ICs, it has high performance to price ratio and can be easily applied to local buses of other processors with quite a little modification.

  19. Bus Encoder for Crosstalk Avoidance in RLC Modeled Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nagendra Babu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the encoding methods proposed in recent years have dealt with only RC modeled VLSI interconnects. For deep sub micron technologies (DSM, on-chip inductive effects have increased due to faster clock speeds, smaller signal rise times and longer length of on-chip interconnects. All these issues raise the concern for cross talk, propagation delay and power dissipation of overall. Therefore, this research work introduces an efficient Bus Encoder using Bus Inverting (BI method. The proposed design dramatically reduces both cross talk and power dissipation in RLC modeled interconnects which makes it suitable for current high-speed low-power VLSI interconnects. The proposed model demonstrates an overall reduction of power dissipation and cross talk induced delay by 55.43% and 45.87%, respectively.

  20. Technology Update of a Control System Trough Corba Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Bertocchi, A; Buceti, G; Centioli, C; Muzio, D D; Iannone, F; Mazza, G; Panella, M; Vitale, V

    2001-01-01

    After more than 10 years of activity, FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) has to face the problem of taking advantage of the new hardware and software technology saving all the investments yet done. So, for example, the 20 years old Westinghouse PLCs (communicating only through a serial line) have to be leaved in operation while a web-based tool has to be released for plan monitoring purpose. CORBA bus has been demonstrated to be the answer to set up the communication between old and new hardware and software blocks. On FTU the control system is based on Basestar, a Digital/Compaq software suite. We will describe how the real time database of Basestar is now accessed by Java graphic tools, LabView and, in principle, any package accepting external routines. An account will be also done in the data acquisition area where a Camac serial highway driver has been integrated in the new architecture still through the CORBA bus

  1. Investigation on full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full distribution CNC system based on SERCOS bus is studied in accordance with the limitations of traditional PC-based motion card.The conventional PC-based motion control card is dispersed into several autonomous intelligent servo-control units with the function of servo driver.The autonomous intelligent servocontrol units realize the loop control of position,velocity and current.Interpolation computation is completed in PC and the computational results are transferred to every autonomous intelligent servo-control unit by high speed SERCOS bus.Software or hardware synchronization technology is used to ensure all servomotors are successive and synchronously running.The communication and synchronization technology of SERCOS are also researched and the autonomous intelligent servo-control card is developed byself.Finally,the experiment of circle contour process on a prototype system proves the feasibility.

  2. Health effect of a bus ride in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, T.

    1983-07-01

    Health effects on subjects during a bus drive on an urban road were investigated in a real situation. Leukocyte count, adrenalin level in blood and urine, noradrenalin and dopamine in urine, diastolic blood pressure, and index of vascular resistance increased significantly on the drive day compared with the control day. A bus drive on an urban road induced enhanced sympathetic-adreno-medullary activity in real life as a result of the comprehensive effect of various factors. The concentrations of air pollutants were excessively high on the road, and correlated with traffic volume. It was concluded that the interactions between psychogenic, physical nonspecific and physical specific effects should be taken into consideration when evaluating human health effects of air pollution in the urban environment.

  3. Leveraging Bus Mobility to Enable Communications in Urban Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Gaito, Sabrina; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows that the deployment of an opportunistic network on any public transportation system leads to obtain a scalable and efficient urban communication platform. We use the term Bus Switched Networks (BSNs) to indicate this urban backbone that complements the services of 3G networks and enables to meet the application level requirements for a large class of applications by ensuring high delivery ratio and acceptable delays under different conditions of packet load. We sustain these arguments by providing three contributions. The first contribution is a novel and lightweight probabilistic routing protocol for BSN which we prove to be highly effective in satisfying the loose QoS required by urban-wide delay-tolerant information services. The second contribution is the proposal of URBeS, an analysis platform that, given a specific city served by public transportation, produces real bus mobility traces and traffic analysis for any given routing protocol. The last contribution is an extensive benchmark a...

  4. Design of CAN Bus Application in the Process of Papermaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisheng Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design of can bus application in the process of papermaking. The design for an intelligent measure and control system based on the technology of CAN bus, is applied to detect and control the concentration of wood-pulp, the temperature of multistage dryer and other parameters in the process of papermaking, in order to meet the control requirements and characters for the study quality and ensure paper even and cohesive under the course of manufacturer. The intelligence of measure and control system has been predominantly researched in the article, including the proposal of intelligent control node and communication model, the design of hardware interface circuit in the intelligent measure and control node and the design of whole system.

  5. Virtual Instrument Based on GPIB Interface Bus1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao,Ying; Qi,Hanhong

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the technique of GPIB businterface. Through the controlling of the GPIB interface board,the computer controlled the current source and the voltmeter, both of which have GPIB bus interface, and a virtual instrument testing system for I~V curve was composed. The virtual instrument front panel and the background graphical control program in Labview environment accomplish virtual instrument testing task along with the hardware system.

  6. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  7. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Mohammed S. Chowdhury; Mohammad Sumann Sarker; Salauddin Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tes...

  8. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  9. The Designing Bus for Nuclear Safety Class Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Myeongkyun; Yun, Donghwa [PONUTech Co,. Ltd., Research Institute, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Kwangki [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is based on the IEEE 802.3 standard as one of the communication which is the I/O (Input/Output), sensors and communication function of PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) in industry and factory environment use is increasing. The Nuclear Safety Class Controller implemented by the EtherCAT applied bus can be shown the improving performance of data transmission in the controller.

  10. Nearly deterministic Bell measurement using quantum communication bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Meng-zheng; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2017-03-01

    We present a scheme to implement Bell states measurement for an arbitrary number of photons by using robust continuous variable coherent modes, called as quantum communication bus (qubus) and weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. Remarkably, the success probability of our scheme is close to unity, and our scheme does not require any ancillary resource entanglement. Our scheme is likely to yield versatile applications for quantum computation and quantum teleportation.

  11. Capacity models on expressway near a bus bay stop with an access

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪宾; 孙小端; 贺玉龙; 宇仁德

    2015-01-01

    To determinate the expressway capacity near a bus bay stop with an access, capacity models on the expressway near a bus stop with an access were developed on the basis of gap acceptance theory and queuing theory. Depending on a bus stop position to an entrance or an exit ramp, the capacity models were developed for four cases. Bus bay stops with overflow and bus bay stops without overflow were considered. A comparison of simulation experiment and model calculation was carried out. Results show that the suggested models have high accuracy and reliability, at bus arrival rate below 60 vehicles per hour (veh/h) or vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit below 200 passenger cars units per hour (pcu/h), and there are no significant difference in the capacities for four cases. When bus arrival rate is above 240 veh/h, the capacities of all four cases will decline rapidly. With berth number increasing, the increasing of the capacities is no obvious for four cases. As the bus arrival rate and vehicle volumes at the entrance and the exit increase, bus stops located downstream of an entrance and upstream of an exit have a remarkably effect on the capacities. The latter case is much heavier than the former. Those results can be used to traffic design and optimization on urban expressway near a bus stop with an access.

  12. New Galerkin operational matrices for solving Lane-Emden type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elhameed, W. M.; Doha, E. H.; Saad, A. S.; Bassuony, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with introducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n=3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  13. Lane-Level Vehicle Trajectory Reckoning for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinsong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a lane-level positioning method by trajectory reckoning without Global Positioning System (GPS equipment in the environment of Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System (CVIS. Firstly, the accuracy requirements of vehicle position in CVIS applications and the applicability of GPS positioning methods were analyzed. Then, a trajectory reckoning method based on speed and steering data from vehicle’s Control Area Network (CAN and roadside calibration facilities was proposed, which consists of three critical models, including real-time estimation of steering angle and vehicle direction, vehicle movement reckoning, and wireless calibration. Finally, the proposed method was validated through simulation and field tests under a variety of traffic conditions. Results show that the accuracy of the reckoned vehicle position can reach the lane level and match the requirements of common CVIS applications.

  14. An Optimal Deployment of Wireless Charging Lane for Electric Vehicles on Highway Corridors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongxi [Clemson University

    2016-01-01

    We propose an integrated modeling framework to optimally locate wireless charging facilities along a highway corridor to provide sufficient in-motion charging. The integrated model consists of a master, Infrastructure Planning Model that determines best locations with integrated two sub-models that explicitly capture energy consumption and charging and the interactions between electric vehicle and wireless charging technologies, geometrics of highway corridors, speed, and auxiliary system. The model is implemented in an illustrative case study of a highway corridor of Interstate 5 in Oregon. We found that the cost of establishing the charging lane is sensitive and increases with the speed to achieve. Through sensitivity analyses, we gain better understanding on the extent of impacts of geometric characteristics of highways and battery capacity on the charging lane design.

  15. Analysis of average density difference effect in a new two-lane lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Geng; Sun, Di-Hua; Zhao, Min; Liu, Wei-Ning; Cheng, Sen-Lin

    2015-11-01

    A new lattice model is proposed by taking the average density difference effect into account for two-lane traffic system according to Transportation Cyber-physical Systems. The influence of average density difference effect on the stability of traffic flow is investigated through linear stability theory and nonlinear reductive perturbation method. The linear analysis results reveal that the unstable region would be reduced by considering the average density difference effect. The nonlinear kink-antikink soliton solution derived from the mKdV equation is analyzed to describe the properties of traffic jamming transition near the critical point. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical results showing that traffic jam can be suppressed efficiently by considering the average density difference effect for two-lane traffic system.

  16. Approximate Analytical Solution to the Fractional Lane-Emden Equation of the Polytropic Gas Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Nouh, Mohamed I

    2016-01-01

    Lane-Emden equation could be used to model stellar interiors, star clusters and many configurations in astrophysics. Unfortunately, there is an exact solution only for the polytropic index n=0,1 and 5. In the present paper, a series solution for the fractional lane-Emden equation is presented. The solution is performed in the frame of modified Rienmann liouville derivatives. The results indicate that the series converges for the polytropic index range 0<=n <= 4.99 with fractional parameter \\alpha spreads over all range 0<\\alpha <= 1. Comparison with the numerical solution revealed a good agreement with a maximum relative error 0.001. The obtained results recover the well-known series solutions when \\alpha=1.

  17. NEW GALERKIN OPERATIONAL MATRICES FOR SOLVING LANE-EMDEN TYPE EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Abd-Elhameed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lane-Emden type equations model many phenomena in mathematical physics and astrophysics, such as thermal explosions. This paper is concerned with intro - ducing third and fourth kind Chebyshev-Galerkin operational matrices in order to solve such problems. The principal idea behind the suggested algorithms is based on converting the linear or nonlinear Lane-Emden problem, through the application of suitable spectral methods, into a system of linear or nonlinear equations in the expansion coefficients, which can be efficiently solved. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm in the linear case is that the resulting linear systems are specially structured, and this of course reduces the computational effort required to solve such systems. As an application, we consider the solar model polytrope with n = 3 to show that the suggested solutions in this paper are in good agreement with the numerical results.

  18. Performance analysis and comparison of PTOP and LANE for IP transmission over ATM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Junaid A.; Al-Irhayim, Sufyan; Al-Khateeb, Wajdi; Wajdi, Yahya

    1998-12-01

    Due to its traffic control and performance assurance characteristics, ATM is being employed as the core network in most campuses. However, bulk of the workstations remain on Ethernet, generating IP traffic that passes through ATM using special schemes such as PTOP or LANE. In such a network, the performance is affected due to the extra overheads in multiple conversions between cells and packets and managing virtual circuits. The aim of this paper is to compare the performance of PTOP and LANE in passing the IP traffic under various conditions. This study helps in understanding the various performance issues in these environments in order to define the end-to-end quality of service for Ethernet-ATM networks.

  19. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  20. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  1. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  2. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ávila Assunção

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers.

  3. Ring Bus Architecture for a Solid-State Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W. John; Kopf, Edward; Cox, Brian

    2008-01-01

    A document concisely describes a ring bus architecture for a proposed solid-state recorder (SSR) that would serve as buffer of data to be transmitted from a spacecraft to Earth. This architecture would afford fault tolerance needed for reliable operation in an anticipated high-radiation environment in which traditional SSRs cannot operate reliably. Features of the architecture include one or more controller boards and multiple memory boards interconnected in a ringlike topology. The interconnections would be high-speed serial links complying with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standard 1393 (which pertains to a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus). Accordingly, each controller and memory board would be equipped with an IEEE-1393-compliant ring-bus-interface unit. The ringlike topology and the multiplicity of memory boards (and, optionally, of controller boards) would afford the redundancy needed for fault tolerance. Each board would be a fault-containment region. The IEEE 1393 links could be routed so that the SSR would continue to function even in the event of multiple failures. This architecture would also support scalability over a wide range. In a fully redundant configuration, it could accommodate between 1 and 125 memory boards.

  4. Designing Parallel Bus Using Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyandra Sharad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper entitled “DESIGNING PARALLEL BUSUSING UNIVERSAL ASYNCHRONOUS RECEIVER TRANSMITTER” is designed to the core of a UART interface module, which includes both receive and transmit modules, and the command parser. This paper will be a viable solution to design parallel buses with the help of UART. In the test bench , there is a RFM(register file model to which we write/read back data from just to check our design .The txt file issues serial inputs to the core and the core outputs parallel data and address in the form of bus. This bus is connected to our RFM (register file model instantiated in the test bench along with the design. This makes easy to retrieve parallel data from serial input. The base of the paper is to use microcontroller along with other components to interface with the physical world. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART before they may be directly connected to a data bus. Both Transmissions (Parallel and Serial are used to connect peripheral devices and enable us to communicate with these devices. The UART core described here is designed using VHDL and implemented on Xilinx Vertex FPGA.

  5. Fuel cell transit bus development & commercialization programs at Gerogetown University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, R.; Larkins, J.; Romano, S. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fourteen years ago, Georgetown University (GU) perceived the need for a clean, efficient power systems for transportation that could operate on non-petroleum based fuels. The transit bus application was selected to begin system development. GU recognized the range and recharge constraints of a pure battery powered transit bus. A Fuel Cell power system would circumvent these limitations and, with an on board reformer, accommodate liquid fuel for rapid refueling. Feasibility studies for Fuel Cell power systems for transit buses were conducted with the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1983. Successful results of this investigation resulted in the DOT/DOE Fuel Cell transit bus development program. The first task was to prove that small Fuel Cell power plants were possible. This was achieved with the Phase I development of two 25 kW Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) brassboard systems. A liquid cooled version was selected for the Phase II activity in which three 30-foot Fuel Cell powered Test Bed Buses (TBBs) were fabricated. The first of these TBBs was delivered in the spring of 1994. All three of these development vehicles are now in Phase III of the program to conduct testing and evaluation, is conducting operational testing of the buses. The test will involve two fuel cell-operated buses; one with a proton exchange fuel cell and the other with a phosphoric acid fuel cell.

  6. An Electric Bus with a Battery Exchange System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing effort to be independent of petroleum resources and to be free from pollutant emission issues, various electric vehicles have been developed and tested through their integration with real world systems. In the current paper, yet another application specific EV for public transportation, an electric bus, is introduced and explained with results from the pilot test program which was carried out under real traffic conditions. The main feature of the current system is a battery exchanging mechanism mounted on the roof of the bus. The current configuration certainly requires an externally fabricated battery exchanging robot system that would complement the electric bus for a fully automated battery exchanging process. The major advantage of the current system is the quick re-charging of the electric energy through the physical battery exchange and the possible utilization of the battery exchange station as a mini scale energy storage system for grid system peak power shaving. With the total system solution approach for the public transportation system, it is fully expected to create outstanding business opportunities in number of areas such as battery suppliers, battery exchanging station management, battery leasing and many more.

  7. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  8. Violence against metropolitan bus drivers and fare collectors in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ada Ávila; de Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the correlation between sociodemographic factors and working conditions of bus workers in a metropolitan area and violence against them. METHODS This cross-sectional study used a nonprobabilistic sample estimated according to the number of workers employed in bus companies located in three cities in the Belo Horizonte metropolitan region in 2012 (N = 17,470). Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a digital questionnaire. The factors associated with violence were analyzed in two stages using Poisson regression, according to each level. The magnitude of the association was evaluated using prevalence ratios with robust variance and a statistical significance of 5%, and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS The study sample comprised 782 drivers and 691 fare collectors; 45.0% participants reported at least one act of violence in the workplace in the last 12 months, with passengers being predominantly responsible. The age of the bus workers was inversely associated with violence. Chronic diseases, sickness absenteeism, and working conditions were also associated with violence. CONCLUSIONS The findings on the correlation between violence and working conditions are essential for implementing prevention strategies by transportation service managers. PMID:25741657

  9. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  10. A Macroscopic Approach to the Lane Formation Phenomenon in Pedestrian Counterflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Tao; ZHANG Peng; WONG S. C.; SHU Chi-Wang; ZHANG Meng-Ping

    2011-01-01

    We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speed-density relationship. Although the whole system is symmetric, the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians. The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or "noise", and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time. The underlying physics can be compared with the "optimal self-organization" mechanism in Helbing's social force model, by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.%We simulate pedestrian counterflow by adopting an optimal path-choice strategy and a recently observed speeddensity relationship.Although the whole system is symmetric,the simulation demonstrates the segregation and formation of many walking lanes for two groups of pedestrians.The symmetry breaking is most likely triggered by a small numerical viscosity or “noise”,and the segregation is associated with the minimization of travel time.The underlying physics can be compared with the “optimal self-organization” mechanism in Helbing's social force model,by which driven entities in an open system tend to minimize their interaction to enable them to reach some ordering state.The phenomenon of lane formation in pedestrian flows has been frequently observed through direct observation or controlled experiments.Helbing et al.[4]presented photographs to show that pedestrians could form uniform walking lanes at sufficiently high densities.Theoretically,the phenomenon was explained through an optimal self-organization mechanism,[3,6]namely,a pedestrian crowd constitutes an open system of driven entities that tends to minimize interaction and dissipation,and thus an optimal state is reached.This differs from a closed system,which is governed by the second law of thermodynamics and thus the entropy

  11. Microscopic origin and macroscopic implications of lane formation in mixtures of oppositely driven particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymko, Katherine; Geissler, Phillip L.; Whitelam, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal particles of two types, driven in opposite directions, can segregate into lanes [Vissers et al., Soft Matter 7, 2352 (2011), 10.1039/c0sm01343a]. This phenomenon can be reproduced by two-dimensional Brownian dynamics simulations of model particles [Dzubiella et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.021402]. Here we use computer simulation to assess the generality of lane formation with respect to variation of particle type and dynamical protocol. We find that laning results from rectification of diffusion on the scale of a particle diameter: oppositely driven particles must, in the time taken to encounter each other in the direction of the drive, diffuse in the perpendicular direction by about one particle diameter. This geometric constraint implies that the diffusion constant of a particle, in the presence of those of the opposite type, grows approximately linearly with the Péclet number, a prediction confirmed by our numerics over a range of model parameters. Such environment-dependent diffusion is statistically similar to an effective interparticle attraction; consistent with this observation, we find that oppositely driven nonattractive colloids display features characteristic of the simplest model system possessing both interparticle attractions and persistent motion, the driven Ising lattice gas [Katz, Leibowitz, and Spohn, J. Stat. Phys. 34, 497 (1984), 10.1007/BF01018556]. These features include long-ranged correlations in the disordered regime, a critical regime characterized by a change in slope of the particle current with the Péclet number, and fluctuations that grow with system size. By analogy, we suggest that lane formation in the driven colloid system is a phase transition in the macroscopic limit, but that macroscopic phase separation would not occur in finite time upon starting from disordered initial conditions.

  12. Flow difference effect in the two-lane lattice hydrodynamic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tao; Gao Zi-You; Zhao Xiao-Mei; Tian Jun-Fang; Zhang Wen-Yi

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a flow difference effect,a modified lattice two-lane traffic flow model is proposed,which is proved to be capable of improving the stability of traffic flow.Both the linear stability condition and the kink-antikink solution derived from the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are analyzed.Numerical simulations verify the theoretical analysis.Furthermore,the evolution laws under different disturbances in the metastable region are studied.

  13. Three new species of Calliceratomyia Lane (Diptera: Ditomyiidae) from Neotropical Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Heron; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-02-03

    Three new species of the ditomyiid genus Calliceratomyia Lane, so far known only from the type-species from southeastern Brazil, are described from Mexico. The new species-Calliceratomyia papaveroi sp. n., Calliceratomyia pantelhomyia sp. n. and Calliceratomyia zayolli sp. n.-are described based on adult males collected with Malaise traps in the States of Oaxaca, Chiapas and Hidalgo, Mexico. The descriptions are illustrated and the diagnosis of the genus is revised.

  14. Lie Group Classification of a Generalized Lane-Emden Type System in Two Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motlatsi Molati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to perform a complete Lie symmetry classification of a generalized Lane-Emden type system in two dimensions which models many physical phenomena in biological and physical sciences. The classical approach of group classification is employed for classification. We show that several cases arise in classifying the arbitrary parameters, the forms of which include amongst others the power law nonlinearity, and exponential and quadratic forms.

  15. Event-Based Modeling of Driver Yielding Behavior to Pedestrians at Two-Lane Roundabout Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamati, Katayoun; Schroeder, Bastian J; Geruschat, Duane R; Rouphail, Nagui M

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other types of controlled intersections, drivers do not always comply with the "yield to pedestrian" sign at the roundabouts. This paper aims to identify the contributing factors affecting the likelihood of driver yielding to pedestrians at two-lane roundabouts. It further models the likelihood of driver yielding based on these factors using logistic regression. The models have been applied to 1150 controlled pedestrian crossings at entry and exit legs of two-lane approaches of six roundabouts across the country. The logistic regression models developed support prior research that the likelihood of driver yielding at the entry leg of roundabouts is higher than at the exit. Drivers tend to yield to pedestrians carrying a white cane more often than to sighted pedestrians. Drivers traveling in the far lane, relative to pedestrian location, have a lower probability of yielding to a pedestrian. As the speed increases the probability of driver yielding decreases. At the exit leg of the roundabout, drivers turning right from the adjacent lane have a lower propensity of yielding than drivers coming from other directions. The findings of this paper further suggest that although there has been much debate on pedestrian right-of-way laws and distinction between pedestrian waiting positions (in the street versus at the curb), this factor does not have a significant impact on driver yielding rate. The logistic regression models also quantify the effect of each of these factors on propensity of driver yielding. The models include variables which are specific to each study location and explain the impact size of each study location on probability of yielding. The models generated in this research will be useful to transportation professionals and researchers interested in understanding the factors that impact driver yielding at modern roundabouts. The results of the research can be used to isolate factors that may increase yielding (such as lower roundabout approach speeds

  16. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    public service of the RAND Corporation. CHILDREN AND FAMILIES EDUCATION AND THE ARTS ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE AND...governance in Nigeria, these considerations suggest that Ghana may be a more attractive partner. In examining the Caspian Region, the major energy...lanes as supply lines. Because they facilitate delivery of the resources necessary to fuel continued economic growth, they are far more important than

  17. A Numerical Method for Lane-Emden Equations Using Hybrid Functions and the Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to solve Lane-Emden equations as singular initial value problems is presented in this work. This method is based on the replacement of unknown functions through a truncated series of hybrid of block-pulse functions and Chebyshev polynomials. The collocation method transforms the differential equation into a system of algebraic equations. It also has application in a wide area of differential equations. Corresponding numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  18. Improving the Sustainability of Transportation: Environmental and Functional Benefits of Right Turn By-Pass Lanes at Roundabouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Guerrieri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional performances of conventional roundabouts (single-lane and multi-lane and innovative roundabouts (spiral, flower, C and turbo can be improved through right-turn bypass lanes controlled by stop, yield or free-flow signs. The article presents evaluations of the emissions of air pollutants (carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particle pollution (PM10 and PM2.5, fuel consumption and construction, management, energetic and environmental costs in roundabouts without or with bypass lanes (controlled by stop, yield or free-flow. The suggested methodology has a general character and can be applied as a multi-parametric criterion for choosing road intersections, although, in the present paper, it has been employed only for a case study. For the aims of this research, we employed recent closed-form formulations to determine roundabout performances; moreover, we used the COPERT IV® software to estimate air emissions in nine different types of vehicles. Numerous traffic simulations were carried out. The variation in the maximum hourly traffic Qmax and annual traffic QTOT provided the appropriate domains of the examined geometric layouts, both in functional and environmental terms and with regard to generalized costs, estimated for a 10-year period. It resulted that the introduction of right-turn bypasses in all arms of conventional roundabouts with a one ring lane and one lane at the entries (single-lane roundabouts is the most cost-effective when the flows entering the roundabout are higher than Qmax = 2000 veh/h. Moreover, free-flow bypass lanes always provide greater capacity and lower delays than stop- or yield-signaled bypasses. However, with extremely high Qmax values, stop-controlled bypasses guarantee lower fuel consumption, while those with a yield sign lower total costs.

  19. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph;

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  20. Deep Neural Network for Structural Prediction and Lane Detection in Traffic Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Mei, Xue; Prokhorov, Danil; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-03-01

    Hierarchical neural networks have been shown to be effective in learning representative image features and recognizing object classes. However, most existing networks combine the low/middle level cues for classification without accounting for any spatial structures. For applications such as understanding a scene, how the visual cues are spatially distributed in an image becomes essential for successful analysis. This paper extends the framework of deep neural networks by accounting for the structural cues in the visual signals. In particular, two kinds of neural networks have been proposed. First, we develop a multitask deep convolutional network, which simultaneously detects the presence of the target and the geometric attributes (location and orientation) of the target with respect to the region of interest. Second, a recurrent neuron layer is adopted for structured visual detection. The recurrent neurons can deal with the spatial distribution of visible cues belonging to an object whose shape or structure is difficult to explicitly define. Both the networks are demonstrated by the practical task of detecting lane boundaries in traffic scenes. The multitask convolutional neural network provides auxiliary geometric information to help the subsequent modeling of the given lane structures. The recurrent neural network automatically detects lane boundaries, including those areas containing no marks, without any explicit prior knowledge or secondary modeling.

  1. Method of planning a reference trajectory of a single lane change manoeuver with Bezier curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowski, D.; Ślaski, G.

    2016-09-01

    For a comprehensive simulation of vehicle steering process it is vital to model the decision process of planning a trajectory shape and process of the selected trajectory. A single lane change manoeuver is only slightly restricted by the road geometry. There are also other requirements of a possible trajectory of movement, such as the continuity of change (derivative) of curvature, maximizing the passenger's comfort measured with appropriate indicators based on variables of motion dynamics or parameters of motion trajectory which influence that dynamic. This article presents a suggested method of automatic generation of trajectory of single lane change manoeuver. The proposed method can be used as an integral part of driver models and is based on a combination of two symmetrical Bezier curves optionally supplemented with a straight lane connector. The method meets the requirements of a trajectory shape, which results from optimizing the value of parameters controlling Bezier curve based on minimizing the curvature and the resulting lateral acceleration while preserving the continuity of curvature derivative of the planned trajectory.

  2. Beliefs and behaviours relevant to the road safety effects of profile lane-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Julie; Murphy, Susanne; Job, R F Soames

    2008-11-01

    Audio-tactile lane-marking (ATLM) is designed to alert inattentive drivers when they deviate from their lane, and appears to reduce crashes. Research into cognitive-behavioural mechanisms underlying, or possibly undermining, the efficacy of ATLM, is limited. We surveyed 775 randomly selected drivers (42% female, up to 75+ years) regarding the profile line-marking (PLM) employed in Australia (and in some European countries). Respondents perceived advantages of PLM in terms of lane-keeping and visibility. Respondents reported avoiding edge-line PLM, so that it may result in driving too close to untreated centre-line. Findings generally allayed concerns, on the basis of risk homeostasis theory, that PLM may increase risky driving. Perceived efficacy of PLM was not associated with increased drink-driving or speeding, but was associated with increased driving while fatigued. Findings suggest that the efficacy of PLM may be increased by employing PLM on both edge- and centre-lines, by exaggerating the audio-tactile effects of PLM that cause drivers to avoid it, and by discouraging the belief that it is safe to drive while fatigued when PLM is present.

  3. A High-Speed DMA Transmission System Based on PCI Express Bus%一种基于PCI Express总线的DMA高速传输系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯杭呈; 王忆文; 李辉

    2013-01-01

    A high speed transmission system based on PCI Express bus was described,together with the design of DMA.Two FIFOs were fitted at both ends of the transmission card to provide standard FIFO interface,which was connected with fiber channel data,CT image acquisition data,A/D sampling data,etc.Experimental results verified the reliability of transmission in DMA read/write modes,and the speed of DMA transaction was measured.It has been shown that the high speed transmission system based on lane 8 PCI express bus had a DMA transaction speed up to 1 000 MB/s for a DMA transfer size of 1 M byte,which meets the requirement of most high speed data transmission applications.%介绍了DMA高速传输系统的结构以及DMA的设计,搭建了×8通道的PCIE系统.在整个系统的板卡终端,连接了两个FIFO,提供标准的FIFO接口,能连接光纤数据、CT图像采集数据、A/D采样数据等.实验验证了DMA读和DMA写两种传输方式的可靠性,测试了DMA读写的传输速度.实验表明,在单次DMA传输大小达到1MB时,×8通道的PCIE系统DMA读和写速度均能达到1 000 MB/s,可满足大部分高速数据传输的要求.

  4. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Third Results Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. NREL has previously published two reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from July 2011 through January 2012.

  5. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  6. Design and VHDL simulation of a special high speed spaceborne bus controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The application of high speed data bus on the satellites having several remote sensors could not only satisfy the demand of high speed data transfer,but also could reuse the equipment at both the com-ponent and subsystem levels for other space missions,thus reducing the costs of on-board processing system integration.In this article,a special high speed data bus with simple interfaces is chosen for transferring the data produced by remote sensors and other instrumentations.First,the function and the structure of the data bus are discussed carefully.And then,the bus controller,which is a key mod-ule of the data bus,is designed.At last,the function and performance of the bus controller are verified by VHDL simulation.

  7. Bitmap-Wise Wireless M-Bus Coordination for Sustainable Real Time Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though WM-Bus is being considered to be the most promising network protocol for smart metering, it is not suitable for a sustainable real-time home energy management system (HEMS, which requires higher reliability and longer lifetime despite real time bi-directional communications. Therefore, in this paper we propose a Bitmap-wise WM-Bus (BWM-Bus, coping well with sustainable real-time HEMS. In particular, the proposed scheme addresses the several problems in WM-Bus for HEMS by introducing novel functions: asynchronous meter trigger, adaptive slot scheduling, and bitmap-wise retransmission request. Through experiments, we demonstrate that BWM-Bus guarantees higher data success ratio with lower data aggregation time, as well as longer lifetime than WM-Bus standard.

  8. The RRR of the Cu components of the LHC main bus bar splices

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, S; Fessia, P; Principe, R; CERN. Geneva. TE Department

    2010-01-01

    The different LHC main bus bar splice components (bus bar cable, splice U-piece and wedge and bus bar stabilizer) are subjected to different heat treatments (HTs) during bus bar assembly and splice soldering. The influence of soldering HTs on the RRR of the LHC main bus bar cable strands has been determined. The RRR of several splice U-pieces and wedges dismounted from the LHC has been measured. A correlation between the Vickers hardness and the RRR of the high purity Cu profiles has been established. All U-pieces tested that were produced before 2009 have a RRR>200, while the RRR of all wedges and of U-pieces of 2009 production have a much lower RRR. All tests of LHC main bus bar samples performed so far in the laboratory indicate a RRR of approximately 200 or higher.

  9. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Hyderabad

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda; Maddali Sai Satya Goutham

    2014-01-01

    Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BR...

  10. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-06-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  11. A Prediction System Using a P2P Overlay Network for a Bus Arrival System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssu-Hsuan Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the evolution of times and the surge of metropolitan populations, government agencies often promote the construction of public transport. Unlike rail transportation or rapid transit systems, it is often difficult to estimate the vehicle arrival times at each station in a bus transportation system due to metropolitan transportation congestion. Traffic status is often monitored using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. However, WSNs are always separated from one another spatially. Recent studies have considered the connection of multiple sensor networks. This study considers a combination view of peer-to-peer (P2P overlay networks and WSN architecture to predict bus arrival times. Each bus station, which is also a P2P overlay peer, is connected in a P2P overlay network. A sensor installed in each bus can receive data via peers to obtain the moving speed of a bus. Then, each peer can exchange its data to predict bus arrival times at bus stations. This method can considerably increase the accuracy with which bus arrival times can be predicted and can provide traffic status with high precision. Furthermore, these data can also be used to plan new bus routes according to the information gathered.

  12. An interactive wireless communication system for visually impaired people using city bus transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Lan; Chen, Ya-Ping; Rau, Chi-Lun; Yu, Chung-Huang

    2014-04-25

    Visually impaired people have difficulty accessing information about public transportation systems. Several systems have been developed for assisting visually impaired and blind people to use the city bus. Most systems provide only one-way communication and require high-cost and complex equipment. The purpose of this study is to reduce the difficulties faced by visually impaired people when taking city buses, using an interactive wireless communication system. The system comprised a user module and a bus module to establish a direct one-to-one connection. When the user inputs 4-digit numbers, the user module immediately sends out the information. If the bus module receives the matched bus number, it buzzes and the warning LED flashes to notify the bus driver that someone is waiting to board on the bus. User tests were conducted by two visually impaired people in a simulated vehicle and a city bus. The success rate of interactive wireless communication, recognizing the arrival of the bus and boarding the correct bus reached 100% in all of the tests. The interactive wireless communication aid system is a valid and low-cost device for assisting visually impaired people to use city buses.

  13. Modeling, solving and simulation for combinatorial optimization problem of bus stopping in BRT station-group%BRT车站组停靠线路组合优化问题的建模、求解与仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林培群; 徐建闽

    2012-01-01

    针对国内外许多城市的BRT专用道仅有1个车道、车辆进站排队容易造成通道阻塞的情况,首先以最小化排队概率为目标,推导出车站组的停靠线路组合优化模型,然后定义上游交叉口的累积效应系数以使模型适应车辆间歇性批量到站的情况,随后针对模型的求解,给出了一种n进制数编码的新的遗传算法.算例以广州市某典型BRT车站组为例进行停靠线路配置优化,并利用VISSIM软件对原始方案及优化方案进行多次仿真和对比,结果表明所提出的方法能有效地缓解公交车辆的进站排队现象,并降低泊位占有率,减少停车次数和行程时间.%Queuing in the bus station often causes traffic jam owing to the fact that BRT system in many cities contains only one lane. In order to relieve this crunch, firstly, a combinatorial optimization model of bus stop in BRT station group was put forward to minimize the queuing probability, then by defining the intersection vehicle cumulative effect coefficient, the optimization model was improved to adapt to intermittent bus batch arrivals caused by the upstream intersection. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm with n-based number encoding was put forward to solve the optimization model. Finally, several bus stop optimization programs of a typical station group in Guangzhou BRT system were obtained in the example, and the simulated results of the original and the new programs from VISSIM software showed that the proposed method could reduce the queuing situation effectively, and decrease the berth occupation rate, bus stop times and travel time simultaneously.

  14. An investigation of merging and diverging cars on a multi-lane road using a cellular automation model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Jetto; H.Ez-Zahraouy; A.Benyoussef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we have investigated two observed situations in a multi-lane road.The first one concerns a fast merging vehicle.The second situation is related to the case of a fast vehicle leaving the fastest lane back into the slowest lane and targeting a specific way out.We are interested in the relaxation time τ,i.e.,which is the time that the merging (diverging) vehicle spends before reaching the desired lane.Using analytical treatment and numerical simulations for the NaSch model,we have found two states,namely,the free state in which the merging (diverging) vehicle reaches the desired lane,and the trapped state in which τ diverges.We have established phase diagrams for several values of the braking probability.In the second situation,we have shown that diverging from the fast lane targeting a specific way out is not a simple task.Even if the diverging vehicle is in the free phase,two different states can be distinguished.One is the critical state,in which the diverging car can probably reach the desired way out.The other is the safe state,in which the diverging car can surely reach the desired way out.In order to be in the safe state,we have found that the driver of the diverging car must know the critical distance (below which the way out will be out of his reach) in each lane.Furthermore,this critical distance depends on the density of cars,and it follows an exponential law.

  15. Communication Architecture Synthesis for Multi-bus SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Zitouni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the systems on chip (SoC design, the synthesis of communication architecture constitutes the bottleneck which can affect the performances of the system. Various schemes and protocols can be necessary, just as various topologies of interconnection. To reduce the complexity of the communications refinement, we present in this study a model and a synthesis approach for multi-bus communication architecture containing centralized bridge. The automation of the arbiter synthesis step profited from a detailed attention. This stage generates a hierarchical arbiter integrating various priority arbitration modules. The proposed approach was integrated in a toolbox based environment

  16. Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The Swedish public transport sector has defined two major targets, i.e., to run 90% of the total vehicle kilometers of the fleet on non-fossil fuels and double the volume of travel via public transport by 2020, increasing the share of public transport in relation to the total personal transport in the country . The f3 report Fuel options for public bus fleets in Sweden highlights the challenges and solutions encountered, particularly when it comes to the adoption of renewable fuels in the reg...

  17. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  18. Development of a Multi‐bus platform for automation testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Mathias; Knapik, Lukas

    2010-01-01

    The task for this thesis was to develop, construct and evaluate a multi‐bus communication system,connected to a PC via USB and capable of communicating in CAN, I2C and SPI and develop drivers for itin National Instruments LabVIEW.In the beginning a study was made of the communication buses followed by an investigation of whattype of hardware that could accomplish this task. A microcontroller unit was selected andprogrammed in MikroElektronika MikroC Pro v.3.2 to act as the interface between t...

  19. Study on Braking Energy Regeneration System for City Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Zheng-yao; CHEN Ru-wen; YANG Xue-mei; LIU Gou-bing; JIN Jia-jun

    2011-01-01

    Braking of the urban vehicles of public service wastes a large number of engine energy in the condition of starting and stopping frequently. Aiming at the problem, an electro-mechanical braking energy regeneration system was proposed which adopted a high-speed flywheel and a battery to recover the braking energy and achieve the secondary traction for the auxiliary start function. The system strategy was designed and the braking simulation was processed to validate its feasibility. The experiment results show that the system can effectively recover the braking energy, improve the starting performance of the city bus and it can be applied to the engineering.

  20. Distributed Data Acquisition and Control by Software Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecil Bruce-Boye; Dmitry A. Kazakov

    2004-01-01

    Increasing global competition forces manufacturers of products from all technical fields to guarantee a high product quality for a long period of time. At the same time it is necessary to minimize production costs. In order to meet all these requirements, on-line data acquisition and processing are of increasing importance in distributed automation systems. A software bus operating on industrial Ethernet has an ability to minimize operating costs by offering easy installation, scalability,high degree of reliability and remote monitoring and control.

  1. Bus ride: an ethnographic exercise in Cafezal Quarter

    OpenAIRE

    Fé, Janine Damasceno Moura; Universidade Federal do Piauí; Souza, Maria Irene Pellegrino de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2006-01-01

     This work studies ethnography with theory basis from Collier Jr; Achutti; Maffesoli. The research method is photography and the target population are workers and passengers of a bus line, the Cafezal (quarter in the outskirts of Londrina-PR). It is noted that even in the most regular situations, it is possible to capture significant elements for ethnographic research.   O trabalho estuda a etnografia com referencial teórico de Collier Jr; Achutti, Maffesoli. O método de pesquisa é a fotog...

  2. DC Bus Regulation with a Flywheel Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Kascak, Peter E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the DC bus regulation control algorithm for the NASA flywheel energy storage system during charge, charge reduction and discharge modes of operation. The algorithm was experimentally verified with results given in a previous paper. This paper presents the necessary models for simulation with detailed block diagrams of the controller algorithm. It is shown that the flywheel system and the controller can be modeled in three levels of detail depending on the type of analysis required. The three models are explained and then compared using simulation results.

  3. [Investigation on events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X G; Liu, Y; Cen, Y; Wu, P; Zhou, H L; Han, C M

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics of events of bus on fire in 6 years in the mainland of China. Methods: Events of bus on fire happened between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrieved through Baidu search engine, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, and PubMed database in the search strategy with " bus" and " fire" or " arson" as keywords combined with the name of provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities of the mainland of China. The occurrence time, region, cause of fire, casualties of each event were recorded, and the correlative analysis was conducted. Data were processed with Microsoft Excel software. Results: Totally 287 events of bus on fire were retrieved, among which 49 events happened in 2009, 36 events happened in 2010, 35 events happened in 2011, 37 events happened in 2012, and respectively 65 events happened in 2013 and 2014. The events of bus on fire most frequently happened in June and July, respectively 49 and 39 events. Among the distribution of occurrence regions of events of bus on fire, there were 78 events (27.18%) in east China, 52 events (18.12%) in northeast China, 41 events (14.29%) both in north China and south China. Among the causes of events of bus on fire, spontaneous combustion of bus ranked in the first (267 events, accounting for 93.03%), followed by arson (13 events, accounting for 4.53%). Among the 13 events of bus on fire caused by arson, 7 events happened between 16: 00 and 20: 00, and 3 events happened between 8: 00 and 10: 00. Totally 27 events of bus on fire (9.41%) were with casualties, among which 13 events (48.15%) were caused by spontaneous combustion of bus, 10 events (37.04%) were caused by arson, and 4 events (14.81%) were caused by traffic accidents. Arson caused the most severe casualties (at least 88 deaths and 287 injuries), followed by spontaneous combustion of bus (at least 35 deaths and 140 injuries) and traffic accidents (at least 9 deaths and 20 injuries). Conclusions

  4. Bernstein Series Solution of a Class of Lane-Emden Type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Rasit Isik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present an approximate solution that depends on collocation points and Bernstein polynomials for a class of Lane-Emden type equations with mixed conditions. The method is given with some priori error estimate. Even the exact solution is unknown, an upper bound based on the regularity of the exact solution will be obtained. By using the residual correction procedure, the absolute error can be estimated. Also, one can specify the optimal truncation limit n which gives a better result in any norm. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is illustrated by some numerical experiments. Numerical results are consistent with the theoretical results.

  5. Visual object-oriented application for lane following on intelligent highway system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangChunyan; WangWi; LuJian; ChangYulin

    2003-01-01

    A visual object-oriented software for lane following on intelligent highway system (IHS) is proposed. According to object-oriented theory, 3 typical user services of self-check, transfer of human driving and automatic running and abnormal information input from the sensors are chosen out. In addition, the functions of real-time display, information exchanging interface, determination and operation interweaving in the 3 user services are separated into 5 object-oriented classes.Moreover, the 5 classes are organized in the visual development environment. At last, experimental result proves the validity and reliability of the control application.

  6. Dibujando un nuevo paradigma: de Golden Lane (1952) a A Journey from A to B (1972)

    OpenAIRE

    Capdevila Castellanos, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Esta tesis tiene como objeto principal evidenciar la relación, aparentemente inexistente, entre el dibujo de Alison y Peter Smithson para la propuesta de concurso de Golden Lane en 1952 y el dibujo de 1972 del grupo italiano Superstudio titulado A Journey from A to B. Serán otros cuatro dibujos principales -Alison y Peter Smithson, Constant Nieuwenhuys, Yona Friedman y Peter Cook- los que servirán para establecer una relación lógica entre los dos citados arriba. En paralelo, la descripción de...

  7. Motion Planning of Autonomous Vehicles on a Dual Carriageway without Speed Lanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Kala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of motion planning of an autonomous vehicle amidst other vehicles on a straight road is considered. Traffic in a number of countries is unorganized, where the vehicles do not move within predefined speed lanes. In this paper, we formulate a mechanism wherein an autonomous vehicle may travel on the “wrong” side in order to overtake a vehicle. Challenges include assessing a possible overtaking opportunity, cooperating with other vehicles, partial driving on the “wrong” side of the road and safely going to and returning from the “wrong” side. The experimental results presented show vehicles cooperating to accomplish overtaking manoeuvres.

  8. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-08-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions.

  9. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    CERN Document Server

    Kuan, Hui-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean-field model. By studying the phase space flows, we determine the model's fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a new multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamm...

  10. Empirical Study of Accepted Gap and Lane Change Duration within Arterial Traffic under Recurrent and Non-Recurrent Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gurupackiam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated variations in accepted gaps and lane change duration on arterial under recurrent and non-recurrent congestion. Descriptive statistics and best-fit distributions were obtained for the two parameters for both traffic conditions. Hypothesis testing using Mann-Whitney U-Test showed that the means of accepted gaps and lane change durations were statistically different between the two types of traffic’ conditions. The study found that during non-recurrent congestion, drivers on an average accepted smaller gaps but took longer lane change durations. Based on the fact that the data were collected for the same flow-rate (70-90 vehicles/minute in both traffic conditions and based on the literature, the reason for the above findings could be that, drivers get more frustrated during non-recurring congestion that they accept smaller gaps. Drivers visiting the study location for game day (non-recurrent exhibit different driver behavioral characteristics when compared to regular commuters (recurrent which could have also contributed to the statistical differences in the lane changing characteristics of two types of congestion. These findings have direct implications on the lane changing parameters used in microscopic traffic simulation and also help transportation planners and managers to understand driver behavior during recurrent and non-recurrent congestion and better manage the facilities.

  11. Phase-plane analysis of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with binding kinetics and switching between antiparallel lanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Hui-Shun; Betterton, Meredith D.

    2016-01-01

    Motor protein motion on biopolymers can be described by models related to the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process (TASEP). Inspired by experiments on the motion of kinesin-4 motors on antiparallel microtubule overlaps, we analyze a model incorporating the TASEP on two antiparallel lanes with binding kinetics and lane switching. We determine the steady-state motor density profiles using phase-plane analysis of the steady-state mean field equations and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. We focus on the density-density phase plane, where we find an analytic solution to the mean field model. By studying the phase-space flows, we determine the model’s fixed points and their changes with parameters. Phases previously identified for the single-lane model occur for low switching rate between lanes. We predict a multiple coexistence phase due to additional fixed points that appear as the switching rate increases: switching moves motors from the higher-density to the lower-density lane, causing local jamming and creating multiple domain walls. We determine the phase diagram of the model for both symmetric and general boundary conditions. PMID:27627345

  12. Bus Stops, Ctran amd Rtp Bus Stops, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  13. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  14. Bus Routes, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Routes, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  15. Bus Routes, This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of the existing bus routes, Published in 2006, Charlotte Area Transit System.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Routes dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'This shapefile contains lines that follow the path of...

  16. UNIVERSALIZATION OF BUS BODY FACING DETAILS AND PRODUCTION TOOLING FOR THEIR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taranenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The directions concerning bus body production costs reduction based on large-size facing details stamping on electric-hydraulic presses are considered. The engineering of unified large-size facing detail blanks, manufacturing processes and variants of unified technological tooling for bus body facing details production, including simple- or multi-type details are described.

  17. Spaceflight qualification of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark C.

    1993-09-01

    The small explorer (SMEX) project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) launched the first spaceflight implementation of the MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic data bus on the Solar Anomalous Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) in July of 1992. The Small Explorer Data System (SEDS), of which the MIL-STD-1773 data bus is a part, has been successful. The MIL-STD-1773 bus is the implementation of the MIL-STD-1553 protocol using fiber optics. Advantages of the fiber optic bus over the electrical bus include lower power, lower weight, and immunity from EMI/RFI. It does not radiate electrical or magnetic fields. It is a nonconductor so it cannot conduct electrical noise into or from a subsystem. This is particularly advantageous on a spacecraft with very sensitive instruments which are often susceptible to electrical interference. Although the MIL-STD-1773 bus is a 1 Mbps bus like the MIL-STD-1553 bus, the fiber optics also provide a path to the much higher rate systems required in upcoming NASA missions.

  18. Converter Power Density Increase using Low Inductive Integrated DC-link Capacitor/Bus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Franke, Toke; Rannested, Bjørn;

    2015-01-01

    The power losses in switching devices have a direct effect on the maximum converter power. For a voltage source converter, the DC-link bus has a major influence on the power loss and safe operating area of the power devices. The Power Ring Film CapacitorTM integrated with an optimized bus structu...

  19. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221, School bus body joint strength. 571.221 Section 571.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221, School bus body joint...

  20. 49 CFR 571.221 - Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength... STANDARDS Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.221 Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength. S1. Scope. This standard establishes requirements for the strength of the body panel joints in...

  1. Evoking Emotions and Unpacking Layered Histories through Young Children's Illustrations of Racial Bus Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuby, Candace R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of multi-modality and critical visual literacy, this article focuses on images that five-and six year-olds painted in a class-made book, Voice on the Bus, about racial segregation. The article discusses how children used illustrations to convey their understandings of Rosa Parks' bus arrest in Alabama. A post-structural view…

  2. This Could Save Your Child's Life. A School Bus Handrail Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    School-bus handrails have had the same basic design for more than 30 years. However, students' recent propensity to wear oversized and baggy clothing increases the likelihood that clothing or accessories may become snagged on bus handrails. Children across the United States have been injured or killed when their clothing or accessories caught in…

  3. Bus Operation Monitoring Oriented Public Transit Travel Index System and Calculation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a two-dimensional index system which is concerned essentially with urban travel based on travel modes and user satisfaction. First, the public transit was taken as an example to describe the index system establishing process. In consideration of convenience, rapid, reliability, comfort, and safety, a bus service evaluation index system was established. The indicators include the N-minute coverage of bus stops, average travel speed, and fluctuation of travel time between stops and bus load factor which could intuitively describe the characteristics of public transport selected to calculate bus travel indexes. Then, combined with the basic indicators, the calculation models of Convenience Index (CI, Rapid Index (RI, Reliability Index (RBI, and Comfort Index (CTI were established based on the multisource data of public transit including the real-time bus GPS data and passenger IC card data. Finally, a case study of Beijing bus operation evaluation and analysis was conducted by taking real bus operation data including GPS data and passenger transaction recorder (IC card data. The results showed that the operation condition of the public transit was well reflected and scientifically classified by the bus travel index models.

  4. Bus Implementation Using New Low Power PFSCL Tristate Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new positive feedback source coupled logic (PFSCL tristate buffers suited to bus applications. The proposed buffers use switch to attain high impedance state and modify the load or the current source section. An interesting consequence of this is overall reduction in the power consumption. The proposed tristate buffers consume half the power compared to the available switch based counterpart. The issues with available PFSCL tristate buffers based bus implementation are identified and benefits of employing the proposed tristate buffer topologies are put forward. SPICE simulation results using TSMC 180 nm CMOS technology parameters are included to support the theoretical formulations. The performance of proposed tristate buffer topologies is examined on the basis of propagation delay, output enable time, and power consumption. It is found that one of the proposed tristate buffer topology outperforms the others in terms of all the performance parameters. An examination of behavior of available and the proposed PFSCL tristate buffer topologies under parameter variations and mismatch shows a maximum variation of 14%.

  5. A programmable systolic trigger processor for FERA-bus data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelquist, G.; Hovander, B.; Sellden, B.; Bohm, C.

    1992-09-01

    A generic CAMAC based trigger processor module for fast processing of large amounts of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) data was designed. This module was realized using complex programmable gate arrays. The gate arrays were connected to memories and multipliers in such a way that different gate array configurations can cover a wide range of module applications. Using this module, it is possible to construct complex trigger processors. The module uses both the fast ECL FERA bus and the CAMAC bus for inputs and outputs. The latter is used for set up and control but may also be used for data output. Large numbers of ADC's can be served by a hierarchical arrangement of trigger processor modules which process ADC data with pipeline arithmetics and produce the final result at the apex of the pyramid. The trigger decision is transmitted to the data acquisition system via a logic signal while numeric results may be extracted by the CAMAC controller. The trigger processor was developed for the proposed neutral particle search. It was designed to serve as a second level trigger processor. It was required to correct all ADC raw data for efficiency and pedestal, calculate the total calorimeter energy, obtain the optimal time of flight data, and calculate the particle mass. A suitable mass cut would then deliver the trigger decision.

  6. Studying customer loyalty at Daewoo express bus service, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Yousaf

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Meeting service quality standards and striving for loyalty are two critical areas which have until now been overlooked by both the passenger transport industry and academia in Pakistan therefore the study sheds useful light on an issue hitherto untouched. Therefore increased sample size will help in increasing generalizability of study. Methods: This paper is designed to study the level of loyalty at Daewoo Express Bus Service in Sargodha by measuring customer satisfaction. Researchers used a small sample of only 96 respondents (passengers and only studies customer's behavior in the service quality of Daewoo Express Bus Service however it may differ in other passenger transport services. Results and conclusions: This paper reveals that there is a positive and significant relationship between loyalty (dependant variable and price perceptions, reliability, retrieving and smoothing (independent variables. However, the study found that reliability of services is the most important dimension among other independent variables (price perceptions, smoothing, reliability, retrieving effecting customers loyalty at Daewoo Express. Paper under consideration would surely assist Daewoo`s management team to take care of the loopholes existing in the current service level and likely threats which Daewoo might face.

  7. Improved blood pressure control among school bus drivers with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Joseph; Severance-Fonte, Tina; Morandi-Matricaria, Elizabeth; Wogen, Jenifer; Frech-Tamas, Feride

    2010-04-01

    The impact of a hypertension awareness and educational program, BP DownShift, was evaluated among school bus drivers in a southern US state. At baseline (August 2007), blood pressure (BP) measurements, self-reported demographics, and hypertension awareness and management practices were collected from drivers who consented to participate in the study. Interventions included 4 educational mailings, installation of BP machines at all bus terminals, and access to free dietitian consultations and gym memberships. BP was evaluated using Department of Transportation guidelines. BP was remeasured and a survey was administered at follow-up (May 2008). At baseline, 208 drivers consented to the BP screening; 120 (58%) returned for a follow-up assessment. Most participants completing the study were female (73%) and African American (72%). Mean age was 50 years and mean body mass index was 32 kg/m(2); 52% of participants were obese. In all, 58% of participants reported a prior diagnosis of hypertension by a physician, and 63% reported taking antihypertensive medication. Both systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) were lower at follow-up (135/82 mmHg vs. 145/87 mmHg at baseline; P 10 mmHg, and 44% had a reduction in DBP > 5 mmHg. At follow-up, 58% were controlled to BP improvement in BP control, which may positively impact commercial driver's license recertification as well as improve employee health.

  8. CERPEN FARUK “BUS KOTA” DALAM SEMIOTIK ROLAND BARTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Widyatwati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature called beautiful if it contains the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful for the readers. Short story “Bus Kota” (City Bus containing the mandate, message, ideas and meanings that are useful to the reader. The mandate will be revealed by Roland Barthes' semiotic theory in the book S/Z. Literature has its own allure and text have accrued but not due to independence because of the difference in quality. Texts merge into a unity, or restore any text not as an individual but as a form of plurality. Literature as part of a social system is an expression of the author's sense of the outpouring of public life. Literary works can express themselves in the author's view the social and cultural changes in society because of the development of information technology and rapid. Technological developments and socio-cultural information can change in society so as to affect the psychology of the people. Society must have a thickness of faith not only for themselves, but to be able to maintain equanimity in the life of a pluralistic society

  9. Study on the optimum design of bus window pillar join40t; Bus window pillar ketsugo buzai no saiteki sekkei ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomioka, N. [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan); Lim, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, H.; Kang, S.; Bae, D.

    1997-10-01

    Automobile body structure is generally assembled using various spot welded box sectional members. Especially, in the case of the bus, the shape of window pillar joint is assembled m T-type. This T-type member has some problem such as high stress concentration, low fatigue strength and structural rigidity. Therefore, in this report, performed a study on the optimum design of the bus window pillar joint for such problem by FEM analysis and experiments. 1 ref., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Bus rapid transit (BRT) and transitoriented development (TOD) : How to transform and adjust the Swedish cities for attractive bus systems like BRT? What demands BRT?

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovski, Todor

    2013-01-01

    Bus rapid transit (BRT) is an innovative bus system with sophisticated vehicles and inflexible busways integrated in the cities, high capacity and high quality, high speed and frequency, distinctive image and comfort. Many in Sweden believe that is impossible to introduce BRT, even though the Swedish towns and cities can benefit from the image, speed and frequency that BRT symbolizes. The archipelago-like urbanization, urban sprawl and the uncompetitive journey times of public transportation ...

  11. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Second Results Report and Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for their newest prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. In May 2010, SunLine began operating its sixth-generation hydrogen fueled bus, an Advanced Technology (AT) fuel cell bus that incorporates the latest design improvements to reduce weight and increase reliability and performance. The agency is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This is the second results report for the AT fuel cell bus since it was placed in service, and it focuses on the newest data analysis and lessons learned since the previous report. The appendices, referenced in the main report, provide the full background for the evaluation. They will be updated as new information is collected but will contain the original background material from the first report.

  12. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  13. Occupational safety conditions of bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jewelle Ann; Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2016-12-01

    The study looks into the occupational safety and working conditions among bus drivers in Metro Manila, the Philippines. Quantitative data were collected through survey interviews of 95 bus drivers using the stratified sampling technique. Results showed that bus drivers worked an average of 16 h/day and were engaged in risky driving behaviors such as over-speeding and road racing in order to reach their quota for the day. Fifty-nine percent experienced work-related accidents, with a mean of three accidents. The most common accident was hitting another vehicle followed by side swipe. The accidents were blamed on other drivers, followed by vehicle defect, inattentiveness and tiredness/micro-sleep or sudden involuntary sleep while driving. The most common health symptoms experienced by the bus drivers were fatigue, back pain, and cough and colds. This study underlines the need for an occupational health and safety program for bus drivers in the Philippines.

  14. 多车道公路的交通通行能力%Traffic Capacity of Multi- lane Highway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静宇

    2012-01-01

    According to traffic capacity theory of multi - lane highway, and annual traffic volume forecast result of project vision in Highway Capacity Manual, peak rate and number of lane required by design project are calculat- ed, and number of lane required by construction project is finally determined through calculation of maximum traffic capacity and service level analysis.%根据《道路通行能力手册》中多车道公路通行能力理论及项目远景年交通量预测成果,计算高峰流率、设计工程项目所需车道数;通过最大通行能力计算及服务水平分析,最终确定工程项目的所需车道数。

  15. Evaluating the safety risk of roadside features for rural two-lane roads using reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Mohammad; Zhou, Huaguo

    2016-08-01

    The severity of roadway departure crashes mainly depends on the roadside features, including the sideslope, fixed-object density, offset from fixed objects, and shoulder width. Common engineering countermeasures to improve roadside safety include: cross section improvements, hazard removal or modification, and delineation. It is not always feasible to maintain an object-free and smooth roadside clear zone as recommended in design guidelines. Currently, clear zone width and sideslope are used to determine roadside hazard ratings (RHRs) to quantify the roadside safety of rural two-lane roadways on a seven-point pictorial scale. Since these two variables are continuous and can be treated as random, probabilistic analysis can be applied as an alternative method to address existing uncertainties. Specifically, using reliability analysis, it is possible to quantify roadside safety levels by treating the clear zone width and sideslope as two continuous, rather than discrete, variables. The objective of this manuscript is to present a new approach for defining the reliability index for measuring roadside safety on rural two-lane roads. To evaluate the proposed approach, we gathered five years (2009-2013) of Illinois run-off-road (ROR) crash data and identified the roadside features (i.e., clear zone widths and sideslopes) of 4500 300ft roadway segments. Based on the obtained results, we confirm that reliability indices can serve as indicators to gauge safety levels, such that the greater the reliability index value, the lower the ROR crash rate.

  16. Influence of deficiencies in traffic control devices in crashes on two-lane rural roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Griselda; de Oña, Juan; Garach, Laura; Baena, Leticia

    2016-11-01

    One of the main objectives of all public administrations is reducing traffic crashes. To this end, Road Safety Inspections (RSI) stand out as a key measure. Signaling roads is one of the foremost tasks of RSI. A road that is improperly or poorly signaled can lead to incorrect placement or maneuvers of vehicles and ambiguous situations that can increase the risk of crashes. This paper analyses the relationship between road crashes in two-lane rural highways and certain deficiencies in signaling. The results show that deficiencies such as "incomplete removal of road works markings" or "no guide sign or in incorrect position" are the ones associated with a higher probability of crashes in two-lane rural highways. In view of these results, governmental agencies should verify that the original conditions of a highway are re-established after any construction work is completed. They should also continuously follow up on the signaling of this type of highway in order to maintain optimal conditions.

  17. Colouring with Children: the case of “Happy lanes- Cirkáló”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szűts-Nowsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a workshop for the process introducing ‘Happy Lanes’ colouring method; a colouring method for design educators for children. It focuses colouring perception in two approaches: from the neuropsychological and neurobiological. While we point on the benefits of the method with help of some special worksheets we analyse the process of solution, step by step, looking at the working of the colouring lanes, as the essence of the method. It stems from Berlyne’s motivation theory relating to the active inference theory, especially predictive coding and free energy principle. Through this method as a map, children can map their way between each and every level of the hierarchical brain system and cortical microcircuits. The colouring process includes two ways in parallel with each other in a top-down system; by creative, independent problem solving. According to the motivation theory the goal of this process is the optimal arousal level, which depend on the stimuli of the environment; in this case, children colour the task with the aid of the colouring lanes. This they do without any help from someone

  18. An Extended Non-Lane-Based Optimal Velocity Model with Dynamic Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the effects of the lane width in traffic, in this paper, we propose a dynamical model based on the strategy of three-vehicle cooperation driving. We obtain the smoother acceleration distribution in the new model through considering the dynamic collaboration with the nearest preceding vehicle and the nearest following vehicle. It is proved that the stability of the new model is greatly improved compared to the early non-lane-based car following model by using the linear stability theory. We find that when the parameter of lateral separation distance is identified, the amplitude of traffic congestion decreases with increasing the strength of dynamic collaboration in the simulation experiments. In addition, we apply the new extended model to simulate the motions of cars starting from a traffic signal and the dissipating of the traffic congestion; it is found that our new model can predict realistic delay time and kinematic wave speed and obtained a faster dissipation speed of traffic congestion than the traffic flow model without considering the dynamic collaboration.

  19. Series approach to the Lane-Emden equation and comparison with the homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, J.I. [Room I-320-D E. T. S. Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Malaga, Plaza El Ejido, s/n, 29013 Malaga (Spain)], E-mail: jirs@lcc.uma.es

    2008-10-15

    Series solutions of the Lane-Emden equation based on either a Volterra integral equation formulation or the expansion of the dependent variable in the original ordinary differential equation are presented and compared with series solutions obtained by means of integral or differential equations based on a transformation of the dependent variables. It is shown that these four series solutions are the same as those obtained by a direct application of Adomian's decomposition method to the original differential equation, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Wazwaz's two implementations of the Adomian method based on either the introduction of a new differential operator that overcomes the singularity of the Lane-Emden equation at the origin or the elimination of the first-order derivative term of the original equation. It is also shown that Adomian's decomposition technique can be interpreted as a perturbative approach which coincides with He's homotopy perturbation method. An iterative technique based on Picard's fixed-point theory is also presented and its convergence is analyzed. The convergence of this iterative approach depends on the independent variable and, therefore, this technique is not as convenient as the series solutions derived by the four methods presented in this paper, He's homotopy perturbation technique, and Adomian's decomposition method.

  20. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  1. Lane mark identification method based on the trait of edge%基于边界特征的车道标识线检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仕照; 钱鹰

    2011-01-01

    Accurate detection of lane marks is the most important issue to realize vehicle automatic navigation and safety driving assistant, in order to get an ideal lane marks' edge, binarizizing and morphological processing the lane image based on lane edge features, realizing accurate edge detection of the lane area, finally, locat the lane marks by Hough transform and complete with lane marks identification. Experiments show that the method can exactly get identification of lane marks on the complex environment and has good robustness and reliability.%车道标识线的准确检测是实现车辆自动导航和车辆安全辅助驾驶的首要问题,为了得到较理想的车道的标线边缘.利用车道的边缘特征对车道图像进行二值化和形态学处理,对车道区域实现准确的边缘检测,最后利用Hough变换定位出车道标识线,完成对车道标识线的识别。实验表明,该方法能实现对复杂环境下车道标识线的准确识别,具有较好的鲁棒性和可靠性。

  2. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  3. Application of gravity model on the Korean urban bus network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Inho; Jung, Woo-Sung

    2016-11-01

    Mobility models have been studied to describe the underlying mechanism of human mobility. The mobility patterns in various transportation systems were understood with the gravity model by estimating the traffic as a simple function of population and distance. Compared to most studies on large-scale systems, we focused on the validity and characteristics of gravity model for intraurban mobility. Several variations of gravity model are applied on the urban bus systems of five medium-sized cities in Korea. The gravity model successfully estimates the intraurban traffic without universal exponents for cities. From the change of exponents by predictor types, we figure out the effect by a non-trivial relation between traffic and population in the urban areas.

  4. FAKTOR PENYEBAB KERUSAKAN SISTEM MESIN PADA BUS APTB PPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Chairani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comfort and safety of public transportation, particularly APTB PPD buses, becomes high expectations for its customers. Those expectations must be supported by the application of a good engine maintenance system. By using the method of Reliability Centered Maintenance may be determined appropriate actions to mitigate damage. From the analysis known the failures of the APTB PPD bus are malfunctions of the fuel engine, power transfer systems, difficulty to move the gear lever, and lubricating system for the rough engine noise. The cause of engine malfunction is dirty diesel filter, vehicle acceleration malfunction is due to the clutch plate wear out. Difficulty to move the gear lever indicates that the clutch slips. Rough engine noise caused by the flow of oil to the engine stalled as the result of dirty oil filter. The results of the logic tree analysis show that for each failure requires scheduling of time directed task.

  5. Error protection capability of space shuttle data bus designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Error protection assurance in the reliability of digital data communications is discussed. The need for error protection on the space shuttle data bus system has been recognized and specified as a hardware requirement. The error protection techniques of particular concern are those designed into the Shuttle Main Engine Interface (MEI) and the Orbiter Multiplex Interface Adapter (MIA). The techniques and circuit design details proposed for these hardware are analyzed in this report to determine their error protection capability. The capability is calculated in terms of the probability of an undetected word error. Calculated results are reported for a noise environment that ranges from the nominal noise level stated in the hardware specifications to burst levels which may occur in extreme or anomalous conditions.

  6. Design and Analysis of Bus Front Panel Usin G FRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Adinarayana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like E-glass, S-glass, Carbon fiber, Kevlar are not yet confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Because of its attaining high intricacy in designing factors and as well as cheaper mould design and also less cost in production of few numbers. The applications of FRPs are spirally increasing. The aim of this project is to develop a BUS FRONT PANEL with a help of FRPs in order to sustain all the mechanical properties which are equivalent to the metals with the help of advanced computer aided software designs like ANSYS. In computer aided engineering to make the product proven in the realistic market.

  7. [Bus drivers' biomechanical risk assessment in two different contexts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracco, A; Coggiola, M; Perrelli, F; Banchio, M; Martignone, S; Gullino, A; Romano, C

    2012-01-01

    The application of standardize methods for the biomechanical risk assessment in non-industrial cycled activity is not always possible. A typical case is the public transport sector, where workers complain of suffering for shoulder more than elbow and wrist pains. The Authors present the results of two studies involving two public transport companies and the risk of biomechanical overload of upper limbs for bus and tram drivers. The analysis has been made using three different approaches: focus groups; static analysis by using anthropometric manikins; work sampling technique by monitoring worker's activity and posture at each minute, for two hours and for each binomial vehicle-route, considering P5F e P95M drivers and assessing the perceived efforts thorough the Borg's CR10 Scale. The conclusive results show that the ergonomic analysis managed by multiple non-standardized techniques may reach consistent and repeatable results according to the epidemiological evidences.

  8. Wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinn, D. [GE Digital Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed wind farm protection using an IEC 61850 process bus architecture. Data is transmitted via IEC 61850 messages over a fiber optic communications network to a central relaying unit (CRU) that executes protection and control (P and C) functions for a whole wind farm. The presentation also discussed the need to further simplify P and C design. Challenges of wind farm protection include physical distance; relay location; and selectivity/isolation. P and C hardware evolution was illustrated and its advantages were presented. These included one relay to set, configure, test, and maintain; eliminate the need for transfer trips; free monitoring; free disturbance recording; and easy integration of data. The development of commercially available systems began around 1990 with the IPACS system developed by Hydro One, and the SIPSUR system developed in Spain. 7 figs.

  9. Entangling a Series of Trapped Ions by Moving Cavity Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Miao; JIA Huan-Yu; WEI Lian-Fu

    2011-01-01

    Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing. We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity. The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus. Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled. As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated. The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.%@@ Entangling multiple qubits is one of the central tasks of quantum information processing.We propose an approach to entangle a number of cold ions (individually trapped in a string of microtraps) by a moved cavity.The cavity is pushed to include the ions one by one with a uniform velocity and thus the information stored in former ions could be transferred to the latter ones by such a moving cavity bus.Since the positions of the trapped ions are precisely located, the strengths and durations of the ion-cavity interactions can be exactly controlled.As a consequence, by properly setting the relevant parameters, typical multi-ion entangled states, e.g., W state for 10 ions, could be deterministically generated.The feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  10. Autonomous Navigation and Obstacle Avoidance of a Micro-bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernández

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the topic of automated vehicles is one of the most promising research areas in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS. The use of automated vehicles for public transportation also contributes to reductions in congestion levels and to improvements in traffic flow. Moreover, electrical public autonomous vehicles are environmentally friendly, provide better air quality and contribute to energy conservation. The driverless public transportation systems, which are at present operating in some airports and train stations, are restricted to dedicated roads and exhibit serious trouble dynamically avoiding obstacles in the trajectory. In this paper, an electric autonomous mini-bus is presented. All datasets used in this article were collected during the experiments carried out in the demonstration event of the 2012 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium that took place in Alcalá de Henares (Spain. The demonstration consisted of a route 725 metres long containing a list of latitude-longitude points (waypoints. The mini-bus was capable of driving autonomously from one waypoint to another using a GPS sensor. Furthermore, the vehicle is provided with a multi-beam Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging (LIDAR sensor for surrounding reconstruction and obstacle detection. When an obstacle is detected in the planned path, the planned route is modified in order to avoid the obstacle and continue its way to the end of the mission. On the demonstration day, a total of 196 attendees had the opportunity to get a ride on the vehicles. A total of 28 laps were successfully completed in full autonomous mode in a private circuit located in the National Institute for Aerospace Research (INTA, Spain. In other words, the system completed 20.3 km of driverless navigation and obstacle avoidance.

  11. Air flow through a non-airconditioned bus with open windows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S R Kale; S V Veeravalli; H D Punekar; M M Yelmule

    2007-08-01

    Open window buses without air-conditioning are a major mode of urban and inter-city transport in most countries. High occupancy combined with hot and humid conditions makes travel in these buses quite uncomfortable. In this study air flow through a bus has been studied that could be the basis for low cost and ecofriendly methods of increasing passenger comfort and possibly reduce drag. The aerodynamics of such a road vehicle has not been studied as previous investigations have been confined to vehicles with closed windows that present a smooth exterior to air flow. Using a 1:25 scaled Perspex model of an urban bus in Delhi, flow visualization was performed in a water channel. The Reynolds numbers were onetenth of a real bus moving at $10 m/s$. Smoke and tuft visualizations were also performed on an urban bus at 40 km/h. Numerical simulations were performed at the actual Reynolds number. Even though there were Reynolds number differences, the broad features were similar. Air enters the bus from the rear windows, moves to the front (relative to the bus) and exits from the front windows. Inside air velocity relative to the bus is about one-tenth of the free-stream velocity. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady.

  12. DESIGN OF TRANSITION TIME ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUE FOR REDUCING BUS DELAY EFFECTS ON NOC INTERCONNECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEERA K S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the growing computation-intensive applications the number of computing resources in single-chip has enormously increased, because current VLSI technology can support such an extensive integration of transistors. By adding many computing resources such as CPU, DSP, specific IPs, etc to build a system in System-on-Chip, its interconnection between each other becomes another challenging issue. In most System-on-Chip applications, a shared bus interconnection which needs arbitration logic to serialize several bus access requests, is adopted to communicate with each integrated processing unit because of its low-cost and simple control characteristics. However, such shared bus interconnection has some limitation in its scalability because only one master at a time can utilize the bus which means all the bus accesses should be serialized by the arbitrator. Therefore, in such an environment where the number of bus requesters is large and their required bandwidth for interconnection is more than the current bus, some other interconnection methods should be considered. Such scalable bandwidth requirement can be satisfied by using on-chip packet-switched micro-network of interconnects, generally known as Network-on-Chip (NoC architecture. It suffers however from increasingly serious interconnect crosstalk effects, which constrain the overall performance of NOC systems. In this paper some delay tolerance methods are proposed.

  13. COMPARISON OF PARALLEL AND SERIES HYBRID POWERTRAINS FOR TRANSIT BUS APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiming [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL; Jones, Perry T [ORNL; LaClair, Tim J [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The fuel economy and emissions of both conventional and hybrid buses equipped with emissions aftertreatment were evaluated via computational simulation for six representative city bus drive cycles. Both series and parallel configurations for the hybrid case were studied. The simulation results indicate that series hybrid buses have the greatest overall advantage in fuel economy. The series and parallel hybrid buses were predicted to produce similar CO and HC tailpipe emissions but were also predicted to have reduced NOx tailpipe emissions compared to the conventional bus in higher speed cycles. For the New York bus cycle (NYBC), which has the lowest average speed among the cycles evaluated, the series bus tailpipe emissions were somewhat higher than they were for the conventional bus, while the parallel hybrid bus had significantly lower tailpipe emissions. All three bus powertrains were found to require periodic active DPF regeneration to maintain PM control. Plug-in operation of series hybrid buses appears to offer significant fuel economy benefits and is easily employed due to the relatively large battery capacity that is typical of the series hybrid configuration.

  14. Implementation of an AMBA Advanced High Performance Bus protocol IP block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Vucha Sandeep Magarde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design of an AMBA advanced high performance bus (AHB protocol IP block is presented in this paper. The AHB (Advanced High-performance Bus is a high-performance bus in AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture family. This AHB can be used in high clock frequency system modules. The AHB acts as the high-performance system backbone bus. AHB supports the efficient connection of processors, on-chip memories and off-chip external memory interfaces with low-power peripheral macro cell functions. In this work, the design of the Advanced High-Performance Bus Protocol is developed which has the basic blocks such as Master and Slave. The arbitration mechanism is used to ensure that only one master has access to the bus at any one time and the AHB decoder is used to decode the address of each transfer and provide a select signal for the slave that is involved in the transfer. This AMBA-AHB protocol can be adopted in all the application provided the design should be an AHB compliant.

  15. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  16. Risk factors associated with bus accident severity in the United States: A generalized ordered logit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act...... that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers; (iv) for very high (over 65 mph) and very low (under 20 mph) speed limits; (v) at intersections; (vi) because...

  17. Simulation of the Control Strategy for an Electric Bus with Motorized Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Liqiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the running state of the bus as real as possible and verify the correctness of electric bus control system that is developing, which is good for reducing the development cycle and cost for enterprise. The vehicle dynamics model is built and the actual vehicle driving condition is simulated in AMESim and the vehicle control strategy is established in Simulink. The co-simulation platform is used to simulate the actual running state of the bus with the action of the control system, which provides the reference for subsequent real vehicle test.

  18. Introduction of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated Bus%德国曼恩客车系列愈加丰富

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    云清文

    2016-01-01

    During IAA 2016, German based MAN demonstrated total of ten models of various buses including city-bus, city-to-city bus and long-distance bus, etc. Among all these models, the most innovative highlight is the model of MAN Lion’s City Conceptual Articulated bus, as well as the re-charging technology associated to it.

  19. Psicologia social e processo grupal: a coerência entre fazer, pensar sentir em Sívia Lane Social psychology and group process: coherence between doing, thinking and feeling in Sílvia Lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Terezinha Ferreira Martins

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata da concepção histórica e dialética de processo grupal proposta por Sílvia Lane, que utiliza como base para suas reflexões os pressupostos de materialismo dialético quando considera os aspectos pessoais, as características grupais, a vivência subjetiva e a realidade objetiva e o caráter histórico do grupo. O que pretendemos enfatizar neste artigo é a produção sobre grupo presente em sua obra que foi se construindo no decorrer das décadas de 1980 e 1990, sintetizada no texto O processo grupal. Neste sentido, busca-se trazer as contribuições presentes no conjunto de sua obra, sistematizadas em artigos, coletâneas e livros, em que Sílvia Lane discute a articulação de algumas categorias fundamentais para a análise do processo grupal e suas implicações teóricas, metodológicas e prático-políticas.The present article discusses historic and dialectical conceptions of group process by Sílvia Lane, that uses like base for her reflections the presuppositions of dialectical materialism, when the author considers the personal aspects, the group characteristics, the subjective existence and objective reality and the historical character of the group. This article intends to emphasize the production written by Sílvia Lane about group between 1980 and 1990 summaried in the text The group process. In this direction, it searchs to bring the contributions in her work through articles, collections and books that Sílvia Lane discusses some fundamental categories to the analysis of group process and their theoretical and methodological evolvement and practical-politics.

  20. A Rule-Based Energy Management Strategy for a Plug-in Hybrid School Bus Based on a Controller Area Network Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankun Peng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rule-based energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid school bus (PHSB. In order to verify the effectiveness and rationality of the proposed energy management strategy, the powertrain and control models were built with MATLAB/Simulink. The PHSB powertrain model includes an engine model, ISG (integrated started and generator model, drive motor model, power battery packs model, driver model, and vehicle longitudinal dynamics model. To evaluate the controller area network (CAN bus performance features such as the bus load, signal hysteresis, and to verify the reliability and real-time performance of the CAN bus multi-node control method, a co-simulation platform was built with CANoe and MATLAB/Simulink. The co-simulation results show that the control strategy can meet the requirements of the PHSB’s dynamic performance. Meanwhile, the charge-depleting mode (CD and charge-sustaining mode (CS can switch between each other and maintain a state-of-charge (SoC of around 30%, indicating that the energy management strategy effectively extends the working period of the CD mode and improves the fuel economy further. The energy consumption per 100 km includes 13.7 L diesel and 10.5 kW·h electricity with an initial SoC of 75%. The CANoe simulation results show that the bus communication performs well without error frames.

  1. Lane Community College Student Follow-Up Study, Spring 2001. 1999-2000 Students: One Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Sylvia J.

    This 2001 follow-up study conducted in the spring of 2001 and reported in the fall of 2001,targeted 2 groups of former Lane Community College (LCC) (Oregon) students. Surveys were mailed to all 1990-2000 graduates (students who earned a degree or certificate). The second group contacted were students who had achieved no formal award (NFA). These…

  2. Perceiving and Acting on Complex Affordances: How Children and Adults Bicycle across Two Lanes of Opposing Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechkin, Timofey Y.; Chihak, Benjamin J.; Cremer, James F.; Kearney, Joseph K.; Plumert, Jodie M.

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications--bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous…

  3. DIVIDED ATTENTION IN EXPERIENCED YOUNG AND OLDER DRIVERS - LANE TRACKING AND VISUAL ANALYSIS IN A DYNAMIC DRIVING SIMULATOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, WH; WATERINK, W; VANWOLFFELAAR, PC; ROTHENGATTER, T

    1991-01-01

    A simulated driving task that required the simultaneous execution of two continuous visual tasks was administered to 12 healthy young (mean age 26.1 years) and 12 healthy older (mean age 64.4 years) experienced and currently active drivers. The first task was a compensatory lane-tracking task involv

  4. Enabling 4-Lane Based 400 G Client-Side Transmission Links with MultiCAP Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian;

    2015-01-01

    We propose a uniform solution for a future client-side 400 G Ethernet standard based on MultiCAP advanced modulation format, intensity modulation, and direct detection. It employs 4 local area networks-wavelength division multiplexing (LAN-WDM) lanes in 1300 nm wavelength band and parallel optics...

  5. New Analytic Solution to the Lane-Emden Equation of Index 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two new analytic methods that are used for solving initial value problems that model polytropic and stellar structures in astrophysics and mathematical physics. The applicability, effectiveness, and reliability of the methods are assessed on the Lane-Emden equation which is described by a second-order nonlinear differential equation. The results obtained in this work are also compared with numerical results of Horedt (1986 which are widely used as a benchmark for testing new methods of solution. Good agreement is observed between the present results and the numerical results. Comparison is also made between the proposed new methods and existing analytical methods and it is found that the new methods are more efficient and have several advantages over some of the existing analytical methods.

  6. APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR THE ISOTHERMAL LANE EMDEN EQUATION IN A SPHERICAL GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Aly Soliman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo obtiene una soluci ́on anal ́ıtica aproximada p ara la ecuaci ́on isoterma de Lane-Emden que modela una esfera isot ́ermica au togravitante. La soluci ́on aproximada se obtiene en t ́erminos de par ́ametro s de distancias peque ̃nos y grandes por el m ́etodo de perturbaciones. La soluci ́on apr oximada se compara con la soluci ́on n ́umerica. La soluci ́on aproximada obteni da es v ́alida para todos los valores del par ́ametro de distancia.

  7. Simulation study of traffic car accidents at a single lane roundabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echab, H.; Lakouari, N.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we numerically investigate the probability Pac of entering/circulating car accidents to occur at single-lane roundabout under the expanded open boundary. The roundabout consists of N on-ramps (respectively, off-ramps). The boundary is controlled by the injecting rates α1,α2 and the extracting rate β. The simulation results show that, depending on the injecting rates, the car accidents are more likely to happen when the capacity of the rotary is set to its maximum. Moreover, we found that the large values of rotary size L and the probability of preferential Pexit are reliable to improve safety and reduce accidents. However, the usage of indicator, the increase of β and/or N provokes an increase of car accident probability.

  8. Development of a multi-lane X-ray mirror providing variable beam sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, D; Sawhney, K; Nistea, I; Alcock, S G; Pape, I; Sutter, J; Alianelli, L; Evans, G

    2016-05-01

    Grazing incidence mirrors are used on most X-ray synchrotron beamlines to focus, collimate or suppress harmonics. Increasingly beamline users are demanding variable beam shapes and sizes at the sample position. We have now developed a new concept to rapidly vary the beam size and shape of a focused X-ray beam. The surface of an elliptically figured mirror is divided into a number of laterally separated lanes, each of which is given an additional longitudinal height profile calculated to shape the X-ray beam to a top-hat profile in the focal plane. We have now fabricated two prototype mirrors and present the results of metrology tests and measurements made with one of the mirrors focusing the X-rays on a synchrotron beamline. We envisage that such mirrors could be widely applied to rapid beam-size switching on many synchrotron beamlines.

  9. Spring-block model for a single-lane highway traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Jarai-Szabo, Ferenc; Neda, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A simple one-dimensional spring-block chain with asymmetric interactions is considered to model an idealized single-lane highway traffic. The main elements of the system are blocks (modeling cars), springs with unidirectional interactions (modeling distance keeping interactions between neighbors), static and kinetic friction (modeling inertia of drivers and cars) and spatiotemporal disorder in the values of these friction forces (modeling differences in the driving attitudes). The traveling chain of cars correspond to the dragged spring-block system. Our statistical analysis for the spring-block chain predicts a non-trivial and rich complex behavior. As a function of the disorder level in the system a dynamic phase-transition is observed. For low disorder levels uncorrelated slidings of blocks are revealed while for high disorder levels correlated avalanches dominates.

  10. Bio-inspired computational heuristics to study Lane-Emden systems arising in astrophysics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Bilal, Muhammad; Ashraf, Farooq

    2016-01-01

    This study reports novel hybrid computational methods for the solutions of nonlinear singular Lane-Emden type differential equation arising in astrophysics models by exploiting the strength of unsupervised neural network models and stochastic optimization techniques. In the scheme the neural network, sub-part of large field called soft computing, is exploited for modelling of the equation in an unsupervised manner. The proposed approximated solutions of higher order ordinary differential equation are calculated with the weights of neural networks trained with genetic algorithm, and pattern search hybrid with sequential quadratic programming for rapid local convergence. The results of proposed solvers for solving the nonlinear singular systems are in good agreements with the standard solutions. Accuracy and convergence the design schemes are demonstrated by the results of statistical performance measures based on the sufficient large number of independent runs.

  11. An interview with Robert S. Lane, Ph.D. Interviewed by Vicki Glaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert S

    2010-03-01

    Dr. Robert Lane received a B.A. degree in psychology from the University of California at Berkeley (UCB), an M.A. degree in biology at San Francisco State College, and a Ph.D. in entomology at UCB. While employed as a California State public health biologist he began his long-standing studies of the biology of ticks and the ecology and epidemiology of tick-borne disease agents. In 1984, Dr. Lane joined the faculty of UCB as a medical entomologist, a position he has held until the present. The diseases he and his many co-workers have investigated include Colorado tick fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, and particularly Lyme disease. Findings from these studies have elucidated the basic transmission cycles of and risk factors for spotted fever-group rickettsiae and Lyme disease spirochetes in the far western United States. Bob is a Fellow of both the California Academy of Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a recipient of a UCB Biology Faculty Research Award and the C.W. Woodworth Award from the Pacific Branch of the Entomological Society of America, and a member of the Council for the International Congresses of Entomology. Also, he has served as president of the Acarological Society of America, the International Northwestern Conference on Diseases in Nature Communicable to Man, the Northern California Parasitologists, and the Society for Vector Ecology, as well as the Chair of Section D (Medical/Veterinary Entomology), Entomological Society.

  12. Visual scanning training for neglect after stroke with and without a computerized lane tracking dual task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. eVan Kessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Neglect patients typically fail to explore the contralesional half-space. During visual scanning training, these patients learn to consciously pay attention to contralesional target stimuli. It has been suggested that combining scanning training with methods addressing non-spatial attention might enhance training results. In the present study, a dual task training component was added to a visual scanning training (i.e. Training di Scanning Visuospaziale – TSVS; Pizzamiglio et al., 1990. Twenty-nine subacute right hemisphere stroke patients were semi-randomly assigned to an experimental (N=14 or a control group (N=15. Patients received 30 training sessions during six weeks. TSVS consisted of four standardized tasks (digit detection, reading/copying, copying drawings and figure description. Moreover, a driving simulator task was integrated in the training procedure. Control patients practiced a single lane tracking task for two days a week during six weeks. The experimental group was administered the same training schedule, but in weeks 4-6 of the training, the TSVS digit detection task was combined with lane tracking on the same projection screen, so as to create a dual task (CVRT-TR. Various neglect tests and driving simulator tasks were administered before and after training. No significant group and interaction effects were found that might reflect additional positive effects of dual task training. Significant improvements after training were observed in both groups taken together on most assessment tasks. Ameliorations were generally not correlated to post onset time, but spontaneous recovery, test-retest variability and learning effects could not be ruled out completely, since these were not controlled for. Future research might focus on increasing the amount of dual task training, the implementation of progressive difficulty levels in the driving simulator tasks and further exploration of relationships between dual task training and daily

  13. Active training and driving-specific feedback improve older drivers' visual search prior to lane changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavallière Martin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Driving retraining classes may offer an opportunity to attenuate some effects of aging that may alter driving skills. Unfortunately, there is evidence that classroom programs (driving refresher courses do not improve the driving performance of older drivers. The aim of the current study was to evaluate if simulator training sessions with video-based feedback can modify visual search behaviors of older drivers while changing lanes in urban driving. Methods In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the video-based feedback training, 10 older drivers who received a driving refresher course and feedback about their driving performance were tested with an on-road standardized evaluation before and after participating to a simulator training program (Feedback group. Their results were compared to a Control group (12 older drivers who received the same refresher course and in-simulator active practice as the Feedback group without receiving driving-specific feedback. Results After attending the training program, the Control group showed no increase in the frequency of the visual inspection of three regions of interests (rear view and left side mirrors, and blind spot. In contrast, for the Feedback group, combining active training and driving-specific feedbacks increased the frequency of blind spot inspection by 100% (32.3 to 64.9% of verification before changing lanes. Conclusions These results suggest that simulator training combined with driving-specific feedbacks helped older drivers to improve their visual inspection strategies, and that in-simulator training transferred positively to on-road driving. In order to be effective, it is claimed that driving programs should include active practice sessions with driving-specific feedbacks. Simulators offer a unique environment for developing such programs adapted to older drivers' needs.

  14. Flywheel bus opens doors for investors; Vliegwielbus opent deuren voor investeerders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, A. [ed.

    1999-03-01

    A brief impression is given of the performance of the first prototype of the CCM-developed (Centre for Construction and Mechatronics in Nuenen, Netherlands) flywheel bus, fuelled by LPG and powered by a flywheel

  15. Bus Stops, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Brown County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2008. Data by this publisher are...

  16. Scheduling bus services in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Shah Alam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mawardi; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Oughalime, Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    This study deals with bus scheduling problem in a local public university. Given existing bus daily trips, set of buses used and set of policy, the aims of this study are to optimize the use of buses for in-campus trips and to cover the trip demands. This study is conducted at Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) Shah Alam that involves six-zone trips and a single depot. The bus scheduling problem in UiTM is formulated using the integer programming model and the LINGO 12.0 software is used for solving this bus scheduling model. The results of this model showed that the number of buses can be reduced during off-peak hours. Furthermore, optimal trips can also be identified from the results.

  17. Performance analysis of time triggered communication bus based on network calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiandong; Ma, Lianchuan; Cao, Yuan; Mu, Jiancheng

    2017-03-01

    The time triggered mechanism is the activity of incentive system in the scheduled time. Each node of the time-triggered communication bus knows when the data information can be transmitted, so the behavior of communication nodes is determined and predictable. This feature is very suitable for appling in the industry field of high safety requirement. According to EN50159 standard for railway signal system security related communication, this paper analyzes the reliability of the physical layer of communication bus, and uses the network calculus method to establish the arrival curve model and service curve model which quantitatively calculate the time delay characteristic of time trigger bus to determine the number of retransmissions of data communications. The time-triggered communication bus is proved that it can meet the security requirements of the railway signal transmission system.

  18. Survival analysis of car travel time near a bus stop in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoBao; GAO ZiYou; GUO HongWei; HUAN Mei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an important investigation into car travel time affected by mixed traffic flow near a bus stop on the basis of survival analysis theory.Travel time data associated with mixed traffic characteristics near a bus stop were collected by video cameras.A hazard-based duration model was introduced to analyze the effects of mixed traffic flow on car travel time.The results indicate that mixed traffic flow impacts car travel time significantly.And the presence of bus berthing violation would delay car travel time.The proposed model can be used to forecast temporal shifts in car travel time due to changes in mixed traffic flow.The influential factors related to mixed traffic flow should be given full consideration in the planning and designing of bus stops in developing countries.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Different Arbitration Protocols for Multiple—Bus Multiprocessors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄旗铭; 杨庆; 等

    1996-01-01

    Earlier performance studies of multiple-bus multiprocessor systems assume a random selection of competing requests for bus assignment and ignore the effects of realistic bus arbitraion schemes on the performance of such systems.In this paper,we present performance analysis of the multiple-bus systems with different arbitration protocols.The priority protocols considered are random selection,fixed priority,rotating priority,round-robin and FIFO.Analytical models are developed for each of these five different priority protocols.Each of our analyses models exactly the behavior of the corresponding priority protocol with little computation cost.The analytical models are validated through extensive simulations and are them used to carry out performance analysis and comparison of different priority protocols.Numerical results obtained from our models show that the round-robin protocol performs the best amont the five protocols in the system with a few buses.

  20. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  1. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  2. Exploring public bus service quality in South Africa: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayanda M. Vilakazi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a deviation from the usual practice of using SERVQUAL or an adaptedversion thereof, uses McKnight, Pagano and Paaswell’s (1986 service quality dimensions,namely reliability; extent of service; comfort; safety; and affordability (RECSA and structuralequation modelling to determine commuters’ perception of public bus service quality in amajor city in South Africa. The RECSA model was adapted and fitted to the data collectedfrom a convenience sample of bus commuters in Johannesburg, using structural equationmodelling. It was ascertained that reliability, service, comfort and safety influenced thepublic bus commuters’ perception of the overall service quality. The implications of theaforementioned findings for providers of public bus services are explained.

  3. Annoyance evaluation and the effect of noise on the health of bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela S Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality, occurrence of tinnitus, headache, irritation, and annoyance from bus engine, traffic, and passengers. Data of age and working time of bus drivers also were obtained. For noise exposure, LA eq was evaluated in 80 buses. Statistical analysis consisted of mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum, Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc Dunn, one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey and Spearman′s correlation coefficient. Results indicate three groups of bus drivers (not annoyed: (N.A., a little annoyed (L.A. and highly annoyed (H.A.. The group H.A. was younger and with less working time in relation to others, with a significant difference only for age. Regarding sleep quality, there was no significant difference. For results on the occurrence of tinnitus, headache and irritation after work, group H.A. had significantly higher means. Result of annoyance to the bus engine was significantly higher in H.A. than in L.A. and N.A. Annoyance to traffic and passengers, no significant differences were found, but the highest results were found for L.A., followed by H.A. and N.A. Equivalent sound pressure level in buses was above of the limit for occupational comfort. It was concluded that bus drivers has considerable level of noise annoyance and some health effects are perceived. The noise is a factor discomfort ergonomic that may cause effects on health of bus drivers. This study aims to evaluate annoyance and the effects of noise on the health of bus drivers. Cross-sectional study with buses and bus drivers. For that, 200 bus drivers from a public transport company participated in a cross-sectional study. Annoyance and effects on health was measured with analog scale: Sleep quality

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. Bavarian liquid hydrogen bus demonstration project - safety, licensing and acceptability aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurster, R.; Knorr, H.; Pruemm, W.

    1999-07-01

    A regular 12 m city bus of the MAN SL 202 type with an internal combustion engine adapted to hydrogen operation and auxiliary gasoline operation was demonstrated in the Bavarian cities of Erlangen and Munich between April 1996 and August 1998. Three bus operators, Erlanger Stadtwerke, Stadtwerke Muenchen and Autobus Oberbayern were testing the bus in three different operating schemes. In order to be able to perform this worldwide first public demonstration of a liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) city bus in regular service, several requirements with respect to safety, licensing, training and acceptability had to be fulfilled. These activities were focusing mainly on the hydrogen specific issues such as (a) integration of onboard LH{sub 2} storage vessels, piping and instrumentation, (b) implementation of storage and refueling infrastructure in the operators' yards, (c) adaptation of the maintenance garages, (d) training of operating and maintenance personnel. During phase II of the demonstration activity a poll was performed on passengers traveling onboard the hydrogen-powered city bus in order to determined the level of acceptance among the users of the bus. The bus was designed and manufactured by MAN Nutzfahrzeuge Aktiengesellschaft. The cryogenic fuel storage and the refueling equipment were designed and manufactured by Linde AG. The realization of the hardware was financially supported by the European Commission (EC) within the Euro-Quebec Hydro-Hydrogen Pilot Project. The demonstration phase was financially supported by EC and the Bavarian State Government. Ludwig-Boelkow-Systemtechnik performed project monitoring for both funding organizations. The presentation will summarize the most important results of this demonstration phase and will address the measures undertaken in order to get the bus, the refueling infrastructure and the maintenance and operating procedures approved by the relevant authorities.

  6. Mechanical analysis of the main bus bars in the DFBA shuffling modules

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, D

    2012-01-01

    The main bus bars (13 kA) inside the shuffling modules of the distribution feed boxes powering the LHC arcs (DFBA) are subjected to high Lorentz forces. The structural behaviour of the bus bars under such forces is here analysed. The results are discussed with respect to a risk of structural failure due to excessive deformation or degradation of the electrical insulation by repeated contact with other surfaces.

  7. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  8. Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems Based on Schedulability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2000-01-01

    We present an approach to bus access optimization and schedulability analysis for the synthesis of hard real-time distribution embedded systems. The communication model is based on a time-triggered protocol. We have developed an analysis for the communication delays proposing four different message...... scheduling policies over a time-triggered communication channel. Optimization strategies for the bus access scheme are developed, and the four approaches to message scheduling are compared using extensive experiments....

  9. 基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制方案%Air-conditioner Control Project for Electric Bus Based on CAN Bus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桥生

    2012-01-01

    The author simply introduces two kinds of present control modes for air-conditioner of electric bus in domestic market,puts forward a new kind of its control mode based on CAN bus,and design the CAN's messages reports.%简述国内电动客车空调的两种控制模式;提出一种基于CAN总线的电动客车空调控制模式,并设计CAN通讯报文。

  10. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopan Chen

    Full Text Available As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Exact and Metaheuristic Approaches for a Bi-Objective School Bus Scheduling Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaopan; Kong, Yunfeng; Dang, Lanxue; Hou, Yane; Ye, Xinyue

    2015-01-01

    As a class of hard combinatorial optimization problems, the school bus routing problem has received considerable attention in the last decades. For a multi-school system, given the bus trips for each school, the school bus scheduling problem aims at optimizing bus schedules to serve all the trips within the school time windows. In this paper, we propose two approaches for solving the bi-objective school bus scheduling problem: an exact method of mixed integer programming (MIP) and a metaheuristic method which combines simulated annealing with local search. We develop MIP formulations for homogenous and heterogeneous fleet problems respectively and solve the models by MIP solver CPLEX. The bus type-based formulation for heterogeneous fleet problem reduces the model complexity in terms of the number of decision variables and constraints. The metaheuristic method is a two-stage framework for minimizing the number of buses to be used as well as the total travel distance of buses. We evaluate the proposed MIP and the metaheuristic method on two benchmark datasets, showing that on both instances, our metaheuristic method significantly outperforms the respective state-of-the-art methods.

  12. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  13. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  14. An analytical algorithm to determine allowable ampacities of horizontally installed rectangular bus bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an algorithm for the determination of the allowable ampacities of single rectangular-section bus bars without the occurrence of correction factors. Without correction factors, the ampacity computation of the copper and aluminium bus bars is fully automatized. The analytical algorithm has been implemented in a computer program code that along with the allowable ampacity can compute the bus bar temperature and the individual heat transfer coefficient for each side of the bus bar, as well as their corresponding power losses. Natural and forced convection correlations for rectangular bus bars are applied. Effects of the solar radiation and radiation heat losses from the bus bar surface are taken into consideration as well. The finite element method (FEM has been used for the linear/non-linear steady-state thermal analysis, i.e. for validation of the analytical algorithm. All FEM-based numerical computations were carried out using the COMSOL Heat Transfer Module. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  15. Optimal Design of the Feeder-Bus Network Based on the Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the classic feeder-bus network design problem (FBNDP, which can be described as follows: for the passenger travel demand between rail stations and bus stops on a given urban transit network, it designs the optimal feeder bus routes and frequencies so as to minimize the passengers’ travel expense and the operator’s cost. We extended the demand pattern of M-to-1 in most existing researches to M-to-M. We comprehensively considered the passenger travel cost, which includes the waiting and riding cost on the bus, riding cost on rail, and transfer cost between these two transportation modes, and presented a new genetic algorithm that determines the optimal feeder-bus operating frequencies under strict constraint conditions. The numerical examples under different demand patterns have been experienced and analysed, which showed the robustness and efficiency of the presented algorithm. We also found that the distribution pattern of the travel demand has a significant influence on the feeder-bus network construction.

  16. Multi Resolution AHB Bus Tracer with Real Time Compression for SOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jagadish Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AMBA (Advanced Microcontroller based Bus Architecture consists of AHB, APB, ASB and AXI. In this project we are Tracing AHB (Advanced High performance Bus signals with Real time Compression and Multi-resolution Techniques. A simple transaction on the AHB consists of an address phase and a subsequent data phase. Access to the target device is controlled through a MUX , thereby admitting bus-access to one bus-master at a time. In AHB Tracer we have to Trace Address signals, Data signals and Control signals, we have to compress them depending on AHB protocols. A multi-resolution AHB on-chip bus tracer is named as SYS_HMRBT (AHB Multi-resolution Bus Tracer and is used for monitoring. The goal is to provide better compression quality and multiple resolution traces to meet the complex SoC debugging needs. Compressing all signals at cycle-accurate-level does not always meet the debugging needs. As SOCs become more complex, the transaction level debugging becomes increasingly important, since it helps designers focus on the functional behaviors, instead of interpreting complex signals. By using this SYS_HMRBT, we can achieve 79%-96% of compression depending on selected resolution mode. Tools Used for this Project are Modelsim for Simulation, and Xilinx ISE II for Synthesis

  17. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  18. Bus Travel Willingness under the Condition of Bus Information%公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左毅刚; 李文权; 陈茜; 李洁; 郭士永

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of influencing mechanism of bus information on the residents travel mode choice is the theoretical basis of rational planning of urban bus travel information environment ,which has important significance for ur-ban traffic management and congestion mitigation .Based on the theory of planned behavior ,at the basis of three basic variables of behavior attitude ,subjective norm ,perceived behavioral control in the theory of planned behavior ,variables of transit information ,personal attributes and travel experience are added to improve the theory of planned behavior .An improved theory of planned behavior is used to build a bus travel willingness model under the condition of bus Informa-tion .With the Nanjing residents as research object ,a structural equation model is used to verify the survey data in order to determine the interaction between various factors and their impact on the willingness of bus travel .The results show that the bus information has significant and positive impact on bus travel variables of attitude ,subjective norm and per-ceived behavioral control with the influencing coefficients of 0 .533 ,0 .451 and 0 .576 respectively ,and that the bus infor-mation has indirect influence on bus travel willingness and the total effect is 0 .92 ,which shows that high quality of the in-formation can improve the appeal of bus and enhance bus travel willingness of residents .%深入解析公交信息对居民公交出行意愿的影响机理,是合理规划城市公交出行信息环境的理论基础,对于城市交通管理以及交通拥堵的缓解有着重要的意义。基于计划行为理论在行为态度、主观规范、知觉行为控制3个基本变量的基础上加入公交信息、出行经验、个人属性等变量,对计划行为理论加以改进,利用改进的计划行为理论建立公交信息条件下的公交出行意愿模型。以南京市居民为调查研究对象,运用结构方程模型对调查数

  19. MEASURING CUSTOMER’S SATISFACTION ON BUS TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the factors measuring customers’ satisfaction, especially the impact of service quality on customers’ satisfaction in public transportation industry in the university town of Sintok located in Kedah province of Malaysia. In order to assess the relationships between service quality and customer satisfaction survey http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2007/articles/1003.htmdata were collected from 300 Bus commuters. All hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlations, controlling for the background variables of gender, marital status, ethnicity and education. The results indicate that hypotheses 1 through 5 were supported. Using multiple regressions as a basis for causal paths, a model was developed that examined the influence of all five dimensions of service quality on customers’ satisfaction. The model explained 26.9% of the variance which indicates that 26.9% of the changes in the dependent variable are explained by the independent variables. Altogether, independent variables explained 26.9% of the variations.

  20. Bus Based Synchronization Method for CHIPPER Based NoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Muralidharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Network on Chip (NoC reduces the communication delay of System on Chip (SoC. The main limitation of NoC is power consumption and area overhead. Bufferless NoC reduces the area complexity and power consumption by eliminating buffers in the traditional routers. The bufferless NoC design should include live lock freeness since they use hot potato routing. This increases the complexity of bufferless NoC design. Among the available propositions to reduce this complexity, CHIPPER based bufferless NoC is considered as one of the best options. Live lock freeness is provided in CHIPPER through golden epoch and golden packet. All routers follow some synchronization method to identify a golden packet. Clock based method is intuitively followed for synchronization in CHIPPER based NoCs. It is shown in this work that the worst-case latency of packets is unbearably high when the above synchronization is followed. To alleviate this problem, broadcast bus NoC (BBus NoC approach is proposed in this work. The proposed method decreases the worst-case latency of packets by increasing the golden epoch rate of CHIPPER.

  1. A synchronous serial bus for multidimensional array acoustic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Baiyong; Ju, Xiaodong; Lu, Junqiang; Qiao, Wenxiao

    2016-12-01

    In high-temperature and spatial borehole applications, a distributed structure is employed in a multidimensional array acoustic logging tool (MDALT) based on a phased array technique for electronic systems. However, new challenges, such as synchronous multichannel data acquisition, multinode real-time control and bulk data transmission in a limited interval, have emerged. To address these challenges, we developed a synchronous serial bus (SSB) in this study. SSB works in a half-duplex mode via a master-slave architecture. It also consists of a single master, several slaves, a differential clock line and a differential data line. The clock line is simplex, whereas the data line is half-duplex and synchronous to the clock line. A reliable communication between the master and the slaves with real-time adjustment of synchronisation is achieved by rationally designing the frame format and protocol of communication and by introducing a scramble code and a Hamming error-correcting code. The control logic of the master and the slaves is realized in field programmable gate array (FPGA) or complex programmable logic device (CPLD). The clock speed of SSB is 10 MHz, the effective data rate of the bulk data transmission is over 99%, and the synchronous errors amongst the slaves are less than 10 ns. Room-temperature test, high-temperature test (175 °C) and field test demonstrate that the proposed SSB is qualified for MDALT.

  2. Fast food purchasing and access to fast food restaurants: a multilevel analysis of VicLANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavanagh Anne M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While previous research on fast food access and purchasing has not found evidence of an association, these studies have had methodological problems including aggregation error, lack of specificity between the exposures and outcomes, and lack of adjustment for potential confounding. In this paper we attempt to address these methodological problems using data from the Victorian Lifestyle and Neighbourhood Environments Study (VicLANES – a cross-sectional multilevel study conducted within metropolitan Melbourne, Australia in 2003. Methods The VicLANES data used in this analysis included 2547 participants from 49 census collector districts in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. The outcome of interest was the total frequency of fast food purchased for consumption at home within the previous month (never, monthly and weekly from five major fast food chains (Red Rooster, McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Hungry Jacks and Pizza Hut. Three measures of fast food access were created: density and variety, defined as the number of fast food restaurants and the number of different fast food chains within 3 kilometres of road network distance respectively, and proximity defined as the road network distance to the closest fast food restaurant. Multilevel multinomial models were used to estimate the associations between fast food restaurant access and purchasing with never purchased as the reference category. Models were adjusted for confounders including determinants of demand (attitudes and tastes that influence food purchasing decisions as well as individual and area socio-economic characteristics. Results Purchasing fast food on a monthly basis was related to the variety of fast food restaurants (odds ratio 1.13; 95% confidence interval 1.02 – 1.25 after adjusting for individual and area characteristics. Density and proximity were not found to be significant predictors of fast food purchasing after adjustment for individual socio

  3. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  4. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  5. A new vehicle data bus architecture and IVIS evaluation platform for ITS modulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spelt, P.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kirson, A.M. [Motorola, Inc., Northbrook, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-12-31

    An increasing number of ITS-related after-market systems present a set of in-vehicle installation and use problems relatively unique in the history of automobile use. Many automobile manufacturers would like to offer these new state of the art devices to customers, but are hampered by the current design cycle of new cars. While auto manufacturers are indeed using multiplex buses (the automotive equivalent of a computer local area network), problems remain because manufacturers are not converging on a single bus standard. This paper presents a new dual-bus architecture to address these problems, with an In-Vehicle Information System (IVIS) research platform on which the principles embodied in the ITS Data Bus architecture can be evaluated. The dual-bus architecture has been embodied in a proposed SAE standard, with a ratification vote in December, 1996. The architecture and a reference model for the interfaces and protocols of the new bus are presented and described. The goals of the ITS Data Bus are to be inexpensive and easy to install, and to provide for safe and secure functioning. These high-level goals are embodied in the proposed standard. The IVIS Development Platform comprises a number of personal computers linked via ethernet LAN, with a high-end PC serving as the IVIS computer. In this LAN, actual devices can be inserted in place of the original PC which emulated them. This platform will serve as the development and test bed for an ITS Data Bus Conformity Test, the SAE standard for which has also been developed.

  6. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  7. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  8. Exact Solutions of the Isothermal Lane--Emden Equation with Rotation and Implications for the Formation of Planets and Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Christodoulou, Dimitris M

    2007-01-01

    We have derived exact solutions of the isothermal Lane--Emden equation with and without rotation in a cylindrical geometry. The corresponding hydrostatic equilibria are most relevant to the dynamics of the protosolar nebula before and during the stages of planet and satellite formation. The nonrotating solution for the mass density is analytic, nonsingular, monotonically decreasing with radius, and it satisfies easily the usual physical boundary conditions at the center. When differential rotation is added to the Lane--Emden equation, an entire class of exact solutions for the mass density appears. We have determined all of these solutions analytically as well. Within this class, solutions that are power laws or combinations of power laws are not capable of satisfying the associated boundary--value problem, but they are nonetheless of profound importance because they constitute "baselines" to which the actual solutions approach when the central boundary conditions are imposed. Numerical integrations that enfo...

  9. New Type of Roundabout: Dual One-Lane Roundabouts on Two Levels with Right-Hand Turning Bypasses – ’’Target Roundabout’’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Tollazzi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems of low level traffic safety on multi-lane roundabouts have been resolved in various ways in different countries, usually by using alternative types of roundabouts that reduce the number of conflict points. Alternative types of roundabouts typically differ from "normal" or "standard" roundabouts in one or more design elements, as their implementation purposes could also be specific. Today, several different types of roundabouts are already in use ("mini", "double mini", "dumb-bell", those "with joint splitter islands" ("dog-bone", those "with a spiralling circular carriageway" ("turbo", those "with depressed lanes for right-hand turners" ("flower" etc.. This paper introduces a new type of roundabout, dual one-lane roundabouts on two levels with right-hand turning bypasses, namely the "target roundabout". This paper describes and analyses their design, traffic safety, and capacity characteristics, compared with the standard two–lane roundabouts.

  10. Designing Sustainable Public Transportation: Integrated Optimization of Bus Speed and Holding Time in a Connected Vehicle Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing public transportation and giving priority to buses is a feasible solution for improving the level of public transportation service, which facilitates congestion alleviation and prevention, and contributes to urban development and city sustainability. This paper presents a novel bus operation control strategy including both holding control and speed control to improve the level of service of transit systems within a connected vehicle environment. Most previous work focuses on optimization of signal timing to decrease the bus signal delay by assuming that holding control is not applied; the speed of buses is given as a constant input and the acceleration and deceleration processes of buses can be neglected. This paper explores the benefits of a bus operation control strategy to minimize the total cost, which includes bus signal delay, bus holding delay, bus travel delay, acceleration cost due to frequent stops and intense driving. A set of formulations are developed to explicitly capture the interaction between bus holding control and speed control. Experimental analysisand simulation tests have shown that the proposed integrated operational model outperforms the traditional control, speed control only, or holding control only strategies in terms of reducing the total cost of buses. The sensitivity analysis has further demonstrated the potential effectiveness of the proposed approach to be applied in a real-time bus operation control system under different levels of traffic demand, bus stop locations, and speed limits.

  11. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Gray, Lane, Mutton and Yellowtail Snappers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Lutjanus synagris snapper (Figure 1) .. (Linnaeus) Other common names . . . Rabirrubia, Preferred common name. . Lane snapper vivaneau quaue jaune...A . a n ( C . L " 1970. Edad y crecimiento del Hollingsworth. 1980. Aging ariaco, Lutjanus synagris red snapper, Lutjanus .’ (Linnaeus), en el...Teleosteers Lutjanus maturation of the Japanese sea synagris . Helgol• Wiss. bass, Lateolabrax japonicus . Meeresunters. 28:90-105. Jpn. J. Ichthyol. rq:243-754

  12. Modeling L1-GPS Errors for an Enhanced Data Fusion with Lane Marking Maps for Road Automated Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper describes a method which models the time correlation errors of a standalone L1-GPS receiver by integrating front-view camera measurements map-matched with a lane marking map. An identification method of the parameters of the shaping model is presented and evaluated with real data. The observability of the augmented state vector is demonstrated according to an algebraic definition. A positioning solver based on extended Kalman filtering with measured input is...

  13. Analysing adjustment factors for using lanes at traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogotá, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Peña Lindarte

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article was focused on analyzing the lane use adjustment factor (fLU forming one of the eleven adjustment factors proposed in the current calculation methodology contained in the 2000 version of the Transportation Research Board’s (TRB Highway Capacity Manual (HCM for analyzing traffic-light-controlled intersection capacity in terms of saturation intensity. A methodology was established when analyzing the fLU factor that considered operational conditions regarding traffic-light-controlled intersections in Bogota. Road traffic flows were analyzed, including characterizing road traffic based on statistical sampling, field data collection and analysis. The project proposed equations allowing reference values to be gathered for determining adjustment factors regarding lane use on roads in Bogota in relation to existing access typologies and road traffic volume for analyzing traffic-light- controlled intersections. For example, in the specific case of roads having direct double-lane access (2CCD, the basic equation was determined to be y=-3,03E-08X2+3,44E-05X+0,888988, having a 1.0 coefficient of correlation. The dependent variable y referred to the fLU factor and the independent variable X was the volume of road traffic in mixed vehicles/hour. This equation was considered to be statistically relevant. A comparative analysis of the lane use adjustment factors estimated in the project is also presented and compared to the values recommended by the US Highway Capacity Manual. The project’s conclusions and re- commendations were thus sustained, validating the recommended factors summarized by the HCM and recommending that the results obtained from the project should be used in traffic-light-controlled design and planning projects.

  14. Car accidents and number of stopped cars due to road blockage on a one-lane highway

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, N; Zeng, Q

    1997-01-01

    Within the framework of a simple model of car traffic on a one-lane highway, we study the probability for car accidents to occur when drivers do not respect the safety distance between cars, and, as a result of the blockage during the time $T$ necessary to clear the road, we determine the number of stopped cars as a function of car density. We give a simple theory in good agreement with our numerical simulations.

  15. Development of multifunctional digital bus bar protection relay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuki, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Motoyasu; Hayashi, Eiji; Oki, Michio; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Iwaya, fumio; Yoshizumi, Tatunori (Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-03-25

    The existing analog bus bar protection relays of a substation have been easily affected by saturation of the current transformer and apt to malfunction at an accident occurred outside. Kansai Electric Power Co. developed jointly with Hitachi Manufacturing Co. a new calculation algorithm to avert the effect of the current transformer saturation (ratio differential relay system with memory of the amount of inhibition) by digitizing the above existing relay. Taking notice of the fact that transient saturation of the current transformer occurs from at least one half wave or later after the accident current started passing, this system memorizes the amount of inhibition of the relay by a signal within the time zone of nonsaturation immediately after the start of the accident current and by this value prevents malfunction at the time of current transformer saturation. The systems to which this relay is applied are as follows: system voltages are 77kV and 154kV for the resistance grounded neutral system, and 275kV for the resistance grounded neutral system and 275kV for the system with solidly earthed neutral. The substations to which this relay is to be installed are medium and large scale substations each of which has 8 or more terminals. Its short circuit capacity is 3,300kVA for the 77kV system, 10,600kVA for the 154kV system and 23,800kVA for the 275kV system. 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. Vibration reduction in electric bus during acceleration and gear shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles have replaced many gasoline vehicles in urban environments. The magnitude of vibrations and emissions from electric vehicles are less than those from conventional gasoline-powered vehicles. However, electric vehicles still have mechanical vibrations, such as those created by the power system. During vehicle acceleration, driveline vibration is very prominent. This work focuses on vehicle vibration caused by the electric powertrain in electric vehicles under rapid acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting. Since the dynamic response of an electric motor is rapid, driving torsional vibration arising from acceleration/deceleration and gear shifting is typically transmitted from driveline to vehicle’s body, adversely affecting a driver’s comfort. This work presents a novel effective control logic that reduces vibrations from an electric driveline system. This system controls the electric motor to suppress driveline torsional vibration transmitted to the driver’s seat, effectively reducing vertical vibrations and enhancing driver comfort. This work conducts simulations and hardware tests. In the development of the driveline and motor control logic, Adaptive Modeling Environment for Simulation analytical software is applied to create the driveline system model. To model structural vibrations, HyperMesh is used, and LS DYNA is applied to simulate free vibration and forced vibration. The analytical results for free vibration are compared with empirical data. The analytical results for driveline dynamics are applied as input for the finite element model to analyze forced vibration. Vibrations from the electric driveline move through the motor mount and frame to the driver’s seat track. The simulation results demonstrate this control logic strategy applied to an electric bus motor controller effectively reduces fluctuation in driveline torque during acceleration by up to 84.19% and during gear shifting by up to 44.96%. The

  17. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  18. Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: An eigenvalue approach

    CERN Document Server

    Yip, Kenny L S; Leung, P T

    2016-01-01

    Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterised by the polytropic index $n$. Here we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at $n=0$ and $1$ to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of $n$ are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well-defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by $8.1 \\times 10^{-7}$ per cent and $8.5 \\times 10^{-5}$ per cent, respectively, for $n\\in[0,1]$. Even for $n\\in[1,5)$, both percentage errors are still less than $2$ per cent.

  19. Dynamic Steering Control of Battery Operated Car for Lane Keeping using Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This project presents simple prototype for driving automation of battery operated cars. The system consists of Decision Making Unit (DMU & Control System Unit (CSU to implement decision given by DMU. DMU performs the task of image acquisition, enhancing, thresholding, noise reduction, calculation of the position of car with respect to lanes and estimation of the desired position. DMU communicate with CSU using UART serial protocol, thereby informing CSU to take necessary control action regarding - speed control & position control of steering wheel. Speed control is an open loop system which controls the two DC motors powering the front wheels of car. Mechanical hardware for position control of steering wheel contains a high torque DC motor which is coupled to steering wheel using gears in mesh configuration. The control algorithm used here is digital PID algorithm. The PID is digitized using trapezoidal approximation, Newton’s backward difference method to approximate integration & differentiation. Feedback signal is generated by 47kΩ potentiometer which gives a output of 0-5 volt. The algorithm based on these methods has been programmed in the Atmega16 which drives the dc motor coupled with steering wheel using L293d motor driver.

  20. Perturbative solution to the Lane-Emden equation: an eigenvalue approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Kenny L. S.; Chan, T. K.; Leung, P. T.

    2017-03-01

    Under suitable scaling, the structure of self-gravitating polytropes is described by the standard Lane-Emden equation (LEE), which is characterized by the polytropic index n. Here, we use the known exact solutions of the LEE at n = 0 and n = 1 to solve the equation perturbatively. We first introduce a scaled LEE (SLEE) where polytropes with different polytropic indices all share a common scaled radius. The SLEE is then solved perturbatively as an eigenvalue problem. Analytical approximants of the polytrope function, the radius and the mass of polytropes as a function of n are derived. The approximant of the polytrope function is well defined and uniformly accurate from the origin down to the surface of a polytrope. The percentage errors of the radius and the mass are bounded by 8.1 × 10-7 per cent and 8.5 × 10-5 per cent, respectively, for n ∈ [0, 1]. Even for n ∈ [1, 5), both percentage errors are still less than 2 per cent.